WorldWideScience

Sample records for materials simulation laboratory

  1. The Extraterrestrial Materials Simulation Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J. R.

    2001-01-01

    In contrast to fly-by and orbital missions, in situ missions face an incredible array of challenges in near-target navigation, landing site selection, descent, landing, science operations, sample collection and handling, drilling, anchoring, subsurface descent, communications, and contamination. The wide range of materials characteristics and environments threaten mission safety and success. For example, many physical properties are poorly characterized, including strength, composition, heterogeneity, phase change, texture, thermal properties, terrain features, atmospheric interaction, and stratigraphy. Examples of the range of materials properties include, for example: (1) Comets, with a possible compressive strength ranging from a light fluff to harder than concrete: 10(exp 2) to 10 (exp 8) Pa; (2) Europa, including a possible phase change at the surface, unknown strength and terrain roughness; and (3) Titan, with a completely unknown surface and possible liquid ocean. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Influence of Decontaminating Agents and Swipe Materials on Laboratory Simulated Working Surfaces Wet Spilled with Sodium Pertechnetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akchata, Suman; Lavanya, K; Shivanand, Bhushan

    2017-01-01

    Decontamination of various working surfaces with sodium pertechnetate minor spillage is essential for maintaining good radiation safety practices as well as for regulatory compliance. To observe the influences of decontaminating agents and swipe materials on different type of surfaces used in nuclear medicine laboratory work area wet spilled with 99m-technetium (99mTc) sodium pertechnetate. Lab-simulated working surface materials. Experimental study design. Direct decontamination method on dust-free lab simulated new working surfaces [stainless steel, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), Perspex, resin] using four decontaminating agents [tap water, soap water (SW), Radiacwash, and spirit] with four different swipe material [cotton, tissue paper (TP), Whatman paper (WP), adsorbent sheet (AS)] was taken 10 samples (n = 10) for each group. Parametric test two-way analysis of variance is used with significance level of 0.005, was used to evaluate statistical differences between different group of decontaminating agent and swipe material, and the results are expressed in mean ± SD. Decontamination factor is calculated after five cleaning for each group. A total of 160 samples result calculated using four decontaminating agent (tap water, SW, Radiacwash, and spirit), four swipe material (cotton, TP, WP, and AS) for commonly used surface (stainless steel, PVC, Perspex, resin) using direct method by 10 samples (n = 10) for each group. Tap water is the best decontaminating agent compared with SW, Radiac wash and spirit for the laboratory simulated stainless steel, PVC, and Perspex surface material, whereas in case of resin surface material, SW decontaminating agent is showing better effectiveness. Cotton is the best swipe material compared to WP-1, AS and TP for the stainless steel, PVC, Perspex, and resin laboratory simulated surface materials. Perspex and stainless steel are the most suitable and recommended laboratory surface material compared to PVC and resin in nuclear medicine

  3. Organics on Mars : Laboratory studies of organic material under simulated martian conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kate, Inge Loes ten

    2006-01-01

    The search for organic molecules and traces of life on Mars has been a major topic in planetary science for several decades, and is the future perspective of several missions to Mars. In order to determine where and what those missions should be looking for, laboratory experiments under simulated

  4. Materials Behavior Research Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to evaluate mechanical properties of materials including metals, intermetallics, metal-matrix composites, and ceramic-matrix composites under typical...

  5. Energy Materials Research Laboratory (EMRL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energy Materials Research Laboratory at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) creates a cross-disciplinary laboratory facility that lends itself to the...

  6. Immersive Simulation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Develops and tests novel user interfaces for 3D virtual simulators and first-person shooter games that make user interaction more like natural interaction...

  7. Laboratory studies and model simulations of sorbent material behavior for an in-situ passive treatment barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloysius, D.; Fuhrmann, M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a study combining laboratory experiments and model simulations in support of the design and construction of a passive treatment barrier (or filter wall) for retarding the migration of Sr-90 within a water-bearing surficial sand and gravel layer. Preliminary evaluation was used to select materials for column testing. A one-dimensional finite-difference model was used to simulate the laboratory column results and extrapolation of the calibrated model was then used to assess barrier performance over extended time frames with respect to Sr-90 breakthrough and loading on the filter media. The final results of the study showed that 20 by 50 mesh clinoptilolite will attenuate Sr-90 with a maximum life expentancy of approximately 10 years. This time period is based on allowable limits of Sr-90 activity on the filter media and is also a function of site-specific conditions

  8. Materials Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dionne

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) provides science and engineering services to NASA and Contractor customers at KSC, including those working for the Space Shuttle. International Space Station. and Launch Services Programs. These services include: (1) Independent/unbiased failure analysis (2) Support to Accident/Mishap Investigation Boards (3) Materials testing and evaluation (4) Materials and Processes (M&P) engineering consultation (5) Metrology (6) Chemical analysis (including ID of unknown materials) (7) Mechanical design and fabrication We provide unique solutions to unusual and urgent problems associated with aerospace flight hardware, ground support equipment and related facilities.

  9. Edge Simulation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasheninnikov, Sergei I. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Angus, Justin [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Lee, Wonjae [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2018-01-05

    The goal of the Edge Simulation Laboratory (ESL) multi-institutional project is to advance scientific understanding of the edge plasma region of magnetic fusion devices via a coordinated effort utilizing modern computing resources, advanced algorithms, and ongoing theoretical development. The UCSD team was involved in the development of the COGENT code for kinetic studies across a magnetic separatrix. This work included a kinetic treatment of electrons and multiple ion species (impurities) and accurate collision operators.

  10. High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The six user centers in the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML), a DOE User Facility, are dedicated to solving materials problems that limit the efficiency...

  11. Experimental simulations of interactions between glass and environmental materials, from laboratory benches to in-site testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godon, N.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of 26 long-duration tests simulating a variety of storage conditions. The effects of the back-filling materials, glass cracking and the nature of the host rock are discussed. Moreover, two experiments have been in progress for over 15 and 7 years in a granite medium and a clay medium. (author)

  12. Laboratory simulation of maintenance activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantowitz, B.H.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory research in highly controlled settings can augment, but not replace, studies in plant or training center locations. A laboratory simulation involves abstraction of the human information processing and social interactions required in prototypical maintenance tasks. A variety of independent variables can be studied quickly, efficiently, and at relatively low cost. Sources of human error can be identified in terms of models of human perception, cognition, action, attention, and social/organizational processes. This paper discusses research in progress at the Battelle Human Performance Laboratory. Both theoretical aspects and practical implications are considered. Directions for future human factors research are indicated

  13. Laboratory Simulations of Micrometeoroid Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan Williamson

    Each day, several tons of meteoric material enters Earth's atmosphere, the majority of which consist of small dust particles (micrometeoroids) that completely ablate at high altitudes. The dust input has been suggested to play a role in a variety of phenomena including: layers of metal atoms and ions, nucleation of noctilucent clouds, effects on stratospheric aerosols and ozone chemistry, and the fertilization of the ocean with bio-available iron. Furthermore, a correct understanding of the dust input to the Earth provides constraints on inner solar system dust models. Various methods are used to measure the dust input to the Earth including satellite detectors, radar, lidar, rocket-borne detectors, ice core and deep-sea sediment analysis. However, the best way to interpret each of these measurements is uncertain, which leads to large uncertainties in the total dust input. To better understand the ablation process, and thereby reduce uncertainties in micrometeoroid ablation measurements, a facility has been developed to simulate the ablation of micrometeoroids in laboratory conditions. An electrostatic dust accelerator is used to accelerate iron particles to relevant meteoric velocities (10-70 km/s). The particles are then introduced into a chamber pressurized with a target gas, and they partially or completely ablate over a short distance. An array of diagnostics then measure, with timing and spatial resolution, the charge and light that is generated in the ablation process. In this thesis, we present results from the newly developed ablation facility. The ionization coefficient, an important parameter for interpreting meteor radar measurements, is measured for various target gases. Furthermore, experimental ablation measurements are compared to predictions from commonly used ablation models. In light of these measurements, implications to the broader context of meteor ablation are discussed.

  14. Missile Electro-Optical Countermeasures Simulation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory comprises several hardware-in-the-loop missile flight simulations designed specifically to evaluate the effectiveness of electro-optical air defense...

  15. Virtual Reality for Materials Design Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The purpose is to research and develop materials through applied virtual reality to enable interactive "materials-by-design." Extensive theoretical and computational...

  16. A new nuclear materials laboratory at Queen's University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.A.; Daymond, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    The Reactor Materials Testing Laboratory (RMTL) at Queen's University and the results of commissioning tests are described. RMTL uses energetic protons (up to 8MeV) to simulate fast neutron damage in materials for reactor components. The laboratory is also capable of He implantation (up to 12 MeV) to simulate the effects of transmutation He in reactor components. The $17.5M laboratory comprises a new building, a 4MV tandem accelerator, two electron microscopes, mechanical testing and specimen preparation equipment, and a radiation detection laboratory. RMTL focusses on studying dynamic effects of irradiation (irradiation creep, irradiation growth, irradiation induced swelling, fatigue under irradiation) in-situ. (author)

  17. The Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory for Advanced Materials Processing - LAMP - is a clean-room research facility run and operated by Pr. Gary Rubloff's group. Research activities focus...

  18. Dynamics of Laboratory Simulated Microbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahyari, Abbas Alexander

    1995-01-01

    A downburst (or microburst) is an intense, localized downdraft of cold air which reaches the Earth and spreads radially outward after it impinges on the ground. Downdrafts are typically induced by rapid evaporation of moisture or melting of hail. The divergent outflow created by a microburst produces strong winds in opposite directions. The sudden changes in the speed and direction of both horizontal and vertical winds within a microburst can create hazardous conditions for aircraft within 1000 ft of the ground, particularly during takeoff and landing. The objective of this investigation was to obtain detailed measurements within a laboratory -simulated version of this flow. The flow was modeled experimentally by releasing a small volume of heavier fluid into a less dense ambient surrounding. The heavier fluid impinged on a horizontal plate which represented the ground. Indices of refraction of the light and heavy fluid were matched to yield clear photographic images. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to obtain detailed maps of the instantaneous velocity fields within horizontal and vertical cross sections through the flow. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) was used to determine the local concentration of heavy fluid within the downburst flow at different times. PIV measurements showed that the leading edge of the falling fluid rolled up into a vortex ring which then impacted on the ground and expanded radially outward. After touchdown, the largest horizontal velocities occurred beneath the vortex ring but also extended over some distance upstream of the vortex core. PIV results showed small vertical velocity gradients in the region below the core of the vortex ring. The effects of parameters such as initial release height and release volume shape were investigated. Using appropriate length and time scales, the measured velocities were scaled to and compared with previously studied atmospheric microbursts. The experimental data generally agree well with

  19. Simulating Extraterrestrial Ices in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisford, D. F.; Carey, E. M.; Hand, K. P.; Choukroun, M.

    2017-12-01

    Several ongoing experiments at JPL attempt to simulate the ice environment for various regimes associated with icy moons. The Europa Penitent Ice Experiment (EPIX) simulates the surface environment of an icy moon, to investigate the physics of ice surface morphology growth. This experiment features half-meter-scale cryogenic ice samples, cryogenic radiative sink environment, vacuum conditions, and diurnal cycling solar simulation. The experiment also includes several smaller fixed-geometry vacuum chambers for ice simulation at Earth-like and intermediate temperature and vacuum conditions for development of surface morphology growth scaling relations. Additionally, an ice cutting facility built on a similar platform provides qualitative data on the mechanical behavior of cryogenic ice with impurities under vacuum, and allows testing of ice cutting/sampling tools relevant for landing spacecraft. A larger cutting facility is under construction at JPL, which will provide more quantitative data and allow full-scale sampling tool tests. Another facility, the JPL Ice Physics Laboratory, features icy analog simulant preparation abilities that range icy solar system objects such as Mars, Ceres and the icy satellites of Saturn and Jupiter. In addition, the Ice Physics Lab has unique facilities for Icy Analog Tidal Simulation and Rheological Studies of Cryogenic Icy Slurries, as well as equipment to perform thermal and mechanical properties testing on icy analog materials and their response to sinusoidal tidal stresses.

  20. Simulation-Based System Design Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The research objective is to develop, test, and implement effective and efficient simulation techniques for modeling, evaluating, and optimizing systems in order to...

  1. Virtual geotechnical laboratory experiments using a simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penumadu, Dayakar; Zhao, Rongda; Frost, David

    2000-04-01

    The details of a test simulator that provides a realistic environment for performing virtual laboratory experimentals in soil mechanics is presented. A computer program Geo-Sim that can be used to perform virtual experiments, and allow for real-time observations of material response is presented. The results of experiments, for a given set of input parameters, are obtained with the test simulator using well-trained artificial neural-network-based soil models for different soil types and stress paths. Multimedia capabilities are integrated in Geo-Sim, using software that links and controls a laser disc player with a real-time parallel processing ability. During the simulation of a virtual experiment, relevant portions of the video image of a previously recorded test on an actual soil specimen are dispalyed along with the graphical presentation of response from the feedforward ANN model predictions. The pilot simulator developed to date includes all aspects related to performing a triaxial test on cohesionless soil under undrained and drained conditions. The benefits of the test simulator are also presented.

  2. Tour of Los Alamos Safeguards R and D laboratories: demonstration and use of NDA instruments and material control and accounting simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    A description is presented of the nondestructive assay techniques and instrumentation for measuring the fissile content of fuel assemblies and fuel components. The course participants had a hands-on tour of this instrumentation and material accounting and control systems at Los Alamos National Laboratory

  3. Materials accounting at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkkila, B.H.; Roberts, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    This presentation gives an overview of the accounting system used at the Los Alamos National Laboratory by the Los Alamos Nuclear Material Accounting and Safeguards System (MASS). This system processes accounting data in real time for bulk materials, discrete items, and materials undergoing dynamic processing. The following topics are covered in this chapter: definitions; nuclear material storage; nuclear material storage; computer system; measurement control program; inventory differences; and current programs and future plans

  4. MDOT Materials Laboratories : Environmental Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this EMP was to develop and implement a comprehensive Environmental : Management Plan for MDOT Materials Laboratories. This goal was achieved through : perfonnance of environmental audits to identify potential environmental impacts, and b...

  5. Life sciences laboratory breadboard simulations for shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketa, S. T.; Simmonds, R. C.; Callahan, P. X.

    1975-01-01

    Breadboard simulations of life sciences laboratory concepts for conducting bioresearch in space were undertaken as part of the concept verification testing program. Breadboard simulations were conducted to test concepts of and scope problems associated with bioresearch support equipment and facility requirements and their operational integration for conducting manned research in earth orbital missions. It emphasized requirements, functions, and procedures for candidate research on crew members (simulated) and subhuman primates and on typical radioisotope studies in rats, a rooster, and plants.

  6. Laboratory simulation of erosion by space plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristoferson, L.; Fredga, K.

    1976-04-01

    A laboratory experiment has been made where a plasma stream collides with targets made of different materials of cosmic interest. The experiment can be viewed as a process simulation of the solar wind particle interaction with solid surfaces in space, e.g. cometary dust. Special interest is given to sputtering of OH and Na. It is shown that the erosion of solid particles in interplanetary space at large heliocentric distances is most likely dominated by sputtering and by sublimation near the sun. The heliocentric distance of the limit between the two regions is determined mainly by the material properties of the eroded surface, e.g. heat of sublimation and sputtering yield, a typical distance being 0,5 a.u. It is concluded that the observations of Na in comets at large solar distances, in some cases also near the sun, is most likely to be explained by solar wind sputtering. OH emission in space could be of importance also from 'dry', water-free, matter by means of molecule sputtering. The observed OH production rates in comets are however too large to be explained in this way and are certainly the results of sublimation and dissociation of H 2 O from an icy nucleus. (Auth.)

  7. Simulator for materials testing reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemoto, Noriyuki; Sugaya, Naoto; Ohtsuka, Kaoru; Hanakawa, Hiroki; Onuma, Yuichi; Hosokawa, Jinsaku; Hori, Naohiko; Kaminaga, Masanori; Tamura, Kazuo; Hotta, Kohji; Ishitsuka, Tatsuo

    2013-06-01

    A real-time simulator for both reactor and irradiation facilities of a materials testing reactor, “Simulator of Materials Testing Reactors”, was developed for understanding reactor behavior and operational training in order to utilize it for nuclear human resource development and to promote partnership with developing countries which have a plan to introduce nuclear power plant. The simulator is designed based on the JMTR (Japan Materials Testing Reactor), and it simulates operation, irradiation tests and various kinds of anticipated operational transients and accident conditions caused by the reactor and irradiation facilities. The development of the simulator was sponsored by the Japanese government as one of the specialized projects of advanced research infrastructure in order to promote basic as well as applied researches. This report summarizes the simulation components, hardware specification and operation procedure of the simulator. (author)

  8. Spherical wave particle velocities in geologic materials from laboratory experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizek, J.C.; Florence, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    Particle velocity records that describe spherical waves in rock simulants, tuffs, salt, and granite have been obtained in laboratory experiments. The records aid the modeling of constitutive equations for continuum mechanics codes used in DNA containment research. The technique has also been applied to investigate containment-related problems involving material poperties, failure criteria, scaling, decoupling, and residual strain field relaxation. 22 figures

  9. A virtual laboratory notebook for simulation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfield, A J

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we describe how we have adopted the laboratory notebook as a metaphor for interacting with computer simulation models. This 'virtual' notebook stores the simulation output and meta-data (which is used to record the scientist's interactions with the simulation). The meta-data stored consists of annotations (equivalent to marginal notes in a laboratory notebook), a history tree and a log of user interactions. The history tree structure records when in 'simulation' time, and from what starting point in the tree changes are made to the parameters by the user. Typically these changes define a new run of the simulation model (which is represented as a new branch of the history tree). The tree shows the structure of the changes made to the simulation and the log is required to keep the order in which the changes occurred. Together they form a record which you would normally find in a laboratory notebook. The history tree is plotted in simulation parameter space. This shows the scientist's interactions with the simulation visually and allows direct manipulation of the parameter information presented, which in turn is used to control directly the state of the simulation. The interactions with the system are graphical and usually involve directly selecting or dragging data markers and other graphical control devices around in parameter space. If the graphical manipulators do not provide precise enough control then textual manipulation is still available which allows numerical values to be entered by hand. The Virtual Laboratory Notebook, by providing interesting interactions with the visual view of the history tree, provides a mechanism for giving the user complex and novel ways of interacting with biological computer simulation models.

  10. Laboratory-scale simulations with hydrated lime and organic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory-scale simulations with hydrated lime and organic polymer to evaluate the effect of pre-chlorination on motile Ceratium hirundinella cells during ... When organic material is released from algal cells as a result of physical-chemical impacts on the cells, it may result in tasteand odour-related problems or the ...

  11. Laboratory simulation of infrared astrophysical features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    Laboratory infrared emission and absorption spectra have been taken of terrestrial silicates, meteorites and lunar soils in the form of micrometer and sub-micrometer grains. The emission spectra were taken in a way that imitates telescopic observations. The purpose was to see which materials best simulate the 10 μm astrophysical feature. The emission spectra of dunite, fayalite and Allende give a good fit to the 10 μm broadband emission feature of comets Bennett and Kohoutek. A study of the effect of grain size on the presence of the 10 μm emission features of dunite shows that for particles larger than 37 μm no feature is seen. The emission spectrum of the Murray meteorite, a Type 2 carbonaceous chondrite, is quite similar to the intermediate resolution spectrum of comet Kohoutek in the 10 μm region. Hydrous silicates or amorphous magnesium silicates in combination with high-temperature condensates, such as olivine or anorthite, would yield spectra that match the intermediate resolution spectrum of comet Kohoutek in the 10 μm region. Glassy olivine and glassy anorthite in approximately equal proportions would also give a spectrum that is a good fit to the cometary 10 μm feature. (Auth.)

  12. Micrometeoroid ablation simulated in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternovsky, Zoltan; Thomas, Evan W.; DeLuca, Michael; Horanyi, Mihaly; Janches, Diego; Munsat, Tobin L.; Plane, John M. C.

    2016-04-01

    A facility is developed to simulate the ablation of micrometeoroids in laboratory conditions, which also allows measuring the ionization probability of the ablated material. An electrostatic dust accelerator is used to generate iron and meteoric analog particles with velocities 10-50 km/s. The particles are then introduced into a cell filled with nitrogen, air or carbon dioxide gas with pressures adjustable in the 0.02 - 0.5 Torr range, where the partial or complete ablation of the particle occurs over a short distance. An array of biased electrodes is used to collect the ionized products with spatial resolution along the ablating particles' path, allowing thus the study of the temporal resolution of the process. A simple ablation model is used to match the observations. For completely ablated particles the total collected charge directly yields the ionization efficiency for. The measurements using iron particles in N2 and air are in relatively good agreement with earlier data. The measurements with CO2 and He gases, however, are significantly different from the expectations.

  13. Artificial intelligence in the materials processing laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kaukler, William F.

    1990-01-01

    Materials science and engineering provides a vast arena for applications of artificial intelligence. Advanced materials research is an area in which challenging requirements confront the researcher, from the drawing board through production and into service. Advanced techniques results in the development of new materials for specialized applications. Hand-in-hand with these new materials are also requirements for state-of-the-art inspection methods to determine the integrity or fitness for service of structures fabricated from these materials. Two problems of current interest to the Materials Processing Laboratory at UAH are an expert system to assist in eddy current inspection of graphite epoxy components for aerospace and an expert system to assist in the design of superalloys for high temperature applications. Each project requires a different approach to reach the defined goals. Results to date are described for the eddy current analysis, but only the original concepts and approaches considered are given for the expert system to design superalloys.

  14. PRACTICAL SIMULATION OF COMPOSTING IN THE LABORATORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A closed incubation system was developed for laboratory simulation of composting conditions at the interior of a large compost pile. A conductive heat flux control system (CHFC) was used to adjust the temperature of the internal wall to that of the compost center and compensate f...

  15. APPLICATION OF INTERACTIVE ONLINE SIMULATIONS IN THE PHYSICS LABORATORY ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina P. Dementievska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Physics teachers should have professional competences, aimed at the use of online technologies associated with physical experiments. Lack of teaching materials for teachers in Ukrainian language leads to the use of virtual laboratories and computer simulations by traditional methods of education, not by the latest innovative modern educational technology, which may limit their use and greatly reduce their effectiveness. Ukrainian teaching literature has practically no information about the assessment of competencies, research skills of students for the laboratory activities. The aim of the article is to describe some components of instructional design for the Web site with simulations in school physical experiments and their evaluation.

  16. High Temperature Materials Laboratory third annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1990-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory has completed its third year of operation as a designated DOE User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the user program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions who have executed user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 88 nonproprietary agreements (40 university and 48 industry) and 20 proprietary agreements (1 university, 19 industry) are now in effect. Sixty-eight nonproprietary research proposals (39 from university, 28 from industry, and 1 other government facility) and 8 proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Research projects active in FY 1990 are summarized.

  17. Simulation of General Physics laboratory exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aceituno, P; Hernández-Cabrera, A; Hernández-Aceituno, J

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory exercises are an important part of general Physics teaching, both during the last years of high school and the first year of college education. Due to the need to acquire enough laboratory equipment for all the students, and the widespread access to computers rooms in teaching, we propose the development of computer simulated laboratory exercises. A representative exercise in general Physics is the calculation of the gravity acceleration value, through the free fall motion of a metal ball. Using a model of the real exercise, we have developed an interactive system which allows students to alter the starting height of the ball to obtain different fall times. The simulation was programmed in ActionScript 3, so that it can be freely executed in any operative system; to ensure the accuracy of the calculations, all the input parameters of the simulations were modelled using digital measurement units, and to allow a statistical management of the resulting data, measurement errors are simulated through limited randomization

  18. Laboratory simulation of space plasma phenomena*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatucci, B.; Tejero, E. M.; Ganguli, G.; Blackwell, D.; Enloe, C. L.; Gillman, E.; Walker, D.; Gatling, G.

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory devices, such as the Naval Research Laboratory's Space Physics Simulation Chamber, are large-scale experiments dedicated to the creation of large-volume plasmas with parameters realistically scaled to those found in various regions of the near-Earth space plasma environment. Such devices make valuable contributions to the understanding of space plasmas by investigating phenomena under carefully controlled, reproducible conditions, allowing for the validation of theoretical models being applied to space data. By working in collaboration with in situ experimentalists to create realistic conditions scaled to those found during the observations of interest, the microphysics responsible for the observed events can be investigated in detail not possible in space. To date, numerous investigations of phenomena such as plasma waves, wave-particle interactions, and particle energization have been successfully performed in the laboratory. In addition to investigations such as plasma wave and instability studies, the laboratory devices can also make valuable contributions to the development and testing of space plasma diagnostics. One example is the plasma impedance probe developed at NRL. Originally developed as a laboratory diagnostic, the sensor has now been flown on a sounding rocket, is included on a CubeSat experiment, and will be included on the DoD Space Test Program's STP-H6 experiment on the International Space Station. In this presentation, we will describe several examples of the laboratory investigation of space plasma waves and instabilities and diagnostic development. *This work supported by the NRL Base Program.

  19. Reactor simulator development. Workshop material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established a programme in nuclear reactor simulation computer programs to assist its Member States in education and training. The objective is to provide, for a variety of advanced reactor types, insight and practice in reactor operational characteristics and their response to perturbations and accident situations. To achieve this, the IAEA arranges for the supply or development of simulation programs and training material, sponsors training courses and workshops, and distributes documentation and computer programs. This publication consists of course material for workshops on development of such reactor simulators. Participants in the workshops are provided with instruction and practice in the development of reactor simulation computer codes using a model development system that assembles integrated codes from a selection of pre-programmed and tested sub-components. This provides insight and understanding into the construction and assumptions of the codes that model the design and operational characteristics of various power reactor systems. The main objective is to demonstrate simple nuclear reactor dynamics with hands-on simulation experience. Using one of the modular development systems, CASSIM tm , a simple point kinetic reactor model is developed, followed by a model that simulates the Xenon/Iodine concentration on changes in reactor power. Lastly, an absorber and adjuster control rod, and a liquid zone model are developed to control reactivity. The built model is used to demonstrate reactor behavior in sub-critical, critical and supercritical states, and to observe the impact of malfunctions of various reactivity control mechanisms on reactor dynamics. Using a PHWR simulator, participants practice typical procedures for a reactor startup and approach to criticality. This workshop material consists of an introduction to systems used for developing reactor simulators, an overview of the dynamic simulation

  20. Automation software for a materials testing laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgaw, Michael A.; Bonacuse, Peter J.

    1990-01-01

    The software environment in use at the NASA-Lewis Research Center's High Temperature Fatigue and Structures Laboratory is reviewed. This software environment is aimed at supporting the tasks involved in performing materials behavior research. The features and capabilities of the approach to specifying a materials test include static and dynamic control mode switching, enabling multimode test control; dynamic alteration of the control waveform based upon events occurring in the response variables; precise control over the nature of both command waveform generation and data acquisition; and the nesting of waveform/data acquisition strategies so that material history dependencies may be explored. To eliminate repetitive tasks in the coventional research process, a communications network software system is established which provides file interchange and remote console capabilities.

  1. Novel laboratory simulations of astrophysical jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Parrish Clawson

    This thesis was motivated by the promise that some physical aspects of astrophysical jets and collimation processes can be scaled to laboratory parameters through hydrodynamic scaling laws. The simulation of astrophysical jet phenomena with laser-produced plasmas was attractive because the laser- target interaction can inject energetic, repeatable plasma into an external environment. Novel laboratory simulations of astrophysical jets involved constructing and using the YOGA laser, giving a 1064 nm, 8 ns pulse laser with energies up to 3.7 + 0.2 J . Laser-produced plasmas were characterized using Schlieren, interferometry and ICCD photography for their use in simulating jet and magnetosphere physics. The evolution of the laser-produced plasma in various conditions was compared with self-similar solutions and HYADES computer simulations. Millimeter-scale magnetized collimated outflows were produced by a centimeter scale cylindrically symmetric electrode configuration triggered by a laser-produced plasma. A cavity with a flared nozzle surrounded the center electrode and the electrode ablation created supersonic uncollimated flows. This flow became collimated when the center electrode changed from an anodeto a cathode. The plasma jets were in axially directed permanent magnetic fields with strengths up to 5000 Gauss. The collimated magnetized jets were 0.1-0. 3 cm wide, up to 2.0 cm long, and had velocities of ~4.0 × 10 6 cm/s. The dynamics of the evolution of the jet were compared qualitatively and quantitatively with fluxtube simulations from Bellan's formulation [6] giving a calculated estimate of ~2.6 × 10 6 cm/s for jet evolution velocity and evidence for jet rotation. The density measured with interferometry was 1.9 ± 0.2 × 10 17 cm -3 compared with 2.1 × 10 16 cm -3 calculated with Bellan's pressure balance formulation. Kinks in the jet column were produced consistent with the Kruskal-Shafranov condition which allowed stable and symmetric jets to form with

  2. Communication Systems Simulation Laboratory (CSSL): Simulation Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The simulation process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the CSSL. The Simulation Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their engineering personnel in simulation planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the simulation process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, facility interfaces, and inputs necessary to define scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  3. Special nuclear material simulation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, John H.; DeMint, Amy; Gooch, Jack; Hawk, Todd; Pickett, Chris A.; Blessinger, Chris; York, Robbie L.

    2014-08-12

    An apparatus for simulating special nuclear material is provided. The apparatus typically contains a small quantity of special nuclear material (SNM) in a configuration that simulates a much larger quantity of SNM. Generally the apparatus includes a spherical shell that is formed from an alloy containing a small quantity of highly enriched uranium. Also typically provided is a core of depleted uranium. A spacer, typically aluminum, may be used to separate the depleted uranium from the shell of uranium alloy. A cladding, typically made of titanium, is provided to seal the source. Methods are provided to simulate SNM for testing radiation monitoring portals. Typically the methods use at least one primary SNM spectral line and exclude at least one secondary SNM spectral line.

  4. Advancing Material Models for Automotive Forming Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegter, H.; An, Y.; Horn, C.H.L.J. ten; Atzema, E.H.; Roelofsen, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Simulations in automotive industry need more advanced material models to achieve highly reliable forming and springback predictions. Conventional material models implemented in the FEM-simulation models are not capable to describe the plastic material behaviour during monotonic strain paths with sufficient accuracy. Recently, ESI and Corus co-operate on the implementation of an advanced material model in the FEM-code PAMSTAMP 2G. This applies to the strain hardening model, the influence of strain rate, and the description of the yield locus in these models. A subsequent challenge is the description of the material after a change of strain path.The use of advanced high strength steels in the automotive industry requires a description of plastic material behaviour of multiphase steels. The simplest variant is dual phase steel consisting of a ferritic and a martensitic phase. Multiphase materials also contain a bainitic phase in addition to the ferritic and martensitic phase. More physical descriptions of strain hardening than simple fitted Ludwik/Nadai curves are necessary.Methods to predict plastic behaviour of single-phase materials use a simple dislocation interaction model based on the formed cells structures only. At Corus, a new method is proposed to predict plastic behaviour of multiphase materials have to take hard phases into account, which deform less easily. The resulting deformation gradients create geometrically necessary dislocations. Additional micro-structural information such as morphology and size of hard phase particles or grains is necessary to derive the strain hardening models for this type of materials.Measurements available from the Numisheet benchmarks allow these models to be validated. At Corus, additional measured values are available from cross-die tests. This laboratory test can attain critical deformations by large variations in blank size and processing conditions. The tests are a powerful tool in optimising forming simulations prior

  5. The Mars Science Laboratory Organic Check Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, J. E.; Mogensen, C. T.; VonderHeydt, M. O.; Glavin, D. P.; Mahaffy, P. M.; Johnson, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Organic Check Material (OCM) has been developed for use on the Mars Science Laboratory mission to serve as a sample standard for verification of organic cleanliness and characterization of potential sample alteration as a function of the sample acquisition and portioning process on the Curiosity rover. OCM samples will be acquired using the same procedures for drilling, portioning and delivery as are used to study martian samples with The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite during MSL surface operations. Because the SAM suite is highly sensitive to organic molecules, the mission can better verify the cleanliness of Curiosity's sample acquisition hardware if a known material can be processed through SAM and compared with the results obtained from martian samples.

  6. Geothermal materials development at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukacka, L.E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    As part of the DOE/OGT response to recommendations and priorities established by industrial review of their overall R&D program, the Geothermal Materials Program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is focusing on topics that can reduce O&M costs and increase competitiveness in foreign and domestic markets. Corrosion and scale control, well completion materials, and lost circulation control have high priorities. The first two topics are included in FY 1997 BNL activities, but work on lost circulation materials is constrained by budgetary limitations. The R&D, most of which is performed as cost-shared efforts with U.S. geothermal firms, is rapidly moving into field testing phases. FY 1996 and 1997 accomplishments in the development of lightweight CO{sub 2}-resistant cements for well completions; corrosion resistant, thermally conductive polymer matrix composites for heat exchange applications; and metallic, polymer and ceramic-based corrosion protective coatings are given in this paper. In addition, plans for work that commenced in March 1997 on thermally conductive cementitious grouting materials for use with geothermal heat pumps (GHP), are discussed.

  7. The Mars Simulation Laboratory, University of Aarhus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrison, J. P.; Field, D.; Finster, K.; Lomstein, B. Aa.; Nørnberg, P.; Ramsing, N. B.; Uggerhøj, E.

    2001-08-01

    Present day Mars presents an extremely hostile environment to organic material. The average temperature is low (-50C), the atmospheric pressure is also low (7mbar) and there is little water over most of the planet. Chemically the surface is extremely oxidising and no signs of organic material have been detected. There is also a strong component of ultra violet radiation in the Martian sun light, lethal to most organisms. At Aarhus University we have constructed a Mars simulation environment which reproduces the physical, chemical and mineralogical conditions on Mars. It is hoped to set limits on where organic matter (or even life) might exist on Mars, for example at some depth under the surface, beneath the polar ice or within rocks. It is also possible to adjust the conditions in the simulation to investigate the most extreme environments in which organisms can be preserved or still function.

  8. Computer simulations applied in materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This workshop takes stock of the simulation methods applied to nuclear materials and discusses the conditions in which these methods can predict physical results when no experimental data are available. The main topic concerns the radiation effects in oxides and includes also the behaviour of fission products in ceramics, the diffusion and segregation phenomena and the thermodynamical properties under irradiation. This document brings together a report of the previous 2002 workshop and the transparencies of 12 presentations among the 15 given at the workshop: accommodation of uranium and plutonium in pyrochlores; radiation effects in La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} pyrochlores; first principle calculations of defects formation energies in the Y{sub 2}(Ti,Sn,Zr){sub 2}O{sub 7} pyrochlore system; an approximate approach to predicting radiation tolerant materials; molecular dynamics study of the structural effects of displacement cascades in UO{sub 2}; composition defect maps for A{sup 3+}B{sup 3+}O{sub 3} perovskites; NMR characterization of radiation damaged materials: using simulation to interpret the data; local structure in damaged zircon: a first principle study; simulation studies on SiC; insertion and diffusion of He in 3C-SiC; a review of helium in silica; self-trapped holes in amorphous silicon dioxide: their short-range structure revealed from electron spin resonance and optical measurements and opportunities for inferring intermediate range structure by theoretical modelling. (J.S.)

  9. Computer simulations applied in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This workshop takes stock of the simulation methods applied to nuclear materials and discusses the conditions in which these methods can predict physical results when no experimental data are available. The main topic concerns the radiation effects in oxides and includes also the behaviour of fission products in ceramics, the diffusion and segregation phenomena and the thermodynamical properties under irradiation. This document brings together a report of the previous 2002 workshop and the transparencies of 12 presentations among the 15 given at the workshop: accommodation of uranium and plutonium in pyrochlores; radiation effects in La 2 Zr 2 O 7 pyrochlores; first principle calculations of defects formation energies in the Y 2 (Ti,Sn,Zr) 2 O 7 pyrochlore system; an approximate approach to predicting radiation tolerant materials; molecular dynamics study of the structural effects of displacement cascades in UO 2 ; composition defect maps for A 3+ B 3+ O 3 perovskites; NMR characterization of radiation damaged materials: using simulation to interpret the data; local structure in damaged zircon: a first principle study; simulation studies on SiC; insertion and diffusion of He in 3C-SiC; a review of helium in silica; self-trapped holes in amorphous silicon dioxide: their short-range structure revealed from electron spin resonance and optical measurements and opportunities for inferring intermediate range structure by theoretical modelling. (J.S.)

  10. Discrete element simulation of crushable rockfill materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A discrete element method was used to study the evolution of particle crushing in a rockfill sample subjected to triaxial shear. A simple procedure was developed to generate clusters with arbitrary shapes, which resembled real rockfill particles. A theoretical method was developed to define the failure criterion for an individual particle subjected to an arbitrary set of contact forces. Then, a series of numerical tests of large-scale drained triaxial tests were conducted to simulate the behaviors of the rockfill sample. Finally, we examined the development of micro-characteristics such as particle crushing, contact characteristics, porosity, deformation, movement, and energy dissipation. The simulation results were partially compared with the laboratory experiments, and good agreement was achieved, demonstrating that the particle crushing model proposed can be used to simulate the drained triaxial test of rockfill materials. Based on a comparison of macro behaviors of the rockfill sample and micro structures of the particles, the microscopic mechanism of the rockfill materials subjected to triaxial shear was determined qualitatively. It is shown that the crushing rate, rather than the number of crushed particles, can be used to reflect the relationship between macro- and micro-mechanical characteristics of rockfill materials. These research results further develop our understanding of the deformation mechanism of rockfill materials.

  11. The Mars Science Laboratory Organic Check Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Von der Heydt, Max O.; Mogensen, Claus T.; Canham, John; Harpold, Dan N.; Johnson, Joel; Errigo, Therese; Glavin, Daniel P.; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2012-09-01

    Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover carries a set of five external verification standards in hermetically sealed containers that can be sampled as would be a Martian rock, by drilling and then portioning into the solid sample inlet of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite. Each organic check material (OCM) canister contains a porous ceramic solid, which has been doped with a fluorinated hydrocarbon marker that can be detected by SAM. The purpose of the OCM is to serve as a verification tool for the organic cleanliness of those parts of the sample chain that cannot be cleaned other than by dilution, i.e., repeated sampling of Martian rock. SAM possesses internal calibrants for verification of both its performance and its internal cleanliness, and the OCM is not used for that purpose. Each OCM unit is designed for one use only, and the choice to do so will be made by the project science group (PSG).

  12. Material Transfer Agreement (MTA) | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Material Transfer Agreements are appropriate for exchange of materials into or out of the Frederick National Laboratory for research or testing purposes, with no collaborative research by parties involving the materials.

  13. Aviation Shipboard Operations Modeling and Simulation (ASOMS) Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:It is the mission of the Aviation Shipboard Operations Modeling and Simulation (ASOMS) Laboratory to provide a means by which to virtually duplicate products...

  14. An inter-laboratory comparison of Si isotope reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynolds, B.C.; Aggarwal, J.; André, L.; Baxter, B.; Beucher, C.; Brzezinski, M.A.; Engström, E.; Georg, R.B.; Land, M.; Leng, M.J.; Opfergelt, S.; Rodushkin, I.; Sloane, H.J.; Van den Boorn, S.H.J.M.; Vroon, P.Z.; Cardinal, D.

    2007-01-01

    Three Si isotope materials have been used for an inter-laboratory comparison exercise to ensure reproducibility between international laboratories investigating natural Si isotope variations using a variety of chemical preparation methods and mass spectrometric techniques. These proposed standard

  15. Edge Simulation Laboratory Progress and Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R

    2007-01-01

    The Edge Simulation Laboratory (ESL) is a project to develop a gyrokinetic code for MFE edge plasmas based on continuum (Eulerian) techniques. ESL is a base-program activity of OFES, with an allied algorithm research activity funded by the OASCR base math program. ESL OFES funds directly support about 0.8 FTE of career staff at LLNL, a postdoc and a small fraction of an FTE at GA, and a graduate student at UCSD. In addition the allied OASCR program funds about 1/2 FTE each in the computations directorates at LBNL and LLNL. OFES ESL funding for LLNL and UCSD began in fall 2005, while funding for GA and the math team began about a year ago. ESL's continuum approach is a complement to the PIC-based methods of the CPES Project, and was selected (1) because of concerns about noise issues associated with PIC in the high-density-contrast environment of the edge pedestal, (2) to be able to exploit advanced numerical methods developed for fluid codes, and (3) to build upon the successes of core continuum gyrokinetic codes such as GYRO, GS2 and GENE. The ESL project presently has three components: TEMPEST, a full-f, full-geometry (single-null divertor, or arbitrary-shape closed flux surfaces) code in E, μ (energy, magnetic-moment) coordinates; EGK, a simple-geometry rapid-prototype code, presently of; and the math component, which is developing and implementing algorithms for a next-generation code. Progress would be accelerated if we could find funding for a fourth, computer science, component, which would develop software infrastructure, provide user support, and address needs for data handing and analysis. We summarize the status and plans for the three funded activities

  16. Heat load material studies: Simulated tokamak disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gahl, J.M.; McDonald, J.M.; Zakharov, A.; Tserevitinov, S.; Barabash, V.; Guseva, M.

    1991-01-01

    It is clear that an improved understanding of the effects of tokamak disruptions on plasma facing component materials is needed for the ITER program. very large energy fluxes are predicted to be deposited in ITER and could be very damaging to the machine. During 1991, Sandia National Laboratories and the University of New Mexico conducted cooperative tokamak disruption simulation experiments at several Soviet facilities. These facilities were located at the Efremov Institute in Leningrad, the Kurchatov Atomic Energy Institute (Troisk and Moscow) and the Institute for Physical Chemistry of the Soviet Adademy of Sciences in Moscow. Erosion of graphite from plasma stream impact is seen to be much less than that observed with laser or electron beams with similar energy fluxes. This, along with other data obtained, seem to suggest that the ''vapor shielding'' effect is a very important phenomenon in the study of graphite erosion during tokamak disruption

  17. Expository Versus Simulated Laboratory in Teaching Professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria Polytechnics, demonstrating theories through practical and laboratory experiments is an important approach to teaching, especially in engineering curricula. Often, lack of interest, resources and logistics problems makes this impossible. Evidence suggests that the expository laboratory, as used in engineering ...

  18. Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities: materials and processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundergan, C.D.; Mead, P.L.

    1977-08-01

    Materials and process activities have emphasized the balance between research and development necessary to provide materials compatible with the extreme environments and performance requirements associated with nuclear ordnance. Specific technical areas which have continuing emphasis include metallurgy, composites, surface characterization and thin films, polymers, ceramics, and high-temperature characterization. Complete processing and fabrication facilities assure the capability for early evaluation and use of tailored materials. Efforts are focused on material applications involving structural and electronic materials, thermal and electrical insulation, radiation shields, and shock mitigation. Key elements in these efforts are functionability, reliability, and longevity. This interdisciplinary approach to scientific materials engineering results from the recognition that many disciplines are required to understand, characterize, and apply materials, and from the fact that material design is an essential element in meeting the objectives of quality, functionality, and life. In effect, the responsibility of a materials group extends beyond the development of a material into the understanding and description of its behavior in the extreme environments to which it will be subjected

  19. Materials technology at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betten, P.

    1989-01-01

    Argonne is actively involved in the research and development of new materials research and development (R ampersand D). Five new materials technologies have been identified for commercial potential and are presented in this paper as follows: (1) nanophase materials, (2) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging of ceramics, (3) superconductivity developments and technology transfer mechanisms, and (4) COMMIX computer code modeling for metal castings, and (5) tribology using ion-assisted deposition (IAB). 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  20. Real time simulator for material testing reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemoto, Noriyuki; Imaizumi, Tomomi; Izumo, Hironobu; Hori, Naohiko; Suzuki, Masahide [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai Research and Development Center, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ishitsuka, Tatsuo; Tamura, Kazuo [ITOCHU Techno-Solutions Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is now developing a real time simulator for a material testing reactor based on Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The simulator treats reactor core system, primary and secondary cooling system, electricity system and irradiation facility systems. Possible simulations are normal reactor operation, unusual transient operation and accidental operation. The developed simulator also contains tool to revise/add facility in it for the future development. (author)

  1. Real time simulator for material testing reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemoto, Noriyuki; Imaizumi, Tomomi; Izumo, Hironobu; Hori, Naohiko; Suzuki, Masahide; Ishitsuka, Tatsuo; Tamura, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is now developing a real time simulator for a material testing reactor based on Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The simulator treats reactor core system, primary and secondary cooling system, electricity system and irradiation facility systems. Possible simulations are normal reactor operation, unusual transient operation and accidental operation. The developed simulator also contains tool to revise/add facility in it for the future development. (author)

  2. GPR Laboratory Tests For Railways Materials Dielectric Properties Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca De Chiara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In railways Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR studies, the evaluation of materials dielectric properties is critical as they are sensitive to water content, to petrographic type of aggregates and to fouling condition of the ballast. Under the load traffic, maintenance actions and climatic effects, ballast condition change due to aggregate breakdown and to subgrade soils pumping, mainly on existing lines with no sub ballast layer. The main purpose of this study was to validate, under controlled conditions, the dielectric values of materials used in Portuguese railways, in order to improve the GPR interpretation using commercial software and consequently the management maintenance planning. Different materials were tested and a broad range of in situ conditions were simulated in laboratory, in physical models. GPR tests were performed with five antennas with frequencies between 400 and 1800 MHz. The variation of the dielectric properties was measured, and the range of values that can be obtained for different material condition was defined. Additionally, in situ GPR measurements and test pits were performed for validation of the dielectric constant of clean ballast. The results obtained are analyzed and the main conclusions are presented herein.

  3. Radioactive material package testing capabilities at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uncapher, W.L.; Hohnstreiter, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Evaluation and certification of radioactive and hazardous material transport packages can be accomplished by subjecting these packages to normal transport and hypothetical accident test conditions. The regulations allow package designers to certify packages using analysis, testing, or a combination of analysis and testing. Testing can be used to substantiate assumptions used in analytical models and to demonstrate package structural and thermal response. Regulatory test conditions include impact, puncture, crush, penetration, water spray, immersion, and thermal environments. Testing facilities are used to simulate the required test conditions and provide measurement response data. Over the past four decades, comprehensive testing facilities have been developed at Sandia National Laboratories to perform a broad range of verification and certification tests on hazardous and radioactive material packages or component sections. Sandia's facilities provide an experience base that has been established during the development and certification of many package designs. These unique facilities, along with innovative instrumentation data collection capabilities and techniques, simulate a broad range of testing environments. In certain package designs, package testing can be an economical alternative to complex analysis to resolve regulatory questions or concerns

  4. Materials accounting at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, N.J.; Erkkila, B.H.; Kelso, H.F.

    1985-01-01

    The materials accounting system at Los Alamos has evolved from an ''80-column'' card system to a very sophisticated near-real-time computerized nuclear material accountability and safeguards system (MASS). The present hardware was designed and acquired in the late 70's and is scheduled for a major upgrade in fiscal year 1986. The history of the system from 1950 through the DYMAC of the late 70's up to the present will be discussed. The philosophy of the system along with the details of the system will be covered. This system has addressed the integrated problems of management, control, and accounting of nuclear material successfully. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  5. Materials accounting at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, N.J.; Erkkila, B.H.; Kelso, H.F.

    1985-01-01

    The materials accounting system at Los Alamos has evolved from an ''80-column'' card system to a very sophisticated near-real-time computerized nuclear material accountability and safeguards system (MASS). The present hardware was designed and acquired in the late 70's and is scheduled for a major upgrade in Fiscal Year 1986. The history of the system from 1950 through the DYMAC of the late 70's up to the present will be discussed. The philosophy of the system along with the details of the system will be covered. This system has addressed the integrated problems of management, control, and accounting of nuclear material successfully

  6. MHSS: a material handling system simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomernacki, L.; Hollstien, R.B.

    1976-04-07

    A Material Handling System Simulator (MHSS) program is described that provides specialized functional blocks for modeling and simulation of nuclear material handling systems. Models of nuclear fuel fabrication plants may be built using functional blocks that simulate material receiving, storage, transport, inventory, processing, and shipping operations as well as the control and reporting tasks of operators or on-line computers. Blocks are also provided that allow the user to observe and gather statistical information on the dynamic behavior of simulated plants over single or replicated runs. Although it is currently being developed for the nuclear materials handling application, MHSS can be adapted to other industries in which material accountability is important. In this paper, emphasis is on the simulation methodology of the MHSS program with application to the nuclear material safeguards problem. (auth)

  7. A note on simulated annealing to computer laboratory scheduling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concepts, principles and implementation of simulated Annealing as a modem heuristic technique is presented. Simulated Annealing algorithm is used in solving real life problem of Computer Laboratory scheduling in order to maximize the use of scarce and insufficient resources. KEY WORDS: Simulated Annealing ...

  8. Accelerated laboratory weathering of acrylic lens materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Thomas; Richter, Steffen; Kogler, René; Pasierb, Mike; Walby, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Flat samples from various poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) formulations were subjected to outdoor weathering in Arizona and Florida, EMMAQUA® accelerated outdoor weathering, and two accelerated laboratory weathering procedures at 3 Sun irradiance which, imitate dry (Arizona) and wet (Florida) conditions. The main mode of degradation is yellowing and not the generation of haze for any weathering procedure within the investigated radiant exposure. Higher UV absorber concentrations lead to smaller changes in optical properties and in the resulting relative concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) module efficiencies. Comparison of sample properties after various weathering procedures reveals that the influence of weathering factors other than radiant exposure depends on the sample as well.

  9. Boiling water reactor simulator. Workshop material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established an activity in nuclear reactor simulation computer programs to assist its Member States in education. The objective is to provide, for a variety of advanced reactor types, insight and practice in their operational characteristics and their response to perturbations and accident situations. To achieve this, the IAEA arranges for the development and distribution of simulation programs and workshop material and sponsors workshops. The workshops are in two parts: techniques and tools for reactor simulator development; and the use of reactor simulators in education. Workshop material for the first part is covered in the IAEA publication: Training Course Series No. 12, 'Reactor Simulator Development' (2001). Course material for workshops using a WWER- 1000 simulator from the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, Russian Federation is presented in the IAEA publication: Training Course Series No. 21 'WWER-1000 Reactor Simulator' (2002). Course material for workshops using a pressurized water reactor (PWR) simulator developed by Cassiopeia Technologies Incorporated, Canada, is presented in the IAEA publication: Training Course Series No. 22 'Pressurized Water Reactor Simulator' (2003). This report consists of course material for workshops using a boiling water reactor (BWR) simulator. Cassiopeia Technologies Incorporated, developed the simulator and prepared this report for the IAEA

  10. Material control system simulator program reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollstien, R.B.

    1978-01-24

    A description is presented of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts. Although MCSS may be used independently in the design or analysis of material handling and processing systems, it has been tailored toward the determination of material accountability and the response of material control systems to adversary action sequences.

  11. Material control system simulator program reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollstien, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts. Although MCSS may be used independently in the design or analysis of material handling and processing systems, it has been tailored toward the determination of material accountability and the response of material control systems to adversary action sequences

  12. Material control system simulator user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollstien, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    This report describes the use of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts

  13. Pressurized water reactor simulator. Workshop material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established an activity in nuclear reactor simulation computer programs to assist its Member States in education. The objective is to provide, for a variety of advanced reactor types, insight and practice in their operational characteristics and their response to perturbations and accident situations. To achieve this, the IAEA arranges for the development and distribution of simulation programs and educational material and sponsors courses and workshops. The workshops are in two parts: techniques and tools for reactor simulator development; and the use of reactor simulators in education. Workshop material for the first part is covered in the IAEA Training Course Series No. 12, 'Reactor Simulator Development' (2001). Course material for workshops using a WWER- 1000 reactor department simulator from the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, the Russian Federation is presented in the IAEA Training Course Series No. 21 'WWER-1000 Reactor Simulator' (2002). Course material for workshops using a boiling water reactor simulator developed for the IAEA by Cassiopeia Technologies Incorporated of Canada (CTI) is presented in the IAEA publication: Training Course Series No.23 'Boiling Water Reactor Simulator' (2003). This report consists of course material for workshops using a pressurized water reactor simulator

  14. Laboratory development of wind turbine simulator using variable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1*Department of Electronics Engineering, Prof. ... In this paper variable speed induction motor drive using scalar control is interfaced in wind energy conversion ... the wind turbine simulator is used as a necessary tool in research laboratories.

  15. The design of a network emulation and simulation laboratory

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Von Solms, S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of the Network Emulation and Simulation Laboratory is motivated by the drive to contribute to the enhancement of the security and resilience of South Africa's critical information infrastructure. The goal of the Network Emulation...

  16. Laboratory Facility for Simulating Solar Wind Sails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funaki, Ikkoh; Ueno, Kazuma; Oshio, Yuya; Ayabe, Tomohiro; Horisawa, Hideyuki; Yamakawa, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic sail (MagSail) is a deep space propulsion system, in which an artificial magnetic cavity captures the energy of the solar wind to propel a spacecraft in the direction leaving the sun. For a scale-model experiment of the plasma flow of MagSail, we employed a magnetoplasmadynamic arcjet as a solar wind simulator. It is observed that a plasma flow from the solar wind simulator reaches a quasi-steady state of about 0.8 ms duration after a transient phase when initiating the discharge. During this initial phase of the discharge, a blast-wave was observed to develop radially in a vacuum chamber. When a solenoidal coil (MagSail scale model) is immersed into the quasi-steady flow where the velocity is 45 km/s, and the number density is 10 19 m-3, a bow shock as well as a magnetic cavity were formed in front of the coil. As a result of the interaction between the plasma flow and the magnetic cavity, the momentum of the simulated solar wind is decreased, and it is found from the thrust measurement that the solar wind momentum is transferred to the coil simulating MagSail.

  17. Trackless tack coat materials : a laboratory evaluation performance acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop, demonstrate, and document laboratory procedures that could be used by the : Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT) to evaluate non-tracking tack coat materials. The procedures would be used to : qualify...

  18. High-Frequency Microwave Processing of Materials Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Conducts research on high-frequency microwave processing of materials using a highpower, continuous-wave (CW), 83-GHz, quasi-optical beam system for rapid,...

  19. Simulation and material testing of jet engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    The NASA software engine simulator version U 1.7a beta has been used for simulation and material testing of jet engines. Specifications of Modem Jet Engines are stated, and then engine simulator is applied on these specifications. This simulator can simulate turbojet, afterburner, turbofan and ram jet. The material of many components of engine may be varied. Conventional and advanced materials for jet engines can be simulated and tested. These materials can be actively cooled to increase the operating temperature limit. As soon as temperature of any engine component exceeds the temperature limit of material, a warning message flashes across screen. Temperature Limits Exceeded. This flashing message remainst here until necessaryc hangesa re carried out in engine operationp rocedure. Selection Criteria of Engines is stated for piston prop, turboprop, turbofan, turbojet, and turbojet with afterburner and Ramjet. Several standard engines are modeled in Engine Simulator. These engines can. be compared by several engineering specifications. The design, modeling, simulation and testing of engines helps to better understand different types of materials used in jet engines. (author)

  20. 33 CFR 209.340 - Laboratory investigations and materials testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hydraulic laboratories, and to the Inter-Agency Sedimentation Project. (c) References. (1) AR 37-20. (2) AR... ordinary business channels. (3) Performance of the work will not interfere with provisions of services... with the same procedures as apply to Division Materials Laboratories. (3) Inter-Agency Sedimentation...

  1. WWER-1000 reactor simulator. Workshop material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established an activity in nuclear reactor simulation computer programs to assist its Member States in education. The objective is to provide, for a variety of advanced reactor types, insight and practice in their operational characteristics and their response to perturbations and accident situations. To achieve this, the IAEA arranges for the development and distribution of simulation programs and educational material and sponsors courses and workshops. The workshops are in two parts: techniques and tools for reactor simulator development; and the use of reactor simulators in education. Workshop material for the first part is covered in the IAEA publication: Training Course Series 12, 'Reactor Simulator Development' (2001). Course material for workshops using a pressurized water reactor (PWR) Simulator developed for the IAEA by Cassiopeia Technologies Inc. of Canada is presented in the IAEA publication: Training Course Series No. 22 'Pressurized Water Reactor Simulator' (2003) and Training Course Series No. 23 'Boiling Water Reactor Simulator' (2003). This report consists of course material for workshops using the WWER-1000 Reactor Department Simulator from the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, Russian Federation. N. V. Tikhonov and S. B. Vygovsky of the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute prepared this report for the IAEA

  2. Galactic cosmic ray simulation at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.; Schimmerling, Walter; Slaba, Tony C.; Azzam, Edouard I.; Badavi, Francis F.; Baiocco, Giorgio; Benton, Eric; Bindi, Veronica; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Boothman, David A.; Borak, Thomas B.; Britten, Richard A.; Curtis, Stan; Dingfelder, Michael; Durante, Marco; Dynan, William S.; Eisch, Amelia J.; Elgart, S. Robin; Goodhead, Dudley T.; Guida, Peter M.; Heilbronn, Lawrence H.; Hellweg, Christine E.; Huff, Janice L.; Kronenberg, Amy; La Tessa, Chiara; Lowenstein, Derek I.; Miller, Jack; Morita, Takashi; Narici, Livio; Nelson, Gregory A.; Norman, Ryan B.; Ottolenghi, Andrea; Patel, Zarana S.; Reitz, Guenther; Rusek, Adam; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Scott-Carnell, Lisa A.; Semones, Edward; Shay, Jerry W.; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav A.; Sihver, Lembit; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Story, Michael D.; Turker, Mitchell S.; Uchihori, Yukio; Williams, Jacqueline; Zeitlin, Cary J.

    2017-01-01

    Most accelerator-based space radiation experiments have been performed with single ion beams at fixed energies. However, the space radiation environment consists of a wide variety of ion species with a continuous range of energies. Due to recent developments in beam switching technology implemented at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), it is now possible to rapidly switch ion species and energies, allowing for the possibility to more realistically simulate the actual radiation environment found in space. The present paper discusses a variety of issues related to implementation of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) simulation at NSRL, especially for experiments in radiobiology. Advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to developing a GCR simulator are presented. In addition, issues common to both GCR simulation and single beam experiments are compared to issues unique to GCR simulation studies. A set of conclusions is presented as well as a discussion of the technical implementation of GCR simulation. PMID:26948012

  3. A new nuclear materials laboratory at Queen's University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, R.A.; Daymond, M.R., E-mail: holt@queensu.ca, E-mail: daymond@queensu.ca [Queen' s University, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    The Reactor Materials Testing Laboratory (RMTL) at Queen's University and the results of commissioning tests are described. RMTL uses energetic protons (up to 8MeV) to simulate fast neutron damage in materials for reactor components. The laboratory is also capable of He implantation (up to 12 MeV) to simulate the effects of transmutation He in reactor components. The $17.5M laboratory comprises a new building, a 4MV tandem accelerator, two electron microscopes, mechanical testing and specimen preparation equipment, and a radiation detection laboratory. RMTL focusses on studying dynamic effects of irradiation (irradiation creep, irradiation growth, irradiation induced swelling, fatigue under irradiation) in-situ. (author)

  4. An evaluation of dental operative simulation materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-Hong; Foster Page, Lyndie; Purton, David

    2012-01-01

    The study was to evaluate the performance of different materials used in dental operative simulation and compare them with those of natural teeth. Three typical phantom teeth materials were compared with extracted permanent teeth by a nanoindentation system and evaluated by students and registered dentists on the drilling sensation of the materials. Moreover, the tool life (machinability) of new cylindrical diamond burs on cutting the sample materials was tested and the burs were observed. Although student and dentist evaluations were scattered and inconclusive, it was found that elastic modulus (E) and hardness (H) were not the main factors in determining the drilling sensation of the materials. The sensation of drilling is a reflection of cutting force and power consumption.An ideal material for dental simulation should be able to generate similar drilling resistance to that of natural tooth, which is the machinability of the material.

  5. Laboratory Testing of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Surrogate Waste Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, S.; Bronowski, D.; Pfeifle, T.; Herrick, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a U.S. Department of Energy geological repository for the permanent disposal of defense-related transuranic (TRU) waste. The waste is emplaced in rooms excavated in the bedded Salado salt formation at a depth of 655 m below the ground surface. After emplacement of the waste, the repository will be sealed and decommissioned. WIPP Performance Assessment modeling of the underground material response requires a full and accurate understanding of coupled mechanical, hydrological, and geochemical processes and how they evolve with time. This study was part of a broader test program focused on room closure, specifically the compaction behavior of waste and the constitutive relations to model this behavior. The goal of this study was to develop an improved waste constitutive model. The model parameters are developed based on a well designed set of test data. The constitutive model will then be used to realistically model evolution of the underground and to better understand the impacts on repository performance. The present study results are focused on laboratory testing of surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes correspond to a conservative estimate of the degraded containers and TRU waste materials after the 10,000 year regulatory period. Testing consists of hydrostatic, uniaxial, and triaxial tests performed on surrogate waste recipes that were previously developed by Hansen et al. (1997). These recipes can be divided into materials that simulate 50% and 100% degraded waste by weight. The percent degradation indicates the anticipated amount of iron corrosion, as well as the decomposition of cellulosics, plastics, and rubbers. Axial, lateral, and volumetric strain and axial and lateral stress measurements were made. Two unique testing techniques were developed during the course of the experimental program. The first involves the use of dilatometry to measure sample volumetric strain under a hydrostatic condition. Bulk

  6. Furnace coking simulations in a laboratory apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, Paul [Champion Technologies Inc (United States)], email: paul.eaton@champ-tech.com; Newman, Bruce [ConocoPhillips (United States)], email: Bruce.A.Newman@conocophillips.com; Gray, Murray; Kubis, Alan; Derakhshesh, Marzie; Holt, Chris; Mitlin, David [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This work deals with simulating fouling behavior of crude oil in a delayed coker furnace. Fouling on different heated metal probes was investigated; these were mainly stainless steel, iron, or mild steel probes. Heat transfer theory was used to calculate the system fouling factor, and this parameter was recorded as a function of time to model in-situ fouling intensity. Physical and chemical properties such as buildup thickness and composition were investigated using different measuring techniques, most important of which were extractive-iron-nickel ion chromatography, optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron dispersion spectroscopy (EDS). Changes in surface layers of the metallic probe during coke formation along with microstructures of the coke were examined using a focused-ion beam (FIB). It was shown that the iron probe exhibited more buildups on its surface than stainless steels, and fouling of mild steel came in between. As for oils with different concentrations, fouling of diluted atmospheric tower bottom (ATB) was greater than that of undiluted ATP.

  7. Simulating STARDUST: Reproducing Impacts of Interstellar Dust in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postberg, F.; Srama, R.; Hillier, J. K.; Sestak, S.; Green, S. F.; Trieloff, M.; Grün, E.

    2008-09-01

    Our experiments are carried out to support the analysis of interstellar dust grains, ISDGs, brought to earth by the STARDUST mission. Since the very first investigations, it has turned out that the major problem of STARDUST particle analysis is the modification (partly even the destruction) during capture when particles impact the spacecraft collectors with a velocity of up to 20 km/s. While it is possible to identify, extract, and analyse cometary grains larger than a few microns in aerogel and on metal collector plates, the STARDUST team is not yet ready for the identification, extraction, and analysis of sub-micron sized ISDGs with impact speeds of up to 20 km/s. Reconstructing the original particle properties requires a simulation of this impact capture process. Moreover, due to the lack of laboratory studies of high speed impacts of micron scale dust into interstellar STARDUST flight spares, the selection of criteria for the identification of track candidates is entirely subjective. Simulation of such impact processes is attempted with funds of the FRONTIER program within the framework of the Heidelberg University initiative of excellence. The dust accelerator at the MPI Kernphysik is a facility unique in the world to perform such experiments. A critical point is the production of cometary and interstellar dust analogue material and its acceleration to very high speeds of 20 km/s, which has never before been performed in laboratory experiments. Up to now only conductive material was successfully accelerated by the 2 MV Van de Graaf generator of the dust accelerator facility. Typical projectile materials are Iron, Aluminium, Carbon, Copper, Silver, and the conducting hydrocarbon Latex. Ongoing research now enables the acceleration of any kind of rocky planetary and interstellar dust analogues (Hillier et al. 2008, in prep.). The first batch of dust samples produced with the new method consists of micron and submicron SiO2 grains. Those were successfully

  8. Fundamentals of passive nondestructive assay of fissionable material: laboratory workbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, T.D.; Augustson, R.H.; Parker, J.L.; Walton, R.B.; Atwell, T.L.; Umbarger, C.J.; Burns, C.E.

    1975-02-01

    This workbook is a supplement to LA-5651-M, ''Fundamentals of Passive Nondestructive Assay of Fissionable Material'' which is the text used during the Nondestructive Assay Training Session given by Group A-1 of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. It contains the writeups used during the six laboratory sessions covering basic gamma-ray principles, quantitative gamma-ray measurements, uranium enrichment measurements, equipment holdup measurements, basic neutron principles, and quantitative neutron assay

  9. Fundamentals of passive nondestructive assay of fissionable material: laboratory workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, T.D.; Augustson, R.H.; Parker, J.L. Walton, R.B.; Atwell, T.L.; Umbarger, C.J.; Burns, C.E.

    1975-02-01

    This workbook is a supplement to LA-5651-M, ''Fundamentals of Passive Nondestructive Assay of Fissionable Material'' which is the text used during the Nondestructive Assay Training Session given by Group A-1 of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. It contains the writeups used during the six laboratory sessions covering basic gamma-ray principles, quantitative gamma-ray measurements, uranium enrichment measurements, equipment holdup measurements, basic neutron principles, and quantitative neutron assay.

  10. Materials for the nuclear - Modelling and simulation of structure materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthoud, Georges; Ducros, Gerard; Feron, Damien; Guerin, Yannick; Latge, Christian; Limoge, Yves; Santarini, Gerard; Seiler, Jean-Marie; Vernaz, Etienne; Cappelaere, Chantal; Andrieux, Catherine; Athenes, Manuel; Baldinozzi, Guido; Bechade, Jean-Luc; Bonin, Bernard; Boutard, Jean-Louis; Brechet, Yves; Bruneval, Fabien; Carassou, Sebastien; Castelier, Etienne; Chartier, Alain; Clouet, Emmanuel; Marinica, Mihai-Cosmin; Crocombette, Jean-Paul; Dupuy, Laurent; Forget, Pierre; Fu, Chu Chun; Garnier, Jerome; Gelebart, Lionel; Henry, Jean; Jourdan, Thomas; Luneville, Laurence; Marini, Bernard; Meslin, Estelle; Nastar, Maylise; Onimus, Fabien; Poussard, Christophe; Proville, Laurent; Ribis, Joel; Robertson, Christian; Rodney, David; Roma, Guido; Sauzay, Maxime; Simeone, David; Soisson, Frederic; Tanguy, Benoit; Toffolon-Masclet, Caroline; Trocellier, Patrick; Van Brutzel, Laurent; Ventelon, Usa; Vincent, Ludovic; Willaime, Francois; Yvon, Pascal; Behar, Christophe; Provitina, Olivier; Lecomte, Michael; Forestier, Alain; Bender, Alexandra; Parisot, Jean-Francois; Finot, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    This collective publication proposes presentations of scientific approaches implemented to model and simulate the behaviour of materials submitted to irradiation, of associated experimental methods, and of some recent important results. After an introduction presenting the various materials used in different types of nuclear reactors (PWR, etc.), the effects of irradiation at the macroscopic or at the atomic scale, and the multi-scale (time and space) approach to the modelling of these materials, a chapter proposes an overview of modelling tools: multi-scale approach, electronic calculations for condensed matter, inter-atomic potentials, molecular dynamics simulation, thermodynamic and medium force potentials, phase diagrams, simulation of primary damages in reactor materials, kinetic models, dislocation dynamics, production of microstructures for simulation, crystalline visco-plasticity, homogenization methods in continuum mechanics, local approach and probabilistic approach in material fracture. The next part presents tools for experimental validation: tools for microscopic characterization or for mechanical characterization, experimental reactors and tests in atomic pile, tools for irradiation by charged particles. The next chapters presents different examples of thermodynamic and kinetic modelling in the case of various alloys (zirconium alloys, iron-chromium alloys, silicon carbide, austenitic alloys), of plasticity and failure modelling

  11. Standard reference materials analysis for MINT Radiocarbon Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noraishah Othman; Kamisah Alias; Nasasni Nasrul

    2004-01-01

    As a follow-up to the setting up of the MINT Radiocarbon Dating facility. an exercise on the IAEA standard reference materials was carried out. Radiocarbon laboratories frequently used these 8 natural samples to verify their systems. The materials were either pretreated or analysed directly to determine the activity of 14 C isotopes of the five samples expressed in % Modern (pMC) terms and to make recommendations on further use of these materials. We present the results of the five materials and discuss the analyses that were undertaken. (Author)

  12. A simulation model for material accounting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulter, C.A.; Thomas, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    A general-purpose model that was developed to simulate the operation of a chemical processing facility for nuclear materials has been extended to describe material measurement and accounting procedures as well. The model now provides descriptors for material balance areas, a large class of measurement instrument types and their associated measurement errors for various classes of materials, the measurement instruments themselves with their individual calibration schedules, and material balance closures. Delayed receipt of measurement results (as for off-line analytical chemistry assay), with interim use of a provisional measurement value, can be accurately represented. The simulation model can be used to estimate inventory difference variances for processing areas that do not operate at steady state, to evaluate the timeliness of measurement information, to determine process impacts of measurement requirements, and to evaluate the effectiveness of diversion-detection algorithms. Such information is usually difficult to obtain by other means. Use of the measurement simulation model is illustrated by applying it to estimate inventory difference variances for two material balance area structures of a fictitious nuclear material processing line

  13. Multiscale Modeling and Simulation of Material Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    challenge is how to develop methods that permit simulation of a process with a fewer number of atoms (for e.g. 106 instead of 1014 atoms in a cube) or...rreula bakgrundmes to ea wih poblms n-here. In dynamic simulations, the mass and momentum volving rapidly varying stress, such as stress field near a...significant, as indicated by numerical examples that will follow. We next summarize the coupling scheme with the aid of flowchart Fig. 8. The material

  14. Sandia National Laboratories, California Hazardous Materials Management Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2011-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Hazardous Materials Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the calender past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Hazardous Materials Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  15. Simulation-based medical education in clinical skills laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaike, Masashi; Fukutomi, Miki; Nagamune, Masami; Fujimoto, Akiko; Tsuji, Akiko; Ishida, Kazuko; Iwata, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Clinical skills laboratories have been established in medical institutions as facilities for simulation-based medical education (SBME). SBME is believed to be superior to the traditional style of medical education from the viewpoint of the active and adult learning theories. SBME can provide a learning cycle of debriefing and feedback for learners as well as evaluation of procedures and competency. SBME offers both learners and patients a safe environment for practice and error. In a full-environment simulation, learners can obtain not only technical skills but also non-technical skills, such as leadership, team work, communication, situation awareness, decision-making, and awareness of personal limitations. SBME is also effective for integration of clinical medicine and basic medicine. In addition, technology-enhanced simulation training is associated with beneficial effects for outcomes of knowledge, skills, behaviors, and patient-related outcomes. To perform SBME, effectively, not only simulators including high-fidelity mannequin-type simulators or virtual-reality simulators but also full-time faculties and instructors as professionals of SBME are essential in a clinical skills laboratory for SBME. Clinical skills laboratory is expected to become an integrated medical education center to achieve continuing professional development, integrated learning of basic and clinical medicine, and citizens' participation and cooperation in medical education.

  16. US-Russian laboratory-to-laboratory cooperation in nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, M.; Augustson, R.; Horton, R.

    1995-01-01

    Under the guidance of the Department of Energy (DOE), six DOE laboratories have initiated a new program of cooperation with the Russian Federation's nuclear institutes. The purpose of the program is to accelerate progress toward a common goal shared by both the US and Russia--to reduce the risks of nuclear weapons proliferation, including such threats as theft, diversion, and unauthorized possession of nuclear materials, by strengthening systems of nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting. This new program is called the Laboratory-to-Laboratory Nuclear Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting (Lab-to-Lab MPC and A) Program. It is designed to complement other US-Russian MPC and A programs such as the government-to-government (Nunn-Lugar) programs. The Lab-to-Lab MPC and A program began in 1994 with pilot projects at two sites: Arzamas-16 and the Kurchitov Institute. This paper presents an overview of the Laboratory-to-Laboratory MPC and A Program. It describes the background and need for the program; the objectives and strategy; the participating US and Russian laboratories, institutes and enterprises; highlights of the technical work; and plans for the next several years

  17. Development of space simulation / net-laboratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, H.; Matsumoto, H.; Ogino, T.; Fujimoto, M.; Omura, Y.; Okada, M.; Ueda, H. O.; Murata, T.; Kamide, Y.; Shinagawa, H.; Watanabe, S.; Machida, S.; Hada, T.

    A research project for the development of space simulation / net-laboratory system was approved by Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST) in the category of Research and Development for Applying Advanced Computational Science and Technology(ACT-JST) in 2000. This research project, which continues for three years, is a collaboration with an astrophysical simulation group as well as other space simulation groups which use MHD and hybrid models. In this project, we develop a proto type of unique simulation system which enables us to perform simulation runs by providing or selecting plasma parameters through Web-based interface on the internet. We are also developing an on-line database system for space simulation from which we will be able to search and extract various information such as simulation method and program, manuals, and typical simulation results in graphic or ascii format. This unique system will help the simulation beginners to start simulation study without much difficulty or effort, and contribute to the promotion of simulation studies in the STP field. In this presentation, we will report the overview and the current status of the project.

  18. Potential countersample materials for in vitro simulation wear testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortall, Adrian C; Hu, Xiao Q; Marquis, Peter M

    2002-05-01

    Any laboratory investigation of the wear resistance of dental materials needs to consider oral conditions so that in vitro wear results can be correlated with in vivo findings. The choice of the countersample is a critical factor in establishing the pattern of tribological wear and in achieving an efficient in vitro wear testing system. This research investigated the wear behavior and surface characteristics associated with three candidate countersample materials used for in vitro wear testing in order to identify a possible suitable substitute for human dental enamel. Three candidate materials, stainless steel, steatite and dental porcelain were evaluated and compared to human enamel. A variety of factors including hardness, wear surface evolution and frictional coefficients were considered, relative to the tribology of the in vivo situation. The results suggested that the dental porcelain investigated bore the closest similarity to human enamel of the materials investigated. Assessment of potential countersample materials should be based on the essential tribological simulation supported by investigations of mechanical, chemical and structural properties. The selected dental porcelain had the best simulating ability among the three selected countersample materials and this class of material may be considered as a possible countersample material for in vitro wear test purposes. Further studies are required, employing a wider range of dental ceramics, in order to optimise the choice of countersample material for standardized in vitro wear testing.

  19. Laboratory Simulations of Martian and Venusian Aeolian Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeley, Ronald

    1999-01-01

    places constraints on results from numerical models and laboratory simulations.

  20. Laboratory Reference Spectroscopy of Icy Satellite Candidate Surface Materials (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, J. B.; Jamieson, C. S.; Shirley, J. H.; Pitman, K. M.; Kariya, M.; Crandall, P.

    2013-12-01

    The bulk of our knowledge of icy satellite composition continues to be derived from ultraviolet, visible and infrared remote sensing observations. Interpretation of remote sensing observations relies on availability of laboratory reference spectra of candidate surface materials. These are compared directly to observations, or incorporated into models to generate synthetic spectra representing mixtures of the candidate materials. Spectral measurements for the study of icy satellites must be taken under appropriate conditions (cf. Dalton, 2010; also http://mos.seti.org/icyworldspectra.html for a database of compounds) of temperature (typically 50 to 150 K), pressure (from 10-9 to 10-3 Torr), viewing geometry, (i.e., reflectance), and optical depth (must manifest near infrared bands but avoid saturation in the mid-infrared fundamentals). The Planetary Ice Characterization Laboratory (PICL) is being developed at JPL to provide robust reference spectra for icy satellite surface materials. These include sulfate hydrates, hydrated and hydroxylated minerals, and both organic and inorganic volatile ices. Spectral measurements are performed using an Analytical Spectral Devices FR3 portable grating spectrometer from .35 to 2.5 microns, and a Thermo-Nicolet 6500 Fourier-Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometer from 1.25 to 20 microns. These are interfaced with the Basic Extraterrestrial Environment Simulation Testbed (BEEST), a vacuum chamber capable of pressures below 10-9 Torr with a closed loop liquid helium cryostat with custom heating element capable of temperatures from 30-800 Kelvins. To generate optical constants (real and imaginary index of refraction) for use in nonlinear mixing models (i.e., Hapke, 1981 and Shkuratov, 1999), samples are ground and sieved to six different size fractions or deposited at varying rates to provide a range of grain sizes for optical constants calculations based on subtractive Kramers-Kronig combined with Hapke forward modeling (Dalton and

  1. The WEBSIM FISHBANKS Simulation Laboratory: Analysis of Its Ripple Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes do Amaral, João Alberto; Hess, Aurélio

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the ripple effects of the WEBSIM FISHBANKS Simulation Laboratory held at Federal University of Sao Paulo (UNIFESP) in 2014, held as a result of a partnership between the Sloan School of Management of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the UNIFESP, and the Brazilian Chapter of the System Dynamics Society of…

  2. Review of ankle inversion sprain simulators in the biomechanics laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Chui-Wai Ha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ankle inversion ligamentous sprain is one of the most common sports injuries. The most direct way is to investigate real injury incidents, but it is unethical and impossible to replicate on test participants. Simulators including tilt platforms, trapdoors, and fulcrum devices were designed to mimic ankle inversion movements in laboratories. Inversion angle was the only element considered in early designs; however, an ankle sprain is composed of inversion and plantarflexion in clinical observations. Inversion velocity is another parameter that increased the reality of simulation. This review summarised the simulators, and aimed to compare and contrast their features and settings.

  3. Ground Contact Model for Mars Science Laboratory Mission Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiszadeh, Behzad; Way, David

    2012-01-01

    The Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST 2) has been successful in simulating the flight of launch vehicles and entry bodies on earth and other planets. POST 2 has been the primary simulation tool for the Entry Descent, and Landing (EDL) phase of numerous Mars lander missions such as Mars Pathfinder in 1997, the twin Mars Exploration Rovers (MER-A and MER-B) in 2004, Mars Phoenix lander in 2007, and it is now the main trajectory simulation tool for Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) in 2012. In all previous missions, the POST 2 simulation ended before ground impact, and a tool other than POST 2 simulated landing dynamics. It would be ideal for one tool to simulate the entire EDL sequence, thus avoiding errors that could be introduced by handing off position, velocity, or other fight parameters from one simulation to the other. The desire to have one continuous end-to-end simulation was the motivation for developing the ground interaction model in POST 2. Rover landing, including the detection of the postlanding state, is a very critical part of the MSL mission, as the EDL landing sequence continues for a few seconds after landing. The method explained in this paper illustrates how a simple ground force interaction model has been added to POST 2, which allows simulation of the entire EDL from atmospheric entry through touchdown.

  4. Planetary Simulation Chambers bring Mars to laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateo-Marti, E.

    2016-07-01

    Although space missions provide fundamental and unique knowledge for planetary exploration, they are always costly and extremely time-consuming. Due to the obvious technical and economical limitations of in-situ planetary exploration, laboratory simulations are among the most feasible research options for making advances in planetary exploration. Therefore, laboratory simulations of planetary environments are a necessary and complementary option to expensive space missions. Simulation chambers are economical, more versatile, and allow for a higher number of experiments than space missions. Laboratory-based facilities are able to mimic the conditions found in the atmospheres and on the surfaces of a majority of planetary objects. Number of relevant applications in Mars planetary exploration will be described in order to provide an understanding about the potential and flexibility of planetary simulation chambers systems: mainly, stability and presence of certain minerals on Mars surface; and microorganisms potential habitability under planetary environmental conditions would be studied. Therefore, simulation chambers will be a promising tools and necessary platform to design future planetary space mission and to validate in-situ measurements from orbital or rover observations. (Author)

  5. Conceptual Design Report for the Irradiated Materials Characterization Laboratory (IMCL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephanie Austad

    2010-06-01

    This document describes the design at a conceptual level for the Irradiated Materials Characterization Laboratory (IMCL) to be located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The IMCL is an 11,000-ft2, Hazard Category-2 nuclear facility that is designed for use as a state of the-art nuclear facility for the purpose of hands-on and remote handling, characterization, and examination of irradiated and nonirradiated nuclear material samples. The IMCL will accommodate a series of future, modular, and reconfigurable instrument enclosures or caves. To provide a bounding design basis envelope for the facility-provided space and infrastructure, an instrument enclosure or cave configuration was developed and is described in some detail. However, the future instrument enclosures may be modular, integral with the instrument, or reconfigurable to enable various characterization environments to be configured as changes in demand occur. They are not provided as part of the facility.

  6. Standard guide for laboratory simulation of corrosion under insulation

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This guide covers the simulation of corrosion under insulation (CUI), including both general and localized attack, on insulated specimens cut from pipe sections exposed to a corrosive environment usually at elevated temperature. It describes a CUI exposure apparatus (hereinafter referred to as a CUI-Cell), preparation of specimens, simulation procedures for isothermal or cyclic temperature, or both, and wet/dry conditions, which are parameters that need to be monitored during the simulation and the classification of simulation type. 1.2 The application of this guide is broad and can incorporate a range of materials, environments and conditions that are beyond the scope of a single test method. The apparatus and procedures contained herein are principally directed at establishing acceptable procedures for CUI simulation for the purposes of evaluating the corrosivity of CUI environments on carbon and low alloy pipe steels, and may possibly be applicable to other materials as well. However, the same or simi...

  7. Quality manual for Laboratories of the Nuclear Materials Characterization Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabato, S.F.

    1991-05-01

    This publication presents the first Quality Manual for the Laboratories at the Nuclear Materials Characterization Division. The Manual describes the laboratories, its organization structure, fields of activities, personnel records, equipments, maintenance and calibration. The main aspects concerning quality assurance in the analysis were discussed. The whole system of receiving, identifying and processing analysis of the samples is shown. Since there are many information to be contained in several subjects of the Quality Manual, there were produced separate documents that are cross referenced in the manual. (author)

  8. Intervention of hydrogen analysis laboratory for radioactive materials study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, N.; Vinces, H.; Figueroa, S.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the practice was the measurement of the hydrogen concentration on structural material from the Central Nuclear Atucha I (CNA-I) cooling channels using a LECO gas analyser. Original samples were previously separated into fractions at the Laboratiorio para Ensayos de Post-Irradiacion (LAPEP), Centro Atomico Ezeiza. The practice and the preliminary conditions of the laboratory and equipment to reduce the occupational dose for personnel and the work area contamination are described in this paper. In addition to the training activity for workers, the radiological control performed during the intervention and procedure followed to decontaminate LECO and the laboratory are summarized here. (authors)

  9. Entrainment in Laboratory Simulations of Cumulus Cloud Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimha, R.; Diwan, S.; Subrahmanyam, D.; Sreenivas, K. R.; Bhat, G. S.

    2010-12-01

    A variety of cumulus cloud flows, including congestus (both shallow bubble and tall tower types), mediocris and fractus have been generated in a water tank by simulating the release of latent heat in real clouds. The simulation is achieved through ohmic heating, injected volumetrically into the flow by applying suitable voltages between diametral cross-sections of starting jets and plumes of electrically conducting fluid (acidified water). Dynamical similarity between atmospheric and laboratory cloud flows is achieved by duplicating values of an appropriate non-dimensional heat release number. Velocity measurements, made by laser instrumentation, show that the Taylor entrainment coefficient generally increases just above the level of commencement of heat injection (corresponding to condensation level in the real cloud). Subsequently the coefficient reaches a maximum before declining to the very low values that characterize tall cumulus towers. The experiments also simulate the protected core of real clouds. Cumulus Congestus : Atmospheric cloud (left), simulated laboratory cloud (right). Panels below show respectively total heat injected and vertical profile of heating in the laboratory cloud.

  10. Low-Depth Quantum Simulation of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Babbush

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantum simulation of the electronic structure problem is one of the most researched applications of quantum computing. The majority of quantum algorithms for this problem encode the wavefunction using N Gaussian orbitals, leading to Hamiltonians with O(N^{4} second-quantized terms. We avoid this overhead and extend methods to condensed phase materials by utilizing a dual form of the plane wave basis which diagonalizes the potential operator, leading to a Hamiltonian representation with O(N^{2} second-quantized terms. Using this representation, we can implement single Trotter steps of the Hamiltonians with linear gate depth on a planar lattice. Properties of the basis allow us to deploy Trotter- and Taylor-series-based simulations with respective circuit depths of O(N^{7/2} and O[over ˜](N^{8/3} for fixed charge densities. Variational algorithms also require significantly fewer measurements in this basis, ameliorating a primary challenge of that approach. While our approach applies to the simulation of arbitrary electronic structure problems, the basis sets explored in this work will be most practical for treating periodic systems, such as crystalline materials, in the near term. We conclude with a proposal to simulate the uniform electron gas (jellium using a low-depth variational ansatz realizable on near-term quantum devices. From these results, we identify simulations of low-density jellium as a promising first setting to explore quantum supremacy in electronic structure.

  11. Interatomic potentials for fusion reactor material simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerkas, C.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, the behaviour of a material situated in a fusion reactor was studied using molecular dynamics simulations. Simulations of processes in the next generation fusion reactor ITER include the reactor materials beryllium, carbon and tungsten as well as the plasma hydrogen isotopes. This means that interaction models, i.e. interatomic potentials, for this complicated quaternary system are needed. The task of finding such potentials is nonetheless nearly at its end, since models for the beryllium-carbon-hydrogen interactions were constructed in this thesis and as a continuation of that work, a beryllium-tungsten model is under development. These potentials are combinable with the earlier tungsten-carbon-hydrogen ones. The potentials were used to explain the chemical sputtering of beryllium due to deuterium plasma exposure. During experiments, a large fraction of the sputtered beryllium atoms were observed to be released as BeD molecules, and the simulations identified the swift chemical sputtering mechanism, previously not believed to be important in metals, as the underlying mechanism. Radiation damage in the reactor structural materials vanadium, iron and iron chromium, as well as in the wall material tungsten and the mixed alloy tungsten carbide, was also studied in this thesis. Interatomic potentials for vanadium, tungsten and iron were modified to be better suited for simulating collision cascades that are formed during particle irradiation, and the potential features affecting the resulting primary damage were identified. Including the often neglected electronic effects in the simulations was also shown to have an impact on the damage. With proper tuning of the electronphonon interaction strength, experimentally measured quantities related to ion-beam mixing in iron could be reproduced. The damage in tungsten carbide alloys showed elemental asymmetry, as the major part of the damage consisted of carbon defects. On the other hand, modelling the damage

  12. Machinability of some dentin simulating materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möllersten, L

    1985-01-01

    Machinability in low speed drilling was investigated for pure aluminium, Frasaco teeth, ivory, plexiglass and human dentin. The investigation was performed in order to find a suitable test material for drilling experiments using paralleling instruments. A material simulating human dentin in terms of cuttability at low drilling speeds was sought. Tests were performed using a specially designed apparatus. Holes to a depth of 2 mm were drilled with a twist drill using a constant feeding force. The time required was registered. The machinability of the materials tested was determined by direct comparison of the drilling times. As regards cuttability, first aluminium and then ivory were found to resemble human dentin most closely. By comparing drilling time variances the homogeneity of the materials tested was estimated. Aluminium, Frasaco teeth and plexiglass demonstrated better homogeneity than ivory and human dentin.

  13. Scalable Atomistic Simulation Algorithms for Materials Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiichiro Nakano

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A suite of scalable atomistic simulation programs has been developed for materials research based on space-time multiresolution algorithms. Design and analysis of parallel algorithms are presented for molecular dynamics (MD simulations and quantum-mechanical (QM calculations based on the density functional theory. Performance tests have been carried out on 1,088-processor Cray T3E and 1,280-processor IBM SP3 computers. The linear-scaling algorithms have enabled 6.44-billion-atom MD and 111,000-atom QM calculations on 1,024 SP3 processors with parallel efficiency well over 90%. production-quality programs also feature wavelet-based computational-space decomposition for adaptive load balancing, spacefilling-curve-based adaptive data compression with user-defined error bound for scalable I/O, and octree-based fast visibility culling for immersive and interactive visualization of massive simulation data.

  14. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Working Reference Material Production Pla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Amy; Thronas, Denise; Marshall, Robert

    1998-11-04

    This Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Working Reference Material Production Plan was written for LLNL by the Los Alamos National Laboratory to address key elements of producing seven Pu-diatomaceous earth NDA Working Reference Materials (WRMS). These WRMS contain low burnup Pu ranging in mass from 0.1 grams to 68 grams. The composite Pu mass of the seven WRMS was designed to approximate the maximum TRU allowable loading of 200 grams Pu. This document serves two purposes: first, it defines all the operations required to meet the LLNL Statement of Work quality objectives, and second, it provides a record of the production and certification of the WRMS. Guidance provided in ASTM Standard Guide C1128-89 was used to ensure that this Plan addressed all the required elements for producing and certifying Working Reference Materials. The Production Plan was written to provide a general description of the processes, steps, files, quality control, and certification measures that were taken to produce the WRMS. The Plan identifies the files where detailed procedures, data, quality control, and certification documentation and forms are retained. The Production Plan is organized into three parts: a) an initial section describing the preparation and characterization of the Pu02 and diatomaceous earth materials, b) middle sections describing the loading, encapsulation, and measurement on the encapsulated WRMS, and c) final sections describing the calculations of the Pu, Am, and alpha activity for the WRMS and the uncertainties associated with these quantities.

  15. Laboratory investigations into fracture propagation characteristics of rock material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, B. N. V. Siva; Murthy, V. M. S. R.

    2018-04-01

    After Industrial Revolution, demand of materials for building up structures have increased enormously. Unfortunately, failures of such structures resulted in loss of life and property. Rock is anisotropic and discontinuous in nature with inherent flaws or so-called discontinuities in it. Rock is apparently used for construction in mining, civil, tunnelling, hydropower, geothermal and nuclear sectors [1]. Therefore, the strength of the structure built up considering rockmass as the construction material needs proper technical evaluation during designing stage itself to prevent and predict the scenarios of catastrophic failures due to these inherent fractures [2]. In this study, samples collected from nine different drilling sites have been investigated in laboratory for understanding the fracture propagation characteristics in rock. Rock material properties, ultrasonic velocities through pulse transmission technique and Mode I Fracture Toughness Testing of different variants of Dolomites and Graywackes are determined in laboratory and the resistance of the rock material to catastrophic crack extension or propagation has been determined. Based on the Fracture Toughness values and the rock properties, critical Energy Release Rates have been estimated. However further studies in this direction is to be carried out to understand the fracture propagation characteristics in three-dimensional space.

  16. Molecular models and simulations of layered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinichev, Andrey G.; Cygan, Randall Timothy; Heinz, Hendrik; Greathouse, Jeffery A.

    2008-01-01

    The micro- to nano-sized nature of layered materials, particularly characteristic of naturally occurring clay minerals, limits our ability to fully interrogate their atomic dispositions and crystal structures. The low symmetry, multicomponent compositions, defects, and disorder phenomena of clays and related phases necessitate the use of molecular models and modern simulation methods. Computational chemistry tools based on classical force fields and quantum-chemical methods of electronic structure calculations provide a practical approach to evaluate structure and dynamics of the materials on an atomic scale. Combined with classical energy minimization, molecular dynamics, and Monte Carlo techniques, quantum methods provide accurate models of layered materials such as clay minerals, layered double hydroxides, and clay-polymer nanocomposites

  17. Soil erodibility variability in laboratory and field rainfall simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Boglárka; Szabó, Judit; Jakab, Gergely; Centeri, Csaba; Szalai, Zoltán

    2017-04-01

    Rainfall simulation experiments are the most common way to observe and to model the soil erosion processes in in situ and ex situ circumstances. During modelling soil erosion, one of the most important factors are the annual soil loss and the soil erodibility which represent the effect of soil properties on soil loss and the soil resistance against water erosion. The amount of runoff and soil loss can differ in case of the same soil type, while it's characteristics determine the soil erodibility factor. This leads to uncertainties regarding soil erodibility. Soil loss and soil erodibility were examined with the investigation of the same soil under laboratory and field conditions with rainfall simulators. The comparative measurement was carried out in a laboratory on 0,5 m2, and in the field (Shower Power-02) on 6 m2 plot size where the applied slope angles were 5% and 12% with 30 and 90 mm/h rainfall intensity. The main idea was to examine and compare the soil erodibility and its variability coming from the same soil, but different rainfall simulator type. The applied model was the USLE, nomograph and other equations which concern single rainfall events. The given results show differences between the field and laboratory experiments and between the different calculations. Concerning for the whole rainfall events runoff and soil loss, were significantly higher at the laboratory experiments, which affected the soil erodibility values too. The given differences can originate from the plot size. The main research questions are that: How should we handle the soil erodibility factors and its significant variability? What is the best solution for soil erodibility determination?

  18. Multiyear Program Plan for the High Temperature Materials Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvid E. Pasto

    2000-03-17

    Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) prepared a Technology Roadmap describing the challenges facing development of higher fuel efficiency, less polluting sport utility vehicles, vans, and commercial trucks. Based on this roadmap, a multiyear program plan (MYPP) was also developed, in which approaches to solving the numerous challenges are enumerated. Additional planning has been performed by DOE and national laboratory staff, on approaches to solving the numerous challenges faced by heavy vehicle system improvements. Workshops and planning documents have been developed concerning advanced aerodynamics, frictional and other parasitic losses, and thermal management. Similarly, the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program has developed its own multiyear program plan. The High Temperature Materials Laboratory, a major user facility sponsored by OHVT, has now developed its program plan, described herein. Information was gathered via participation in the development of OHVT's overall Technology Roadmap and MYPP, through personal contacts within the materials-user community, and from attendance at conferences and expositions. Major materials issues for the heavy vehicle industry currently center on trying to increase efficiency of (diesel) engines while at the same time reducing emissions (particularly NO{sub x} and particulates). These requirements dictate the use of increasingly stronger, higher-temperature capable and more corrosion-resistant materials of construction, as well as advanced catalysts, particulate traps, and other pollution-control devices. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a technique which will certainly be applied to diesel engines in the near future, and its use represents a formidable challenge, as will be described later. Energy-efficient, low cost materials processing methods and surface treatments to improve wear, fracture, and corrosion resistance are also required.

  19. Multiyear Program Plan for the High Temperature Materials Laboratory; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvid E. Pasto

    2000-01-01

    Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) prepared a Technology Roadmap describing the challenges facing development of higher fuel efficiency, less polluting sport utility vehicles, vans, and commercial trucks. Based on this roadmap, a multiyear program plan (MYPP) was also developed, in which approaches to solving the numerous challenges are enumerated. Additional planning has been performed by DOE and national laboratory staff, on approaches to solving the numerous challenges faced by heavy vehicle system improvements. Workshops and planning documents have been developed concerning advanced aerodynamics, frictional and other parasitic losses, and thermal management. Similarly, the Heavy Vehicle Propulsion Materials Program has developed its own multiyear program plan. The High Temperature Materials Laboratory, a major user facility sponsored by OHVT, has now developed its program plan, described herein. Information was gathered via participation in the development of OHVT's overall Technology Roadmap and MYPP, through personal contacts within the materials-user community, and from attendance at conferences and expositions. Major materials issues for the heavy vehicle industry currently center on trying to increase efficiency of (diesel) engines while at the same time reducing emissions (particularly NO(sub x) and particulates). These requirements dictate the use of increasingly stronger, higher-temperature capable and more corrosion-resistant materials of construction, as well as advanced catalysts, particulate traps, and other pollution-control devices. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a technique which will certainly be applied to diesel engines in the near future, and its use represents a formidable challenge, as will be described later. Energy-efficient, low cost materials processing methods and surface treatments to improve wear, fracture, and corrosion resistance are also required

  20. Presentation of the Nuclear Material Metrology Laboratory (LAMMAN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arpigny, S.; Biscarrat, C.; Ruas, A.; Viallesoubranne, C.; Hanssens, A.; Roche, C.

    2008-01-01

    The EQRAIN Uranium or Plutonium programmes (Evaluation of the Quality of Analysis Results in the Nuclear Industry) have led to the creation of round-robins, which require reference solutions of uranyl nitrate or of plutonium nitrate to be made available. The samples are fabricated and packaged, and their benchmark values determined, by the Nuclear Material Metrology Laboratory in the Atalante facility. All the operations are carried out by highly precise weighing, including correction for air buoyancy. In order to guarantee the preservation of reference samples, a laser-sealing apparatus is used to condition the final solutions in ampoules. Random tests to check the concentration of uranium or plutonium are carried out on a certain number of ampoules after the sealing step. The analysis are performed on a photo-gravimetric analysis line (in glove box for Pu) based on the titanium potentiometric analysis method. The ampoules are then packaged and delivered to the participating laboratories. The French nuclear laboratories participating in the EQRAIN programs belong to the Cea and to the AREVA Group, with activities covering the entire fuel cycle. They have been joined by new participants from European, Japanese and South American laboratories

  1. Presentation of the Nuclear Material Metrology Laboratory (LAMMAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arpigny, S.; Biscarrat, C.; Ruas, A.; Viallesoubranne, C. [CEA/DEN/DRCP/SE2A/LAMM, Marcoule, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France); Hanssens, A.; Roche, C. [CEA/DEN/DRCP/CETAMA Marcoule, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

    2008-07-01

    The EQRAIN Uranium or Plutonium programmes (Evaluation of the Quality of Analysis Results in the Nuclear Industry) have led to the creation of round-robins, which require reference solutions of uranyl nitrate or of plutonium nitrate to be made available. The samples are fabricated and packaged, and their benchmark values determined, by the Nuclear Material Metrology Laboratory in the Atalante facility. All the operations are carried out by highly precise weighing, including correction for air buoyancy. In order to guarantee the preservation of reference samples, a laser-sealing apparatus is used to condition the final solutions in ampoules. Random tests to check the concentration of uranium or plutonium are carried out on a certain number of ampoules after the sealing step. The analysis are performed on a photo-gravimetric analysis line (in glove box for Pu) based on the titanium potentiometric analysis method. The ampoules are then packaged and delivered to the participating laboratories. The French nuclear laboratories participating in the EQRAIN programs belong to the Cea and to the AREVA Group, with activities covering the entire fuel cycle. They have been joined by new participants from European, Japanese and South American laboratories.

  2. Simulating Magnetized Laboratory Plasmas with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Jeffrey N. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The creation of plasmas in the laboratory continues to generate excitement in the physics community. Despite the best efforts of the intrepid plasma diagnostics community, the dynamics of these plasmas remains a difficult challenge to both the theorist and the experimentalist. This dissertation describes the simulation of strongly magnetized laboratory plasmas with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), a method born of astrophysics but gaining broad support in the engineering community. We describe the mathematical formulation that best characterizes a strongly magnetized plasma under our circumstances of interest, and we review the SPH method and its application to astrophysical plasmas based on research by Phillips [1], Buerve [2], and Price and Monaghan [3]. Some modifications and extensions to this method are necessary to simulate terrestrial plasmas, such as a treatment of magnetic diffusion based on work by Brookshaw [4] and by Atluri [5]; we describe these changes as we turn our attention toward laboratory experiments. Test problems that verify the method are provided throughout the discussion. Finally, we apply our method to the compression of a magnetized plasma performed by the Compact Toroid Injection eXperiment (CTIX) [6] and show that the experimental results support our computed predictions.

  3. Radiation chemistry in the Jovian stratosphere - Laboratory simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, Gene D.; Thompson, W. R.; Sagan, Carl

    1992-01-01

    The results of the present low-pressure/continuous-flow laboratory simulations of H2/He/CH4/NH3 atmospheres' plasma-induced chemistry indicate radiation yields of both hydrocarbon and N2-containing organic compounds which increase with decreasing pressure. On the basis of these findings, upper limits of 1 million-1 billion molecules/sq cm/sec are established for production rates of major auroral-chemistry species in the Jovian stratosphere. It is noted that auroral processes may account for 10-100 percent of the total abundances of most of the observed polar-region organic species.

  4. Investigations of Solar Prominence Dynamics Using Laboratory Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellan, Paul M.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory experiments simulating many of the dynamical features of solar coronal loops have been carried out. These experiments manifest collimation, kinking, jet flows, and S-shapes. Diagnostics include high-speed photography and x-ray detectors. Two loops having opposite or the same magnetic helicity polarities have been merged and it is found that counter-helicity merging provides much greater x-ray emission. A non-MHD particle orbit instability has been discovered whereby ions going in the opposite direction of the current flow direction can be ejected from a magnetic flux tube.

  5. Testing capabilities of Los Alamos National Laboratory for irradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloy, S.A.; James, M.R.; Sommer, W.F.

    1999-01-01

    Spallation neutron sources expose materials to high energy (>100 MeV) proton and neutron spectra. Although numerous studies have investigated the effects of radiation damage in a lower energy neutron flux from fission or fusion reactors on the mechanical properties of materials, very little work has been performed on the effects that exposure to a spallation neutron spectrum has on the mechanical properties of materials. These effects can be significantly different than those observed in a fission or fusion reactor spectrum because exposure to high energy protons and neutrons produces more He and H along with the atomic displacement damage. Los Alamos National Laboratory has unique facilities to study the effects of spallation radiation damage on the mechanical properties of materials. The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) has a pulsed linear accelerator which operates at 800 MeV and 1 mA. The Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effect Facility (LASREF) located at the end of this accelerator is designed to allow the irradiation of components in a proton beam while water cooling these components and measuring their temperature. After irradiation, specimens can be investigated at hot cells located at the Chemical Metallurgy Research Building. Wing 9 of this facility contains 16 hot cells set up in two groups of eight, each having a corridor in the center to allow easy transfer of radioactive shipments into and out of the hot cells. These corridors have been used to prepare specimens for shipment to collaborating laboratories such as PNNL, ORNL, BNL, and the Paul Scherrer Institute to perform specialized testing at their hot cells. The LANL hot cells contain capabilities for opening radioactive components and testing their mechanical properties as well as preparing specimens from irradiated components

  6. Laboratory Studies of Cometary Materials - Continuity Between Asteroid and Comet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Scott; Walker, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory analysis of cometary samples have been enabled by collection of cometary dust in the stratosphere by high altitude aircraft and by the direct sampling of the comet Wild-2 coma by the NASA Stardust spacecraft. Cometary materials are composed of a complex assemblage of highly primitive, unprocessed interstellar and primordial solar system materials as well as a variety of high temperature phases that must have condensed in the inner regions of the protoplanetary disk. These findings support and contradict conclusions of comet properties based solely on astronomical observations. These sample return missions have instead shown that there is a continuity of properties between comets and asteroids, where both types of materials show evidence for primitive and processed materials. Furthermore, these findings underscore the importance and value of direct sample return. There will be great value in comparing the findings of the Stardust cometary coma sample return mission with those of future asteroid surface sample returns OSIRIS-REx and Hayabusa II as well as future comet nucleus sample returns.

  7. Materials Capability Review Los Alamos National Laboratory April 29-May 2, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-20

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses Capability Reviews to assess the quality and institutional integration of science, technology and engineering (STE) and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of LANL STE. The capabilities are deliberately chosen to be crosscutting over the Laboratory and therefore will include experimental, theoretical and simulation disciplines from multiple line organizations. Capability Reviews are designed to provide a more holistic view of the STE quality, integration to achieve mission requirements, and mission relevance. The scope of these capabilities necessitate that there will be significant overlap in technical areas covered by capability reviews (e.g., materials research and weapons science and engineering). In addition, LANL staff may be reviewed in different capability reviews because of their varied assignments and expertise. The principal product of the Capability Review is the report that includes the review committee's assessments, recommendations, and recommendations for STE.

  8. The hot cell laboratories for material investigations of the Institute for Safety Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehrig, H W

    1998-10-01

    Special facilities for handling and testing of irradiated specimens are necessary, to perform the investigation of activated material. The Institute for Safety Research has two hot cell laboratories: - the preparation laboratory and - the materials testing laboratory. This report is intended to give an overview of the available facilities and developed techniques in the laboratories. (orig.)

  9. Cometary Materials Originating from Interstellar Ices: Clues from Laboratory Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresneau, A.; Mrad, N. Abou; LS d’Hendecourt, L.; Duvernay, F.; Chiavassa, T.; Danger, G. [Aix-Marseille Université, PIIM UMR-CNRS 7345, F-13397 Marseille (France); Flandinet, L.; Orthous-Daunay, F.-R.; Vuitton, V.; Thissen, R., E-mail: gregoire.danger@univ-amu.fr [Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, Grenoble F-38000 (France)

    2017-03-10

    We use laboratory experiments to derive information on the chemistry occurring during the evolution of astrophysical ices from dense molecular clouds to interplanetary objects. Through a new strategy that consists of coupling very high resolution mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), we investigate the molecular content of the organic residues synthesized from different initial ice compositions. We also obtain information on the evolution of the soluble part of the residues after their over-irradiation. The results give insight into the role of water ice as a trapping and diluting agent during the chemical evolution. They also give information about the importance of the amount of ammonia in such ices, particularly regarding its competition with the carbon chemistry. All of these results allow us to build a first mapping of the evolution of soluble organic matter based on its chemical and physical history. Furthermore, our results suggest that interstellar ices should lead to organic materials enriched in heteroatoms that present similarities with cometary materials but strongly differ from meteoritic organic material, especially in their C/N ratios.

  10. Cometary Materials Originating from Interstellar Ices: Clues from Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresneau, A.; Abou Mrad, N.; d'Hendecourt, L. LS; Duvernay, F.; Flandinet, L.; Orthous-Daunay, F.-R.; Vuitton, V.; Thissen, R.; Chiavassa, T.; Danger, G.

    2017-03-01

    We use laboratory experiments to derive information on the chemistry occurring during the evolution of astrophysical ices from dense molecular clouds to interplanetary objects. Through a new strategy that consists of coupling very high resolution mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), we investigate the molecular content of the organic residues synthesized from different initial ice compositions. We also obtain information on the evolution of the soluble part of the residues after their over-irradiation. The results give insight into the role of water ice as a trapping and diluting agent during the chemical evolution. They also give information about the importance of the amount of ammonia in such ices, particularly regarding its competition with the carbon chemistry. All of these results allow us to build a first mapping of the evolution of soluble organic matter based on its chemical and physical history. Furthermore, our results suggest that interstellar ices should lead to organic materials enriched in heteroatoms that present similarities with cometary materials but strongly differ from meteoritic organic material, especially in their C/N ratios.

  11. Tungsten alloy research at the US Army Materials Technology Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowding, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that recent research into tungsten heavy alloys at the U. S. Army Materials Technology Laboratory (MTL) has explored many areas of processing and process development. The recrystallization and respheroidization of tungsten grains in a heavily cold worked heavy alloy has been examined and resulted in the identification of a method of grain refinement. Another area of investigation has been lightly cold worked. It was determined that it was possible to increase the strength and hardness of the tungsten grains by proper hat treatment. MTL has been involved in the Army's small business innovative research (SBIR) program and several programs have been funded. Included among these are a method of coating the tungsten powders with the alloying elements and the development of techniques of powder injection molding of heavy alloys

  12. Irradiation probe and laboratory for irradiated material evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smutny, S.; Kupca, L.; Beno, P.; Stubna, M.; Mrva, V.; Chmelo, P.

    1975-09-01

    The survey and assessment are given of the tasks carried out in the years 1971 to 1975 within the development of methods for structural materials irradiation and of a probe for the irradiation thereof in the A-1 reactor. The programme and implementation of laboratory tests of the irradiation probe are described. In the actual reactor irradiation, the pulse tube length between the pressure governor and the irradiation probe is approximately 20 m, the diameter is 2.2 mm. Temperature reaches 800 degC while the pressure control system operates at 20 degC. The laboratory tests (carried out at 20 degC) showed that the response time of the pressure control system to a stepwise pressure change in the irradiation probe from 0 to 22 at. is 0.5 s. Pressure changes were also studied in the irradiation probe and in the entire system resulting from temperature changes in the irradiation probe. Temperature distribution in the body of the irradiation probe heating furnace was determined. (B.S.)

  13. Mesoscale Laboratory Models of the Biodegradation of Municipal Landfill Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borglin, S. E.; Hazen, T. C.; Oldenburg, C. M.; Zawislanski, P. T.

    2001-12-01

    Stabilization of municipal landfills is a critical issue involving land reuse, leachate treatment, and odor control. In an effort to increase landfill stabilization rates and decrease leachate treatment costs, municipal landfills can be operated as active aerobic or anaerobic bioreactors. Rates of settling and biodegradation were compared in three different treatments of municipal landfill materials in laboratory-scale bioreactors. Each of the three fifty-five-gallon clear acrylic tanks was fitted with pressure transducers, thermistors, neutron probe access tubes, a leachate recirculation system, gas vents, and air injection ports. The treatments applied to the tanks were (a) aerobic (air injection with leachate recirculation and venting from the top), (b) anaerobic (leachate recirculation with passive venting from the top), and (c) a control tank (passive venting from the top and no leachate recirculation). All tanks contained a 10-cm-thick layer of pea gravel at the bottom, overlain by a mixture of fresh waste materials on the order of 5-10 cm in size to an initial height of 0.55 m. Concentrations of O2, CO2 and CH4 were measured at the gas vent, and leachate was collected at the bottom drain. The water saturation in the aerobic and anaerobic tanks averaged 17 % and the control tank averaged 1 %. Relative degradation rates between the tanks were monitored by CO2 and CH4 production rates and O2 respiration rates. Respiration tests on the aerobic tank show a decrease in oxygen consumption rates from 1.3 mol/day at 20 days to 0.1 mol/day at 300 days, indicating usable organics are being depleted. The anaerobic tank produced measurable methane after 300 days that increased to 41% by volume after 370 days. Over the test period, the aerobic tank settled 30 %, the anaerobic tank 18.5 %, and the control tank 11.1 %. The concentrations of metals, nitrate, phosphate, and total organic carbon in the aerobic tank leachate are an order of magnitude lower than in the anaerobic

  14. Criteria for Scaled Laboratory Simulations of Astrophysical MHD Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryutov, D. D.; Drake, R. P.; Remington, B. A.

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate that two systems described by the equations of the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) evolve similarly, if the initial conditions are geometrically similar and certain scaling relations hold. The thermodynamic properties of the gas must be such that the internal energy density is proportional to the pressure. The presence of the shocks is allowed. We discuss the applicability conditions of the ideal MHD and demonstrate that they are satisfied with a large margin both in a number of astrophysical objects, and in properly designed simulation experiments with high-power lasers. This allows one to perform laboratory experiments whose results can be used for quantitative interpretation of various effects of astrophysical MHD. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society

  15. Simulations of Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments using the CRASH code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trantham, Matthew; Kuranz, Carolyn; Fein, Jeff; Wan, Willow; Young, Rachel; Keiter, Paul; Drake, R. Paul

    2015-11-01

    Computer simulations can assist in the design and analysis of laboratory astrophysics experiments. The Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics (CRASH) at the University of Michigan developed a code that has been used to design and analyze high-energy-density experiments on OMEGA, NIF, and other large laser facilities. This Eulerian code uses block-adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) with implicit multigroup radiation transport, electron heat conduction and laser ray tracing. This poster will demonstrate some of the experiments the CRASH code has helped design or analyze including: Kelvin-Helmholtz, Rayleigh-Taylor, magnetized flows, jets, and laser-produced plasmas. This work is funded by the following grants: DEFC52-08NA28616, DE-NA0001840, and DE-NA0002032.

  16. Simulation Technology Laboratory Building 970 hazards assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.L.; Starr, M.D.

    1994-11-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Simulation Technology Laboratory, Building 970. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distances at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the ERPG-2 and Early Severe Health Effects thresholds are 78 and 46 meters, respectively. The highest emergency classification is a Site Area Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is 100 meters

  17. Laboratory simulations of cumulus cloud flows explain the entrainment anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimha, Roddam; Diwan, Sourabh S.; Subrahmanyam, Duvvuri; Sreenivas, K. R.; Bhat, G. S.

    2010-11-01

    In the present laboratory experiments, cumulus cloud flows are simulated by starting plumes and jets subjected to off-source heat addition in amounts that are dynamically similar to latent heat release due to condensation in real clouds. The setup permits incorporation of features like atmospheric inversion layers and the active control of off-source heat addition. Herein we report, for the first time, simulation of five different cumulus cloud types (and many shapes), including three genera and three species (WMO Atlas 1987), which show striking resemblance to real clouds. It is known that the rate of entrainment in cumulus cloud flows is much less than that in classical plumes - the main reason for the failure of early entrainment models. Some of the previous studies on steady-state jets and plumes (done in a similar setup) have attributed this anomaly to the disruption of the large-scale turbulent structures upon the addition of off-source heat. We present estimates of entrainment coefficients from these measurements which show a qualitatively consistent variation with height. We propose that this explains the observed entrainment anomaly in cumulus clouds; further experiments are planned to address this question in the context of starting jets and plumes.

  18. Dissolution of uranium oxide materials in simulated lung fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scripsick, R.C.; Soderholm, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) oxide aerosols prepared in the laboratory and collected in the field were tested to characterize their dissolution in simulated lung fluid and to determine how dissolution is affected by aerosol preparation. DU, a by-product of the uranium fuel cycle, has been selected by the US military for use in several types of munitions. During development, manufacture, testing, and use of these munitions, opportunities exist for inhalation exposure to various (usually oxide) aerosol forms of DU. The hazard potential associated with such exposures is closely related to the chemical form, the size of the DU aerosol material, and its dissolution properties. Five DU sample materials produced by exposing uranium alloy penetrators to certain controlled oxidation atmospheres were studied (oxidation temperatures ranged from 500 to 900 0 C). In addition, two DU sample materials collected in the field were provided by the US Air Force. All sample materials were generated as aerosols and the respirable fraction was separated and collected. Data suggest that under some conditions a rapidly dissolving U 3 O 8 fraction may be formed concurrent with the production of UO 2

  19. Using the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory at Idaho National Laboratory for Safety Focused Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Jeffrey .C; Boring, Ronald L.

    2016-07-01

    Under the United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program, researchers at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been using the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL) to conduct critical safety focused Human Factors research and development (R&D) for the nuclear industry. The LWRS program has the overall objective to develop the scientific basis to extend existing nuclear power plant (NPP) operating life beyond the current 60-year licensing period and to ensure their long-term reliability, productivity, safety, and security. One focus area for LWRS is the NPP main control room (MCR), because many of the instrumentation and control (I&C) system technologies installed in the MCR, while highly reliable and safe, are now difficult to replace and are therefore limiting the operating life of the NPP. This paper describes how INL researchers use the HSSL to conduct Human Factors R&D on modernizing or upgrading these I&C systems in a step-wise manner, and how the HSSL has addressed a significant gap in how to upgrade systems and technologies that are built to last, and therefore require careful integration of analog and new advanced digital technologies.

  20. THIEF: An interactive simulation of nuclear materials safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanbro, W. D.

    1990-01-01

    The safeguards community is facing an era in which it will be called upon to tighten protection of nuclear material. At the same time, it is probable that safeguards will face more competition for available resources from other activities such as environmental cleanup. To exist in this era, it will be necessary to understand and coordinate all aspects of the safeguards system. Because of the complexity of the interactions involved, this process puts a severe burden on designers and operators of safeguards systems. This paper presents a simulation tool developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to allow users to examine the interactions among safeguards elements as they apply to combating the insider threat. The tool consists of a microcomputer-based simulation in which the user takes the role of the insider trying to remove nuclear material from a facility. The safeguards system is run by the computer and consists of both physical protection and MC A computer elements. All data elements describing a scenario can be altered by the user. The program can aid in training, as well as in developing threat scenarios. 4 refs.

  1. Laser materials processing applications at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargrove, R.S.; Dragon, E.P.; Hackel, R.P.; Kautz, D.D.; Warner, B.E.

    1993-01-01

    High power and high radiance laser technologies developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) such as copper-vapor lasers, solid-state slab lasers, dye lasers, harmonic wavelength conversion of these lasers, and fiber optic delivery systems show great promise for material processing tasks. Evaluation of models suggests significant potential for tenfold increases in welding, cutting, and drilling performance, as well as capability for applications in emerging technologies such as micromachining, surface treatment, and stereolithography. Copper and dye laser systems are currently being developed at LLNL for uranium enrichment production facilities. The goals of this program are to develop low-cost, reliable and maintainable industrial laser systems. Chains of copper lasers currently operate at more than 1.5 kW output and achieve mean time between failures of more than 1,000 hours. The beam quality of copper vapor lasers is approximately three times the diffraction limit. Dye lasers have near diffraction limited beam quality at greater than 1.0 kW. Diode laser pumped, Nd:YAG slab lasers are also being developed at LLNL. Current designs achieve powers of greater than 1.0 kW and projected beam quality is in the two to five times diffraction limited range. Results from cutting and drilling studies in titanium and stainless steel alloys show that cuts and holes with extremely fine features can be made with dye and copper-vapor lasers. High radiance beams produce low distortion and small heat-affected zones. The authors have accomplished very high aspect ratio holes in drilling tests (> 60: 1) and features with micron scale (5-50 μm) sizes. Other, traditionally more difficult, materials such as copper, aluminum and ceramics will soon be studied in detail

  2. Survey and analysis of materials research and development at selected federal laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, J.E.; Fink, C.R.

    1984-04-01

    This document presents the results of an effort to transfer existing, but relatively unknown, materials R and D from selected federal laboratories to industry. More specifically, recent materials-related work at seven federal laboratories potentially applicable to improving process energy efficiency and overall productiviy in six energy-intensive manufacturing industries was evaluated, catalogued, and distributed to industry representatives to gauge their reaction. Laboratories surveyed include: Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories Material Laboratory (AFWAL). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration Marshall Flight Center (NASA Marshall), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Industries included in the effort are: aluminum, cement, paper and allied products, petroleum, steel and textiles.

  3. Laboratory evidence of MTBE biodegradation in Borden aquifer material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Mario; Butler, Barbara J.; Church, Clinton D.; Barker, James F.; Nadarajah, Nalina

    2003-02-01

    Mainly due to intrinsic biodegradation, monitored natural attenuation can be an effective and inexpensive remediation strategy at petroleum release sites. However, gasoline additives such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) can jeopardize this strategy because these compounds often degrade, if at all, at a slower rate than the collectively benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the xylene (BTEX) compounds. Investigation of whether a compound degrades under certain conditions, and at what rate, is therefore important to the assessment of the intrinsic remediation potential of aquifers. A natural gradient experiment with dissolved MTBE-containing gasoline in the shallow, aerobic sand aquifer at Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Borden (Ontario, Canada) from 1988 to 1996 suggested that biodegradation was the main cause of attenuation for MTBE within the aquifer. This laboratory study demonstrates biologically catalyzed MTBE degradation in Borden aquifer-like environments, and so supports the idea that attenuation due to biodegradation may have occurred in the natural gradient experiment. In an experiment with batch microcosms of aquifer material, three of the microcosms ultimately degraded MTBE to below detection, although this required more than 189 days (or >300 days in one case). Failure to detect the daughter product tert-butyl alcohol (TBA) in the field and the batch experiments could be because TBA was more readily degradable than MTBE under Borden conditions.

  4. LABORATORY EXPERIMENTS TO SIMULATE CO2 OCEAN DISPOSAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen M. Masutani

    1999-12-31

    This Final Technical Report summarizes the technical accomplishments of an investigation entitled ''Laboratory Experiments to Simulate CO{sub 2} Ocean Disposal'', funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's University Coal Research Program. This investigation responds to the possibility that restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions may be imposed in the future to comply with the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The primary objective of the investigation was to obtain experimental data that can be applied to assess the technical feasibility and environmental impacts of oceanic containment strategies to limit release of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal and other fossil fuel combustion systems into the atmosphere. A number of critical technical uncertainties of ocean disposal of CO{sub 2} were addressed by performing laboratory experiments on liquid CO{sub 2} jet break-up into a dispersed droplet phase, and hydrate formation, under deep ocean conditions. Major accomplishments of this study included: (1) five jet instability regimes were identified that occur in sequence as liquid CO{sub 2} jet disintegration progresses from laminar instability to turbulent atomization; (2) linear regression to the data yielded relationships for the boundaries between the five instability regimes in dimensionless Ohnesorge Number, Oh, and jet Reynolds Number, Re, space; (3) droplet size spectra was measured over the full range of instabilities; (4) characteristic droplet diameters decrease steadily with increasing jet velocity (and increasing Weber Number), attaining an asymptotic value in instability regime 5 (full atomization); and (5) pre-breakup hydrate formation appears to affect the size distribution of the droplet phase primary by changing the effective geometry of the jet.

  5. Laboratory Simulations on Haze Formation in Cool Exoplanet Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Horst, Sarah; Lewis, Nikole; Yu, Xinting; McGuiggan, Patricia; Moses, Julianne I.

    2017-10-01

    The Kepler mission has shown that the most abundant types of planets are super-Earths and mini-Neptunes among ~3500 confirmed exoplanets, and these types of exoplanets are expected to exhibit a wide variety of atmospheric compositions. Recent transit spectra have demonstrated that clouds and/or hazes could play a significant role in these planetary atmospheres (Deming et al. 2013, Knutson et al. 2014, Kreidberg et al. 2014, Pont, et al. 2013). However, very little laboratory work has been done to understand the formation of haze over a broad range of atmospheric compositions. Here we conducted a series of laboratory simulations to investigate haze formation in a range of planetary atmospheres using our newly built Planetary HAZE Research (PHAZER) chamber (He et al. 2017). We ran experimental simulations for nine different atmospheres: three temperatures (300 K, 400 K, and 600 K) and three metallicities (100, 1000, and 10000 times solar metallicity) using AC glow discharge as an energy source to irradiate gas mixtures. We found that haze particles are formed in all nine experiments, but the haze production rates are dramatically different for different cases. We investigated the particle sizes of the haze particles deposited on quartz discs using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM images show that the particle size varies from 30 nm to 200 nm. The haze particles are more uniform for 100x solar metallicity experiments (30 nm to 40 nm) while the particles sizes for 1000x and 10000x solar metallicity experiments have wider distributions (30 nm to 200 nm). The particle size affects the scattering of light, and thus the temperature structure of planetary atmospheres. The haze production rates and particle size distributions obtained here can serve as critical inputs to atmospheric physical and chemical tools to understand the exoplanetary atmospheres and help guide future TESS and JWST observations of super-Earths and mini-Neptunes.Ref:Deming, D., et al. 2013, Ap

  6. Simulation of the planetary interior differentiation processes in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yingwei

    2013-11-15

    A planetary interior is under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions and it has a layered structure. There are two important processes that led to that layered structure, (1) percolation of liquid metal in a solid silicate matrix by planet differentiation, and (2) inner core crystallization by subsequent planet cooling. We conduct high-pressure and high-temperature experiments to simulate both processes in the laboratory. Formation of percolative planetary core depends on the efficiency of melt percolation, which is controlled by the dihedral (wetting) angle. The percolation simulation includes heating the sample at high pressure to a target temperature at which iron-sulfur alloy is molten while the silicate remains solid, and then determining the true dihedral angle to evaluate the style of liquid migration in a crystalline matrix by 3D visualization. The 3D volume rendering is achieved by slicing the recovered sample with a focused ion beam (FIB) and taking SEM image of each slice with a FIB/SEM crossbeam instrument. The second set of experiments is designed to understand the inner core crystallization and element distribution between the liquid outer core and solid inner core by determining the melting temperature and element partitioning at high pressure. The melting experiments are conducted in the multi-anvil apparatus up to 27 GPa and extended to higher pressure in the diamond-anvil cell with laser-heating. We have developed techniques to recover small heated samples by precision FIB milling and obtain high-resolution images of the laser-heated spot that show melting texture at high pressure. By analyzing the chemical compositions of the coexisting liquid and solid phases, we precisely determine the liquidus curve, providing necessary data to understand the inner core crystallization process.

  7. Slurry spray distribution within a simulated laboratory scale spray dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    It was found that the distribution of liquid striking the sides of a simulated room temperature spray dryer was not significantly altered by the choice of nozles, nor by a variation in nozzle operating conditions. Instead, it was found to be a function of the spray dryer's configuration. A cocurrent flow of air down the drying cylinder, not possible with PNL's closed top, favorably altered the spray distribution by both decreasing the amount of liquid striking the interior of the cylinder from 72 to 26% of the feed supplied, and by shifting the zone of maximum impact from 1.0 to 1.7 feet from the nozzle. These findings led to the redesign of the laboratory scale spray dryer to be tested at the Savannah River Plant. The diameter of the drying chamber was increased from 5 to 8 inches, and a cocurrent flow of air was established with a closed recycle. Finally, this investigation suggested a drying scheme which offers all the advantages of spray drying without many of its limitations

  8. Assessment of the quality of test results from selected civil engineering material testing laboratories in Tanzania

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mbawala, SJ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Civil and geotechnical engineering material testing laboratories are expected to produce accurate and reliable test results. However, the ability of laboratories to produce accurate and reliable test results depends on many factors, among others...

  9. The Viking X ray fluorescence experiment - Sampling strategies and laboratory simulations. [Mars soil sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, A. K.; Castro, A. J.; Clark, B. C.; Toulmin, P., III; Rose, H., Jr.; Keil, K.; Gooding, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Ten samples of Mars regolith material (six on Viking Lander 1 and four on Viking Lander 2) have been delivered to the X ray fluorescence spectrometers as of March 31, 1977. An additional six samples at least are planned for acquisition in the remaining Extended Mission (to January 1979) for each lander. All samples acquired are Martian fines from the near surface (less than 6-cm depth) of the landing sites except the latest on Viking Lander 1, which is fine material from the bottom of a trench dug to a depth of 25 cm. Several attempts on each lander to acquire fresh rock material (in pebble sizes) for analysis have yielded only cemented surface crustal material (duricrust). Laboratory simulation and experimentation are required both for mission planning of sampling and for interpretation of data returned from Mars. This paper is concerned with the rationale for sample site selections, surface sampler operations, and the supportive laboratory studies needed to interpret X ray results from Mars.

  10. Molecular Simulation of Adsorption in Microporous Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Yiannourakou M.; Ungerer P.; Leblanc B.; Rozanska X.; Saxe P.; Vidal-Gilbert S.; Gouth F.; Montel F.

    2013-01-01

    The development of industrial software, the decreasing cost of computing time, and the availability of well-tested forcefields make molecular simulation increasingly attractive for chemical engineers. We present here several applications of Monte-Carlo simulation techniques, applied to the adsorption of fluids in microporous solids such as zeolites and model carbons (pores < 2 nm). Adsorption was computed in the Grand Canonical ensemble ...

  11. Role of ion simulation in CTR materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolfi, F.V. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of ion simulation in the U.S. fusion power development program, evaluates various ion and neutron simulation techniques, emphasizes the need for quantitative correlation between ion and high-energy neutron radiation damage, and outlines the essential features of ion/neutron simulation experiments on candidate first-wall materials

  12. Materials capability review Los Alamos National Laboratory, May 3-6, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Antoinette [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 'Capability Review' process at LANL significantly differs from the Division reviews of prior years. The Capabilities being reviewed (some 4-8 per year) are deliberately chosen to be crosscutting over the Laboratory, and therefore will include not only several experimental, theoretical and simulation disciplines, but also contributions from multiple line organizations. This approach is consistent with the new Laboratory organizational structure, focusing on agile and integrated capabilities applied to present national security missions, and also nurtured to be available for rapid application to future missions. The overall intent is that the Committee assess the quality of the science, engineering, and technology identified in the agenda, and advise the LANS Board of Governors and Laboratory management. Specifically, the Committees will: (1) Assess the quality of science, technology and engineering within the Capability in the areas defined in the agenda. Identify issues to develop or enhance the core competencies within this capability. (2) Evaluate the integration of this capability across the Laboratory organizations that are listed in the agenda in terms of joint programs, projects, proposals, and/or publications. Describe the integration of this capability in the wider scientific community using the recognition as a leader within the community, ability to set research agendas, and attraction and retention of staff. (3) Assess the quality and relevance of this capability's science, technology and engineering contributions to current and emerging Laboratory programs, including Nuclear Weapons, Threat Reduction/Homeland Security, and Energy Security. (4) Advise the Laboratory Director/Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering on the health of the Capability including the current and future (5 year) science, technology and engineering staff needs, mix of research and development activities, program opportunities

  13. Material control system simulator user's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollstien, R.B.

    1978-01-24

    This report describes the use of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts.

  14. Pressurized water reactor simulator. Workshop material. 2. ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established an activity in nuclear reactor simulation computer programs to assist its Member States in education. The objective is to provide, for a variety of advanced reactor types, insight and practice in their operational characteristics and their response to perturbations and accident situations. To achieve this, the IAEA arranges for the development and distribution of simulation programs and educational material and sponsors courses and workshops. The workshops are in two parts: techniques and tools for reactor simulator development. And the use of reactor simulators in education. Workshop material for the first part is covered in the IAEA Training Course Series No. 12, 'Reactor Simulator Development' (2001). Course material for workshops using a WWER- 1000 reactor department simulator from the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, the Russian Federation is presented in the IAEA Training Course Series No. 21, 2nd edition, 'WWER-1000 Reactor Simulator' (2005). Course material for workshops using a boiling water reactor simulator developed for the IAEA by Cassiopeia Technologies Incorporated of Canada (CTI) is presented in the IAEA publication: Training Course Series No.23, 2nd edition, 'Boiling Water Reactor Simulator' (2005). This report consists of course material for workshops using a pressurized water reactor simulator

  15. Association Between Endovascular Performance in a Simulated Setting and in the Catheterization Laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räder, Sune B E W; Abildgaard, Ulrik; Jørgensen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    performance in the catheterization laboratory is not linear. The novel rating scale for CA (CARS) seems to be a valid proficiency assessment instrument in the catheterization laboratory. Familiarity with the simulator may overestimate proficiency, which means that simulator performance as a predictor...

  16. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Materials Research Laboratory progress report for FY 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Materials Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois is an interdisciplinary laboratory operated in the College of Engineering. Its focus is the science of materials and it supports research in the areas of condensed matter physics, solid state chemistry, and materials science. This report addresses topics such as: an MRL overview; budget; general programmatic and institutional issues; new programs; research summaries for metallurgy, ceramics, solid state physics, and materials chemistry

  17. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Materials Research Laboratory progress report for FY 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The Materials Research Laboratory at the University of Illinois is an interdisciplinary laboratory operated in the College of Engineering. Its focus is the science of materials and it supports research in the areas of condensed matter physics, solid state chemistry, and materials science. This report addresses topics such as: an MRL overview; budget; general programmatic and institutional issues; new programs; research summaries for metallurgy, ceramics, solid state physics, and materials chemistry.

  18. Overview of theory and simulations in the Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Alex

    2007-07-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL) is a collaboration of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. These laboratories, in cooperation with researchers at other institutions, are carrying out a coordinated effort to apply intense ion beams as drivers for studies of the physics of matter at extreme conditions, and ultimately for inertial fusion energy. Progress on this endeavor depends upon coordinated application of experiments, theory, and simulations. This paper describes the state of the art, with an emphasis on the coordination of modeling and experiment; developments in the simulation tools, and in the methods that underly them, are also treated.

  19. AI/Simulation Fusion Project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, S.A.

    1984-04-25

    This presentation first discusses the motivation for the AI Simulation Fusion project. After discussing very briefly what expert systems are in general, what object oriented languages are in general, and some observed features of typical combat simulations, it discusses why putting together artificial intelligence and combat simulation makes sense. We then talk about the first demonstration goal for this fusion project.

  20. AI/Simulation Fusion Project at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    This presentation first discusses the motivation for the AI Simulation Fusion project. After discussing very briefly what expert systems are in general, what object oriented languages are in general, and some observed features of typical combat simulations, it discusses why putting together artificial intelligence and combat simulation makes sense. We then talk about the first demonstration goal for this fusion project

  1. Alternative buffer material. Status of the ongoing laboratory investigation of reference materials and test package 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Daniel; Dueck, Ann; Nilsson, Ulf; Olsson, Siv; Sanden, Torbjoern; Lydmark, Sara; Jaegerwall, Sara; Pedersen, Karsten; Hansen, Staffan

    2011-07-01

    Bentonite clay is part of the Swedish KBS-3 design of final repositories for high level radioactive waste. Wyoming bentonite with the commercial name MX-80 (American Colloid Co) has long been the reference for buffer material in the KBS-3 concept. Extending the knowledge base of alternative buffer materials will make it possible to optimize regarding safety, availability and cost. For this reason the field experiment Alternative Buffer Material (ABM) was started at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory during 2006. The experiment includes three medium-scale test packages, each consisting of a central steel tube with heaters, and a buffer of compacted clay. Eleven different clays were chosen for the buffers to examine effects of smectite content, interlayer cations and overall iron content. Also bentonite pellets with and without additional quartz are being tested. The buffer in package 1 had been subjected to wetting by formation water and heating for more than two years (at 130 deg C for ∼ 1 year) when it was retrieved and analyzed. The main purposes of the project were to characterise the clays with respect to hydro-mechanical properties, mineralogy and chemical composition and to identify any differences in behaviour or long term stability. The diversity of clays and the heater of steel also make the experiment suitable for studies of iron-bentonite interactions. This report concerns the work accomplished up to now and is not to be treated as any final report of the project

  2. Alternative buffer material. Status of the ongoing laboratory investigation of reference materials and test package 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Daniel [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Dueck, Ann; Nilsson, Ulf; Olsson, Siv; Sanden, Torbjoern [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Lydmark, Sara; Jaegerwall, Sara; Pedersen, Karsten [Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden); Hansen, Staffan [LTH Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2011-07-15

    Bentonite clay is part of the Swedish KBS-3 design of final repositories for high level radioactive waste. Wyoming bentonite with the commercial name MX-80 (American Colloid Co) has long been the reference for buffer material in the KBS-3 concept. Extending the knowledge base of alternative buffer materials will make it possible to optimize regarding safety, availability and cost. For this reason the field experiment Alternative Buffer Material (ABM) was started at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory during 2006. The experiment includes three medium-scale test packages, each consisting of a central steel tube with heaters, and a buffer of compacted clay. Eleven different clays were chosen for the buffers to examine effects of smectite content, interlayer cations and overall iron content. Also bentonite pellets with and without additional quartz are being tested. The buffer in package 1 had been subjected to wetting by formation water and heating for more than two years (at 130 deg C for {approx} 1 year) when it was retrieved and analyzed. The main purposes of the project were to characterise the clays with respect to hydro-mechanical properties, mineralogy and chemical composition and to identify any differences in behaviour or long term stability. The diversity of clays and the heater of steel also make the experiment suitable for studies of iron-bentonite interactions. This report concerns the work accomplished up to now and is not to be treated as any final report of the project.

  3. Materials characterization capabilities at DOE Nuclear Weapons Laboratories and Production Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyper, J.W.

    1984-06-01

    The materials characterization and analytical chemistry capabilities at the 11 DOE Nuclear Weapons Laboratories or Production Plants have been surveyed and compared. In general, all laboratories have similar capabilities and equipment. Facilities or capabilities that are unique or that exist at only a few laboratories are described in detail

  4. Chemical surety material decontamination and decommissioning of Los Alamos National Laboratory Chemical Surety Material Laboratory area TA-3, building SM-29, room 4009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.E.; Smith, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    From 1982 through 1987, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) performed surety laboratory operations for the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command (MRDC). Room 4009 in building SM-29, TA-3, was used as the laboratory for work with the following chemical surety material (CSM) agents: sarin (GB), soman (GD), lewisite (L), and distilled mustard (HD) radio-labelled with H 3 or C 14 . The work was confined to three CSM-certified fume hoods, located in room 4009 (see diagram in Appendix C). The laboratory ceased all active operations during the late 1986 and early 1987 period. From 1987 until 1993 the laboratory was secured and the ventilation system continued to operate. During late 1992, the decision was made to utilize this laboratory space for other operations, thus a decision was made to dismantle and reconfigure this room. LANL sub-contracted Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI) to draw upon the CSM experience of the technical staff from the Hazardous Materials Research Facility (HMRF) to assist in developing a decontamination and decommissioning plan. BMI was subcontracted to devise a CSM safety training course, and a sampling and air monitoring plan for CSM material to ensure personnel safety during all disassembly operations. LANL subcontracted Johnson Controls personnel to perform all disassembly operations. Beginning in early 1993 BMI personnel from the HMRF visited the laboratory to develop both the safety plan and the sample and air monitoring plan. Execution of that plan began in September 1993 and was completed in January 1994

  5. Molecular Simulation of Adsorption in Microporous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiannourakou M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of industrial software, the decreasing cost of computing time, and the availability of well-tested forcefields make molecular simulation increasingly attractive for chemical engineers. We present here several applications of Monte-Carlo simulation techniques, applied to the adsorption of fluids in microporous solids such as zeolites and model carbons (pores < 2 nm. Adsorption was computed in the Grand Canonical ensemble with the MedeA®-GIBBS software, using energy grids to decrease computing time. MedeA®-GIBBS has been used for simulations in the NVT or NPT ensembles to obtain the density and fugacities of fluid phases. Simulation results are compared with experimental pure component isotherms in zeolites (hydrocarbon gases, water, alkanes, aromatics, ethanethiol, etc., and mixtures (methane-ethane, n-hexane-benzene, over a large range of temperatures. Hexane/benzene selectivity inversions between silicalite and Na-faujasites are well predicted with published forcefields, providing an insight on the underlying mechanisms. Also, the adsorption isotherms in Na-faujasites for light gases or ethane-thiol are well described. Regarding organic adsorbents, models of mature kerogen or coal were built in agreement with known chemistry of these systems. Obtaining realistic kerogen densities with the simple relaxation approach considered here is encouraging for the investigation of other organic systems. Computing excess sorption curves in qualitative agreement with those recently measured on dry samples of gas shale is also favorable. Although still preliminary, such applications illustrate the strength of molecular modeling in understanding complex systems in conditions where experiments are difficult.

  6. Investigations into radiation damages of reactor materials by computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronnikov, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Data on the state of works in European countries in the field of computerized simulation of radiation damages of reactor materials under the context of the international projects ITEM (European Database for Multiscale Modelling) and SIRENA (Simulation of Radiation Effects in Zr-Nb alloys) - computerized simulation of stress corrosion when contact of Zr-Nb alloys with iodine are presented. Computer codes for the simulation of radiation effects in reactor materials were developed. European Database for Multiscale Modelling (EDAM) was organized using the results of the investigations provided in the ITEM project [ru

  7. Fresh biological reference materials. Use in inter laboratory studies and as CRMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, J.

    1999-01-01

    Biological reference materials were prepared and packed in tins and glass jars to be used in inter laboratory studies on chlorobiphenyls and organochlorine pesticides, and trace metals, respectively. The materials were homogenised, sterilised and packed as wet tissue, which is unique for the purpose of inter laboratory studies and offers the advantage of studying the extraction and destruction steps of the analytical methods. In addition to their use in inter laboratory studies, some materials have been prepared or are being prepared as certified reference material for chlorobiphenyl analysis. (author)

  8. Computer simulation of laboratory leaching and washing of tank waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, C.D.; MacLean, G.T.; Landeene, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    The process simulator ESP (Environmental Simulation Program) was used to simulate laboratory caustic leaching and washing of core samples from Tanks B-110, C-109, and C-112. The results of the laboratory tests and the computer simulations are compared. The results from both, agreed reasonably well for elements contained in solid phases included in the ESP Public data bank. The use of the GEOCHEM data bank and/or a custom Hanford Data bank should improve the agreement, making ESP a useful process simulator for aqueous based processing

  9. Simulation of the welding of irradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hua Tay

    1989-07-01

    Helium was uniformly implanted using the ''tritium trick'' technique to levels of 0.18, 2.5, 27, 105 and 256 atomic part per million (appm) for type 316 stainless steel, and 0.3 and 1 appm for Sandvik HT-9 (12 Cr-1MoVW). Both full penetration as well as partial penetration welds were then produced on control and helium-containing materials using the autogenous gas tungsten arc (GTA) welding process under full constraint conditions. For full penetration welds, both materials were successfully welded when they contained less than 0.3 appm helium. However, welds of both materials, when containing greater than 1 appm helium, were found to develop cracks during cooling of the weld. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy indicated that the HAZ cracking was caused by the growth and coalescence of grain boundary (GB) helium bubbles. This cracking occurred as a result of the combination of high temperatures and high shrinkage tensile stresses. The cracking in the fusion zone was found to result from the precipitation of helium along dendrite interfaces. A model based on the kinetics of diffusive cavity growth is presented to explain the observed results. The model proposes a helium bubble growth mechanism which leads to final intergranular rupture in the heat-affected zone. Results of the present study demonstrate that the use of conventional fusion welding techniques to repair materials degraded by exposure to irradiation environments may be difficult if the irradiation results in the generation of helium equal to or greater than 1 appm

  10. An adaptive simulation model for analysis of nuclear material shipping operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerigter, S.T.; Sena, D.J.; Fasel, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    Los Alamos has developed an advanced simulation environment designed specifically for nuclear materials operations. This process-level simulation package, the Process Modeling System (ProMoS), is based on high-fidelity material balance criteria and contains intrinsic mechanisms for waste and recycle flows, contaminant estimation and tracking, and material-constrained operations. Recent development efforts have focused on coupling complex personnel interactions, personnel exposure calculations, and stochastic process-personnel performance criteria to the material-balance simulation. This combination of capabilities allows for more realistic simulation of nuclear material handling operations where complex personnel interactions are required. They have used ProMoS to assess fissile material shipping performance characteristics at the Los Alamos National Laboratory plutonium facility (TA-55). Nuclear material shipping operations are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and require the largest suite of varied personnel interacting in a well-timed manner to accomplish the task. They have developed a baseline simulation of the present operations and have estimated the operational impacts and requirement of the pit production mission at TA-55 as a result of the SSM-PEIS. Potential bottlenecks have been explored and mechanisms for increasing operational efficiency are identified

  11. Computational methods for coupling microstructural and micromechanical materials response simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLM,ELIZABETH A.; BATTAILE,CORBETT C.; BUCHHEIT,THOMAS E.; FANG,HUEI ELIOT; RINTOUL,MARK DANIEL; VEDULA,VENKATA R.; GLASS,S. JILL; KNOROVSKY,GERALD A.; NEILSEN,MICHAEL K.; WELLMAN,GERALD W.; SULSKY,DEBORAH; SHEN,YU-LIN; SCHREYER,H. BUCK

    2000-04-01

    Computational materials simulations have traditionally focused on individual phenomena: grain growth, crack propagation, plastic flow, etc. However, real materials behavior results from a complex interplay between phenomena. In this project, the authors explored methods for coupling mesoscale simulations of microstructural evolution and micromechanical response. In one case, massively parallel (MP) simulations for grain evolution and microcracking in alumina stronglink materials were dynamically coupled. In the other, codes for domain coarsening and plastic deformation in CuSi braze alloys were iteratively linked. this program provided the first comparison of two promising ways to integrate mesoscale computer codes. Coupled microstructural/micromechanical codes were applied to experimentally observed microstructures for the first time. In addition to the coupled codes, this project developed a suite of new computational capabilities (PARGRAIN, GLAD, OOF, MPM, polycrystal plasticity, front tracking). The problem of plasticity length scale in continuum calculations was recognized and a solution strategy was developed. The simulations were experimentally validated on stockpile materials.

  12. CFD Modeling and Simulation in Materials Processing 2018

    OpenAIRE

    Nastac, Laurentiu; Pericleous, Koulis; Sabau, Adrian S.; Zhang, Lifeng; Thomas, Brian G.

    2018-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the symposium “CFD Modeling and Simulation in Materials Processing” held at the TMS 2018 Annual Meeting & Exhibition in Phoenix, Arizona, USA, March 11–15, 2018. This symposium dealt with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and simulation of engineering processes. The papers published in this book were requested from researchers and engineers involved in the modeling of multiscale and multiphase phenomena in material processing systems. The sympos...

  13. Pre-test simulations of laboratory-scale heater experiments in tuff. Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Clifford K.

    1995-09-01

    Laboratory-scale heater experiments are Proposed to observe thermohydrologic Processes in tuffaceous rock using existing equipment and x-ray imaging techniques. The purpose of the experiments is to gain understanding of the near-field behavior and thermodynamic environment surrounding a heat source. As a prelude to these experiments, numerical simulations are performed to determine design-related parameters such as optimal heating power and heating duration. In addition, the simulations aid in identifying and understanding thermal processes and mechanisms that may occur under a variety of experimental conditions. Results of the simulations show that convection may play an important role in the heat transfer and thermodynamic environment of the heater if the Rayleigh-Darcy number exceeds a critical value (= 10 for the laboratory experiments) depending on the type of backfill material within the annulus (or drift)

  14. Quantum Transport Simulations of Nanoscale Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Obodo, Tobechukwu Joshua

    2016-01-07

    Nanoscale materials have many potential advantages because of their quantum confinement, cost and producibility by low-temperature chemical methods. Advancement of theoretical methods as well as the availability of modern high-performance supercomputers allow us to control and exploit their microscopic properties at the atomic scale, hence making it possible to design novel nanoscale molecular devices with interesting features (e.g switches, rectifiers, negative differential conductance, and high magnetoresistance). In this thesis, state-of-the-art theoretical calculations have been performed for the quantum transport properties of nano-structured materials within the framework of Density Functional Theory (DFT) and the Nonequilibrium Green\\'s Function (NEGF) formalism. The switching behavior of a dithiolated phenylene-vinylene oligomer sandwiched between Au(111) electrodes is investigated. The molecule presents a configurational bistability, which can be exploited in constructing molecular memories, switches, and sensors. We find that protonation of the terminating thiol groups is at the origin of the change in conductance. H bonding at the thiol group weakens the S-Au bond, and thus lowers the conductance. Our results allow us to re-interpret the experimental data originally attributing the conductance reduction to H dissociation. Also examined is current-induced migration of atoms in nanoscale devices that plays an important role for device operation and breakdown. We studied the migration of adatoms and defects in graphene and carbon nanotubes under finite bias. We demonstrate that current-induced forces within DFT are non-conservative, which so far has only been shown for model systems, and can lower migration barrier heights. Further, we investigated the quantum transport behavior of an experimentally observed diblock molecule by varying the amounts of phenyl (donor) and pyrimidinyl (acceptor) rings under finite bias. We show that a tandem configuration of

  15. Comparative Study of the Effectiveness of Three Learning Environments: Hyper-Realistic Virtual Simulations, Traditional Schematic Simulations and Traditional Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Guadalupe; Naranjo, Francisco L.; Perez, Angel L.; Suero, Maria Isabel; Pardo, Pedro J.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the educational effects of computer simulations developed in a hyper-realistic virtual environment with the educational effects of either traditional schematic simulations or a traditional optics laboratory. The virtual environment was constructed on the basis of Java applets complemented with a photorealistic visual output.…

  16. Radiation Induced Chemistry of Icy Surfaces: Laboratory Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.; Lignell, Antti; Li, Irene; Yang, Rui; Jacovi, Ronen

    2011-01-01

    We will discuss laboratory experiments designed to enhance our understanding the chemical processes on icy solar system bodies, enable interpretation of in-situ and remote-sensing data, and help future missions to icy solar system bodies, such as comets, Europa, Ganymede, Enceladus etc.

  17. Polymerization Simulator for Introductory Polymer and Material Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirdon, William M.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes how molecular simulation of polymerization reactions can be used to enrich introductory polymer or material science courses to give students a deeper understanding of free-radical chain and stepwise growth polymerization reactions. These simulations have proven to be effective media for instruction that do not require material…

  18. MaRIE; a proposed materials facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourke, M.A.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    This presentation will describe the current definition of a proposed new facility called MaRIE at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The concept is of decadal scope and is predicated on the collocation of a fourth-generation X-ray light source with a proton accelerator spallation neutron source and complementary synthesis and characterization capabilities. MaRIE is an acronym which stands for Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes. The facility has been conceived partly in response to the increasing role that control science is expected to play in materials research compared to observation science. If new materials are to be implemented in a timely fashion for the most aggressive conditions of proposed fission and fusion energy applications they will have to rely, at least in part, on models, simulations and scientific insight. Validation of these models will require measurements at spatial and temporal scales that have only recently become enabled by the latest generations of light sources. A hallmark of the MaRIE concept is an emphasis on in situ studies (under extreme neutron, photon and ion irradiation conditions) of the phenomena that lead to swelling, phase transformations, thermal properties and corrosion. Insights and data, relevant to atomistic and quantum mechanical models, are major goals, as well as the facilitation of rapid materials discovery. It is hoped that this presentation will solicit input on aspects of the facility definition that should be strengthened or diminished to meet the needs of the fission community. (authors)

  19. Simulation Based Low-Cost Composite Process Development at the US Air Force Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Brian P.; Lee, C. William; Curliss, David B.

    2003-01-01

    Low-cost composite research in the US Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Organic Matrix Composites Branch has focused on the theme of affordable performance. Practically, this means that we use a very broad view when considering the affordability of composites. Factors such as material costs, labor costs, recurring and nonrecurring manufacturing costs are balanced against performance to arrive at the relative affordability vs. performance measure of merit. The research efforts discussed here are two projects focused on affordable processing of composites. The first topic is the use of a neural network scheme to model cure reaction kinetics, then utilize the kinetics coupled with simple heat transport models to predict, in real-time, future exotherms and control them. The neural network scheme is demonstrated to be very robust and a much more efficient method that mechanistic cure modeling approach. This enables very practical low-cost processing of thick composite parts. The second project is liquid composite molding (LCM) process simulation. LCM processing of large 3D integrated composite parts has been demonstrated to be a very cost effective way to produce large integrated aerospace components specific examples of LCM processes are resin transfer molding (RTM), vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), and other similar approaches. LCM process simulation is a critical part of developing an LCM process approach. Flow simulation enables the development of the most robust approach to introducing resin into complex preforms. Furthermore, LCM simulation can be used in conjunction with flow front sensors to control the LCM process in real-time to account for preform or resin variability.

  20. Simulation laboratories for training in obstetrics and gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedonia, Christian R; Gherman, Robert B; Satin, Andrew J

    2003-08-01

    Simulations have been used by the military, airline industry, and our colleagues in other medical specialties to educate, evaluate, and prepare for rare but life-threatening scenarios. Work hour limits for residents in obstetrics and gynecology and decreased patient availability for teaching of students and residents require us to think creatively and practically on how to optimize their education. Medical simulations may address scenarios in clinical practice that are considered important to know or understand. Simulations can take many forms, including computer programs, models or mannequins, virtual reality data immersion caves, and a combination of formats. The purpose of this commentary is to call attention to a potential role for medical simulation in obstetrics and gynecology. We briefly describe an example of how simulation may be incorporated into obstetric and gynecologic residency training. It is our contention that educators in obstetrics and gynecology should be aware of the potential for simulation in education. We hope this commentary will stimulate interest in the field, lead to validation studies, and improve training in and the practice of obstetrics and gynecology.

  1. Reaction path simulations in multicomponent materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, H.J.

    1999-01-01

    The CALPHAD (calculation of phase diagrams) method is used in combination with selected experimental investigations to derive reaction paths in multicomponent systems. The method is illustrated by applying computerized thermodynamic databases and suitable software to explain quantitatively the thermal degradation of precursor-derived Si-C-N ceramics and the nitridation of titanium carbide. Reaction sequences in the Si 3 N 4 -SiC-TiC x N l-x -C-N system are illustrated by graphical representation of compatibility regions and indicated reaction paths. From these results the experimentally known microstructure development of TiC reinforced Si 3 N 4 ceramics is explained and quantitative information is provided to optimize the microstructure of such materials. The concept of reaction paths for the understanding of rapid solidification processes is shown by the example of AZ type Mg casting alloys. (orig.)

  2. Center for Materials Science, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Status report, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkin, D.M.; Boring, A.M. [comps.

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Center for Materials Science (CMS) from October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991, and is the nineth such annual report. It has been a year of remarkable progress in building the programs of the Center. The extent of this progress is described in detail. The CMS was established to enhance the contribution of materials science and technology to the Laboratory`s defense, energy and scientific missions, and the Laboratory. In carrying out these responsibilities it has accepted four demanding missions: (1) Build a core group of highly rated, established materials scientists and solid state physicists. (2) Promote and support top quality, interdisciplinary materials research programs at Los Alamos. (3) Strengthen the interactions of materials science and Los Alamos with the external materials science community. and (4) Establish and maintain modern materials research facilities in a readily accessible, central location.

  3. Materials research for PMI at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Chad; Edmondson, Philip; Meyer, Fred; Bannister, Mark; Garrison, Lauren; Unocic, Kinga; Hu, Xunxiang; Katoh, Yutai

    2015-11-01

    In order to improve the scientific understanding of how materials' structure influences plasma-materials interactions (PMI) and the material response to plasma effects, we have performed a series of ion- and neutron-irradiation experiments on tungsten (W). Single- and polycrystal tungsten developed second phase Re +Os precipitates due to transmutation from High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) neutron irradiation. The microstructure of these precipitates was investigated with electron and atom probe microscopy, while mechanical testing found a significant degradation in materials properties, such as toughness and strength, which will degrade PMI performance. We have also used a beam-deceleration module on an electron-cyclotron resonance ion source beamline at ORNL to study the effects of W crystallography (specifically surface normal) and the effect of beam incidence angle and beam energy on surface morphology after irradiation. Ongoing plasma-exposure experiments and neutron-irradiation campaigns will be described. Supported by ORNL LDRD program, and Office of Fusion Energy Science, US Department of Energy.

  4. Critical and strategic materials proceedings of the laboratory study group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    These Proceedings serve to identify the appropriate role for the DOE-BES-DMS Laboratory program concerning critical and strategic materials, identify and articulate high priority DOE-BES-DMS target areas so as to maximize programmatic responsiveness to national needs concerning critical and strategic materials, and identify research, expertise, and resources (including Collaborative Research Centers) that are relevant to critical and strategic materials that is either underway or in place under the DOE-BES-DMS Laboratory program. Laboratory statements of collaborative research are given

  5. Plasma-material interaction under simulated disruption conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkhipov, N.I.; Bakhtin, V.P.; Safronov, V.M.; Toporkov, D.A.; Vasenin, S.G.; Wurz, H.; Zhitlukhin, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Sudden evaporation of divertor plate surface under high heat load during tokamak plasma disruption instantaneously produces a vapor shield. The cloud of vaporized material prevents the divertor plates from the bulk of incoming energy flux and thus reduces the further material erosion. Dynamics and effectiveness of the vapor shield are studied experimentally at the 2MK-200 facility under simulated disruption conditions. (orig.)

  6. Learning from mistakes in a simulated nursing leadership laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Mary Anne; Shinnick, Mary Ann; Judson, Lorie H

    2012-09-01

    Human patient simulation in nursing education has become an accepted and expected form of pedagogy. Research on the use of human patient simulation to evaluate student performance, however, is still at an early stage. The vast majority of these sources report the unit of analysis as the nurse-patient dyad (one nurse-one patient) situated in an infrequently occurring, high-risk, or costly event such as a code blue, and the literature reveals little evidence on the efficacy of the use of simulation for the care of multiple patients. The teaching innovation, discussed herein, involving a simulation, used a leadership scenario of a routine day in an acute-care hospital unit. The aim of the project was to provide a high-fidelity simulation of the competing demands on a nurse's time and attention while caring for multiple patients. Working as a team, using principles of prioritization, delegation, scope of practice, and communication, senior baccalaureate nursing students assumed the various roles of interdisciplinary team members as they moved through staged sequences of changing patient and unit conditions. This was followed by debriefing session that prompted the students to identify their errors in judgment, including sending the wrong patient to the operating room, failing to rescue a patient, and failing to delegate critical tasks to other nursing team members.

  7. The influence of lisping material in pelletizing and agglomeration of fine coal pieces in laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrencovski, Angele; Andreevski, Borche

    1998-01-01

    The work presents a part of laboratory results realized in academy of Firebug, carried on pelletizing and agglomeration of waste material, fine coal from thermal power station, using different lisping materials. Specially the influence of these materials in getting solid fuel, small briquette, formed by rolling press is analyzed. Special interest is attended to their characteristics: hardness and resistance. (Author)

  8. Development and Demonstration of Material Properties Database and Software for the Simulation of Flow Properties in Cementitious Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-30

    This report describes work performed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in fiscal year 2014 to develop a new Cementitious Barriers Project (CBP) software module designated as FLOExcel. FLOExcel incorporates a uniform database to capture material characterization data and a GoldSim model to define flow properties for both intact and fractured cementitious materials and estimate Darcy velocity based on specified hydraulic head gradient and matric tension. The software module includes hydraulic parameters for intact cementitious and granular materials in the database and a standalone GoldSim framework to manipulate the data. The database will be updated with new data as it comes available. The software module will later be integrated into the next release of the CBP Toolbox, Version 3.0. This report documents the development efforts for this software module. The FY14 activities described in this report focused on the following two items that form the FLOExcel package; 1) Development of a uniform database to capture CBP data for cementitious materials. In particular, the inclusion and use of hydraulic properties of the materials are emphasized; and 2) Development of algorithms and a GoldSim User Interface to calculate hydraulic flow properties of degraded and fractured cementitious materials. Hydraulic properties are required in a simulation of flow through cementitious materials such as Saltstone, waste tank fill grout, and concrete barriers. At SRNL these simulations have been performed using the PORFLOW code as part of Performance Assessments for salt waste disposal and waste tank closure.

  9. Contamination confinement system of irradiated materials handling laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobao, A. dos S.T.; Araujo, J.A. de; Camilo, R.L.

    1988-06-01

    A study to prevent radioctivity release in lab scale is presented. As a basis for the design all the limits established by the IAEA for ventilation systems were observed. An evaluation of the different parameters involved in the design have been made, resulting in the especification of the working areas, ducts and filtering systems in order to get the best conditions for the safe handling of irradiated materials. (author) [pt

  10. Containment system of contamination in irradiated materials handling laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobao, A.S.T.; Araujo, J.A. de; Camilo, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    A study to prevent radiactivity release in lab scale is presented. As a basis for the design all the limits established by the IAEA for ventilation systems were observed. An evaluation of the different parameters involved in the design have been made, resulting in the specification of the working areas, ducts and filtering systems in order to get the best conditions for the safe handling of irradiated materials. (author) [pt

  11. On-Orbit Planetary Science Laboratories for Simulating Surface Conditions of Planets and Small Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavelautham, J.; Asphaug, E.; Schwartz, S.

    2017-02-01

    Our work has identified the use of on-orbit centrifuge science laboratories as a key enabler towards low-cost, fast-track physical simulation of off-world environments for future planetary science missions.

  12. Fleet Sizing of Automated Material Handling Using Simulation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibisono, Radinal; Ai, The Jin; Ratna Yuniartha, Deny

    2018-03-01

    Automated material handling tends to be chosen rather than using human power in material handling activity for production floor in manufacturing company. One critical issue in implementing automated material handling is designing phase to ensure that material handling activity more efficient in term of cost spending. Fleet sizing become one of the topic in designing phase. In this research, simulation approach is being used to solve fleet sizing problem in flow shop production to ensure optimum situation. Optimum situation in this research means minimum flow time and maximum capacity in production floor. Simulation approach is being used because flow shop can be modelled into queuing network and inter-arrival time is not following exponential distribution. Therefore, contribution of this research is solving fleet sizing problem with multi objectives in flow shop production using simulation approach with ARENA Software

  13. Chemical surety material decontamination and decommissioning of Los Alamos National Laboratory Chemical Surety Material Laboratory area TA-3, building SM-29, room 4009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, T.E.; Smith, J.M.

    1994-04-01

    From 1982 through 1987, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) performed surety laboratory operations for the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command (MRDC). Room 4009 in building SM-29, TA-3, was used as the laboratory for work with the following chemical surety material (CSM) agents: sarin (GB), soman (GD), lewisite (L), and distilled mustard (HD) radio-labelled with H{sup 3} or C{sup 14}. The work was confined to three CSM-certified fume hoods, located in room 4009 (see diagram in Appendix C). The laboratory ceased all active operations during the late 1986 and early 1987 period. From 1987 until 1993 the laboratory was secured and the ventilation system continued to operate. During late 1992, the decision was made to utilize this laboratory space for other operations, thus a decision was made to dismantle and reconfigure this room. LANL sub-contracted Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI) to draw upon the CSM experience of the technical staff from the Hazardous Materials Research Facility (HMRF) to assist in developing a decontamination and decommissioning plan. BMI was subcontracted to devise a CSM safety training course, and a sampling and air monitoring plan for CSM material to ensure personnel safety during all disassembly operations. LANL subcontracted Johnson Controls personnel to perform all disassembly operations. Beginning in early 1993 BMI personnel from the HMRF visited the laboratory to develop both the safety plan and the sample and air monitoring plan. Execution of that plan began in September 1993 and was completed in January 1994.

  14. Characterisation of humic material for inter-laboratory comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peachy, D.; Bradley, A.D.; Davis, A.E.; Stuart, M.E.; Tait, B.A.R.; Vickers, B.P.; Williams, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    The characterisation and interlaboratory comparison of common humic materials by members of the European Commission's COCO group (set up to study complexes and colloids), forms part of a study of the effects of natural organic compounds in groundwater on the complexation and mobility of radionuclides. Three samples have been characterised: a sodium salt and a protonated form of the commercially available humic acid from Aldrich Chemicals; and a protonated humic acid from the Gorleben research site in Germany. Characterisation undertaken by BGS includes moisture content, elemental analysis, metal content, functional group analysis, infra-red spectroscopy, ultra-violet absorbance (E 4 /E 6 ratios), and ultra-filtration. (author)

  15. Materials Science and Engineering-1989 Publications (Naval Research Laboratory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-29

    Antamanide J.H. Konnert, P. D’Antonio, J.M. Cowley, and Analog. Crystal Structure of A. Higgs , H-J. Ou Perhydrosymmetric antamanide, Ultramicroscopy, 30, 371...Paired Boson Superconductor" Molecular Beam Epitaxy" W. Jin, S.D. Mahanti, A.K. Rajagopal A. Christou, N. Flevaris, A. Georgakilas, Solid State...33(3), 347-358 Si(100)" "Neutron Scattering from Fermion and S.M. Prokes, W.F. Tseng, A- Christou Boson Superconductors" Materials Research Society

  16. Numerical simulation in material science: principles and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruste, Jacky

    2006-06-01

    The objective is here to describe the main simulation techniques currently used in material science. After a presentation of the concepts of modelling and simulation, of their objectives and uses, of the issue of simulation scale, and of means of numeric simulation, the author addresses simulations performed at a nano-scopic scale: 'ab-initio' methods, molecular dynamics, examples of applications of ab-initio methods to energy issues or to the study of surface properties of nano-materials. The next chapter addresses various Monte Carlo methods (Metropolis, atomic kinetics, objects kinetics, transport with the simulation of particle trajectories, generation of random numbers). The next parts address simulations performed at a mesoscopic scale (simulation and microstructure, phase field methods, dynamics of discrete dislocations, homogeneous chemical kinetics) and at a macroscopic scale (medium discretization with the notion of mesh, simulation of structure mechanics and of fluid behaviour). The issues of code coupling and scale coupling are then discussed. The last part proposes an overview of virtual metallurgy and modelling of industrial processes (welding, vacuum arc re-fusion, rolling, forming)

  17. High Temperature Materials Laboratory User Program: 19th Annual Report, October 1, 2005 - September 30, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasto, Arvid [ORNL

    2007-08-01

    Annual Report contains overview of the High Temperature Materials Laboratory User Program and includes selected highlights of user activities for FY2006. Report is submitted to individuals within sponsoring DOE agency and to other interested individuals.

  18. Reactivity between carbon cathode materials and electrolyte based on industrial and laboratory data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chauke, L

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between electrolyte and carbon cathodes during the electrolytic production of aluminium decreases cell life. This paper describes the interaction between carbon cathode materials and electrolyte, based on industrial and laboratory data...

  19. A Place for Materials Science: Laboratory Buildings and Interdisciplinary Research at the University of Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungsub; Shields, Brit

    2015-01-01

    The Laboratory for Research on the Structure of Matter (LRSM), University of Pennsylvania, was built in 1965 as part of the Advanced Research Projects Agency's (ARPA) Interdisciplinary Laboratories (IDL) program intended to foster interdisciplinary research and training in materials science. The process that led to the construction of the…

  20. Writing Material in Chemical Physics Research: The Laboratory Notebook as Locus of Technical and Textual Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickman, Chad

    2010-01-01

    This article, drawing on ethnographic study in a chemical physics research facility, explores how notebooks are used and produced in the conduct of laboratory science. Data include written field notes of laboratory activity; visual documentation of "in situ" writing processes; analysis of inscriptions, texts, and material artifacts produced in the…

  1. Characterization of a backfill candidate material, IBECO-RWC-BF Baclo Project - Phase 3 Laboratory tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Sanden, Torbjoern; Dueck, Ann; Ohlsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    A backfill candidate material, IBECO-RWC-BF, which origin from Milos, Greece, has been investigated. The material was delivered both as granules and as pellets. The investigation described in this report aimed to characterize the material and evaluate if it can be used in a future repository. The following investigations have been done and are presented in this report: 1. Standard laboratory tests. Water content, liquid limit and swelling potential are examples on standard tests that have been performed. 2. Block manufacturing. The block compaction properties of the material have been determined. A first test was performed in laboratory but also tests in large scale have been performed. After finishing the test phase, 60 tons of blocks were manufactured at Hoeganaes Bjuf AB. The blocks will be used in large scale laboratory tests at Aespoe HRL. 3. Mechanical parameters. The compressibility of the material was investigated with oedometer tests (four tests) where the load was applied in steps after saturation. The evaluated oedometer modulus varied between 34.50 MPa. Tests were made to evaluate the elastic parameters of the material (E, ν). Altogether three tests were made on specimens with dry densities of about 1,710 kg/m 3 . The evaluated E-modulus and Poisson's ratio varied between 231-263 MPa and 0.16-0.19 respectively. The strength of the material, both the compressive strength and the tensile strength were measured on specimens compacted to different dry densities. The test results yielded a relation between density and the two types of strength. Furthermore, tests have been made in order to determine the compressibility of the unsaturated filling of pellets. Two tests were made where the pellets were loosely filled in a Proctor cylinder and then compressed at a constant rate of strain during continuously measurement of the applied load. 4. Swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity. There is, as expected, a very clear influence of the dry density on the

  2. Simulations of radiative shocks and jet formation in laboratory plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velarde, P; Gonzalez, M; GarcIa-Fernandez, C; Oliva, E [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear, Universidad Politcnica de Madrid, Madrid (Spain) (Spain); Kasperczuk, A; Pisarczyk, T [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland) (Poland); Ullschmied, J [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic) (Czech Republic); Stehle, C [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, Meudon (France) (France); Rus, B [Institute of Physics, PALS Center, Prague (Czech Republic) (Czech Republic); GarcIa-Senz, D; Bravo, E; Relano, A [Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear. Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya. Barcelona (Spain) (Spain)], E-mail: velarde@din.upm.es

    2008-05-01

    We present the simulations of two relevant hydrodynamical problems related to astrophysical phenomena performed by three different codes. The numerical results from these codes will be compared in order to test both the numerical method implemented inside them and the influence of the physical phenomena simulated by the codes. Under some conditions laser produced plasmas could be scaled to the typical conditions prevailing in astrophysical plasmas. Therefore, such similarity allows to use existing laser facilities and numerical codes suitable to a laser plasma regime, for studying astrophysical proccesses. The codes are the radiation fluid dynamic 2D ARWEN code and the 3D HERACLES, and, without radiation energy transport, a Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) code. These codes use different numerical techniques and have overlapping range of application, from laser produced plasmas to astrophysical plasmas. We also present the first laser experiments obtaining cumulative jets with a velocity higher than 100 km/s.

  3. Comparative study of the effectiveness of three learning environments: Hyper-realistic virtual simulations, traditional schematic simulations and traditional laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Suero

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the educational effects of computer simulations developed in a hyper-realistic virtual environment with the educational effects of either traditional schematic simulations or a traditional optics laboratory. The virtual environment was constructed on the basis of Java applets complemented with a photorealistic visual output. This new virtual environment concept, which we call hyper-realistic, transcends basic schematic simulation; it provides the user with a more realistic perception of a physical phenomenon being simulated. We compared the learning achievements of three equivalent, homogeneous groups of undergraduates—an experimental group who used only the hyper-realistic virtual laboratory, a first control group who used a schematic simulation, and a second control group who used the traditional laboratory. The three groups received the same theoretical preparation and carried out equivalent practicals in their respective learning environments. The topic chosen for the experiment was optical aberrations. An analysis of variance applied to the data of the study demonstrated a statistically significant difference (p value <0.05 between the three groups. The learning achievements attained by the group using the hyper-realistic virtual environment were 6.1 percentage points higher than those for the group using the traditional schematic simulations and 9.5 percentage points higher than those for the group using the traditional laboratory.

  4. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION LABORATORY TESTS WITH SIMULATED TANK WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HERTING DL

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented for several simulated waste tests related to development of the fractional crystallization process. Product salt dissolution rates were measured to support pilot plant equipment design. Evaporation tests were performed to evaluate the effects of organics on slurry behavior and to determine optimum antifoam addition levels. A loss-of-power test was performed to support pilot plant accident scenario analysis. Envelope limit tests were done to address variations in feed composition

  5. International Atomic Energy Agency consultants' group meeting on C-14 reference materials for radiocarbon laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanski, K.

    2001-01-01

    This publication describes the 14 C intercomparison study co-ordinated by the IAEA. Five intercomparison materials have been prepared and distributed among 137 participating laboratories. By February 20, 1991, results have been received from 69 laboratories (39 of them representing liquid scintillation counting, 25 - gas counting, and 6 - accelerator mass spectrometry). This publication presents measurement results and their discussion along with description of the materials and methodology

  6. Selection of views to materialize using simulated annealing algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lijuan; Liu, Chi; Wang, Hongfeng; Liu, Daixin

    2002-03-01

    A data warehouse contains lots of materialized views over the data provided by the distributed heterogeneous databases for the purpose of efficiently implementing decision-support or OLAP queries. It is important to select the right view to materialize that answer a given set of queries. The goal is the minimization of the combination of the query evaluation and view maintenance costs. In this paper, we have addressed and designed algorithms for selecting a set of views to be materialized so that the sum of processing a set of queries and maintaining the materialized views is minimized. We develop an approach using simulated annealing algorithms to solve it. First, we explore simulated annealing algorithms to optimize the selection of materialized views. Then we use experiments to demonstrate our approach. The results show that our algorithm works better. We implemented our algorithms and a performance study of the algorithms shows that the proposed algorithm gives an optimal solution.

  7. Designing experiments on thermal interactions by secondary-school students in a simulated laboratory environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkos, Ioannis; Psillos, Dimitris; Hatzikraniotis, Euripides

    2011-07-01

    Background and purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of investigative activities with manipulations in a virtual laboratory on students' ability to design experiments. Sample Fourteen students in a lower secondary school in Greece attended a teaching sequence on thermal phenomena based on the use of information and communication technology, and specifically of the simulated virtual laboratory 'ThermoLab'. Design and methods A pre-post comparison was applied. Students' design of experiments was rated in eight dimensions; namely, hypothesis forming and verification, selection of variables, initial conditions, device settings, materials and devices used, process and phenomena description. A three-level ranking scheme was employed for the evaluation of students' answers in each dimension. Results A Wilcoxon signed-rank test revealed a statistically significant difference between the students' pre- and post-test scores. Additional analysis by comparing the pre- and post-test scores using the Hake gain showed high gains in all but one dimension, which suggests that this improvement was almost inclusive. Conclusions We consider that our findings support the statement that there was an improvement in students' ability to design experiments.

  8. Formal training program for nuclear material custodians at Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.D.

    1979-01-01

    Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) has established a formal training program for nuclear material (NM) custodians. The program, designed to familiarize the custodian with the fundamental concepts of proper nuclear materials control and accountability, is conducted on a semiannual basis. The program is prepared and presented by the Safeguards and Materials Management Section of HEDL and covers 14 subjects on accountability, documentation, transportation, custodian responsibilities, and the safeguarding of nuclear material

  9. Molecular Dynamic Simulations of Nanostructured Ceramic Materials on Parallel Computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vashishta, Priya; Kalia, Rajiv

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to gain insight into: (1) sintering, structure, and mechanical behavior of nanophase SiC and SiO2; (2) effects of dynamic charge transfers on the sintering of nanophase TiO2; (3) high-pressure structural transformation in bulk SiC and GaAs nanocrystals; (4) nanoindentation in Si3N4; and (5) lattice mismatched InAs/GaAs nanomesas. In addition, we have designed a multiscale simulation approach that seamlessly embeds MD and quantum-mechanical (QM) simulations in a continuum simulation. The above research activities have involved strong interactions with researchers at various universities, government laboratories, and industries. 33 papers have been published and 22 talks have been given based on the work described in this report

  10. Discrete event simulation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) analytical laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanahan, K.L.

    1992-02-01

    A discrete event simulation of the Savannah River Site (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) analytical laboratory has been constructed in the GPSS language. It was used to estimate laboratory analysis times at process analytical hold points and to study the effect of sample number on those times. Typical results are presented for three different simultaneous representing increasing levels of complexity, and for different sampling schemes. Example equipment utilization time plots are also included. SRS DWPF laboratory management and chemists found the simulations very useful for resource and schedule planning

  11. Computer-based laboratory simulation: evaluations of student perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norrie S. Edward

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experimentation in engineering is an essential part of the three main components in an engineer's formation. The theoretical constructs and models are imparted in lectures and tutorials. Workshop hands-on activity allows the student to acquire an understanding of the interaction of design and manufacture, and the constraints both impose. Characteristics of plant are investigated through experiment, and this aids the learner's understanding of the limitation of models in predicting performance. The learner also gains an appreciation of the nature of errors and of the construction of plant. But while the oil industry has brought prosperity to the North- East, it has also brought unique educational demands: the working arrangements place severe restrictions on part-time student attendance. Technicians work a block of two to four weeks offshore, followed by a similar period of leave. Different companies have different arrangements, and shift-change days.

  12. Development of Distant Learning Laboratory and Creation of Educational Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Michelle

    1995-01-01

    The Office of Education's fundamental goal is to disseminate information, mostly that which relates to science and technology. In this attempt, as I have observed, the office has many programs bringing both students and teachers to NASA Langley to expose them to the facilities and to teach them some about the scientific theory and about available modern technology. As a way of expanding the audience that can be reached, as the expense of bringing people in is limiting, Marchelle Canright has proposed establishing a center dedicated to researching and producing distant learning videos. Although distant learning through telecommunications is not a new concept, as many universities, colleges, and precollege level schools offer televised courses, the research in this field has been limited. Many of the standing distant learning broadcasts are simply recordings of teachers in classrooms giving lectures to their own students; they are not aimed at the television audience. In some cases the videos are produced without a Live-lecture atmosphere, but are still only classroom lectures. In either case, however, the full range of capabilities of video production are not being fully utilized. Methods for best relaying educational material have not been explored. Possibilities for including computerized images and video clips for the purpose of showing diagrams and processes, as well as examples in fitting cases, may add considerably to the educational value of these videos. Also, through Internet and satellite links, it is possible for remote students to interact with the teachers during televised sessions. These possibilities might, also, add to the effectiveness of distant learning programs. Ms. Canright's proposed center will be dedicated to researching these possibilities and eventually spreading the results to distant learning program managers. This is the project I was involved in over the summer. As implied, the center is still at the foundation stages. Ms. Canright has

  13. Laboratory simulation of atmospheric turbulence induced optical wavefront distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Travis Shane

    1999-11-01

    Many creative approaches have been taken in the past for simulating the effect that atmospheric turbulence has on optical beams. Most of the experimental architectures have been complicated and consisted of many optical elements as well as moving components. These techniques have shown a modicum of success; however, they are not completely controllable or predictable. A benchtop technique for experimentally producing one important effect that atmospheric turbulence has on optical beams (phase distortion) is presented here. The system is completely controllable and predictable while accurately representing the statistical nature of the problem. Previous experimentation in optical processing through turbulent media has demonstrated that optical wavefront distortions can be produced via spatial light modulating (SLM) devices, and most turbulence models and experimental results indicate that turbulence can be represented as a phase fluctuation. The amplitude distributions in the resulting far field are primarily due to propagation of the phase. Operating a liquid crystal television (LCTV) in the ``phase- mostly'' mode, a phase fluctuation type model for turbulence is utilized in the present investigation, and a real-time experiment for demonstrating the effects was constructed. For an optical system to simulate optical wavefront distortions due to atmospheric turbulence, the following are required: (1)An optical element that modulates the phasefront of an optical beam (2)A model and a technique for generating spatially correlated turbulence simulating distributions (3)Hardware and software for displaying and manipulating the information addressing the optical phase modulation device The LCTV is ideal for this application. When operated in the ``phase-mostly'' mode some LCTVs can modulate the phasefront of an optical beam by as much as 2π and an algorithm for generating spatially correlated phase screens can be constructed via mathematical modeling software such as

  14. D-VASim: An Interactive Virtual Laboratory Environment for the Simulation and Analysis of Genetic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baig, Hasan; Madsen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    runtime. The runtime interaction gives the user a feeling of being in the lab performing a real world experiment. In this work, we present a user-friendly software tool named D-VASim (Dynamic Virtual Analyzer and Simulator), which provides a virtual laboratory environment to simulate and analyze...

  15. A laboratory grid simulator based on three-phase four-leg inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Fei; Wang, Xiongfei; Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a laboratory grid simulator which is used to test the grid-connected devices according to the strict standards. Three-phase four-leg inverter with direct voltage control in Natural Frame is adopted in this grid simulator, which significantly...

  16. Ideas in Practice (3): A Simulated Laboratory Experience in Digital Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaver, Thomas G.

    1988-01-01

    Gives an example of the use of a simplified logic simulator in a logic design course. Discusses some problems in logic design classes, commercially available software, and software problems. Describes computer-aided engineering (CAE) software. Lists 14 experiments in the simulated laboratory and presents students' evaluation of the course. (YP)

  17. Development and mechanical properties of construction materials from lunar simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Chandra S.

    1990-01-01

    The development of construction materials such as concrete from lunar soils without the use of water requires a different methodology than that used for conventional terrestrial concrete. Currently, this research involves two aspects: (1) liquefaction of lunar simulants with various additives in a furnace so as to produce a construction material like an intermediate ceramic; and (2) cyclic loading of simulant with different initial vacuums and densities with respect to the theoretical maximum densities (TMD). In both cases, bending, triaxial compression, extension, and hydrostatic tests will be performed to define the stress-strain strength response of the resulting materials. In the case of the intermediate ceramic, bending and available multiaxial test devices will be used, while for the compacted case, tests will be performed directly in the new device. The tests will be performed by simulating in situ confining conditions. A preliminary review of high-purity metal is also conducted.

  18. Los Alamos National Laboratory simulated sludge vitrification demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.; Bickford, D.F.; Bennert, D.M.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    Technologies are being developed to convert hazardous and mixed wastes to a form suitable for permanent disposal. Vitrification, which has been declared the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) for high-level radioactive waste disposal by the EPA, is capable of producing a highly durable wasteform that minimizes disposal volumes through organic destruction, moisture evaporation, and porosity reduction. However, this technology must be demonstrated over a range of waste characteristics, including compositions, chemistries, moistures, and physical characteristics to ensure that it is suitable for hazardous and mixed waste treatment. This project plans to demonstrate vitrification of simulated wastes that are considered representatives of wastes found throughout the DOE complex. For the most part, the primary constituent of the wastes is flocculation aids, such as Fe(OH) 3 , and natural filter aids, such as diatomaceous earth and perlite. The filter aids consist mostly of silica, which serves as an excellent glass former; hence, the reason why vitrification is such a viable option. LANL is currently operating a liquid waste processing plant which produces an inorganic sludge similar to other waste water treatment streams. Since this waste has characteristics that make it suitable for vitrification and the likelihood of success is high, it shall be tested at CU. The objective of this task is to characterize the process behavior and glass product formed upon vitrification of simulated LANL sludge. The off-gases generated from the production runs will also be characterized to help further develop vitrification processes for mixed and low level wastes

  19. Laboratory simulation studies of uranium mobility in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giblin, A.M.; Swaine, D.J.; Batts, B.D.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of imposed variations of pH and Eh on aqueous uranium mobility at 25 0 C have been studied in three simulations of natural water systems. Constituents tested for their effect on uranium mobility were: (a) hydrous ferric oxide, to represent adsorptive solids which precipitate or dissolve in response to variations in pH and Eh; (b) kaolinite, representing minerals which, although modified by pH and Eh changes, are present as solids over the pH-Eh range of natural waters; and (c) carbonate, to represent a strong uranium-complexing species. Uranium mobility measurements from each simulation were regressed against pH and Eh within a range appropriate to natural waters. Hydrous ferric oxide and kaolinite each affected uranium mobility, but in separate pH-Eh domains. Aqueous carbonate increased mobility of uranium, and adsorption of UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 4- caused colloidal dispersion of hydrous ferric oxide, possibly explaining the presence of 'hydrothermal hematite' in some uranium deposits. Enhanced uranium mobility observed in the pH-Eh domains of thermodynamically insoluble uranium oxides could be explained if the oxides were present as colloids. Uranium persisting as a mobile species, even after reduction, has implications for the near surface genesis of uranium ores. (author)

  20. Material model validation for laser shock peening process simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarchinta, H K; Grandhi, R V; Langer, K; Stargel, D S

    2009-01-01

    Advanced mechanical surface enhancement techniques have been used successfully to increase the fatigue life of metallic components. These techniques impart deep compressive residual stresses into the component to counter potentially damage-inducing tensile stresses generated under service loading. Laser shock peening (LSP) is an advanced mechanical surface enhancement technique used predominantly in the aircraft industry. To reduce costs and make the technique available on a large-scale basis for industrial applications, simulation of the LSP process is required. Accurate simulation of the LSP process is a challenging task, because the process has many parameters such as laser spot size, pressure profile and material model that must be precisely determined. This work focuses on investigating the appropriate material model that could be used in simulation and design. In the LSP process material is subjected to strain rates of 10 6  s −1 , which is very high compared with conventional strain rates. The importance of an accurate material model increases because the material behaves significantly different at such high strain rates. This work investigates the effect of multiple nonlinear material models for representing the elastic–plastic behavior of materials. Elastic perfectly plastic, Johnson–Cook and Zerilli–Armstrong models are used, and the performance of each model is compared with available experimental results

  1. Center for Materials Science, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Status report, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, D.M.; Boring, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Center for Materials Science (CMS) from October 1, 1990 to September 30, 1991, and is the nineth such annual report. It has been a year of remarkable progress in building the programs of the Center. The extent of this progress is described in detail. The CMS was established to enhance the contribution of materials science and technology to the Laboratory's defense, energy and scientific missions, and the Laboratory. In carrying out these responsibilities it has accepted four demanding missions: (1) Build a core group of highly rated, established materials scientists and solid state physicists. (2) Promote and support top quality, interdisciplinary materials research programs at Los Alamos. (3) Strengthen the interactions of materials science and Los Alamos with the external materials science community. and (4) Establish and maintain modern materials research facilities in a readily accessible, central location

  2. Stochastic simulation of destruction processes in self-irradiated materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Patsahan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Self-irradiation damages resulting from fission processes are common phenomena observed in nuclear fuel containing (NFC materials. Numerous α-decays lead to local structure transformations in NFC materials. The damages appearing due to the impacts of heavy nuclear recoils in the subsurface layer can cause detachments of material particles. Such a behaviour is similar to sputtering processes observed during a bombardment of the material surface by a flux of energetic particles. However, in the NFC material, the impacts are initiated from the bulk. In this work we propose a two-dimensional mesoscopic model to perform a stochastic simulation of the destruction processes occurring in a subsurface region of NFC material. We describe the erosion of the material surface, the evolution of its roughness and predict the detachment of the material particles. Size distributions of the emitted particles are obtained in this study. The simulation results of the model are in a qualitative agreement with the size histogram of particles produced from the material containing lava-like fuel formed during the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster.

  3. Laboratory modeling, field study, and numerical simulation of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, R.J.; Islam, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    Historical methods of cleaning up petroleum hydrocarbons from the vadose zone, the capillary zone, and the aquifers are not technically true cleanup technologies but rather transfer techniques. In addition, environmental engineers are realizing that the standard remediation techniques are not entirely effective in removing the hazardous material in a reasonable time frame. Long-chain hydrocarbons such as kerosene, diesel, and waste oil are particularly difficult to remediate using conventional techniques. The use of bioremediation as an alternative remediation technology is fast becoming the technique of choice among many environmental professionals. This method offers substantial benefits not found in other remediation processes. Bioremediation is very cost effective, nondestructive, relatively uncomplicated in implementing, requires non specialized equipment, and can be extremely effective in removing recalcitrant petroleum hydrocarbons. This study researched the availability of viable microbial populations in the arid climate in South Dakota. Exponential growth of the bacteria and the ability of bacteria to degrade long-chain hydrocarbons indicated that healthy populations do exist and could be used to mineralize organic hydrocarbons. Experimental results indicated that bioremediation can be effectively enhanced in landfills as well as in the subsurface using a supply of harmless nutrients. The biodegradation rate can be further enhanced with the use of edible surfactant that helped disperse the petroleum products. Also, the use of hydrogen peroxide enhanced the oxygen availability and increased the degradation rate. Interestingly, the bacterial growth rate is found to be high in difficult-to-biodegrade contaminants, such as waste oil. A numerical simulation program was also developed that describes the bacterial growth in the subsurface along with the reduction in substrate (contamination). Results from this program were found to be consistent with laboratory

  4. Applications of simulation experiments in LMFBR core materials technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleby, W.K.

    1976-01-01

    The development of charged particle bombardment experiments to simulate neutron irradiation induced swelling in austenitic alloys is briefly described. The applications of these techniques in LMFBR core materials technology are discussed. It is shown that use of the techniques to study the behavior of cold-worked Type-316 was instrumental in demonstrating at an early date the need for advanced materials. The simulation techniques then were used to identify alloying elements which can markedly decrease swelling and thus a focused reactor irradiation program is now in place to allow the future use of a lower swelling alloy for LMFBR core components

  5. Modelling of the physical behaviour of water saturated clay barriers. Laboratory tests, material models and finite element application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, L.; Johannesson, L.E.; Sanden, T.; Hernelind, J.

    1995-09-01

    This report deals with laboratory testing and modelling of the thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) properties of water saturated bentonite based buffer materials. A number of different laboratory tests have been performed and the results are accounted for. These test results have lead to a tentative material model, consisting of several sub-models, which is described in the report. The tentative model has partly been adapted to the material models available in the finite element code ABAQUS and partly been implemented and incorporated in the code. The model that can be used for ABAQUS calculations agrees with the tentative model with a few exceptions. The model has been used in a number of verification calculations, simulating different laboratory tests, and the results have been compared with actual measurements. These calculations show that the model generally can be used for THM calculations of the behaviour of water saturated buffer materials, but also that there is still a lack of some understanding. It is concluded that the available model is relevant for the required predictions of the THM behaviour but that a further improvement of the model is desirable

  6. A Monte Carlo Simulation of the in vivo measurement of lung activity in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory torso phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acha, Robert; Brey, Richard; Capello, Kevin

    2013-02-01

    A torso phantom was developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that serves as a standard for intercomparison and intercalibration of detector systems used to measure low-energy photons from radionuclides, such as americium deposited in the lungs. DICOM images of the second-generation Human Monitoring Laboratory-Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (HML-LLNL) torso phantom were segmented and converted into three-dimensional (3D) voxel phantoms to simulate the response of high purity germanium (HPGe) detector systems, as found in the HML new lung counter using a Monte Carlo technique. The photon energies of interest in this study were 17.5, 26.4, 45.4, 59.5, 122, 244, and 344 keV. The detection efficiencies at these photon energies were predicted for different chest wall thicknesses (1.49 to 6.35 cm) and compared to measured values obtained with lungs containing (241)Am (34.8 kBq) and (152)Eu (10.4 kBq). It was observed that no statistically significant differences exist at the 95% confidence level between the mean values of simulated and measured detection efficiencies. Comparisons between the simulated and measured detection efficiencies reveal a variation of 20% at 17.5 keV and 1% at 59.5 keV. It was found that small changes in the formulation of the tissue substitute material caused no significant change in the outcome of Monte Carlo simulations.

  7. Simulated Lidar Images of Human Pose using a 3DS Max Virtual Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2015-0089 SIMULATED LIDAR IMAGES OF HUMAN POSE USING A 3DS MAX VIRTUAL LABORATORY Jeanne Smith Isiah Davenport Infoscitex Corp...MM-YYYY) 11-12-2015 2. REPORT TYPE Interim 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) March 2013 – April 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Simulated LIDAR ...Cleared: 88ABW-2016-0242, 25 January 2016 Report contains color 14. ABSTRACT Large sets of 3D Simulated LIDAR (Light Detection and

  8. Laboratory simulation of salt dissolution during waste removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersma, B.J.; Parish, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to support the field demonstration of improved techniques for salt dissolution in waste tanks at the Savannah River Site. The tests were designed to investigate three density driven techniques for salt dissolution: (1) Drain-Add-Sit-Remove, (2) Modified Density Gradient, and (3) Continuous Salt Mining. Salt dissolution was observed to be a very rapid process as salt solutions with densities between 1.38-1.4 were frequently removed. Slower addition and removal rates and locating the outlet line at deeper levels below the top of the saltcake provided the best contact between the dissolution water and the saltcake. It was observed that dissolution with 1 M sodium hydroxide solution resulted in salt solutions that were within the current inhibitor requirements for the prevention of stress corrosion cracking. This result was independent of the density driven technique. However, if inhibited water (0.01 M sodium hydroxide and 0.011 M sodium nitrite) was utilized, the salt solutions were frequently outside the inhibitor requirements. Corrosion testing at conditions similar to the environments expected during waste removal was recommended

  9. Oil bioremediation processes in Brazilian marine environments : laboratory simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, E.S.; Triguis, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Bioremediation methods have been used in Brazil to remediate contaminated soils from refinery residues. In particular, bioremediation is a process that can reduce the amount of oil that reaches shorelines, by enhancing natural biodegradation. This presentation presents the results of a laboratory study in which seawater contaminated with light crude oil was bioremediated in a period of 28 days using NPK fertilizer. Whole oil gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the hydrocarbon fractions were used to determine the extent of oil biodegradation. It was determined that natural degradation occurred in the first 4 days, and mostly through the evaporation of light end n-alkanes. Biodegradation of n-alkanes was found to be most effective after 7 days, and no changes were observed in the relative abundance of steranes and triterpanes. It appears that the addition of NPK nutrient reduces the biodegradation potential of polyaromatic compounds. Seawater samples were also measured to determine the efficiency of bioremediation. The use of NPK fertilizer resulted in higher toxicity after 14 days probably due to the creation of metabolites as polyaromatic compounds biodegrade. Non toxic levels were found to be reestablished after 28 days of bioremediation. 16 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  10. Laboratory simulation of energetic flows of magnetospheric planetary plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikhislamov, I F; Posukh, V G; Melekhov, A V; Boyarintsev, E L; Zakharov, Yu P; Prokopov, P A; Ponomarenko, A G

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic interaction of super-sonic counter-streaming plasmas moving in dipole magnetic dipole is studied in laboratory experiment. First, a quasi-stationary flow is produced by plasma gun which forms a magnetosphere around the magnetic dipole. Second, explosive plasma expanding from inner dipole region outward is launch by laser beams focused at the surface of the dipole cover. Laser plasma is energetic enough to disrupt magnetic field and to sweep through the background plasma for large distances. Probe measurements showed that far from the initially formed magnetosphere laser plasma carries within itself a magnetic field of the same direction but order of magnitude larger in value than the vacuum dipole field at considered distances. Because no compression of magnetic field at the front of laser plasma was observed, the realized interaction is different from previous experiments and theoretical models of laser plasma expansion into uniform magnetized background. It was deduced based on the obtained data that laser plasma while expanding through inner magnetosphere picks up a magnetized shell formed by background plasma and carries it for large distances beyond previously existing magnetosphere. (paper)

  11. Material Selection for Microchannel Heatsink: Conjugate Heat Transfer Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uday Kumar, A.; Javed, Arshad; Dubey, Satish K.

    2018-04-01

    Heat dissipation during the operation of electronic devices causes rise in temperature, which demands an effective thermal management for their performance, life and reliability. Single phase liquid cooling in microchannels is an effective and proven technology for electronics cooling. However, due to the ongoing trends of miniaturization and developments in the microelectronics technology, the future needs of heat flux dissipation rate are expected to rise to 1 kW/cm2. Air cooled systems are unable to meet this demand. Hence, liquid cooled heatsinks are preferred. This paper presents conjugate heat transfer simulation of single phase flow in microchannels with application to electronic cooling. The numerical model is simulated for different materials: copper, aluminium and silicon as solid and water as liquid coolant. The performances of microchannel heatsink are analysed for mass flow rate range of 20-40 ml/min. The investigation has been carried out on same size of electronic chip and heat flux in order to have comparative study of different materials. This paper is divided into two sections: fabrication techniques and numerical simulation for different materials. In the first part, a brief discussion of fabrication techniques of microchannel heatsink have been presented. The second section presents conjugate heat transfer simulation and parametric investigation for different material microchannel heatsink. The presented study and findings are useful for selection of materials for microchannel heatsink.

  12. Computational simulation of materials notes for lectures given at UCSB, May 1996--June 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeSar, R.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents information from a lecture given on the computational simulation of materials. The purpose is to introduce modern computerized simulation methods for materials properties and response.

  13. Laboratory results gained from cold worked type 316Ti under simulated PWR primary environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devrient, B.; Kilian, R.; Koenig, G.; Widera, M.; Wermelinger, T.

    2015-01-01

    Beginning in 2005, intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of barrel bolts made from cold worked type 316Ti (German Material No. 1.4571 K) was observed in several S/KWU type PWRs. This mechanism was so far less understood for PWR primary conditions. Therefore an extended joint research program was launched by AREVA GmbH and VGB e.V. to clarify the specific conditions which contributed to the observed findings on barrel bolts. In the frame of this research program beneath the evaluation of the operational experience also laboratory tests on the general cracking behavior of cold worked type 316Ti material, which followed the same production line as for barrel bolt manufacturing in the eighties, with different cold work levels covering up to 30 % were performed to determine whether there is a specific susceptibility of cold worked austenitic stainless steel specimens to suffer IGSCC under simulated PWR primary conditions. All these slow strain rate tests on tapered specimens and component specimens came to the results that first, much higher cold work levels than used for the existing barrel bolts are needed for IGSCC initiation. Secondly, additional high active plastic deformation is needed to generate and propagate intergranular cracking. And thirdly, all specimens finally showed ductile fracture at the applied strain rates. (authors)

  14. Status report on US-Russian laboratory-to-laboratory cooperation in nuclear materials protection, control and accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, M.

    1996-01-01

    In April 1994, a new program of cooperation on nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A) was initiated between (1) the US Department of Energy and its laboratories and (2) nuclear institutes and enterprises of the Russian Federation. The program is called the Laboratory-to-Laboratory Nuclear Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting Program (Lab-to-Lab MPC and A Program); it is one of several, complementary US-Russian MPC and A programs. The purpose of the Lab-to-Lab MPC and A Program is to accelerate progress toward a goal that is vital to the national security interests of both countries: reducing the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation by strengthening MPC and A systems. In its first two years, the program has made significant progress and has expanded to include many additional Russian participants. It has also fostered a spirit of mutual understanding, partnership, and respect between US and Russian nuclear specialists, which has paved the way for advances in other MPC and A and nuclear security cooperative efforts. This paper reviews the current status of the program. In addition to summarizing the background and objectives of the program, the paper describes highlights of recent work and outlines future directions for Lab-to-Lab MPC and A cooperation

  15. Progress on laboratory studies of the immobilisation of plutonium contaminated materials (pcm)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awmack, A.F.; Hemingway, K.

    1984-09-01

    This report describes progress on laboratory scale investigations into immobilisation of Plutonium Contaminated Materials for the year ending August 1984. The work is a continuation of that previously reported though some new work is also included. The samples tested were shredded plastic materials and latex. Three areas of work are covered (1) ISO Leach Tests (2) Radiolysis and degradation of organic materials (3) Equilibrium Leach Tests. (author)

  16. Construction material processed using lunar simulant in various environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Stan; Ocallaghan-Hay, Bridget; Housman, Ralph; Kindig, Michael; King, John; Montegrande, Kevin; Norris, Raymond; Vanscotter, Ryan; Willenborg, Jonathan; Staubs, Harry

    1995-01-01

    The manufacture of construction materials from locally available resources in space is an important first step in the establishment of lunar and planetary bases. The objective of the CoMPULSIVE (Construction Material Processed Using Lunar Simulant In Various Environments) experiment is to develop a procedure to produce construction materials by sintering or melting Johnson Space Center Simulant 1 (JSC-1) lunar soil simulant in both earth-based (1-g) and microgravity (approximately 0-g) environments. The characteristics of the resultant materials will be tested to determine its physical and mechanical properties. The physical characteristics include: crystalline, thermal, and electrical properties. The mechanical properties include: compressive tensile, and flexural strengths. The simulant, placed in a sealed graphite crucible, will be heated using a high temperature furnace. The crucible will then be cooled by radiative and forced convective means. The core furnace element consists of space qualified quartz-halogen incandescent lamps with focusing mirrors. Sample temperatures of up to 2200 C are attainable using this heating method.

  17. Evaluation of Hazardous Material Management Safety in the Chemical Laboratory in BATAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur-Rahmah-Hidayati

    2005-01-01

    The management safety of the hazardous material (B3) in the chemical laboratory of BATAN was evaluated. The evaluation is necessary to be done because B3 is often used together with radioactive materials in the laboratory, but the attention to the safety aspect of B3 is not paid sufficiently in spite of its big potential hazard. The potential hazard generated from the nature of B3 could be flammable, explosive, oxidative, corrosive and poisonous. The handling of B3 could be conducted by enforcing the labelling and classification in the usage and disposal processes. Some observations of the chemical laboratory of BATAN show that the management safety of hazardous material in compliance with the government regulation no. 74 year 2001 has not been dully conducted. The management safety of B3 could be improved by, designating one who has adequate skill in hazardous material safety specially as the B3 safety officer, providing the Material Safety Data Sheet that is updated periodically to use in the laboratory and storage room, updating periodically the inventory of B3, performing training in work safety periodically, and monitoring the ventilation system intensively in laboratory and storage room. (author)

  18. Numerical simulation of mechanical behavior of composite materials

    CERN Document Server

    Oller, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    An original mechanical formulation to treat nonlinear orthotropic behavior of composite materials is presented in this book. It also examines different formulations that allow us to evaluate the behavior of composite materials through the composition of its components, obtaining a new composite material. Also two multiple scale homogenization methods are given, one based on the analytical study of the cells (Ad-hoc homogenization), and other one, more general based on the finite element procedure applied on the macro scale (upper-scale) and in the micro scale (sub-scale). A very general formulation to simulate the mechanical behavior for traditional composite structures (plywood, reinforced concrete, masonry, etc.), as well as the new composite materials reinforced with long and short fibers, nanotubes, etc., are also shown in this work. Typical phenomena occurring in composite materials are also described in this work, including fiber-matrix debounding, local buckling of fibers and its coupling with the over...

  19. Characterization of a backfill candidate material, IBECO-RWC-BF Baclo Project - Phase 3 Laboratory tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Sanden, Torbjoern; Dueck, Ann; Ohlsson, Lars (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-01-15

    A backfill candidate material, IBECO-RWC-BF, which origin from Milos, Greece, has been investigated. The material was delivered both as granules and as pellets. The investigation described in this report aimed to characterize the material and evaluate if it can be used in a future repository. The following investigations have been done and are presented in this report: 1. Standard laboratory tests. Water content, liquid limit and swelling potential are examples on standard tests that have been performed. 2. Block manufacturing. The block compaction properties of the material have been determined. A first test was performed in laboratory but also tests in large scale have been performed. After finishing the test phase, 60 tons of blocks were manufactured at Hoeganaes Bjuf AB. The blocks will be used in large scale laboratory tests at Aespoe HRL. 3. Mechanical parameters. The compressibility of the material was investigated with oedometer tests (four tests) where the load was applied in steps after saturation. The evaluated oedometer modulus varied between 34.50 MPa. Tests were made to evaluate the elastic parameters of the material (E, nu). Altogether three tests were made on specimens with dry densities of about 1,710 kg/m3. The evaluated E-modulus and Poisson's ratio varied between 231-263 MPa and 0.16-0.19 respectively. The strength of the material, both the compressive strength and the tensile strength were measured on specimens compacted to different dry densities. The test results yielded a relation between density and the two types of strength. Furthermore, tests have been made in order to determine the compressibility of the unsaturated filling of pellets. Two tests were made where the pellets were loosely filled in a Proctor cylinder and then compressed at a constant rate of strain during continuously measurement of the applied load. 4. Swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity. There is, as expected, a very clear influence of the dry density on the

  20. Standard Practice for Laboratory Screening of Metallic Containment Materials for Use With Liquids in Solar Heating and Cooling Systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1980-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers several laboratory test procedures for evaluating corrosion performance of metallic containment materials under conditions similar to those that may occur in solar heating and cooling systems. All test results relate to the performance of the metallic containment material only as a part of a metal/fluid pair. Performance in these laboratory test procedures, taken by itself, does not necessarily constitute an adequate basis for acceptance or rejection of a particular metal/fluid pair in solar heating and cooling systems, either in general or in a particular design. This practice is not intended to preclude the use of other screening tests, particularly when those tests are designed to more closely simulate field service conditions. 1.2 This practice describes apparatus and procedures for several tests, any one or more of which may be used to evaluate the deterioration of the metallic containment material in a metal/fluid pair. The procedures are designed to permit simulation, heating...

  1. Simulated Irradiation of Samples in HFIR for use as Possible Test Materials in the MPEX (Material Plasma Exposure Experiment) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, Ronald James [ORNL; Rapp, Juergen [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The importance of Plasma Material Interaction (PMI) is a major concern in fusion reactor design and analysis. The Material-Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX) facility will explore PMI under fusion reactor plasma conditions. Samples with accumulated displacements per atom (DPA) damage produced by irradiations in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be studied in the MPEX facility. The project presented in this paper involved performing assessments of the induced radioactivity and resulting radiation fields of a variety of potential fusion reactor materials. The scientific code packages MCNP and SCALE were used to simulate irradiation of the samples in HFIR; generation and depletion of nuclides in the material and the subsequent composition, activity levels, gamma radiation fields, and resultant dose rates as a function of cooling time. These state-of-the-art simulation methods were used in addressing the challenge of the MPEX project to minimize the radioactive inventory in the preparation of the samples for inclusion in the MPEX facility.

  2. Atomistic Simulations of Small-scale Materials Tests of Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Chan Sun; Jin, Hyung Ha; Kwon, Jun Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Degradation of materials properties under neutron irradiation is one of the key issues affecting the lifetime of nuclear reactors. Evaluating the property changes of materials due to irradiations and understanding the role of microstructural changes on mechanical properties are required for ensuring reliable and safe operation of a nuclear reactor. However, high dose of neuron irradiation capabilities are rather limited and it is difficult to discriminate various factors affecting the property changes of materials. Ion beam irradiation can be used to investigate radiation damage to materials in a controlled way, but has the main limitation of small penetration depth in the length scale of micro meters. Over the past decade, the interest in the investigations of size-dependent mechanical properties has promoted the development of various small-scale materials tests, e.g. nanoindentation and micro/nano-pillar compression tests. Small-scale materials tests can address the issue of the limitation of small penetration depth of ion irradiation. In this paper, we present small-scale materials tests (experiments and simulation) which are applied to study the size and irradiation effects on mechanical properties. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of nanoindentation and nanopillar compression tests. These atomistic simulations are expected to significantly contribute to the investigation of the fundamental deformation mechanism of small scale irradiated materials

  3. SIMIFR: A code to simulate material movement in the Integral Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, A.M.; Orechwa, Yuri.

    1991-01-01

    The SIMIFR code has been written to simulate the movement of material through a process. This code can be used to investigate inventory differences in material balances, assist in process design, and to produce operational scheduling. The particular process that is of concern to the authors is that centered around Argonne National Laboratory's Integral Fast Reactor. This is a process which involves the irradiation of fissile material for power production, and the recycling of the irradiated reactor fuel pins into fresh fuel elements. To adequately simulate this process it is necessary to allow for locations which can contain either discrete items or homogeneous mixtures. It is also necessary to allow for a very flexible process control algorithm. Further, the code must have the capability of transmuting isotopic compositions and computing internally the fraction of material from a process ending up in a given location. The SIMIFR code has been developed to perform all of these tasks. In addition to simulating the process, the code is capable of generating random measurement values and sampling errors for all locations, and of producing a restart deck so that terminated problems may be continued. In this paper the authors first familiarize the reader with the IFR fuel cycle. The different capabilities of the SIMIFR code are described. Finally, the simulation of the IFR fuel cycle using the SIMIFR code is discussed. 4 figs

  4. Development and mechanical properties of construction materials from lunar simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Chandra S.

    1992-01-01

    Development of versatile engineering materials from locally available materials in space is an important step toward the establishment of outposts on the Moon and Mars. Development of the technologies for manufacture of structural and construction materials on the Moon, utilizing local lunar soil (regolith), without the use of water, is an important element for habitats and explorations in space. It is also vital that the mechanical behavior such as strength and tensile, flexural properties, fracture toughness, ductility, and deformation characteristics are defined toward establishment of the ranges of engineering applications of the materials developed. The objectives include two areas: (1) thermal 'liquefaction' of lunar simulant (at about 1100 C) with different additives (fibers, powders, etc.), and (2) development and use of a new triaxial test device in which lunar simulants are first compacted under cycles of loading, and then tested with different vacuums and initial confining or in situ stress. Details of the development of intermediate ceramic composites (ICC) and testing for their flexural and compression characteristics were described in various reports and papers. The subject of behavior of compacted simulant under vacuum was described in previous progress reports and publications; since the presently available device allows vacuum levels up to only 10(exp -4) torr, it is recommended that a vacuum pump that can allow higher levels of vacuum be utilized for further investigation.

  5. Comparative Laboratory and Numerical Simulations of Shearing Granular Fault Gouge: Micromechanical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. K.; Marone, C. J.; Guo, Y.; Anthony, J. L.; Knuth, M. W.

    2004-12-01

    Laboratory studies of granular shear zones have provided significant insight into fault zone processes and the mechanics of earthquakes. The micromechanisms of granular deformation are more difficult to ascertain, but have been hypothesized based on known variations in boundary conditions, particle properties and geometries, and mechanical behavior. Numerical simulations using particle dynamics methods (PDM) can offer unique views into deforming granular shear zones, revealing the precise details of granular microstructures, particle interactions, and packings, which can be correlated with macroscopic mechanical behavior. Here, we describe a collaborative program of comparative laboratory and numerical experiments of granular shear using idealized materials, i.e., glass beads, glass rods or pasta, and angular sand. Both sets of experiments are carried out under similar initial and boundary conditions in a non-fracturing stress regime. Phenomenologically, the results of the two sets of experiments are very similar. Peak friction values vary as a function of particle dimensionality (1-D vs. 2-D vs. 3-D), particle angularity, particle size and size distributions, boundary roughness, and shear zone thickness. Fluctuations in shear strength during an experiment, i.e., stick-slip events, can be correlated with distinct changes in the nature, geometries, and durability of grain bridges that support the shear zone walls. Inclined grain bridges are observed to form, and to support increasing loads, during gradual increases in assemblage strength. Collapse of an individual grain bridge leads to distinct localization of strain, generating a rapidly propagating shear surface that cuts across multiple grain bridges, accounting for the sudden drop in strength. The distribution of particle sizes within an assemblage, along with boundary roughness and its periodicity, influence the rate of formation and dissipation of grain bridges, thereby controlling friction variations during

  6. A direct Eulerian method for the simulation of multi-material compressible flows with material sliding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motte, R.; Braeunig, J.P.; Peybernes, M.

    2012-01-01

    As the simulation of compressible flows with several materials is essential for applications studied within the CEA-DAM, the authors propose an approach based on finite volumes with centred variables for the resolution of compressible Euler equations. Moreover, they allow materials to slide with respect to each other as it is the case for water and air, for example. A conservation law is written for each material in a hybrid grid, and a condition of contact between materials under the form of fluxes is expressed. It is illustrated by the case of an intense shock propagating in water and interacting with an air bubble which will be strongly deformed and compressed

  7. Preparation for microgravity - The role of the Microgravity Material Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J. Christopher; Rosenthal, Bruce N.; Meyer, Maryjo B.; Glasgow, Thomas K.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments at the NASA Lewis Research Center's Microgravity Material Science Laboratory using physical and mathematical models to delineate the effects of gravity on processes of scientific and commercial interest are discussed. Where possible, transparent model systems are used to visually track convection, settling, crystal growth, phase separation, agglomeration, vapor transport, diffusive flow, and polymer reactions. Materials studied include metals, alloys, salts, glasses, ceramics, and polymers. Specific technologies discussed include the General Purpose furnace used in the study of metals and crystal growth, the isothermal dendrite growth apparatus, the electromagnetic levitator/instrumented drop tube, the high temperature directional solidification furnace, the ceramics and polymer laboratories and the center's computing facilities.

  8. Atomistic Simulation of Interfaces in Materials of Solid State Ionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov-Schitz, A. K.; Mazo, G. N.

    2018-01-01

    The possibilities of describing correctly interfaces of different types in solids within a computer experiment using molecular statics simulation, molecular dynamics simulation, and quantum chemical calculations are discussed. Heterophase boundaries of various types, including grain boundaries and solid electrolyte‒solid electrolyte and ionic conductor‒electrode material interfaces, are considered. Specific microstructural features and mechanisms of the ion transport in real heterophase structures (cationic conductor‒metal anode and anionic conductor‒cathode) existing in solid state ionics devices (such as solid-state batteries and fuel cells) are discussed.

  9. Characterisation of Plasma Vitrified Simulant Plutonium Contaminated Material Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyatt, Neil C.; Morgan, Suzy; Stennett, Martin C.; Scales, Charlie R.; Deegan, David

    2007-01-01

    The potential of plasma vitrification for the treatment of a simulant Plutonium Contaminated Material (PCM) was investigated. It was demonstrated that the PuO 2 simulant, CeO 2 , could be vitrified in the amorphous calcium iron aluminosilicate component of the product slag with simultaneous destruction of the organic and polymer waste fractions. Product Consistency Tests conducted at 90 deg. C in de-ionised water and buffered pH 11 solution show the PCM slag product to be durable with respect to release of Ce. (authors)

  10. Material handling for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittman, P.; Roybal, J.; Durrer, R.; Gordon, D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper will present the design and application of material handling and automation systems currently being developed for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Nuclear Material Storage Facility (NMSF) renovation project. The NMSF is a long-term storage facility for nuclear material in various forms. The material is stored within tubes in a rack called a basket. The material handling equipment range from simple lift assist devices to more sophisticated fully automated robots, and are split into three basic systems: a Vault Automation System, an NDA automation System, and a Drum handling System. The Vault Automation system provides a mechanism to handle a basket of material cans and to load/unload storage tubes within the material vault. In addition, another robot is provided to load/unload material cans within the baskets. The NDA Automation System provides a mechanism to move material within the small canister NDA laboratory and to load/unload the NDA instruments. The Drum Handling System consists of a series of off the shelf components used to assist in lifting heavy objects such as pallets of material or drums and barrels

  11. Practical utilization of modeling and simulation in laboratory process waste assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyttle, T.W.; Smith, D.M.; Weinrach, J.B.; Burns, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), facility waste streams tend to be small but highly diverse. Initial characterization of such waste streams is difficult in part due to a lack of tools to assist the waste generators in completing such assessments. A methodology has been developed at LANL to allow process knowledgeable field personnel to develop baseline waste generation assessments and to evaluate potential waste minimization technology. This process waste assessment (PWA) system is an application constructed within the process modeling system. The Process Modeling System (PMS) is an object-oriented, mass balance-based, discrete-event simulation using the common LISP object system (CLOS). Analytical capabilities supported within the PWA system include: complete mass balance specifications, historical characterization of selected waste streams and generation of facility profiles for materials consumption, resource utilization and worker exposure. Anticipated development activities include provisions for a best available technologies (BAT) database and integration with the LANL facilities management Geographic Information System (GIS). The environments used to develop these assessment tools will be discussed in addition to a review of initial implementation results

  12. Materials used to simulate physical properties of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbrowska, A K; Rotaru, G-M; Derler, S; Spano, F; Camenzind, M; Annaheim, S; Stämpfli, R; Schmid, M; Rossi, R M

    2016-02-01

    For many applications in research, material development and testing, physical skin models are preferable to the use of human skin, because more reliable and reproducible results can be obtained. This article gives an overview of materials applied to model physical properties of human skin to encourage multidisciplinary approaches for more realistic testing and improved understanding of skin-material interactions. The literature databases Web of Science, PubMed and Google Scholar were searched using the terms 'skin model', 'skin phantom', 'skin equivalent', 'synthetic skin', 'skin substitute', 'artificial skin', 'skin replica', and 'skin model substrate.' Articles addressing material developments or measurements that include the replication of skin properties or behaviour were analysed. It was found that the most common materials used to simulate skin are liquid suspensions, gelatinous substances, elastomers, epoxy resins, metals and textiles. Nano- and micro-fillers can be incorporated in the skin models to tune their physical properties. While numerous physical skin models have been reported, most developments are research field-specific and based on trial-and-error methods. As the complexity of advanced measurement techniques increases, new interdisciplinary approaches are needed in future to achieve refined models which realistically simulate multiple properties of human skin. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Simulated and Virtual Science Laboratory Experiments: Improving Critical Thinking and Higher-Order Learning Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Nicole A.

    Virtual laboratory experiments using interactive computer simulations are not being employed as viable alternatives to laboratory science curriculum at extensive enough rates within higher education. Rote traditional lab experiments are currently the norm and are not addressing inquiry, Critical Thinking, and cognition throughout the laboratory experience, linking with educational technologies (Pyatt & Sims, 2007; 2011; Trundle & Bell, 2010). A causal-comparative quantitative study was conducted with 150 learners enrolled at a two-year community college, to determine the effects of simulation laboratory experiments on Higher-Order Learning, Critical Thinking Skills, and Cognitive Load. The treatment population used simulated experiments, while the non-treatment sections performed traditional expository experiments. A comparison was made using the Revised Two-Factor Study Process survey, Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, and the Scientific Attitude Inventory survey, using a Repeated Measures ANOVA test for treatment or non-treatment. A main effect of simulated laboratory experiments was found for both Higher-Order Learning, [F (1, 148) = 30.32,p = 0.00, eta2 = 0.12] and Critical Thinking Skills, [F (1, 148) = 14.64,p = 0.00, eta 2 = 0.17] such that simulations showed greater increases than traditional experiments. Post-lab treatment group self-reports indicated increased marginal means (+4.86) in Higher-Order Learning and Critical Thinking Skills, compared to the non-treatment group (+4.71). Simulations also improved the scientific skills and mastery of basic scientific subject matter. It is recommended that additional research recognize that learners' Critical Thinking Skills change due to different instructional methodologies that occur throughout a semester.

  14. Development and mechanical properties of structural materials from lunar simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Chandra S.; Girdner, K.; Saadatmanesh, H.; Allen, T.

    1991-01-01

    Development of the technologies for manufacture of structural and construction materials on the Moon, utilizing local lunar soil (regolith), without the use of water, is an important element for habitats and explorations in space. Here, it is vital that the mechanical behavior such as strength and flexural properties, fracture toughness, ductility and deformation characteristics be defined toward establishment of the ranges of engineering applications of the materials developed. The objective is to describe the research results in two areas for the above goal: (1) liquefaction of lunar simulant (at about 100 C) with different additives (fibers, powders, etc.); and (2) development and use of a new triaxial test device in which lunar simulants are first compressed under cycles of loading, and then tested with different vacuums and initial confining or in situ stress.

  15. Simulation of energy- efficient building prototype using different insulating materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouhaibi, Salma; Belouaggadia, Naoual; Lbibb, Rachid; Ezzine, Mohammed

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this work is to analyze the energetic efficiency of an individual building including an area of 130 m2 multi-zone, located in the region of FEZ which is characterized by a very hot and dry climate in summer and a quite cold one in winter, by incorporating insulating materials. This study was performed using TRNSYS V16 simulation software during a typical year of the FEZ region. Our simulation consists in developing a comparative study of two types of polystyrene and silica-aerogel insulation materials, in order to determine the best thermal performance. The results show that the thermal insulation of the building envelope is among the most effective solutions that give a significant reduction in energy requirements. Similarly, the use of silica-aerogels gives a good thermal performance, and therefore a good energy gain.

  16. A universal preconditioner for simulating condensed phase materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packwood, David; Ortner, Christoph, E-mail: c.ortner@warwick.ac.uk [Mathematics Institute, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Kermode, James, E-mail: j.r.kermode@warwick.ac.uk [Warwick Centre for Predictive Modelling, School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Mones, Letif [Mathematics Institute, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Engineering Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Bernstein, Noam [Center for Materials Physics and Technology, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Woolley, John [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Gould, Nicholas [Scientific Computing Department, STFC-Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Chilton, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Csányi, Gábor, E-mail: gc121@cam.ac.uk [Engineering Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-28

    We introduce a universal sparse preconditioner that accelerates geometry optimisation and saddle point search tasks that are common in the atomic scale simulation of materials. Our preconditioner is based on the neighbourhood structure and we demonstrate the gain in computational efficiency in a wide range of materials that include metals, insulators, and molecular solids. The simple structure of the preconditioner means that the gains can be realised in practice not only when using expensive electronic structure models but also for fast empirical potentials. Even for relatively small systems of a few hundred atoms, we observe speedups of a factor of two or more, and the gain grows with system size. An open source Python implementation within the Atomic Simulation Environment is available, offering interfaces to a wide range of atomistic codes.

  17. A Novel Simulation Technician Laboratory Design: Results of a Survey-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rami; Hughes, Patrick G; Friedl, Ed; Ortiz Figueroa, Fabiana; Cepeda Brito, Jose R; Frey, Jennifer; Birmingham, Lauren E; Atkinson, Steven Scott

    2016-03-16

    OBJECTIVE : The purpose of this study was to elicit feedback from simulation technicians prior to developing the first simulation technician-specific simulation laboratory in Akron, OH. Simulation technicians serve a vital role in simulation centers within hospitals/health centers around the world. The first simulation technician degree program in the US has been approved in Akron, OH. To satisfy the requirements of this program and to meet the needs of this special audience of learners, a customized simulation lab is essential. A web-based survey was circulated to simulation technicians prior to completion of the lab for the new program. The survey consisted of questions aimed at identifying structural and functional design elements of a novel simulation center for the training of simulation technicians. Quantitative methods were utilized to analyze data. Over 90% of technicians (n=65) think that a lab designed explicitly for the training of technicians is novel and beneficial. Approximately 75% of respondents think that the space provided appropriate audiovisual (AV) infrastructure and space to evaluate the ability of technicians to be independent. The respondents think that the lab needed more storage space, visualization space for a large number of students, and more space in the technical/repair area. CONCLUSIONS : A space designed for the training of simulation technicians was considered to be beneficial. This laboratory requires distinct space for technical repair, adequate bench space for the maintenance and repair of simulators, an appropriate AV infrastructure, and space to evaluate the ability of technicians to be independent.

  18. MMSNF 2005. Materials models and simulations for nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freyss, M.; Durinck, J.; Carlot, G.; Sabathier, C.; Martin, P.; Garcia, P.; Ripert, M.; Blanpain, P.; Lippens, M.; Schut, H.; Federov, A.V.; Bakker, K.; Osaka, M.; Miwa, S.; Sato, I.; Tanaka, K.; Kurosaki, K.; Uno, M.; Yamanaka, S.; Govers, K.; Verwerft, M.; Hou, M.; Lemehov, S.E.; Terentyev, D.; Govers, K.; Kotomin, E.A.; Ashley, N.J.; Grimes, R.W.; Van Uffelen, P.; Mastrikov, Y.; Zhukovskii, Y.; Rondinella, V.V.; Kurosaki, K.; Uno, M.; Yamanaka, S.; Minato, K.; Phillpot, S.; Watanabe, T.; Shukla, P.; Sinnott, S.; Nino, J.; Grimes, R.; Staicu, D.; Hiernaut, J.P.; Wiss, T.; Rondinella, V.V.; Ronchi, C.; Yakub, E.; Kaye, M.H.; Morrison, C.; Higgs, J.D.; Akbari, F.; Lewis, B.J.; Thompson, W.T.; Gueneau, C.; Gosse, S.; Chatain, S.; Dumas, J.C.; Sundman, B.; Dupin, N.; Konings, R.; Noel, H.; Veshchunov, M.; Dubourg, R.; Ozrin, C.V.; Veshchunov, M.S.; Welland, M.T.; Blanc, V.; Michel, B.; Ricaud, J.M.; Calabrese, R.; Vettraino, F.; Tverberg, T.; Kissane, M.; Tulenko, J.; Stan, M.; Ramirez, J.C.; Cristea, P.; Rachid, J.; Kotomin, E.; Ciriello, A.; Rondinella, V.V.; Staicu, D.; Wiss, T.; Konings, R.; Somers, J.; Killeen, J

    2006-07-01

    The MMSNF Workshop series aims at stimulating research and discussions on models and simulations of nuclear fuels and coupling the results into fuel performance codes.This edition was focused on materials science and engineering for fuel performance codes. The presentations were grouped in three technical sessions: fundamental modelling of fuel properties; integral fuel performance codes and their validation; collaborations and integration of activities. (A.L.B.)

  19. Simulation of Metal Particulates in High Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-28

    temperatures and pressures disintegrate the carbon- fiber casing, thus not producing any fragments. These carbon-fiber casing warheads are a solution...Polymer-Bonded Explosive (PBX) and Livermore’s High-Energy Explosive (LX) are examples of ex- plosives that use “ plastic ” as a binder material. Other...simulation data to empirical data does not provide any benefit to this research due to the complexity of plastically bonded explosives like PBX9501. The

  20. MMSNF 2005. Materials models and simulations for nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyss, M.; Durinck, J.; Carlot, G.; Sabathier, C.; Martin, P.; Garcia, P.; Ripert, M.; Blanpain, P.; Lippens, M.; Schut, H.; Federov, A.V.; Bakker, K.; Osaka, M.; Miwa, S.; Sato, I.; Tanaka, K.; Kurosaki, K.; Uno, M.; Yamanaka, S.; Govers, K.; Verwerft, M.; Hou, M.; Lemehov, S.E.; Terentyev, D.; Govers, K.; Kotomin, E.A.; Ashley, N.J.; Grimes, R.W.; Van Uffelen, P.; Mastrikov, Y.; Zhukovskii, Y.; Rondinella, V.V.; Kurosaki, K.; Uno, M.; Yamanaka, S.; Minato, K.; Phillpot, S.; Watanabe, T.; Shukla, P.; Sinnott, S.; Nino, J.; Grimes, R.; Staicu, D.; Hiernaut, J.P.; Wiss, T.; Rondinella, V.V.; Ronchi, C.; Yakub, E.; Kaye, M.H.; Morrison, C.; Higgs, J.D.; Akbari, F.; Lewis, B.J.; Thompson, W.T.; Gueneau, C.; Gosse, S.; Chatain, S.; Dumas, J.C.; Sundman, B.; Dupin, N.; Konings, R.; Noel, H.; Veshchunov, M.; Dubourg, R.; Ozrin, C.V.; Veshchunov, M.S.; Welland, M.T.; Blanc, V.; Michel, B.; Ricaud, J.M.; Calabrese, R.; Vettraino, F.; Tverberg, T.; Kissane, M.; Tulenko, J.; Stan, M.; Ramirez, J.C.; Cristea, P.; Rachid, J.; Kotomin, E.; Ciriello, A.; Rondinella, V.V.; Staicu, D.; Wiss, T.; Konings, R.; Somers, J.; Killeen, J.

    2006-01-01

    The MMSNF Workshop series aims at stimulating research and discussions on models and simulations of nuclear fuels and coupling the results into fuel performance codes.This edition was focused on materials science and engineering for fuel performance codes. The presentations were grouped in three technical sessions: fundamental modelling of fuel properties; integral fuel performance codes and their validation; collaborations and integration of activities. (A.L.B.)

  1. Sandia National Laboratories, California Hazardous Materials Management Program annual report : February 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brynildson, Mark E.

    2009-02-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) Hazardous Materials Management Program. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental anagement ystem Program Manual. This program annual report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Hazardous Materials Management Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  2. An Efficient Procedure for Removal and Inactivation of Alpha-Synuclein Assemblies from Laboratory Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousset, Luc; Brundin, Patrik; Böckmann, Anja; Meier, Beat; Melki, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Preformed α-synuclein fibrils seed the aggregation of soluble α-synuclein in cultured cells and in vivo. This, and other findings, has kindled the idea that α-synuclein fibrils possess prion-like properties. As α-synuclein fibrils should not be considered as innocuous, there is a need for decontamination and inactivation procedures for laboratory benches and non-disposable laboratory material. We assessed the effectiveness of different procedures designed to disassemble α-synuclein fibrils and reduce their infectivity. We examined different commercially available detergents to remove α-synuclein assemblies adsorbed on materials that are not disposable and that are most found in laboratories (e.g. plastic, glass, aluminum or stainless steel surfaces). We show that methods designed to decrease PrP prion infectivity neither effectively remove α-synuclein assemblies adsorbed to different materials commonly used in the laboratory nor disassemble the fibrillar form of the protein with efficiency. In contrast, both commercial detergents and SDS detached α-synuclein assemblies from contaminated surfaces and disassembled the fibrils. We describe three cleaning procedures that effectively remove and disassemble α-synuclein seeds. The methods rely on the use of detergents that are compatible with most non-disposable tools in a laboratory. The procedures are easy to implement and significantly decrease any potential risks associated to handling α-synuclein assemblies.

  3. An algorithm for simulating fracture of cohesive–frictional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nukala, Phani K V V; Barai, Pallab; Sampath, Rahul

    2010-01-01

    Fracture of disordered frictional granular materials is dominated by interfacial failure response that is characterized by de-cohesion followed by frictional sliding response. To capture such an interfacial failure response, we introduce a cohesive–friction random fuse model (CFRFM), wherein the cohesive response of the interface is represented by a linear stress–strain response until a failure threshold, which is then followed by a constant response at a threshold lower than the initial failure threshold to represent the interfacial frictional sliding mechanism. This paper presents an efficient algorithm for simulating fracture of such disordered frictional granular materials using the CFRFM. We note that, when applied to perfectly plastic disordered materials, our algorithm is both theoretically and numerically equivalent to the traditional tangent algorithm (Roux and Hansen 1992 J. Physique II 2 1007) used for such simulations. However, the algorithm is general and is capable of modeling discontinuous interfacial response. Our numerical simulations using the algorithm indicate that the local and global roughness exponents (ζ loc and ζ, respectively) of the fracture surface are equal to each other, and the two-dimensional crack roughness exponent is estimated to be ζ loc = ζ = 0.69 ± 0.03

  4. Efficient Monte Carlo Simulations of Gas Molecules Inside Porous Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihan; Smit, Berend

    2012-07-10

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are commonly used to obtain adsorption properties of gas molecules inside porous materials. In this work, we discuss various optimization strategies that lead to faster MC simulations with CO2 gas molecules inside host zeolite structures used as a test system. The reciprocal space contribution of the gas-gas Ewald summation and both the direct and the reciprocal gas-host potential energy interactions are stored inside energy grids to reduce the wall time in the MC simulations. Additional speedup can be obtained by selectively calling the routine that computes the gas-gas Ewald summation, which does not impact the accuracy of the zeolite's adsorption characteristics. We utilize two-level density-biased sampling technique in the grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) algorithm to restrict CO2 insertion moves into low-energy regions within the zeolite materials to accelerate convergence. Finally, we make use of the graphics processing units (GPUs) hardware to conduct multiple MC simulations in parallel via judiciously mapping the GPU threads to available workload. As a result, we can obtain a CO2 adsorption isotherm curve with 14 pressure values (up to 10 atm) for a zeolite structure within a minute of total compute wall time.

  5. Establishment of a clean laboratory for ultra trace analysis of nuclear materials in safeguards environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanzawa, Yukiko; Magara, Masaaki; Watanabe, Kazuo

    2003-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has established a cleanroom facility with cleanliness of ISO Class 5: the Clean Laboratory for Environmental Analysis and Research (CLEAR). It was designed to be used for the analysis of nuclear materials in environmental samples mainly for the safeguards, in addition to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty verification and research on environmental sciences. The CLEAR facility was designed to meet conflicting requirements of a cleanroom and for handling of nuclear materials according to Japanese regulations, i.e., to avoid contamination from outside and to contain nuclear materials inside the facility. This facility has been intended to be used for wet chemical treatment, instrumental analysis and particle handling. A fume-hood to provide a clean work surface for handling of nuclear materials was specially designed. Much attention was paid to the selection of construction materials for use to corrosive acids. The performance of the cleanroom and analytical background in the laboratory are discussed. This facility has satisfactory specification required for joining the International Atomic Energy Agency Network of Analytical Laboratories. It can be concluded that the CLEAR facility enables analysis of ultra trace amounts of nuclear materials at sub-pictogram level in environmental samples. (author)

  6. Studies on the survival of Ascaris suum eggs under laboratory and simulated field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.

    1998-01-01

    A series of four experiments was carried out to study the survival of Ascaris suum eggs: in a pig slurry unit on a farm, in the laboratory under anaerobic conditions and different relative humidities (rH), and under simulated field conditions. Survival of eggs in the pig slurry unit was 20% after

  7. Laboratory simulation of high-level liquid waste evaporation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.A.

    1978-01-01

    The reprocessing of nuclear fuel generates high-level liquid wastes (HLLW) which require interim storage pending solidification. Interim storage facilities are most efficient if the HLLW is evaporated prior to or during the storage period. Laboratory evaporation and storage studies with simulated waste slurries have yielded data which are applicable to the efficient design and economical operation of actual process equipment

  8. US/Russian laboratory-to-laboratory program in materials protection, control and accounting at the RRC Kurchatov Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhoruchkin, V.; Roumiansev, A.; Shmelev, V.

    1996-01-01

    Six US DOE Laboratories are carrying out a program of cooperation with the Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute (RRC KI) to improve the capabilities and facilities in nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC ampersand A). In 1995, the primary emphasis of this program was the implementation of improved physical protection at a demonstration building at RRC KI, and the upgrading of the computerized MC ampersand A system, diagnostic instrumentation, and physical inventory procedures at a critical assembly within this building. Work continues in 1996 at the demonstration building but now also has begun at the two Kurchatov buildings which constitute the Central Storage Facility (CSF). At this facility, there will be upgrades in the physical inventory taking procedures, a test and evaluation of gamma-ray isotopic measurements, evaluations of nuclear material portal monitors and neutron-based measurement equipment as well as development of an improved computerized materials accounting system, implementation of bar code printing and reading equipment, development of tamper indicating device program, and substantial improvements in physical protection. Also, vulnerability assessments begun in 1995 are being extended to additional high priority facilities at Kurchatov

  9. Implementation of Software Tools for Hybrid Control Rooms in the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokstad, Håkon; Berntsson, Olof; McDonald, Robert; Boring, Ronald; Hallbert, Bruce; Fitzgerald, Kirk

    2014-01-01

    The Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) and Idaho National Laboratory have designed, implemented, tested and installed a functioning prototype of a set of large screen overview and procedure support displays for the Generic Pressurized Water Reactor (GPWR) simulator in the U.S. Department of Energy's Human Systems Simulation Laboratory. The overview display is based on IFE's extensive experiences with large screen overview displays in the Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLAB), and presents the main control room indicators on a combined three-screen display. The procedure support displays are designed and implemented to provide a compact but still comprehensive overview of the relevant process measurements and indicators to support operators' good situational awareness during the performance of various types of procedures and plant conditions.

  10. Implementation of Software Tools for Hybrid Control Rooms in the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokstad, Håkon [Halden Reactor Project, Halden (Norway); Berntsson, Olof [Halden Reactor Project, Halden (Norway); McDonald, Robert [Halden Reactor Project, Halden (Norway); Boring, Ronald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hallbert, Bruce [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fitzgerald, Kirk [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) and Idaho National Laboratory have designed, implemented, tested and installed a functioning prototype of a set of large screen overview and procedure support displays for the Generic Pressurized Water Reactor (GPWR) simulator in the U.S. Department of Energy’s Human Systems Simulation Laboratory. The overview display is based on IFE’s extensive experiences with large screen overview displays in the Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLAB), and presents the main control room indicators on a combined three-screen display. The procedure support displays are designed and implemented to provide a compact but still comprehensive overview of the relevant process measurements and indicators to support operators' good situational awareness during the performance of various types of procedures and plant conditions.

  11. Evaluation of Surface Runoff Generation Processes Using a Rainfall Simulator: A Small Scale Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danáčová, Michaela; Valent, Peter; Výleta, Roman

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, rainfall simulators are being used by many researchers in field or laboratory experiments. The main objective of most of these experiments is to better understand the underlying runoff generation processes, and to use the results in the process of calibration and validation of hydrological models. Many research groups have assembled their own rainfall simulators, which comply with their understanding of rainfall processes, and the requirements of their experiments. Most often, the existing rainfall simulators differ mainly in the size of the irrigated area, and the way they generate rain drops. They can be characterized by the accuracy, with which they produce a rainfall of a given intensity, the size of the irrigated area, and the rain drop generating mechanism. Rainfall simulation experiments can provide valuable information about the genesis of surface runoff, infiltration of water into soil and rainfall erodibility. Apart from the impact of physical properties of soil, its moisture and compaction on the generation of surface runoff and the amount of eroded particles, some studies also investigate the impact of vegetation cover of the whole area of interest. In this study, the rainfall simulator was used to simulate the impact of the slope gradient of the irrigated area on the amount of generated runoff and sediment yield. In order to eliminate the impact of external factors and to improve the reproducibility of the initial conditions, the experiments were conducted in laboratory conditions. The laboratory experiments were carried out using a commercial rainfall simulator, which was connected to an external peristaltic pump. The pump maintained a constant and adjustable inflow of water, which enabled to overcome the maximum volume of simulated precipitation of 2.3 l, given by the construction of the rainfall simulator, while maintaining constant characteristics of the simulated precipitation. In this study a 12-minute rainfall with a constant intensity

  12. Medical Laboratory Technician--Microbiology, 10-3. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This course, the second of three courses in the medical laboratory technician field adapted from military curriculum materials for use in vocational and technical education, was designed as a refresher course for student self-study and evaluation. It is suitable for use by advanced students or beginning students participating in a supervised…

  13. Testing Plastic Deformations of Materials in the Introductory Undergraduate Mechanics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo-Kroger, C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Normally, a mechanics laboratory at the undergraduate level includes an experiment to verify compliance with Hooke's law in materials, such as a steel spring and an elastic rubber band. Stress-strain curves are found for these elements. Compression in elastic bands is practically impossible to achieve due to flaccidity. A typical experiment for…

  14. Certification of biological reference materials: participation of the Neutron Activation Laboratory (LAN-IPEN/CNEN-SP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ticianelli, Regina B.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.

    2007-01-01

    Analytical laboratories have as one of their important goals to demonstrate their competence allowing international acceptance and comparison of analytical data. The IPEN Neutron Activation Laboratory (LAN-IPEN) has implemented its Quality Assurance Program which comprises, among other activities, the participation in intercomparison runs. As a part of this Quality Assurance Program, LAN-IPEN has participated in interlaboratorial trials to analyze two biological candidate reference materials: INCT-CF-3 Corn Flour and INCT-SBF-4 Soya Bean Flour from the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry And Technology (Warszawa, Poland). The elements Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn were analyzed in the candidate reference materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The performance of the laboratory was statistically evaluated in relation to the consensus values for these materials using the Z-Score test. This laboratory evaluation method has been accepted as a standard by ISO/IUPAC. In the present study, adequate Z-Score values (|Z|<2) were observed for all of the analyzed elements, confirming the accuracy of the nuclear methodology employed. The contribution of LAN-IPEN in the certification of the reference materials analyzed was very important, since the results provided were used in the statistical evaluation of the certified value. (author)

  15. Special from encapsulation for radioactive material shipments from Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaich, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Special Form encapsulation has been used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to ship radioactive solids for the past fifteen years. A family of inexpensive stainless steel containers has been developed and tested to meet the USA Department of Transportation (DOT) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations concerning radioactive material shipments as Special Form

  16. Development and mechanical properties of structural materials from lunar simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Chandra S.

    1991-01-01

    Development of versatile engineering materials from locally available materials in space is an important step toward establishment of outposts such as on the moon and Mars. Here development of the technologies for manufacture of structural and construction materials on the moon, utilizing local lunar soil (regolith), without the use of water, is an important element for habitats and explorations in space. It is also vital that the mechanical behavior such as strength and flexural properties, fracture toughness, ductility, and deformation characteristics are defined toward establishment of the ranges of engineering applications of the materials developed. The objectives include two areas: (1) thermal liquefaction of lunar simulant (at about 1100 C) with different additives (fibers, powders, etc.); and (2) development and use of a traxial test device in which lunar simulants are first compacted under cycles of loading, and then tested with different vacuums and initial confining or insitu stress. The second area was described in previous progress reports and publications; since the presently available device allows vacuum levels up to only 10(exp -4) torr, it is recommended that a vacuum pump that can allow higher levels of vacuum is acquired.

  17. Application of simulation experiments to fusion materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolfi, F.V. Jr.; Li, C.Y.

    1978-01-01

    One of the major problems in the development of structural alloys for use in magnetic fusion reactors (MFRs) is the lack of suitable materials testing facilities. This is because operating fusion reactors, even of the experimental size, do not exist. A primary task in the early stages of MFR alloy development will be to adapt currently available irradiation facilities for use in materials development. Thus, it is generally recognized that, at least for the next ten years, studies of irradiation effects in an MFR environment on the microstructure and mechanical properties of structural materials must utilize ion and fission neutron simulations. Special problems will arise because, in addition to displacement damage, an MFR radiation environment will produce, in candidate structural materials, higher and more significant concentrations of gaseous nuclear transmutation products, e.g., helium and hydrogen, than found in a fast breeder reactor. These effects must be taken into account when simulation techniques are employed, since they impact heavily on irradiation microstructure development and, hence, mechanical properties

  18. Incident involving radioactive material at IAEA Safeguards Laboratory - No radioactivity released to environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Pressure build-up in a small sealed sample bottle in a storage safe resulted in plutonium contamination of a storage room at about 02:30 today at the IAEA's Safeguards Analytical Laboratory in Seibersdorf. All indications are that there was no release of radioactivity to the environment. Further monitoring around the laboratory will be undertaken. No one was working in the laboratory at the time. The Laboratory's safety system detected plutonium contamination in the storage room where the safe was located and in two other rooms - subsequently confirmed by a team of IAEA radiation protection experts. The Laboratory is equipped with multiple safety systems, including an air-filtering system to prevent the release of radioactivity to the environment. There will be restricted access to the affected rooms until they are decontaminated. A full investigation of the incident will be conducted. The IAEA has informed the Austrian regulatory authority. The IAEA's Laboratory in Seibersdorf is located within the complex of the Austrian Research Centers Seibersdorf (ARC), about 35 km southeast of Vienna. The laboratory routinely analyses small samples of nuclear material (uranium or plutonium) as part of the IAEA's safeguards verification work. (IAEA)

  19. Multi-material 3D Models for Temporal Bone Surgical Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Austin S; Kimbell, Julia S; Webster, Caroline E; Harrysson, Ola L A; Formeister, Eric J; Buchman, Craig A

    2015-07-01

    A simulated, multicolor, multi-material temporal bone model can be created using 3-dimensional (3D) printing that will prove both safe and beneficial in training for actual temporal bone surgical cases. As the process of additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, has become more practical and affordable, a number of applications for the technology in the field of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery have been considered. One area of promise is temporal bone surgical simulation. Three-dimensional representations of human temporal bones were created from temporal bone computed tomography (CT) scans using biomedical image processing software. Multi-material models were then printed and dissected in a temporal bone laboratory by attending and resident otolaryngologists. A 5-point Likert scale was used to grade the models for their anatomical accuracy and suitability as a simulation of cadaveric and operative temporal bone drilling. The models produced for this study demonstrate significant anatomic detail and a likeness to human cadaver specimens for drilling and dissection. Simulated temporal bones created by this process have potential benefit in surgical training, preoperative simulation for challenging otologic cases, and the standardized testing of temporal bone surgical skills. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Comparison in Schemes for Simulating Depositional Growth of Ice Crystal between Theoretical and Laboratory Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Guoqing; Li, Xiaofan

    2015-04-01

    The Bergeron-Findeisen process has been simulated using the parameterization scheme for the depositional growth of ice crystal with the temperature-dependent theoretically predicted parameters in the past decades. Recently, Westbrook and Heymsfield (2011) calculated these parameters using the laboratory data from Takahashi and Fukuta (1988) and Takahashi et al. (1991) and found significant differences between the two parameter sets. There are two schemes that parameterize the depositional growth of ice crystal: Hsie et al. (1980), Krueger et al. (1995) and Zeng et al. (2008). In this study, we conducted three pairs of sensitivity experiments using three parameterization schemes and the two parameter sets. The pre-summer torrential rainfall event is chosen as the simulated rainfall case in this study. The analysis of root-mean-squared difference and correlation coefficient between the simulation and observation of surface rain rate shows that the experiment with the Krueger scheme and the Takahashi laboratory-derived parameters produces the best rain-rate simulation. The mean simulated rain rates are higher than the mean observational rain rate. The calculations of 5-day and model domain mean rain rates reveal that the three schemes with Takahashi laboratory-derived parameters tend to reduce the mean rain rate. The Krueger scheme together with the Takahashi laboratory-derived parameters generate the closest mean rain rate to the mean observational rain rate. The decrease in the mean rain rate caused by the Takahashi laboratory-derived parameters in the experiment with the Krueger scheme is associated with the reductions in the mean net condensation and the mean hydrometeor loss. These reductions correspond to the suppressed mean infrared radiative cooling due to the enhanced cloud ice and snow in the upper troposphere.

  1. AUDILAB: a knowledge-based quality audit simulator for testing laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brai, A; Garnerin, P

    1997-05-01

    In order to obtain an accreditation, a laboratory must be prepared to provide a point-by-point check of various activities against the chosen reference standard, both from a general point of view and in relation to details of application. This paper describes AUDILAB, a computerized simulator accessible by network, able to provide testing laboratories with realistic quality audits performed in a customized way. AUDILAB establishes a detailed list of strengths (compliance with corresponding requirements of established standards) and weaknesses (improvements needed for laboratory's accreditation). The standard used by AUDILAB is the EN 45001 "General criteria for the operation of testing laboratories". A preliminary validation has already been completed. AUDILAB became operational in September 1993.

  2. A practical laboratory study simulating the percutaneous lumbar transforaminal epidural injection: training model in fresh cadaveric sheep spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslu, Husnu

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory training models are essential for developing and refining treatment skills before the clinical application of surgical and invasive procedures. A simple simulation model is needed for young trainees to learn how to handle instruments, and to perform safe lumbar transforaminal epidural injections. Our aim is to present a model of a fresh cadaveric sheep lumbar spine that simulates the lumbar transforaminal epidural injection. The material consists of a 2-year-old fresh cadaveric sheep spine. A 4-step approach was designed for lumbar transforaminal epidural injection under C-arm scopy. For the lumbar transforaminal epidural injection, the fluoroscope was adjusted to get a proper oblique view while the material was stabilized in a prone position. The procedure then begin, using the C-arm guidance scopy. The model simulates well the steps of standard lumbar transforaminal epidural injections in the human spine. The cadaveric sheep spine represents a good method for training and it simulates fluoroscopic lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injection procedures performed in the human spine.

  3. Optimizing the effectiveness of a mechanical suture-based anulus fibrosus repair construct in an acute failure laboratory simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Ashley; Wales, Larry; Houfburg, Rodney; Durfee, William K; Griffith, Steven L; Bentley, Ishmael

    2013-10-01

    In vitro comparative, laboratory experiments. This study developed a laboratory apparatus that measured resistance to failure using pressures similar to intradiscal pressure of a lumbar spinal disk. Various combinations of an anular repair device were compared. Herniated material of the intervertebral disk is removed during a lumbar discectomy; however, the defect in the anulus fibrosus remains and can provide a pathway for future herniation. Repairing the anulus fibrosus could mitigate this reherniation and improve patient outcomes. A pneumatic cylinder was used to increase the pressure of a sealed chamber until artificial nucleus pulposus material was expulsed through either a 3-mm circular (diameter) or a 6-mm slit anular defect created in a surrogate anulus fibrosus. Each unrepaired condition was compared with 3 repaired conditions using a commercially available soft tissue repair system. The repaired conditions included: (1) a single tension band; (2) 2 tension bands in a cruciate pattern; or (3) 2 tension bands in a parallel pattern. Maximum pressure at the point of extrusion of the internal chamber material and failure or nonfailure of the repair was measured. Significant differences were detected (P<0.05) in maximum failure pressures for the nonrepaired (control) versus repaired conditions. With 1 or 2 tension bands repairing the circular defect, the maximum failure pressure increased by approximately 76% and 131%, respectively. In addition, the failure pressure for 2 tension bands in either a cruciate or parallel configuration was not different, and was approximately 32% higher (P<0.05) than a single tension band in the case of the circular defect. Similar results were seen for the slit defect, with the exception that no difference between the repaired conditions (ie, single vs. 2 tension bands) was detected. This laboratory simulation demonstrated that repairing the anulus fibrosus after a discectomy procedure can be beneficial for retaining intradiscal

  4. Laboratory scale stabilization of N-springs groundwater strontium-90 using phosphatic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, T.E.; Petersen, S.W.; Torne, E.G.; Vlcakova, J.; Higginbotham, J.F.

    1996-09-01

    This document presents the results of a laboratory study designed to evaluate the ability of phosphatic materials to sorb strontium-90 from soil and groundwater. This study was initiated to investigate the potential use of phosphatic materials as permeable geochemical barriers for groundwater contaminated with strontium-90. Groundwater discharges to the Columbia River create potential human food chain hazards; therefore, it is imperative to immobilize the contamination before it reaches the river. Phosphate materials have been proven by various researchers to be chemical compounds that combine with contaminant metals forming into insoluble metal-phosphate minerals. These minerals are stable and insoluble under normal soil conditions

  5. High Temperature Materials Laboratory Thirteenth Annual Report: October 1999 Through September 2000; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasto, AE

    2001-01-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) is designed to assist American industries, universities, and governmental agencies develop advanced materials by providing a skilled staff and numerous sophisticated, often one-of-a-kind pieces of materials characterization equipment. It is a nationally designated user facility sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) office of Transportation Technologies, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Physically, it is a 64,500-ft(sup 2) building at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The HTML houses six ''user centers,'' which are clusters of specialized equipment designed for specific types of properties measurements. The HTML was conceived and built in the mid-1980s in response to the oil embargoes of the 1970s. The concept was to build a facility that would allow direct work with American industry, academia, and government laboratories in providing advanced high-temperature materials such as structural ceramics for energy-efficient engines. The HTML's scope of work has since expanded to include other, non-high-temperature materials of interest to transportation and other industries

  6. Derivation of uranium residual radioactive material guidelines for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site, Oxford, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimmagadda, M.; Faillace, E.; Yu, C.

    1994-01-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines for uranium were derived for the former Alba Craft Laboratory site in Oxford, Ohio. This site has been identified for remedial action under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Single nuclide and total uranium guidelines were derived on the basis of the requirement that the 50-year committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical individual who lives or works in the immediate vicinity of the former Alba Craft Laboratory site should not exceed a dose of 30 mrem/yr following remedial action for the current use and likely future use scenarios or a dose of 100 mrem/yr for less likely future use scenarios (Yu et al. 1993). The DOE residual radioactive material guideline computer code, RESRAD, which implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines, was used in this evaluation

  7. Advances in the simulation and automated measurement of well-sorted granular material: 1. Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Buscombe,; Rubin, David M.

    2012-01-01

    1. In this, the first of a pair of papers which address the simulation and automated measurement of well-sorted natural granular material, a method is presented for simulation of two-phase (solid, void) assemblages of discrete non-cohesive particles. The purpose is to have a flexible, yet computationally and theoretically simple, suite of tools with well constrained and well known statistical properties, in order to simulate realistic granular material as a discrete element model with realistic size and shape distributions, for a variety of purposes. The stochastic modeling framework is based on three-dimensional tessellations with variable degrees of order in particle-packing arrangement. Examples of sediments with a variety of particle size distributions and spatial variability in grain size are presented. The relationship between particle shape and porosity conforms to published data. The immediate application is testing new algorithms for automated measurements of particle properties (mean and standard deviation of particle sizes, and apparent porosity) from images of natural sediment, as detailed in the second of this pair of papers. The model could also prove useful for simulating specific depositional structures found in natural sediments, the result of physical alterations to packing and grain fabric, using discrete particle flow models. While the principal focus here is on naturally occurring sediment and sedimentary rock, the methods presented might also be useful for simulations of similar granular or cellular material encountered in engineering, industrial and life sciences.

  8. Computer simulation of multi-elemental fusion reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voertler, K.

    2011-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion is a sustainable energy solution, in which energy is produced using similar processes as in the sun. In this technology hydrogen isotopes are fused to gain energy and consequently to produce electricity. In a fusion reactor hydrogen isotopes are confined by magnetic fields as ionized gas, the plasma. Since the core plasma is millions of degrees hot, there are special needs for the plasma-facing materials. Moreover, in the plasma the fusion of hydrogen isotopes leads to the production of high energetic neutrons which sets demanding abilities for the structural materials of the reactor. This thesis investigates the irradiation response of materials to be used in future fusion reactors. Interactions of the plasma with the reactor wall leads to the removal of surface atoms, migration of them, and formation of co-deposited layers such as tungsten carbide. Sputtering of tungsten carbide and deuterium trapping in tungsten carbide was investigated in this thesis. As the second topic the primary interaction of the neutrons in the structural material steel was examined. As model materials for steel iron chromium and iron nickel were used. This study was performed theoretically by the means of computer simulations on the atomic level. In contrast to previous studies in the field, in which simulations were limited to pure elements, in this work more complex materials were used, i.e. they were multi-elemental including two or more atom species. The results of this thesis are in the microscale. One of the results is a catalogue of atom species, which were removed from tungsten carbide by the plasma. Another result is e.g. the atomic distributions of defects in iron chromium caused by the energetic neutrons. These microscopic results are used in data bases for multiscale modelling of fusion reactor materials, which has the aim to explain the macroscopic degradation in the materials. This thesis is therefore a relevant contribution to investigate the

  9. Decontamination efficiency of a sheet of vinyl wall paper as a surface material in radioisotope laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuhiko; Funadera, Kanako

    1989-01-01

    It has long been desired to prevent surface materials from cracking in a radioisotope laboratory. We applied a sheet of nonflammable wall paper, vinyl cloth, as a surface material to cover concrete wall. It was sufficiently resistant to the reinforced concrete wall cracking. The efficiency of the decontamination of the vinyl cloth was compared with those of stainless steel, iron and painted plates. The contamination and decontamination indices were determined in these surface materials after contamination with [ 32 P]orthophosphate (pH 3, 7 and 11) for 0 to 48 h. Both of the indices of the vinyl cloth were higher than those of the other materials. Further, it was confirmed that the vinyl cloth was resistant to acid and alkaline conditions and radioisotopes could not be permeable. The wipe off efficiency was also investigated in these materials by use of several decontamination detergents. In any reagents tested, the wipe of efficiency of the vinyl cloth was more than 80%. Thus, the vinyl cloth could be used for the surface material and is one of good surface materials in a radioisotope laboratory. (author)

  10. Management of nuclear materials in an R ampersand D environment at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, R.G.; Roth, S.B.; Jones, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a multidisciplinary R ampersand D organization and, as such, its nuclear materials inventory is diverse. Accordingly, major inventories of isotopes such as Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-242, U-235, Th, tritium, and deuterium, and lesser amounts of isotopes of Am, Cm, Np and exotic isotopes such as berkelium must be managed in accordance with Department of Energy Orders and Laboratory policies. Los Alamos also acts as a national resource for many one-of-a-kind materials which are supplied to universities, industry, and other government agencies within the US and throughout the world. Management of these materials requires effective interaction and communication with many nuclear materials custodians residing in over forty technical groups as well as effective interaction with numerous outside organizations. This paper discusses the role, philosophy, and organizational structure of Nuclear Materials Management at Los Alamos and also briefly presents results of two special nuclear materials management projects: 1- Revision of Item Description Codes for use in the Los Alamos nuclear material data base and 2- The recommendation of new economic discard limits for Pu-239. 2 refs., 1 fig

  11. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory materials in inventory natural and enriched uranium management and storage costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebeker, R.L.

    1995-11-01

    On July 13, 1994, the Office of Environmental Management (EM) was requested to develop a planning process that would result in management policies for dealing with nuclear materials in inventory. In response to this request, EM launched the Materials In Inventory (MIN) Initiative. A Headquarters Working Group was established to develop the broad policy framework for developing MIN management policies. MIN activities cover essentially all nuclear materials within the DOE complex, including such items as spent nuclear fuel, depleted uranium, plutonium, natural and enriched uranium, and other materials. In August 1995, a report discussing the natural and enriched uranium portion of the Initiative for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was published. That report, 'Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Materials-in-Inventory, Natural and Enriched Uranium'.' identified MIN under the control of Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company at the INEL. Later, additional information related to the costs associated with the storage of MIN materials was requested to supplement this report. This report provides the cost information for storing, disposing, or consolidating the natural and enriched uranium portion of the MIN materials at the INEL. The information consists of eight specific tables which detail present management costs and estimated costs of future activities

  12. Characterization and Simulation of a New Design Parallel-Plate Ionization Chamber for CT Dosimetry at Calibration Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Ana P.; Neves, Lucio P.; Maia, Ana F.; Caldas, Linda V. E.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, a new extended-length parallel-plate ionization chamber was tested in the standard radiation qualities for computed tomography established according to the half-value layers defined at the IEC 61267 standard, at the Calibration Laboratory of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN). The experimental characterization was made following the IEC 61674 standard recommendations. The experimental results obtained with the ionization chamber studied in this work were compared to those obtained with a commercial pencil ionization chamber, showing a good agreement. With the use of the PENELOPE Monte Carlo code, simulations were undertaken to evaluate the influence of the cables, insulator, PMMA body, collecting electrode, guard ring, screws, as well as different materials and geometrical arrangements, on the energy deposited on the ionization chamber sensitive volume. The maximum influence observed was 13.3% for the collecting electrode, and regarding the use of different materials and design, the substitutions showed that the original project presented the most suitable configuration. The experimental and simulated results obtained in this work show that this ionization chamber has appropriate characteristics to be used at calibration laboratories, for dosimetry in standard computed tomography and diagnostic radiology quality beams.

  13. Development, simulation and testing of structural materials for DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laesser, R.; Baluc, N.; Boutard, J.-L.; Diegele, E.; Gasparotto, M.; Riccardi, B.; Dudarev, S.; Moeslang, A.; Pippan, R.; Schaaf, B. van der

    2006-01-01

    up to 40 dpa/fpy in a limited volume. Recent advances in multiscale materials modelling have significantly improved the understanding of the processes leading from the atomistic defects to the changes of macroscopic properties. In future modelling will become an important tool for correlating experimental results achieved under different irradiation conditions (material testing reactors, fast reactors, accelerators, etc.), optimisation of the IFMIF test matrix and extrapolation to DEMO relevant operation parameters. This paper will describe the most promising structural materials with focus on Eurofer, present recently obtained results, simulations and testing, and will also address open material aspects on the path to DEMO. (author)

  14. Shocked materials at the intersection of experiment and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzana, H. E.; Belak, J. F.; Bradley, K. S.; Bringa, E. M.; Budil, K. S.; Cazamias, J. U.; El-Dasher, B.; Hawreliak, J. A.; Hessler, J.; Kadau, K.; Kalantar, D. H.; McNaney, J. M.; Milathianaki, D.; Rosolankova, K.; Swift, D. C.; Taravillo, M.; Van Buuren, T. W.; Wark, J. S.; de la Rubia, T. Diaz

    2008-04-01

    Understanding the dynamic lattice response of solids under the extreme conditions of pressure, temperature and strain rate is a scientific quest that spans nearly a century. Critical to developing this understanding is the ability to probe and model the spatial and temporal evolution of the material microstructure and properties at the scale of the relevant physical phenomena-nanometers to micrometers and picoseconds to nanoseconds. While experimental investigations over this range of spatial and temporal scales were unimaginable just a decade ago, new technologies and facilities currently under development and on the horizon have brought these goals within reach for the first time. The equivalent advancements in simulation capabilities now mean that we can conduct simulations and experiments at overlapping temporal and spatial scales. In this article, we describe some of our studies which exploit existing and new generation ultrabright, ultrafast x-ray sources and large scale molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the real-time physical phenomena that control the dynamic response of shocked materials.

  15. Simulation of Material Flow Through a Sample Divider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Rozbroj

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The prerequisite for a modern approach to innovative procedures of the development of current or even newly created equipment for the transport of particulate materials is the utilization of simulation methods, such as the Discrete Element Method (DEM. This article focuses on the basic, or initial, validation of movement of material through the sample divider. The mechanical-physical properties of brown coal were measured. Based on these parameters the preliminary input values for EDEM Academic were selected, and a simulation of the dividing process was run. The key monitored parameters included density and friction coefficient. Experiments on a realistic model of the equipment were performed and assessed. The total weights of brown coal at the exit from the divider were determined for a specific speed of the divider. The aim of this task was to simulate the realistically determined weight division of the brown coal sample. The result from the DEM was compared with the results of measurement on a realistic model.

  16. Simulated Space Environment Effects on a Candidate Solar Sail Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jin Ho; Bryant, Robert G.; Wilkie, W. Keats; Wadsworth, Heather M.; Craven, Paul D.; Nehls, Mary K.; Vaughn, Jason A.

    2017-01-01

    For long duration missions of solar sails, the sail material needs to survive harsh space environments and the degradation of the sail material controls operational lifetime. Therefore, understanding the effects of the space environment on the sail membrane is essential for mission success. In this study, we investigated the effect of simulated space environment effects of ionizing radiation, thermal aging and simulated potential damage on mechanical, thermal and optical properties of a commercial off the shelf (COTS) polyester solar sail membrane to assess the degradation mechanisms on a feasible solar sail. The solar sail membrane was exposed to high energy electrons (about 70 keV and 10 nA/cm2), and the physical properties were characterized. After about 8.3 Grad dose, the tensile modulus, tensile strength and failure strain of the sail membrane decreased by about 20 95%. The aluminum reflective layer was damaged and partially delaminated but it did not show any significant change in solar absorbance or thermal emittance. The effect on mechanical properties of a pre-cracked sample, simulating potential impact damage of the sail membrane, as well as thermal aging effects on metallized PEN (polyethylene naphthalate) film will be discussed.

  17. Shocked materials at the intersection of experiment and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadau, Kai [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the dynamic lattice response of solids under the extreme conditions of pressure, temperature and strain rate is a scientific quest that spans nearly a century. Critical to developing this understanding is the ability to probe and model the spatial and temporal evolution of the material microstructure and properties at the scale of the relevant physical phenomena -- nanometers to micrometers and picoseconds to nanoseconds. While experimental investigations over this range of spatial and temporal scales were unimaginable just a decade ago, new technologies and facilities currently under development and on the horizon have brought these goals within reach for the first time. The equivalent advancements in simulation capabilities now mean that we can conduct simulations and experiments at overlapping temporal and spatial scales. In this article, we describe some of our studies which exploit existing and new generation ultrabright, ultrafast x-ray sources and large scale molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the real-time physical phenomena that control the dynamic response of shocked materials.

  18. Simulated study of solid materials used as phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmonte, Eduardo P.; Pinheiro, Christiano J.G.; Pinto, Nivia G.Villela; Braz, Delson; Pereira Junior, Sielso B.; Lima, Gilberto S.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the behavior of electrons in water and compares them with the behavior in the materials you want to analyze. It were simulated, using Monte Carlo code EGS4 (MC), 24 irradiation with electrons of 6 and 20 MeV in different materials (polyethylene C 2 H 4 ) n , polystyrene (C 8 H 8 ) n , lucite (C 5 H 8 O 2 ), nylon (C 6 H 11 NO), water (H 2 O) and solid water (55% polyethylene, polystyrene and 5% 40% calcium oxide). The data show that for the two energies most of radiation does not interact with the first 20 mm materials. However, when analyzed plates of 1 cm, most of the energy is deposited in the first 4 plates in case 6 MeV and in the first ten to 20 MeV electrons, for all materials. In case of similarity in behavior of radiation in water and other materials, it is observed that is in polyethylene and polystyrene that the behaviour of electrons more resembles the behavior in water

  19. Simulation of high fluence swelling behavior in technological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Powell, R.W.; Diamond, S.; Lauritzen, T.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Sprague, J.A.; Keefer, D.

    1977-06-01

    The U.S. Breeder Reactor Program is employing charged particle irradiation experiments at accelerated displacement rates to simulate neutron-induced microstructural changes in materials of technological interest. Applications of the simulation technique range from the study of fundamental microstructural mechanisms to the development of predictions of the high fluence swelling behavior of candidate alloys for breeder reactor ducts and fuel cladding. An exact equivalence probably cannot be established between all facets of the microstructural evolution which occurs in the disparate charged-particle and neutron environments. To aid in the correlation of data developed in the two environments an assessment has been made of the factors influencing the simulation process. A series of intercorrelation programs and analysis activities have been conducted to identify and explore the relevant phenomena. The factors found to exert substantial influence on the correlation process fall into two categories, one which deals with those variables which are atypical of the neutron environment and one which deals with the additional factors which arise due to the large differences in displacement rate of the two irradiation environments. While the various simulation techniques have been invaluable in determining the basic mechanisms and parametric dependencies of swelling, the potential of these tools in the confident prediction of swelling at high neutron fluence has yet to be realized. The basic problem lies in the inability of the simulation technique to reproduce the early microstructural development in the period that precedes and encompasses the incubation of voids. The concepts of temperature shift and dose equivalency have also been found to be more complicated than previously imagined. Preconditioning of metals in a neutron environment prior to simulation testing is now being employed in order to provide more appropriate starting microstructures

  20. Understanding bulk behavior of particulate materials from particle scale simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaoliang

    Particulate materials play an increasingly significant role in various industries, such as pharmaceutical manufacturing, food, mining, and civil engineering. The objective of this research is to better understand bulk behaviors of particulate materials from particle scale simulations. Packing properties of assembly of particles are investigated first, focusing on the effects of particle size, surface energy, and aspect ratio on the coordination number, porosity, and packing structures. The simulation results show that particle sizes, surface energy, and aspect ratio all influence the porosity of packing to various degrees. The heterogeneous force networks within particle assembly under external compressive loading are investigated as well. The results show that coarse-coarse contacts dominate the strong network and coarse-fine contacts dominate the total network. Next, DEM models are developed to simulate the particle dynamics inside a conical screen mill (comil) and magnetically assisted impaction mixer (MAIM), both are important particle processing devices. For comil, the mean residence time (MRT), spatial distribution of particles, along with the collision dynamics between particles as well as particle and vessel geometries are examined as a function of the various operating parameters such as impeller speed, screen hole size, open area, and feed rate. The simulation results can help better understand dry coating experimental results using comil. For MAIM system, the magnetic force is incorporated into the contact model, allowing to describe the interactions between magnets. The simulation results reveal the connections between homogeneity of mixture and particle scale variables such as size of magnets and surface energy of non-magnets. In particular, at the fixed mass ratio of magnets to non-magnets and surface energy the smaller magnets lead to better homogeneity of mixing, which is in good agreement with previously published experimental results. Last but not

  1. Characterization of Triaxial Braided Composite Material Properties for Impact Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Biniendak, Wieslaw K.; Arnold, William A.; Littell, Justin D.; Kohlman, Lee W.

    2009-01-01

    The reliability of impact simulations for aircraft components made with triaxial braided carbon fiber composites is currently limited by inadequate material property data and lack of validated material models for analysis. Improvements to standard quasi-static test methods are needed to account for the large unit cell size and localized damage within the unit cell. The deformation and damage of a triaxial braided composite material was examined using standard quasi-static in-plane tension, compression, and shear tests. Some modifications to standard test specimen geometries are suggested, and methods for measuring the local strain at the onset of failure within the braid unit cell are presented. Deformation and damage at higher strain rates is examined using ballistic impact tests on 61- by 61- by 3.2-mm (24- by 24- by 0.125-in.) composite panels. Digital image correlation techniques were used to examine full-field deformation and damage during both quasi-static and impact tests. An impact analysis method is presented that utilizes both local and global deformation and failure information from the quasi-static tests as input for impact simulations. Improvements that are needed in test and analysis methods for better predictive capability are examined.

  2. Laboratory simulation of interstellar grain chemistry and the production of complex organic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamandola, L. J.; Sandford, S. A.; Valero, G. J.

    1990-01-01

    During the past 15 years considerable progress in observational techniques has been achieved in the middle infrared (5000 to 500 cm(-1), 2 to 20 microns m), the spectral region most diagnostic of molecular vibrations. Spectra of many different astronomical infrared sources, some deeply embedded in dark molecular clouds, are now available. These spectra provide a powerful probe, not only for the identification of interstellar molecules in both the gas solid phases, but also of the physical and chemical conditions which prevail in these two very different domains. By comparing these astronomical spectra with the spectra of laboratory ices one can determine the composition and abundance of the icy materials frozen on the cold (10K) dust grains present in the interior of molecular clouds. These grains and their ice mantles may well be the building blocks from which comets are made. As an illustration of the processes which can take place as an ice is irradiated and subsequently warmed, researchers present the infrared spectra of the mixture H2O:CH3OH:CO:NH3:C6H14 (100:50:10:10:10). Apart from the last species, the ratio of these compounds is representative of the simplest ices found in interstellar clouds. The last component was incorporated into this particular experiment as a tracer of the behavior of a non-aromatic hydrocarbon. The change in the composition that results from ultraviolet photolysis of this ice mixture using a UV lamp to simulate the interstellar radiation field is shown. Photolysis produces CO, CO2, CH4, HCO, H2CO, as well as a family of moderately volatile hydrocarbons. Less volatile carbonaceous materials are also produced. The evolution of the infrared spectrum of the ice as the sample is warmed up to room temperature is illustrated. Researchers believe that the changes are similar to those which occur as ice is ejected from a comet and warmed up by solar radiation. The warm-up sequence shows that the nitrile or iso-nitrile bearing compound

  3. Interfacing Space Communications and Navigation Network Simulation with Distributed System Integration Laboratories (DSIL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Esther H.; Nguyen, Sam P.; Wang, Shin-Ywan; Woo, Simon S.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's planned Lunar missions will involve multiple NASA centers where each participating center has a specific role and specialization. In this vision, the Constellation program (CxP)'s Distributed System Integration Laboratories (DSIL) architecture consist of multiple System Integration Labs (SILs), with simulators, emulators, testlabs and control centers interacting with each other over a broadband network to perform test and verification for mission scenarios. To support the end-to-end simulation and emulation effort of NASA' exploration initiatives, different NASA centers are interconnected to participate in distributed simulations. Currently, DSIL has interconnections among the following NASA centers: Johnson Space Center (JSC), Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Through interconnections and interactions among different NASA centers, critical resources and data can be shared, while independent simulations can be performed simultaneously at different NASA locations, to effectively utilize the simulation and emulation capabilities at each center. Furthermore, the development of DSIL can maximally leverage the existing project simulation and testing plans. In this work, we describe the specific role and development activities at JPL for Space Communications and Navigation Network (SCaN) simulator using the Multi-mission Advanced Communications Hybrid Environment for Test and Evaluation (MACHETE) tool to simulate communications effects among mission assets. Using MACHETE, different space network configurations among spacecrafts and ground systems of various parameter sets can be simulated. Data that is necessary for tracking, navigation, and guidance of spacecrafts such as Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV), and Lunar Relay Satellite (LRS) and orbit calculation data are disseminated to different NASA centers and updated periodically using the High Level Architecture (HLA). In

  4. ISS Material Science Research Rack HWIL Interface Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Philip J.; Ballard, Gary H.; Crumbley, Robert T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the first Material Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) interface simulation is described. Dynamic Concepts developed this HWIL simulation system with funding and management provided by the Flight Software group (ED14) of NASA-MSFC's Avionics Department. The HWIL system has been used both as a flight software development environment and as a software qualification tool. To fulfill these roles, the HWIL simulator accurately models the system dynamics of many MSRR-1 subsystems and emulates most of the internal interface signals. The modeled subsystems include the Experiment Modules, the Thermal Environment Control System, the Vacuum Access System, the Solid State Power Controller Module, and the Active Rack Isolation Systems. The emulated signals reside on three separate MIL-STD-1553B digital communication buses, the ISS Medium Rate Data Link, and several analog controller and sensor signals. To enhance the range of testing, it was necessary to simulate several off-nominal conditions that may occur in the interfacing subsystems.

  5. Shear test on viscoelastic granular material using Contact Dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Juan Carlos; Sagnol, Loba; Chazallon, Cyrille

    2017-06-01

    By means of 3D contact dynamic simulations, the behavior of a viscoelastic granular material under shear loading is investigated. A viscoelastic fluid phase surrounding the solid particles is simulated by a contact model acting between them. This contact law was implemented in the LMGC90 software, based on the Burgers model. This model is able to simulate also the effect of creep relaxation. To validate the proposed contact model, several direct shear tests were performed, experimentally and numerically using the Leutner device. The numerical samples were created using spheres with two particle size distribution, each one identified for two layers from a road structure. Our results show a reasonable agreement between experimental and numerical data regarding the strain-stress evolution curves and the stress levels measured at failure. The proposed model can be used to simulate the mechanical behavior of multi-layer road structure and to study the influence of traffic on road deformation, cracking and particles pull-out induced by traffic loading.

  6. Molecular simulation of adsorption and transport in hierarchical porous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coasne, Benoit; Galarneau, Anne; Gerardin, Corine; Fajula, François; Villemot, François

    2013-06-25

    Adsorption and transport in hierarchical porous solids with micro- (~1 nm) and mesoporosities (>2 nm) are investigated by molecular simulation. Two models of hierarchical solids are considered: microporous materials in which mesopores are carved out (model A) and mesoporous materials in which microporous nanoparticles are inserted (model B). Adsorption isotherms for model A can be described as a linear combination of the adsorption isotherms for pure mesoporous and microporous solids. In contrast, adsorption in model B departs from adsorption in pure microporous and mesoporous solids; the inserted microporous particles act as defects, which help nucleate the liquid phase within the mesopore and shift capillary condensation toward lower pressures. As far as transport under a pressure gradient is concerned, the flux in hierarchical materials consisting of microporous solids in which mesopores are carved out obeys the Navier-Stokes equation so that Darcy's law is verified within the mesopore. Moreover, the flow in such materials is larger than in a single mesopore, due to the transfer between micropores and mesopores. This nonzero velocity at the mesopore surface implies that transport in such hierarchical materials involves slippage at the mesopore surface, although the adsorbate has a strong affinity for the surface. In contrast to model A, flux in model B is smaller than in a single mesopore, as the nanoparticles act as constrictions that hinder transport. By a subtle effect arising from fast transport in the mesopores, the presence of mesopores increases the number of molecules in the microporosity in hierarchical materials and, hence, decreases the flow in the micropores (due to mass conservation). As a result, we do not observe faster diffusion in the micropores of hierarchical materials upon flow but slower diffusion, which increases the contact time between the adsorbate and the surface of the microporosity.

  7. Simulations of ductile flow in brittle material processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luh, M.H.; Strenkowski, J.S.

    1988-12-01

    Research is continuing on the effects of thermal properties of the cutting tool and workpiece on the overall temperature distribution. Using an Eulerian finite element model, diamond and steel tools cutting aluminum have been simulated at various, speeds, and depths of cut. The relative magnitude of the thermal conductivity of the tool and the workpiece is believed to be a primary factor in the resulting temperature distribution in the workpiece. This effect is demonstrated in the change of maximum surface temperatures for diamond on aluminum vs. steel on aluminum. As a preliminary step toward the study of ductile flow in brittle materials, the relative thermal conductivities of diamond on polycarbonate is simulated. In this case, the maximum temperature shifts from the rake face of the tool to the surface of the machined workpiece, thus promoting ductile flow in the workpiece surface.

  8. Simulation for evaluation of the multi-ion-irradiation Laboratory of TechnoFusion facility and its relevance for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez-Rey, D.; Mota, F.; Vila, R.; Ibarra, A.; Ortiz, Christophe J.; Martinez-Albertos, J.L.; Roman, R.; Gonzalez, M.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Perlado, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion requires the development of several research facilities, in addition to ITER, needed to advance the technologies for future fusion reactors. TechnoFusion will focus in some of the priority areas identified by international fusion programmes. Specifically, the TechnoFusion Area of Irradiation of Materials aims at surrogating experimentally the effects of neutron irradiation on materials using a combination of ion beams. This paper justifies this approach using computer simulations to validate the multi-ion-irradiation Laboratory. The planned irradiation facility will investigate the effects of high energetic radiations on reactor-relevant materials. In a second stage, it will also be used to analyze the performance of such materials and evaluate newly designed materials. The multi-ion-irradiation Laboratory, both triple irradiation and high-energy proton irradiation, can provide valid experimental techniques to reproduce the effect of neutron damage in fusion environment.

  9. Lattice dynamics and molecular dynamics simulation of complex materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplot, S.L.

    1997-01-01

    In this article we briefly review the lattice dynamics and molecular dynamics simulation techniques, as used for complex ionic and molecular solids, and demonstrate a number of applications through examples of our work. These computational studies, along with experiments, have provided microscopic insight into the structure and dynamics, phase transitions and thermodynamical properties of a variety of materials including fullerene, high temperature superconducting oxides and geological minerals as a function of pressure and temperature. The computational techniques also allow the study of the structures and dynamics associated with disorder, defects, surfaces, interfaces etc. (author)

  10. Simulation of perovskite solar cells with inorganic hole transporting materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yan; Xia, Zhonggao; Liu, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    Device modeling organolead halide perovskite solar cells with planar architecture based on inorganic hole transporting materials (HTMs) were performed. A thorough understanding of the role of the inorganic HTMs and the effect of band offset between HTM/absorber layers is indispensable for further...... improvement in power conversion efficiency (PCE). Here, we investigated the effect of band offset between inorganic HTM/absorber layers. The solar cell simulation program adopted in this work is named wxAMPS, an updated version of the AMPS tool (Analysis of Microelectronic and Photonic Structure)....

  11. Using Sandia's Z Machine and Density Functional Theory Simulations to Understand Planetary Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Seth

    2017-06-01

    The use of Z, NIF, and Omega have produced many breakthrough results in high pressure physics. One area that has greatly benefited from these facilities is the planetary sciences. The high pressure behavior of planetary materials has implications for numerous geophysical and planetary processes. The continuing discovery of exosolar super-Earths demonstrates the need for accurate equation of state data to better inform our models of their interior structures. Planetary collision processes, such as the moon-forming giant impact, require understanding planetary materials over a wide-range of pressures and temperatures. Using Z, we examined the shock compression response of some common planetary materials: MgO, Mg2SiO4, and Fe2O3 (hematite). We compare the experimental shock compression measurements with density functional theory (DFT) based quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations. The combination of experiment and theory provides clearer understanding of planetary materials properties at extreme conditions. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  12. Simulated Aging of Spacecraft External Materials on Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatipov, S.

    Moscow State Engineering Physics Institute (MIFI), in cooperation with Air Force Research Laboratory's Satellite Assessment Center (SatAC), the European Office of Aerospace Research and Development (EOARD), and the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC), has developed a database describing the changes in optical properties of materials used on the external surfaces of spacecraft due to space environmental factors. The database includes data acquired from tests completed under contract with the ISTC and EOARD, as well as from previous Russian materials studies conducted within the last 30 years. The space environmental factors studied are for those found in Low Earth Orbits (LEO) and Geosynchronous orbits (GEO), including electron irradiation at 50, 100, and 200 keV, proton irradiation at 50, 150, 300, and 500 keV, and ultraviolet irradiation equivalent to 1 sun-year. The material characteristics investigated were solar absorption (aS), spectral reflectance (rl), solar reflectance (rS), emissivity (e), spectral transmission coefficient (Tl), solar transmittance (TS), optical density (D), relative optical density (D/x), Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF), and change of appearance and color in the visible wavelengths. The materials tested in the project were thermal control coatings (paints), multilayer insulation (films), and solar cells. The ability to predict changes in optical properties of spacecraft materials is important to increase the fidelity of space observation tools, better understand observation of space objects, and increase the longevity of spacecraft. The end goal of our project is to build semi-empirical mathematical models to predict the long-term effects of space aging as a function of time and orbit.

  13. Theoretical Simulations of Materials for Nuclear Energy Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrikosov, A.; Ponomareva, A.V.; Nikonov, A.Y.; Barannikova, S.A.; Dmitriev, A.I.

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated that state-of-the art theoretical calculations have a capability to predict thermodynamic and mechanical properties of materials with very high accuracy, comparable to the experimental accuracy. Considering Fe-Cr alloys, we have investigated the effect of multicomponent alloying on their phase stability, and we have shown that alloying elements Ni, Mn, and Mo, present in RPV steels, reduce the stability of low-Cr steels against binodal, as well as spinodal decomposition. Considering Zr-Nb alloys, we have demonstrated a possibility of obtaining their elastic moduli from ab initio electronic structure calculations. We argue that theoretical simulations represent valuable tool for a design of new materials for nuclear energy applications

  14. The Development of a Human Systems Simulation Laboratory at Idaho National Laoboratory: Progress, Requirements and Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertman, David I.; LeBlanc, Katya L.; Phoenix, William; Mecham, Alan R.

    2010-01-01

    Next generation nuclear power plants and digital upgrades to the existing nuclear fleet introduce potential human performance issues in the control room. Safe application of new technologies calls for a thorough understanding of how those technologies affect human performance and in turn, plant safety. In support of advancing human factors for small modular reactors and light water reactor sustainability, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed a reconfigurable simulation laboratory capable of testing human performance in multiple nuclear power plant (NPP) control room simulations. This paper discusses the laboratory infrastructure and capabilities, the laboratory's staffing requirements, lessons learned, and the researcher's approach to measuring human performance in the simulation lab.

  15. Description of the Structural Materials Information Center being established at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oland, B.

    1990-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has initiated a Structural aging Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to identify potential structural safety issues related to continued service of nuclear power plants and to establish criteria for evaluating and resolving these issues. One of the tasks in this program focuses on the establishment of a Structural Materials Information Center where data and information on the time variation of concrete and concrete-related material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors and aging factors will be collected and assembled into a database. This database will be used to assist in the prediction of potential long-term deterioration of critical structural components in nuclear power plants and to establish limits on hostile environmental exposure for these structures and materials. Materials property data and information will be collected at the Structural Materials Information Center from open literature, published references, and identifiable sources. Initially, the database will include portland cement concrete, metallic reinforcement, prestressing tendon and structural steel materials. Then, as data and information for other material systems are obtained, the database will be expanded and updated. The database will be developed and presented in two complementary formats. The Structural Materials Handbook will be published in four volumes as an expandable, hard copy handbook. The Materials Electronic Database will be developed to reflect the same information as contained in the handbook, but will be formatted for use on an IBM or IBM-compatible personal computer

  16. Development of hemoglobin typing control materials for laboratory investigation of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornprasert, Sakorn; Tookjai, Monthathip; Punyamung, Manoo; Pongpunyayuen, Panida; Jaiping, Kanokwan

    2016-01-01

    To date, the hemoglobin (Hb) typing control materials for laboratory investigation of thalassemia with low (1.8%-3.2%) and high (4%-6%) levels of HbA2 are available but there are no Hb typing quality control materials for analysis of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies which are highly prevalent in South-East Asian countries. The main aim of the present study was to develop the lyophilized Hb typing control materials for laboratory investigation of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies that are commonly found in South-East Asia. Erythrocytes of blood samples containing Hb Bart's, HbH, HbE, HbF, Hb Constant Spring (CS), Hb Hope, and Hb Q-Thailand were washed and dialysed with 0.85% saline solution. The erythrocytes were then lysed in 5% sucrose solution. The lyophilized Hb typing control materials were prepared by using a freeze drying (lyophilization) method. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of lyophilized Hb was performed after the storage at -20 °C for 1 year and also after reconstitution and storage at 4 or -20 °C for 30 days. In addition, the Hb analysis was compared between the three different methods of HPLC, low pressure liquid chromatography (LPLC) and capillary electrophoresis (CE). Following a year of storage at -20 °C, the HPLC chromatograms of lyophilized Hb typing control materials showed similar patterns to the equivalent fresh whole blood. The stability of reconstituted Hb typing control materials was also observed through 30 days after reconstitution and storage at -20 °C. Moreover, the Hb typing control materials could be analyzed by three methods, HPLC, LPLC and CE. Even a degraded peak of HbCS was found on CE electropherogram. The lyophilized Hb typing control materials could be developed and used as control materials for investigation of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies.

  17. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Oxide Material Representation in the Material Identification and Surveillance (MIS) Program, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, D C; Dodson, K

    2004-06-30

    The Materials Identification and Surveillance (MIS) program was established within the 94-1 R&D Program to confirm the suitability of plutonium-bearing materials for stabilization, packaging, and long-term storage under DOE-STD-3013-2000. Oxide materials from different sites were chemically and physically characterized. The adequacy of the stabilization process parameters of temperature and duration at temperature (950 C and 2 hours) for eliminating chemical reactivity and reducing the moisture content to less than 0.5 weight percent were validated. Studies also include surveillance monitoring to determine the behavior of the oxides and packaging materials under storage conditions. Materials selected for this program were assumed to be representative of the overall inventory for DOE sites. The Quality Assurance section of the DOE-STD-3013-2000 required that each site be responsible for assuring that oxides packaged according to this standard are represented by items in the MIS characterization program. The purpose of this document is to define the path for determining if an individual item is ''represented'' in the MIS Program and to show that oxides being packaged at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) are considered represented in the MIS program. The methodology outlined in the MIS Representation Document (LA-14016-MS) for demonstrating representation requires concurrence of the MIS working Group (MIS-WG). The signature page on this document provides for the MIS-WG concurrence.

  18. Fourier Analysis: Creating A “Virtual Laboratory” Using Computer Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Butterfield

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available At times the desire for specialized laboratory apparatus to support class activities outstrips the available resources.  When this is the case the instructor must look for creative alternatives to help meet the desired objectives.  This report examines how a virtual laboratory was created to model and analyze high-speed networking signals in a LAN class using a spreadsheet simulation.  The students were able to printout various waveforms (e.g., signals of different frequencies/network media that are similar to output from test equipment that would have otherwise been cost prohibitive.  The activity proved to be valuable in helping students to understand an otherwise difficult concept that is central to modern networking applications.  Such simulation is not limited to network signals, but may be applicable in many situations where the artifact under study may be described mathematically.

  19. Comparative evaluation of photon cross section libraries for materials of interest in PET Monte Carlo simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidi, H

    1999-01-01

    the many applications of Monte Carlo modelling in nuclear medicine imaging make it desirable to increase the accuracy and computational speed of Monte Carlo codes. The accuracy of Monte Carlo simulations strongly depends on the accuracy in the probability functions and thus on the cross section libraries used for photon transport calculations. A comparison between different photon cross section libraries and parametrizations implemented in Monte Carlo simulation packages developed for positron emission tomography and the most recent Evaluated Photon Data Library (EPDL97) developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was performed for several human tissues and common detector materials for energies from 1 keV to 1 MeV. Different photon cross section libraries and parametrizations show quite large variations as compared to the EPDL97 coefficients. This latter library is more accurate and was carefully designed in the form of look-up tables providing efficient data storage, access, and management. Toge...

  20. The Impact of Differentiated Instructional Materials on English Language Learner (ELL) Students' Comprehension of Science Laboratory Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manavathu, Marian; Zhou, George

    2012-01-01

    Through a qualitative research design, this article investigates the impacts of differentiated laboratory instructional materials on English language learners' (ELLs) laboratory task comprehension. The factors affecting ELLs' science learning experiences are further explored. Data analysis reveals a greater degree of laboratory task comprehension…

  1. Designing a Virtual laboratory for Simulating to Production of Nanocomposite NdFeB Magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Faruk Çakir

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The talent figure for a permanent magnet is the multiplication of the maximum energy (BHmax. Less volume magnet is required for the production of magnet flux density if the BHmax value is higher. Mathematical functions are obtained from the data related to resiudal flux density, magnetic coercitivy, permanent magnet flux product capability, Curie temperature and density which were obtained as a result of the studies on different NdFeB alloys in the laboratory. Besides this, mathematical functions of NdFeB hard magnet’s resiudal flux density are obtained by adding elements. In this study, a virtual laboratory for producing nanocompositedNdFeB magnet has been designed. The virtual laboratory software has been used to simulate NdFeB hard magnets for industrial utilities.

  2. Computational simulation of coupled material degradation processes for probabilistic lifetime strength of aerospace materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Lola; Bast, Callie C.

    1992-01-01

    The research included ongoing development of methodology that provides probabilistic lifetime strength of aerospace materials via computational simulation. A probabilistic material strength degradation model, in the form of a randomized multifactor interaction equation, is postulated for strength degradation of structural components of aerospace propulsion systems subjected to a number of effects or primative variables. These primative variable may include high temperature, fatigue or creep. In most cases, strength is reduced as a result of the action of a variable. This multifactor interaction strength degradation equation has been randomized and is included in the computer program, PROMISS. Also included in the research is the development of methodology to calibrate the above described constitutive equation using actual experimental materials data together with linear regression of that data, thereby predicting values for the empirical material constraints for each effect or primative variable. This regression methodology is included in the computer program, PROMISC. Actual experimental materials data were obtained from the open literature for materials typically of interest to those studying aerospace propulsion system components. Material data for Inconel 718 was analyzed using the developed methodology.

  3. OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS WITH BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS IN CLINICAL ANALYSIS LABORATORY: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Azevedo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accidents involving biological material can cause diseases to the professional healthcare and also bring psychosocial effects. The aim of this study was to characterize the accidents occurring with biological material with professional of clinical laboratories of Sinop-MT. Data were collected by a questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic and health variables. 21 (87.5% of respondents stated that they never suffered any kind of accident. One of the injured workers reported that there was involvement in your emotional life. It is observed underreporting of occupational accidents by employees affected, making it difficult to increase research on the subject and actions about the problem.

  4. Energetic materials research and development activities at Sandia National Laboratories supported under DP-10 programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratzel, A.C. III

    1998-09-01

    This report provides summary descriptions of Energetic Materials (EM) Research and Development activities performed at Sandia National Laboratories and funded through the Department of Energy DP-10 Program Office in FY97 and FY98. The work falls under three major focus areas: EM Chemistry, EM Characterization, and EM Phenomenological Model Development. The research supports the Sandia component mission and also Sandia's overall role as safety steward for the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  5. Field and laboratory investigations on pavement backfilling material for micro-trenching in cold regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Hashemian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Micro-trenching is an innovative utility installation method that involves creating a narrow trench to place cable or conduit in the road pavement. Compared to other installation methods, micro-trenching provides minimal disturbance to the community and surrounding environment. Despite the advantages of micro-trenching, it is not widely accepted by municipalities because of its potential to damage the existing pavement. Quality of backfilling is an important factor in long-term sustainability of the micro-trench, particularly in cold regions. This paper investigates the performance of two typical micro-trench backfilling methods in cold climates by studying a pilot project in a parking lot in Edmonton, Alberta, followed by a laboratory evaluation of the material used. For this purpose, the installations were monitored through ground-penetrating radar, optical time-domain reflectometer, and visual observations for three years. The monitoring results revealed that conduit had significant vertical movement inside the trench; several premature failures were also observed in the backfilling material. Laboratory investigation showed that the backfilling material did not meet the criteria for use in cold climates, and micro-trench performance could be enhanced using alternative materials. Keywords: Micro-trench, Pavement backfilling material, Fiber optic installation, Ground-penetrating radar

  6. The Trope Tank: A Laboratory with Material Resources for Creative Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Montfort

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-9288.2014v10n2p53 Principles for organizing and making use of a laboratory with material computing resources are articulated. This laboratory, the Trope Tank, is a facility for teaching, research, and creative collaboration and offers hardware (in working condition and set up for use from the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, including videogame systems, home computers, and an arcade cabinet. To aid in investigating the material history of texts, the lab has a small 19th century letterpress, a typewriter, a print terminal, and dot-matrix printers. Other resources include controllers, peripherals, manuals, books, and software on physical media. These resources are used for teaching, loaned for local exhibitions and presentations, and accessed by researchers and artists. The space is primarily a laboratory (rather than a library, studio, or museum, so materials are organized by platform and intended use. Textual information about the historical contexts of the available systems, and resources are set up to allow easy operation, and even casual use, by researchers, teachers, students, and artists.

  7. Baccalaureate nursing students' perspectives of peer tutoring in simulation laboratory, a Q methodology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Petrini, Marcia A; Stone, Teresa E

    2018-02-01

    The study aim was to identify the perceived perspectives of baccalaureate nursing students toward the peer tutoring in the simulation laboratory. Insight into the nursing students' experiences and baseline data related to their perception of peer tutoring will assist to improve nursing education. Q methodology was applied to explore the students' perspectives of peer tutoring in the simulation laboratory. A convenience P-sample of 40 baccalaureate nursing students was used. Fifty-eight selected Q statements from each participant were classified into the shape of a normal distribution using an 11-point bipolar scale form with a range from -5 to +5. PQ Method software analyzed the collected data. Three discrete factors emerged: Factor I ("Facilitate or empower" knowledge acquisition), Factor II ("Safety Net" Support environment), and Factor III ("Mentoring" learn how to learn). The findings of this study support and indicate that peer tutoring is an effective supplementary strategy to promote baccalaureate students' knowledge acquisition, establishing a supportive safety net and facilitating their abilities to learn in the simulation laboratory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Design of simulated nuclear electronics laboratory experiments based on IAEA-TECDOC-530 on pcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghousia, S.F.; Nadeem, M.; Khaleeq, M.T.

    2002-05-01

    In this IAEA project, PK-11089 (Design of Simulated Nuclear Electronics Laboratory Experiments based on IAEA-TECDOC-530 on PCs), a software package consisting of Computer-Simulated Laboratory Experiments on Nuclear Electronics compatible with the IAEA-TECDOC-530 (Nuclear Electronics Laboratory Manual) has been developed in OrCAD 9.0 (an electronic circuit simulation software environment) as a self-training aid. The software process model employed in this project is the Feedback Waterfall model with some Rapid Application Model. The project work is completed in the five phases of the SDLC, (all of them have been fully completed) which includes the Requirement Definition, Phase, System and Software Design, Implementation and Unit testing, Integration and System-testing phase and the Operation and Maintenance phase. A total of 125 circuits are designed in 39 experiments from Power Supplies, Analog circuits, Digital circuits and Multi-channel analyzer sections. There is another set of schematic designs present in the package, which contains faulty circuits. This set is designed for the learners to exercise the troubleshooting. The integration and system-testing phase was carried out simultaneously. The Operation and Maintenance phase has been implemented by accomplishing it through some trainees and some undergraduate engineering students by allowing them to play with the software independently. (author)

  9. Simulation of the hydraulic performance of highway filter drains through laboratory models and stormwater management tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sañudo-Fontaneda, Luis A; Jato-Espino, Daniel; Lashford, Craig; Coupe, Stephen J

    2017-05-23

    Road drainage is one of the most relevant assets in transport infrastructure due to its inherent influence on traffic management and road safety. Highway filter drains (HFDs), also known as "French Drains", are the main drainage system currently in use in the UK, throughout 7000 km of its strategic road network. Despite being a widespread technique across the whole country, little research has been completed on their design considerations and their subsequent impact on their hydraulic performance, representing a gap in the field. Laboratory experiments have been proven to be a reliable indicator for the simulation of the hydraulic performance of stormwater best management practices (BMPs). In addition to this, stormwater management tools (SMT) have been preferentially chosen as a design tool for BMPs by practitioners from all over the world. In this context, this research aims to investigate the hydraulic performance of HFDs by comparing the results from laboratory simulation and two widely used SMT such as the US EPA's stormwater management model (SWMM) and MicroDrainage®. Statistical analyses were applied to a series of rainfall scenarios simulated, showing a high level of accuracy between the results obtained in laboratory and using SMT as indicated by the high and low values of the Nash-Sutcliffe and R 2 coefficients and root-mean-square error (RMSE) reached, which validated the usefulness of SMT to determine the hydraulic performance of HFDs.

  10. Light Curve Simulation Using Spacecraft CAD Models and Empirical Material Spectral BRDFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, A.; Bedard, D.

    This paper presents a Matlab-based light curve simulation software package that uses computer-aided design (CAD) models of spacecraft and the spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution function (sBRDF) of their homogenous surface materials. It represents the overall optical reflectance of objects as a sBRDF, a spectrometric quantity, obtainable during an optical ground truth experiment. The broadband bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), the basis of a broadband light curve, is produced by integrating the sBRDF over the optical wavelength range. Colour-filtered BRDFs, the basis of colour-filtered light curves, are produced by first multiplying the sBRDF by colour filters, and integrating the products. The software package's validity is established through comparison of simulated reflectance spectra and broadband light curves with those measured of the CanX-1 Engineering Model (EM) nanosatellite, collected during an optical ground truth experiment. It is currently being extended to simulate light curves of spacecraft in Earth orbit, using spacecraft Two-Line-Element (TLE) sets, yaw/pitch/roll angles, and observer coordinates. Measured light curves of the NEOSSat spacecraft will be used to validate simulated quantities. The sBRDF was chosen to represent material reflectance as it is spectrometric and a function of illumination and observation geometry. Homogeneous material sBRDFs were obtained using a goniospectrometer for a range of illumination and observation geometries, collected in a controlled environment. The materials analyzed include aluminum alloy, two types of triple-junction photovoltaic (TJPV) cell, white paint, and multi-layer insulation (MLI). Interpolation and extrapolation methods were used to determine the sBRDF for all possible illumination and observation geometries not measured in the laboratory, resulting in empirical look-up tables. These look-up tables are referenced when calculating the overall sBRDF of objects, where

  11. Accuracy of finite-difference modeling of seismic waves : Simulation versus laboratory measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntsen, B.

    2017-12-01

    The finite-difference technique for numerical modeling of seismic waves is still important and for some areas extensively used.For exploration purposes is finite-difference simulation at the core of both traditional imaging techniques such as reverse-time migration and more elaborate Full-Waveform Inversion techniques.The accuracy and fidelity of finite-difference simulation of seismic waves are hard to quantify and meaningfully error analysis is really onlyeasily available for simplistic media. A possible alternative to theoretical error analysis is provided by comparing finite-difference simulated data with laboratory data created using a scale model. The advantage of this approach is the accurate knowledge of the model, within measurement precision, and the location of sources and receivers.We use a model made of PVC immersed in water and containing horizontal and tilted interfaces together with several spherical objects to generateultrasonic pressure reflection measurements. The physical dimensions of the model is of the order of a meter, which after scaling represents a model with dimensions of the order of 10 kilometer and frequencies in the range of one to thirty hertz.We find that for plane horizontal interfaces the laboratory data can be reproduced by the finite-difference scheme with relatively small error, but for steeply tilted interfaces the error increases. For spherical interfaces the discrepancy between laboratory data and simulated data is sometimes much more severe, to the extent that it is not possible to simulate reflections from parts of highly curved bodies. The results are important in view of the fact that finite-difference modeling is often at the core of imaging and inversion algorithms tackling complicatedgeological areas with highly curved interfaces.

  12. Deep repository - Engineered barrier system. Erosion and sealing processes in tunnel backfill materials investigated in laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanden, Torbjoern; Boergesson, Lennart; Dueck, Ann; Goudarzi, Reza; Loennqvist, Margareta (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    SKB in Sweden and Posiva in Finland are developing and plan to implement similar disposal concepts for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Co-operation and joint development work between Posiva and SKB with the overall objective to develop backfill concepts and techniques for sealing and closure of the repository have been going on for several years. The investigation described in this report is intended to acquire more knowledge regarding the behavior of some of the candidate backfilling materials. Blocks made of three different materials (Friedland clay, Asha 230 or a bentonite/ballast 30/70 mixture) as well as different bentonite pellets have been examined. The backfill materials will be exposed to an environment simulating that in a tunnel, with high relative humidity and water inflow from the rock. The processes and properties investigated are: 1. Erosion properties of blocks and pellets (Friedland blocks, MX-80 pellets, Cebogel QSE pellets, Minelco and Friedland granules). 2. Displacements of blocks after emplacement in a deposition drift (Blocks of Friedland, Asha 230 and Mixture 30/70). 3. The ability of these materials to seal a leaking in-situ cast plug cement/rock but also other fractures in the rock (MX-80 pellets). 4. The self healing ability after a piping scenario (Blocks of Friedland, Asha 230 Mixture 30/70 and also MX-80 pellets). 5. Swelling and cracking of the compacted backfill blocks caused by relative humidity. The erosion properties of Friedland blocks were also investigated in Phase 2 of the joint SKBPosiva project 'Backfilling and Closure of the Deep Repository, BACLO, which included laboratory scale experiments. In this phase of the project (3) some completing tests were performed with new blocks produced for different field tests. These blocks had a lower density than intended and this has an influence on the erosion properties measured. The erosion properties of MX-80 pellets were also investigated earlier in the project but

  13. Radioactivity decontamination of materials commonly used as surfaces in general-purpose radioisotope laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Natalia M; Tesán, Fiorella C; Zubillaga, Marcela B; Salgueiro, María J

    2014-12-01

    In accord with as-low-as-reasonably-achievable and good-manufacturing-practice concepts, the present study evaluated the efficiency of radioactivity decontamination of materials commonly used in laboratory surfaces and whether solvent spills on these materials affect the findings. Four materials were evaluated: stainless steel, a surface comprising one-third acrylic resin and two-thirds natural minerals, an epoxy cover, and vinyl-based multipurpose flooring. Radioactive material was eluted from a (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator, and samples of the surfaces were control-contaminated with 37 MBq (100 μL) of this eluate. The same procedure was repeated with samples of surfaces previously treated with 4 solvents: methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, acetone, and ethanol. The wet radioactive contamination was allowed to dry and then was removed with cotton swabs soaked in soapy water. The effectiveness of decontamination was defined as the percentage of activity removed per cotton swab, and the efficacy of decontamination was defined as the total percentage of activity removed, which was obtained by summing the percentages of activity in all the swabs required to complete the decontamination. Decontamination using our protocol was most effective and most efficacious for stainless steel and multipurpose flooring. Moreover, treatment with common organic solvents seemed not to affect the decontamination of these surfaces. Decontamination of the other two materials was less efficient and was interfered with by the organic solvents; there was also great variability in the overall results obtained for these other two materials. In expanding our laboratory, it is possible for us to select those surface materials on which our decontamination protocol works best. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  14. Fusion Materials Research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Fiscal Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiffen, F. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Melton, Stephanie G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The realization of fusion energy is a formidable challenge with significant achievements resulting from close integration of the plasma physics and applied technology disciplines. Presently, the most significant technological challenge for the near-term experiments such as ITER, and next generation fusion power systems, is the inability of current materials and components to withstand the harsh fusion nuclear environment. The overarching goal of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) fusion materials program is to provide the applied materials science support and understanding to underpin the ongoing Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science fusion energy program while developing materials for fusion power systems. In doing so the program continues to be integrated both with the larger United States (US) and international fusion materials communities, and with the international fusion design and technology communities.This document provides a summary of Fiscal Year (FY) 2015 activities supporting the Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Materials Research for Magnetic Fusion Energy (AT-60-20-10-0) carried out by ORNL. The organization of this report is mainly by material type, with sections on specific technical activities. Four projects selected in the Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) solicitation of late 2011 and funded in FY2012-FY2014 are identified by “FOA” in the titles. This report includes the final funded work of these projects, although ORNL plans to continue some of this work within the base program.

  15. Computational Materials Science and Chemistry: Accelerating Discovery and Innovation through Simulation-Based Engineering and Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crabtree, George [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Glotzer, Sharon [University of Michigan; McCurdy, Bill [University of California Davis; Roberto, Jim [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2010-07-26

    brought together 160 experts in materials science, chemistry, and computational science representing more than 65 universities, laboratories, and industries, and four agencies. The workshop examined seven foundational challenge areas in materials science and chemistry: materials for extreme conditions, self-assembly, light harvesting, chemical reactions, designer fluids, thin films and interfaces, and electronic structure. Each of these challenge areas is critical to the development of advanced energy systems, and each can be accelerated by the integrated application of predictive capability with theory and experiment. The workshop concluded that emerging capabilities in predictive modeling and simulation have the potential to revolutionize the development of new materials and chemical processes. Coupled with world-leading materials characterization and nanoscale science facilities, this predictive capability provides the foundation for an innovation ecosystem that can accelerate the discovery, development, and deployment of new technologies, including advanced energy systems. Delivering on the promise of this innovation ecosystem requires the following: Integration of synthesis, processing, characterization, theory, and simulation and modeling. Many of the newly established Energy Frontier Research Centers and Energy Hubs are exploiting this integration. Achieving/strengthening predictive capability in foundational challenge areas. Predictive capability in the seven foundational challenge areas described in this report is critical to the development of advanced energy technologies. Developing validated computational approaches that span vast differences in time and length scales. This fundamental computational challenge crosscuts all of the foundational challenge areas. Similarly challenging is coupling of analytical data from multiple instruments and techniques that are required to link these length and time scales. Experimental validation and quantification of

  16. A measurement evaluation program to support nuclear material control and accountability measurements in Brazilian laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Fabio C., E-mail: fabio@ird.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mason, Peter, E-mail: peter.mason@ch.doe.gov [New Brunswick Laboratory (DOE/NBL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A measurement evaluation program (MEP) is one of a number of valuable tools that analytical chemists can use to ensure that the data produced in the laboratory are fit for their intended purpose and consistent with expected performance values at a given time. As such, participation in a MEP is an important indicator of the quality of analytical data, and is recognized as such by independent regulatory and/or accreditation bodies. With the intent to implement such a program in Brazil, in November 2012 the Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN), with support from the Department of Energy of the United States' (US-DOE International Safeguards and Engagement Program), decided to initiate a technical cooperation project aiming at organizing a Safeguards Measurement Evaluation Program (SMEP) for Brazilian facilities. The project, entitled Action Sheet 23, was formalized under the terms of the Agreement between the US-DOE and the CNEN concerning research and development in nuclear material control, accountancy, verification, physical protection, and advanced containment and surveillance technologies for International Safeguards Applications. The work, jointly performed by the CNEN's Safeguards Laboratory (LASAL) and the New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL), has the objective to strengthen the traceability of accountability measurements and ensure adequate quality of safeguards measurements for facilities within Brazil, utilizing test samples characterized and provided by NBL. Recommendations to participants included measurement frequency, number of results per sample and format for reporting results using ISO methods for calculating and expressing measurement uncertainties. In this paper, we discuss the main steps taken by CNEN and NBL aiming at implementing such a program and the expected results, in particular the impact of uncertainty estimation on the evaluation of performance of each participant laboratory. The program is considered by Brazilian safeguards

  17. A measurement evaluation program to support nuclear material control and accountability measurements in Brazilian laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Fabio C.; Mason, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A measurement evaluation program (MEP) is one of a number of valuable tools that analytical chemists can use to ensure that the data produced in the laboratory are fit for their intended purpose and consistent with expected performance values at a given time. As such, participation in a MEP is an important indicator of the quality of analytical data, and is recognized as such by independent regulatory and/or accreditation bodies. With the intent to implement such a program in Brazil, in November 2012 the Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN), with support from the Department of Energy of the United States' (US-DOE International Safeguards and Engagement Program), decided to initiate a technical cooperation project aiming at organizing a Safeguards Measurement Evaluation Program (SMEP) for Brazilian facilities. The project, entitled Action Sheet 23, was formalized under the terms of the Agreement between the US-DOE and the CNEN concerning research and development in nuclear material control, accountancy, verification, physical protection, and advanced containment and surveillance technologies for International Safeguards Applications. The work, jointly performed by the CNEN's Safeguards Laboratory (LASAL) and the New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL), has the objective to strengthen the traceability of accountability measurements and ensure adequate quality of safeguards measurements for facilities within Brazil, utilizing test samples characterized and provided by NBL. Recommendations to participants included measurement frequency, number of results per sample and format for reporting results using ISO methods for calculating and expressing measurement uncertainties. In this paper, we discuss the main steps taken by CNEN and NBL aiming at implementing such a program and the expected results, in particular the impact of uncertainty estimation on the evaluation of performance of each participant laboratory. The program is considered by Brazilian safeguards authorities

  18. Molecular simulation of polar molecules interaction with MOFs family materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Toni, M.

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the adsorption of simple molecular fluids in nano-porous materials. Many industrial processes are based on this phenomenon, including ionic exchange, selective separation and heterogeneous catalysis. I used molecular simulation to study the adsorption properties of polar molecules of industrial interest (CO 2 and H 2 O) in a new class of crystalline microporous hybrid organic-inorganic materials called Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs). They have exceptional adsorption properties due to their topological variety and their versatility, allowed by the large range of possibilities offered by organic and coordination chemistry and functionalizations. I first studied the adsorption of CO 2 in a family of materials called IRMOFs, which share the same topology but have different porous volume, in order to characterize the effect of confinement on their adsorption performance. In particular, a general behavior has been highlighted: the critical temperature decreases when the confinement increases. Then, I looked at a recently synthesized cationic MOF called Zn2(CBTACN). After having localized the extra-framework halogen anions in the unit cell of the material, something which was not possible experimentally, I characterized CO 2 adsorption in this system first as a pure gas and then as a component of different mixtures. Finally, I was interested in the hydrothermal stability of MOFs, a crucial issue for their use in industrial applications. I observed the hydration mechanism of system that is analogous to the MOF-5 (IRMOF-0h) and shed light on some collaborative effects of the attack of water that were unknown to in the literature. (author)

  19. Technical performance of cementitious grouting materials for ONKALO. Laboratory tests 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raivio, P.; Hansen, J.

    2007-09-01

    During 2006 the development of high and low-pH cementitious grouts for fractures > 100 μm designed for the ONKALO rock was continued within the LPHTEK/IMAproject. The main focus in laboratory was to study high pH micro cement grouts. The low pH (≥ 11.0) of the cementitious grout material is required in deep repository as natural pH plume deriving from pure cement paste is very high and moves via ground water circulation in bedrock. This may be deleterious to the protective covers of nuclear waste. The objective to study high pH grouts in laboratory was to optimise their composition and to get preliminary test results. Low pH grouts based on Portland cement + micro silica were also studied further in laboratory to understand their behaviour more thoroughly in different conditions and due to quality changes in materials and to compare the laboratory results with the field results. Alternative fine-grained glass material was briefly studied to replace silica in low pH grout. Low and high pH rock bolt mortars were also developed and tested to get the preliminary test results. The results of the 2006 laboratory work are presented in this report. The high pH micro cement mix U1 with no silica, mix 5/5 with moderate silica and low pH mix P308B rich in silica show generally good properties at fresh and hardening stage at +12 deg C. Lower temperature gives weaker strength build-up with all the mixes and weakens especially the Marsh fluidity and penetration ability of the mixes 5/5 and P308B as bulk density rises a little at lower temperature. Cement quality variation and insufficient mixing may also weaken the properties of all mixes. Deformation of the hardened mixes was observed in laboratory tests. This may weaken their durability if cracks are formed in the grouts at later ages and need to be studied more thoroughly. (orig.)

  20. Desain dan Implementasi Virtual Laboratory Materi Osilator Analog berbasis IC OP-AMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYIFAUL FUADA

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Laboratorium virtual merupakan salah satu platform laboratorium modern yang dapat mendukung kegiatan praktikum yang berjalan secara tradisional (Hand-on Laboratory.Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendesain dan mengimplementasikan Virtual Laboratory pada materi pembangkit sinyal dengan subtopik: Wien Bridge sebagai osilator RC, Hartley dan Colpitts sebagai osilator LC dan Astable Multivibrator sebagai osilator relaksasi,yang dibangun berbasis IC Operational Amplifier (OP-AMP.Jenis penelitian ini merupakan R&Dyang terdiri dari enam tahapan, yaitu:konsep, desain, pengumpulan bahan, pembuatan, pengujian dan pendistribusian. Aplikasi perangkat lunak berbasis dekstop ini telah diuji secara fungsional dengan 6 (enam aspek parameter yakni:uji polaritas kapastor; uji wiring; uji mode frekuensi dan mode perioda pada alat ukur frequency generator; uji specific decission pada trainer kit osilator hartley dan colpitts; uji kesesuaian antara frekuensi ouput dari masing-masing osilator dengan perhitungan teorema dan hasil percobaan sesungguhnya; dan uji kualitas media. Hasil secara keseluruhan telah sesuai dengan ekspektasi didalam story board. Kata kunci: IC OP-AMP, Osilator analog, Laboratorium virtual ABSTRACT The Virtual Laboratory is as one of modern laboratory platform which able to supportthe hand-on worklab. The goal of this research are for designing and implementing a Virtual Laboratory of signal generator material with subtopics i.e. the Wien Bridge as an RC oscillator, the Hartley and Colpitts as LC oscillator and the astable multivibrator as relaxation oscillator which assembled based on Operational Amplifier Integrated Circuit (OP-AMP.This research is R&D type which consists of six stages, i.e. concept, design, materials collection, assembling, testing and distribution. This desktop-based software application has been functionally tested with six aspect of parameters such as: capacitor polarity testing; wiring testing; testing of frequency

  1. Hazardous materials management and control program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory - environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhower, B.M.; Oakes, T.W.

    1982-01-01

    In the Federal Register of May 19, 1980, the US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated final hazardous waste regulations according to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976. The major substantive portions of these regulations went into effect on November 19, 1980, and established a federal program to provide comprehensive regulation of hazardous waste from its generation to its disposal. In an effort to comply with these regulations, a Hazardous Materials Management and Control Program was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The program is administered by two Hazardous Materials Coordinators, who together with various support groups, ensure that all hazardous materials and wastes are handled in such a manner that all personnel, the general public, and the environment are adequately protected

  2. The Multiscale Material Point Method for Simulating Transient Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Su, Yu-Chen; Zhang, Hetao; Jiang, Shan; Sewell, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    To effectively simulate multiscale transient responses such as impact and penetration without invoking master/slave treatment, the multiscale material point method (Multi-MPM) is being developed in which molecular dynamics at nanoscale and dissipative particle dynamics at mesoscale might be concurrently handled within the framework of the original MPM at microscale (continuum level). The proposed numerical scheme for concurrently linking different scales is described in this paper with simple examples for demonstration. It is shown from the preliminary study that the mapping and re-mapping procedure used in the original MPM could coarse-grain the information at fine scale and that the proposed interfacial scheme could provide a smooth link between different scales. Since the original MPM is an extension from computational fluid dynamics to solid dynamics, the proposed Multi-MPM might also become robust for dealing with multiphase interactions involving failure evolution. This work is supported in part by DTRA and NSFC.

  3. Nuclear material control and accounting by process simulation with smalltalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, P.E.; Soper, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    Smalltalk, an object oriented computer language, enables programmers to build data structures and code which explicitly reflect the structure and working of a facility in an easily understood fashion. This paper discusses demonstration material control and accounting system that has been written in Smalltalk for the IBM PC-XT computer using the methods environment from Digitalk, Inc. The system is designed to track uranium through a processing facility. The objects are generic and not specific to any facility, objects like vault positions or tanks are created from classes of objects called uranium accounts. Uranium account objects are connected by a list of transfer rules which should reflect the operation of the facility. If operations or equipment are changed, only those rules or objects which simulate the affected components must be changed. By the nature of Smalltalk code, other objects will not be affected by these changes

  4. Numerical simulations of material mismatch and ductile crack growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestby, Erling

    2002-07-01

    Both the global geometry and inhomogeneities in material properties will influence the fracture behaviour of structures in presence of cracks. In this thesis numerical simulations have been used to investigate how some aspects of both these issues affect the conditions at the crack-tip. The thesis is organised in an introduction chapter, summarising the major findings and conclusions, a review chapter, presenting the main aspects of the developments in the field of fracture mechanics, and three research papers. Paper I considers the effect of mismatch in hardening exponent on the local near-tip stress field for stationary interface cracks in bi-materials under small scale yielding conditions. It is demonstrated that the stress level in the weaker material increases compared to what is found in the homogeneous material for the same globally applied load level, with the effect being of increasing importance as the crack-tip is approached. Although a coupling between the radial and angular dependence of the stress fields exists, the evolving stress field can still be normalised with the applied J. The effect on the increase in stress level can closely be characterised by the difference in hardening exponent, {delta}n, termed the hardening mismatch, and is more or less independent of the absolute level of hardening in the two materials. Paper II and Ill deal with the effects of geometry, specimen size, hardening level and yield stress mismatch in relation to ductile crack growth. The ductile crack growth is simulated through use of the Gurson model. In Paper H the effect of specimen size on the crack growth resistance is investigated for deep cracked bend and shallow cracked tensile specimens. At small amounts of crack growth the effect of specimen size on the crack growth resistance is small, but a more significant effect is found for larger amounts of crack growth. The crack growth resistance decreases in smaller specimens loaded in tension, whereas the opposite is

  5. Isotope materials availability and services for target production at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratledge, J.E.; Dahl, T.L.; Ottinger, C.L.; Aaron, W.S.; Adair, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    Materials available through the Isotope Distribution Program include separated stable isotopes, byproduct radioisotopes, and research quantities of source and special nuclear materials. Isotope products are routinely available in the forms listed in the product description section of the Isotopes Products and Services Catalog distributed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Different forms can be provided in some cases, usually at additional cost. Routinely available services include cyclotron target irradiations, fabrication of special physical forms, source encapsulation, ion implantation, and special purifications. Materials and services that are not offered as part of the routine distribution program may be made available from commercial sources in the United States. Specific forms of isotopic research materials include thin films and foils for use as accelerator targets, metal or other compounds in the form of bars or wires, and metal foils. Methods of fabrication include evaporation, sputtering, rolling, electrolytic deposition, pressing, sintering, and casting. High-purity metal forms of plutonium, americium, and curium are prepared by vacuum reduction/distillation. Both fissionable and nonfissionable neutron dosimeters are prepared for determining the neutron energy spectra, flux, and fluence at various locations within a reactor. Details on what materials are available and how the materials and related services can be obtained from ORNL are described. (orig.)

  6. Numerical simulations of rough contacts between viscoelastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinu, S.; Cerlinca, D.

    2017-08-01

    The durability of the mechanical contact is often plagued by surface-related phenomena like rolling contact fatigue, wear or crack propagation, which are linked to the important gradients of stress arising in the contacting bodies due to interaction at the asperity level. The semi-analytical computational approach adopted in this paper is based on a previously reported algorithm capable of simulating the contact between bodies with arbitrary limiting surfaces and viscoelastic behaviour, which is enhanced and adapted for the contact of real surfaces with microtopography. As steep slopes at the asperity level inevitably lead to localized plastic deformation at the tip of the asperities that are first brought into contact, the viscoelastic behaviour is amended by limiting the maximum value of the pressure on the contact area to that of the material hardness, according to the Tabor equation. In this manner, plasticity is considered in a simplified manner that assures the knowledge of the contact area and of the pressure distribution without estimation of the residual state. The main advantage of this approach is the preservation of the algorithmic complexity, allowing the simulation of very fine meshes capable of capturing particular features of the investigated contacting surface. The newly advanced model is expected to predict the contact specifics of rough surfaces as resulting from various manufacturing processes, thus assisting the design of durable machine elements using elastomers or rubbers.

  7. A simulation package for soft X-ray and EUV spectroscopy of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas in different environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, G Y; Li, F; Wang, F L; Zhong, J Y; Zhao, G; Wu, Y

    2014-01-01

    Spectroscopic researches in astronomy are significantly dependent on theoretical modelling methods, such as Chianti, Xstar, Cloudy etc. Recently, a different research community - Laboratory Astrophysics tries to benchmark these theoretical models or simulate the astrophysical phenomenon directly in conditions accessed in ground laboratory. Those unavoidable differences between the astrophysical objects and laboratory provide a need for a self-consistent model to make a bridge for the two cases. So we setup a visualized simulation package for soft X-ray and EUV spectroscopy in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas.

  8. Sensitivity Characterization of Pressed Energetic Materials using Flyer Plate Mesoscale Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Nirmal; Udaykumar, H. S.

    Heterogeneous energetic materials like pressed explosives have complicated microstructure and contain various forms of heterogeneities such as pores, micro-cracks, energetic crystals etc. It is widely accepted that the presence of these heterogeneities can affect the sensitivity of these materials under shock load. The interaction of shock load with the microstructural heterogeneities may leads to the formation of local heated regions known as ``hot spots''. Chemical reaction may trigger at the hot spot regions depending on the hot spot temperature and the duration over which the temperature can be maintained before phenomenon like heat conduction, rarefaction waves withdraws energy from it. There are different mechanisms which can lead to the formation of hot spots including void collapse. The current work is focused towards the sensitivity characterization of two HMX based pressed energetic materials using flyer plate mesoscale simulations. The aim of the current work is to develop mesoscale numerical framework which can perform simulations by replicating the laboratory based flyer plate experiments. The current numerical framework uses an image processing approach to represent the microstructural heterogeneities incorporated in a massively parallel Eulerian code SCIMITAR3D. The chemical decomposition of HMX is modeled using Henson-Smilowitz reaction mechanism. The sensitivity characterization is aimed towards obtaining James initiation threshold curve and comparing it with the experimental results.

  9. Strain Rockbursts Simulated by Low-Strength Brittle Equivalent Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental study on rockbursts that occur in deep underground excavations. To begin with, the boundary conditions for excavation in deep underground engineering were analysed and elastic adaptive boundary is an effective way to minimize the boundary effect of geomechanical model test. Then, in order to simulate an elastic adaptive loading boundary, Belleville springs were used to establish this loading boundary. With the aforementioned experimental set-ups and fabrication of similarity models for test, the phenomena of strain mode rockbursts were satisfactorily reproduced in laboratory. The internal stress, strain, and convergences of the openings of the model were instrumented by subtly preembedded sensors and transducers. Test results showed that, with an initial state of high stress from both upper layers’ gravitational effects and in situ stress due to tectonic movements, the excavation brings a dramatic rise in the hoop stress and sharp drop in radial stress, which leads to the splitting failure of rock mass. Finally a rockburst occurred associated with the release of strain energy stored in highly stressed rock mass. In addition, the failure of the surrounding rock demonstrated an obvious hysteresis effect which supplies valuable guide and reference for tunnel support. Not only do these results provide a basis for further comprehensive experiments, but also the data can offer assisting aids for further theoretical study of rockbursts.

  10. The Development of a Human Systems Simulation Laboratory at Idaho National Laoboratory: Progress, Requirements and Lessons Learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David I Gertman; Katya L. LeBlanc; William phoenix; Alan R Mecham

    2010-11-01

    Next generation nuclear power plants and digital upgrades to the existing nuclear fleet introduce potential human performance issues in the control room. Safe application of new technologies calls for a thorough understanding of how those technologies affect human performance and in turn, plant safety. In support of advancing human factors for small modular reactors and light water reactor sustainability, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed a reconfigurable simulation laboratory capable of testing human performance in multiple nuclear power plant (NPP) control room simulations. This paper discusses the laboratory infrastructure and capabilities, the laboratory’ s staffing requirements, lessons learned, and the researcher’s approach to measuring human performance in the simulation lab.

  11. Development of Advanced Wear and Corrosion Resistant Systems Through Laser Surface Alloying and Materials Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Martukanitz and S. Babu

    2007-05-03

    Laser surfacing in the form of cladding, alloying, and modifications are gaining widespread use because of its ability to provide high deposition rates, low thermal distortion, and refined microstructure due to high solidification rates. Because of these advantages, laser surface alloying is considered a prime candidate for producing ultra-hard coatings through the establishment or in situ formation of composite structures. Therefore, a program was conducted by the Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop the scientific and engineering basis for performing laser-based surface modifications involving the addition of hard particles, such as carbides, borides, and nitrides, within a metallic matrix for improved wear, fatigue, creep, and corrosion resistance. This has involved the development of advanced laser processing and simulation techniques, along with the refinement and application of these techniques for predicting and selecting materials and processing parameters for the creation of new surfaces having improved properties over current coating technologies. This program has also resulted in the formulation of process and material simulation tools capable of examining the potential for the formation and retention of composite coatings and deposits produced using laser processing techniques, as well as positive laboratory demonstrations in producing these coatings. In conjunction with the process simulation techniques, the application of computational thermodynamic and kinetic models to design laser surface alloying materials was demonstrated and resulted in a vast improvement in the formulation of materials used for producing composite coatings. The methodology was used to identify materials and to selectively modify microstructures for increasing hardness of deposits produced by the laser surface alloying process. Computational thermodynamic calculations indicated that it was possible to induce the

  12. Ground-based simulation of telepresence for materials science experiments. [remote viewing and control of processes aboard Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James C.; Rosenthal, Bruce N.; Bonner, Mary JO; Hahn, Richard C.; Herbach, Bruce

    1989-01-01

    A series of ground-based telepresence experiments have been performed to determine the minimum video frame rate and resolution required for the successive performance of materials science experiments in space. The approach used is to simulate transmission between earth and space station with transmission between laboratories on earth. The experiments include isothermal dendrite growth, physical vapor transport, and glass melting. Modifications of existing apparatus, software developed, and the establishment of an inhouse network are reviewed.

  13. High Temperature Materials Laboratory sixth annual report, October 1992--September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1993-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory has completed its sixth year of operation as a designated Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the User Program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions executing user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 172 nonproprietary agreements (88 university and 84 industry) and 35 proprietary agreements, (2 university, 33 industry) are now in effect. Six other government facilities have also participated in the User Program. Thirty-eight states are represented by these interactions. Ninety-four nonproprietary research proposals (44 from universities, 47 from industry, and 3 from other government facilities) and three proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Nonproprietary research projects active in FY 1993 are summarized.

  14. High Temperature Materials Laboratory fourth annual report, October 1990--September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennery, V.J.; Foust, F.M.

    1991-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory has completed its fourth year of operation as a designated Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the user program is evidenced by the number of outside institutions who have executed user agreements since the facility began operation in 1987. A total of 118 nonproprietary agreements (62 university and 56 industry) and 28 proprietary agreements (2 university, 26 industry) are now in effect. Five other government facilities have also participated in the user program. Sixty-free nonproprietary research proposals (38 from university, 26 from industry, and 1 other government facility) and four proprietary proposals were considered during this reporting period. Research projects active in FY 1991 are summarized.

  15. Annual report: Purchasing and Materials Management Organization, Sandia National Laboratories, fiscal year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaeh, R.A.

    1993-04-01

    This report summarizes the purchasing and transportation activities of the Purchasing and Materials Management Organization for Fiscal Year 1992. Activities for both the New Mexico and California locations are included. Topics covered in this report include highlights for fiscal year 1992, personnel, procurements (small business procurements, disadvantaged business procurements, woman-owned business procurements, New Mexico commercial business procurements, Bay area commercial business procurements), commitments by states and foreign countries, and transportation activities. Also listed are the twenty-five commercial contractors receiving the largest dollar commitments, commercial contractors receiving commitments of $1,000 or more, integrated contractor and federal agency commitments of $1,000 or more from Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and California, and transportation commitments of $1,000 or more from Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico and California.

  16. Computational simulation of the creep-rupture process in filamentary composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Kerry T.; Hackett, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    A computational simulation of the internal damage accumulation which causes the creep-rupture phenomenon in filamentary composite materials is developed. The creep-rupture process involves complex interactions between several damage mechanisms. A statistically-based computational simulation using a time-differencing approach is employed to model these progressive interactions. The finite element method is used to calculate the internal stresses. The fibers are modeled as a series of bar elements which are connected transversely by matrix elements. Flaws are distributed randomly throughout the elements in the model. Load is applied, and the properties of the individual elements are updated at the end of each time step as a function of the stress history. The simulation is continued until failure occurs. Several cases, with different initial flaw dispersions, are run to establish a statistical distribution of the time-to-failure. The calculations are performed on a supercomputer. The simulation results compare favorably with the results of creep-rupture experiments conducted at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  17. Preliminary process simulation and analysis of GMODS: Processing of plutonium surplus materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Nehls, J.W. Jr.; Welch, T.D.; Giardina, J.L.; Forsberg, C.W.; Maliyekkel, A.T.

    1996-01-01

    To address growing concerns in the areas of arms control, control of fissile materials, waste management, and environment and health, the US Department of Energy is studying and evaluating various options for the control and disposal of surplus fissile materials (SFMs). One of the options under consideration is the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS) which directly converts plutonium-bearing materials such as metals, ceramics, and organics into a durable-high-quality glass for long-term storage or a waste form for disposal. This study undertook the development of a computer simulation of the GMODS process using FLOW. That computer simulation was used to perform an assessment of how GMODS would handle the treatment of plutonium, rich scrap (RS) and lead scrap (LS), and identify critical process parameters. Among the key process parameters affecting the glass formation were processing temperatures, additives, and the effects of varying them on the final product. This assessment looked at the quantity of glass produced, the quality of the final glass form, and the effect of blending different groups of the feed streams on the glass produced. The model also provided a way to study the current process assumptions and determine in which areas more experimental studies are required. The simulation showed that the glass chemistry postulated in the models is workable. It is expected that the glass chemistry assumed during the modeling process can be verified by the results of the laboratory experiments that are currently being conducted relating to the GMODS process.Further waste characterization, especially of the SFM waste streams not studied in this report, will provide more nearly accurate results and give a more detailed evaluation of the GMODS process

  18. Preliminary process simulation and analysis of GMODS: Processing of plutonium surplus materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrada, J.J.; Nehls, J.W. Jr.; Welch, T.D.; Giardina, J.L.; Forsberg, C.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Maliyekkel, A.T. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN (United States)

    1996-01-02

    To address growing concerns in the areas of arms control, control of fissile materials, waste management, and environment and health, the US Department of Energy is studying and evaluating various options for the control and disposal of surplus fissile materials (SFMs). One of the options under consideration is the Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (GMODS) which directly converts plutonium-bearing materials such as metals, ceramics, and organics into a durable-high-quality glass for long-term storage or a waste form for disposal. This study undertook the development of a computer simulation of the GMODS process using FLOW. That computer simulation was used to perform an assessment of how GMODS would handle the treatment of plutonium, rich scrap (RS) and lead scrap (LS), and identify critical process parameters. Among the key process parameters affecting the glass formation were processing temperatures, additives, and the effects of varying them on the final product. This assessment looked at the quantity of glass produced, the quality of the final glass form, and the effect of blending different groups of the feed streams on the glass produced. The model also provided a way to study the current process assumptions and determine in which areas more experimental studies are required. The simulation showed that the glass chemistry postulated in the models is workable. It is expected that the glass chemistry assumed during the modeling process can be verified by the results of the laboratory experiments that are currently being conducted relating to the GMODS process.Further waste characterization, especially of the SFM waste streams not studied in this report, will provide more nearly accurate results and give a more detailed evaluation of the GMODS process.

  19. Materials and Methods for Streamlined Laboratory Analysis of Environmental Samples, FY 2016 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addleman, Raymond S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Naes, Benjamin E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McNamara, Bruce K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Olsen, Khris B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chouyyok, Wilaiwan [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Willingham, David G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Spigner, Angel C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-11-30

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) relies upon laboratory analysis of environmental samples (typically referred to as “swipes”) collected during on-site inspections of safeguarded facilities to support the detection and deterrence of undeclared activities. Unfortunately, chemical processing and assay of the samples is slow and expensive. A rapid, effective, and simple extraction process and analysis method is needed to provide certified results with improved timeliness at reduced costs (principally in the form of reduced labor), while maintaining or improving sensitivity and efficacy. To address these safeguard needs the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) explored and demonstrated improved methods for environmental sample (ES) analysis. Improvements for both bulk and particle analysis were explored. To facilitate continuity and adoption, the new sampling materials and processing methods will be compatible with existing IAEA protocols for ES analysis. PNNL collaborated with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which performed independent validation of the new bulk analysis methods and compared performance to traditional IAEA’s Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) protocol. ORNL efforts are reported separately. This report describes PNNL’s FY 2016 progress, which was focused on analytical application supporting environmental monitoring of uranium enrichment plants and nuclear fuel processing. In the future the technology could be applied to other safeguard applications and analytes related to fuel manufacturing, reprocessing, etc. PNNL’s FY 2016 efforts were broken into two tasks and a summary of progress, accomplishments and highlights are provided below. Principal progress and accomplishments on Task 1, Optimize Materials and Methods for ICP-MS Environmental Sample Analysis, are listed below. • Completed initial procedure for rapid uranium extraction from ES swipes based upon carbonate-peroxide chemistry (delivered to ORNL for

  20. Laboratory simulation of the magnetosphere, magnetotail reconnection and the study of field-aligned currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yur, G.

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory simulation of the Earth's magnetosphere is performed. A wide plasma beam with plasma density ∼ 10 13 cm -3 , velocity ∼ 10 7 cm/s, temperature ∼ 10 eV and pulse duration ∼ 100μs simulates the solar wind plasma. An externally applied magnetic field throughout the interaction chamber is varied between -300 to +300 G to simulate the interplanetary magnet field (IMF). Detailed characterization of the flow of this plasma across the IMF shows various degrees of diamagnetism and rvec E x rvec B propagation. This magnetized plasma beam interacts with a spherical dipole magnetic field that simulates the planetary field to form a planetary type plasma sphere. Cusp structures and particle precipitations are studied with optical time exposure photographs of the simulated magnetosphere. The structure is strongly controlled by the polarity of the IMF. The global structure of the magnetosphere is measured in detail for different values of the IMF at various locations in the magnetosphere. Particularly, the magnetic field measurements in the tail reveal interesting reconnection processes and above the polar region, the structure of field aligned currents that are similar to the ones obtained from the satellites above the polar region of the Earth. The main experimental parameters are selected in such a way that, at least, MHD scaling is satisfied

  1. General Motors and the University of Michigan smart materials and structures collaborative research laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brei, Diann; Luntz, Jonathan; Shaw, John; Johnson, Nancy L.; Browne, Alan L.; Alexander, Paul W.; Mankame, Nilesh D.

    2007-04-01

    The field of Smart Materials and Structures is evolving from high-end, one-of-a-kind products for medical, military and aerospace applications to the point of viability for mainstream affordable high volume products for automotive applications. For the automotive industry, there are significant potential benefits to be realized including reduction in vehicle mass, added functionality and design flexibility and decrease in component size and cost. To further accelerate the path from basic research and development to launched competitive products, General Motors (GM) has teamed with the College of Engineering at the University of Michigan (UM) to establish a $2.9 Million Collaborative Research Laboratory (CRL) in Smart Materials and Structures. Researchers at both GM and UM are working closely together to create leap-frog technologies which start at conceptualization and proceed all the way through demonstration and handoff to product teams, thereby bridging the traditional technology gap between industry and academia. In addition to Smart Device Technology Innovation, other thrust areas in the CRL include Smart Material Maturity with a basic research focus on overcoming material issues that form roadblocks to commercialism and Mechamatronic System Design Methodology with an applied focus on development tools (synthesis and analysis) to aid the engineer in application of smart materials to system engineering. This CRL is a global effort with partners across the nation and world from GM's Global Research Network such as HRL Laboratories in California and GM's India Science Lab in Bangalore, India. This paper provides an overview of this new CRL and gives examples of several of the projects underway.

  2. Astrophysics Laboratory-Based Lecture Material Development of Solarscope with Integration and Interconnection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asih Melati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of laboratory-based lecture materials with integrated and interconnected value is a requirement for study and practical materials and in line with the vision and mission of UIN Sunan Kalijaga. As a result, the optimization of laboratory’s equipment is urgently needed. Although UIN Sunan Kalijaga Laboratory have had Solarscope telescope – which have a guidebook in German language – for six years, it was not optimally used even it can be used to satisfy the desires to observe astronomical objects economically, accurately and easy to operate. Based on above, this research propose to create a lab-work module for Solarscope with integration and interconnection value. This research used 4D methodology (Define, Design, Develop and Disseminate and have passed the assessment and validation phase from material, media and integrated-interconnected value experts. The data analysis of the module which was mapped by Sukarja into 5 scale mark resulted in good grade in the module assessment by material experts with 80% from the ideal mark with most of the complaint is in the formula typing which is not clear in its derivative. The module assessment by media experts scored very good grade with 88.89% from the ideal mark regarding the content and the figures of the module. Lastly, from the integrated-interconnected value experts marked in good grade with 73.50% from the ideal mark and suggested the addition of supported Al-Qur’an verses and relevant exclamation of the Al-Qur’an’s passages. With all of these assessment results, this module can be used as the material of astrophysics lab-work and for supporting students’ researches with integration-interconnection value and enhance the university’s book collection which will support the vision and mission of UIN Sunan Kalijaga

  3. Laboratory simulation of the formation of an ionospheric depletion using Keda Space Plasma EXperiment (KSPEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengcheng Yu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the work, the formation of an ionospheric depletion was simulated in a controlled laboratory plasma. The experiment was performed by releasing chemical substance sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 into the pure argon discharge plasma. Results indicate that the plasma parameters change significantly after release of chemicals. The electron density is nearly depleted due to the sulfur hexafluoride-electron attachment reaction; and the electron temperature and space potential experience an increase due to the decrease of the electron density. Compared to the traditional active release experiments, the laboratory scheme can be more efficient, high repetition rate and simpler measurement of the varying plasma parameter after chemical releasing. Therefore, it can effective building the bridge between the theoretical work and real space observation.

  4. Development of aircraft brake materials. [evaluation of metal and ceramic materials in sliding tests simulation of aircraft braking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, T. L.; Peterson, M. B.

    1974-01-01

    The requirements of brake materials were outlined and a survey made to select materials to meet the needs of high temperature brakes. A number of metals and ceramic materials were selected and evaluated in sliding tests which simulated aircraft braking. Nickel, molybdenum tungsten, Zr02, high temperature cements and carbons were tested. Additives were then incorporated into these materials to optimize their wear or strength behavior with particular emphasis on nickel and molybdenum base materials and a high temperature potassium silicate cement. Optimum materials were developed which improved wear behavior over conventional brake materials in the simulated test. The best materials are a nickel, aluminum oxide, lead tungstate composition containing graphite or molybdenum disulphite; a molybdenum base material containing LPA100 (an intermetallic compound of cobalt, molybdenum, and silicon); and a carbon material (P5).

  5. Materials Science Division HVEM-Tandem Facility at Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.

    1981-10-01

    The ANL-Materials Science Division High Voltage Electron Microscope-Tandem Facility is a unique national research facility available to scientists from industry, universities, and other national laboratories, following a peer evaluation of their research proposals by the Facility Steering Committee. The principal equipment consists of a Kratos EM7 1.2-MV high voltage electron microscope, a 300-kV Texas Nuclear ion accelerator, and a National Electrostatics 2-MV Tandem accelerator. Ions from both accelerators are transmitted into the electron microscope through the ion-beam interface. Recent work at the facility is summarized

  6. Preliminary results on laboratory simulations of the decomposition of the green algae Ulva rigida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavoltsos, S.; Scoullous, M.; Kaberi, H.

    1999-01-01

    The Ulva Rigida is a cosmopolitan green algae characteristic of many eutrophic and mesotrophic coastal environments. The effect of its growth and decomposition on the cycle of trace metals has been studied by using enclosures in the site Loutropyrgos over a number of years. The present study is a continuation of that research. Its main aim was to simulate a number of the field experiments in the laboratory, under more controlled conditions and understand better the impact of the decomposition of algae on sea water and sediment

  7. Laboratory simulation of charge exchange-produced X-ray emission from comets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiersdorfer, P; Boyce, K R; Brown, G V; Chen, H; Kahn, S M; Kelley, R L; May, M; Olson, R E; Porter, F S; Stahle, C K; Tillotson, W A

    2003-06-06

    In laboratory experiments using the engineering spare microcalorimeter detector from the ASTRO-E satellite mission, we recorded the x-ray emission of highly charged ions of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, which simulates charge exchange reactions between heavy ions in the solar wind and neutral gases in cometary comae. The spectra are complex and do not readily match predictions. We developed a charge exchange emission model that successfully reproduces the soft x-ray spectrum of comet Linear C/1999 S4, observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory.

  8. First-principle Simulations of Heavy Fermion Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ruanchen

    Heavy fermion materials, one of the most challenging topics in condensed matter physics, pose a variety of interesting properties and have attracted extensive studies for decades. Although there has been great success in explaining many ground- state properties of solids, the well-known theoretical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) in its popular local density approximation (LDA) fail to describe heavy fermion materials due to improper treatment of many-body correlation effects. Here with the implementations of dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT) and the Gutzwiller variational method, the computational simulation of the heavy fermion materials is explored further and better compared with experimental data. In this dissertation, first, the theoretical background of DMFT and LDA+G methods is described in detail. The rest is the application of these techniques and is basically divided into two parts. First, the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo (CT-QMC) method combined with DMFT is used to calculate and compare both the periodic Anderson model (PAM) and the Kondo lattice model (KLM). Different parameter sets of both models are connected by the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation. For spin and orbital degeneracy N = 2 case, a special particle-hole symmetric case of PAM at half-filling which always fixes one electron per impurity site is compared with the results of the KLM. We find a good mapping between PAM and KLM in the limit of large on-site Hubbard interaction U for different properties like self-energy, quasiparticle residue and susceptibility. This allows us to extract quasiparticle mass renormalizations for the f-electrons directly from KLM. The method is further applied to higher degenerate cases and to the realistic heavy fermion system CeRhIn5 in which the estimate of the Sommerfeld coefficient is proven to be close to the experimental value. Second, a series of Cerium based heavy fermion materials is studied using a combination of local

  9. Evaluation of Variable Refrigerant Flow Systems Performance on Oak Ridge National Laboratory s Flexible Research Platform: Part 3 Simulation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Piljae [ORNL; Cho, Heejin [Mississippi State University (MSU); Kim, Dongsu [Mississippi State University (MSU); Cox, Sam [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2016-08-01

    This report provides second-year project simulation results for the multi-year project titled “Evaluation of Variable Refrigeration Flow (VRF) system on Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)’s Flexible Research Platform (FRP).”

  10. Comparison between laboratory measurements, simulations, and analytical predictions of the transverse wall impedance at low frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Roncarolo, F; Kroyer, T; Metral, E; Mounet, N; Salvant, B; Zotter, B

    2009-01-01

    The prediction of the transverse wall beam impedance at the first unstable betatron line (8 kHz) of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is of paramount importance for understanding and controlling the related coupled-bunch instabilities. Until now only novel analytical formulas were available at this frequency. Recently, laboratory measurements and numerical simulations were performed to cross-check the analytical predictions. The experimental results based on the measurement of the variation of a probe coil inductance in the presence of (i) sample graphite plates, (ii) stand-alone LHC collimator jaws, and (iii) a full LHC collimator assembly are presented in detail. The measurement results are compared to both analytical theories and simulations. In addition, the consequences for the understanding of the LHC impedance are discussed.

  11. Application of the Materials Requirement Planning (MRP in the Pharmaceutical Laboratory Oriente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Saumell–Fonseca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the logistics management of any business organization the allocation of material resources is very important, both for its dynamic approach to the internal processes of the company, as the pursuit of customer satisfaction, enabling the fulfillment of their goals efficiently and effectively. In this context, are used with effective results the models of Material’s Requirements Planning (MRP which allow to plan and control the demands for materials and production capacities in companies, conjugating with orders’s delivery dates, so is a tool proven effective, especially in the conditions of the Cuban economy. The present work has as objective to apply a MRP model in drugs manufacturing in the Company Laboratory Oriente in Santiago de Cuba, based on a theoretical and practical analysis for application of MRP tool using the WinQSB software. 

  12. Mechanical properties of simulated Mars materials: gypsum-rich sandstones and lapilli tuff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Carolyn; Lockner, David; Okubo, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Observations by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity, and other recent studies on diagenesis in the extensive equatorial layered deposits on Mars, suggest that the likely lithologies of these deposits are gypsum-rich sandstones and tuffaceous sediments (for example, Murchie and others, 2009; Squyres and others, 2012; Zimbelman and Scheidt, 2012). Of particular interest is how the diagenesis history of these sediments (degree of cementation and composition) influences the strength and brittle behavior of the material. For instance, fractures are more common in lower porosity materials under strain, whereas deformation bands, characterized by distributed strain throughout a broader discontinuity in a material, are common in higher porosity sedimentary materials. Such discontinuities can either enhance or restrict fluid flow; hence, failure mode plays an important role in determining the mechanics of fluid migration through sediments (Antonellini and Aydin, 1994; 1995; Taylor and Pollard, 2000; Ogilvie and Glover, 2001). As part of a larger study to characterize processes of fault-controlled fluid flow in volcaniclastic and gypsum-rich sediments on Mars, we have completed a series of laboratory experiments to focus on how gypsum clast content and degree of authigenic cementation affects the strength behavior of simulated Mars rocks. Both axial deformation and hydrostatic pressure tests were done at room temperature under dry conditions.

  13. Some relevant parameters for assessing fire hazards of combustible mine materials using laboratory scale experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, Charles D; Perera, Inoka E; Harteis, Samuel P; Teacoach, Kara A; DeRosa, Maria I; Thomas, Richard A; Smith, Alex C

    2018-04-15

    When combustible materials ignite and burn, the potential for fire growth and flame spread represents an obvious hazard, but during these processes of ignition and flaming, other life hazards present themselves and should be included to ensure an effective overall analysis of the relevant fire hazards. In particular, the gases and smoke produced both during the smoldering stages of fires leading to ignition and during the advanced flaming stages of a developing fire serve to contaminate the surrounding atmosphere, potentially producing elevated levels of toxicity and high levels of smoke obscuration that render the environment untenable. In underground mines, these hazards may be exacerbated by the existing forced ventilation that can carry the gases and smoke to locations far-removed from the fire location. Clearly, materials that require high temperatures (above 1400 K) and that exhibit low mass loss during thermal decomposition, or that require high heat fluxes or heat transfer rates to ignite represent less of a hazard than materials that decompose at low temperatures or ignite at low levels of heat flux. In order to define and quantify some possible parameters that can be used to assess these hazards, small-scale laboratory experiments were conducted in a number of configurations to measure: 1) the toxic gases and smoke produced both during non-flaming and flaming combustion; 2) mass loss rates as a function of temperature to determine ease of thermal decomposition; and 3) mass loss rates and times to ignition as a function of incident heat flux. This paper describes the experiments that were conducted, their results, and the development of a set of parameters that could possibly be used to assess the overall fire hazard of combustible materials using small scale laboratory experiments.

  14. Inter-laboratory analysis of selected genetically modified plant reference materials with digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobnik, David; Demšar, Tina; Huber, Ingrid; Gerdes, Lars; Broeders, Sylvia; Roosens, Nancy; Debode, Frederic; Berben, Gilbert; Žel, Jana

    2018-01-01

    Digital PCR (dPCR), as a new technology in the field of genetically modified (GM) organism (GMO) testing, enables determination of absolute target copy numbers. The purpose of our study was to test the transferability of methods designed for quantitative PCR (qPCR) to dPCR and to carry out an inter-laboratory comparison of the performance of two different dPCR platforms when determining the absolute GM copy numbers and GM copy number ratio in reference materials certified for GM content in mass fraction. Overall results in terms of measured GM% were within acceptable variation limits for both tested dPCR systems. However, the determined absolute copy numbers for individual genes or events showed higher variability between laboratories in one third of the cases, most possibly due to variability in the technical work, droplet size variability, and analysis of the raw data. GMO quantification with dPCR and qPCR was comparable. As methods originally designed for qPCR performed well in dPCR systems, already validated qPCR assays can most generally be used for dPCR technology with the purpose of GMO detection. Graphical abstract The output of three different PCR-based platforms was assessed in an inter-laboratory comparison.

  15. Monte Carlo Simulation for LINAC Standoff Interrogation of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Shaun D.; Flaska, Marek; Miller, Thomas Martin; Protopopescu, Vladimir A.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2007-01-01

    The development of new techniques for the interrogation of shielded nuclear materials relies on the use of Monte Carlo codes to accurately simulate the entire system, including the interrogation source, the fissile target and the detection environment. The objective of this modeling effort is to develop analysis tools and methods-based on a relevant scenario-which may be applied to the design of future systems for active interrogation at a standoff. For the specific scenario considered here, the analysis will focus on providing the information needed to determine the type and optimum position of the detectors. This report describes the results of simulations for a detection system employing gamma rays to interrogate fissile and nonfissile targets. The simulations were performed using specialized versions of the codes MCNPX and MCNP-PoliMi. Both prompt neutron and gamma ray and delayed neutron fluxes have been mapped in three dimensions. The time dependence of the prompt neutrons in the system has also been characterized For this particular scenario, the flux maps generated with the Monte Carlo model indicate that the detectors should be placed approximately 50 cm behind the exit of the accelerator, 40 cm away from the vehicle, and 150 cm above the ground. This position minimizes the number of neutrons coming from the accelerator structure and also receives the maximum flux of prompt neutrons coming from the source. The lead shielding around the accelerator minimizes the gamma-ray background from the accelerator in this area. The number of delayed neutrons emitted from the target is approximately seven orders of magnitude less than the prompt neutrons emitted from the system. Therefore, in order to possibly detect the delayed neutrons, the detectors should be active only after all prompt neutrons have scattered out of the system. Preliminary results have shown this time to be greater than 5 ?s after the accelerator pulse. This type of system is illustrative of a

  16. Laboratory investigations into the reactive transport module of carbon dioxide sequestration and geochemical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidaryan, E. [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Masjidosolayman Branch; Enayati, M.; Mokhtari, B. [Iranian Offshore Oil Co., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Over long time periods, geological sequestration in some systems shows mineralization effects or mineral sequestration of carbon dioxide, converting the carbon dioxide to a less mobile form. However, a detailed investigation of these geological systems is needed before disposing of carbon dioxide into these formations. Depleted oil and gas reservoirs and underground aquifers are proposed candidates for carbon dioxide injection. This paper presented an experimental investigation into the reactive transport module for handling aquifer sequestration of carbon dioxide and modeling of simultaneous geochemical reactions. Two cases of laboratory carbon dioxide sequestration experiments, conducted for different rock systems were modeled using the fully coupled geochemical compositional simulator. The relevant permeability relationships were compared to determine the best fit with the experimental results. The paper discussed the theory of modeling; geochemical reactions and mineral trapping of carbon dioxide; and application simulator for modeling including the remodeling of flow experiments. It was concluded that simulated changes in porosity and permeability could mimic experimental results to some extent. The study satisfactorily simulated the results of experimental observations and permeability results could be improved if the Kozeny-Carman equation was replaced by the Civan power law. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 21 figs.

  17. Anisotropic Rotational Diffusion Studied by Nuclear Spin Relaxation and Molecular Dynamics Simulation: An Undergraduate Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuson, Michael M.

    2017-01-01

    Laboratories studying the anisotropic rotational diffusion of bromobenzene using nuclear spin relaxation and molecular dynamics simulations are described. For many undergraduates, visualizing molecular motion is challenging. Undergraduates rarely encounter laboratories that directly assess molecular motion, and so the concept remains an…

  18. Comparison of one-dimensional probabilistic finite element method with direct numerical simulation of dynamically loaded heterogeneous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Joshua; Voth, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Material response to dynamic loading is often dominated by microstructure such as grain topology, porosity, inclusions, and defects; however, many models rely on assumptions of homogeneity. We use the probabilistic finite element method (WK Liu, IJNME, 1986) to introduce local uncertainty to account for material heterogeneity. The PFEM uses statistical information about the local material response (i.e., its expectation, coefficient of variation, and autocorrelation) drawn from knowledge of the microstructure, single crystal behavior, and direct numerical simulation (DNS) to determine the expectation and covariance of the system response (velocity, strain, stress, etc). This approach is compared to resolved grain-scale simulations of the equivalent system. The microstructures used for the DNS are produced using Monte Carlo simulations of grain growth, and a sufficient number of realizations are computed to ensure a meaningful comparison. Finally, comments are made regarding the suitability of one-dimensional PFEM for modeling material heterogeneity. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Materials Capability Review Los Alamos National Laboratory May 4-7, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Antoniette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses external peer review to measure and continuously improve the quality of its science, technology and engineering (STE). LANL uses capability reviews to assess the STE quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. STE capabilities are define to cut across directorates providing a more holistic view of the STE quality, integration to achieve mission requirements, and mission relevance. The scope of these capabilities necessitate that there will be significant overlap in technical areas covered by capability reviews (e.g ., materials research and weapons science and engineering). In addition, LANL staff may be reviewed in different capability reviews because of their varied assignments and expertise. LANL plans to perform a complete review of the Laboratory's STE capabilities (hence staff) in a three-year cycle. The principal product of an external review is a report that includes the review committee's assessments, commendations, and recommendations for STE. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). This report will be used by Laboratory Management for STE assessment and planning. The report is also provided to the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of LANL's Annual Performance Plan and to the Los Alamos National Security (LANS) LLC's Science and Technology Committee (STC) as part of its responsibilities to the LANS Board of Governors. LANL has defined fourteen

  20. Effects of Water Bottle Materials and Filtration on Bisphenol A Content in Laboratory Animal Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Jenny Q T; Kentner, Amanda C; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2017-05-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins that are found in laboratory animal husbandry materials including cages and water bottles. Concerns about BPA exposure in humans has led to investigations that suggest physiologic health risks including disruptions to the endocrine system and CNS. However, the extent of exposure of laboratory animals to BPA in drinking water is unclear. In the first study, we compared the amount of BPA contamination in water stored in plastic bottles used in research settings with that in glass bottles. The amount of BPA that leached into water was measured across several time points ranging from 24 to 96 h by using a BPA ELISA assay. The results showed that considerable amounts of BPA (approximately 0.15 μg/L) leached from polycarbonate bottles within the first 24 h of storage. In the second study, BPA levels were measured directly from water taken from filtered compared with unfiltered taps. We observed significantly higher BPA levels in water from unfiltered taps (approximately 0.40 μg/L) compared with taps with filtration systems (approximately 0.04 μg/L). Taken together, our findings indicate that the use of different types of water bottles and water sources, combined with the use of different laboratory products (food, caging systems) between laboratories, likely contribute to decreased rigor and reproducibility in research. We suggest that researchers consider reporting the types of water bottles used and that animal care facilities educate staff regarding the importance of flushing nonfiltered water taps when filling animal water bottles.

  1. Standard Test Method for Testing Nonmetallic Seal Materials by Immersion in a Simulated Geothermal Test Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1985-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for a laboratory test for performing an initial evaluation (screening) of nonmetallic seal materials by immersion in a simulated geothermal test fluid. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific precautionary statements, see Section 6 and 11.7.

  2. Simulating flow in karst aquifers at laboratory and sub-regional scales using MODFLOW-CFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Josue Jacob; Hu, Bill X.; Davis, Hal

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater flow in a well-developed karst aquifer dominantly occurs through bedding planes, fractures, conduits, and caves created by and/or enlarged by dissolution. Conventional groundwater modeling methods assume that groundwater flow is described by Darcian principles where primary porosity (i.e. matrix porosity) and laminar flow are dominant. However, in well-developed karst aquifers, the assumption of Darcian flow can be questionable. While Darcian flow generally occurs in the matrix portion of the karst aquifer, flow through conduits can be non-laminar where the relation between specific discharge and hydraulic gradient is non-linear. MODFLOW-CFP is a relatively new modeling program that accounts for non-laminar and laminar flow in pipes, like karst caves, within an aquifer. In this study, results from MODFLOW-CFP are compared to those from MODFLOW-2000/2005, a numerical code based on Darcy's law, to evaluate the accuracy that CFP can achieve when modeling flows in karst aquifers at laboratory and sub-regional (Woodville Karst Plain, Florida, USA) scales. In comparison with laboratory experiments, simulation results by MODFLOW-CFP are more accurate than MODFLOW 2005. At the sub-regional scale, MODFLOW-CFP was more accurate than MODFLOW-2000 for simulating field measurements of peak flow at one spring and total discharges at two springs for an observed storm event.

  3. Pretreating dogwood seedlings with simulated acidic precipitation increases dogwood anthracnose symptoms in greenhouse-laboratory trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.L.; Knighten, J. (USDA Forest Service, Resistance Screening Center, Asheville, NC (United States)); Berrange, P.; Lawton, K.A. (USDA Forest Service, Center for Forest Environmental Studies, Dry Branch, GA (United States)); Britton, K.O. (USDA Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Athens, GA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Dogwood anthracnose is the most damaging disease of flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L.) in a large part of the tree's natural range. It is caused by Discula destructiva infection. Previous attempts to inoculate C. florida to produce anthracnose symptoms have met with limited success except when the leaves were pretreated with acidic water, suggesting that acidic precipitation may predispose dogwoods to the disease. This hypothesis was tested in two greenhouse-laboratory studies in which year-old C. florida seedlings were randomly assigned to four treatments of simulated rain (pH 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5) in 1989 and 1990. After 10 applications over a 42-d period, the seedlings were moved to a temperature-controlled laboratory, placed in plastic bags, humidified, and sprayed with a spore suspension of five D. destructiva isolates. About 30 d layter, the seedlings were examined for the percentage of leaves exhibiting anthracnose symptoms and disease severity on affected leaves. Both trials showed that as the acidity of the simulated rain increased, the incidence and severity of anthracnose leaf symptoms increased. The 1989 study included a soil lime treatment that showed the same trend but the overall occurrence and severity of symptoms was higher. 17 refs., 5 tabs.

  4. Emission characteristics of PBDEs during flame-retardant plastics extruding process: field investigation and laboratorial simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Li, Ying; Li, Jinhui; Chen, Yuan; Li, Huafen

    2017-10-01

    Though mechanical recycling of WEEE plastics is supposed to be a promising method, PBDEs release and the resulting contamination during its processing remain unclear yet. The distribution of PBDEs pollution in production lines was investigated from two flame-retardant plastic modification plants in Southern China. This was followed by laboratory simulation experiments to characterize the emission processes. PBDEs concentrations ranged from 37 to 31,305 ng/L in cooling water and from 40,043 to 216,653 ng/g dry wt in solid samples taken during the field investigation. In the laboratory simulation, concentrations ranged from 146 to 433 ng/L in cooling water and from 411,436 to 747,516 ng/Nm 3 in flue gas. All samples were dominated by BDE-209 among the congeners. Temperatures and impurities in plastic substrate can significantly affect PBDEs release. Special attention should be paid to the risks of water directly discharge from the cooling system, especially for the biological sludge and sediments, as well as flue gas emissions to the environment.

  5. Monte Carlo simulation of muon radiation environment in China Jinping Underground Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Jian; Zeng Zhi; Liu Yue; Yue Qian; Ma Hao; Cheng Jianping

    2012-01-01

    Muon radiation background of China Jinping Underground Laboratory (CJPL) was simulated by Monte Carlo method. According to the Gaisser formula and the MUSIC soft, the model of cosmic ray muons was established. Then the yield and the average energy of muon-induced photons and muon-induced neutrons were simulated by FLUKA. With the single-energy approximation, the contribution to the radiation background of shielding structure by secondary photons and neutrons was evaluated. The estimation results show that the average energy of residual muons is 369 GeV and the flux is 3.17 × 10 -6 m -2 · s -1 . The fluence rate of secondary photons is about 1.57 × 10 -4 m -2 · s -1 , and the fluence rate of secondary neutrons is about 8.37 × 10 -7 m -2 · s -1 . The muon radiation background of CJPL is lower than those of most other underground laboratories in the world. (authors)

  6. Chemistry {ampersand} Materials Science program report, Weapons Resarch and Development and Laboratory Directed Research and Development FY96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, L.

    1997-03-01

    This report is the annual progress report for the Chemistry Materials Science Program: Weapons Research and Development and Laboratory Directed Research and Development. Twenty-one projects are described separately by their principal investigators.

  7. Investigation of laboratory test procedures for assessing the structural capacity of geogrid-reinforced aggregate base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this research was to identify a laboratory test method that can be used to quantify improvements in structural capacity of aggregate base materials reinforced with geogrid. For this research, National Cooperative Highway Research Pro...

  8. Advanced computational simulation for design and manufacturing of lightweight material components for automotive applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simunovic, S.; Aramayo, G.A.; Zacharia, T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Toridis, T.G. [George Washington Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Bandak, F.; Ragland, C.L. [Dept. of Transportation, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Computational vehicle models for the analysis of lightweight material performance in automobiles have been developed through collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration, and George Washington University. The vehicle models have been verified against experimental data obtained from vehicle collisions. The crashed vehicles were analyzed, and the main impact energy dissipation mechanisms were identified and characterized. Important structural parts were extracted and digitized and directly compared with simulation results. High-performance computing played a key role in the model development because it allowed for rapid computational simulations and model modifications. The deformation of the computational model shows a very good agreement with the experiments. This report documents the modifications made to the computational model and relates them to the observations and findings on the test vehicle. Procedural guidelines are also provided that the authors believe need to be followed to create realistic models of passenger vehicles that could be used to evaluate the performance of lightweight materials in automotive structural components.

  9. Degradation of sustainable mulch materials in two types of soil under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villena, Jaime; González, Sara; Moreno, Carmen; Aceituno, Patricia; Campos, Juan; Meco, Ramón; María Moreno, Marta

    2017-04-01

    Mulching is a technique used in cultivation worldwide, especially for vegetable crops, for reducing weed growth, minimising or eliminating soil erosion, and often for enhancing total yields. Manufactured plastic films, mainly polyethylene (PE), have been widely used for this purpose due to their excellent mechanical properties, light weight and relatively low prices in recent years. However, the use of PE is associated with serious environmental problems related to its petrochemical origin and its long shelf-life, which causes a waste problem in our crop fields. For this reason, the use of biodegradable mulch materials (biopolymers and papers) as alternative to PE is increasing nowadays, especially in organic farming. However, these materials can suffer an undesirable early degradation (and therefore not fulfilling their function successfully), greatly resulting from the type of soil. For this reason, this study aimed to analyse the degradation pattern of different mulch materials buried in two types of soils, clay and sand, under laboratory conditions (25°C, dark surroundings, constant humidity). The mulch materials used were: 1) black polyethylene (15 µm); black biopolymers (15 µm): 2) maize starch-based, 3) potato starch-based, 4) polylactic acid-based, 5) black paper, 85 g/m2. Periodically (every 15-20 days), the weight and surface loss of the different materials were recorded. The results indicate that mulch degradation was earlier and higher in the clay soil, especially in the paper and in the potato starch-based materials, followed by the maize starch-based mulch, while polylactic acid-based suffered the least and the latest degradation. Keywords: mulch, biodegradable, biopolymer, paper, degradation. Acknowledgements: the research was funded by Project RTA2011-00104-C04-03 from the INIA (Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness).

  10. Chemistry and materials science progress report. Weapons-supporting research and laboratory directed research and development: FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This report covers different materials and chemistry research projects carried out a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during 1995 in support of nuclear weapons programs and other programs. There are 16 papers supporting weapons research and 12 papers supporting laboratory directed research.

  11. Chemistry and materials science progress report. Weapons-supporting research and laboratory directed research and development: FY 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    This report covers different materials and chemistry research projects carried out a Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory during 1995 in support of nuclear weapons programs and other programs. There are 16 papers supporting weapons research and 12 papers supporting laboratory directed research

  12. Three-dimensional simulations of void collapse in energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Nirmal Kumar; Udaykumar, H. S.

    2018-03-01

    The collapse of voids in porous energetic materials leads to hot-spot formation and reaction initiation. This work advances the current knowledge of the dynamics of void collapse and hot-spot formation using 3D reactive void collapse simulations in HMX. Four different void shapes, i.e., sphere, cylinder, plate, and ellipsoid, are studied. For all four shapes, collapse generates complex three-dimensional (3D) baroclinic vortical structures. The hot spots are collocated with regions of intense vorticity. The differences in the vortical structures for the different void shapes are shown to significantly impact the relative sensitivity of the voids. Voids of high surface area generate hot spots of greater intensity; intricate, highly contorted vortical structures lead to hot spots of corresponding tortuosity and therefore enhanced growth rates of reaction fronts. In addition, all 3D voids are shown to be more sensitive than their two-dimensional (2D) counterparts. The results provide physical insights into hot-spot formation and growth and point to the limitations of 2D analyses of hot-spot formation.

  13. Erosion products of ITER divertor materials under plasma disruption simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseva, M.I.; Gureev, V.M.; Kolbasov, B.N.; Korshunov, S.N.; Martynenko, Yu.V. E-mail: martyn@nfi.kiae.ru; Stolyarova, V.G.; Strunnikov, V.M.; Vasiliev, V.I

    2003-09-01

    Candidate ITER divertor armor materials: carbon-fiber-composite and four tungsten grades/alloys as well as mixed re-deposited W+Be and W+C layers were exposed in electrodynamic plasma accelerator MKT which provided a pulsed deuterium plasma flux simulating plasma disruptions with maximum ion energy of 1-2 keV, an energy density of 300 kJ/m{sup 2} per shot and a pulse duration of {approx}60 {mu}s. The number of pulses was from 2 to 10. The resultant erosion products were collected on a basalt filter and Si-collectors and studied in terms of morphology and size distribution using both scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Metal erosion products usually occurred in the form of spherical droplets, sometimes flakes. Their size distribution depended on the positioning of the collector. Simultaneously irradiated W, CFC and mixed W+Be targets appeared to have undergone a greater erosion than the same targets irradiated individually. Particles sized from 0.01 to 30 {mu}m were found on collectors and on a molten W-surface. A model of droplet emission and behavior in shielding plasma is provided.

  14. Hygrothermal Simulation of Foundations: Part 1 - Soil Material Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Pallin, Simon B [ORNL

    2012-10-01

    The hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is a complicated process. A computational approach for heat transfer through the ground has been well defined (EN ISO 13370:2007, 2007), and simplified methods have been developed (Staszczuk, Radon, and Holm 2010). However, these approaches generally ignore the transfer of soil moisture, which is not negligible (Janssen, Carmeliet, and Hens 2004). This study is divided into several parts. The intention of the first part is to gather, comprehend and adapt soil properties from Soil Science. The obtained information must be applicable to related tasks in Building Science and validated with hygrothermal calculation tools. Future parts of this study will focus on the validation aspect of the soil properties to be implemented. Basic changes in the software code may be requested at this time. Different types of basement construction will be created with a hygrothermal calculation tool, WUFI. Simulations from WUFI will be compared with existing or ongoing measurements. The intentions of the first part of this study have been fulfilled. The soil properties of interest in Building Science have been defined for 12 different soil textures. These properties will serve as input parameters when performing hygrothermal calculations of building constructions coupled to soil materials. The reliability of the soil parameters will be further evaluated with measurements in Part 2.

  15. Simulation and Experimental Validation of Electromagnetic Signatures for Monitoring of Nuclear Material Storage Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aker, Pamela M.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Jones, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has demonstrated that the low frequency electromagnetic (EM) response of a sealed metallic container interrogated with an encircling coil is a strong function of its contents and can be used to form a distinct signature which can confirm the presence of specific components without revealing hidden geometry or classified design information. Finite element simulations have recently been performed to further investigate this response for a variety of configurations composed of an encircling coil and a typical nuclear material storage container. Excellent agreement was obtained between simulated and measured impedance signatures of electrically conducting spheres placed inside an AT-400R nuclear container. Simulations were used to determine the effects of excitation frequency and the geometry of the encircling coil, nuclear container, and internal contents. The results show that it is possible to use electromagnetic models to evaluate the application of the EM signature technique to proposed versions of nuclear weapons containers which can accommodate restrictions imposed by international arms control and treaty verification legislation

  16. The seismic cycle at subduction thrusts: 2. Dynamic implications of geodynamic simulations validated with laboratory models

    KAUST Repository

    van Dinther, Y.

    2013-04-01

    The physics governing the seismic cycle at seismically active subduction zones remains poorly understood due to restricted direct observations in time and space. To investigate subduction zone dynamics and associated interplate seismicity, we validate a continuum, visco-elasto-plastic numerical model with a new laboratory approach (Paper 1). The analogous laboratory setup includes a visco-elastic gelatin wedge underthrusted by a rigid plate with defined velocity-weakening and -strengthening regions. Our geodynamic simulation approach includes velocity-weakening friction to spontaneously generate a series of fast frictional instabilities that correspond to analog earthquakes. A match between numerical and laboratory source parameters is obtained when velocity-strengthening is applied in the aseismic regions to stabilize the rupture. Spontaneous evolution of absolute stresses leads to nucleation by coalescence of neighboring patches, mainly occurring at evolving asperities near the seismogenic zone limits. Consequently, a crack-, or occasionally even pulse-like, rupture propagates toward the opposite side of the seismogenic zone by increasing stresses ahead of its rupture front, until it arrests on a barrier. The resulting surface displacements qualitatively agree with geodetic observations and show landward and, from near the downdip limit, upward interseismic motions. These are rebound and reversed coseismically. This slip increases adjacent stresses, which are relaxed postseismically by afterslip and thereby produce persistent seaward motions. The wide range of observed physical phenomena, including back-propagation and repeated slip, and the agreement with laboratory results demonstrate that visco-elasto-plastic geodynamic models with rate-dependent friction form a new tool that can greatly contribute to our understanding of the seismic cycle at subduction zones.

  17. The seismic cycle at subduction thrusts: 2. Dynamic implications of geodynamic simulations validated with laboratory models

    KAUST Repository

    van Dinther, Y.; Gerya, T. V.; Dalguer, L. A.; Corbi, F.; Funiciello, F.; Mai, Paul Martin

    2013-01-01

    The physics governing the seismic cycle at seismically active subduction zones remains poorly understood due to restricted direct observations in time and space. To investigate subduction zone dynamics and associated interplate seismicity, we validate a continuum, visco-elasto-plastic numerical model with a new laboratory approach (Paper 1). The analogous laboratory setup includes a visco-elastic gelatin wedge underthrusted by a rigid plate with defined velocity-weakening and -strengthening regions. Our geodynamic simulation approach includes velocity-weakening friction to spontaneously generate a series of fast frictional instabilities that correspond to analog earthquakes. A match between numerical and laboratory source parameters is obtained when velocity-strengthening is applied in the aseismic regions to stabilize the rupture. Spontaneous evolution of absolute stresses leads to nucleation by coalescence of neighboring patches, mainly occurring at evolving asperities near the seismogenic zone limits. Consequently, a crack-, or occasionally even pulse-like, rupture propagates toward the opposite side of the seismogenic zone by increasing stresses ahead of its rupture front, until it arrests on a barrier. The resulting surface displacements qualitatively agree with geodetic observations and show landward and, from near the downdip limit, upward interseismic motions. These are rebound and reversed coseismically. This slip increases adjacent stresses, which are relaxed postseismically by afterslip and thereby produce persistent seaward motions. The wide range of observed physical phenomena, including back-propagation and repeated slip, and the agreement with laboratory results demonstrate that visco-elasto-plastic geodynamic models with rate-dependent friction form a new tool that can greatly contribute to our understanding of the seismic cycle at subduction zones.

  18. Simulating the volatilization of solvents in unsaturated soils during laboratory and field infiltration experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H. Jean; Jaffe, Peter R.; Smith, James A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes laboratory and field experiments which were conducted to study the dynamics of trichloroethylene (TCE) as it volatilized from contaminated groundwater and diffused in the presence of infiltrating water through the unsaturated soil zone to the land surface. The field experiments were conducted at the Picatinny Arsenal, which is part of the United States Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program. In both laboratory and field settings the gas and water phase concentrations of TCE were not in equilibrium during infiltration. Gas-water mass transfer rate constants were calibrated to the experimental data using a model in which the water phase was treated as two phases: a mobile water phase and an immobile water phase. The mass transfer limitations of a volatile organic compound between the gas and liquid phases were described explicitly in the model. In the laboratory experiment the porous medium was nonsorbing, and water infiltration rates ranged from 0.076 to 0.28 cm h−1. In the field experiment the water infiltration rate was 0.34 cm h−1, and sorption onto the soil matrix was significant. The laboratory-calibrated gas-water mass transfer rate constant is 3.3×10−4 h−1 for an infiltration rate of 0.076 cm h−1 and 1.4×10−3 h−1 for an infiltration rate of 0.28 cm h−1. The overall mass transfer rate coefficients, incorporating the contribution of mass transfer between mobile and immobile water phases and the variation of interfacial area with moisture content, range from 3×10−4 h−1 to 1×10−2 h−1. A power law model relates the gas-water mass transfer rate constant to the infiltration rate and the fraction of the water phase which is mobile. It was found that the results from the laboratory experiments could not be extrapolated to the field. In order to simulate the field experiment the very slow desorption of TCE from the soil matrix was incorporated into the mathematical model. When desorption from the

  19. Effects of Suicide Awareness Material on Implicit Suicide Cognition: A Laboratory Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Florian; Till, Benedikt; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the increasing adoption of suicide awareness campaigns to prevent suicide, little is known about the effective construction of awareness messages used and on their impact on suicidal cognition. We hypothesized that media reporting on an individual overcoming a suicidal crisis increases the automatic association between "life" and self. University students (N = 112) were randomly allocated to one of three groups in a laboratory experiment. Participants allocated to treatment group 1 or group 2 read awareness material about a person coping with suicidal ideation by getting professional help. The only difference between the two groups was the amount of social similarity (low vs. high) between the protagonist and the participants. The control group read an article unrelated to suicide. Awareness material increased implicit cognition in terms of a strengthening of self-life associations. This effect was restricted to participants scoring low on wishful identification with the suicidal protagonist. This finding suggests that only individuals who do not wishfully identify with a protagonist going through difficult life circumstances benefit from the awareness material in terms of suicidal cognition. These findings provide a rich basis for further research and have potentially high relevance to the construction of suicide-awareness messages.

  20. A new ion-beam laboratory for materials research at the Slovak University of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noga, Pavol; Dobrovodský, Jozef; Vaňa, Dušan; Beňo, Matúš; Závacká, Anna; Muška, Martin; Halgaš, Radoslav; Minárik, Stanislav; Riedlmajer, Róbert

    2017-10-01

    An ion beam laboratory (IBL) for materials research has been commissioned recently at the Slovak University of Technology within the University Science Park CAMBO located in Trnava. The facility will support research in the field of materials science, physical engineering and nanotechnology. Ion-beam materials modification (IBMM) as well as ion-beam analysis (IBA) are covered and deliverable ion energies are in the range from tens of keV up to tens of MeV. Two systems have been put into operation. First, a high current version of the HVEE 6 MV Tandetron electrostatic tandem accelerator with duoplasmatron and cesium sputtering ion sources, equipped with two end-stations: a high-energy ion implantation and IBA end-station which includes RBS, PIXE and ERDA analytical systems. Second, a 500 kV implanter equipped with a Bernas type ion source and two experimental wafer processing end-stations. The facility itself, operational experience and first IBMM and IBA experiments are presented together with near-future plans and ongoing development of the IBL.

  1. Laboratory-scale bioremediation of oil-contaminated soil of Kuwait with soil amendment materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, B H; Chino, H; Tsuji, H; Kunito, T; Nagaoka, K; Otsuka, S; Yamashita, K; Matsumoto, S; Oyaizu, H

    1997-10-01

    A huge amount of oil-contaminated soil remains unremediated in the Kuwait desert. The contaminated oil has the potentiality to cause pollution of underground water and to effect the health of people in the neighborhood. In this study, laboratory scale bioremediation experiments were carried out. Hyponex (Hyponex, Inc.) and bark manure were added as basic nutrients for microorganisms, and twelve kinds of materials (baked diatomite, microporous glass, coconut charcoal, an oil-decomposing bacterial mixture (Formula X from Oppenheimer, Inc.), and eight kinds of surfactants) were applied to accelerate the biodegradation of oil hydrocarbons. 15% to 33% of the contaminated oil was decomposed during 43 weeks' incubation. Among the materials tested, coconut charcoal enhanced the biodegradation. On the contrary, the addition of an oil-decomposing bacterial mixture impeded the biodegradation. The effects of the other materials were very slight. The toxicity of the biodegraded compounds was estimated by the Ames test and the tea pollen tube growth test. Both of the hydrophobic (dichloromethane extracts) and hydrophilic (methanol extracts) fractions showed a very slight toxicity in the Ames test. In the tea pollen tube growth test, the hydrophobic fraction was not toxic and enhanced the growth of pollen tubes.

  2. Numerical Simulation of a Laboratory-Scale Turbulent SlotFlame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Grcar, Joseph F.; Lijewski,Michael J.; Driscoll, James F.; Filatyev, Sergei A.

    2006-04-20

    We present three-dimensional, time-dependent simulations ofthe flowfield of a laboratory-scale slot burner. The simulations areperformed using an adaptive time-dependent low Mach number combustionalgorithm based on a second-order projection formulation that conservesboth species mass and total enthalpy. The methodology incorporatesdetailed chemical kinetics and a mixture model for differential speciesdiffusion. Methane chemistry and transport are modeled using the DRM-19mechanism along with its associated thermodynamics and transportdatabases. Adaptive mesh refinementdynamically resolves the flame andturbulent structures. Detailedcomparisons with experimental measurementsshow that the computational results provide a good prediction of theflame height, the shape of the time-averaged parabolic flame surfacearea, and the global consumption speed (the volume per second ofreactants consumed divided by the area of the time-averaged flame). Thethickness of the computed flamebrush increases in the streamwisedirection, and the flamesurface density profiles display the same generalshapes as the experiment. The structure of the simulated flame alsomatches the experiment; reaction layers are thin (typically thinner than1 mm) and the wavelengths of large wrinkles are 5--10 mm. Wrinklesamplify to become long fingers of reactants which burn through at a neckregion, forming isolated pockets of reactants. Thus both the simulatedflame and the experiment are in the "corrugated flameletregime."

  3. Pollution Removal Performance of Laboratory Simulations of Sydney’s Street Stormwater Biofilters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Macnamara

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The City of Sydney is constructing more than 21,000 square metres of street biofilter units (raingardens in terms of their Decentralised Water Master Plan (DWMP, for improving the quality of stormwater runoff to Port Jackson, the Cooks River, and the historical Botany Bay. Recharge of the Botany Sand Beds aquifer, currently undergoing remediation by extraction of industrial chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutants, is also envisaged. To anticipate the pollution removal efficiency of field biofilter designs, laboratory soil-column simulations were developed by Western Sydney University partnered with the City. Synthetic stormwater containing stoichiometric amounts of high-solubility pollutant salts in deionised water was passed through 104 mm columns that were layered to simulate monophasic and biphasic field designs. Both designs met the City’s improvement targets for total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP, with >65% median removal efficiency. Prolonged release of total suspended solids (SS on startup emphasised the need for specifications and testing of proprietary fills. Median removal efficiency for selected heavy metal ecotoxicants was >75%. The researchers suggested that Zinc be added to the targets as proxy for metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and oils/greases co-generated during road use. Simulation results suggested that field units will play an important role in meeting regional stormwater improvement targets.

  4. Using Elearning techniques to support problem based learning within a clinical simulation laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Charles; Hoy, Derek; Topp, Helena; Trinder, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    This paper details the results of the first phase of a project that used eLearning to support students' learning within a simulated environment. The locus was a purpose built Clinical Simulation Laboratory (CSL) where the School's newly adopted philosophy of Problem Based Learning (PBL) was challenged through lecturers reverting to traditional teaching methods. The solution, a student-centred, problem-based approach to the acquisition of clinical skills was developed using learning objects embedded within web pages that substituted for lecturers providing instruction and demonstration. This allowed lecturers to retain their facilitator role, and encouraged students to explore, analyse and make decisions within the safety of a clinical simulation. Learning was enhanced through network communications and reflection on video performances of self and others. Evaluations were positive, students demonstrating increased satisfaction with PBL, improved performance in exams, and increased self-efficacy in the performance of nursing activities. These results indicate that an elearning approach can support PBL in delivering a student centred learning experience.

  5. Large-Scale Reactive Atomistic Simulation of Shock-induced Initiation Processes in Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Aidan

    2013-06-01

    Initiation in energetic materials is fundamentally dependent on the interaction between a host of complex chemical and mechanical processes, occurring on scales ranging from intramolecular vibrations through molecular crystal plasticity up to hydrodynamic phenomena at the mesoscale. A variety of methods (e.g. quantum electronic structure methods (QM), non-reactive classical molecular dynamics (MD), mesoscopic continuum mechanics) exist to study processes occurring on each of these scales in isolation, but cannot describe how these processes interact with each other. In contrast, the ReaxFF reactive force field, implemented in the LAMMPS parallel MD code, allows us to routinely perform multimillion-atom reactive MD simulations of shock-induced initiation in a variety of energetic materials. This is done either by explicitly driving a shock-wave through the structure (NEMD) or by imposing thermodynamic constraints on the collective dynamics of the simulation cell e.g. using the Multiscale Shock Technique (MSST). These MD simulations allow us to directly observe how energy is transferred from the shockwave into other processes, including intramolecular vibrational modes, plastic deformation of the crystal, and hydrodynamic jetting at interfaces. These processes in turn cause thermal excitation of chemical bonds leading to initial chemical reactions, and ultimately to exothermic formation of product species. Results will be presented on the application of this approach to several important energetic materials, including pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO). In both cases, we validate the ReaxFF parameterizations against QM and experimental data. For PETN, we observe initiation occurring via different chemical pathways, depending on the shock direction. For PETN containing spherical voids, we observe enhanced sensitivity due to jetting, void collapse, and hotspot formation, with sensitivity increasing with void size. For ANFO, we

  6. Multiscale paradigms in integrated computational materials science and engineering materials theory, modeling, and simulation for predictive design

    CERN Document Server

    Runge, Keith; Muralidharan, Krishna

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge concepts, paradigms, and research highlights in the field of computational materials science and engineering, and provides a fresh, up-to-date perspective on solving present and future materials challenges. The chapters are written by not only pioneers in the fields of computational materials chemistry and materials science, but also experts in multi-scale modeling and simulation as applied to materials engineering. Pedagogical introductions to the different topics and continuity between the chapters are provided to ensure the appeal to a broad audience and to address the applicability of integrated computational materials science and engineering for solving real-world problems.

  7. Waste minimization activities in the Materials Fabrication Division at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dini, J.W.

    1991-08-01

    The mission of the Materials Fabrication Division (MFD) is to provide fabrication services and technology in support of all programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). MFD involvement is called for when fabrication activity requires levels of expertise, technology, equipment, process development, hazardous processes, security, or scheduling that is typically not commercially available. Customers are encouraged to utilize private industry for fabrication activity requiring routine processing or for production applications. Our waste minimization (WM) program has been directed at source reduction and recycling in concert with the working definition of waste minimization used by EPA. The principal focus of WM activities has been on hazardous wastes as defined by RCRA, however, all pollutant emissions into air, water and land are being considered as part of the program. The incentives include: (1) economics, (2) regulatory conformance, (3) public image and (4) environmental concern. This report discusses the waste minimization program at LLNL

  8. Experimental study of a laboratory concrete material representative of containment buildings: desorption isotherms and permeability determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semete, P.; Fevrier, B.; Delorme, J.; Sanahuja, J.; Desgree, P.; Le Pape, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The isotherm sorption curve is a first order parameter for the calculations of concrete drying and/or creep using Finite Element Analysis. An experimental campaign was undertaken by EDF MMC in order to characterize the first desorption isotherm at room temperature of a laboratory material representative of concrete containment buildings. Long term drying tests were carried out on cement paste and on three samples geometries on concrete (with radial and axial one-dimensional drying on thin disks and multi-dimensional drying on Representative Elementary Volumes). The measurements results (porosity, densities and mass loss curves) are provided and the isotherms obtained for the four different configurations are compared. Several analyses of the results are proposed including the assessment of a criterion for the determination of the moisture content final balance (estimation of the asymptotic mass loss) and the back-analysis of equivalent permeability. (authors)

  9. Safety evaluation for packaging 222-S laboratory cargo tank for onetime type B material shipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP) is to evaluate and document the safety of the onetime shipment of bulk radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory cargo tank (222-S cargo tank). The 222-S cargo tank is a US Department of Transportation (DOT) MC-312 specification (DOT 1989) cargo tank, vehicle registration number HO-64-04275, approved for low specific activity (LSA) shipments in accordance with the DOT Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). In accordance with the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1A, Chapter III (RL 1988), an equivalent degree of safety shall be provided for onsite shipments as would be afforded by the DOT shipping regulations for a radioactive material package. This document demonstrates that this packaging system meets the onsite transportation safety criteria for a onetime shipment of Type B contents

  10. National Nanotechnology Laboratory (LNNano) open facilities for scientific community: new methods for polymeric materials characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Cristiane A.; Santos, Ramon H.Z. dos; Bernardes, Juliana S.; Gouveia, Rubia F.

    2015-01-01

    National Nanotechnology Laboratory (LNNano) at the National Center for Energy and Materials (CNPEM) presents open facilities for scientific public in some areas. In this work will be discussed the facilities for mainly the polymeric community, as well as new methods for the characterization. Low density polyethylene (LDPE) surfaces were characterized by X-ray microtomography and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results obtained by microtomography have shown that these surfaces present different contrasts when compared with the bulk. These differences are correlated with the formation of an oxidized layer at the polymer surface, which consequently have a greater X-ray attenuation. This hypothesis is confirmed by XPS, which shows LDPE surface layers are richer in carbonyl, carboxyl and vinyl groups than the bulk. This work presents that microtomography can be used as a new method for detection and characterization of polymer surface oxidation. (author)

  11. High Temperature Materials Laboratory seventh annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennery, V.J.; Teague, P.A.

    1994-12-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) has completed its seventh year of operation as a designated Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Growth of the User Program has been demonstrated by the number of institutions executing user agreements since the HTML began operation in 1987. A total of 193 nonproprietary agreements (91 industry and 102 university) and 41 proprietary agreements (39 industry and two university) are now in effect. This represents an increase of 21 nonproprietary user agreements during FY 1994. Forty-one states are represented by these users. During FY 1994, the HTML User Program evaluated 106 nonproprietary proposals (46 from industry, 52 from universities, and 8 from other government facilities) and 8 proprietary proposals. The HTML User Advisory Committee approved about ninety-five percent of those evaluated proposals, sometimes after the prospective user revised the proposal based on comments from the Committee. This annual report discusses FY 1994 activities in the individual user centers, as well as plans for the future. It also gives statistics about users and their proposals and FY 1994 publications, and summarizes nonproprietary research projects active in FY 1994.

  12. High Temperature Materials Laboratory, Eleventh Annual Report: October 1997 through September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasto, A.E.; Russell, B.J.

    2000-03-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) has completed its eleventh year of operation as a designated US Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This document profiles the historical growth of the HTML User and Fellowship Programs since their inception in 1987. Growth of the HTML programs has been demonstrated by the number of institutions executing user agreements and by the number of days of instrument use (user days) since the HTML began operation.A total of 522 agreements (351 industry,156 university,and 15 other federal agency) are now in effect (452 nonproprietary and 70 proprietary). This represents an increase of 75 user agreements since the last reporting period (for FY 1997). A state-by-state summary of the nonproprietary user agreements is given in Appendix A. Forty-six states are represented. During FY 1998, the HTML User Program evaluated 80 nonproprietary proposals (32 from industry, 45 from universities, and 3 from other government facilities) and several proprietary proposals. Appendix B provides a detailed breakdown of the nonproprietary proposals received during FY 1998. The HTML User Advisory Committee approved about 95% of those proposals, sometimes after the prospective user revised the proposal based on comments from the committee. This annual report discusses activities in the individual user centers as well as plans for the future. It also gives statistics about users, proposals, and publications as well as summaries of the nonproprietary research projects active during 1998.

  13. High Temperature Materials Laboratory eight and ninth annual reports, October 1994 through September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasto, A.E.; Russell, B.J.

    1997-10-01

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) has completed its ninth year of operation as a designated US Department of Energy User Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This document profiles the historical growth of the HTML User and Fellowship Programs since their inception in 1987. Growth of the HTML programs has been demonstrated by the number of institutions executing user agreements, and by the number of days of instrument use (user days) since the HTML began operation. A total of 276 nonproprietary agreements (135 industry, 135 university, and 6 other federal agency) and 56 proprietary agreements are now in effect. This represents an increase of 70 nonproprietary user agreements since the last reporting period (for FY 1994). A state-by-state summary of these nonproprietary user agreements is given in Appendix A, and an alphabetical listing is provided in Appendix B. Forty-four states are represented by these users. During FY 1995 and 1996, the HTML User Program evaluated 145 nonproprietary proposals (62 from industry, 82 from universities, and 1 from other government facilities) and several proprietary proposals. The HTML User Advisory Committee approved about 95% of those proposals, frequently after the prospective user revised the proposal based on comments from the committee. This annual report discusses activities in the individual user centers, as well as plans for the future. It also gives statistics about users, proposals, and publications as well as summaries of the nonproprietary research projects active during 1995 and 1996.

  14. Viability testing of material derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis prior to removal from a containment level-III laboratory as part of a Laboratory Risk Assessment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Kym S; Burdz, Tamara V; Turenne, Christine Y; Sharma, Meenu K; Kabani, Amin M; Wolfe, Joyce N

    2005-01-24

    In the field of clinical mycobacteriology, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) can be a difficult organism to manipulate due to the restrictive environment of a containment level 3 (CL3) laboratory. Tests for rapid diagnostic work involving smears and molecular methods do not require CL3 practices after the organism has been rendered non-viable. While it has been assumed that after organism deactivation these techniques can be performed outside of a CL3, no conclusive study has consistently confirmed that the organisms are noninfectious after the theoretical 'deactivation' steps. Previous studies have shown that initial steps (such as heating/chemical fixation) may not consistently kill MTB organisms. An inclusive viability study (n = 226) was undertaken to determine at which point handling of culture extraction materials does not necessitate a CL3 environment. Four different laboratory protocols tested for viability included: standard DNA extractions for IS6110 fingerprinting, crude DNA preparations for PCR by boiling and mechanical lysis, protein extractions, and smear preparations. For each protocol, laboratory staff planted a proportion of the resulting material to Bactec 12B medium that was observed for growth for 8 weeks. Of the 208 isolates initially tested, 21 samples grew within the 8-week period. Sixteen (7.7%) of these yielded positive results for MTB that included samples of: deactivated culture resuspensions exposed to 80 degrees C for 20 minutes, smear preparations and protein extractions. Test procedures were consequently modified and tested again (n = 18), resulting in 0% viability. This study demonstrates that it cannot be assumed that conventional practices (i.e. smear preparation) or extraction techniques render the organism non-viable. All methodologies, new and existing, should be examined by individual laboratories to validate the safe removal of material derived from MTB to the outside of a CL3 laboratory. This process is vital to establish in

  15. Viability testing of material derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis prior to removal from a Containment Level-III Laboratory as part of a Laboratory Risk Assessment Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabani Amin M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the field of clinical mycobacteriology, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB can be a difficult organism to manipulate due to the restrictive environment of a containment level 3 (CL3 laboratory. Tests for rapid diagnostic work involving smears and molecular methods do not require CL3 practices after the organism has been rendered non-viable. While it has been assumed that after organism deactivation these techniques can be performed outside of a CL3, no conclusive study has consistently confirmed that the organisms are noninfectious after the theoretical 'deactivation' steps. Previous studies have shown that initial steps (such as heating /chemical fixation may not consistently kill MTB organisms. Methods An inclusive viability study (n = 226 was undertaken to determine at which point handling of culture extraction materials does not necessitate a CL3 environment. Four different laboratory protocols tested for viability included: standard DNA extractions for IS6110 fingerprinting, crude DNA preparations for PCR by boiling and mechanical lysis, protein extractions, and smear preparations. For each protocol, laboratory staff planted a proportion of the resulting material to Bactec 12B medium that was observed for growth for 8 weeks. Results Of the 208 isolates initially tested, 21 samples grew within the 8-week period. Sixteen (7.7% of these yielded positive results for MTB that included samples of: deactivated culture resuspensions exposed to 80°C for 20 minutes, smear preparations and protein extractions. Test procedures were consequently modified and tested again (n = 18, resulting in 0% viability. Conclusions This study demonstrates that it cannot be assumed that conventional practices (i.e. smear preparation or extraction techniques render the organism non-viable. All methodologies, new and existing, should be examined by individual laboratories to validate the safe removal of material derived from MTB to the outside of a

  16. Laboratory corrosion tests on candidate high-level waste container materials: Results from the Belgian programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druyts, F.; Kursten, B.; Iseghem, P. Van

    2004-01-01

    The Belgian SAFIR-2 concept foresees the geological disposal of conditioned high-level radioactive waste in stainless steel containers and overpacks placed in a concrete gallery backfilled with Boom clay or a bentonite-type backfill. In addition to earlier in situ experiments, we used a laboratory approach to investigate the corrosion properties of selected stainless steels in Boom clay and bentonite environments. In the SAFIR-2 concept, AISI 316L hMo is the main candidate overpack material. As an alternative, we also investigated the higher alloyed stainless steel UHB 904L. Our study focused on localised corrosion and in particular pitting. We used cyclic potentiodynamic polarisation measurements to determine the pit nucleation potential E NP and the protection potential E PP . The evolution of the corrosion potential with time was determined by monitoring the open circuit potential in synthetic clay-water over extended periods. In this paper we present and discuss some results from our laboratory programme, focusing on long-term interactions between the stainless steel overpack and the backfill materials. We describe in particular the influence of chloride and thio-sulphate ions on the pitting corrosion behaviour. The results show that, under geochemical conditions typical for geological disposal, i.e. [Cl-] ∼ 30 mg/L for a Boom clay backfill and [Cl-] ∼ 90 mg/L for a bentonite backfill, neither AISI 316L hMo nor UHB 904L is expected to present pitting problems. An important factor in the long-term prediction of the corrosion behaviour however, is the robustness of the model for the evolution of the geochemistry of the backfill. Indeed, at chloride levels higher than 1000 mg/L, we predict pitting corrosion for AISI 316L hMo. (authors)

  17. Three-dimensional FDEM numerical simulation of failure processes observed in Opalinus Clay laboratory samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Mahabadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the first step of a research project that aims at using a three-dimensional (3D hybrid finite-discrete element method (FDEM to investigate the development of an excavation damaged zone (EDZ around tunnels in a clay shale formation known as Opalinus Clay. The 3D FDEM was first calibrated against standard laboratory experiments, including Brazilian disc test and uniaxial compression test. The effect of increasing confining pressure on the mechanical response and fracture propagation of the rock was quantified under triaxial compression tests. Polyaxial (or true triaxial simulations highlighted the effect of the intermediate principal stress (σ2 on fracture directions in the model: as the intermediate principal stress increased, fractures tended to align in the direction parallel to the plane defined by the major and intermediate principal stresses. The peak strength was also shown to vary with changing σ2.

  18. Inactivation by gamma irradiation of animal viruses in simulated laboratory effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, F.C.; Ouwerkerk, T.; McKercher, P.

    1982-01-01

    Several animal viruses were treated with gamma radiation from a 60 Co source under conditions which might be found in effluent from an animal disease laboratory. Swine vesicular disease virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and blue-tongue virus were irradiated in tissues from experimentally infected animals. Pseudorabies virus, fowl plague virus, swine vesicular disease virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus were irradiated in liquid animal feces. All were tested in animals and in vitro. The D 10 values, that is, the doses required to reduce infectivity by 1 log 10 , were not apparently different from those expected from predictions based on other data and theoretical considerations. The existence of the viruses in pieces of tissues or in liquid feces made no differences in the efficacy of the gamma radiation for inactivating them. Under the ''worst case'' conditions (most protective for virus) simulated in this study, no infectious agents would survive 4.0 Mrads

  19. Laboratory simulation of interplanetary ultraviolet radiation (broad spectrum) and its effects on Deinococcus radiodurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino-Lima, Ivan Gláucio; Pilling, Sérgio; Janot-Pacheco, Eduardo; de Brito, Arnaldo Naves; Barbosa, João Alexandre Ribeiro Gonçalves; Leitão, Alvaro Costa; Lage, Claudia de Alencar Santos

    2010-08-01

    The radiation-resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans was exposed to a simulated interplanetary UV radiation at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). Bacterial samples were irradiated on different substrates to investigate the influence of surface relief on cell survival. The effects of cell multi-layers were also investigated. The ratio of viable microorganisms remained virtually the same (average 2%) for integrated doses from 1.2 to 12 kJ m -2, corresponding to 16 h of irradiation at most. The asymptotic profiles of the curves, clearly connected to a shielding effect provided by multi-layering cells on a cavitary substrate (carbon tape), means that the inactivation rate may not change significantly along extended periods of exposure to radiation. Such high survival rates reinforce the possibility of an interplanetary transfer of viable microbes.

  20. High dose radiation damage in nuclear energy structural materials investigated by heavy ion irradiation simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yongnan; Xu Yongjun; Yuan Daqing

    2014-01-01

    Structural materials in ITER, ADS and fast reactor suffer high dose irradiations of neutrons and/or protons, that leads to severe displacement damage up to lOO dpa per year. Investigation of radiation damage induced by such a high dose irradiation has attracted great attention along with the development of nuclear energy facilities of new generation. However, it is deeply hampered for the lacking of high dose neutron and proton sources. Irradiation simulation of heavy ions produced by accelerators opens up an effective way for laboratory investigation of high dose irradiation induced radiation damage encountered in the ITER, ADS, etc. Radiation damage is caused mainly by atomic displacement in materials. The displacement rate of heavy ions is about lO 3 ∼10 7 orders higher than those of neutrons and protons. High displacement rate of heavy ions significantly reduces the irradiation time. The heavy ion irradiation simulation technique (HIIS) technique has been developed at China Institute of Atomic Energy and a series of the HIIS experiments have been performed to investigate radiation damage in stainless steels, tungsten and tantalum at irradiation temperatures from room temperature to 800 ℃ and in the irradiation dose region up to 100 dpa. The experimental results show that he radiation swelling peak for the modified stainless steel appears in the temperature region around 580 ℃ and the radiation damage is more sensitive to the temperature, the size of the radiation induced vacancy cluster or void increase with the increasing of the irradiation dose, and among the three materials the home-made modified stainless steel has the best radiation resistant property. (authors)

  1. Performance goals on simulators boost resident motivation and skills laboratory attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Acker, Christina E; Greene, Frederick L

    2010-01-01

    To assess the impact of setting simulator training goals on resident motivation and skills laboratory attendance. Residents followed a proficiency-based laparoscopic curriculum on the 5 Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery and 9 virtual reality tasks. Training goals consisted of the average expert performance on each task + 2 SD (mandatory) and best expert performance (optional). Residents rated the impact of the training goals on their motivation on a 20-point visual analog scale. Performance and attendance data were analyzed and correlated (Spearman's). Data are reported as medians (range). General Surgery residency program at a regional referral Academic Medical Center. General surgery residents (n = 15). During the first 5 months of the curriculum, weekly attendance rate was 51% (range, 8-96). After 153 (range, 21-412) repetitions, resident speed improved by 97% (range, 18-230), errors improved by 17% (range, 0-24), and motion efficiency by 59% (range, 26-114) compared with their baseline. Nine (60%) residents achieved proficiency in 7 (range, 3-14) and the best goals in 3.5 (range, 1-9) tasks; the other 6 residents had attendance rates motivation as 15 (range, 1-18) and setting a best goal as 13 (range, 1-18). Motivation ratings correlated positively with attendance rates, number of repetitions, performance improvement, and achievement of proficiency and best goals (r = 0.59-0.75; p motivation to participate in a simulator curriculum. While more stringent goals may potentiate this effect, they have a limited impact on senior residents. Further research is needed to investigate ways to improve skills laboratory attendance. Copyright 2010 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of Fan Waves in a Laboratory Model Simulating the Propagation of Shear Ruptures in Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, B. G.; Sadovskii, V. M.; Sadovskaya, O. V.

    2017-12-01

    The fan-shaped mechanism of rotational motion transmission in a system of elastically bonded slabs on flat surface, simulating the propagation of shear ruptures in super brittle rocks, is analyzed. Such ruptures appear in the Earth's crust at seismogenic depths. They propagate due to the nucleation of oblique tensile microcracks, leading to the formation of a fan domino-structure in the rupture head. A laboratory physical model was created which demonstrates the process of fan-structure wave propagation. Equations of the dynamics of rotational motion of slabs as a mechanical system with a finite number of degrees of freedom are obtained. Based on the Merson method of solving the Cauchy problem for systems of ordinary differential equations, the computational algorithm taking into account contact interaction of slabs is developed. Within the framework of a simplified mathematical model of dynamic behavior of a fan-shaped system in the approximation of a continuous medium, the approximate estimates of the length of a fan depending on the velocity of its motion are obtained. It is shown that in the absence of friction a fan can move with any velocity that does not exceed the critical value, which depends on the size, the moment of inertia of slabs, the initial angle and the elasticity coefficient of bonds. In the presence of friction a fan stops. On the basis of discrete and continuous models, the main qualitative features of the behavior of a fan-structure moving under the action of applied tangential forces, whose values in a laboratory physical model are regulated by a change in the inclination angle of the rupture plane, are analyzed. Comparison of computations and laboratory measurements and observations shows good correspondence between the results.

  3. Laboratory Eh simulations in relation to the Redox conditions in natural granitic groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wikberg, P.

    1992-01-01

    Redox conditions are one of the prime parameters affecting the sorption of radionuclides released from a nuclear waste repository. The swedish granitic groundwaters are all reducing from a depth of approximately 100 m, the vast majority already from a depth of a few tens of metres. The contents of ferrous iron reaches a maximum at the same depth due to the weathering of iron rich minerals. At greater depths the iron content decreases while sulphide contents increases. The redox buffering capacity (in groundwater) lies mainly in the rock. The contents of iron, sulphide and manganese constitute the buffer in the groundwater. The redox potential (Eh) is controlled by the iron system in the groundwater and the rock. Sulphate is not involved in the groundwater redox processes. Laboratory simulations of the groundwater rock interactions with respect to the redox conditions have been realized, but there is still a difference compared to the natural system. This difference is due to the fact that traces of oxygen diffuses into the laboratory system causing a continuous oxidation. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  4. Blackroom Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Enables evaluation and characterization of materials ranging from the ultraviolet to the longwave infrared (LWIR).DESCRIPTION: The Blackroom Laboratory is...

  5. Los Alamos National Laboratory new generation standard nuclear material storage container - the SAVY4000 design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, Timothy Amos

    2010-01-01

    Incidents involving release of nuclear materials stored in containers of convenience such as food pack cans, slip lid taped cans, paint cans, etc. has resulted in defense board concerns over the lack of prescriptive performance requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has shared in these incidents and in response proactively moved into developing a performance based standard involving storage of nuclear material (RD003). This RD003 requirements document has sense been updated to reflect requirements as identified with recently issued DOE M 441.1-1 'Nuclear Material Packaging Manual'. The new packaging manual was issued at the encouragement of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board with a clear directive for protecting the worker from exposure due to loss of containment of stored materials. The Manual specifies a detailed and all inclusive approach to achieve a high level of protection; from package design and performance requirements, design life determinations of limited life components, authorized contents evaluations, and surveillance/maintenance to ensure in use package integrity over time. Materials in scope involve those stored outside an approved engineered-contamination barrier that would result in a worker exposure of in excess of 5 rem Committed Effective Does Equivalent (CEDE). Key aspects of meeting the challenge as developed around the SAVY-3000 vented storage container design will be discussed. Design performance and acceptance criteria against the manual, bounding conditions as established that the user must ensure are met to authorize contents in the package (based upon the activity of heat-source plutonium (90% Pu-238) oxide, which bounds the requirements for weapons-grade plutonium oxide), interface as a safety class system within the facility under the LANL plutonium facility DSA, design life determinations for limited life components, and a sense of design specific surveillance program

  6. Material model for shear of the buffer - evaluation of laboratory test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, Lennart; Dueck, Ann; Johannesson, Lars-Erik

    2010-12-01

    The report describes the material model of bentonite used for analysing a rock shear through a deposition hole. The old model used in SR-Can has been considerably changed. The new reference model that has been developed for SR-Site is described and motivated. The relevant properties of the buffer that affect the response to a rock shear are (in addition to the bentonite type) the density (which yields a swelling pressure), the shear strength, the stiffness before the maximum shear stress is reached and the shear rate, which also affects the shear strength. Since the shear caused by an earthquake is very fast and the hydraulic conductivity of the bentonite is very low there is no possibility for the pore water in the water saturated bentonite to be redistributed. Since the compressibility of water and particles are negligible, the bentonite can be modelled as a solid material that cannot change volume but only exhibit shear deformations. A proper and simple model that behaves accordingly is a model with von Mises' stress modelled as a function of the strain (stress-strain model). The model is elastic-plastic with an E-modulus that determines the behaviour until the material starts yielding whereupon the plastic strain is modelled as a function of von Mises' stress and added to the elastic strain. Included in the model is also a strain rate dependency of the stress-strain relation, which ranges between the strain rates 10 -6 1/s 3 1/s. The reference material model is derived from a large number of laboratory tests made on different bentonites at different strain rates, densities and with different techniques. Since it cannot be excluded that the exchangeable cat-ions in the Na-bentonite MX-80 is exchanged to calcium-ions the Ca-bentonite Deponit CaN is proposed to be used as reference material. The overall conclusion is that a relevant and probably also slightly conservative material model of Ca-converted MX-80 is derived, presented and well motivated

  7. Simulation of motional eddy current phenomena in soft magnetic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gersem, Herbert; Hameyer, Kay

    2001-05-01

    The finite element simulation of conductors moving in a magnetic field at elevated speeds, yields oscillatory solutions. To overcome the effect of the huge convection terms, the partial differential equation is stabilised by adding artificial diffusion. Accurate results are obtained by applying adaptive mesh refinement. A rotational magnetic brake with a solid ferromagnetic rotor is simulated.

  8. Simulation of motional eddy current phenomena in soft magnetic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gersem, Herbert de; Hameyer, Kay

    2001-01-01

    The finite element simulation of conductors moving in a magnetic field at elevated speeds, yields oscillatory solutions. To overcome the effect of the huge convection terms, the partial differential equation is stabilised by adding artificial diffusion. Accurate results are obtained by applying adaptive mesh refinement. A rotational magnetic brake with a solid ferromagnetic rotor is simulated

  9. Derivation of residual radioactive material guidelines for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, T.E.

    1993-11-01

    Residual radioactive material guidelines were derived for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) Environmental Restoration (ER) site in Davis, California. The guideline derivation was based on a dose limit of 100 mrem/yr. The US Department of Energy (DOE) residual radioactive material guideline computer code was used in this evaluation. This code implements the methodology described in the DOE manual for implementing residual radioactive material guidelines. Three potential site utilization scenarios were considered with the assumption that following ER action, the site will be used without radiological restrictions. The defined scenarios vary with regard to use of the site, time spent at the site, and sources of food consumed. The results of the evaluation indicate that the basic dose limit of 100 mrem/yr will not be exceeded, provided that the soil concentrations of these radionuclides at the LEHR site do not exceed the scenario-specific values calculated by this study. Except for the extent of the contaminated zone (which is very conservative), assumptions used are as site-specific as possible, given available information. The derived guidelines are single- radionuclide guidelines and are linearly proportional to the dose limit used in the calculations. In setting the actual residual soil contamination guides for the LEHR site, DOE will apply the as low as reasonably achievable policy to the decision-making process, along with other factors such as whether a particular scenario is reasonable and appropriate, as well as using site-specific inputs to computer models based on data not yet fully determined

  10. Contribution of the radiation hygiene laboratories network in physical protection of radiation materials in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milu, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Ministry of Health and Family from Romania has its own radiation protection network, including 23 radiation hygiene laboratories (RHLs), within the Institutes of Public Health-Bucharest, Iassy, Cluj-Napoca and Timisoara and the Directions of Public Health from Arges county, Bihor, Brasov, Mures, Maramures, Cluj, Sibiu, Harghita, Suceava, lassy, Bacau, Neamt, Galati, Constanta, Prahova, Dolj, Caras-Severin, Timis and Bucharest City. The RHLs network has 170 persons (physicians, physicists, engineers, chemists, biologists and technicians) and it is technically co-ordinated by the RHL in the Institute of Public Health-Bucharest. Within the local or national activities for physical protection of radioactive materials, the RHLs network closely co-operates with the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MAI) and with the nuclear regulatory authority, named the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN). In the particular case of theft, sabotage or illicit traffic of radioactive materials, usually the MAI has the main role in the co-ordination of intervention actions of the three authorities. The RHLs network contributes by the expertise of its staff and by using its intervention facilities. The specific tasks for the RHLs network are: identification of the type and size of the radioactive material (by direct dosimetry and/or by gamma spectroscopy); dose reconstructions for the involved persons, the intervention personnel and the population; health management for overexposed persons and the medical response, including biological dosimetry and epidemiological studies. Recent special situations in this field, were: theft of some fuel (defect) tablets of natural uranium, from a production factory; the illicit traffic of radioactive materials, in transition to Western European Countries; an unauthorized decommissioning of a furnace, determining the uncontrolled dispersion of about 30 cobalt-60 sealed sources and the radiation exposure of nearly 20

  11. Filtration of Oak Ridge National Laboratory simulated liquid low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, V.L.; Hewitt, J.D.

    1989-08-01

    A method for disposal of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW) is being developed in which the material will be solidified in cement and stored in an aboveground engineered storage facility. The acceptability of the final waste form rests in part on the presence or absence of transuranic isotopes. Filtration methods to remove transuranic isotopes from the bulk liquid stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) were investigated in this study. Initial batch studies using waste from MVST indicate that >99.9% of the transuranic isotopes can be removed from the bulk liquid by simple filtration. Bench-scale studies with a nonradioactive surrogate waste indicate that >99.5% of the suspended solids can be removed from the bulk liquid via inertial crossflow filtration. 4 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs

  12. Tsunami Simulators in Physical Modelling Laboratories - From Concept to Proven Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, W.; Chandler, I.; Rossetto, T.; McGovern, D.; Petrone, C.; Robinson, D.

    2016-12-01

    Before 2004, there was little public awareness around Indian Ocean coasts of the potential size and effects of tsunami. Even in 2011, the scale and extent of devastation by the Japan East Coast Tsunami was unexpected. There were very few engineering tools to assess onshore impacts of tsunami, so no agreement on robust methods to predict forces on coastal defences, buildings or related infrastructure. Modelling generally used substantial simplifications of either solitary waves (far too short durations) or dam break (unrealistic and/or uncontrolled wave forms).This presentation will describe research from EPI-centre, HYDRALAB IV, URBANWAVES and CRUST projects over the last 10 years that have developed and refined pneumatic Tsunami Simulators for the hydraulic laboratory. These unique devices have been used to model generic elevated and N-wave tsunamis up to and over simple shorelines, and at example defences. They have reproduced full-duration tsunamis including the Mercator trace from 2004 at 1:50 scale. Engineering scale models subjected to those tsunamis have measured wave run-up on simple slopes, forces on idealised sea defences and pressures / forces on buildings. This presentation will describe how these pneumatic Tsunami Simulators work, demonstrate how they have generated tsunami waves longer than the facility within which they operate, and will highlight research results from the three generations of Tsunami Simulator. Of direct relevance to engineers and modellers will be measurements of wave run-up levels and comparison with theoretical predictions. Recent measurements of forces on individual buildings have been generalized by separate experiments on buildings (up to 4 rows) which show that the greatest forces can act on the landward (not seaward) buildings. Continuing research in the 70m long 4m wide Fast Flow Facility on tsunami defence structures have also measured forces on buildings in the lee of a failed defence wall.

  13. Biological in situ treatment of soil contaminated with petroleum - Laboratory scale simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palvall, B.

    1997-06-01

    Laboratory scale simulations of biological in situ treatment of soil contaminated with petroleum compounds have been made in order to get a practical concept in the general case. The work was divided into seven distinct parts. Characterisation, leaching tests and introductory microbiological investigations were followed by experiments in suspended phases and in situ simulations of solid phase reactors. For the suspensions, ratios L/S 3/1 and shaking for a couple of hours were enough to detach organic compounds in colloid or dissolved form. When testing for a time of one month anaerobic environment and cold temperatures of 4 centigrade as well gave acceptable reductions of the actual pollution levels. The range of variation in the soil tests performed showed that at least triple samples are needed to get satisfactory statistical reliability. It was shown that adequate experimental controls demand very high concentrations of e.g. sodium azide when dealing with soil samples. For triple samples in suspended phase without inoculation the weight ratios of oxygen consumption/biological degradation of aliphatic compounds were 2.41 to 2.96. For the complex overall reduction no exact rate constants could be found. The reduction of hydrocarbons were in the interval 27 to 95 % in suspension tests. Solid phase simulations with maximum water saturation showed the highest degree of reduction of hydrocarbons when using dissolved peroxide of hydrogen as electron acceptor while the effect of an active sludge reactor in series was little - reductions of aliphatic compounds were between 21 and 33 % and of aromatic compounds between 32 and 65 %. The influence of different contents of water was greater than adding inoculum or shaking the soil at different intervals in the unsaturated cylinders. The starting level of hydrocarbons was 2400 mg/kg dry weight soil and the end analyses were made after 100 days. The reduction was between 32 and 80 %. 82 refs

  14. Laboratory simulation of heat exchange for liquids with Pr > 1: Heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, I. A.; Zakharova, O. D.; Krasnoshchekova, T. E.; Sviridov, V. G.; Sukomel, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    Liquid metals are promising heat transfer agents in new-generation nuclear power plants, such as fast-neutron reactors and hybrid tokamaks—fusion neutron sources (FNSs). We have been investigating hydrodynamics and heat exchange of liquid metals for many years, trying to reproduce the conditions close to those in fast reactors and fusion neutron sources. In the latter case, the liquid metal flow takes place in a strong magnetic field and strong thermal loads resulting in development of thermogravitational convection in the flow. In this case, quite dangerous regimes of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) heat exchange not known earlier may occur that, in combination with other long-known regimes, for example, the growth of hydraulic drag in a strong magnetic field, make the possibility of creating a reliable FNS cooling system with a liquid metal heat carrier problematic. There exists a reasonable alternative to liquid metals in FNS, molten salts, namely, the melt of lithium and beryllium fluorides (Flibe) and the melt of fluorides of alkali metals (Flinak). Molten salts, however, are poorly studied media, and their application requires detailed scientific substantiation. We analyze the modern state of the art of studies in this field. Our contribution is to answer the following question: whether above-mentioned extremely dangerous regimes of MHD heat exchange detected in liquid metals can exist in molten salts. Experiments and numerical simulation were performed in order to answer this question. The experimental test facility represents a water circuit, since water (or water with additions for increasing its electrical conduction) is a convenient medium for laboratory simulation of salt heat exchange in FNS conditions. Local heat transfer coefficients along the heated tube, three-dimensional (along the length and in the cross section, including the viscous sublayer) fields of averaged temperature and temperature pulsations are studied. The probe method for measurements in

  15. Simulation Study on Material Property of Cantilever Piezoelectric Vibration Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For increasing generating capacity of cantilever piezoelectric vibration generator with limited volume, relation between output voltage, inherent frequency and material parameter of unimorph, bimorph in series type and bimorph in parallel type piezoelectric vibration generator is analyzed respectively by mechanical model and finite element modeling. The results indicate PZT-4, PZT- 5A and PZT-5H piezoelectric materials and stainless steel, nickel alloy substrate material should be firstly chosen.

  16. Predictive Simulation of Material Failure Using Peridynamics -- Advanced Constitutive Modeling, Verification and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0309 Predictive simulation of material failure using peridynamics- advanced constitutive modeling, verification , and validation... Self -explanatory. 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER. Enter all unique alphanumeric report numbers assigned by the performing organization, e.g...for public release. Predictive simulation of material failure using peridynamics-advanced constitutive modeling, verification , and validation John T

  17. Analysis of material flow in metal forming processes by using computer simulation and experiment with model material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heon Young; Kim, Dong Won

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to analyze material flow in the metal forming processes by using computer simulation and experiment with model material, plasticine. A UBET program is developed to analyze the bulk flow behaviour of various metal forming problems. The elemental strain-hardening effect is considered in an incremental manner and the element system is automatically regenerated at every deforming step in the program. The material flow behaviour in closed-die forging process with rib-web type cavity are analyzed by UBET and elastic-plastic finite element method, and verified by experiments with plasticine. There were good agreements between simulation and experiment. The effect of corner rounding on material flow behavior is investigated in the analysis of backward extrusion with square die. Flat punch indentation process is simulated by UBET, and the results are compared with that of elastic-plastic finite element method. (Author)

  18. Geoacoustic Physical Model Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Fabricates three-dimensional rough surfaces (e.g., fractals, ripples) out of materials such as PVC or wax to simulate the roughness properties associated...

  19. A study on a nano-scale materials simulation using a PC cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Deok Kee; Ryu, Han Kyu

    2002-01-01

    Not a few scientists have paid attention to application of molecular dynamics to chemistry, biology and physics. With recent popularity of nano technology, nano-scale analysis has become a major subject in various engineering fields. A underlying nano scale analysis is based on classical molecular theories representing molecular dynamics. Based on Newton's law of motions of particles, the movement of each particles is to be determined by numerical integrations. As the size of computation is closely related with the number of molecules, materials simulation takes up huge amount of computer resources so that it is not until recent days that the application of molecular dynamics to materials simulations draw some attention from many researchers. Thanks to high-performance computers, materials simulation via molecular dynamics looks promising. In this study, a PC cluster consisting of multiple commodity PCs is established and nano scale materials simulations are carried out. Micro-sized crack propagation inside a nano material is displayed by the simulation

  20. Laboratory investigations of insecticide impregnated materials for the control of New World screwworm flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, E.G.; Brown, M.; Smith, S.

    1992-01-01

    In laboratory tests, New World screwworm flies were found to be at least three orders of magnitude less susceptible to the insecticides deltamethrin, alphacypermethrin and cyfluthrin than are tsetse flies. Deltamethrin was the most toxic of the three insecticides to screwworm flies. For topical application, the LD50s for deltamethrin 20% suspension concentrate were 33 ng and 25 ng for male and female screwworm flies respectively, compared with 0.04 ng for tsetse, G.m. morsitans. In various tests simulating contact of screwworm flies with cloth or netting targets impregnated with insecticide, 100% kill was only achieved with 3.2% deltamethrin and contact times of at least 10 sec, although 100% knockdown for up to 24 hours was obtained with lower concentrations. No repellent effect was observed at the higher concentrations. Cloth targets impregnated with a high dose of insecticide and baited with an attractant could be effective against NWS flies, especially if after ''knockdown'' flies are removed by predators. 1 fig., 9 tabs

  1. Computer and laboratory simulation in the teaching of neonatal nursing: innovation and impact on learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Luciana Mara Monti; Aredes, Natália Del' Angelo; Fernandes, Ananda Maria; Batalha, Luís Manuel da Cunha; Apóstolo, Jorge Manuel Amado; Martins, José Carlos Amado; Rodrigues, Manuel Alves

    2016-10-10

    to evaluate the cognitive learning of nursing students in neonatal clinical evaluation from a blended course with the use of computer and laboratory simulation; to compare the cognitive learning of students in a control and experimental group testing the laboratory simulation; and to assess the extracurricular blended course offered on the clinical assessment of preterm infants, according to the students. a quasi-experimental study with 14 Portuguese students, containing pretest, midterm test and post-test. The technologies offered in the course were serious game e-Baby, instructional software of semiology and semiotechnique, and laboratory simulation. Data collection tools developed for this study were used for the course evaluation and characterization of the students. Nonparametric statistics were used: Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon. the use of validated digital technologies and laboratory simulation demonstrated a statistically significant difference (p = 0.001) in the learning of the participants. The course was evaluated as very satisfactory for them. The laboratory simulation alone did not represent a significant difference in the learning. the cognitive learning of participants increased significantly. The use of technology can be partly responsible for the course success, showing it to be an important teaching tool for innovation and motivation of learning in healthcare. avaliar a aprendizagem cognitiva de estudantes de enfermagem na avaliação clínica neonatal a partir de um curso semipresencial com uso de simulação por computador e em laboratório; comparar a aprendizagem cognitiva dos estudantes em grupo controle e experimental ao testar a simulação em laboratório; e avaliar o curso semipresencial extracurricular oferecido sobre avaliação clínica do bebê pré-termo, segundo os estudantes. estudo quase-experimental com 14 estudantes portugueses contendo pré-teste, teste intermediário e pós-teste. As tecnologias oferecidas no curso foram serious

  2. Simulation of facility operations and materials accounting for a combined reprocessing/MOX fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulter, C.A.; Whiteson, R.; Zardecki, A.

    1991-01-01

    We are developing a computer model of facility operations and nuclear materials accounting for a facility that reprocesses spent fuel and fabricates mixed oxide (MOX) fuel rods and assemblies from the recovered uranium and plutonium. The model will be used to determine the effectiveness of various materials measurement strategies for the facility and, ultimately, of other facility safeguards functions as well. This portion of the facility consists of a spent fuel storage pond, fuel shear, dissolver, clarifier, three solvent-extraction stages with uranium-plutonium separation after the first stage, and product concentrators. In this facility area mixed oxide is formed into pellets, the pellets are loaded into fuel rods, and the fuel rods are fabricated into fuel assemblies. These two facility sections are connected by a MOX conversion line in which the uranium and plutonium solutions from reprocessing are converted to mixed oxide. The model of the intermediate MOX conversion line used in the model is based on a design provided by Mike Ehinger of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (private communication). An initial version of the simulation model has been developed for the entire MOX conversion and fuel fabrication sections of the reprocessing/MOX fuel fabrication facility, and this model has been used to obtain inventory difference variance estimates for those sections of the facility. A significant fraction of the data files for the fuel reprocessing section have been developed, but these data files are not yet complete enough to permit simulation of reprocessing operations in the facility. Accordingly, the discussion in the following sections is restricted to the MOX conversion and fuel fabrication lines. 3 tabs

  3. A New Electron Source for Laboratory Simulation of the Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Linda Habash; Everding, Daniel; Bonner, Mathew; Swan, Brian

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a new collimated electron source called the Photoelectron Beam Generator (PEBG) for laboratory and spaceflight applications. This technology is needed to replace traditional cathodes because of serious fundamental weaknesses with the present state of the art. Filament cathodes suffer from numerous practical problems, even if expertly designed, including the dependence of electron emission on filament temperature, short lifetimes (approx 100 hours), and relatively high power (approx 10s of W). Other types of cathodes have solved some of these problems, but they are plagued with other difficult problems, such as the Spindt cathode's extreme sensitivity to molecular oxygen. None to date have been able to meet the demand of long lifetime, robust packaging, and precision energy and flux control. This new cathode design avoids many common pitfalls of traditional cathodes. Specifically, there are no fragile parts, no sensitivity to oxygen, no intrinsic emission dependencies on device temperature, and no vacuum requirements for protecting the source from contamination or damage. Recent advances in high-brightness Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) have provided the key enabling technology for this new electron source. The LEDs are used to photoeject electrons off a target material of a low work-function, and these photoelectrons are subsequently focused into a laminar beam using electrostatic lenses. The PEBG works by illuminating a target material and steering photoelectrons into a laminar beam using electrostatic lenses

  4. Biosafety in the Laboratory: Prudent Practices for the Handling and Disposal of Infectious Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    psittacosis, lymphogranuloma animal disease diagnostic laboratory). Biosafety Level venereum (LGV), and trachoma are documented APPENDIX A I11 hazards and...127 see also Facilities Lymphogranuloma venereum , 110-111 Laboratory practices academic laboratories, 68-69 M Biosafety Level 1, 90 Biosafety Level

  5. Simulation and laboratory validation of magnetic nozzle effects for the high power helicon thruster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winglee, R.; Ziemba, T.; Giersch, L.; Prager, J.; Carscadden, J.; Roberson, B. R.

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of a plasma thruster can be improved if the plasma stream can be highly focused, so that there is maximum conversion of thermal energy to the directed energy. Such focusing can be potentially achieved through the use of magnetic nozzles, but this introduces the potential problem of detachment of plasma from the magnetic field lines tied to the nozzles. Simulations and laboratory testing are used to investigate these processes for the high power helicon (HPH) thruster, which has the capacity of producing a dense (10 18 -10 20 m -3 ) energetic (tens of eV) plasma stream which can be both supersonic and super-Alfvenic within a few antenna wavelengths. In its standard configuration, the plasma plume generated by this device has a large opening angle, due to relatively high thermal velocity and rapid divergence of the magnetic field. With the addition of a magnetic nozzle system, the plasma can be directed/collimated close to the pole of the nozzle system causing an increase in the axial velocity of the plasma, as well as an increase in the Alfven Mach number. As such the magnetic field of the nozzle is insufficient to pull the plasma back to the spacecraft, i.e., plasma attachment is not a problem for the system. Laboratory results show that the specific impulse (Isp) of the system can be increased by ∼30% by the addition of the nozzle due to the conversion of thermal energy into directed energy in association with a highly collimated profile. An interesting feature of the system is that self-collimation of the beam is expected to occur during continuous operation through plasma currents induced downstream from the magnetic nozzle. These currents lead to magnetic fields that have a smaller divergence than the original vacuum magnetic field so that the following plasma will be more collimated than the proceeding plasma. This self-focusing can lead to beam propagation over extended distances

  6. Teaching Fraunhofer diffraction via experimental and simulated images in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, Alba; Vidal, Josep; Escalera, Juan Carlos; Lizana, Angel; Campos, Juan; Yzuel, Maria

    2012-10-01

    Diffraction is an important phenomenon introduced to Physics university students in a subject of Fundamentals of Optics. In addition, in the Physics Degree syllabus of the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, there is an elective subject in Applied Optics. In this subject, diverse diffraction concepts are discussed in-depth from different points of view: theory, experiments in the laboratory and computing exercises. In this work, we have focused on the process of teaching Fraunhofer diffraction through laboratory training. Our approach involves students working in small groups. They visualize and acquire some important diffraction patterns with a CCD camera, such as those produced by a slit, a circular aperture or a grating. First, each group calibrates the CCD camera, that is to say, they obtain the relation between the distances in the diffraction plane in millimeters and in the computer screen in pixels. Afterwards, they measure the significant distances in the diffraction patterns and using the appropriate diffraction formalism, they calculate the size of the analyzed apertures. Concomitantly, students grasp the convolution theorem in the Fourier domain by analyzing the diffraction of 2-D gratings of elemental apertures. Finally, the learners use a specific software to simulate diffraction patterns of different apertures. They can control several parameters: shape, size and number of apertures, 1-D or 2-D gratings, wavelength, focal lens or pixel size.Therefore, the program allows them to reproduce the images obtained experimentally, and generate others by changingcertain parameters. This software has been created in our research group, and it is freely distributed to the students in order to help their learning of diffraction. We have observed that these hands on experiments help students to consolidate their theoretical knowledge of diffraction in a pedagogical and stimulating learning process.

  7. Electron beam disruption simulation of first wall material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quataert, D.; Brossa, F.; Moretto, P.; Rigon, G.

    1984-01-01

    The destructive effect of plasma disruptions on first wall material and limiters has been predicted and models have been made to study their behaviour under intensive pulsed energy deposition. The results presented here give a full description of qualitative and semi-quantitative results obtained for several materials (Mo, stainless steel, Cu, Al, Inconel, etc.) under various experimental conditions. Examples are given of specific defects such as: evaporation, melting, void and crack formation and recrystallization of the underlying material. Methods for the evaluation of deposited energy and beam dimensions are also presented. (author)

  8. Laser-heating and Radiance Spectrometry for the Study of Nuclear Materials in Conditions Simulating a Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manara, Dario; Soldi, Luca; Mastromarino, Sara; Boboridis, Kostantinos; Robba, Davide; Vlahovic, Luka; Konings, Rudy

    2017-12-14

    Major and severe accidents have occurred three times in nuclear power plants (NPPs), at Three Mile Island (USA, 1979), Chernobyl (former USSR, 1986) and Fukushima (Japan, 2011). Research on the causes, dynamics, and consequences of these mishaps has been performed in a few laboratories worldwide in the last three decades. Common goals of such research activities are: the prevention of these kinds of accidents, both in existing and potential new nuclear power plants; the minimization of their eventual consequences; and ultimately, a full understanding of the real risks connected with NPPs. At the European Commission Joint Research Centre's Institute for Transuranium Elements, a laser-heating and fast radiance spectro-pyrometry facility is used for the laboratory simulation, on a small scale, of NPP core meltdown, the most common type of severe accident (SA) that can occur in a nuclear reactor as a consequence of a failure of the cooling system. This simulation tool permits fast and effective high-temperature measurements on real nuclear materials, such as plutonium and minor actinide-containing fission fuel samples. In this respect, and in its capability to produce large amount of data concerning materials under extreme conditions, the current experimental approach is certainly unique. For current and future concepts of NPP, example results are presented on the melting behavior of some different types of nuclear fuels: uranium-plutonium oxides, carbides, and nitrides. Results on the high-temperature interaction of oxide fuels with containment materials are also briefly shown.

  9. Laboratory-Scale Bismuth Phosphate Extraction Process Simulation To Track Fate of Fission Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. JEFFREY; Lindberg, Michael J.; Jones, Thomas E.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Krupka, Kenneth M.

    2007-02-28

    Recent field investigation that collected and characterized vadose zone sediments from beneath inactive liquid disposal facilities at the Hanford 200 Areas show lower than expected concentrations of a long-term risk driver, Tc-99. Therefore laboratory studies were performed to re-create one of the three processes that were used to separate the plutonium from spent fuel and that created most of the wastes disposed or currently stored in tanks at Hanford. The laboratory simulations were used to compare with current estimates based mainly on flow sheet estimates and spotty historical data. Three simulations of the bismuth phosphate precipitation process show that less that 1% of the Tc-99, Cs-135/137, Sr-90, I-129 carry down with the Pu product and thus these isotopes should have remained within the metals waste streams that after neutralization were sent to single shell tanks. Conversely, these isotopes should not be expected to be found in the first and subsequent cycle waste streams that went to cribs. Measurable quantities (~20 to 30%) of the lanthanides, yttrium, and trivalent actinides (Am and Cm) do precipitate with the Pu product, which is higher than the 10% estimate made for current inventory projections. Surprisingly, Se (added as selenate form) also shows about 10% association with the Pu/bismuth phosphate solids. We speculate that the incorporation of some Se into the bismuth phosphate precipitate is caused by selenate substitution into crystal lattice sites for the phosphate. The bulk of the U daughter product Th-234 and Np-237 daughter product Pa-233 also associate with the solids. We suspect that the Pa daughter products of U (Pa-234 and Pa-231) would also co-precipitate with the bismuth phosphate induced solids. No more than 1 % of the Sr-90 and Sb-125 should carry down with the Pu product that ultimately was purified. Thus the current scheme used to estimate where fission products end up being disposed overestimates by one order of magnitude the

  10. Recirculation System for Geothermal Energy Recovery in Sedimentary Formations: Laboratory Experiments and Numerical Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhoury, J. E.; Detwiler, R. L.; Serajian, V.; Bruno, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Geothermal energy resources are more widespread than previously thought and have the potential for providing a significant amount of sustainable clean energy worldwide. In particular, hot permeable sedimentary formations provide many advantages over traditional geothermal recovery and enhanced geothermal systems in low permeability crystalline formations. These include: (1) eliminating the need for hydraulic fracturing, (2) significant reduction in risk for induced seismicity, (3) reducing the need for surface wastewater disposal, (4) contributing to decreases in greenhouse gases, and (5) potential use for CO2 sequestration. Advances in horizontal drilling, completion, and production technology from the oil and gas industry can now be applied to unlock these geothermal resources. Here, we present experimental results from a laboratory scale circulation system and numerical simulations aimed at quantifying the heat transfer capacity of sedimentary rocks. Our experiments consist of fluid flow through a saturated and pressurized sedimentary disc of 23-cm diameter and 3.8-cm thickness heated along its circumference at a constant temperature. Injection and production ports are 7.6-cm apart in the center of the disc. We used DI de-aired water and mineral oil as working fluids and explored temperatures from 20 to 150 oC and flow rates from 2 to 30 ml/min. We performed experiments on sandstone samples (Castlegate and Kirby) with different porosity, permeability and thermal conductivity to evaluate the effect of hydraulic and thermal properties on the heat transfer capacity of sediments. The producing fluid temperature followed an exponential form with time scale transients between 15 and 45 min. Steady state outflow temperatures varied between 60% and 95% of the set boundary temperature, higher percentages were observed for lower temperatures and flow rates. We used the flow and heat transport simulator TOUGH2 to develop a numerical model of our laboratory setting. Given

  11. Computational simulation of laser heat processing of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Vijaya; Gnanamuthu, Daniel

    1987-04-01

    A computational model simulating the laser heat treatment of AISI 4140 steel plates with a CW CO2 laser beam has been developed on the basis of the three-dimensional, time-dependent heat equation (subject to the appropriate boundary conditions). The solution method is based on Newton iteration applied to a triple-approximate factorized form of the equation. The method is implicit and time-accurate; the maintenance of time-accuracy in the numerical formulation is noted to be critical for the simulation of finite length workpieces with a finite laser beam dwell time.

  12. Cellular and Porous Materials Thermal Properties Simulation and Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas; de Lemos, Marcelo J S

    2008-01-01

    Providing the reader with a solid understanding of the fundamentals as well as an awareness of recent advances in properties and applications of cellular and porous materials, this handbook and ready reference covers all important analytical and numerical methods for characterizing and predicting thermal properties. In so doing it directly addresses the special characteristics of foam-like and hole-riddled materials, combining theoretical and experimental aspects for characterization purposes.

  13. Testing plastic deformations of materials in the introductory undergraduate mechanics laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romo-Kröger, C M

    2012-01-01

    Normally, a mechanics laboratory at the undergraduate level includes an experiment to verify compliance with Hooke's law in materials, such as a steel spring and an elastic rubber band. Stress-strain curves are found for these elements. Compression in elastic bands is practically impossible to achieve due to flaccidity. A typical experiment for the complete loading-unloading cycle is to subject a tubular object to torsion. This paper suggests simple experiments for studying properties concerning elasticity and plasticity in elements of common use, subjected to stretching or compression, and also torsion reinforcing. The experiments use plastic binders, rubber bands and metal springs under a moderate load. This paper discusses an experiment with an original device to measure torsion deformations as a function of applied torques, which permitted construction of the hysteresis cycle for a rubber hose and various tubes. Another experiment was designed to define the temporal recovery of a plastic spring with initial stretching. A simple mathematical model was developed to explain this phenomenon. (paper)

  14. High Temperature Materials Laboratory Thirteenth Annual Report: October 1999 Through September 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasto, AE

    2001-11-07

    The High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program continued to work with industrial, academic, and governmental users this year, accepting 86 new projects and developing 50 new user agreements. The table on the following page presents the breakdown of these statistics. The figure on page 2 depicts the continued growth in user agreements and user projects. You may note that our total number of proposals is nearing 1000, and we expect to achieve this number in our first proposal review meeting of FY 2001. The large number of new agreements bodes well for the future. A list of proposals to the HTML follows this section; at the end of the report, we present a list of agreements between HTML and universities and industries, broken down by state. Program highlights this year included several outstanding user projects (some of which are discussed in later sections), the annual meeting of the HTML Programs Senior Advisory Committee, the completion of a formal Multiyear Program Plan (MYPP), and finalization of a purchase agreement with JEOL for a new-generation electron microscope.

  15. Laboratory scale development of coating for improving characteristics of candidate materials for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwala, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    Application of coatings of refractory low atomic number materials on to different components of Tokamak type controlled thermonuclear reactor are expected to provide a degree of design flexibility. The project envisages to deal with the challenging problem on laboratory scale. Coatings investigated include carbon, beryllium, boron, titanium carbide and alumina and substrates chosen have been 304, 316 stainless steels, monel-400, molybdenum, copper, graphite, etc. For their deposition, different techniques (e.g. evaporation, sputtering and their different variants) have been tried, appropriate ones chosen and their parameters optimized. The coating composition has been analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Rutherford backscattering analysis (RBS) and secondary ions mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Surface morphology has been studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sebastian coating adherence tester has been used for adhesion measurement and Wilson's Tukon microhardness tester for their microhardness measurement. The coatings have been subjected to pulses from YAG laser to evaluate their thermal cycling behaviour. Deuterium ion bombardment (Energy: 20-120 keV; doses: 10 19 -9.3x10 20 ions/cm 2 ) behaviour has also been studied. In general, adherent and hard coatings capable of withstanding thermal cycling could be deposited. Out of the coatings studied, titanium carbide shows best results. The following pages are reprints and not mircrofiched: p. 25-32, 39-41, 57-81. Bibliographic description is on page 13

  16. Post-test analysis of lithium-ion battery materials at Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareno, Javier; Dietz-Rago, Nancy; Bloom, Ira

    2014-03-01

    Electrochemical performance is often limited by surface and interfacial reactions at the electrodes. However, routine handling of samples can alter the very surfaces that are the object of study. Our approach combines standardized testing of batteries with sample harvesting under inert atmosphere conditions. Cells of different formats are disassembled inside an Argon glove box with controlled water and oxygen concentrations below 2 ppm. Cell components are characterized in situ, guaranteeing that observed changes in physicochemical state are due to electrochemical operation, rather than sample manipulation. We employ a complementary set of spectroscopic, microscopic, electrochemical and metallographic characterization to obtain a complete picture of cell degradation mechanisms. The resulting information about observed degradation mechanisms is provided to materials developers, both academic and industrial, to suggest new strategies and speed up the Research & Development cycle of Li-ion and related technologies. This talk will describe Argonne's post-test analysis laboratory, with an emphasis on capabilities and opportunities for collaboration. Cell disassembly, sample harvesting procedures and recent results will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies, Hybrid and Electric Systems, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  17. On-line monitoring of toxic materials in sewage at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auyong, M.; Cate, J.L. Jr.; Rueppel, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly important for industry to prevent releases of potentially toxic material to the environment. The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory has developed a system to monitor its sewage effluent on a continuous basis. A representative fraction of the total waste stream leaving the Plant is passed through a detection assembly consisting of an x-ray fluorescence unit which detects high levels of metals, sodium iodide crystal detectors that scan the sewage for the presence of elevated levels of radiation, and an industrial probe for pH monitoring. With the aid of a microprocessor, the data collected is reduced and analyzed to determine whether levels are approaching established environmental limits. Currently, if preset pH or radiation levels are exceeded, a sample of the suspect sewage is automatically collected for further analysis, and an alarm is sent to a station where personnel can be alerted to respond on a 24-hour basis. In the same manner, spectral data from the x-ray fluorescence unit will be routed through the 24-hour alarm system as soon as evaluation of the unit is complete. The design of the system and operational experience is discussed

  18. Simulation of Neutron Backscattering applied to organic material detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forero, N. C.; Cruz, A. H.; Cristancho, F.

    2007-01-01

    The Neutron Backscattering technique is tested when performing the task of localizing hydrogenated explosives hidden in soil. Detector system, landmine, soil and neutron source are simulated with Geant4 in order to obtain the number of neutrons detected when several parameters like mine composition, relative position mine-source and soil moisture are varied

  19. Binary-collision-approximation-based simulation of noble gas irradiation to tungsten materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Seiki; Takayama, Arimichi; Ito, Atsushi M.; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    To reveal the possibility of fuzz formation of tungsten material under noble gas irradiation, helium, neon, and argon atom injections into tungsten materials are performed by binary-collision-approximation-based simulation. The penetration depth is strongly depends on the structure of the target material. Therefore, the penetration depth for amorphous and bcc crystalline structure is carefully investigated in this paper

  20. Anomalous piezoelectric effects, found in the laboratory and reconstructed by numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Teisseyre

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Various rocks and minerals, which are not piezoelectric in the common sense, exhibit transient electric polarization in response to sudden changes in stress load. This anomalous piezoelectric effect differs from the regular, static piezoelectric response, in which electric charges appear as a result of crystal lattice deformation. The anomalous piezoelectricity is dynamic decaying in a few seconds or a few tens of seconds. However, in some materials different polarization properties are discovered. To explain certain aspects of the polarization signal increase and decay, some complicated mechanisms of electric charge generation and relaxation need to be assumed in their number ? concurrence of two or three relaxation processes. The hypothetical mechanisms are only mentioned, as the purpose of this work is to construct numerical models, behaving like the rocks investigated. Examples of experimental plots are shown together with the results of the numerical simulation of these experiments.

  1. A numerical simulation on the flow of watershed filtration reactors using lignocellulosic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    N. Hur; B. Choi; J.S. Han; E.W. Shin; S. Min; R.M. Rowell

    2003-01-01

    Pinyon juniper, a small-diameter and underutilized (SDU) lignocellulosic material, was harvested in New Mexico, identified as Juniperus monosperma at the USDA Forest Products Laboratory, chipped, fiberized and chemically modified to remove pollutants from wastewater. This juniper species was selected as a raw material through screening test for removal of pollutants...

  2. Surface Defects in Sheet Metal Forming: a Simulative Laboratory Device and Comparison with FE Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuillier, Sandrine; Le Port, Alban; Manach, Pierre-Yves

    2011-08-01

    Surface defects are small concave imperfections that can develop during forming on outer convex panels of automotive parts like doors. They occur during springback steps, after drawing in the vicinity of bending over a curved line and flanging/hemming in the vicinity of the upper corner of a door. They can alter significantly the final quality of the automobile and it is of primary importance to deal with them as early as possible in the design of the forming tools. The aim of this work is to reproduce at the laboratory scale such a defect, in the case of the flanging along a curved edge, made of two orthogonal straight part of length 50 mm and joint by a curved line. A dedicated device has been designed and steel samples were tested. Each sample was measured initially (after laser cutting) and after flanging, with a 3D measuring machine. 2D profiles were extracted and the curvature was calculated. Surface defects were defined between points where the curvature sign changed. Isovalues of surface defect depth could then be plotted, thus displaying also the spatial geometry on the part surface. An experimental database has been created on the influence of process parameters like the flanging height and the flanging radius. Numerical simulations have been performed with the finite element code Abaqus to predict the occurrence of such surface defects and to analyze stress and strain distribution within the defect area.

  3. Modeling of synchrotron-based laboratory simulations of Titan's ionospheric photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Nathalie; Peng, Zhe; Pernot, Pascal

    2014-11-01

    The APSIS reactor has been designed to simulate in the laboratory with a VUV synchrotron irradiation the photochemistry occurring in planetary upper atmospheres. A N2-CH4 Titan-like gas mixture has been studied, whose photochemistry in Titan's ionospheric irradiation conditions leads to a coupled chemical network involving both radicals and ions. In the present work, an ion-neutral coupled model is developed to interpret the experimental data, taking into account the uncertainties on the kinetic parameters by Monte Carlo sampling. The model predicts species concentrations in agreement with mass spectrometry measurements of the methane consumption and product blocks intensities. Ion chemistry and in particular dissociative recombination are found to be very important through sensitivity analysis. The model is also applied to complementary environmental conditions, corresponding to Titan's ionospheric average conditions and to another existing synchrotron setup. An innovative study of the correlations between species concentrations identifies two main competitive families, leading respectively to saturated and unsaturated species. We find that the unsaturated growth family, driven by C2H2 , is dominant in Titan's upper atmosphere, as observed by the Cassini INMS. But the saturated species are substantially more intense in the measurements of the two synchrotron experimental setups, and likely originate from catalysis by metallic walls of the reactors.

  4. Laboratory modeling, field study, and numerical simulation of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingston, R.J.; Islam, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    The use of bioremediation as an alternative remediation technology is fast becoming the technique of choice among many environmental professionals. This method offers substantial benefits not found in other remediation processes. Bioremediation is very cost effective, nondestructive, relatively uncomplicated in implementing, requires nonspecialized equipment, and can be extremely effective in removing recalcitrant petroleum hydrocarbons. This study researched the availability of viable microbial populations in the arid climate in South Dakota. Exponential growth of the bacteria and the ability of bacteria to degrade long-chain hydrocarbons indicated that healthy populations do exist and could be used to mineralize organic hydrocarbons. Experimental results indicated that bioremediation can be effectively enhanced in landfills as well as in the subsurface using a supply of harmless nutrients. The biodegradation rate can be further enhanced with the use of edible surfactant that helped disperse the petroleum products. Also, the use of hydrogen peroxide enhanced the oxygen availability and increased the degradation rate. Interestingly, the bacterial growth rate was found to be high in difficult-to-biodegrade contaminants, such as waste oil. A numerical simulation program was also developed that describes the bacterial growth in the subsurface along with the reduction in substrate (contamination). Results from this program were found to be consistent with laboratory results

  5. M and D SIG progress report: Laboratory simulations of LDEF impact features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horz, Friedrich; Bernhard, R. P.; See, T. H.; Atkinson, D.; Allbrooks, M.

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory impact experiments are needed to understand the relationship between a measured penetration hole diameter and associated projectile dimension in the thermal blankets of experiment A0178, which occupied some 16 sq. m. These blankets are composed of 125 micron thick Teflon that has an Ag/enconel second mirror surface, backed by organic binder and Chemglaze paint for a total thickness of some 170 microns. While dedicated experiments are required to understand the penetration behavior of this compound target in detail, we report here on impact simulations sponsored by other projects into pure Teflon and aluminum targets. These experiments will allow first order interpretations of impact features on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), and they will serve as guides for dedicated experiments that employ the real LDEF blankets, both exposed and unexposed, for a refined understanding of the LDEF's collisional environment. We employed a light gas gun to launch soda-lime glass spheres from 50 to 3200 microns in diameter that impacted targets of variable thickness. Penetration measurements are given.

  6. Assessment of eye lens doses in interventional radiology: a simulation in laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cemusova, Z.; Ekendahl, D.; Judas, L.

    2016-01-01

    As workers in interventional radiology belong to one of the most occupationally exposed groups, methods for sufficiently accurate quantification of their external exposure are sought. The objective of the authors' experiment was to investigate the relations between eye lens dose and H p (10), H p (3) or H p (0.07) values measured with a conventional whole-body personal thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD). Conditions of occupational exposure during common interventional procedures were simulated in laboratory. An anthropomorphic phantom represented a physician. The TLDs were fixed to the phantom in different locations that are common for purposes of personal dosimetry. In order to monitor the dose at the eye lens level during the exposures, a special thermoluminescence eye dosemeter was fixed to the phantom's temple. Correlations between doses measured with the whole-body and the eye dosemeters were found. There are indications that personnel in interventional radiology do not need to be unconditionally equipped with additional eye dosemeters, especially if an appropriate whole-body dosimetry system has been already put into practice. (authors)

  7. Laboratory investigation and simulation of breakthrough curves in karst conduits with pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoer; Chang, Yong; Wu, Jichun; Peng, Fu

    2017-12-01

    A series of laboratory experiments are performed under various hydrological conditions to analyze the effect of pools in pipes on breakthrough curves (BTCs). The BTCs are generated after instantaneous injections of NaCl tracer solution. In order to test the feasibility of reproducing the BTCs and obtain transport parameters, three modeling approaches have been applied: the equilibrium model, the linear graphical method and the two-region nonequilibrium model. The investigation results show that pools induce tailing of the BTCs, and the shapes of BTCs depend on pool geometries and hydrological conditions. The simulations reveal that the two-region nonequilibrium model yields the best fits to experimental BTCs because the model can describe the transient storage in pools by the partition coefficient and the mass transfer coefficient. The model parameters indicate that pools produce high dispersion. The increased tailing occurs mainly because the partition coefficient decreases, as the number of pools increases. When comparing the tracer BTCs obtained using the two types of pools with the same size, the more appreciable BTC tails that occur for symmetrical pools likely result mainly from the less intense exchange between the water in the pools and the water in the pipe, because the partition coefficients for the two types of pools are virtually identical. Dispersivity values decrease as flow rates increase; however, the trend in dispersion is not clear. The reduced tailing is attributed to a decrease in immobile water with increasing flow rate. It provides evidence for hydrodynamically controlled tailing effects.

  8. Computational modeling, optimization and manufacturing simulation of advanced engineering materials

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents recent research work focused in the development of adequate theoretical and numerical formulations to describe the behavior of advanced engineering materials.  Particular emphasis is devoted to applications in the fields of biological tissues, phase changing and porous materials, polymers and to micro/nano scale modeling. Sensitivity analysis, gradient and non-gradient based optimization procedures are involved in many of the chapters, aiming at the solution of constitutive inverse problems and parameter identification. All these relevant topics are exposed by experienced international and inter institutional research teams resulting in a high level compilation. The book is a valuable research reference for scientists, senior undergraduate and graduate students, as well as for engineers acting in the area of computational material modeling.

  9. A Comparison of Students' Conceptual Understanding of Electric Circuits in Simulation Only and Simulation-Laboratory Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Tomi; Nurmi, Sami; Veermans, Koen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to compare learning outcomes of students using a simulation alone (simulation environment) with outcomes of those using a simulation in parallel with real circuits (combination environment) in the domain of electricity, and to explore how learning outcomes in these environments are mediated by implicit (only…

  10. Computational modeling of the behavior of nuclear materials (2). Molecular simulations for nuclear materials. Current situation and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okita, Taira; Itakura, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Molecular simulations for nuclear materials aim to reproduce atomistic-scale phenomena induced by irradiation and infer the change in material properties. In the present work, recent progress in this field is presented. In particular, the following three topics are explained: (1) Quantification of lattice defects formation process induced by fast neutron collision. (2) Identification of dislocation-channeling mechanism induced by interactions between defect clusters and dislocations. (3) Modeling of the three dimensional movement of defect clusters using molecular dynamics and kinetic Monte Carlo simulations. (author)

  11. Systems analysis and simulation of fissile materials disposition alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farish, T.J.; Farmen, R.F.; Boerigter, S.T.; DeMuth, N.S.

    1996-01-01

    A detailed process flow model has been developed for use in the Fissile Materials Disposition program. The model calculates fissile material flows and inventories among the various processing and storage facilities over the life of the disposition program. Given existing inventories and schedules for processing, we can estimate the required size of processing and storage facilities, including equipment requirements, plant floorspace, approximate costs, and surge capacities. The model was designed to allow rapid prototyping, parallel and team development of facility and sub-facility models, consistent levels of detail and the use of a library of generic objects representing unit process operations

  12. Lightweighting Automotive Materials for Increased Fuel Efficiency and Delivering Advanced Modeling and Simulation Capabilities to U.S. Manufacturers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, Steve

    2013-09-11

    Abstract The National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS) worked with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), to bring together research and development (R&D) collaborations to develop and accelerate the knowledgebase and infrastructure for lightweighting materials and manufacturing processes for their use in structural and applications in the automotive sector. The purpose/importance of this DOE program: • 2016 CAFÉ standards. • Automotive industry technology that shall adopt the insertion of lightweighting material concepts towards manufacturing of production vehicles. • Development and manufacture of advanced research tools for modeling and simulation (M&S) applications to reduce manufacturing and material costs. • U.S. competitiveness that will help drive the development and manufacture of the next generation of materials. NCMS established a focused portfolio of applied R&D projects utilizing lightweighting materials for manufacture into automotive structures and components. Areas that were targeted in this program: • Functionality of new lightweighting materials to meet present safety requirements. • Manufacturability using new lightweighting materials. • Cost reduction for the development and use of new lightweighting materials. The automotive industry’s future continuously evolves through innovation, and lightweight materials are key in achieving a new era of lighter, more efficient vehicles. Lightweight materials are among the technical advances needed to achieve fuel/energy efficiency and reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions: • Establish design criteria methodology to identify the best materials for lightweighting. • Employ state-of-the-art design tools for optimum material development for their specific applications. • Match new manufacturing technology to production volume. • Address new process variability with new production-ready processes.

  13. Numerical simulation of lead devices for seismic isolation and vibration control on their damping characteristics. Development of lead material model under cyclic large deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Akihiro; Yabana, Shuichi; Borst, Rene de

    2004-01-01

    In order to predict the mechanical properties of lead devices for seismic isolation and vibration control, especially damping behavior under cyclic loading using numerical simulation, cyclic shear loading tests and uniaxial tensile loading tests were performed, and a new material model was proposed with the use of the both test results. Until now, it has been difficult to evaluate mechanical properties of lead material under cyclic loading by uniaxial tensile loading test because local deformations appeared with the small tensile strain. Our shear cyclic loading tests for lead material enabled practical evaluation of its mechanical properties under cyclic large strain which makes it difficult to apply uniaxial test. The proposed material model was implemented into a finite element program, and it was applied to numerical simulation of mechanical properties of lead dampers and rubber bearings with a lead plug. The numerical simulations and the corresponding laboratory loading tests showed good agreement, which proved the applicability of the proposed model. (author)

  14. Use of a PhET Interactive Simulation in General Chemistry Laboratory: Models of the Hydrogen Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ted M.; Chamberlain, Julia M.

    2014-01-01

    An activity supporting the PhET interactive simulation, Models of the Hydrogen Atom, has been designed and used in the laboratory portion of a general chemistry course. This article describes the framework used to successfully accomplish implementation on a large scale. The activity guides students through a comparison and analysis of the six…

  15. Application of computer simulation in the stereology of materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saxl, Ivan; Ponížil, P.; Löflerová, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 2 (2009), s. 231-249 ISSN 1741-8410 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/06/0302 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0550 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : 3D computer simulation * fibre anisotropy * fracture surface * grain size estimation * random tessellation * rough surface analysis * fibre processes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  16. Preliminary laboratory assessments of a lightweight geocomposite material for embankment fill application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Okonta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The cost of retaining structures used for the lateral support of roadside embankments can be significantly reduced through the use of lightly cemented mixtures of expanded polystyrene (EPS beads and backfill soils as lightweight roadside embankment material. Four grades of residually derived sandy soils were mixed with EPS beads and the geocomposites were stabilised with 3% cement content, compacted and cured. The textural properties and shear strength parameters of dry and soaked specimens of the cemented geocomposites were determined by direct shear tests. The shear parameters and slope stability charts were used to simulate the slope of typical road embankments. The settlement potentials at different applied normal stresses were also determined. Inclusion of EPS reduced the dry density of the residual soils from an average value of 1790 kg/m3 to 1335 kg/m3. The maximum friction coefficient, tan ᴓ′, mobilised by the geocomposite specimens decreased with an increase in the soil fines content (>0.425 mm. The difference in tan ᴓ′ between the stabilised geocomposites and the natural soil was also dependent on the fines content. For an embankment height of 20 m, slope angles of 38° and 62° were determined for fine sand geocomposites in fully saturated drainage and drained conditions, respectively. Lower slope angles were determined for geocomposites made from silty, coarse and gravelly sands. A limiting embankment height of 50 m was determined for the four geocomposites. Rainfall-induced settlement of geocomposites was dependent on pre-inundation stiffness; for the range of applied stress up to 200 kPa, the settlement exhibited by the fine and silty sand geocomposites was lower than that for the coarse and gravelly sand geocomposites. Fine and silty sands make poor materials for slope embankments because of their poor hydraulic conductivity; however, fine and silty sand geocomposites have a good conductivity and friction angle to support

  17. Retention Capability of Local Backfill Materials 1-Simulated Disposal Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghattas, N.K.; Eskander, S.B.; El-Adham, K.A.; Mahmoud, N.S.

    2001-01-01

    In Egypt, a shallow ground disposal facility was the chosen option for the disposal of low and and intermediate radioactive wastes. The impact of the waste disposal facility on the environment depends on the nature of the barriers, which intend to limit and control contaminant migration. Owing to their physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics. Local soil materials were studied to illustrate the role of the back fill as part of an optimized safety multi-barrier system, which can provide the required level of protection of the environment and meet economic and regulatory requirements. A theoretical model was proposed to calculate the transport phenomena through the backfill materials. The credibility and validity of the proposed model was checked by the experimental results obtained from a three-arms arrangement system. The obtained data for the distribution coefficient (K d ) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (D a ) were in good agreement with those previously obtained in the literatures. Taking in consideration the prevailing initial conditions, the data calculated by the theoretical model applied show a reasonable agreement with the results obtained from experimental work. Prediction of radioactive cesium migration through the backfill materials using the proposed model was performed as a function of distance. The results obtained show that after 100 years, a fraction not exceeding 1E-9 of the original activity could be detected at 1m distance away from the waste material

  18. System simulation application for determining the size of daily raw material purchases at PT XY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napitupulu, H. L.

    2018-02-01

    Every manufacturing company needs to implement green production, including PT XY as a marine catchment processing industry in Sumatera Utara Province. The company is engaged in the processing of squid for export purposes. The company’s problem relates to the absence of a decision on the daily purchase amount of the squid. The purchase of daily raw materials in varying quantities has caused companies to face the problem of excess raw materials or otherwise the lack of raw materials. The low purchase of raw materials will result in reduced productivity, while large purchases will lead to increased cooling costs for storage of excess raw materials, as well as possible loss of damage raw material. Therefore it is necessary to determine the optimal amount of raw material purchases every day. This can be determined by applying simulation. Application of system simulations can provide the expected optimal amount of raw material purchases.

  19. Graded territories: Towards the design, specification and simulation of materially graded bending active structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicholas, Paul; Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    these structures, the property of bending is activated and varied through bespoke material means so as to match a desired form. Within the architectural design process, formal control depends upon design approaches for material specification and simulation that consider behavior at the level of the material...... element as well as the structure. We describe an evolving approach to material specification and simulation, and highlight the digital and material considerations that frame the process.......The ability to make materials with bespoke behavior affords new perspectives on incorporating material properties within the design process not available through natural materials. This paper reports the design and assembly of two bending-active, fibre-reinforced composite structures. Within...

  20. Medical Laboratory Technician--Hematology, Serology, Blood Banking & Immunohematology, 10-4. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This course, the third of three courses in the medical laboratory technician field adapted from military curriculum materials for use in vocational and technical education, was designed as a refresher course for student self-study and evaluation. It is suitable for use by advanced students or beginning students participating in a supervised…

  1. Modeling and simulation of plasma materials processing devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma processing has emerged as a central technology in the manufacture of integrated circuits (ICs) and related industries. These plasmas are weakly to partially ionized gases, typically operated at a few to several hundred mTorr gas pressure, with neutral temperatures ranging from room temperature to 500 degrees K. Electron mean energies are typically a few eV and ion energies in the bulk plasma are about 0.05-0.5 eV. Positive ions axe accelerated in the sheaths to impact surfaces with energies ranging from about 10 eV to hundreds of eV. These energetic ions profoundly affect rates of surface chemical reactions. One of the consequences of the recent rapid growth in the IC industry has been a greater focus on manufacturing productivity. The capital costs of equipment that is used in manufacturing IC's has become a large fraction of the ∼ $1 billion cost of building a wafer fab. There is now a strong economic incentive to develop workstation-based simulations of plasma chemical reactors in order to design, optimize and control plasma reactors. I will summarize efforts to develop such models, including electromagnetic coupling, and transport and kinetics of charged and neutral species. Length and time scale disparities in the plasma tool challenge current simulation approaches, and I will address strategies to attack aspects of this problem. In addition, I will present some of our recent efforts to exploit molecular dynamics simulations employing empirical potentials to get hints about qualitative mechanisms and ideas on how to formulate rate expressions for plasma-surface chemical processes. Video illustrations of selected sets of ion trajectories impacting near-surface regions of the substrate will be presented

  2. Polarization-based enhancement of ocean color signal for estimating suspended particulate matter: radiative transfer simulations and laboratory measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; He, Xianqiang; Liu, Jiahang; Bai, Yan; Wang, Difeng; Chen, Tieqiao; Wang, Yihao; Zhu, Feng

    2017-04-17

    Absorption and scattering by molecules, aerosols and hydrosols, and the reflection and transmission over the sea surface can modify the original polarization state of sunlight. However, water-leaving radiance polarization, containing embedded water constituent information, has largely been neglected. Here, the efficiency of the parallel polarization radiance (PPR) for enhancing ocean color signal of suspended particulate matter is examined via vector radiative transfer simulations and laboratory experiments. The simulation results demonstrate that the PPR has a slightly higher ocean color signal at the top-of-atmosphere as compared with that of the total radiance. Moreover, both the simulations and laboratory measurements reveal that, compared with total radiance, PPR can effectively enhance the normalized ocean color signal for a large range of observation geometries, wavelengths, and suspended particle concentrations. Thus, PPR has great potential for improving the ocean color signal detection from satellite.

  3. LOCA simulation in the NRU reactor: materials test-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russcher, G.E.; Marshall, R.K.; Hesson, G.M.; Wildung, N.J.; Rausch, W.N.

    1981-10-01

    A simulated loss-of-coolant accident was performed with a full-length test bundle of pressurized water reactor fuel rods. This second experiment of the program produced peak fuel cladding temperatures of 1148K (1607 0 F) and resulted in six ruptured fuel rods. Test data and initial results from the experiment are presented here in the form of photographs and graphical summaries. These results are also compared with the preceding prototypic thermal-hydraulic test results and with computer model test predictions

  4. WWER-1000 reactor simulator. Material for training courses and workshops. 2. ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established an activity in nuclear reactor simulation computer programs to assist its Member States in education. The objective is to provide, for a variety of advanced reactor types, insight and practice in their operational characteristics and their response to perturbations and accident situations. To achieve this, the IAEA arranges for the development and distribution of simulation programs and educational material and sponsors courses and workshops. The workshops are in two parts: techniques and tools for reactor simulator development; and the use of reactor simulators in education. Workshop material for the first part is covered in the IAEA publication: Training Course Series No.12, Reactor Simulator Development (2001). Course material for workshops using a pressurized water reactor (PWR) simulator developed for the IAEA by Cassiopeia Technologies Inc. of Canada is presented in the IAEA publication, Training Course Series No. 22, 2nd edition, Pressurized Water Reactor Simulator (2005) and Training Course Series No.23, 2nd edition, Boiling Water Reactor Simulator (2005). This report consists of course material for workshops using the WWER-1000 Reactor Department Simulator from the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, Russian Federation

  5. A high performance scientific cloud computing environment for materials simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorissen, K.; Vila, F. D.; Rehr, J. J.

    2012-09-01

    We describe the development of a scientific cloud computing (SCC) platform that offers high performance computation capability. The platform consists of a scientific virtual machine prototype containing a UNIX operating system and several materials science codes, together with essential interface tools (an SCC toolset) that offers functionality comparable to local compute clusters. In particular, our SCC toolset provides automatic creation of virtual clusters for parallel computing, including tools for execution and monitoring performance, as well as efficient I/O utilities that enable seamless connections to and from the cloud. Our SCC platform is optimized for the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). We present benchmarks for prototypical scientific applications and demonstrate performance comparable to local compute clusters. To facilitate code execution and provide user-friendly access, we have also integrated cloud computing capability in a JAVA-based GUI. Our SCC platform may be an alternative to traditional HPC resources for materials science or quantum chemistry applications.

  6. A high performance scientific cloud computing environment for materials simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Jorissen, Kevin; Vila, Fernando D.; Rehr, John J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the development of a scientific cloud computing (SCC) platform that offers high performance computation capability. The platform consists of a scientific virtual machine prototype containing a UNIX operating system and several materials science codes, together with essential interface tools (an SCC toolset) that offers functionality comparable to local compute clusters. In particular, our SCC toolset provides automatic creation of virtual clusters for parallel computing, including...

  7. Numerical Forming Simulations and Optimisation in Advanced Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huetink, J.; Boogaard, A. H. van den; Geijselears, H. J. M.; Meinders, T.

    2007-01-01

    With the introduction of new materials as high strength steels, metastable steels and fibre reinforced composites, the need for advanced physically valid constitutive models arises. In finite deformation problems constitutive relations are commonly formulated in terms the Cauchy stress as a function of the elastic Finger tensor and an objective rate of the Cauchy stress as a function of the rate of deformation tensor. For isotropic materials models this is rather straightforward, but for anisotropic material models, including elastic anisotropy as well as plastic anisotropy, this may lead to confusing formulations. It will be shown that it is more convenient to define the constitutive relations in terms of invariant tensors referred to the deformed metric. Experimental results are presented that show new combinations of strain rate and strain path sensitivity. An adaptive through- thickness integration scheme for plate elements is developed, which improves the accuracy of spring back prediction at minimal costs. A procedure is described to automatically compensate the CAD tool shape numerically to obtain the desired product shape. Forming processes need to be optimized for cost saving and product improvement. Until recently, a trial-and-error process in the factory primarily did this optimization. An optimisation strategy is proposed that assists an engineer to model an optimization problem that suits his needs, including an efficient algorithm for solving the problem

  8. Molecular simulation of capillary phase transitions in flexible porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Vincent K.; Siderius, Daniel W.; Mahynski, Nathan A.

    2018-03-01

    We used flat-histogram sampling Monte Carlo to study capillary phase transitions in deformable adsorbent materials. Specifically, we considered a pure adsorbate fluid below its bulk critical temperature within a slit pore of variable pore width. The instantaneous pore width is dictated by a number of factors, such as adsorbate loading, reservoir pressure, fluid-wall interaction, and bare adsorbent properties. In the slit pores studied here, the bare adsorbent free energy was assumed to be biparabolic, consisting of two preferential pore configurations, namely, the narrow pore and the large pore configurations. Four distinct phases could be found in the adsorption isotherms. We found a low-pressure phase transition, driven primarily by capillary condensation/evaporation and accompanied by adsorbent deformation in response. The deformation can be a relatively small contraction/expansion as seen in elastic materials, or a large-scale structural transformation of the adsorbent. We also found a high-pressure transition driven by excluded volume effects, which tends to expand the material and thus results in a large-scale structural transformation of the adsorbent. The adsorption isotherms and osmotic free energies can be rationalized by considering the relative free energy differences between the basins of the bare adsorbent free energy.

  9. Computational simulation of heat transfer in laser melted material flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shankar, V.; Gnanamuthu, D.

    1986-01-01

    A computational procedure has been developed to study the heat transfer process in laser-melted material flow associated with surface heat treatment of metallic alloys to improve wear-and-tear and corrosion resistance. The time-dependent incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved, accounting for both convective and conductive heat transfer processes. The convection, induced by surface tension and high surface temperature gradients, sets up a counterrotating vortex flow within the molten pool. This recirculating material flow is responsible for determining the molten pool shape and the associated cooling rates which affect the solidifying material composition. The numerical method involves an implicit triple-approximate factorization scheme for the energy equation, and an explicit treatment for the momentum and the continuity equations. An experimental setup, using a continuous wave CO 2 laser beam as a heat source, has been carried out to generate data for validation of the computational model. Results in terms of the depth, width, and shape of the molten pool and the heat-affected zone for various power settings and shapes of the laser, and for various travel speeds of the workpiece, compare very well with experimental data. The presence of the surface tension-induced vortex flow is demonstrated

  10. Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT): Modeling and Simulation Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cipiti, Benjamin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dunn, Timothy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Durbin, Samual [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Durkee, Joe W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); England, Jeff [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Jones, Robert [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Ketusky, Edward [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Li, Shelly [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lindgren, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meier, David [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Osburn, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scaglione, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Scherer, Carolynn P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sprinkle, James K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yoo, Tae-Sic [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-05

    The development of sustainable advanced nuclear fuel cycles is a long-term goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy’s (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies program. The Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) campaign is supporting research and development (R&D) of advanced instrumentation, analysis tools, and integration methodologies to meet this goal. This advanced R&D is intended to facilitate safeguards and security by design of fuel cycle facilities. The lab-scale demonstration of a virtual facility, distributed test bed, that connects the individual tools being developed at National Laboratories and university research establishments, is a key program milestone for 2020. These tools will consist of instrumentation and devices as well as computer software for modeling. To aid in framing its long-term goal, during FY16, a modeling and simulation roadmap is being developed for three major areas of investigation: (1) radiation transport and sensors, (2) process and chemical models, and (3) shock physics and assessments. For each area, current modeling approaches are described, and gaps and needs are identified.

  11. Advancing adaptive optics technology: Laboratory turbulence simulation and optimization of laser guide stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampy, Rachel A.

    Since Galileo's first telescope some 400 years ago, astronomers have been building ever-larger instruments. Yet only within the last two decades has it become possible to realize the potential angular resolutions of large ground-based telescopes, by using adaptive optics (AO) technology to counter the blurring effects of Earth's atmosphere. And only within the past decade have the development of laser guide stars (LGS) extended AO capabilities to observe science targets nearly anywhere in the sky. Improving turbulence simulation strategies and LGS are the two main topics of my research. In the first part of this thesis, I report on the development of a technique for manufacturing phase plates for simulating atmospheric turbulence in the laboratory. The process involves strategic application of clear acrylic paint onto a transparent substrate. Results of interferometric characterization of the plates are described and compared to Kolmogorov statistics. The range of r0 (Fried's parameter) achieved thus far is 0.2--1.2 mm at 650 nm measurement wavelength, with a Kolmogorov power law. These plates proved valuable at the Laboratory for Adaptive Optics at University of California, Santa Cruz, where they have been used in the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics testbed, during integration and testing of the Gemini Planet Imager, and as part of the calibration system of the on-sky AO testbed named ViLLaGEs (Visible Light Laser Guidestar Experiments). I present a comparison of measurements taken by ViLLaGEs of the power spectrum of a plate and the real sky turbulence. The plate is demonstrated to follow Kolmogorov theory well, while the sky power spectrum does so in a third of the data. This method of fabricating phase plates has been established as an effective and low-cost means of creating simulated turbulence. Due to the demand for such devices, they are now being distributed to other members of the AO community. The second topic of this thesis pertains to understanding and

  12. Correlating TEM images of damage in irradiated materials to molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeublin, R.; Caturla, M.-J.; Wall, M.; Felter, T.; Fluss, M.; Wirth, B.D.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Victoria, M.

    2002-01-01

    TEM image simulations are used to couple the results from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to experimental TEM images. In particular we apply this methodology to the study of defects produced during irradiation. MD simulations have shown that irradiation of FCC metals results in a population of vacancies and interstitials forming clusters. The limitation of these simulations is the short time scales available, on the order of 100 s of picoseconds. Extrapolation of the results from these short times to the time scales of the laboratory has been difficult. We address this problem by two methods: we perform TEM image simulations of MD simulations of cascades with an improved technique, to relate defects produced at short time scales with those observed experimentally at much longer time scales. On the other hand we perform in situ TEM experiments of Au irradiated at liquid-nitrogen temperatures, and study the evolution of the produced damage as the temperature is increased to room temperature. We find that some of the defects observed in the MD simulations at short time scales using the TEM image simulation technique have features that resemble those observed in laboratory TEM images of irradiated samples. In situ TEM shows that stacking fault tetrahedra are present at the lowest temperatures and are stable during annealing up to room temperature, while other defect clusters migrate one dimensionally above -100 deg. C. Results are presented here

  13. Interim report on the laboratory and theoretical work in modeling the drained and undrained behavior of buffer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, L.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes the continuous work of modeling the geotechnical properties of buffer materials. Some results of laboratory work with drained and undrained tests are described as well as the material models that these test have yielded. The effective stress concept and its relevance is discussed. The technique to apply the models in calculations using the finite element program ABAQUS is described. Some calculations of laboratory verification tests are shown and the results compared. Finally two examples of scenario calculations are shown. The work has led to three material models that can be used in ABAQUS calculations. All parameters for these models are not fully known and a continuation of the work is required. These models are not suitable for all situations and the relevance and need for further developments are presently investigated. (au)

  14. Moisture performance of building materials: From material characterization to building simulation using the Moisture Buffer Value concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abadie, Marc Olivier [Mechanical Engineering Graduate Program, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUC-PR/CCET, Curitiba, PR 80215-901 (Brazil); LEPTAB, University of La Rochelle, La Rochelle, 17042 Cedex 1 (France); Mendonca, Katia Cordeiro [Mechanical Engineering Graduate Program, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUC-PR/CCET, Curitiba, PR 80215-901 (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    Predicting the indoor air relative humidity evolution is of great importance to evaluate people thermal comfort, perceived air quality and energy consumption. In building environments, porous materials of the envelope and furniture act on the indoor air humidity by reducing its variations. Solving the physical processes involved inside the porous materials requires the knowledge of the material hygrothermal properties that needs multiple and, for some of them, time-consuming experimental procedures. Recently, both the NORDTEST Project and Japanese Industrial Standard described a new Moisture Buffer Capacity index that accounts for surrounding air vapor concentration variation. The Moisture Buffer Value (MBV) indicates the amount of water vapor that is transported in or out of a material, during a certain period of time, when the vapor concentration of the surrounding air varies. The MBV evaluation requires only one experimental procedure and its value permits a direct comparison of the building materials moisture performance. However, two limitations can be distinguished: first, no relation between the MBV and the usual material hygrothermal properties has been clearly identified and second, no model has been proposed to actually use the MBV in building simulation. The present study aims to solve these two problems. First, the MBV fundamentals are introduced and discussed; followed by its relation with the usual material properties. Then, a lumped model for building simulation, whose parameters can be determined from the MBV experimental procedure, is described. To finish, examples of the use of this MBV-based lumped model for moisture prediction in buildings are presented. (author)

  15. Impact of trace metal concentrations on coccolithophore growth and morphology: laboratory simulations of Cretaceous stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucher, Giulia; Hoffmann, Linn; Bach, Lennart T.; Bottini, Cinzia; Erba, Elisabetta; Riebesell, Ulf

    2017-07-01

    The Cretaceous ocean witnessed intervals of profound perturbations such as volcanic input of large amounts of CO2, anoxia, eutrophication and introduction of biologically relevant metals. Some of these extreme events were characterized by size reduction and/or morphological changes of a few calcareous nannofossil species. The correspondence between intervals of high trace metal concentrations and coccolith dwarfism suggests a negative effect of these elements on nannoplankton biocalcification processes in past oceans. In order to test this hypothesis, we explored the potential effect of a mixture of trace metals on growth and morphology of four living coccolithophore species, namely Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Pleurochrysis carterae and Coccolithus pelagicus. The phylogenetic history of coccolithophores shows that the selected living species are linked to Mesozoic species showing dwarfism under excess metal concentrations. The trace metals tested were chosen to simulate the environmental stress identified in the geological record and upon known trace metal interactions with living coccolithophore algae.Our laboratory experiments demonstrated that elevated trace metal concentrations, similarly to the fossil record, affect coccolithophore algae size and/or weight. Smaller coccoliths were detected in E. huxleyi and C. pelagicus, while coccoliths of G. oceanica showed a decrease in size only at the highest trace metal concentrations. P. carterae coccolith size was unresponsive to changing trace metal concentrations. These differences among species allow discriminating the most- (P. carterae), intermediate- (E. huxleyi and G. oceanica) and least-tolerant (C. pelagicus) taxa. The fossil record and the experimental results converge on a selective response of coccolithophores to metal availability.These species-specific differences must be considered before morphological features of coccoliths are used to reconstruct paleo-chemical conditions.

  16. Impact of trace metal concentrations on coccolithophore growth and morphology: laboratory simulations of Cretaceous stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Faucher

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cretaceous ocean witnessed intervals of profound perturbations such as volcanic input of large amounts of CO2, anoxia, eutrophication and introduction of biologically relevant metals. Some of these extreme events were characterized by size reduction and/or morphological changes of a few calcareous nannofossil species. The correspondence between intervals of high trace metal concentrations and coccolith dwarfism suggests a negative effect of these elements on nannoplankton biocalcification processes in past oceans. In order to test this hypothesis, we explored the potential effect of a mixture of trace metals on growth and morphology of four living coccolithophore species, namely Emiliania huxleyi, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Pleurochrysis carterae and Coccolithus pelagicus. The phylogenetic history of coccolithophores shows that the selected living species are linked to Mesozoic species showing dwarfism under excess metal concentrations. The trace metals tested were chosen to simulate the environmental stress identified in the geological record and upon known trace metal interactions with living coccolithophore algae.Our laboratory experiments demonstrated that elevated trace metal concentrations, similarly to the fossil record, affect coccolithophore algae size and/or weight. Smaller coccoliths were detected in E. huxleyi and C. pelagicus, while coccoliths of G. oceanica showed a decrease in size only at the highest trace metal concentrations. P. carterae coccolith size was unresponsive to changing trace metal concentrations. These differences among species allow discriminating the most- (P. carterae, intermediate- (E. huxleyi and G. oceanica and least-tolerant (C. pelagicus taxa. The fossil record and the experimental results converge on a selective response of coccolithophores to metal availability.These species-specific differences must be considered before morphological features of coccoliths are used to reconstruct paleo-chemical conditions.

  17. Laboratory Simulations of CME-Solar Wind Interactions Using a Coaxial Gun and Background Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, B. H.; Zhang, Y.; Fisher, D.; Gilmore, M.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding and predicting solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is of critical importance for mitigating their disruptive behavior on ground- and space-based technologies. While predictive models of CME propagation and evolution have relied primarily on sparse in-situ data along with ground and satellite images for validation purposes, emerging laboratory efforts have shown that CME-like events can be created with parameters applicable to the solar regime that may likewise aid in predictive modeling. A modified version of the coaxial plasma gun from the Plasma Bubble Expansion Experiment (PBEX) [A. G. Lynn, Y. Zhang, S. C. Hsu, H. Li, W. Liu, M. Gilmore, and C. Watts, Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. 52, 53 (2007)] will be used in conjunction with the Helicon-Cathode (HelCat) basic plasma science device in order to observe the magnetic characteristics of CMEs as they propagate through the solar wind. The evolution of these interactions will be analyzed using a multi-tip Langmuir probe array, a 33-position B-dot probe array, and a high speed camera. The results of this investigation will be used alongside the University of Michigan's BATS-R-US 3-D MHD numerical code, which will be used to perform simulations of the coaxial plasma gun experiment. The results of these two approaches will be compared in order to validate the capabilities of the BATS-R-US code as well as to further our understanding of magnetic reconnection and other processes that take place as CMEs propagate through the solar wind. The details of the experimental setup as well as the analytical approach are discussed.

  18. Beer for "brohood": A laboratory simulation of masculinity confirmation through alcohol use behaviors in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugitt, Jessica L; Ham, Lindsay S

    2018-05-01

    Though alcohol use is a widespread behavior, men tend to drink more and experience more alcohol-related negative consequences than do women. Research suggests that individuals are motivated to maintain ingroup status by engaging in behaviors prototypical of the ingroup when group status has been threatened, and that men are particularly likely to do this when masculine ingroup status is threatened. The present study investigated masculine drinking behaviors through a social lens, examining the impact of masculinity threat on alcohol consumption in a simulated bar laboratory. Sixty-five male students ages 21-29 years (Mage = 22.66; 74% White) consumed beer in a taste-test paradigm after being exposed to randomly assigned personality feedback relative to gender standards. This feedback suggested that they were either low in masculinity (threat condition, n = 22) or high in masculinity (control condition, n = 22). A third condition received the low-masculinity feedback and then were exposed to information to undermine masculine alcohol use norms (undermine condition, n = 21) to account for negative affect reduction motives for use. As hypothesized, individuals in the threat condition consumed significantly more alcohol than those in the control and undermine conditions, even though the threat and undermine conditions reported similar levels of negative affect following masculinity threat. These results suggest that consumption of alcohol by men in social contexts may be strongly motivated by the desire to confirm masculine status. This understanding may be used to enhance the effectiveness of alcohol use intervention protocols. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Large eddy simulation and laboratory experiments on the decay of grid wakes in strongly stratified flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraunie, P.; Berrella, S.; Chashechkin, Y.D.; Velasco, D.; Redondo, M.

    2008-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the flow structure resulting from the combination of turbulence and internal waves is carried out and visualized by means of the Schlieren method on waves in a strongly stratified fluid at the Laboratory of the IPM in Moscow. The joint appearance of the more regular internal wave oscillations and the small-scale turbulence that is confined vertically to the Ozmidov length scale favours the use of a simple geometrical analysis to investigate their time-space span and evolution. This provides useful information on the collapse of internal wave breaking processes in the ocean and the atmosphere. The measurements were performed under a variety of linear stratifications and different grid forcing scales, combining the grid wake and velocity shear. A numerical simulation using LES on the passage of a single bar in a linearly stratified fluid medium has been compared with the experiments identifying the different influences of the environmental agents on the actual affective vertical diffusion of the wakes. The equation of state, which connects the density and salinity, is assumed to be linear, with the coefficient of the salt contraction being included into the definition of salinity or heat. The characteristic internal waves as well as the entire beam width are related to the diameter of the bar, the Richardson number and the peak-to-peak value of oscillations. The ultimate frequency of the infinitesimal periodic internal waves is limited by the maximum buoyancy frequency relating the decrease in the vertical scale with the anisotropy of the velocity turbulent r.m.s. velocity.

  20. Laboratory simulations of planetary surfaces: Understanding regolith physical properties from remote photopolarimetric observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert M.; Boryta, Mark D.; Hapke, Bruce W.; Manatt, Kenneth S.; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Psarev, V.; Vandervoort, Kurt; Kroner, Desire; Nebedum, Adaze; Vides, Christina L.; Quiñones, John

    2018-03-01

    We present reflectance and polarization phase curve measurements of highly reflective planetary regolith analogues having physical characteristics expected on atmosphereless solar system bodies (ASSBs) such as a eucritic asteroids or icy satellites. We used a goniometric photopolarimeter (GPP) of novel design to study thirteen well-sorted particle size fractions of aluminum oxide (Al2O3). The sample suite included particle sizes larger than, approximately equal to, and smaller than the wavelength of the incident monochromatic radiation (λ = 635 nm). The observed phase angle, α, was 0.056 o ∼95%). The incident radiation has a very high probability of being multiply scattered before being backscattered toward the incident direction or ultimately absorbed. The five smallest particle sizes exhibited extremely high void space (> ∼95%). The reflectance phase curves for all particle size fractions show a pronounced non-linear reflectance increase with decreasing phase angle at α∼ ∼1 we detect no polarization. This polarization behavior is distinct from that observed in low albedo solar system objects such as the Moon and asteroids and for absorbing materials in the laboratory. We suggest this behavior arises because photons that are backscattered have a high probability of having interacted with two or more particles, thus giving rise to the CB process. These results may explain the unusual negative polarization behavior observed near small phase angles reported for several decades on highly reflective ASSBs such as the asteroids 44 Nysa, 64 Angelina and the Galilean satellites Io, Europa and Ganymede. Our results suggest these ASSB regoliths scatter electromagnetic radiation as if they were extremely fine grained with void space > ∼95%, and grain sizes of the order geo-engineering, particularly to suggestions that earth's radiation balance can be modified by injecting Al2O3 particulates into the stratosphere thereby offsetting the effect of anthropogenic