WorldWideScience

Sample records for materials properties final

  1. Relationships between fracture toughness and other material properties. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perra, M.; Finnie, I.

    1974-01-01

    The key experimental and analytical studies which have led to our present understanding of the mechanisms of ductile fracture are reviewed. It is concluded that insufficient progress has been made in the quantitative description of ductile separation mechanisms on a microscale to allow the realistic prediction of fracture toughness from material properties and microstructure. An experimental study of ductile fracture is underway which has the aim of determining the growth rate of voids in known plastic deformation fields as a function of triaxiality of stress and material work-hardening. Novel specimens of particularly well characterized microstructure are utilized.

  2. Simulation of the Press Hardening Process and Prediction of the Final Mechanical Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochholdinger, Bernd; Hora, Pavel; Grass, Hannes; Lipp, Arnulf

    2011-08-01

    Press hardening is a well-established production process in the automotive industry today. The actual trend of this process technology points towards the manufacturing of parts with tailored properties. Since the knowledge of the mechanical properties of a structural part after forming and quenching is essential for the evaluation of for example the crash performance, an accurate as possible virtual assessment of the production process is more than ever necessary. In order to achieve this, the definition of reliable input parameters and boundary conditions for the thermo-mechanically coupled simulation of the process steps is required. One of the most important input parameters, especially regarding the final properties of the quenched material, is the contact heat transfer coefficient (IHTC). The CHTC depends on the effective pressure or the gap distance between part and tool. The CHTC at different contact pressures and gap distances is determined through inverse parameter identification. Furthermore a simulation strategy for the subsequent steps of the press hardening process as well as adequate modeling approaches for part and tools are discussed. For the prediction of the yield curves of the material after press hardening a phenomenological model is presented. This model requires the knowledge of the microstructure within the part. By post processing the nodal temperature history with a CCT diagram the quantitative distribution of the phase fractions martensite, bainite, ferrite and pearlite after press hardening is determined. The model itself is based on a Hockett-Sherby approach with the Hockett-Sherby parameters being defined in function of the phase fractions and a characteristic cooling rate.

  3. Review of world experience and properties of materials for encapsulation of terrestrial photovoltaic arrays. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, D.C.; Gaines, G.B.; Sliemers, F.A.; Kistler, C.W.; Igou, R.D.

    1976-07-21

    Available information defining the state of the art of encapsulation materials and processes for terrestrial photovoltaic devices and related applications were collected and analyzed. Based on criteria of properties, processability, availability, and cost, candidate materials were identified which have potential for use in encapsulation systems for low-cost, long-life terrestrial photovoltaic arrays manufactured by automated, high-volume processes. The criteria for consideration of the encapsulation systems were based on the goals for arrays with a lifetime of over 20 years high reliability, an efficiency greater than 10 percent, a total array price less than $500/kW, and a production capacity of 5 x 10/sup 5/ kW/yr. (WDM)

  4. Final Report: Stability and Novel Properties of Magnetic Materials and Ferromagnet / Insulator Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyles, Paul [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2013-07-24

    We report investigations of the synthesis, structure, and properties of new materials for spintronic applications integrated onto silicon substrates. Our primary focus is materials with very high, negative, intrinsic spin polarization of the density of states at the Fermi level. We have developed a new synthesis method for Fe3O4 thin films through selective oxidation of Fe, resulting in smooth, low-defect density films. We have synthesized Fe4N films and shown that they preferentially oxidize to Fe3O4. When integrated into magnetic tunnel junctions consisting of Fe4N / AlOx / Fe, oxidation at the Fe4N / AlOx interface creates Fe3O4, leading to negative tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR). Oxidation of Fe in nominally symmetric CoFe / AlOx / CoFe also produces Fe3O4 and negative TMR under selected oxidation conditions.

  5. Secondary materials: Engineering properties, environmental consequences, and social and economic impacts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breslin, V.; Reaven, S.; Schwartz, M.; Swanson, L.; Zweig, M.; Bortman, M.; Schubel, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report investigates two secondary materials, plastic lumber made from mixed plastic waste, and cement blocks and structures made with incinerator ash. Engineering properties, environmental impacts, and energy costs and savings of these secondary materials are compared to standard lumber products and cement blocks. Market capacity and social acceptance of plastic lumber and stabilized ash products are analyzed. These secondary materials apparently have potential markets; however, their economic value is primarily that they will not take up landfill space. For plastic lumber and stabilized incinerator ash products, marine and highway construction seem ideal public works applications. Incinerator ash may be suitable to use in seawalls, jetties, fishing reefs, highway barriers, and roadbed applications. Docks, piers, highway sound barriers, parking stops, and park furniture may all be made from plastic lumber. To encourage public acceptance and improve the market potential of secondary materials, these activities could be beneficial: industry should emphasize developing useful, long-lived products; industry and governments should create product performance criteria; government should provide rigorous testing and demonstration programs; and government and industry should cooperate to improve public outreach and educational programs.

  6. Shock-Driven Hydrodynamic Instability Growth Near Phase Boundaries and Material Property Transitions: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, Pedro [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Fortin, Elizabeth [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Opie, Saul [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Gautam, Sudrishti [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Gopalakrishnan, Ashish [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Lynch, Jenna [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Chen, Yan [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Loomis, Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Activities for this grant included: 1) Development of dynamic impact experiments to probe strength and phase transition influence on dynamic deformation, 2) development of modern strength and phase aware simulation capabilities, 3) and post-processing of experimental data with simulation and closed form analytical techniques. Two different dynamic experiments were developed to probe material strengths in solid metals (largely copper and iron in this effort). In the first experiment a flyer plate impacts a flat target with an opposite rippled surface that is partially supported by a weaker window material. Post mortem analysis of the target sample showed a strong and repeatable residual plastic deformation dependence on grain orientation. Yield strengths for strain rates near 105 s-1 and plastic strains near ~50% were estimated to be around 180 to 240 MPa, varying in this range with grain orientation. Unfortunately dynamic real-time measurements were difficult with this setup due to diagnostic laser scattering; hence, an additional experimental setup was developed to complement these results. In the second set of experiments a rippled surface was ablated by a controlled laser pulsed, which launched a rippled shock front to an opposite initially flat diagnostic surface that was monitored in real-time with spatially resolved velocimetry techniques, e.g., line VISAR in addition to Transient Imaging Displacement Interferometry (TIDI) displacement measurements. This setup limited the displacements at the diagnostic surface to a reasonable level for TIDI measurements (~ less than one micrometer). These experiments coupled with analytical and numerical solutions provided evidence that viscous and elastic deviatoric strength affect shock front perturbation evolution in clearly different ways. Particularly, normalized shock front perturbation amplitudes evolve with viscosity (η) and perturbation wavelength (λ) as η/λ, such that increasing viscosity

  7. New high temperature cementing materials for geothermal wells: stability and properties. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, D.M.; White, E.L.; Langton, C.A.; Grutzeck, M.W.

    1980-07-01

    Potential high-temperature cements have been formulated and evaluated in terms of their properties for geothermal well cementing. Phase formation and compatibility in two major compositional regions were investigated in the temperature region between 200 and 400/sup 0/C and pressures up to 69 MPa (10,000 psi). These were followed by an evaluation of properties of the cements formed. One area in the system Ca0-Mg0-Si0/sub 2/-H/sub 2/0 centered around the xonotlite-chrysotile join while the other area of interest centered around the anorthite composition in the system Ca0-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-SiO/sub 2/-H/sub 2/O. After numerous exploratory studies, the magnesia-containing mixtures were prepared by mixing a Class J cement with various sources of magnesia such as calcined chrysotile, or magnesium oxide. Calcium oxide and silica fine quartz powder were also added to adjust the compositions. The aluminous system cements were formulated from high-alumina cements which were mixed with various silica sources.

  8. Final Report on Developing Microstructure-Property Correlation in Reactor Materials using in situ High-Energy X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Meimei [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Almer, Jonathan D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yang, Yong [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Tan, Lizhen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a summary of research activities on understanding microstructure – property correlation in reactor materials using in situ high-energy X-rays. The report is a Level 2 deliverable in FY16 (M2CA-13-IL-AN_-0403-0111), under the Work Package CA-13-IL-AN_- 0403-01, “Microstructure-Property Correlation in Reactor Materials using in situ High Energy Xrays”, as part of the DOE-NE NEET Program. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the application of in situ high energy X-ray measurements of nuclear reactor materials under thermal-mechanical loading, to understand their microstructure-property relationships. The gained knowledge is expected to enable accurate predictions of mechanical performance of these materials subjected to extreme environments, and to further facilitate development of advanced reactor materials. The report provides detailed description of the in situ X-ray Radiated Materials (iRadMat) apparatus designed to interface with a servo-hydraulic load frame at beamline 1-ID at the Advanced Photon Source. This new capability allows in situ studies of radioactive specimens subject to thermal-mechanical loading using a suite of high-energy X-ray scattering and imaging techniques. We conducted several case studies using the iRadMat to obtain a better understanding of deformation and fracture mechanisms of irradiated materials. In situ X-ray measurements on neutron-irradiated pure metal and model alloy and several representative reactor materials, e.g. pure Fe, Fe-9Cr model alloy, 316 SS, HT-UPS, and duplex cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS) CF-8 were performed under tensile loading at temperatures of 20-400°C in vacuum. A combination of wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and imaging techniques were utilized to interrogate microstructure at different length scales in real time while the specimen was subject to thermal-mechanical loading. In addition, in situ X-ray studies were

  9. Final Technical Progress Report NANOSTRUCTURED MAGNETIC MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles M. Falco

    2012-09-13

    This report describes progress made during the final phase of our DOE-funded program on Nanostructured Magnetic Materials. This period was quite productive, resulting in the submission of three papers and presentation of three talks at international conferences and three seminars at research institutions. Our DOE-funded research efforts were directed toward studies of magnetism at surfaces and interfaces in high-quality, well-characterized materials prepared by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) and sputtering. We have an exceptionally well-equipped laboratory for these studies, with: Thin film preparation equipment; Characterization equipment; Equipment to study magnetic properties of surfaces and ultra-thin magnetic films and interfaces in multi-layers and superlattices.

  10. Buried waste containment system materials. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, J.R.; Shaw, P.G.

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the results of a test program to validate the application of a latex-modified cement formulation for use with the Buried Waste Containment System (BWCS) process during a proof of principle (POP) demonstration. The test program included three objectives. One objective was to validate the barrier material mix formulation to be used with the BWCS equipment. A basic mix formula for initial trials was supplied by the cement and latex vendors. The suitability of the material for BWCS application was verified by laboratory testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A second objective was to determine if the POP BWCS material emplacement process adversely affected the barrier material properties. This objective was met by measuring and comparing properties of material prepared in the INEEL Materials Testing Laboratory (MTL) with identical properties of material produced by the BWCS field tests. These measurements included hydraulic conductivity to determine if the material met the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements for barriers used for hazardous waste sites, petrographic analysis to allow an assessment of barrier material separation and segregation during emplacement, and a set of mechanical property tests typical of concrete characterization. The third objective was to measure the hydraulic properties of barrier material containing a stop-start joint to determine if such a feature would meet the EPA requirements for hazardous waste site barriers.

  11. Electrical properties of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Solymar, L; Syms, R R A

    2014-01-01

    An informal and highly accessible writing style, a simple treatment of mathematics, and clear guide to applications have made this book a classic text in electrical and electronic engineering. Students will find it both readable and comprehensive. The fundamental ideas relevant to the understanding of the electrical properties of materials are emphasized; in addition, topics are selected in order to explain the operation of devices having applications (or possible future applications) in engineering. The mathematics, kept deliberately to a minimum, is well within the grasp of a second-year student. This is achieved by choosing the simplest model that can display the essential properties of a phenomenom, and then examining the difference between the ideal and the actual behaviour. The whole text is designed as an undergraduate course. However most individual sections are self contained and can be used as background reading in graduate courses, and for interested persons who want to explore advances in microele...

  12. Properties of yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) materials after long-term exposure to elevated temperatures. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swab, J.J. [Army Materials Research Agency, Watertown, MA (United States). Materials Technology Lab.

    1989-03-01

    Seven commercially available yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) materials were evaluated. Room temperature properties were measured before and after heat treatments at 1000C. Microstructure and phase stability were also examined. In all but one case, the Y-TZPs showed very little change in room temperature properties after long times at this temperature. Results show that pressure-assisted processing greatly improves the strength by reducing porosity and keeping the grain size extremely fine, but this reduces the toughness because finer grains are more difficult to transform. In addition, a small amount of cubic zirconia appears to enhance the toughness of fine-grained Y-TZP while maintaining good strength. During processing, a small amount of cubic zirconia is formed and allowed to grow. This creates regions poor in yttria which can transform spontaneously in the presence of a crack-tip stress field.

  13. Optical properties of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kajikawa, Kotaro

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, optically functionalized materials have developed rapidly, from bulk matters to structured forms. Now we have a rich variety of attractive advanced materials. They are applied to optical and electrical devices that support the information communication technology in the mid 21-th century. Accordingly, it is quite important to have a broad knowledge of the optical properties of advanced materials for students, scientists and engineers working in optics and related fields. This book is designed to teach fundamental optical properties of such advanced materials effectively. These materials have their own peculiarities which are very interesting in modern optical physics and also for applications because the concepts of optical properties are quite different from those in conventional optical materials. Hence each chapter starts to review the basic concepts of the materials briefly and proceeds to the practical use. The important topics covered in this book include:  quantum structures of sem...

  14. The correlation between materials, processes and final properties in the pipeline coating system with polyethylene in triple layer; A correlacao entre materiais, processos e propriedades finais no sistema de revestimento de tubos com polietileno em tripla camada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luiz C.; Campos, Paulo H. [Confab Industrial S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil); Silva, Christian E.; Santos, Paulo T. [Soco-Ril do Brasil S.A., Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    The use of anticorrosion coating is a common practice in industrial pipeline applications. Among the several coatings types to buried and submerged pipelines, over all, the Fusion Bonded Epoxy and Three Layer Polyethylene coating systems have been large employed. They have showed an excellent performance protecting the pipe metal from external corrosive environment, considerably decreasing the designed cathodic protection requirements, basically in the first years of pipeline operation. Coating system success depends on not only of a suitable design or of the materials technology, but also depends on the process parameters and the raw material characteristics exhibited during the application. In this paper will be presented in a theoretical approach how the process parameters and the raw materials characteristics may affect the three layer polyethylene anticorrosion coating final properties. (author)

  15. Porous Materials - Structure and Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents some viewpoints on the description of the pore structure and the modelling of the properties of the porous building materials. Two examples are given , where it has been possible to connect the pore structure to the properties: Shrinkage of autoclaved aerated concrete and the p......The paper presents some viewpoints on the description of the pore structure and the modelling of the properties of the porous building materials. Two examples are given , where it has been possible to connect the pore structure to the properties: Shrinkage of autoclaved aerated concrete...

  16. Dental materials with antibiofilm properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhejun; Shen, Ya; Haapasalo, Markus

    2014-02-01

    Oral bacteria have evolved to form biofilms on hard tooth surfaces and dental materials. The antibiofilm effect of materials used for the restoration of oral function affects oral health. In this review we describe the features involved in the formation of oral biofilms on different surfaces in the oral cavity and the antibiofilm properties of dental materials. An electronic search of scientific papers from 1987 to 2013 was performed with PubMed, ScienceDirect and Google search engines using the following search terms: antibiofilm, dental material, dental hard tissue, endodontic material, implant material, oral biofilm, and restorative material. Selected inclusion criteria resulted in 179 citations from the scientific, peer-reviewed literature. Oral biofilms form not only on dental hard tissue, but also on a wide range of dental materials used in cariology, endodontics, restorative dentistry and periodontology, resulting in destruction of dental hard tissue and even infection. Therefore, there has been a continuous effort to develop the antibiofilm properties of dental materials used for different purposes. Specific antimicrobial design in the composition and application of new materials (e.g. bioceramic sealer, resin composite, implant coating) demonstrates an improvement of the antibiofilm properties of these materials compared to earlier generations. A significant number of dental materials have been shown to affect biofilm growth by inhibiting the adhesion of bacteria, limiting their growth or killing microbes in the biofilms formed in vitro. Incorporation of an appropriate amount of antibacterial agent could provide dental materials with antibiofilm activity without significantly influencing their mechanical properties. However, more randomized and double-blind clinical studies of sufficient length with these materials are needed to confirm long term success following their use in the dental clinic. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by

  17. Quantum Materials at the Nanoscale - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Stephen Lance [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2016-01-11

    The central aim of the Quantum Materials at the Nanoscale (QMN) cluster was to understand and control collective behavior involving the interplay of spins, orbitals, and charges, which governs many scientifically interesting and technologically important phenomena in numerous complex materials. Because these phenomena involve various competing interactions, and influence properties on many different length and energy scales in complex materials, tackling this important area of study motivated a collaborative effort that combined the diverse capabilities of QMN cluster experimentalists, the essential theoretical analysis provided by QMN cluster theorists, and the outstanding facilities and staff of the FSMRL. During the funding period 2007-2014, the DOE cluster grant for the Quantum Materials at the Nanoscale (QMN) cluster supported, at various times, 15 different faculty members (14 in Physics and 1 in Materials Science and Engineering), 7 postdoctoral research associates, and 57 physics and materials science PhD students. 41 of these PhD students have since graduated and have gone on to a variety of advanced technical positions at universities, industries, and national labs: 25 obtained postdoctoral positions at universities (14), industrial labs (2 at IBM), DOE national facilities (3 at Argonne National Laboratory, 1 at Brookhaven National Lab, 1 at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, and 1 at Sandia National Lab), and other federal facilities (2 at NIST); 13 took various industrial positions, including positions at Intel (5), Quantum Design (1), Lasque Industries (1), Amazon (1), Bloomberg (1), and J.P. Morgan (1). Thus, the QMN grant provided the essential support for training a large number of technically advanced personnel who have now entered key national facilities, industries, and institutions. Additionally, during the period 2007-2015, the QMN cluster produced 159 publications (see pages 14-23), including 23 papers published in Physical Review Letters; 16

  18. Material Properties at Low Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Duthil, P

    2014-01-01

    From ambient down to cryogenic temperatures, the behaviour of materials changes greatly. Mechanisms leading to variations in electrical, thermal, mechanical, and magnetic properties in pure metals, alloys, and insulators are briefly introduced from a general engineering standpoint. Data sets are provided for materials commonly used in cryogenic systems for design purposes.

  19. Mechanical Properties of Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Pelleg, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    The subject of mechanical behavior has been in the front line of basic studies in engineering curricula for many years.  This textbook was written for engineering students with the aim of presenting, in a relatively simple manner, the basic concepts of mechanical behavior in solid materials. A second aim of the book is to guide students in their laboratory experiments by helping them to understand their observations in parallel with the lectures of their various courses; therefore the first chapter of the book is devoted to mechanical testing. Another aim of the book is to provide practicing engineers with basic help to bridge the gap of time that has passed from their graduation up to their actual involvement in engineering work. The book also serves as the basis for more advanced studies and seminars when pursuing courses on a graduate level. The content of this textbook and the topics discussed correspond to courses that are usually taught in universities and colleges all over the world, but with a differ...

  20. Material properties in complement activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, S. Moein; Andersen, Alina Joukainen; Ahmadvand, Davoud

    2011-01-01

    -immune performance’ relationship studies in nanomedicine research at many fronts. The interaction between nanomaterials and the complement system is complex and regulated by inter-related factors that include nanoscale size, morphology and surface characteristics. Each of these parameters may affect complement...... activation differently and through different sensing molecules and initiation pathways. The importance of material properties in triggering complement is considered and mechanistic aspects discussed. Mechanistic understanding of complement events could provide rational approaches for improved material design...

  1. Mechanical Properties of Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Okayasu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An examination has been made of the mechanical and failure properties of several composite materials, such as a short and a long carbon fiber reinforced plastic (short- and long-CFRP and metal based composite material. The short CFRP materials were used for a recycled CFRP which fabricated by the following process: the CFRP, consisting of epoxy resin with carbon fiber, is injected to a rectangular plate cavity after mixing with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene resin with different weight fractions of CFRP. The fatigue and ultimate tensile strength (UTS increased with increasing CFRP content. These correlations, however, break down, especially for tensile strength, as the CFPR content becomes more than 70%. Influence of sample temperature on the bending strength of the long-CFRP was investigated, and it appears that the strength slightly decreases with increasing the temperature, due to the weakness in the matrix. Broken fiber and pull-out or debonding between the fiber and matrix were related to the main failure of the short- and long-CFRP samples. Mechanical properties of metal based composite materials have been also investigated, where fiber-like high hardness CuAl2 structure is formed in aluminum matrix. Excellent mechanical properties were obtained in this alloy, e.g., the higher strength and the higher ductility, compared tothe same alloy without the fiber-like structure. There are strong anisotropic effects on the mechanical properties due to the fiber-like metal composite in a soft Al based matrix.

  2. Improved radiant burner material. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milewski, J.V.; Shoultz, R.A.; Bourque, M.M.; Milewski, E.B. [and others

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE/ERIP funds were made available to Superkinetic, Inc. for the development of an improved radiant burner material. Three single crystal ceramic fibers were produced and two fiber materials were made into felt for testing as radiant burner screens. The materials were alpha alumina and alpha silicon nitride. These fibers were bonded with a high temperature ceramic and made into a structurally sound trusswork like screen composed of million psi fiber members. These screens were about 5% solid for 95 porosity as needed to permit the flow of combustable natural gas and air mixture. Combustion test proved that they performed very satisfactory and better than the current state of art screen and showed no visable degrade after testing. It is recommended that more time and money be put into expanding this technology and test these new materials for their maximum temperature and durability for production applications that require better burner material.

  3. Satellite material contaminant optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, B. E.; Bertrand, W. T.; Seiber, B. L.; Kiech, E. L.; Falco, P. M.; Holt, J. D.

    1990-03-01

    The Air Force Wright Research and Development Center and the Arnold Engineering Development Center are continuing a program for measuring optical effects of satellite material outgassing products on cryo-optic surfaces. Presented here are infrared (4000 to 700 cm(-1)) transmittance data for contaminant films condensed on a 77 K germanium window. From the transmittance data, the contaminant film refractive and absorptive indices (n, k) were derived using an analytical thin-film interference model with a nonlinear least-squares algorithm. To date 19 materials have been studied with the optical contents determined for 13 of those. The materials include adhesives, paints, composites, films, and lubricants. This program is continuing and properties for other materials will be available in the future.

  4. Energy Materials Center at Cornell: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abruña, Héctor [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); Mutolo, Paul F [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2015-01-02

    The mission of the Energy Materials Center at Cornell (emc2) was to achieve a detailed understanding, via a combination of synthesis of new materials, experimental and computational approaches, of how the nature, structure, and dynamics of nanostructured interfaces affect energy conversion and storage with emphasis on fuel cells, batteries and supercapacitors. Our research on these systems was organized around a full system strategy for; the development and improved performance of materials for both electrodes at which storage or conversion occurs; understanding their internal interfaces, such as SEI layers in batteries and electrocatalyst supports in fuel cells, and methods for structuring them to enable high mass transport as well as high ionic and electronic conductivity; development of ion-conducting electrolytes for batteries and fuel cells (separately) and other separator components, as needed; and development of methods for the characterization of these systems under operating conditions (operando methods) Generally, our work took industry and DOE report findings of current materials as a point of departure to focus on novel material sets for improved performance. In addition, some of our work focused on studying existing materials, for example observing battery solvent degradation, fuel cell catalyst coarsening or monitoring lithium dendrite growth, employing in operando methods developed within the center.

  5. Structural engineering, mechanics and materials: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This report on structural engineering, mechanics and materials is divided into three parts: a discussion on using Lanczos vectors and Ritz vectors for computing dynamic responses: solution of viscously damped linear systems using a finite element displacement formulation; and vibration analysis of fluid-solid systems using a finite element displacement formulation. (JF)

  6. Packaging Materials Outgassing Study Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R. A. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (Y-12), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2006-09-26

    An outgassing study was conducted on two polyurethane packaging foams, two polymer bottles (polytetrafluoroethylene and polyethylene), and two polymer lids. The purpose was to measure the volume of gases that diffuse from these packaging materials at a maximum of 400-degrees F when stored in ambient air within sealed containers.

  7. Evaluation of advanced materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, I.G.; Clauer, A.H.; Shetty, D.K.; Tucker, T.R.; Stropki, J.T.

    1982-11-18

    Cemented tungsten carbides with a binder level in the range of 5 to 6 percent exhibited the best resistance to erosion for this class of materials. Other practical cermet meterials were diamond - Si/SiC, Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-B/sub 4/C-Cr, and B/sub 4/C-Co. SiAlON exhibited erosion resistance equivalent to the best WC-cermet. The only coating system to show promise of improved erosion resistance was CVD TiB/sub 2/ on cemented TiB/sub 2/-Ni. Cracking and/or spalling of a TiC coating and a proprietary TMT coating occurred in the standard slurry erosion test. Ranking of cemented tungsten carbide materials in the laboratory erosion test was the same as that found in service in the Wilsonville pilot plant. Specimens from the Fort Lewis pilot plant which performed well in service exhibited low erosion in the laboratory test. A substitute slurry, was found to be 2 to 4 times more erosive than the coal-derived slurry 8 wt% solids. Ranking of materials in the substitute slurry was nearly identical to that in the coal-derived slurry. Three modes of erosion were: ductile cutting; elastic-plastic indentation and fracture; and intergranular fracture. Erosion of a given material was closely related to its microstructure. In the substitute slurry, the angle-dependence of erosion of two forms of SiC, hot-pressed and sintered, were similar, but the sintered material eroded slower. Laser fusing of preplaced powder mixtures can produce cermet-like structures with potential for erosive and sliding wear resistance. TiC particles in Stellite 6 matrix proved less prone to cracking than WC particles in the same matrix. 74 figures, 14 tables.

  8. Material for Point Design (final summary of DIME material)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Paul A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-02-25

    These slides summarize the motivation of the Defect Induced Mix Experiment (DIME) project, the “point design” of the Polar Direct Drive (PDD) version of the NIF separated reactant capsule, the experimental requirements, technical achievements, and some useful backup material. These slides are intended to provide much basic material in one convenient location and will hopefully be of some use for subsequent experimental projects.

  9. Thermal Radiative Properties of Xonotlite Insulation Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinxin ZHANG; Gaosheng WEI; Fan YU

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results of thermal radiative properties of xonotlite-type calcium silicate insulation material. Transmittance spectra were first taken using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR)for the samples with ρ = 234 kg/m3. Specific extinction coefficient spectra were then obtained by applying Beer's law.Finally,by using the diffusion approximation,the specific Rossland mean extinction coefficients and radiative thermal conductivities were obtained for various temperatures. The results show that the specific spectral extinction coefficient of xonotlite is larger than 7 m2/kg in the whole measured spectra, and diffusion approximation equation is a reasonable description of radiative heat transfer in xonotlite insulation material. The specific Rossland mean extinction coefficient of xonotlite has a maximum ualue at 400 K and the radiative thermal conductivity is almost proportional to the cube of temperature.

  10. 36 CFR 1206.86 - What additional materials must I submit with the final narrative report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional materials must I submit with the final narrative report? 1206.86 Section 1206.86 Parks, Forests, and Public... narrative report? You must submit the materials determined by the Commission as found in the NHPRC...

  11. Development of Thermoelectric Power Generation and Peltier Cooling Properties of Materials for Thermoelectric Cryocooling Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Development of Thermoelectric Power Generation and Peltier Cooling Properties of Materials for Thermoelectric...Thermoelectric Power Generation and Peltier Cooling Properties of Materials for Thermoelectric Cryocooling Devices Report Title The research

  12. MATERIALS FOR THE FINAL COVER OF SANITARY LANDFILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Kovačić

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the selection of materials for the sea¬ling layer in the final cover of sanitary landfills. The sealing la¬yer is the most critical component of the final cover. Its role is to minimize percolation of water through the final cover. Ma¬terials used for the construction of the sealing layer are either of mineral origin (compacted clay or geosynthetic (geomem¬brane. They are most often used in combination creating com¬posite liners. Recently alternative materials are also used like paper mill sludge or discarded swelling clay.

  13. Fundamentals of semiconductors physics and materials properties

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Peter Y

    2005-01-01

    Provides detailed explanations of the electronic, vibrational, transport, and optical properties of semiconductors. This textbook emphasizes understanding the physical properties of Si and similar tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors and features an extensive collection of tables of material parameters, figures, and problems.

  14. Materials, Strands, and Cables for Superconducting Accelerator Magnets. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumption, Mike D. [Ohio State University, Columbia, OH (United States); Collings, Edward W. [Ohio State University, Columbia, OH (United States)

    2014-09-19

    This report focuses on Materials, Strands and Cables for High Energy Physics Particle accelerators. In the materials area, work has included studies of basic reactions, diffusion, transformations, and phase assemblage of Nb3Sn. These materials science aspects have been married to results, in the form of flux pinning, Bc2, Birr, and transport Jc, with an emphasis on obtaining the needed Jc for HEP needs. Attention has also been paid to the “intermediate-temperature superconductor”, magnesium diboride emphasis being placed on (i) irreversibility field enhancement, (ii) critical current density and flux pinning, and (iii) connectivity. We also report on studies of Bi-2212. The second area of the program has been in the area of “Strands” in which, aside from the materials aspect of the conductor, its physical properties and their influence on performance have been studied. Much of this work has been in the area of magnetization estimation and flux jump calculation and control. One of the areas of this work was strand instabilities in high-performance Nb3Sn conductors due to combined fields and currents. Additionally, we investigated quench and thermal propagation in YBCO coated conductors at low temperatures and high fields. The last section, “Cables”, focussed on interstrand contact resistance, ICR, it origins, control, and implications. Following on from earlier work in NbTi, the present work in Nb3Sn has aimed to make ICR intermediate between the two extremes of too little contact (no current sharing) and too much (large and unacceptable magnetization and associated beam de-focussing). Interstrand contact and current sharing measurements are being made on YBCO based Roebel cables using transport current methods. Finally, quench was investigated for YBCO cables and the magnets wound from them, presently with a focus on 50 T solenoids for muon collider applications.

  15. Materials Technology Support for Radioisotope Power Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel P. Kramer; Chadwick D. Barklay

    2008-10-07

    Over the period of this sponsored research, UDRI performed a number of materials related tasks that helped to facilitate increased understanding of the properties and applications of a number of candidate program related materials including; effects of neutron irradiation on tantalum alloys using a 500kW reactor, thermodynamic based modeling of the chemical species in weld pools, and the application of candidate coatings for increased oxidation resistance of FWPF (Fine Weave Pierced Fabric) modules.

  16. Spin-crossover materials properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Halcrow, Malcolm A

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of spin-crossover has a large impact on the physical properties of a solid material, including its colour, magnetic moment, and electrical resistance. Some materials also show a structural phase change during the transition. Several practical applications of spin-crossover materials have been demonstrated including display and memory devices, electrical and electroluminescent devices, and MRI contrast agents. Switchable liquid crystals, nanoparticles, and thin films of spin-crossover materials have also been achieved. Spin-Crossover Materials: Properties and Applicat

  17. Tailoring of epoxy material properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakka, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    This research work is aimed to understand the effect of resin chemistry on the physical properties (e.g. moduli, viscoelasticity, moisture uptake, coefficient of thermal expansion) of cured aromatic epoxy-amine thermoset resins. This understanding will result into a good first approximation of the f

  18. Fundamental properties of semiconductor materials, and material performance in detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, K. J.

    1973-01-01

    Procedures for determining fundamental properties of semiconductor materials, their performance as radiation detectors, and their service life as such detectors are given. Relationships were established between the minority carrier lifetime in the bulk of the material and the charge collection efficiency of the detector.

  19. Properties and characterization of modern materials

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on robust characterization and prediction methods for materials in technical applications as well as the materials’ safety features during operation. In particular, it presents methods for reliably predicting material properties, an aspect that is becoming increasingly important as engineering materials are pushed closer and closer to their limits to boost the performance of machines and structures. To increase their engineering value, components are now designed under the consideration of their multiphysical properties and functions, which requires much more intensive investigation and characterization of these materials. The materials covered in this monograph range from metal-based groups such as lightweight alloys, to advanced high-strength steels and modern titanium alloys. Furthermore, a wide range of polymers and composite materials (e.g. with micro- and nanoparticles or fibres) is covered. The book explores methods for property prediction from classical mechanical characterization-...

  20. Design of materials with prescribed nonlinear properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fengwen; Sigmund, Ole; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    We systematically design materials using topology optimization to achieve prescribed nonlinear properties under finite deformation. Instead of a formal homogenization procedure, a numerical experiment is proposed to evaluate the material performance in longitudinal and transverse tensile tests un....... The numerical examples illustrate optimized materials with rubber-like behavior and also optimized materials with extreme strain-independent Poisson's ratio for axial strain intervals of εi ∈ [0.00,0.30]. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....... under finite deformation, i.e. stress-strain relations and Poisson's ratio. By minimizing errors between actual and prescribed properties, materials are tailored to achieve the target. Both two dimensional (2D) truss-based and continuum materials are designed with various prescribed nonlinear properties...

  1. Learning targeted materials properties from data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lookman, Turab; Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Dezhen, Xue; Theiler, James; Hogden, John

    We compare several strategies using a data set of 223 M2AX family of compounds for which the elastic properties [bulk (B), shear (G), and Young's (E) modulus] have been computed using density functional theory. The strategy is decomposed into two steps: a regressor is trained to predict elastic properties in terms of elementary orbital radii of the individual components of the materials; and a selector uses these predictions to choose the next material to investigate. The ultimate goal is to obtain a material with desired elastic properties. We examine how the choice of data set size, regressor and selector impact the results.

  2. Dynamic properties of ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grady, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Experimental Impact Physics Dept.

    1995-02-01

    The present study offers new data and analysis on the transient shock strength and equation-of-state properties of ceramics. Various dynamic data on nine high strength ceramics are provided with wave profile measurements, through velocity interferometry techniques, the principal observable. Compressive failure in the shock wave front, with emphasis on brittle versus ductile mechanisms of deformation, is examined in some detail. Extensive spall strength data are provided and related to the theoretical spall strength, and to energy-based theories of the spall process. Failure waves, as a mechanism of deformation in the transient shock process, are examined. Strength and equation-of-state analysis of shock data on silicon carbide, boron carbide, tungsten carbide, silicon dioxide and aluminum nitride is presented with particular emphasis on phase transition properties for the latter two. Wave profile measurements on selected ceramics are investigated for evidence of rate sensitive elastic precursor decay in the shock front failure process.

  3. Magnetic materials fundamentals, products, properties, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hilzinger, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    At a practical level, this compendium reviews the basics of soft and hard magnetic materials, discusses the advantages of the different processing routes for the exploitation of the magnetic properties and hence assists in proper, fail-safe and economic application of magnetic materials. Essential guidelines and formulas for the calculation of the magnetic and electrical properties, temperature and long-term stability of permanent magnets, of inductive components and magnetic shielding are compiled. Selected fields of application and case studies illustrate the large diversity of technical applications. Application engineers will appreciate the comprehensive compilation of the properties and detailed characteristic curves of modern soft and hard magnetic materials. Materials scientists will enjoy the presentation of the different processing routes and their impact on the magnetic properties and students will profit from the survey from the basics of magnetism down to the applications in inductive components, ...

  4. Final recommendations for reference materials in black carbon analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael W. I.; Masiello, Caroline A.; Skjemstad, Jan O.

    Last summer, a symposium was held to discuss aspects of global biogeochemical cycles, including organic matter cycling in soils, rivers, and marine environments; black carbon particle fluxes and the biological pump; dissolved organic matter; and organic matter preservation. Seventy scientists from various disciplines, including oceanography, soil science, geology, and chemistry attended the 3-day meeting at the Friday Harbor Laboratories, a research station of the University of Washington.“New Approaches in Marine Organic Biogeochemistry” commemorated the life and science of a colleague and friend, John I. Hedges, who was also involved in several groups developing chemical reference materials. Part of this symposium included a workshop on chemical reference materials, where final recommendations of the Steering Committee for Black Carbon Reference Materials were presented.

  5. Dielectric properties of tissues and biological materials: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, K R; Schwan, H P

    1989-01-01

    We critically review bulk electrical properties of tissues and other biological materials, from DC to 20 GHz, with emphasis on the underlying mechanisms responsible for the properties. We summarize the classical principles behind dielectric relaxation and critically review recent developments in this field. Special topics include a summary of the significant recent advances in theories of counterion polarization effects, dielectric properties of cancer vs. normal tissues, properties of low-water-content tissues, and macroscopic field-coupling considerations. Finally, the dielectric properties of tissues are summarized as empirical correlations with tissue water content in other compositional variables; in addition, a comprehensive table is presented of dielectric properties. The bulk electrical properties of tissues are needed for many bioengineering applications of electric fields or currents, and they provide insight into the basic mechanisms that govern the interaction of electric fields with tissue.

  6. Measurement of thermal properties of PCM materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanski, R.; Jaworski, M. [Warsaw Univ. of Technology (Poland). Inst. of Heat Engineering

    1994-12-31

    In the article results of measurements of thermal properties of PCM (phase change materials) and their stability are presented. These include specific heat, temperature of phase change, latent heat and enthalpy as a function of temperature. Different kind of materials were considered, especially some waxes, n-alkanes and salt hydrates. Measurements of thermal capacity of materials were performed using two techniques - standard DSC (for small samples and pure materials) and simple thermal analysis based on the measurement of temperature field in relatively big samples (about 20-50 g). Stability of thermal properties in many cycles of melting and solidification for some materials obtained in special set-up (for fast cycling) are presented. On the base of measurements mathematical formulas describing enthalpy vs. temperature for some materials were developed. These are very useful in computer simulation of thermal storage systems with PCM. (orig.)

  7. Optical properties of low-dimensional materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ogawa, T

    1998-01-01

    This book surveys recent theoretical and experimental studies of optical properties of low-dimensional materials. As an extended version of Optical Properties of Low-Dimensional Materials (Volume 1, published in 1995 by World Scientific), Volume 2 covers a wide range of interesting low-dimensional materials including both inorganic and organic systems, such as disordered polymers, deformable molecular crystals, dilute magnetic semiconductors, SiGe/Si short-period superlattices, GaAs quantum wires, semiconductor microcavities, and photonic crystals. There are excellent review articles by promis

  8. Design and properties of maxillofacial prosthetic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreopoulos, A G; Theophanides, T

    1993-11-01

    Maxillofacial reconstruction by prosthetic means is a valuable contribution that medicine offers to the public. Materials design and properties are the main problems faced by scientists in this field. Materials used for intraoral prostheses are not ideal, but they have been perfected to the point of practical use. Denture resins, gold, chromium-cobalt alloys, and porcelain are widely used and produce acceptable results in the oral cavity. In this review, the properties and performance of some polymeric materials used in maxillofacial prosthetics are discussed, and new trends in research and development are also reported.

  9. Bioactive glasses materials, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ylänen, Heimo

    2011-01-01

    Due to their biocompatibility and bioactivity, bioactive glasses are used as highly effective implant materials throughout the human body to replace or repair damaged tissue. As a result, they have been in continuous use since shortly after their invention in the late 1960s and are the subject of extensive research worldwide.Bioactive glasses provides readers with a detailed review of the current status of this unique material, its properties, technologies and applications. Chapters in part one deal with the materials and mechanical properties of bioactive glass, examining topics such

  10. From Microstructures to Predict Properties of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke-Gang

    2010-03-01

    Understanding the precise and fundamental manner in which materials structures (nanostructures or microstructures) and their evolution influences properties and service lifetimes of advanced materials profoundly impacts material design and today materials design plays an increasingly important rôle in many engineering applications. Linking structures to properties and predicting properties of materials is fundamental step for materials design. First, a framework of applications of multiscale modeling to property prediction of advanced materials will be briefly presented. As an example, a methodology will be shown to link micro-scale to the continuum scale, integrating microstructure modeling with the large Thermo-Calc^ database. This paradigm was successfully applied to the case of Fe-12Ni-6Mn maraging steel. Next, methodology for integrating first-principle calculation into simulations of microstructure evolution will be reviewed. Our methods are sufficiently reliable to permit control and fabrication of quantum-dots structures, nanocrystals, and particle-reinforced nanocomposites, as well as assist in the predictive behavior of macro-scale colloids, aerosols, and other soft matter systems.

  11. Thermal protection materials: Thermophysical property data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. D.; Curry, Donald M.

    1992-01-01

    This publication presents a thermophysical property survey on materials that could potentially be used for future spacecraft thermal protection systems (TPS). This includes data that was reported in the 1960's as well as more current information reported through the 1980's. An attempt was made to cite the manufacturers as well as the data source in the bibliography. This volume represents an attempt to provide in a single source a complete set of thermophysical data on a large variety of materials used in spacecraft TPS analysis. The property data is divided into two categories: ablative and reusable. The ablative materials have been compiled into twelve categories that are descriptive of the material composition. An attempt was made to define the Arrhenius equation for each material although this data may not be available for some materials. In a similar manner, char data may not be available for some of the ablative materials. The reusable materials have been divided into three basic categories: thermal protection materials (such as insulators), adhesives, and structural materials.

  12. Multifunctional Polycrystalline Ferroelectric Materials Processing and Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Pardo, Lorena

    2011-01-01

    This book presents selected topics on processing and properties of ferroelectric materials that are currently the focus of attention in scientific and technical research. Ferro-piezoelectric ceramics are key materials in devices for many applications, such as automotive, healthcare and non-destructive testing. As they are polycrystalline, non-centrosymmetric materials, their piezoelectricity is induced by the so-called poling process. This is based on the principle of polarization reversal by the action of an electric field that characterizes the ferroelectric materials. This book was born with the aim of increasing the awareness of the multifunctionality of ferroelectric materials among different communities, such as researchers, electronic engineers, end-users and manufacturers, working on and with ferro-piezoelectric ceramic materials and devices which are based on them. The initiative to write this book comes from a well-established group of researchers at the Laboratories of Ferroelectric Materials, Mate...

  13. Glazing materials for solar and architectural applications. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, C.M. [ed.

    1994-09-01

    This report summarizes five collaborative research projects on glazings performed by participants in Subtask C of IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme (SHC) Task 10, Materials Research and Testing. The projects include materials characterization, optical and thermal measurements, and durability testing of several types of new glazings Three studies were completed on electrochromic and dispersed liquid crystals for smart windows, and two were completed for low-E coatings and transparent insulation materials for more conventional window and wall applications. In the area of optical switching materials for smart windows, the group developed more uniform characterization parameters that are useful to determine lifetime and performance of electrochromics. The detailed optical properties of an Asahi (Japan) prototype electrochromic window were measured in several laboratories. A one square meter array of prototype devices was tested outdoors and demonstrated significant cooling savings compared to tinted static glazing. Three dispersed liquid crystal window devices from Taliq (USA) were evaluated. In the off state, these liquid crystal windows scatter light greatly. When a voltage of about 100 V ac is applied, these windows become transparent. Undyed devices reduce total visible light transmittance by only .25 when switched, but this can be increased to .50 with the use of dyed liquid crystals. A wide range of solar-optical and emittance measurements were made on low-E coated glass and plastic. Samples of pyrolytic tin oxide from Ford glass (USA) and multilayer metal-dielectric coatings from Interpane (Germany) and Southwall (USA) were evaluated. In addition to optical characterization, the samples were exposure-tested in Switzerland. The thermal and optimal properties of two different types of transparent insulation materials were measured.

  14. Interface Properties in Extruded FRC-Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    In a research and development project recently carried out at Department of Structural Engineering and Materials, Technical University of Denmark a new extrusion process for HPFRCC-materials was demonstrated.It is shown that superior interfacial properties are obtained in a polypropylene fiber...... reinforced cementitious material extruded by the developed process. It is further more shown that the fiber-matrix bond is highly dependent on the relative slip at the interface and a bond-slip relationship is suggested for the extruded material. The observed very high fiber-matrix bond is explained...... by the densification of the interfacial matrix material which has taken place during the consolidation process and which can be observed in the thin-section analysis....

  15. New Materials for Electric Drive Vehicles - Final CRADA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, J. David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-10-18

    This project was sponsored by the US DOE Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention. The object was for Ukrainian and US partners, including Argonne, AETC, and Dontech to develop special carbon materials and factory production equipment with the goal of making better car batteries to achieve DOE's goals for all-electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Carbon materials are used in designs for lithium-ion batteries and metal-air batteries, both leading contenders for future electric cars. Specifically, the collaborators planned to use the equipment derived from this project to develop a rechargeable battery system that will use the carbon materials produced by the innovative factory process equipment. The final outcome of the project was that the Ukrainian participants consisting of the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KIPT), the Institute of Gas of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Materials Research Center, Ltd. designed, built, tested and delivered 14 pieces of processing equipment for pilot scale carbon production lines at the AETC, Arlington Heights facilities. The pilot scale equipment will be used to process materials such as activated carbon, thermally expanded graphite and carbon coated nano-particles. The equipment was shipped from Ukraine to the United States and received by AETC on December 3, 2013. The equipment is on loan from Argonne, control # 6140. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and all-electric vehicles have already demostrated success in the U.S. as they begin to share the market with older hybrid electric designs. When the project was conceived, PHEV battery systems provided a ~40 mile driving range (2011 figures). DOE R&D targets increased this to >100 miles at reduced cost less than $250/kWh (2011 figures.) A 2016 Tesla model S has boasted 270 miles. The project object was to develop pilot-production line equipment for advanced hybrid battery system that achieves cycle life of 1000, an energy

  16. Mechanical properties of wet granular materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Z; Geromichalos, D; Herminghaus, S; Kohonen, M M; Mugele, F; Scheel, M; Schulz, M; Schulz, B; Schier, Ch; Seemann, R; Skudelny, A

    2005-03-09

    We elaborate on the impact of liquids upon the mechanical properties of granular materials. We find that most of the experimental and simulation results may be accounted for by a simple model assuming frictionless, spherical grains, with a hysteretic attractive interaction between neighbouring grains due to capillary forces.

  17. Final Report: Nanoscale Dynamical Heterogeneity in Complex Magnetic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevan, Stephen [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)

    2016-05-27

    A magnetic object can be demagnetized by dropping it on a hard surface, but what does ‘demagnetized’ actually mean? In 1919 Heinrich Barkhausen proved the existence of magnetic domains, which are regions of uniform magnetization that are much larger than atoms but much smaller than a macroscopic object. A material is fully magnetized when domain magnetizations are aligned, while it is demagnetized when the domain magnetizations are randomly oriented and the net magnetization is zero. The heterogeneity of a demagnetized object leads to interesting questions. Magnets are unstable when their poles align, and stable when their poles anti-align, so why is the magnetized state ever stable? What do domains look like? What is the structure of a domain wall? How does the magnetized state transform to the demagnetized state? How do domains appear and disappear? What are the statistical properties of domains and how do these vary as the domain pattern evolves? Some of these questions remain the focus of intense study nearly a century after Barkhausen’s discovery. For example, just a few years ago a new kind of magnetic texture called a skyrmion was discovered. A skyrmion is a magnetic domain that is a nanometer-scale, topologically protected vortex. ‘Topologically protected’ means that skyrmions are hard to destroy and so are stable for extended periods. Skyrmions are characterized by integral quantum numbers and are observed to move with little dissipation and so could store and process information with very low power input. Our research project uses soft x-rays, which offer very high magnetic contrast, to probe magnetic heterogeneity and to measure how it evolves in time under external influences. We will condition a soft x-ray beam so that the wave fronts will be coherent, that is, they will be smooth and well-defined. When coherent soft x-ray beam interacts with a magnetic material, the magnetic heterogeneity is imprinted onto the wave fronts and projected into

  18. Engineered Materials for Cesium and Strontium Storage Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sean M. McDeavitt

    2010-04-14

    Closing the nuclear fuel cycle requires reprocessing spent fuel to recover the long-lived components that still have useful energy content while immobilizing the remnant waste fission products in stable forms. At the genesis of this project, next generation spent fuel reprocessing methods were being developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative. One of these processes was focused on solvent extraction schemes to isolate cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from spent nuclear fuel. Isolating these isotopes for short-term decay storage eases the design requirements for long-term repository disposal; a significant amount of the radiation and decay heat in fission product waste comes from Cs-137 and Sr-90. For the purposes of this project, the Fission Product Extraction (FPEX) process is being considered to be the baseline extraction method. The objective of this project was to evaluate the nature and behavior of candidate materials for cesium and strontium immobilization; this will include assessments with minor additions of yttrium, barium, and rubidium in these materials. More specifically, the proposed research achieved the following objectives (as stated in the original proposal): (1) Synthesize simulated storage ceramics for Cs and Sr using an existing labscale steam reformer at Purdue University. The simulated storage materials will include aluminosilicates, zirconates and other stable ceramics with the potential for high Cs and Sr loading. (2) Characterize the immobilization performance, phase structure, thermal properties and stability of the simulated storage ceramics. The ceramic products will be stable oxide powders and will be characterized to quantify their leach resistance, phase structure, and thermophysical properties. The research progressed in two stages. First, a steam reforming process was used to generate candidate Cs/Sr storage materials for characterization. This portion of the research was carried out at

  19. 10 CFR 51.97 - Final environmental impact statement-materials license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Final environmental impact statement-materials license. 51...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Final Environmental Impact Statements-Materials Licenses § 51.97 Final environmental impact statement—materials license. (a) Independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI...

  20. Optical properties of fly ash. Volume 2, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Self, S.A.

    1994-12-01

    Research performed under this contract was divided into four tasks under the following headings: Task 1, Characterization of fly ash; Task 2, Measurements of the optical constants of slags; Task 3, Calculations of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions; and Task 4, Measurements of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. Tasks 1 and 4 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Sarbajit Ghosal, while Tasks 2 and 3 constituted the Ph.D. research topic of Jon Ebert. Together their doctoral dissertations give a complete account of the work performed. This final report, issued in two volumes consists of an executive summary of the whole program followed by the dissertation of Ghosal and Ebert. Volume 2 contains the dissertation of Ebert which covers the measurements of the optical constants of slags, and calculations of the radiant properties of fly ash dispersions. A list of publications and conference presentations resulting from the work is also included.

  1. Optical properties of photochromic and thermochromic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yeon-Gon

    The optical properties of some thin film materials can be altered by an external stimulus. Photochromic and thermochromic materials, including inorganic and organic substances, have optical properties that can be changed in a reversible manner by irradiation and temperature respectively. These materials can be used in applications such as radiation or thermal sensors, information storage devices and smart window applications in buildings and cars. In this work, major effort was concentrated on passive thermal control coatings based on photochromic and thermochromic materials. The inorganic photochromic materials were based on tungsten and molybdenum oxide films and the organic photochromic materials included spiropyrans and spirooxazines. In addition, photochromic composite organic-inorganic films and thermochromic vanadium oxide films were prepared. The samples were synthesized using sputtering, sol-gel process, and thermal oxidation. The optical properties were investigated for the first time by ultraviolet/visible/infrared (UV/VIS/IR) spectroscopic ellipsometry, attenuated total reflection (ATR) infrared ellipsometry, spectrophotometry, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). For amorphous oxide films, the oxygen deficiency was important in determining the photochromic properties of the films. In the mid-infrared region, no photochromism was observed for the films. The optical properties of organic-inorganic composite films changed in the VIS/NIR wavelength region markedly in a reversible process, with UV irradiation. The composite films containing tungsten heteropolyoxometalate (HPOM) showed faster coloration and bleaching than pure tungsten oxide films. The composite films with molybdenum HPOM showed faster coloration and much slower bleaching than tungsten HPOM. The spiropyran and spirooxazine doped polymeric films were investigated for the first time using infrared and ATR ellipsometry. The infrared optical functions obtained by ATR measurements were a little smaller

  2. Properties of nanoclay PVA composites materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. M. Ali

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA/ Na-rich Montmorillonite (MMT nanocomposites were prepared using solution method to create polymer-clay nanocomposite (PCN material. The PCN material was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD, demonstrating polymer-clay intercalation that has a high d-spacing (lower diffraction angles in the PCN XRD pattern, compared to the pure MMT clay XRD pattern, which has a low d-spacing (high diffraction angles. The nano-scanning electron microscope (NSEM was used to study the morphological image of the PVA, MMT and PCN materials. The results showed that intercalation that took place between the PVA and MMT produced the PCN material. The mechanical properties of the pure PVA and the intercalated polymer material were studied. It was found that the small amount of MMT clay made the tensile modulus and percentage of the total elongation of the nano-composite significantly higher than the pure PVA polymer value, due to polymer-clay intercalation. The thermal stability of the intercalated polymer has been studied using thermal analytical techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The results showed that the PCN material is more thermally stable than the pure PVA polymer.

  3. Homogenization for Periodic Heterogeneous Materials with Arbitrary Position-Dependent Material Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志杰

    2012-01-01

    We present a rigorous homogenization approach for elcient computation of a class of physical problems in a one-dimensional periodic heterogeneous material. This material is represented by a spatially periodic array of unit cells with a length of More specifically, the method is applied to the diffusion, heat conduction, and wave propagation problems. Heterogeneous materials can have arbitrary position-dependent continuous or discontinuous materials properties (for example heat conductivity) within the unit cell. The final effective model includes both effective properties at the leading order and high-order contributions due to the microscopic heterogeneity. A dimensionless heterogeneity parameter ~ is defined to represent high-order contributions, shown to be in the range of [-1/12, 0], and has a universal expression for all three problems. Both effective properties and heterogeneity parameter 13 are independent oft, the microscopic scale of heterogeneity. The homogenized solution describing macroscopic variations can be obtained from the effective model. Solution with sub-unit-cell accuracy can be constructed based on the homogenized solution and its spatial derivatives. The paper represents a general approach to obtain the effective model for arbitrary periodic heterogeneous materials with position-dependent properties.

  4. On Structure and Properties of Amorphous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew H. Stachurski

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical, optical, magnetic and electronic properties of amorphous materials hold great promise towards current and emergent technologies. We distinguish at least four categories of amorphous (glassy materials: (i metallic; (ii thin films; (iii organic and inorganic thermoplastics; and (iv amorphous permanent networks. Some fundamental questions about the atomic arrangements remain unresolved. This paper focuses on the models of atomic arrangements in amorphous materials. The earliest ideas of Bernal on the structure of liquids were followed by experiments and computer models for the packing of spheres. Modern approach is to carry out computer simulations with prediction that can be tested by experiments. A geometrical concept of an ideal amorphous solid is presented as a novel contribution to the understanding of atomic arrangements in amorphous solids.

  5. Broadband optical characterization of material properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Højager Attermann

    , as well as details of the absorption spectrum which relate to chemical composition. The thesis focuses on two production process from the food industry. The first process is from the dairy industry where discrimination between chemical and structural properties is of importance. To explore...... inspection system for spectrallyresolved Static Light Scattering (SLS). (II) Photon Time-of-Flight (PToF) spectroscopy, which is a state of the art technique for characterization of turbid media. (III) A new hyperspectral imaging system based on full-field illumination by diffuse laser light. This thesis...... the fermentation process. It has also been shown that the optical inspection methods sense changes to structural properties before any are detected by traditional mechanical rheology. Finally, the developed hyperspectral imaging system was used to quantify the content of astaxanthin in fish feed, and performed...

  6. Contamination of dental zirconia before final firing: effects on mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Seiji; Okuda, Yuji; Noda, Makoto; Tsuruki, Jiro; Kawai, Tatsushi; Kono, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Plate-like specimens were prepared, using a diamond saw, from Cercon -a pre-sintered yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) block. These specimens were treated with 10 kinds of dental materials which acted as contaminants, and then sintered at 1,350°C or 1,450°C. After the final firing, specimens were subjected to a three-point flexural test and Vickers hardness test. Their surfaces were also characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. Phosphorus-containing contaminants reduced the three-point flexural strength and hardness of final sintered zirconia due to the formation of YPO4 and phase transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic zirconia. Gypsum also reduced both mechanical properties due to the formation of CaZrO3 and phase transformation from tetragonal to cubic zirconia. Other contaminants showed no adverse effects on the mechanical properties of final sintered zirconia.

  7. AGC 2 Irradiated Material Properties Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrbaugh, David Thomas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The Advanced Reactor Technologies Graphite Research and Development Program is conducting an extensive graphite irradiation experiment to provide data for licensing of a high temperature reactor (HTR) design. In past applications, graphite has been used effectively as a structural and moderator material in both research and commercial high temperature gas cooled reactor designs. , Nuclear graphite H 451, used previously in the United States for nuclear reactor graphite components, is no longer available. New nuclear graphite grades have been developed and are considered suitable candidates for new HTR reactor designs. To support the design and licensing of HTR core components within a commercial reactor, a complete properties database must be developed for these current grades of graphite. Quantitative data on in service material performance are required for the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of each graphite grade, with a specific emphasis on data accounting for the life limiting effects of irradiation creep on key physical properties of the HTR candidate graphite grades. Further details on the research and development activities and associated rationale required to qualify nuclear grade graphite for use within the HTR are documented in the graphite technology research and development plan.

  8. Synthesis of new materials with properties ameliorated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baira, F.; Benfarhi, S.; Zidani, S.

    2012-09-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant polymer in nature. It is used mainly for the production of paper bet also as a reinforcement in the polymer matrixes[1]. The modification of this polysaccharide presents a great interest, for it is the main constituent of agricultural wastes. It is well known that the microcrystalline cellulose gives, after chemical modification, new biodegradable materials[2], which may be used, for instance, for packaging. The esterification of cellulose necessitates an acid pretreatment which makes hydroxyl groups more accessible by breaking hydrogen bonds. X-rays diffraction analysis showed a feeble diminution of the treated samples cristallinity[3]. Cellulose, activated in this way, is esterified in a classic way in DMF, in the presence of triethylamine, LiCl and acid chloride at 60C° for 24 hours[4]. The obtained ester is precipitated in MeOH. The residue, dissolved in CHCl3, gives after evaporation in the open air, a plastic film surface. The water drop test has shown the hydrophobe properties of the plastic film surface. Our work is the study of the preparation of composite materials from the basis of their derivatives. Well as the study of the photopolymerisation kinetic, and the chemical degradation. The obtained films were analyzed by IR-TF, and the volumetrie[5,6]. As a conclusion, we have prepared composite materials with improved properties with reference to the matrix alone.

  9. Wear Property of Cast Steel Wheel Material in Rail Truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MI Guo-fa; LIU Yan-lei; ZHANG Bin; FU Xiu-qin; ZHANG Hong; SONG Guo-xiang

    2009-01-01

    Wear property of material plays a key role in the service time of workpiece.A major objective in the development of new wheel materials is to improve the wear performance.The wear property of B and B+ grade cast steel materials was reported.The results showed that B+ grade cast steel material exhibited better wear property than the B grade material.Carbon content related to the hardness match was the principal factor affecting the wear properties.

  10. Materials with complex behaviour II properties, non-classical materials and new technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Oechsner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This book reviews developments and trends in advanced materials and their properties; modeling and simulation of non-classical materials and new technologies for joining materials. Offers tools for characterizing and predicting properties and behavior.

  11. Fundamentals of semiconductors physics and materials properties

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Peter Y

    1996-01-01

    Fundamentals of Semiconductors attempts to fill the gap between a general solid-state physics textbook and research articles by providing detailed explanations of the electronic, vibrational, transport, and optical properties of semiconductors The approach is physical and intuitive rather than formal and pedantic Theories are presented to explain experimental results This textbook has been written with both students and researchers in mind Its emphasis is on understanding the physical properties of Si and similar tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors The explanations are based on physical insights Each chapter is enriched by an extensive collection of tables of material parameters, figures and problems Many of these problems 'lead the student by the hand' to arrive at the results

  12. Fundamentals of semiconductors physics and materials properties

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Peter Y

    2010-01-01

    This fourth edition of the well-established Fundamentals of Semiconductors serves to fill the gap between a general solid-state physics textbook and research articles by providing detailed explanations of the electronic, vibrational, transport, and optical properties of semiconductors. The approach is physical and intuitive rather than formal and pedantic. Theories are presented to explain experimental results. This textbook has been written with both students and researchers in mind. Its emphasis is on understanding the physical properties of Si and similar tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors. The explanations are based on physical insights. Each chapter is enriched by an extensive collection of tables of material parameters, figures, and problems. Many of these problems "lead the student by the hand" to arrive at the results. The major changes made in the fourth edition include: an extensive appendix about the important and by now well-established deep center known as the DX center, additional problems...

  13. Photorefractive optics materials, properties, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Francis T S

    1999-01-01

    The advances of photorefractive optics have demonstrated many useful and practical applications, which include the development of photorefractive optic devices for computer communication needs. To name a couple significant applications: the large capacity optical memory, which can greatly improve the accessible high-speed CD-ROM and the dynamic photorefractive gratings, which can be used for all-optic switches for high-speed fiber optic networks. This book is an important reference both for technical and non-technical staffs who are interested in this field. * Covers the recent development in materials, phenomena, and applications * Includes growth, characterization, dynamic gratings, and liquid crystal PR effect * Includes applications to photonic devices such as large capacity optical memory, 3-D interconnections, and dynamic holograms * Provides the recent overall picture of current trends in photorefractive optics * Includes optical and electronic properties of the materials as applied to dynamic photoref...

  14. Material properties of the plantar aponeurosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, H B; Luo, Z P; Growney, E S; Berglund, L J; An, K N

    1994-10-01

    Material properties of the plantar aponeurosis were determined by a two-dimensional video tracking method to simultaneously measure the aponeurosis deformation. Failure loads averaged 1189 +/- 244 N and were higher in men. Average stiffness of the intact fascia was 203.7 +/- 50.5 N/mm at a loading rate of 11.12 N/sec and it did not vary significantly for the loading rates of 11.12 to 1112 N/sec. The high tensile loads required for failure were consistent with clinical and biomechanical studies and indicated the importance of the aponeurosis in foot function and arch stability.

  15. Electroceramic functional gradient materials. Final report 1995 - 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft Soerensen, O. [ed.

    1999-10-01

    In this programme the research and development is focused on electroceramic materials, which are of direct interest for the Danish producers of electronic components (AMP Danmark) and ceramic gas sensors (PBI-Dansensor) as well as companies involved in development of fuel cells (Haldor Topsoee). The R and D work has been focused on strategic materials research, both application oriented and more basic research, and on development of new techniques for fabrication of EFGM (Electroceramic Functional Gradient Materials) of three types: LC circuit materials (electronic noise filters), oxides for electrochemical reactors and solid oxide fuel cell applications (SOFC) and materials (semiconductors, oxygen ion conductors) for oxygen sensors. This work has been carried out in five projects: 1) Integrated filter components; 2) Electrochemical reactor materials; 3) Oxygen sensors based on semiconductors and oxygen ion conductors; 4) Interface models - synthesis and characterisation; 5) Suppression of cracking in multilayered ceramic materials. (EHS)

  16. Mechanical properties of new dental pulp-capping materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Matthew J; Casey, Jeffery A; VanderWeele, Richard A; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties of pulp-capping materials may affect their resistance to fracture during placement of a final restorative material or while supporting an overlying restoration over time. The purpose of this study was to compare the compressive strength, flexural strength, and flexural modulus of 2 new pulp-capping materials (TheraCal LC and Biodentine), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and calcium hydroxide over time. Specimens were created in molds and tested to failure in a universal testing machine after 15 minutes, 3 hours, and 24 hours. The MTA specimens did not set at 15 minutes. At all time periods, TheraCal LC had the greatest compressive and flexural strengths. After 3 and 24 hours, Biodentine had the greatest flexural modulus. TheraCal LC had greater early strength to potentially resist fracture during immediate placement of a final restorative material. Biodentine had greater stiffness after 3 hours to potentially provide better support of an overlying restoration under function over time.

  17. Organic materials for second harmonic generation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twieg, R.J. (comp.)

    1985-03-31

    Materials were chosen by screening the Cambridge Crystallographic Index for new noncentrosymmetric crystalline compounds, by screening commercially available materials or by synthesis of unique new substances. Measurements were then made on the powder form of these materials. Langmuir-Blodgett films were deposited and studied. In addition to the above studies, a computer program was developed to calculate (hyper) polarizabilities of organic molecules and thus aid in the selection of materials for testing. The nonlinear molecules have been divided into three classes according to absorption cutoff: 400 to 500 nm, 300 to 400 nm, and 200 to 300 nm. 108 refs., 7 tabs. (WRF)

  18. Armed Services Materials Conversion. A Documentation. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organization and Human Resources Development Associates, Inc., Austin, TX.

    This report discusses Phase 1 of a project to convert armed services dental and medical curriculum materials into separate curricula for dental and physician assistant for civilian education use. The first two sections focus on project tasks and acquisition of existing military materials in dental and physician assistant training. Samples of…

  19. Effective Materials Property Information Management for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weiju; Cebon, David; Arnold, Steve

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses key principles for the development of materials property information management software systems. There are growing needs for automated materials information management in various organizations. In part these are fueled by the demands for higher efficiency in material testing, product design and engineering analysis. But equally important, organizations are being driven by the need for consistency, quality and traceability of data, as well as control of access to sensitive information such as proprietary data. Further, the use of increasingly sophisticated nonlinear, anisotropic and multi-scale engineering analyses requires both processing of large volumes of test data for development of constitutive models and complex materials data input for Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) software. And finally, the globalization of economy often generates great needs for sharing a single "gold source" of materials information between members of global engineering teams in extended supply chains. Fortunately, material property management systems have kept pace with the growing user demands and evolved to versatile data management systems that can be customized to specific user needs. The more sophisticated of these provide facilities for: (i) data management functions such as access, version, and quality controls; (ii) a wide range of data import, export and analysis capabilities; (iii) data "pedigree" traceability mechanisms; (iv) data searching, reporting and viewing tools; and (v) access to the information via a wide range of interfaces. In this paper the important requirements for advanced material data management systems, future challenges and opportunities such as automated error checking, data quality characterization, identification of gaps in datasets, as well as functionalities and business models to fuel database growth and maintenance are discussed.

  20. Effective Materials Property Information Management for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weiju; Cebon, David; Arnold, Steve

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses key principles for the development of materials property information management software systems. There are growing needs for automated materials information management in various organizations. In part these are fueled by the demands for higher efficiency in material testing, product design and engineering analysis. But equally important, organizations are being driven by the need for consistency, quality and traceability of data, as well as control of access to sensitive information such as proprietary data. Further, the use of increasingly sophisticated nonlinear, anisotropic and multi-scale engineering analyses requires both processing of large volumes of test data for development of constitutive models and complex materials data input for Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) software. And finally, the globalization of economy often generates great needs for sharing a single "gold source" of materials information between members of global engineering teams in extended supply chains. Fortunately, material property management systems have kept pace with the growing user demands and evolved to versatile data management systems that can be customized to specific user needs. The more sophisticated of these provide facilities for: (i) data management functions such as access, version, and quality controls; (ii) a wide range of data import, export and analysis capabilities; (iii) data "pedigree" traceability mechanisms; (iv) data searching, reporting and viewing tools; and (v) access to the information via a wide range of interfaces. In this paper the important requirements for advanced material data management systems, future challenges and opportunities such as automated error checking, data quality characterization, identification of gaps in datasets, as well as functionalities and business models to fuel database growth and maintenance are discussed.

  1. Effective Materials Property Information Management for the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Weiju [ORNL; Cebon, David [Cambridge University; Barabash, Oleg M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses key principles for the development of materials property information management software systems. There are growing needs for automated materials information management in various organizations. In part these are fuelled by the demands for higher efficiency in material testing, product design and engineering analysis. But equally important, organizations are being driven by the needs for consistency, quality and traceability of data, as well as control of access to proprietary or sensitive information. Further, the use of increasingly sophisticated nonlinear, anisotropic and multi-scale engineering analyses requires both processing of large volumes of test data for development of constitutive models and complex materials data input for Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) software. And finally, the globalization of economy often generates great needs for sharing a single gold source of materials information between members of global engineering teams in extended supply-chains. Fortunately material property management systems have kept pace with the growing user demands and evolved to versatile data management systems that can be customized to specific user needs. The more sophisticated of these provide facilities for: (i) data management functions such as access, version, and quality controls; (ii) a wide range of data import, export and analysis capabilities; (iii) data pedigree traceability mechanisms; (iv) data searching, reporting and viewing tools; and (v) access to the information via a wide range of interfaces. In this paper the important requirements for advanced material data management systems, future challenges and opportunities such as automated error checking, data quality characterization, identification of gaps in datasets, as well as functionalities and business models to fuel database growth and maintenance are discussed.

  2. Pectina: da matéria-prima ao produto final Pectin: from raw material to the final product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria H. G. Canteri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A pectina, provavelmente a mais complexa macromolécula natural, é um heteropolissacarídeo contendo predominantemente resíduos de ácido galacturônico. Este polímero, do grupo das fibras dietéticas, é amplamente utilizado como geleificante e estabilizante na indústria de alimentos. O principal processo industrial para obtenção de pectina está baseado na solubilização da protopectina do bagaço de maçã e casca de frutos cítricos, realizada em condições levemente ácidas sob aquecimento. Estudos recentes têm reportado a extração de pectina de novas matérias-primas sob diferentes condições, com influência sobre a qualidade e sobre o rendimento do produto final, para aumentar sua qualidade reológica. Esta revisão descreve a estrutura, as fontes, as aplicações, o processo de extração industrial assim como as principais técnicas de caracterização da pectina.Pectin, probably the most complex macromolecule in nature is a hetero-polysaccharide containing predominantly residues of galacturonic acid (GalA. This polymer, which belongs to a group of dietary fibers, is widely used as a gelling agent and stabilizer in the food industry. The main industrial processing to obtain pectin is based on the solubilization of protopectin from apple pomace and citrus peels, which is done under low acidity and heated conditions. Recent studies have reported the extraction of pectin from new raw materials and using different extraction conditions, which influence the yield and quality of the final product, and may improve the rheological properties. This review describes the structure, sources, applications and industrial extraction processes, as well as the analysis methods of physicochemical characterization of pectin.

  3. Interdisciplinary research on the nature and properties of ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The advancement of material performance and design methodology as related to brittle materials was investigated. The processing and properties of ceramic materials as related to design requirements was also studied.

  4. Thermophysical Properties of Selected Aerospace Materials. Part 2. Thermophysical Properties of Seven Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Determining Thermal Conductivity of Solids from 20 to 600 K," Cryogenics, 5( 1), 17-20, 1965. 11. Garth, R.C. and Sailer , V.L., "Thermal Conductivity of...34Thermal Property Data Utilized for Asset Materials," McDonnell Aircraft Corp. Rept. A656, 45 pp., 1964. [AD 480 414] 23. Makarounls, O., " Solar

  5. Nanostructured materials: A novel approach to enhanced performance. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korth, G.E.; Froes, F.H.; Suryanarayana, C. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-01

    Nanostuctured materials are an emerging class of materials that can exhibit physical and mechanical characteristics often exceeding those exhibited by conventional course grained materials. A number of different techniques can be employed to produce these materials. In this program, the synthesis methods were (a) mechanical alloying , (b) physical vapor deposition, and (c) plasma processing. The physical vapor deposition and plasma processing were discontinued after initial testing with subsequent efforts focused on mechanical alloying. The major emphasis of the program was on the synthesis, consolidation, and characterization of nanostructured Al-Fe, Ti-Al, Ti-Al-Nb, and Fe-Al by alloying intermetallics with a view to increase their ductilities. The major findings of this project are reported.

  6. Properties of Sealing Materials in Groundwater Wells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köser, Claus

    on the maximum swelling pressure; i) the bulk density of the sample, and ii) whether the sample is sorted or unsorted. CT scans (Computed Tomography) have been used to evaluate certain properties of bentonite seals in a limited volume. In this context, a set of algorithms to convert CT numbers (HU unit......) into densities for clay/water systems has been developed. This method has successfully been used to evaluate e.g., macroporosity, homogenization of the bentonite seal during the hydration of water, hydraulic conductivity and the creation of channels in the bentonite seals. Based on the results obtained...... in this Ph.D. thesis, a number of recommendations has been offered; i) a change regarding the production of pellets and ii) how sealing material must be treated in the actual construction of groundwater wells....

  7. Bone Material Properties in Osteogenesis Imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta entrains changes at every level in bone tissue, from the disorganization of the collagen molecules and mineral platelets within and between collagen fibrils to the macroarchitecture of the whole skeleton. Investigations using an array of sophisticated instruments at multiple scale levels have now determined many aspects of the effect of the disease on the material properties of bone tissue. The brittle nature of bone in osteogenesis imperfecta reflects both increased bone mineralization density-the quantity of mineral in relation to the quantity of matrix within a specific bone volume-and altered matrix-matrix and matrix mineral interactions. Contributions to fracture resistance at multiple scale lengths are discussed, comparing normal and brittle bone. Integrating the available information provides both a better understanding of the effect of current approaches to treatment-largely improved architecture and possibly some macroscale toughening-and indicates potential opportunities for alternative strategies that can influence fracture resistance at longer-length scales.

  8. Spacecraft dielectric material properties and spacecraft charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, A. R.; Wall, J. A.; Cotts, D. B.; Bouquet, F. L.

    1986-01-01

    The physics of spacecraft charging is reviewed, and criteria for selecting and testing semiinsulating polymers (SIPs) to avoid charging are discussed and illustrated. Chapters are devoted to the required properties of dielectric materials, the charging process, discharge-pulse phenomena, design for minimum pulse size, design to prevent pulses, conduction in polymers, evaluation of SIPs that might prevent spacecraft charging, and the general response of dielectrics to space radiation. SIPs characterized include polyimides, fluorocarbons, thermoplastic polyesters, poly(alkanes), vinyl polymers and acrylates, polymers containing phthalocyanine, polyacene quinones, coordination polymers containing metal ions, conjugated-backbone polymers, and 'metallic' conducting polymers. Tables summarizing the results of SIP radiation tests (such as those performed for the NASA Galileo Project) are included.

  9. Rectangular waveguide material characterization: anisotropic property extraction and measurement validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowgey, Benjamin Reid

    for characterization of a sample filling the cross-section of a waveguide. Due to the rectangular nature of the waveguide, typically three different samples are manufactured from the same material in order to characterize the six complex material parameters. The second technique for measuring the electromagnetic properties of a biaxially anisotropic material sample uses a reduced-aperture waveguide sample holder designed to accommodate a cubical sample. All the tensor material parameters can then be determined by measuring the reflection and transmission coefficients of a single sample placed into several orientations. The parameters are obtained using a root-searching algorithm by comparing theoretically computed and measured reflection and transmission coefficients. The theoretical coefficients are determined using a mode matching technique. The first technique for characterizing the electromagnetic properties of gyromagnetic materials considers requires filling the cross-section of a waveguide. The material parameters are extracted from the measured reflection and transmission coefficients. Since the cross-sectional dimensions of waveguides become prohibitively large at low frequencies, and it is at these frequencies that the gyromagnetic properties are most pronounced, sufficiently large samples may not be available. Therefore, the second technique uses a reduced-aperture sample holder that does not require the sample to fill the entire cross section of the guide. The theoretical reflection and transmission coefficients for both methods are determined using a mode matching technique. A nonlinear least squares method is employed to extract the gyromagnetic material parameters. Finally, this dissertation introduces a waveguide standard that acts as a surrogate material with both electric and magnetic properties and is useful for verifying systems designed to characterize engineered materials using the NRW technique. A genetic algorithm is used to optimize the all

  10. Mechanical properties of low dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Deepika

    Recent advances in low dimensional materials (LDMs) have paved the way for unprecedented technological advancements. The drive to reduce the dimensions of electronics has compelled researchers to devise newer techniques to not only synthesize novel materials, but also tailor their properties. Although micro and nanomaterials have shown phenomenal electronic properties, their mechanical robustness and a thorough understanding of their structure-property relationship are critical for their use in practical applications. However, the challenges in probing these mechanical properties dramatically increase as their dimensions shrink, rendering the commonly used techniques inadequate. This dissertation focuses on developing techniques for accurate determination of elastic modulus of LDMs and their mechanical responses under tensile and shear stresses. Fibers with micron-sized diameters continuously undergo tensile and shear deformations through many phases of their processing and applications. Significant attention has been given to their tensile response and their structure-tensile properties relations are well understood, but the same cannot be said about their shear responses or the structure-shear properties. This is partly due to the lack of appropriate instruments that are capable of performing direct shear measurements. In an attempt to fill this void, this dissertation describes the design of an inexpensive tabletop instrument, referred to as the twister, which can measure the shear modulus (G) and other longitudinal shear properties of micron-sized individual fibers. An automated system applies a pre-determined twist to the fiber sample and measures the resulting torque using a sensitive optical detector. The accuracy of the instrument was verified by measuring G for high purity copper and tungsten fibers. Two industrially important fibers, IM7 carbon fiber and KevlarRTM 119, were found to have G = 17 and 2.4 GPa, respectively. In addition to measuring the shear

  11. Materials Degradation and Detection (MD2): Deep Dive Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCloy, John S.; Montgomery, Robert O.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Hu, Shenyang Y.; Li, Yulan; Henager, Charles H.; Johnson, Bradley R.

    2013-02-01

    An effort is underway at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a fundamental and general framework to foster the science and technology needed to support real-time monitoring of early degradation in materials used in the production of nuclear power. The development of such a capability would represent a timely solution to the mounting issues operators face with materials degradation in nuclear power plants. The envisioned framework consists of three primary and interconnected “thrust” areas including 1) microstructural science, 2) behavior assessment, and 3) monitoring and predictive capabilities. A brief state-of-the-art assessment for each of these core technology areas is discussed in the paper.

  12. Measurement of Mechanical Properties of Cantilever Shaped Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Thundat

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Microcantilevers were first introduced as imaging probes in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM due to their extremely high sensitivity in measuring surface forces. The versatility of these probes, however, allows the sensing and measurement of a host of mechanical properties of various materials. Sensor parameters such as resonance frequency, quality factor, amplitude of vibration and bending due to a differential stress can all be simultaneously determined for a cantilever. When measuring the mechanical properties of materials, identifying and discerning the most influential parameters responsible for the observed changes in the cantilever response are important. We will, therefore, discuss the effects of various force fields such as those induced by mass loading, residual stress, internal friction of the material, and other changes in the mechanical properties of the microcantilevers. Methods to measure variations in temperature, pressure, or molecular adsorption of water molecules are also discussed. Often these effects occur simultaneously, increasing the number of parameters that need to be concurrently measured to ensure the reliability of the sensors. We therefore systematically investigate the geometric and environmental effects on cantilever measurements including the chemical nature of the underlying interactions. To address the geometric effects we have considered cantilevers with a rectangular or circular cross section. The chemical nature is addressed by using cantilevers fabricated with metals and/or dielectrics. Selective chemical etching, swelling or changes in Young’s modulus of the surface were investigated by means of polymeric and inorganic coatings. Finally to address the effect of the environment in which the cantilever operates, the Knudsen number was determined to characterize the molecule-cantilever collisions. Also bimaterial cantilevers with high thermal sensitivity were used to discern the effect of temperature

  13. Textbooks and Learning Materials Program: Zambia. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Mississippi Consortium for International Development's (MCID's) intervention involved the development, publication and distribution of an Integrated Foundations of Learning Kit, focused on numeracy. This intervention was aligned with Zambia's priorities and strategies and matched the requirements of the Textbooks and Learning Materials Program…

  14. Polymer-cement geothermal-well-completion materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeldin, A.N.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1980-07-01

    A program to develop high-temperature polymer cements was performed. Several formulations based on organic and semi-inorganic binders were evaluated on the basis of mechanical and thermal stability, and thickening time. Two optimized systems exhibited properties exceeding those required for use in geothermal wells. Both systems were selected for continued evaluation at the National Bureau of Standards and contingent upon the results, for field testing in geothermal wells.

  15. Matura final examination in psychology: some metric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Bucik

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Matura in Slovenia consist of five subjects. The three compulsory subjects are: Mother Tongue, Mathematics and Foreign Language. Psychology is one of the two optional subjects (electives that must be chosen from a wide range of natural sciences, foreign and classical languages, humanities, social sciences, and technical or vocational subjects. The examination checks the achievement of important subject aims and assessment objectives in different subject contents, including knowledge, comprehension, interpretation, evaluation, and use of the research methodology. The examination includes two parts. In the external part (75 % of the final score the candidate is obliged to answer different structured and semi-structured questions which are assessed by the external experts in the field. For each of the questions very exactly defined marking and grading instructions are elaborated. In the so-called internal part (25 % the candidate must conduct and report about the research, which may be of empirical or theoretical nature. It is assessed by the teacher-mentor and not by the external assessors. In this paper some metric properties mainly of the external part of the psychology examination in the last two years are presented. Some comparative analyses and correlations were calculated between particular parts of the exam and between results in different generations of students. It was stressed that the marking and grading instructions used by the examiners could and should be better, which would also be reflected in the sensitivity, reliability and objectivity of assessment.

  16. Hazardous material minimization for radar assembly. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggs, P.M.

    1997-03-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendment, enacted in November 1990, empowered the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to completely eliminate the production and usage of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) by January 2000. A reduction schedule for methyl chloroform beginning in 1993 with complete elimination by January 2002 was also mandated. In order to meet the mandates, the processes, equipment, and materials used to solder and clean electronic assemblies were investigated. A vapor-containing cleaning system was developed. The system can be used with trichloroethylene or d-Limonene. The solvent can be collected for recycling if desired. Fluxless and no-clean soldering were investigated, and the variables for a laser soldering process were identified.

  17. Transition metal chalcogenides: ultrathin inorganic materials with tunable electronic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Thomas

    2015-01-20

    presence of an external electric field are reported. While all materials of the MoWSeS family share the same qualitative properties, their individual values can differ strongly, for example, the spin-orbit splitting in WSe2 reaches the value of 428 meV, nearly three times that of MoS2. Further, we discuss the effect of strain on the electronic properties (straintronics). While MoWSeS single layers are very robust against external electric fields, bilayers show a linear reduction of the band gap, even reaching a semiconductor-metal phase transition, and an increase of the spin-orbit splitting from zero to the monolayer value at rather small fields. Strain is yet another possibility to control the band gap in a linear way, and MoWSeS monolayers become metallic at strain values of ∼10%. The density-functional based tight-binding model is a useful tool to investigate the electronic and structural properties, including electron conductance, of large MoS2 structures, which show spontaneous rippling in finite-temperature molecular dynamics simulations. Structural defects in MoS2 result in anisotropy of the electric conductivity. Finally, DFT predictions on the properties of noble metal dichalcogenides are presented. Most strikingly, 1T PdS2 is an indirect band gap semiconductor in its monolayer form but becomes metallic as a bilayer.

  18. Irradiation-Accelerated Corrosion of Reactor Core Materials. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Zhujie [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Was, Gary [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bartels, David [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    2015-04-02

    This project aims to understand how radiation accelerates corrosion of reactor core materials. The combination of high temperature, chemically aggressive coolants, a high radiation flux and mechanical stress poses a major challenge for the life extension of current light water reactors, as well as the success of most all GenIV concepts. Of these four drivers, the combination of radiation and corrosion places the most severe demands on materials, for which an understanding of the fundamental science is simply absent. Only a few experiments have been conducted to understand how corrosion occurs under irradiation, yet the limited data indicates that the effect is large; irradiation causes order of magnitude increases in corrosion rates. Without a firm understanding of the mechanisms by which radiation and corrosion interact in film formation, growth, breakdown and repair, the extension of the current LWR fleet beyond 60 years and the success of advanced nuclear energy systems are questionable. The proposed work will address the process of irradiation-accelerated corrosion that is important to all current and advanced reactor designs, but remains very poorly understood. An improved understanding of the role of irradiation in the corrosion process will provide the community with the tools to develop predictive models for in-reactor corrosion, and to address specific, important forms of corrosion such as irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking.

  19. Novel High Efficient Organic Photovoltaic Materials: Final Summary of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sam

    2002-07-01

    The objectives and goals of this project were to investigate and develop high efficient, lightweight, and cost effective materials for potential photovoltaic applications, such as solar energy conversion or photo detector devices. Specifically, as described in the original project proposal, the target material to be developed was a block copolymer system containing an electron donating (or p-type) conjugated polymer block coupled to an electron withdrawing (or n-type) conjugated polymer block through a non-conjugated bridge unit. Due to several special requirements of the targeted block copolymer systems, such as electron donating and withdrawing substituents, conjugated block structures, processing requirement, stability requirement, size controllability, phase separation and self ordering requirement, etc., many traditional or commonly used block copolymer synthetic schemes are not suitable for this system. Therefore, the investigation and development of applicable and effective synthetic protocols became the most critical and challenging part of this project. During the entire project period, and despite the lack of a proposed synthetic polymer postdoctoral research associate due to severe shortage of qualified personnel in the field, several important accomplishments were achieved in this project and are briefly listed and elaborated. A more detailed research and experimental data is listed in the Appendix.

  20. Anodic materials for the electrolysis of water. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiori, G.; Mari, C.M.; Perra, B.; Vago, L.; Vitali, P.

    1980-01-01

    Research was conducted in two areas: preparation and characterization of various catalytic materials, similar to NiLa/sub 2/O/sub 4/, in order to verify the possibility of improving the catalytic activity; and optimization of the catalytic film deposition conditions on a cheap substrate and tests at high temperature (110 to 120/sup 0/C) and high current densities (1 A/cm/sup 2/). The modified catalytic materials can be classified in three different groups: NiLa/sub 2/O/sub 4/ mixed oxides doped with different low quantities of cations of various valencies (Li/sup +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, Fe/sup 3 +/); mixed oxides in which Ni has been replaced totally or partially with Co; and NiLa/sub 2/O/sub 3/ mixed oxides in which some sulfur has been substituted for reticular oxygen. The best electrode tested is the mixed Ni-Co non-stoichiometric oxide deposited on Ni. This electrode at 110/sup 0/C and 1 A/cm/sup 2/ shows an E/sub rhe/ potential lower than 1.45 v after more than 400 hr of uninterrupted work as anode in the water decomposition reaction.

  1. Electronic processes in thin-film PV materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.C.; Chen, D.; Chen, S.L. [and others

    1998-07-01

    The electronic and optical processes in an important class of thin-film PV materials, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and related alloys, have been investigated using several experimental techniques designed for thin-film geometries. The experimental techniques include various magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopies and combinations of these two spectroscopies. Two-step optical excitation processes through the manifold of silicon dangling bond states have been identifies as important at low excitation energies. Local hydrogen motion has been studied using nuclear magnetic resonance techniques and found to be much more rapid than long range diffusion as measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy. A new metastable effect has been found in a-Si:H films alloyed with sulfur. Spin-one optically excited states have been unambiguously identified using optically detected electron spin resonance. Local hydrogen bonding in microcrystalline silicon films has been studied using NMR.

  2. Radiation effects on organic materials in nuclear plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, M B; Davis, M V

    1981-11-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify information useful in determining the lowest level at which radiation causes damage to nuclear plant equipment. Information was sought concerning synergistic effects of radiation and other environmental stresses. Organic polymers are often identified as the weak elements in equipment. Data on radiation effects are summarized for 50 generic name plastics and 16 elastomers. Coatings, lubricants, and adhesives are treated as separate groups. Inorganics and metallics are considered briefly. With a few noted exceptions, these are more radiation resistant than organic materials. Some semiconductor devices and electronic assemblies are extremely sensitive to radiation. Any damage threshold including these would be too low to be of practical value. With that exception, equipment exposed to less than 10/sup 4/ rads should not be significantly affected. Equipment containing no Teflon should not be significantly affected by 10/sup 5/ rads. Data concerning synergistic effects and radiation sensitization are discussed. The authors suggest correlations between the two effects.

  3. Development of vacuum glazing with advanced thermal properties - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebel, M.; Manz, H.

    2009-03-15

    Windows constitute a weak link in the building envelope and hence contribute significantly to the total heating energy demand in buildings. By evacuating the glazing cavity a vacuum glazing is created and heat transfer can be significantly reduced. This project was designed to build knowledge and technology necessary to fabricate vacuum glazing with advanced thermal properties. More specifically, various strategies for improvement of conventional technology were investigated. Of central importance was the development of a novel edge sealing approach which can in theory circumvent the main limitation of conventional glass soldering technology. This approach which is rapid, low temperature, low cost and completely vacuum compatible was filed for patenting in 2008. With regards to thermal insulation performance and glazing deflection, numerical studies were performed demonstrating the importance of nonlinear behavior with glazing size and the results published. A detailed service life prediction model was elaborated which defines a set of parameters necessary to keep the expected pressure increase below a threshold value of 0.1 Pa after 30 years. The model takes into account four possible sources of pressure increase and a getter material which acts as a sink. For the production of 0.5 m by 0.5 m glazing assembly prototypes, a high vacuum chamber was constructed and a first sealing prototype realized therein. The manufacture of improved prototypes and optimization of the anodic bonding edge sealing technology with emphasis on process relevant aspects is the goal of a follow-up project. (authors)

  4. Final disposal of low- and medium-level radioactive materials; Endlagerung von schwach- und mittelradioaktiven Stoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-12-15

    The contribution on the final disposal of low- and medium-level radioactive materials describes the responsibilities according to the atomic law and the mining law, the licensing requirements and the licensing procedures. The costs for the final disposal have to be financed by the waste producer, 40% are publicly owned institutions. The licensed final repository Konrad for low- and medium-level radioactive materials is described in detail. The research mine Asse is obviously not appropriate for final disposal, the stored containers with low- and medium-level radioactive materials have to be retrieved, supposedly after 2033. The final repository for low- and medium-level radioactive materials was installed by the former DDR, in 1998 the repository was closed.Germany has decided to dispose the radioactive waste in deep geological facilities, other countries have near-surface repositories.

  5. Comparative assessment of marine biomass materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Show, I.T. Jr.; Piper, L.E.; Lupton, S.E.; Stegen, G.R.

    1979-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess potential marine biomass sources and their preprocessing requirements. For the assessment of marine biomass sources, a priority list of marine plants was developed based on maximum potential organic yields, maximum potential calorific yields, and chemical composition. Yields were maximized and undesirable chemical properties minimized. The priority list was used to estimate maximum potential yields from US coastal water (from shore to the 200-mile limit of the Fisheries Conservation Zone). Preprocessing schemes were compared based on a comparative evaluation of energy consumption for each preprocessing step. The priority list of potential biomass sources produced 13 potential genera; five showed calorific yields far in excess of the other eight. These five (Laminaria, Chondrus, Fucus, Gracilaria, and Macrocystis) had calorific yields in excess of 50 x 10/sup 3/ kcal/m/sup 2/ - yr. No genus was found to be universally applicable to all US territorial waters. It was estimated that maximum potential national yield without mechanical nutrient upwelling could be as high as 30 x 10/sup 5/ Btu/yr (30 quad). Results of the preprocessing study indicated that harvesting and size reduction operations may consume a large proportion of the energy available from the harvested biomass. It was found that biochemical conversion preprocessing incurs the least energy loss. It was also found that thermochemical conversion is probably not appropriate for marine biomass due to preprocessing energy losses.

  6. Comprehensive Flow Meter for All Materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-15

    The electromagnetic flowmeter is obstructionless and insensitive to the metered stuff's constitutive properties. For low zero-point drift, EM flowmeters employ a low frequency alternating induction, usually with square waveshape. With conventional signal conditioning, high frequency induction leads to excessive zero-point drift for the instrument. The conventional instrument is usable with electrically conductive fluids, where there is no triboelectric noise. Nonconductive fluids have substantial triboelectric noise, with spectral density experimentally measured to be f{sup {minus}2.6}. Here we use an electromagnet and signal conditioner that allows high frequency induction, where the noise is low, but eliminates the heretofore excessive drift--such that the EM flowmeter can be used to meter any stuff, whether conductive or insulating, that can be pumped, blown or extruded through a pipe. Designs and test hardware are shown. An injury occurred, with slow recovery: the principal investigator could not do all the flow test stand work desired. As an option, the flow testing has been simulated on a computer. Using characteristics of transformer oil as the metered fluid, the new signal conditioner has produced: (1) signal/noise/drift behavior experienced in prior published work, and (2) signal--without noise and drift--with performance of today's commercial EM flowmeters.

  7. Final report on the oxidation of energetic materials in supercritical water. Final Air Force report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelow, S.J.; Allen, D.; Anderson, G.K. [and others

    1995-04-03

    The objective of this project was to determine the suitability of oxidation in supercritical fluids (SCO), particularly water (SCWO), for disposal of propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics (PEPs). The SCO studies of PEPs addressed the following issues: The efficiency of destruction of the substrate. The products of destruction contained in the effluents. Whether the process can be conducted safely on a large scale. Whether energy recovery from the process is economically practicable. The information essential for process development and equipment design was also investigated, including issues such as practical throughput of explosives through a SCWO reactor, reactor materials and corrosion, and models for process design and optimization.

  8. Alternate electrode materials for the SP100 reactor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randich, E.

    1992-05-01

    This work was performed in response to a request by the Astro-Space Division of the General Electric Co. to develop alternate electrodes materials for the electrodes of the PD2 modules to be used in the SP100 thermoelectric power conversion system. Initially, the project consisted of four tasks: (1) development of a ZrB{sub 2} (C) CVD coating on SiMo substrates, (2) development of a ZrB{sub 2} (C) CVD coating on SiGe substrates, (3) development of CVI W for porous graphite electrodes, and (4) technology transfer of pertinent developed processes. The project evolved initially into developing only ZrB{sub 2} coatings on SiGe and graphite substrates, and later into developing ZrB{sub 2} coatings only on graphite substrates. Several sizes of graphite and pyrolytic carbon-coated graphite substrates were coated with ZrB{sub 2} during the project. For budgetary reasons, the project was terminated after half the allotted time had passed. Apart from the production of coated specimens for evaluation, the major accomplishment of the project was the development of the CVD processing to produce the desired coatings.

  9. Structure and properties of layered inorganic materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Duan

    2010-01-01

    @@ Inorganic layered materials are a class of advanced functional materials that have attracted considerable attention by virtue of their practical applications in a wide variety of fields. Sys-tematic studies of structure, design, synthesis, and fabrication processing may extend the range of practical utility of inor-ganic layered functional materials, in areas such as food industry,chemical industry, energy engineering, environmental engineer-ing, drug and gene delivery, electronics technology, and materials protection.

  10. Cytocompatibility and Antibacterial Properties of Capping Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciola, Carla Renata; Monaco, Annachiara; Lombardini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity and cytocompatibility of six different pulp-capping materials: Dycal (Dentsply), Calcicur (Voco), Calcimol LC (Voco), TheraCal LC (Bisco), MTA Angelus (Angelus), and Biodentine (Septodont). To evaluate antimicrobial activity, materials were challenged in vitro with Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus sanguis in the agar disc diffusion test. Cytocompatibility of the assayed materials towards rat MDPC-23 cells was evaluated at different times by both MTT and apoptosis assays. Results significantly differed among the different materials tested. Both bacterial growth inhibition halos and cytocompatibility performances were significantly different among materials with different composition. MTA-based products showed lower cytotoxicity and valuable antibacterial activity, different from calcium hydroxide-based materials, which exhibited not only higher antibacterial activity but also higher cytotoxicity. PMID:24959601

  11. Cytocompatibility and Antibacterial Properties of Capping Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Poggio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity and cytocompatibility of six different pulp-capping materials: Dycal (Dentsply, Calcicur (Voco, Calcimol LC (Voco, TheraCal LC (Bisco, MTA Angelus (Angelus, and Biodentine (Septodont. To evaluate antimicrobial activity, materials were challenged in vitro with Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus sanguis in the agar disc diffusion test. Cytocompatibility of the assayed materials towards rat MDPC-23 cells was evaluated at different times by both MTT and apoptosis assays. Results significantly differed among the different materials tested. Both bacterial growth inhibition halos and cytocompatibility performances were significantly different among materials with different composition. MTA-based products showed lower cytotoxicity and valuable antibacterial activity, different from calcium hydroxide-based materials, which exhibited not only higher antibacterial activity but also higher cytotoxicity.

  12. Metallurgy and properties of plasma spray formed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckechnie, T. N.; Liaw, Y. K.; Zimmerman, F. R.; Poorman, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    Understanding the fundamental metallurgy of vacuum plasma spray formed materials is the key to enhancing and developing full material properties. Investigations have shown that the microstructure of plasma sprayed materials must evolve from a powder splat morphology to a recrystallized grain structure to assure high strength and ductility. A fully, or near fully, dense material that exhibits a powder splat morphology will perform as a brittle material compared to a recrystallized grain structure for the same amount of porosity. Metallurgy and material properties of nickel, iron, and copper base alloys will be presented and correlated to microstructure.

  13. Absorption properties of waste matrix materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, J.B. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-06-01

    This paper very briefly discusses the need for studies of the limiting critical concentration of radioactive waste matrix materials. Calculated limiting critical concentration values for some common waste materials are listed. However, for systems containing large quantities of waste materials, differences up to 10% in calculated k{sub eff} values are obtained by changing cross section data sets. Therefore, experimental results are needed to compare with calculation results for resolving these differences and establishing realistic biases.

  14. Cytocompatibility and Antibacterial Properties of Capping Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Poggio; Carla Renata Arciola; Riccardo Beltrami; Annachiara Monaco; Alberto Dagna; Marco Lombardini; Livia Visai

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity and cytocompatibility of six different pulp-capping materials: Dycal (Dentsply), Calcicur (Voco), Calcimol LC (Voco), TheraCal LC (Bisco), MTA Angelus (Angelus), and Biodentine (Septodont). To evaluate antimicrobial activity, materials were challenged in vitro with Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus sanguis in the agar disc diffusion test. Cytocompatibility of the assayed materials towa...

  15. Studies of molecular properties of polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, W. L.; Long, Sheila Ann T.; Long, Edward R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Aerospace environment effects (high energy electrons, thermal cycling, atomic oxygen, and aircraft fluids) on polymeric and composite materials considered for structural use in spacecraft and advanced aircraft are examined. These materials include Mylar, Ultem, and Kapton. In addition to providing information on the behavior of the materials, attempts are made to relate the measurements to the molecular processes occurring in the material. A summary and overview of the technical aspects are given along with a list of the papers that resulted from the studies. The actual papers are included in the appendices and a glossary of technical terms and definitions is included in the front matter.

  16. New elastoplastic materials with performance properties

    OpenAIRE

    Sanda VISAN,; Virginia CIOBOTARU; Florica IONESCU; Anca ANGELESCU

    2009-01-01

    The fabrication of high performance materials using EPDM rubber and polyethylene mixtures with a low cost, nonpolluting and minimum investment technology is studied. These new materials can be used for obtaining a lot of goods for the economy, sport and private life..

  17. New elastoplastic materials with performance properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda VISAN,

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of high performance materials using EPDM rubber and polyethylene mixtures with a low cost, nonpolluting and minimum investment technology is studied. These new materials can be used for obtaining a lot of goods for the economy, sport and private life.

  18. Final policy toward owners of property containing contaminated aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandell, E.

    1995-05-24

    The policy states the agency`s position that, subject to certain conditions, where hazardous substances have come to be located on or in a property solely as the result of subsurface migration in an aquifer from a source or sources outside the property. EPA will not take enforcement actions under CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 106 and 107 against the owner of such property to require the performance of response actions or the payment of response costs.

  19. Textile materials for lightweight constructions technologies, methods, materials, properties

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    In this book, experts on textile technologies convey both general and specific informa­tion on various aspects of textile engineering, ready-made technologies, and textile chemistry. They describe the entire process chain from fiber materials to various yarn constructions, 2D and 3D textile constructions, preforms, and interface layer design. In addition, the authors introduce testing methods, shaping and simulation techniques for the characterization of and structural mechanics calculations on anisotropic, pliable high-performance textiles, including specific examples from the fields of fiber plastic composites, textile concrete, and textile membranes. Readers will also be familiarized with the potential offered by increasingly popular textile structures, for instance in the fields of composite technology, construction technology, security technology, and membrane technology. Textile materials and semi-finished products have widely varied potential characteristics, and are commonly used as essential element...

  20. Elastic properties of superconductors and materials with weakly correlated spins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binek, Christian

    2017-07-07

    It is shown that in the ergodic regime, the temperature dependence of Young's modulus is solely determined by the magnetic properties of a material. For the large class of materials with paramagnetic or diamagnetic response, simple functional forms of the temperature derivative of Young's modulus are derived and compared with experimental data and empirical results. Superconducting materials in the Meissner phase are ideal diamagnets. As such, they display remarkable elastic properties. Constant diamagnetic susceptibility gives rise to a temperature independent elastic modulus for ceramic and single crystalline superconductors alike. The thermodynamic approach established in this report, paves the way to tailor elastic material parameters through the design of magnetic properties.

  1. Optimization of Structure and Material Properties for Solids Composed of Softening Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsøe, Martin P.; Guedes, J.M.; J.M., Plaxton;

    1996-01-01

    Recent results on the design of material properties in the context of global structural optimization provide, in analytical form, a prediction of the optimal material tensor distributions for two or three dimensional continuum structures. The model developed for that purpose is extended here...... to cover the design of a structure and associated material properties for a system composed of a generic form of nonlinear softening material. As was established in the earlier study on design with linear materials, the formulation for combined 'material and structure' design with softening materials can...

  2. Superconductivity and magnetism: Materials properties and developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, N.H.; Bay, N.; Grivel, J.C. (eds.) [and others

    2003-07-01

    The 24th Risoe International Symposium on Materials Science focuses on development of new materials, devices and applications, as well as experimental and theoretical studies of novel and unexplained phenomena in superconductivity and magnetism, e.g. within high.T{sub c} superconductivity, magnetic superconductors, MgB{sub 2}, CMR materials, nanomagnetism and spin-tronics. The aim is to stimulate exchange of ideas and establish new collaborations between leading Danish and international scientists. The topics are addressed by presentations from 24 invited speakers and by 41 contributed papers. (ln)

  3. Fundamental Material Properties Underlying Solid Oxide Electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hansen, Karin Vels; Holtappels, Peter

    2012-01-01

    and electronic conductor (MIEC) the electrode is. Selected examples of literature studies of specific electrodes in solid oxide cells (SOC) are discussed. The reported effects of impurities - both impurities in the electrode materials and in the gases – point to high reactivity and mobility of materials...... in the TPB region. Also, segregations to the surfaces and interfaces of the electrode materials, which may affect the electrode reaction mechanism, are very dependent on the exact history of fabrication and operation. The positive effects of even small concentrations of nanoparticles in the electrodes may...

  4. Fundamental Material Properties Underlying Solid Oxide Electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Hansen, Karin Vels; Holtappels, Peter

    2012-01-01

    and electronic conductor (MIEC) the electrode is. Selected examples of literature studies of specific electrodes in solid oxide cells (SOC) are discussed. The reported effects of impurities - both impurities in the electrode materials and in the gases – point to high reactivity and mobility of materials...... place. The length of the TPB is a key factor even though the width and depth of the zone, in which the rate limiting reactions take place, may vary depending of the degree of the electrode materials ability to conduct both electrons and ions, i.e. the TPB zone volume depends on how good a mixed ionic...... in the TPB region. Also, segregations to the surfaces and interfaces of the electrode materials, which may affect the electrode reaction mechanism, are very dependent on the exact history of fabrication and operation. The positive effects of even small concentrations of nanoparticles in the electrodes may...

  5. Optical properties of active photonic materials

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Yong

    2007-01-01

    Because of the generation of polaritons, which are quasiparticles possessing the characteristics of both photonics and electronics, active photonic materials offer a possible solution to transfer electromagnetic energy below the diffraction limit and further increase the density of photonic integrated circuits. A theoretical investigation of these exciting materials is, therefore, very important for practical applications. Four different kinds of polaritons have been studied in this thesis, (...

  6. Elastic properties of superconductors and materials with weakly correlated spins

    OpenAIRE

    Binek, Christian

    2017-01-01

    It is shown that in the ergodic regime, the temperature dependence of Young?s modulus is solely determined by the magnetic properties of a material. For the large class of materials with paramagnetic or diamagnetic response, simple functional forms of the temperature derivative of Young?s modulus are derived and compared with experimental data and empirical results. Superconducting materials in the Meissner phase are ideal diamagnets. As such, they display remarkable elastic properties. Const...

  7. Determination of material properties for short fibre reinforced C/C-SiC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hausherr J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining the mechanical properties of short fibre reinforced CMC using standard sized coupons has always been a challenge due to a high statistical scattering of the measured values. Although the random orientation of short fibres results in a quasi-isotropic material behavior of 2D-structures with a sufficiently large volume, the small volume typical for test coupons usually results in a non-isotropic fibre orientation in the tested volume. This paper describes a method for manufacturing unidirectional oriented short fibre reinforced CMC materials and presents material properties of UD-C/C-SiC. After verifying the fibre orientation of the CMC using micro-computed tomography, coupons were extracted to determine the orthotropic material properties. These orthotropic material properties were then used to predict the properties of C/C-SiC with randomly distributed short fibres. To validate the method, micro-computed tomography is used to quantitatively determine the fibre orientation within coupons extracted from randomly distributed short fibre C/C-SiC. After mechanical three-point-bending tests, the measured stiffness and bending strength is compared with the predicted properties. Finally, the data are used to devise a method suited for reducing the inherent large spread of material properties associated with the measurement of CMC materials with randomly distributed short fibres.

  8. Dielectric properties of materials at microwave frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Křivánek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces the review of the present state of art in the measurement of the interaction of electromagnetic waves with different kinds of materials. It is analysis of the possibilities of the mea­surement of the interaction of high frequencies waves (microwaves with materials and proposal of the experimental method for the studies mentioned above.The electromagnetic field consists of two components: electric and magnetic field. The influence of these components on materials is different. The influence of the magnetic field is negligible and it has no impact on practical use. The influence of the electric field is strong as the interaction between them results in the creation of electric currents in the material (Křivánek and Buchar, 1993.Experiments focused on the evaluation of the complex dielectric permitivity of different materials have been performed. The permitivity of solid material is also measurable by phasemethod, when the specimen is a part of transmission sub-circuit. Microwave instrument for complex permittivity measurement works in X frequency band (8.2–12.5 GHz, the frequency 10.1 GHz was used for all the measurement in the laboratory of physics, Mendel University in Brno. The extensive number of experimental data have been obtained for different materials. The length of the square side of the ae­rial open end was 50 mm and internal dimensions of waveguides were 23 mm × 10 mm. The samples have form of the plate shape with dimensions 150 mm × 150 mm × 4 mm.

  9. Test Methods for Measuring Material Properties of Composite Materials in all Three Material Axes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    conducted using ASTM D 6641/D 6641M “Standard Test Method for Determining the Compressive Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Laminates Using a Combined...D 7291/D 7291M “Standard Test Method for Through-Thickness “Flatwise” Tensile Strength and Elastic Modulus of a Fiber- Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite Material...34Flatwise" Tensile Strength and Elastic Modulus of a Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite Material”. West Conshohocken, PA, 2005, DOI: 10.1520/D7291

  10. Thermal Properties of Contemporary and Conventional Gutta Percha Materials Used in Root Canal Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-15

    HQWU\\LQWKLVEORFNLVQHFHVVDU\\LI WKHDEVWUDFWLVWREHOLPLWHG FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Thermal Properties of Contemporary and Conventional Gutta...been extensively described in the scientific literature . 1-22 The gutta-percha polymer, trans-polyisoprene, can exist in two crystalline and/or...clinical technique. Furthermore, some literature has suggested that not all commercially available endodontic gutta-percha materials exist in the same

  11. Tribological Property of Polyimide Porous Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Yu-ping; L(U) Guang-shu; LI Xiao-jun; XIAO Han-cheng

    2006-01-01

    The friction performance of the polyimide (PI) porous composite materials made by moulding method with MoS2 or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) appended are disserted. The result shows that all the PI-based porous composites have the performance of transfer lubrication in the friction process, and the transfer film is built between the counter friction bodies; with the increasing of the MoS2 a mount from 0 to 20%, the friction coefficient trends toward decrease, and the tr ansfer lubricate phenomenon become more obvious; when adding PTFE as synergist t o the porous PI+MoS2 composite material, the synergistic effect happens, which can improve the friction performance of the material effectively.

  12. Structure and Properties of Energetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-02

    7.76 9.11 30 Gurney energy (MJ/kg) 1.1 1.6 30 Heat of detonation (MJ/kg) -5.02 -6.78 30 In Table 2 we compare the properties of TATB and...velocity of HMX is some 17% greater than that of TATB, the Gurney energy 45% greater, and the heat of detonation 35% greater One reason that TATB...MJ/kg) 1.1 1.6 30 Heat of detonation (MJ/kg) -5.02 -6.78 30 In Table 2 we compare the properties of TATB and cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX

  13. Adsorption Properties of Chalk Reservoir Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okhrimenko, Denis

    Understanding adsorption energetics and wetting properties of calcium carbonate surfaces is essential for developing remediation strategies for aquifers, improving oil recovery, minimising risk in CO2 storage and optimising industrial processes. This PhD was focussed on comparing the vapour....../gas adsorption properties of synthetic calcium carbonate phases (calcite, vaterite and aragonite) with chalk, which is composed of biogenic calcite (>98%). In combination with data from nanotechniques, the results demonstrate the complexity of chalk behavior and the role of nanoscale clay particles. The results...

  14. MAGIC Cloud Properties from Zenith Radiance Data Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, J. -Y.C. [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); Gregory, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wagener, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cloud droplet size and optical depth are the most fundamental properties for understanding cloud formation, dissipation and interactions with aerosol and drizzle. They are also a crucial determinant of Earth’s radiative and water-energy balances. However, these properties are poorly predicted in climate models. As a result, the response of clouds to climate change is one of the major sources of uncertainty in climate prediction.

  15. Organic materials with nonlinear optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupp, Samuel I.; Son, Sehwan; Lin, Hong-Cheu

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is directed to organic materials that have the ability to double or triple the frequency of light that is directed through the materials. Particularly, the present invention is directed to the compound 4-[4-(2R)-2-cyano-7-(4'-pentyloxy-4-biphenylcarbonyloxy)phenylheptylidene) phenylcarbonyloxy]benzaldehyde, which can double the frequency of light that is directed through the compound. The invention is also directed to the compound (12-hydroxy-5,7-dodecadiynyl) 4'-[(4'-pentyloxy-4-biphenyl)carbonyloxy]-4-biphenylcarboxylate, and its polymeric form. The polymeric form can triple the frequency of light directed through it.

  16. Influence of thermal debinding on the final properties of Fe–Si soft magnetic alloys for metal injection molding (MIM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Páez-Pavón, A.; Jiménez-Morales, A. [Dpto. Ciencia e Ing. de materiales e Ing. Química, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain); Santos, T.G. [UNIDEMI, Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Quintino, L. [Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Torralba, J.M. [Dpto. Ciencia e Ing. de materiales e Ing. Química, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    Metal injection molding (MIM) may be used to produce soft magnetic materials with optimal mechanical and magnetic properties. Unlike other techniques, MIM enables the production of complex and small Fe–Si alloy parts with silicon contents greater than 3% by weight. In MIM process development, it is critical to design a proper debinding cycle not only to ensure complete removal of the binder system but also to obtain improved properties in the final part. This work is a preliminary study on the production of Fe-3.8Si soft magnetic parts by MIM using pre-alloyed powders and a non-industrialized binder. Two different heating rates during thermal debinding were used to study their effect on the final properties of the part. The final properties of the sintered parts are related to thermal debinding. It has been demonstrated that the heating rate during thermal debinding has a strong influence on the final properties of Fe–Si soft magnetic alloys. - Highlights: • The properties of MIM Fe-Si alloy are influenced by the debinding heating rate. • The slow debinding led to a lower porosity, lower oxygen content and grain growth. • The magnetization of the sintered samples improved after a slow thermal debinding.

  17. Thermal and Thermoelectric Properties of Nanostructured Materials and Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hao-Hsiang

    Many modern technologies are enabled by the use of thin films and/or nanostructured composite materials. For example, many thermoelectric devices, solar cells, power electronics, thermal barrier coatings, and hard disk drives contain nanostructured materials where the thermal conductivity of the material is a critical parameter for the device performance. At the nanoscale, the mean free path and wavelength of heat carriers may become comparable to or smaller than the size of a nanostructured material and/or device. For nanostructured materials made from semiconductors and insulators, the additional phonon scattering mechanisms associated with the high density of interfaces and boundaries introduces additional resistances that can significantly change the thermal conductivity of the material as compared to a macroscale counterpart. Thus, better understanding and control of nanoscale heat conduction in solids is important scientifically and for the engineering applications mentioned above. In this dissertation, I discuss my work in two areas dealing with nanoscale thermal transport: (1) I describe my development and advancement of important thermal characterization tools for measurements of thermal and thermoelectric properties of a variety of materials from thin films to nanostructured bulk systems, and (2) I discuss my measurements on several materials systems done with these characterization tools. First, I describe the development, assembly, and modification of a time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR) system that we use to measure the thermal conductivity and the interface thermal conductance of a variety of samples including nanocrystalline alloys of Ni-Fe and Co-P, bulk metallic glasses, and other thin films. Next, a unique thermoelectric measurement system was designed and assembled for measurements of electrical resistivity and thermopower of thermoelectric materials in the temperature range of 20 to 350 °C. Finally, a commercial Anter Flashline 3000 thermal

  18. Finite Element Method for Analysis of Material Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauhe, Jens Christian

    description of the material microstructure the finite element models must contain a large number of elements and this problem is solved by using the preconditioned conjugated gradient solver with an Element-By-Element preconditioner. Finite element analysis provides the volume averaged stresses and strains...... and the finite element method. The material microstructure of the heterogeneous material is non-destructively determined using X-ray microtomography. A software program has been generated which uses the X-ray tomographic data as an input for the mesh generation of the material microstructure. To obtain a proper...... which are used for the determination of the effective properties of the heterogeneous material. Generally, the properties determined using the finite element method coupled with X-ray microtomography are in good agreement with both experimentally determined properties and properties determined using...

  19. Microscopic Electronic and Mechanical Properties of Ultra-Thin Layered Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-25

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0264 MICROSCOPIC ELECTRONIC AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ULTRA-THIN LAYERED MATERIALS Abhay Pasupathy THE TRUSTEES OF COLUMBIA...SUBTITLE 2. REPORT TYPE Final Performance 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01 Apr 2011 to 31 Mar 2016 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER MICROSCOPIC ELECTRONIC AND...0264 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The research goals of this project were to characterize the microscopic electronic and structural properties

  20. Handbook of the Properties of Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    EFFECTIVE MASS - - MOBILITY - - A-2 ARSEWIC SELENIOE (As2 Se3 ) OPTICAL PROPERTIES TRANSMISSION RANGE: 9 - 11n Optical Absorption Coefficient = 0.079...of 55 KRS-5 as a function of wavelength. A-2120 ZINC SELENIOE ZnSe 0 STRUCTURE CRYSTALLINE SYMMETRY = Cubic, 43m LATTICE CONSTANTS (A) = a = 5.667

  1. Adsorption Properties of Chalk Reservoir Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okhrimenko, Denis

    Understanding adsorption energetics and wetting properties of calcium carbonate surfaces is essential for developing remediation strategies for aquifers, improving oil recovery, minimising risk in CO2 storage and optimising industrial processes. This PhD was focussed on comparing the vapour...

  2. Dynamic Deformation Properties of Energetic Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    properties are close to that of pure beryllium ( Silversmith and Averbach 1970), but as far as we know no-one has acted on this suggestion. According to...J.L. (1998) "Analysis of load oscillations in instrumented impact testing" Engng Fract. Mech. 60 437-446 Silversmith , D.J. and Averbach, B.L. (1970

  3. Material properties under intensive dynamic loading

    CERN Document Server

    Cherne, Frank J; Zhernokletov, Mikhail V; Glushak, B L; Zocher, Marvin A

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the physical and thermomechanical response of materials subjected to intensive dynamic loading is a challenge of great significance in engineering today. This volume assumes the task of gathering both experimental and diagnostic methods in one place, since not much information has been previously disseminated in the scientific literature.

  4. Final Report: Laser-Material Interactions Relevant to Analytic Spectroscopy of Wide Band Gap Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickinson, J. T. [Washington State University

    2014-04-05

    We summarize our studies aimed at developing an understanding of the underlying physics and chemistry in terms of laser materials interactions relevant to laser-based sampling and chemical analysis of wide bandgap materials. This work focused on the determination of mechanisms for the emission of electrons, ions, atoms, and molecules from laser irradiation of surfaces. We determined the important role of defects on these emissions, the thermal, chemical, and physical interactions responsible for matrix effects and mass-dependent transport/detection. This work supported development of new techniques and technology for the determination of trace elements contained such as nuclear waste materials.

  5. Modification of Textile Materials' Surface Properties Using Chemical Softener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgita KOŽENIAUSKIENĖ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the effect of technological treatment involving the processes of washing or washing and softening with chemical cationic softener "Surcase" produced in Great Britain on the surface properties of cellulosic textile materials manufactured from cotton, bamboo and viscose spun yarns was investigated. The changes in textile materials surface properties were evaluated using KTU-Griff-Tester device and FEI Quanta 200 FEG scanning electron microscope (SEM. It was observed that the worst hand properties and the higher surface roughness are observed of cotton materials if compared with those of bamboo and viscose materials. Also, it was shown that depending on the material structure the handle parameters of knitted materials are the better than the ones of woven fabrics.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.1.249

  6. Size-Dependent Materials Properties Toward a Universal Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guisbiers G

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to the lack of experimental values concerning some material properties at the nanoscale, it is interesting to evaluate this theoretically. Through a “top–down” approach, a universal equation is developed here which is particularly helpful when experiments are difficult to lead on a specific material property. It only requires the knowledge of the surface area to volume ratio of the nanomaterial, its size as well as the statistic (Fermi–Dirac or Bose–Einstein followed by the particles involved in the considered material property. Comparison between different existing theoretical models and the proposed equation is done.

  7. Mechanical Properties of Infrared Transmitting Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Theory of the Elasticity," 4th Edition, Dover Publ. Co., New York, N.Y., 1944. Marriott, J. B., and G. Rowden, "The Erosion of a Cobalt - Chromium Alloy...alumina (A1203), spinel (magnesium aluminate ), magnesia (MgO), yttria (Y203), as well as chemical vapor deposition (CVD) silicon carbide, CVD...known to be a problem. Because of their thermal and mechanical properties, alumina and magnesium aluminate (spinel) show, or can show, erosion

  8. Permittivity spectroscopy - an insight into materials properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoynov, Zdravko; Mladenova, Emiliya; Levi, Daniela; Vladikova, Daria

    2014-01-01

    Permittivity Spectroscopy is a branch of the Impedance Spectroscopy specially tuned for measurements and analyses of dielectrics permittivity properties. The present paper presents experimental results on permittivity properties of composite objects in which a polarizable dielectric is distributed in a fine non-polarizable matrix (solid or liquid) measured in frequency range 1 MHz down to 0.01 Hz. Two types of objects are studied - water in porous functional ceramics and lubricating oils. In both systems gigantic enhancement of the effective capacitance is observed. The first series of experiments was performed on porous membranes of yttrium doped barium cerate, which is a proton conducting ceramics with hydrophilic properties. At a given level of watering the measured capacitance is sharply increasing (3 to 5 orders of magnitude) in the lower frequency range. The second example covers permittivity study of lubricating oils, where the increase is 2-3 orders of magnitude. The phenomenon of gigantic enhancement of the effective capacitance could be related to a formation of dipole volume structures induced by the external alternating electrical field.

  9. Thermal and Electrical Properties of Nanocomposites, Including Material Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kochetov, R.

    2012-01-01

    The research described in this thesis is part of a state-funded IOP-EMVT project in cooperation with industrial companies, aiming at the design, assessment and implementation of new, environmental friendly (e.g. oil and SF6 - free) solid dielectric materials. A large disadvantage of solid polymer di

  10. Thermal and Electrical Properties of Nanocomposites, Including Material Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kochetov, R.

    2012-01-01

    The research described in this thesis is part of a state-funded IOP-EMVT project in cooperation with industrial companies, aiming at the design, assessment and implementation of new, environmental friendly (e.g. oil and SF6 - free) solid dielectric materials. A large disadvantage of solid polymer

  11. Mechanical property tests on structural materials for ITER magnet system at low temperatures in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuanjun; Huang, Rongjin; Li, Laifeng

    2014-01-01

    High field superconducting magnets need strong non-superconducting components for structural reinforcement. For instance, the ITER magnet system (MS) consists of cable-in-conduit conductor, coil case, magnet support, and insulating materials. Investigation of mechanical properties at magnet operation temperature with specimens machined at the final manufacturing stages of the conductor jacket materials, magnet support material, and insulating materials, even the component of the full-size conductor jacket is necessary to establish sound databases for the products. In China, almost all mechanical property tests of structural materials for the ITER MS, including conductor jacket materials of TF coils, PF coils, CCs, case material of CCs, conductor jacket materials of Main Busbars (MB) and Corrector Busbars (CB), material of magnet supports, and insulating materials of CCs have been carried out at the Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry (TIPC), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS). In this paper, the mechanical property test facilities are briefly demonstrated and the mechanical tests on the structural materials for the ITER MS, highlighting test rigs as well as test methods, are presented.

  12. Probabilistic Modeling of Graded Timber Material Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M. H.; Köhler, J.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2004-01-01

    The probabilistic modeling of timber material characteristics is considered with special emphasis to the modeling of the effect of different quality control and selection procedures used as means for quality grading in the production line. It is shown how statistical models may be established...... an important role in the overall probabilistic modeling. Therefore a scheme for estimating the parameters of probability distribution parameters focusing on the tail behavior has been established using a censored Maximum Likelihood estimation technique. The proposed probabilistic models have been formulated...

  13. Approximation of mechanical properties of sintered materials with discrete element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosta, Maksym; Besler, Robert; Ziehdorn, Christian; Janßen, Rolf; Heinrich, Stefan

    2017-06-01

    Sintering process is a key step in ceramic processing, which has strong influence on quality of final product. The final shape, microstructure and mechanical properties, e.g. density, heat conductivity, strength and hardness are depending on the sintering process. In order to characterize mechanical properties of sintered materials, in this contribution we present a microscale modelling approach. This approach consists of three different stages: simulation of the sintering process, transition to final structure and modelling of mechanical behaviour of sintered material with discrete element method (DEM). To validate the proposed simulation approach and to investigate products with varied internal structures alumina powder has been experimentally sintered at different temperatures. The comparison has shown that simulation results are in a very good agreement with experimental data and that the novel strategy can be effectively used for modelling of sintering process.

  14. Polycrystalline thin film materials and devices. Final subcontract report, 16 January 1990--15 January 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, R.W.; Phillips, J.E.; Shafarman, W.N.; Hegedus, S.S.; McCandless, B.E.; Yokimcus, T.A. [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Inst. of Energy Conversion

    1993-08-01

    This report describes results and conclusions of the final phase (III) of a three-year research program on polycrystalline thin-film heterojunction solar cells. The research consisted of the investigation of the relationships between processing, materials properties, and device performance. This relationship was quantified by device modeling and analysis. The analysis of thin-film polycrystalline heterojunction solar cells explains how minority-carrier recombination at the metallurgical interface and at grain boundaries can be greatly reduced by the proper doping of the window and absorber layers. Additional analysis and measurements show that the present solar cells are limited by the magnitude of the diode current, which appears to be caused by recombination in the space charge region. Developing an efficient commercial-scale process for fabricating large-area polycrystalline, thin-film solar cells from a research process requires a detailed understanding of the individual steps in making the solar cell, and their relationship to device performance and reliability. The complexities involved in characterizing a process are demonstrated with results from our research program on CuInSe{sub 2}, and CdTe processes.

  15. Spectroscopic properties of rare earths in optical materials

    CERN Document Server

    Parisi, Jürgen; Osgood, R; Warlimont, Hans; Liu, Guokui; Jacquier, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Aimed at researchers and graduate students, this book provides up-to-date information for understanding electronic interactions that impact the optical properties of rare earth ions in solids. Its goal is to establish a connection between fundamental principles and the materials properties of rare-earth activated luminescent and laser optical materials. The theoretical survey and introduction to spectroscopic properties include electronic energy level structure, intensities of optical transitions, ion-phonon interactions, line broadening, and energy transfer and up-conversion. An important aspect of the book lies in its deep and detailed discussions on materials properties and the potential of new applications such as optical storage, information processing, nanophotonics, and molecular probes that have been identified in recent experimental studies. This volume will be a valuable reference book on advanced topics of rare earth spectroscopy and materials science.

  16. Interdisciplinary research concerning the nature and properties of ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The nature and properties of ceramic materials as they relate to solid state physics and metallurgy are studied. Special attention was given to the applications of ceramics to NASA programs and national needs.

  17. Influence of thermal debinding on the final properties of Fe-Si soft magnetic alloys for metal injection molding (MIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez-Pavón, A.; Jiménez-Morales, A.; Santos, T. G.; Quintino, L.; Torralba, J. M.

    2016-10-01

    Metal injection molding (MIM) may be used to produce soft magnetic materials with optimal mechanical and magnetic properties. Unlike other techniques, MIM enables the production of complex and small Fe-Si alloy parts with silicon contents greater than 3% by weight. In MIM process development, it is critical to design a proper debinding cycle not only to ensure complete removal of the binder system but also to obtain improved properties in the final part. This work is a preliminary study on the production of Fe-3.8Si soft magnetic parts by MIM using pre-alloyed powders and a non-industrialized binder. Two different heating rates during thermal debinding were used to study their effect on the final properties of the part. The final properties of the sintered parts are related to thermal debinding. It has been demonstrated that the heating rate during thermal debinding has a strong influence on the final properties of Fe-Si soft magnetic alloys.

  18. Development of radiative-cooling materials. Final technical report: FY 1980-1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Work on research and development on glazing and selective emitter materials that will enhance day and night sky radiative cooling is described. The emphasis is on glazing development with a secondary interest in the appropriate selective emitter. The testing focused on the individual material properties. (MHR)

  19. Outgassing Properties of Chemically Polished Titanium Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurisu, Hiroki; Kimoto, Gou; Fujii, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Yamamoto, Setsuo; Matsuura, Mitsuru; Ishizawa, Katsunobu; Nomura, Takeru; Murashige, Nobuyuki

    We developed a chemical polishing (CP) for titanium materials applicable to ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) and extremely high vacuum (XHV) systems. The surface roughness, Ra, of the chemically polished titanium is obtained to be 25 nm by the atomic force microscopy measurement. This value is smaller than those of the base metal (BM) and the buff-polished (BP) samples. The thickness of the surface oxide layer of CP sample is estimated to be 7 nm by the cross section of transmission electron micrograph. Amount of desorption gas of CP sample obtained by the thermal desorption measurement is smaller than those of BM and BP sample, and is the same as that of the mechanochemically polished (MCP) sample. The outgassing rate of CP sample after baking at 150°C×20 h is obtained to be 7×10-13 Pa•m•s-1. This value is lower than that of standard vacuum materials by two orders of magnitude after the ordinary baking.

  20. Transport properties of colossal magnetoresistive materials

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, K A

    2002-01-01

    A microwave technique was developed in order to test the validity of the hypothesis that the microwave transport of polycrystalline, optimally doped, colossal magnetoresistive materials was dominated by intragranular material. The microwave surface resistance at 9GHz was compared with dc resistivity and magnetisation to study the influence of yttrium doping on the grain boundary regions of bulk polycrystalline samples of La sub 0 sub . sub 7 sub - sub x Y sub x Ca sub 0 sub . sub 3 MnO sub 3. It was found that, within the grains, the addition of yttrium causes the activation energy above T sub p to increase. A phenomenological model was introduced to explain the data in terms of the difference in structure between the grain and grain boundary regions. The technique was also used to study the influence of deoxygenation on the grain boundary regions of bulk, polycrystalline, La sub 0 sub . sub 6 sub 7 Ca sub 0 sub . sub 3 sub 3 MnO sub 3. For samples interconnected porosity, low temperature (600 deg C), short a...

  1. Physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report. Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.

    1983-12-01

    Methods were selected, equipment installed, and procedures developed for determining rheological properties; for determining thermal properties (stability, density, thermal expansion, and heat capacity); for purification and characterization of lignin (glass transition, stability, weight average molecular weight, and number average molecular weight); and for performing chemical analyses (negative inorganic ions, positive inorganic ions, acid organic salts, lignin, and total solids). A strategy for pulping to supply test liquors was developed, and a statistically designed pulping experiment was specified for a Southern softwood species. Arrangements were made for performing initial pulping work in an industrial pilot plant, and a preliminary set of pulping experiments were conducted. Liquors from the preliminary pulping experiments were used to test procedures and to determine reproducibility of the experiment. Literature was also surveyed and preliminary selection of designs for a pilot digester, and for equipment to determine surface tension were made.

  2. Advanced 3D Characterization and Reconstruction of Reactor Materials FY16 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromm, Bradley [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hauch, Benjamin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Sridharan, Kumar [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-12-01

    A coordinated effort to link advanced materials characterization methods and computational modeling approaches is critical to future success for understanding and predicting the behavior of reactor materials that operate at extreme conditions. The difficulty and expense of working with nuclear materials have inhibited the use of modern characterization techniques on this class of materials. Likewise, mesoscale simulation efforts have been impeded due to insufficient experimental data necessary for initialization and validation of the computer models. The objective of this research is to develop methods to integrate advanced materials characterization techniques developed for reactor materials with state-of-the-art mesoscale modeling and simulation tools. Research to develop broad-ion beam sample preparation, high-resolution electron backscatter diffraction, and digital microstructure reconstruction techniques; and methods for integration of these techniques into mesoscale modeling tools are detailed. Results for both irradiated and un-irradiated reactor materials are presented for FY14 - FY16 and final remarks are provided.

  3. MIDAS (Material Implementation, Database, and Analysis Source): A comprehensive resource of material properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, M; Norquist, P; Barton, N; Durrenberger, K; Florando, J; Attia, A

    2010-12-13

    MIDAS is aimed to be an easy-to-use and comprehensive common source for material properties including both experimental data and models and their parameters. At LLNL, we will develop MIDAS to be the central repository for material strength related data and models with the long-term goal to encompass other material properties. MIDAS will allow the users to upload experimental data and updated models, to view and read materials data and references, to manipulate models and their parameters, and to serve as the central location for the application codes to access the continuously growing model source codes. MIDAS contains a suite of interoperable tools and utilizes components already existing at LLNL: MSD (material strength database), MatProp (database of materials properties files), and MSlib (library of material model source codes). MIDAS requires significant development of the computer science framework for the interfaces between different components. We present the current status of MIDAS and its future development in this paper.

  4. COST 507: Thermophysical properties of light metal alloys. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaroma-Weiland, G.; Brandt, R.; Neuer, G.

    1994-02-15

    The thermophysical properties of Al-, Mg- and Ti-based light metal alloys have been studied by reviewing the literature published so far, evaluating the empirical results and by empirical investigations. The properties to the covered in the literature research are: thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, thermal expansion and electrical resistivity. The data have been stored in the factual data base THERSYST together with the results of experimental measurements supplied from participants of the COST 507-action (Group D). Altogether 1325 data-sets referring to 146 alloys have been stored. They have been uniformly represented and critically analyzed by means of the THERSYST program moduli. These numerical data cover a number of systems with variing chemical composition and thermal treatment. Partly large discrepancies especially of the thermal conductivity have been found for similar alloys. The problem of experimental uncertainities has been studied in detail by investigation of AA-8090 alloy (Al-2.5Li-1.1Cu). The thermophysical properties of monolithic alloy KS1275 (AlSi12CuNi) and metal matrix composite (KS1275 reinforced with Al2O3 short fibre) have been determined experimentally. (orig.)

  5. Transient deformation properties of Zircaloy for LOCA simulation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hann, C. R.; Mohr, C. L.; Busness, K. M.; Olson, N. J.; Reich, F. R.; Stewart, K. B.

    1980-05-01

    This experimental data report is Volume 4 of a series of 5 volumes describing the oxidation and deformation rate behavior of Zircaloy cladding under simulated LOCA conditions. It contains listings of strain versus stress, time, and temperature evaluated from the numerical constitutive relationships and the original data used to develop them. This volume also contains listings of the ramp load, pressure, and temperature test data from both current and previous phases of the series, as well as material describing applications of the data.

  6. A Reference Guide for Cryogenic Properties of Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisend, John G

    2003-09-16

    A thorough knowledge of the behavior of materials at cryogenic temperatures is critical for the design of successful cryogenic systems. Over the past 50 years, a tremendous amount of material properties at cryogenic temperatures have been measured and published. This guide lists resources for finding these properties. It covers online databases, computer codes, conference proceedings, journals, handbooks, overviews and monographs. It includes references for finding reports issued by government laboratories and agencies. Most common solids and fluids used in cryogenics are covered.

  7. Cellular and Porous Materials Thermal Properties Simulation and Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas; de Lemos, Marcelo J S

    2008-01-01

    Providing the reader with a solid understanding of the fundamentals as well as an awareness of recent advances in properties and applications of cellular and porous materials, this handbook and ready reference covers all important analytical and numerical methods for characterizing and predicting thermal properties. In so doing it directly addresses the special characteristics of foam-like and hole-riddled materials, combining theoretical and experimental aspects for characterization purposes.

  8. INVESTIGATION OF TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES CuSn10 BEARING MATERIAL

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Bronzes which copper based alloys is widely used because of properties physical, thermal and tribological as journal bearing material. This material that has tribological performance good conclusions gives at journal bearings. In this study, CuSn10 bronze that were manufactured journal bearings friction and wear properties has been examined and compared. SAE 1050 steel shaft has been used as counter abrader. Experiments have been carried out 10 N and 20 N loads, 750 and 1500 rpm, dry and lubr...

  9. Advancing Renewable Materials by Integrated Light and X-ray Scattering - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpalu, Yvonne A

    2010-06-30

    Polyhydroxyalkanotes (PHAs), a group of newly developed, commercially available biopolymers, and their composites have the potential to replace petroleum-based amorphous and semicrystalline polymers currently in use for consumer packaging, adhesives, and coating applications and to have significant advantages in medical applications such as tissue engineering. While the potential of PHAs is recognized in the literature and has even been realized in some cases, knowledge of these systems is decades behind that of synthetic polymers. Composites based on PHAs, furthermore, are just emerging in the research community. We argue that widespread adoption of nano-enhanced PHA materials can only be achieved through a proper characterization of the nanofiller morphology and its impact on the polymer matrix. Our goal is to build a robust understanding of the structure-processing relationships of PHAs to make it possible to achieve fundamental control over the final properties of these biopolymers and their bionanocomposites and to develop cost-effective manufacturing technologies for them. With the ultimate goal to design PHA polymer nanocomposites with tailored properties, we have performed a systematic study of the influence of cooling rate on the thermal properties and morphology of linear PHAs (PHB Mw = 690,000 g/mol; PHBV Mw = 407,000 g/mol, 8 mol % HV) and branched (PHBHx, Mw = 903, 000 g/mol, 7.2 mol % Hx) copolymers. Structure-property relations for silica/PHBHx nanocomposites were also investigated. Our studies show that simple two-phase composite models do not account for the molecular weight dependent enhancement in the modulus. Although improvement of the mechanical properties (stiffness/modulus and toughness) must be due to alteration of the matrix by the nanoparticle filler, the observed improvement was not caused by the change of crystallinity or spherulitic morphology. Since the mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites can be affected by many factors

  10. Advancing Renewable Materials by Integrated Light and X-ray Scattering - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpalu, Yvonne A

    2010-06-30

    Polyhydroxyalkanotes (PHAs), a group of newly developed, commercially available biopolymers, and their composites have the potential to replace petroleum-based amorphous and semicrystalline polymers currently in use for consumer packaging, adhesives, and coating applications and to have significant advantages in medical applications such as tissue engineering. While the potential of PHAs is recognized in the literature and has even been realized in some cases, knowledge of these systems is decades behind that of synthetic polymers. Composites based on PHAs, furthermore, are just emerging in the research community. We argue that widespread adoption of nano-enhanced PHA materials can only be achieved through a proper characterization of the nanofiller morphology and its impact on the polymer matrix. Our goal is to build a robust understanding of the structure-processing relationships of PHAs to make it possible to achieve fundamental control over the final properties of these biopolymers and their bionanocomposites and to develop cost-effective manufacturing technologies for them. With the ultimate goal to design PHA polymer nanocomposites with tailored properties, we have performed a systematic study of the influence of cooling rate on the thermal properties and morphology of linear PHAs (PHB Mw = 690,000 g/mol; PHBV Mw = 407,000 g/mol, 8 mol % HV) and branched (PHBHx, Mw = 903, 000 g/mol, 7.2 mol % Hx) copolymers. Structure-property relations for silica/PHBHx nanocomposites were also investigated. Our studies show that simple two-phase composite models do not account for the molecular weight dependent enhancement in the modulus. Although improvement of the mechanical properties (stiffness/modulus and toughness) must be due to alteration of the matrix by the nanoparticle filler, the observed improvement was not caused by the change of crystallinity or spherulitic morphology. Since the mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites can be affected by many factors

  11. Magnetic Properties of Nanoparticles of Antiferromagnetic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Frandsen, Cathrine; Bødker, Franz

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles have been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy and neutron scattering. Temperature series of Mossbauer spectra of non-interacting, superparamagnetic hematite nanoparticles were fitted by use of the Blume-Tjon relaxation model. It has been...... found that the magnetic anisotropy energy constant increases significantly with decreasing particle size. Neutron scattering experiments on similar samples give new information on both superparamagnetic relaxation and collective magnetic excitations. There is good agreement between the values...... of the parameters obtained from Mossbauer spectroscopy and neutron scattering. In samples of interacting hematite nanoparticles, the relaxation was significantly suppressed. The Mossbauer data for these samples are in accordance with a mean field model for an ordered state of strongly interacting particles. Mixing...

  12. Surface properties of copper based cermet materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voinea, M. [The Centre: Product Design for Sustainable Development, Transilvania University of Brasov, Eroilor 29, 500036 (Romania)], E-mail: m.voinea@unitbv.ro; Vladuta, C.; Bogatu, C.; Duta, A. [The Centre: Product Design for Sustainable Development, Transilvania University of Brasov, Eroilor 29, 500036 (Romania)

    2008-08-25

    The paper presents the characterization of the surface properties of copper based cermets obtained by two different techniques: spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) and electrodeposition. Copper acetate was used as precursor of Cu/CuO{sub x} cermet. The surface morphology was tailored by adding copolymers of maleic anhydride with controlled hydrophobia. The films morphology of Cu/CuO{sub x} was assessed using contact angle measurements and AFM analysis. The porous structures obtained via SPD lead to higher liquid adsorption rate than the electrodeposited films. A highly polar liquid - water is recommended as testing liquid in contact angle measurements, for estimating the porosity of copper based cermets, while glycerol can be used to distinguish among ionic and metal predominant structures. Thus, contact angle measurements can be used for a primary evaluation of the films morphology and, on the other hand, of the ratio between the cermet components.

  13. Novel thermal properties of nanostructured materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eastman, J. A.

    1999-01-13

    A new class of heat transfer fluids, termed nanofluids, has been developed by suspending nanocrystalline particles in liquids. Due to the orders-of-magnitude larger thermal conductivities of solids compared to those of liquids such as water, significantly enhanced thermal properties are obtained with nanofluids. For example, an approximately 20% improvement in effective thermal conductivity is observed when 5 vol.% CuO nanoparticles are added to water. Even more importantly, the heat transfer coefficient of water under dynamic flow conditions is increased more than 15% with the addition of less than 1 vol.% CuO particles. The use of nanofluids could impact many industrial sectors, including transportation, energy supply and production, electronics, textiles, and paper production by, for example, decreasing pumping power needs or reducing heat exchanger sizes. In contrast to the enhancement in effective thermal transport rates that is obtained when nanoparticles are suspended in fluids, nanocrystalline coatings are expected to exhibit reduced thermal conductivities compared to coarse-grained coatings. Reduced thermal conductivities are predicted to arise because of a reduction in the mean free path of phonons due to presence of grain boundaries. This behavior, combined with improved mechanical properties, makes nanostructured zirconia coatings excellent candidates for future applications as thermal barriers. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films are being produced by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition techniques. Preliminary results have indicated that the thermal conductivity is reduced by approximately a factor-of-two at room temperature in 10 nm grain-sized YSZ compared to coarse-grained or single crystal YSZ.

  14. Analytic Thermoelectric Couple Modeling: Variable Material Properties and Transient Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Jonathan A.; Sehirlioglu, Alp; Dynys, Fred

    2015-01-01

    To gain a deeper understanding of the operation of a thermoelectric couple a set of analytic solutions have been derived for a variable material property couple and a transient couple. Using an analytic approach, as opposed to commonly used numerical techniques, results in a set of useful design guidelines. These guidelines can serve as useful starting conditions for further numerical studies, or can serve as design rules for lab built couples. The analytic modeling considers two cases and accounts for 1) material properties which vary with temperature and 2) transient operation of a couple. The variable material property case was handled by means of an asymptotic expansion, which allows for insight into the influence of temperature dependence on different material properties. The variable property work demonstrated the important fact that materials with identical average Figure of Merits can lead to different conversion efficiencies due to temperature dependence of the properties. The transient couple was investigated through a Greens function approach; several transient boundary conditions were investigated. The transient work introduces several new design considerations which are not captured by the classic steady state analysis. The work helps to assist in designing couples for optimal performance, and also helps assist in material selection.

  15. Solder joint technology materials, properties, and reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, King-Ning

    2007-01-01

    Solder joints are ubiquitous in electronic consumer products. The European Union has a directive to ban the use of Pb-based solders in these products on July 1st, 2006. There is an urgent need for an increase in the research and development of Pb-free solders in electronic manufacturing. For example, spontaneous Sn whisker growth and electromigration induced failure in solder joints are serious issues. These reliability issues are quite complicated due to the combined effect of electrical, mechanical, chemical, and thermal forces on solder joints. To improve solder joint reliability, the science of solder joint behavior under various driving forces must be understood. In this book, the advanced materials reliability issues related to copper-tin reaction and electromigration in solder joints are emphasized and methods to prevent these reliability problems are discussed.

  16. Liquid Crystalline Semiconductors Materials, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Stephen; O'Neill, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This is an exciting stage in the development of organic electronics. It is no longer an area of purely academic interest as increasingly real applications are being developed, some of which are beginning to come on-stream. Areas that have already been commercially developed or which are under intensive development include organic light emitting diodes (for flat panel displays and solid state lighting), organic photovoltaic cells, organic thin film transistors (for smart tags and flat panel displays) and sensors. Within the family of organic electronic materials, liquid crystals are relative newcomers. The first electronically conducting liquid crystals were reported in 1988 but already a substantial literature has developed. The advantage of liquid crystalline semiconductors is that they have the easy processability of amorphous and polymeric semiconductors but they usually have higher charge carrier mobilities. Their mobilities do not reach the levels seen in crystalline organics but they circumvent all of t...

  17. Quantum Simulations of Materials and Nanostructures (Q-SIMAN). Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galli, Giulia [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Bai, Zhaojun [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Ceperley, David [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Cai, Wei [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Gygi, Francois [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Marzari, Nicola [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Pickett, Warren [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Spaldin, Nicola [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Fattebert, Jean-Luc [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schwegler, Eric [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-16

    The focus of this SciDAC SAP (Scientific Application) is the development and use of quantum simulations techniques to understand materials and nanostructures at the microscopic level, predict their physical and chemical properties, and eventually design integrated materials with targeted properties. (Here the word ‘materials’ is used in a broad sense and it encompasses different thermodynamic states of matter, including solid, liquids and nanostructures.) Therefore our overarching goal is to enable scientific discoveries in the field of condensed matter and advanced materials through high performance computing.

  18. Prediction of Spring Rate and Initial Failure Load due to Material Properties of Composite Leaf Spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sung Ha [Maxoft Inc., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bok Lok [Gangneung-Wonju National University, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    This paper presented analysis methods for adapting E-glass fiber/epoxy composite (GFRP) materials to an automotive leaf spring. It focused on the static behaviors of the leaf spring due to the material composition and its fiber orientation. The material properties of the GFRP composite were directly measured based on the ASTM standard test. A reverse implementation was performed to obtain the complete set of in-situ fiber and matrix properties from the ply test results. Next, the spring rates of the composite leaf spring were examined according to the variation of material parameters such as the fiber angles and resin contents of the composite material. Finally, progressive failure analysis was conducted to identify the initial failure load by means of an elastic stress analysis and specific damage criteria. As a result, it was found that damage first occurred along the edge of the leaf spring owing to the shear stresses.

  19. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

    1992-01-30

    This report will focus on means of pyrite removal from coal using surface-based coal cleaning technologies. The major subjects being addressed in this study are the natural and modulated surface properties of coal and pyrite and how they may best be utilized to facilitate their separation using advanced surface-based coal cleaning technology. Emphasis is based on modified flotation and oil agglomerative processes and the basic principles involved. The four areas being addressed are: (1) Collectorless flotation of pyrite; (2) Modulation of pyrite and coal hydrophobicity; (3) Emulsion processes and principles; (4) Evaluation of coal hydrophobicity.

  20. The design and modeling of periodic materials with novel properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jonathan Bernard

    Cellular materials are ubiquitous in our world being found in natural and engineered systems as structural materials, sound and energy absorbers, heat insulators and more. Stochastic foams made of polymers, metals and even ceramics find wide use due to their novel properties when compared to monolithic materials. Properties of these so called hybrid materials, those that combine materials or materials and space, are derived from the localization of thermomechanical stresses and strains on the mesoscale as a function of cell topology. The effects of localization can only be generalized in stochastic materials arising from their inherent potential complexity, possessing variations in local chemistry, microstructural inhomogeneity and topological variations. Ordered cellular materials on the other hand, such as lattices and honeycombs, make for much easier study, often requiring analysis of only a single unit-cell. Theoretical bounds predict that hybrid materials have the potential to push design envelopes offering lighter stiffer and stronger materials. Hybrid materials can achieve very low and even negative coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) while retaining a relatively high stiffness -- properties completely unmatched by monolithic materials. In the first chapter of this thesis a two-dimensional lattice is detailed that possess near maximum stiffness, relative to the tightest theoretical bound, and low, zero and even appreciably negative thermal expansion. Its CTE and stiffness are given in closed form as a function of geometric parameters and the material properties. This result is confirmed with finite elements (FE) and experiment. In the second chapter the compressive stiffness of three-dimensional ordered foams, both closed and open cell, are predicted with FE and the results placed in property space in terms of stiffness and density. A novel structure is identified that effectively achieves theoretical bounds for Young's, shear and bulk modulus

  1. Materials Selection, Synthesis, and Dielectrical Properties of PVC Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Youssef Mobarak; Bassyouni, M.; Almutawa, M.

    2013-01-01

    Materials selection process for electrical insulation application was carried out using Cambridge Engineering Selector (CES) program. Melt mixing technique was applied to prepare polyvinyl-chloride- (PVC-) nanofumed silica and nanomontmorillonite clay composites. Surface analysis and particles dispersibility were examined using scanning electron microscope. Dielectrical properties were assessed using Hipot tester. An experimental work for dielectric loss of the nanocomposite materials has bee...

  2. Understanding Materials Science History · Properties · Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hummel, Rolf E

    2005-01-01

    This introduction to materials science both for students of engineering and physics and for the interested general public examines not only the physical and engineering properties of virtually all kinds of materials, but also their history, uses, development, and some of the implications of resource depletion and recycling. It covers all topics on materials from an entirely novel perspective: the role materials have played throughout history in the development of humankind and technologies. Specifically, it shows the connection between the technical and the cultural, economic, ecological, and societal aspects of materials science. It aims to whet the appetite of its readers and inspire them to further explore the properties and applications of metals, alloys, ceramics, plastics, and electronic materials by presenting easily understandable explanations and entertaining historical facts. It is also intended to raise the reader’s awareness of their obligations to society as practicing engineers and scientists....

  3. Finite Element Method for Analysis of Material Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauhe, Jens Christian

    The use of cellular and composite materials have in recent years become more and more common in all kinds of structural components and accurate knowledge of the effective properties is therefore essential. In this wok the effective properties are determined using the real material microstructure...... and the finite element method. The material microstructure of the heterogeneous material is non-destructively determined using X-ray microtomography. A software program has been generated which uses the X-ray tomographic data as an input for the mesh generation of the material microstructure. To obtain a proper...... description of the material microstructure the finite element models must contain a large number of elements and this problem is solved by using the preconditioned conjugated gradient solver with an Element-By-Element preconditioner. Finite element analysis provides the volume averaged stresses and strains...

  4. OM85. Basic Properties of Optical Materials Summaries of Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    Optical Properties of Solids (Academic, New York, 1972) Ch.3. 7. D.B. Tanner, A.J...12, (1973). 6. T. Fleisch and R. Abermann, Thin Solid FilffF-42, 255-263 (1977). 7. F. Wooten, Optical Properties of Solids (Academic Press, New York...resolve cp structure. Such mea- surements are still lacking for many common semiconducting materials. REFERENCES 1. D.E. Aspnes, in Optical Properties of Solids :

  5. Design finalization and material qualification towards procurement of the ITER vacuum vessel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioki, K., E-mail: Kimihiro.Ioki@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul-lez-Durance CEDEX (France); Barabash, V.; Bachmann, C.; Chappuis, P.; Choi, C.H.; Cordier, J-J.; Giraud, B.; Gribov, Y. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul-lez-Durance CEDEX (France); Heitzenroeder, Ph. [PPPL MS41, Princeton University, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Her, N.; Johnson, G. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul-lez-Durance CEDEX (France); Jones, L. [F4E, c/Josep Pla, n.2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Edificio B3, E-08019, Barcelona (Spain); Jun, C. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul-lez-Durance CEDEX (France); Kim, B.C. [NFRI, 52 Yeoeundong Yuseonggu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Kuzmin, E. [NTC ' Sintez' , Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Loesser, D. [PPPL MS41, Princeton University, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Martin, A.; Merola, M. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul-lez-Durance CEDEX (France); Pathak, H. [IPR, Near Indira Bridge, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India); Readman, P. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul-lez-Durance CEDEX (France)

    2011-10-01

    Procurement arrangements for ITER key components including the vacuum vessel (VV) have been signed and the ITER activities are now fully devoted towards construction. Final design reviews have been carried out for the main vessel and ports. One of the design review topics is the selection of materials, material procurement, and assessment of material performance during operation. The width of the inner shell splice plates was increased from 120 mm to 160 mm to minimize risk during the assembly of the Thermal shields and the VV. Instead of facet shaping, 3D shaping was introduced for the outboard inner shell. The material qualification procedures have been started for VV structural materials such as 316L(N) IG for licensing as a nuclear pressure equipment component. In accordance with the regulatory requirements and quality requirements for operation, common material specifications have been prepared in collaboration with the domestic agencies.

  6. Grain size dependent mechanical properties in nanophase materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, R.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Fougere, G.E. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-02-01

    It has become possible in recent years to synthesize metals and ceramics under well controlled conditions with constituent grain structures on a manometer size scale (below 100 nm). These new materials have mechanical properties that are strongly grain-size dependent and often significantly different than those of their coarser grained counterparts. Nanophase metals tend to become stronger and ceramics are more easily deformed as grain size is reduced. The observed mechanical property changes appear to be related primarily to grain size limitations and the large percentage of atoms in grain boundary environments. A brief overview of our present knowledge about the grain-size dependent mechanical properties of nanophase materials is presented.

  7. Combustion Properties of Biomass Flash Pyrolysis Oils: Final Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. R. Shaddix; D. R. Hardesty

    1999-04-01

    Thermochemical pyrolysis of solid biomass feedstocks, with subsequent condensation of the pyrolysis vapors, has been investigated in the U.S. and internationally as a means of producing a liquid fuel for power production from biomass. This process produces a fuel with significantly different physical and chemical properties from traditional petroleum-based fuel oils. In addition to storage and handling difficulties with pyrolysis oils, concern exists over the ability to use this fuel effectively in different combustors. The report endeavors to place the results and conclusions from Sandia's research into the context of international efforts to utilize pyrolysis oils. As a special supplement to this report, Dr. Steven Gust, of Finland's Neste Oy, has provided a brief assessment of pyrolysis oil combustion research efforts and commercialization prospects in Europe.

  8. Tunneling properties of electromagnetic wave in slab superconducting material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khem B. Thapa; Sanjay Srivastava; Alka Vishwakarma; S. P. Ojha

    2011-01-01

    When the electromagnetic wave propagates through a slab superconducting material in microwave ranges, tunneling properties of the electromagnetic wave at critical temperature are investigated theoretically. The transmittance and the reflectance of the slab superconducting material vary with the thickness of material as well as the refractive index of substrates.The high transmittance is found for thin superconductor at low wavelength region.However, optical properties are strongly dependent upon temperature and incidence wavelength. The electromagnetic wave is totally transmitted without loss for incidence wavelength (λ = 5000 nm) due to the zero refractive index and infinite penetration depth of the superconductor at the critical temperature.

  9. Compact rock material gas permeability properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huanling, E-mail: whl_hm@163.com [Key Laboratory of Coastal Disaster and Defence, Ministry of Education, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China); LML, University of Lille, Cite Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Xu, Weiya; Zuo, Jing [Institutes of Geotechnical Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Natural compact rocks, such as sandstone, granite, and rock salt, are the main materials and geological environment for storing underground oil, gas, CO{sub 2,} shale gas, and radioactive waste because they have extremely low permeabilities and high mechanical strengths. Using the inert gas argon as the fluid medium, the stress-dependent permeability and porosity of monzonitic granite and granite gneiss from an underground oil storage depot were measured using a permeability and porosity measurement system. Based on the test results, models for describing the relationships among the permeability, porosity, and confining pressure of rock specimens were analyzed and are discussed. A power law is suggested to describe the relationship between the stress-dependent porosity and permeability; for the monzonitic granite and granite gneiss (for monzonitic granite (A-2), the initial porosity is approximately 4.05%, and the permeability is approximately 10{sup −19} m{sup 2}; for the granite gneiss (B-2), the initial porosity is approximately 7.09%, the permeability is approximately 10{sup −17} m{sup 2}; and the porosity-sensitivity exponents that link porosity and permeability are 0.98 and 3.11, respectively). Compared with moderate-porosity and high-porosity rocks, for which φ > 15%, low-porosity rock permeability has a relatively lower sensitivity to stress, but the porosity is more sensitive to stress, and different types of rocks show similar trends. From the test results, it can be inferred that the test rock specimens’ permeability evolution is related to the relative particle movements and microcrack closure.

  10. SEWABILITY PROPERTIES OF GARMENT LEATHERS TANNED WITH VARIOUS TANNING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ORK Nilay

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chromium tannage is the most used technology in processing of garment leathers. Due to environmental requirements and demands on natural products there is an increasing interest on alternatives to chromium tannage especially on vegetable tanned leathers. Leather properties vary in a very wide range depending on the animal type it is obtained from and the process type and chemicals used in the manufacturing. In this study, the effect of various tanning materials to the sewability of garment leathers was investigated. For this purpose, vegetable, chromium and chromium-vegetable combination tanned garment leathers from the same animal origin were supplied from a garment leather manufacturing factory. Needle penetration force and the sewability values of these leathers were determined by using L&M Sewability Tester. It was found that material properties and sewing properties showed differences regarding to the tanning material used even in same type of raw material. Chromium tanned leathers had sewability values of 13.4% horizontal and 14.2% vertical which are considered good to fair. Vegetable tanned leathers and chromium-vegetable tanned leathers had sewability values of 38.2% horizontal, 49.2% vertical and 98% horizontal, 98.5% vertical respectively which are considered poor. The results of the study conclude that, there is a big difference in material properties when the tanning technology and material is changed which also affects the sewing properties.

  11. High Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of ZnO Based Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Li

    This thesis investigated the high temperature thermoelectric properties of ZnO based materials. The investigation first focused on the doping mechanisms of Al-doped ZnO, and then the influence of spark plasma sintering conditions on the thermoelectric properties of Al, Ga-dually doped ZnO....... Following that, the nanostructuring effect for Al-doped ZnO was systematically investigated using samples with different microstructure morphologies. At last, the newly developed ZnCdO materials with superior thermoelectric properties and thermal stability were introduced as promising substitutions...... for conventional ZnO materials. For Al-doped ZnO, α- and γ-Al2O3 were selectively used as dopants in order to understand the doping mechanism of each phase and their effects on the thermoelectric properties. The samples were prepared by the spark plasma sintering technique from precursors calcined at various...

  12. Understanding and Predicting the Properties of Complex Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Mauro, John C.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Predicting the properties of new materials prior to manufacturing is a topic attracting great industrial and scientific interest. Mechanical properties are currently of particular interest given the increasing demand for stronger, thinner, and more flexible materials in recent years. Property...... prediction for ceramic materials is facilitated by the periodic short- and long-range order of crystals. Based on J.C. Phillips’s theory for the ionicity of chemical bonding from ~1970, a method for predicting the hardness of covalent crystals was developed in the 2000s, which is now widely applied...... for the design of new superhard ceramic materials. It took another 10 years before the same predictions became possible for glassy systems, in which the lack of long-range order and the long time scales for relaxation greatly complicate the traditional modeling efforts. The key for making progress was to extract...

  13. Development of polyimide materials for use in solar energy systems. Final report, August 1, 1978-July 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcoxson, A.L.; Sorathia, U.A.; Gagliani, J.

    1980-01-01

    A program to optimize and characterize improved insulation materials for solar energy systems is described. Two separate and distinct products have been studied, a lightweight flexible insulating foam and a high density, rigid, load bearing insulating foam. These products are derived from a polyimide resin, the formulations and processes for which were developed under NASA-JSC sponsored programs. These materials are non-burning and do not emit measurable quantities of smoke or toxic by-products. Candidate resins were selected on the basis of cost, expected foam insulating and weatherability properties and ease of production. Critical characterization parameters were established for the flexible insulating foam in the form of environmental exposure resistance, thermal conductivity and hydrolytic stability. Studies initiated to improve the exposure resistance included additive studies, using reinforcements and UV absorbers, and postcure and densification studies. Optimum resin formulations, foam densities and foam structures were identified on the basis of the exposure, thermal conductivity, and microwave testing. Two candidate materials were selected and fully characterized for physical and thermal properties. This resulted in the selection of a final candidate material. The rigid foam was optimized through a glass reinforcement and process parameter study. This work was characterized on the basis of low cost, ease of production and the critical property requirement of compressive strength. The result of these studies was an optimized glass strand/microballoon reinforced foam which was then fully characterized for physical and thermal properties. Samples of both the flexible and rigid polyimide insulating materials were then prepared and submitted to DOE.

  14. 77 FR 23713 - Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... relationship between EPA-approved labels for pesticides registered under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide... AGENCY Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for.... SUMMARY: The Agency is announcing the availability of a Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice)...

  15. Metamaterials as a Platform for the Development of Novel Materials for Energy Applications. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, Willie [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    2016-02-11

    Final report detailing the work performed on DESC0005240 at Boston College. Report details research into metamaterial absorber theory, thermophotovoltaics a dynamic 3 state material capable of switching between transmissive, reflective, and absorptive states. Also high temperature NIR metamaterials are explored.

  16. Synchrotron Studies of Quantum Emergence in Non-Low Dimensional Materials Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James W. Allen

    2011-08-26

    This document is the final report of research performed under U.S. DOE Award Number DE-FG02-07ER46379, entitled Synchrotron Studies of Quantum Emergence in Non-Low Dimensional Materials. It covers the full period of the award, from June 1, 2007 through May 31, 2011.

  17. Investigation of thermal properties of raw materials of asphalt mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géber, R.; Simon, A.; Kocserha, I.

    2017-02-01

    Asphalt mixtures are composite materials, which are made of different grades of mineral aggregates and bitumen. During the mixing process mineral materials were blended with bitumen at relatively high temperature (∼200 °C). As the binding process come off in these higher temperature range, thermal properties of asphaltic materials are important. The aim of this project is to reveal the thermal properties of raw materials. During our research two types of mineral aggregates were tested (limestone and dolomite) by different methods. Differential thermal analysis, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity were investigated at technologically important temperatures. The results showed that the structure of mineral materials did not change at elevated temperatures, expansion of samples was neglible, while thermal conductivity changed by temperature.

  18. A Summary of the Fatigue Properties of Wind Turbine Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTHERLAND, HERBERT J.

    1999-10-07

    Modern wind turbines are fatigue critical machines that are typically used to produce electrical power from the wind. The materials used to construct these machines are subjected to a unique loading spectrum that contains several orders of magnitude more cycles than other fatigue critical structures, e.g., an airplane. To facilitate fatigue designs, a large database of material properties has been generated over the past several years that is specialized to materials typically used in wind turbines. In this paper, I review these fatigue data. Major sections are devoted to the properties developed for wood, metals (primarily aluminum) and fiberglass. Special emphasis is placed on the fiberglass discussion because this material is current the material of choice for wind turbine blades. The paper focuses on the data developed in the U.S., but cites European references that provide important insights.

  19. Thermal properties of graphene and nanostructured carbon materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandin, Alexander A.

    2011-08-01

    Recent years have seen a rapid growth of interest by the scientific and engineering communities in the thermal properties of materials. Heat removal has become a crucial issue for continuing progress in the electronic industry, and thermal conduction in low-dimensional structures has revealed truly intriguing features. Carbon allotropes and their derivatives occupy a unique place in terms of their ability to conduct heat. The room-temperature thermal conductivity of carbon materials span an extraordinary large range -- of over five orders of magnitude -- from the lowest in amorphous carbons to the highest in graphene and carbon nanotubes. Here, I review the thermal properties of carbon materials focusing on recent results for graphene, carbon nanotubes and nanostructured carbon materials with different degrees of disorder. Special attention is given to the unusual size dependence of heat conduction in two-dimensional crystals and, specifically, in graphene. I also describe the prospects of applications of graphene and carbon materials for thermal management of electronics.

  20. Surface Properties of Photo-Oxidized Bituminous Coals: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Natural weathering has a detrimental effect on the hydrophobic nature of coal, which in turn can influence clean-coal recovery during flotation. Few techniques are available that can establish the quality of coal surfaces and that have a short analysis time to provide input for process control. Luminescence emissions which can be quantified with an optical microscope and photometer system, are measurably influenced by degree of weathering as well as by mild storage deterioration. In addition, it has been shown that when vitrinite is irradiated with a relatively high intensity flux of violet- or ultraviolet- light in the presence of air, photo-oxidation of the surface occurs. The combination of measuring the change in luminescence emission intensity with degree of surface oxidation provided the impetus for the current investigation. The principal aim of this research was to determine whether clear correlations could be established among surface oxygen functionality, hydrophobicity induced by photo-oxidation, and measurements of luminescence intensity and alteration. If successful, the project would result in quantitative luminescence techniques based on optical microscopy that would provide a measure of the changes in surface properties as a function of oxidation and relate them to coal cleanability. Two analytical techniques were designed to achieve these goals. Polished surfaces of vitrain bands or a narrow size fraction of powdered vitrain concentrates were photo-oxidized using violet or ultraviolet light fluxes and then changes in surface properties and chemistry were measured using a variety of near-surface analytical techniques. Results from this investigation demonstrate that quantitative luminescence intensity measurements can be performed on fracture surfaces of bituminous rank coals (vitrains) and that the data obtained do reveal significant variations depending upon the level of surface oxidation. Photo-oxidation induced by violet or ultraviolet light

  1. Properties of structural materials in liquid metal environment. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgstedt, H.U. [ed.

    1991-12-15

    The International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) Specialists Meeting on Properties of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment was held during June 18 to June 20, 1991, at the Nuclear Research Centre (Kernforschungszentrum) in Karlsruhe, Germany. The Specialists Meeting was divided into five technical sessions which addressed topics as follows: Creep-Rupture Behaviour of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment; Behaviour of Materials in Liquid Metal Environments under Off-Normal Conditions;Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue of Structural Materials in Liquid Metal Environment; Crack Propagation in Liquid Sodium; and Conclusions and recommendations. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  2. MPOD: A Material Property Open Database linked to structural information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepponi, Giancarlo; Gražulis, Saulius; Chateigner, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    Inspired by the Crystallography Open Database (COD), the Material Properties Open Database (MPOD) was given birth. MPOD aims at collecting and making publicly available at no charge tensorial properties (including scalar properties) of phases and linking such properties to structural information of the COD when available. MPOD files are written with the STAR file syntax, used and developed for the Crystallographic Information Files. A dictionary containing new definitions has been written according to the Dictionary Definition Language 1, although some tricks were adopted to allow for multiple entries still avoiding ambiguousness. The initial set includes mechanical properties, elastic stiffness and compliance, internal friction; electrical properties, resistivity, dielectric permittivity and stiffness, thermodynamic properties, heat capacity, thermal conductivity, diffusivity and expansion; electromechanical properties, piezoelectricity, electrostriction, electromechanical coupling; optical properties; piezooptic and photoelastic properties; superconducting properties, critical fields, penetration and coherence lengths. Properties are reported in MPOD files where the original published paper containing the data is cited and structural and experimental information is also given. One MPOD file contains information relative to only one publication and one phase. The files and the information contained therein can also be consulted on-line at http://www.materialproperties.org.

  3. Development and Demonstration of Material Properties Database and Software for the Simulation of Flow Properties in Cementitious Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-30

    This report describes work performed by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in fiscal year 2014 to develop a new Cementitious Barriers Project (CBP) software module designated as FLOExcel. FLOExcel incorporates a uniform database to capture material characterization data and a GoldSim model to define flow properties for both intact and fractured cementitious materials and estimate Darcy velocity based on specified hydraulic head gradient and matric tension. The software module includes hydraulic parameters for intact cementitious and granular materials in the database and a standalone GoldSim framework to manipulate the data. The database will be updated with new data as it comes available. The software module will later be integrated into the next release of the CBP Toolbox, Version 3.0. This report documents the development efforts for this software module. The FY14 activities described in this report focused on the following two items that form the FLOExcel package; 1) Development of a uniform database to capture CBP data for cementitious materials. In particular, the inclusion and use of hydraulic properties of the materials are emphasized; and 2) Development of algorithms and a GoldSim User Interface to calculate hydraulic flow properties of degraded and fractured cementitious materials. Hydraulic properties are required in a simulation of flow through cementitious materials such as Saltstone, waste tank fill grout, and concrete barriers. At SRNL these simulations have been performed using the PORFLOW code as part of Performance Assessments for salt waste disposal and waste tank closure.

  4. Final Technical Report for DE-SC0001878 [Theory and Simulation of Defects in Oxide Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelikowsky, James R. [University of Texas at Austin

    2014-04-14

    We explored a wide variety of oxide materials and related problems, including materials at the nanoscale and generic problems associated with oxide materials such as the development of more efficient computational tools to examine these materials. We developed and implemented methods to understand the optical and structural properties of oxides. For ground state properties, our work is predominantly based on pseudopotentials and density functional theory (DFT), including new functionals and going beyond the local density approximation (LDA): LDA+U. To study excited state properties (quasiparticle and optical excitations), we use time dependent density functional theory, the GW approach, and GW plus Bethe-Salpeter equation (GW-BSE) methods based on a many-body Green function approaches. Our work focused on the structural, electronic, optical and magnetic properties of defects (such as oxygen vacancies) in hafnium oxide, titanium oxide (both bulk and clusters) and related materials. We calculated the quasiparticle defect states and charge transition levels of oxygen vacancies in monoclinic hafnia. we presented a milestone G0W0 study of two of the crystalline phases of dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2} clusters. We employed hybrid density functional theory to examine the electronic structure of sexithiophene/ZnO interfaces. To identify the possible effect of epitaxial strain on stabilization of the ferromagnetic state of LaCoO{sub 3} (LCO), we compare the total energy of the magnetic and nonmagnetic states of the strained theoretical bulk structure.

  5. Polyvinyl siloxane impression materials: a review of properties and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, W W; Donovan, T E

    1992-11-01

    Polyvinyl siloxane impression materials have been shown to have excellent properties as impression materials; however, they are sensitive to manipulative variables. Several methods of using very high viscosity (putty) materials to form "trays" to obtain uniform bulk of the wash impression are described, and the disadvantages of each of these techniques is pointed out. It is recommended that for best results acrylic resin custom trays should be used routinely. The interaction of polyvinyl siloxane materials with latex products is also discussed and problems that this inhibition can cause are stated. Suggestions to avoid this interaction are outlined. One of the disadvantages of the impression materials is that it has a relatively short working time. Refrigerating the material will increase working time without affecting accuracy.

  6. Standard Guide for Identification of Fibers, Fillers, and Core Materials in Computerized Material Property Databases

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 This guide establishes the essential and desirable elements of data required for the identification in computerized material property databases of fibers, fillers, and core materials used in composite materials. A recommended format for entry of these fields into a computerized database is provided. Examples of the application of this guide are also included. 1.2 The recommended format described in this guide is suggested for use in recording data in a database, which is different from contractural reporting of actual test results. The latter type of information is described in materials specifications shown in business transactions and is subject to agreement between vendor and purchaser. 1.3 The materials covered by this guide include fibers, both continuous and discontinuous, and fillers of various geometries which are used as reinforcements in composite materials, as well as core materials used in sandwich composites. Cores may be foam, honeycomb, or naturally occurring materials such as balsa wood....

  7. Frequency-dependent dynamic effective properties of porous materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peijun Wei; Zhuping Huang

    2005-01-01

    The frequency-dependent dynamic effective properties (phase velocity, attenuation and elastic modulus) of porous materials are studied numerically. The coherent plane longitudinal and shear wave equations, which are obtained by averaging on the multiple scattering fields, are used to evaluate the frequency-dependent dynamic effective properties of a porous material. It is found that the prediction of the dynamic effective properties includes the size effects of voids which are not included in most prediction of the traditional static effective properties. The prediction of the dynamic effective elastic modulus at a relatively low frequency range is compared with that of the traditional static effective elastic modulus, and the dynamic effective elastic modulus is found to be very close to the Hashin-Shtrikman upper bound.

  8. Handbook on dielectric and thermal properties of microwaveable materials

    CERN Document Server

    Komarov, Vyacheslav V

    2012-01-01

    The application of microwave energy for thermal processing of different materials and substances is a rapidly growing trend in modern science and engineering. In fact, optimal design work involving microwaves is impossible without solid knowledge of the properties of these materials. Here s a practical reference that collects essential data on the dielectric and thermal properties of microwaveable materials, saving you countless hours on projects in a wide range of areas, including microwave design and heating, applied electrodynamics, food science, and medical technology. This unique book provides hard-to-find information on complex dielectric permittivity of media at industrial, scientific, and medical frequencies (430 MHz, 915MHz, 2.45GHz, 5.8 GHz, and 24.125GHz). Written by a leading expert in the field, this authoritative book does an exceptional job at presenting critical data on various materials and explaining what their key characteristics are concerning microwaves.

  9. Fabrication, properties, and tritium recovery from solid breeder materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Kondo, T. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)); Roux, N. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)); Tanaka, S. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan)); Vollath, D. (Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany, F.R.))

    1991-01-01

    The breeding blanket is a key component of the fusion reactor because it directly involves tritium breeding and energy extraction, both of which are critical to development of fusion power. The lithium ceramics continue to show promise as candidate breeder materials. This promise was recognized by the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design team in its selection of ceramics as the first option for the ITER breeder material. Blanket design studies have indicated properties in the candidate materials data base that need further investigation. Current studies are focusing on tritium release behavior at high burnup, changes in thermophysical properties with burnup, compatibility between the ceramic breeder and beryllium multiplier, and phase changes with burnup. Laboratory and in-reactor tests, some as part of an international collaboration for development of ceramic breeder materials, are underway. 133 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Reflector and Shield Material Properties for Project Prometheus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Nash

    2005-11-02

    This letter provides updated reflector and shield preliminary material property information to support reactor design efforts. The information provided herein supersedes the applicable portions of Revision 1 to the Space Power Program Preliminary Reactor Design Basis (Reference (a)). This letter partially answers the request in Reference (b) to provide unirradiated and irradiated material properties for beryllium, beryllium oxide, isotopically enriched boron carbide ({sup 11}B{sub 4}C) and lithium hydride. With the exception of {sup 11}B{sub 4}C, the information is provided in Attachments 1 and 2. At the time of issuance of this document, {sup 11}B{sub 4}C had not been studied.

  11. Material Property Characterization of AS4/VRM-34 Textile Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenoble, Ray W.; Johnston, William M

    2013-01-01

    Several material properties (modulus, strengths, and fracture toughness) of a textile composite have been evaluated to provide input data to analytical models of Pultruded Rod Stiffened Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS). The material system is based on warp-knitted preforms of AS4 carbon fibers and VRM-34 epoxy resin, which have been processed via resin infusion and oven curing. Tensile, compressive, shear, and fracture toughness properties have been measured at ambient and elevated temperatures. All specimens were tested in as-fabricated (dry) condition. Specimens were tested with and without through-thickness stitching.

  12. Synthesis, Properties and Mineralogy of Important Inorganic Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Warner, Terence E

    2010-01-01

    Intended as a textbook for courses involving preparative solid-state chemistry, this book offers clear and detailed descriptions on how to prepare a selection of inorganic materials that exhibit important optical, magnetic and electrical properties, on a laboratory scale. The text covers a wide range of preparative methods and can be read as separate, independent chapters or as a unified coherent body of work. Discussions of various chemical systems reveal how the properties of a material can often be influenced by modifications to the preparative procedure, and vice versa. References to miner

  13. Direct Imaging of Anisotropic Material Properties using Photorefractive Laser Ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Deason, Vance Albert; Schley, Robert Scott; Watson, Scott Marshall

    1999-07-01

    Anisotropic properties of materials can be determined by measuring the propagation of elastic waves in different directions. A laser imaging approach is presented that utilizes the adaptive property of photorefractive materials to produce a real-time measurement of the antisymmetric Lamb or flexural traveling wave mode displacement and phase. Continuous excitation is employed and the data is recorded and displayed in all directions simultaneously at video camera frame rates. Fourier transform of the data produces an image of the wave slowness in all planar directions. The results demonstrate imaging of microstructural isotropy and anisotropy and stress induced ansiotropy in plates.

  14. Direct Imaging of Anisotropic Material Properties using Photorefractive Laser Ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.L. Telschow; R.S. Schley; S.M. Watson; V.A. Deason

    1999-06-01

    Anisotropic properties of materials can be determined by measuring the propagation of elastic waves in different directions. A laser imaging approach is presented that utilizes the adaptive property of photorefractive materials to produce a real-time measurement of the antisymmetric Lamb or flexural traveling wave mode displacement and phase. Continuous excitation is employed and the data is recorded and displayed in all directions simultaneously at video camera frame rates. Fourier transform of the data produces an image of the wave slowness in all planar directions. The results demonstrate imaging of microstructural isotropy and anisotropy and stress induced ansiotropy in plates.

  15. INVESTIGATION OF TRIBOLOGICAL PROPERTIES CuSn10 BEARING MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Sadık ÜNLÜ

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronzes which copper based alloys is widely used because of properties physical, thermal and tribological as journal bearing material. This material that has tribological performance good conclusions gives at journal bearings. In this study, CuSn10 bronze that were manufactured journal bearings friction and wear properties has been examined and compared. SAE 1050 steel shaft has been used as counter abrader. Experiments have been carried out 10 N and 20 N loads, 750 and 1500 rpm, dry and lubricated conditions by using radial journal bearing wear test rig. As a results, high friction coefficient and weigh loss have been obtained at dry condition more than lubricated condition.

  16. Polymers for electricity and electronics materials, properties, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Drobny, Jiri George

    2011-01-01

    The comprehensive, practical book that explores the principles, properties, and applications of electrical polymers The electrical properties of polymers present almost limitless possibilities for industrial research and development, and this book provides an in-depth look at these remarkable molecules. In addition to traditional applications in insulating materials, wires, and cables, electrical polymers are increasingly being used in a range of emerging technologies. Presenting a comprehensive overview of how electrical polymers function and how they can be applied in the elec

  17. Mechanical properties of some polymer materials used for tooth positioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, A R; Cook, W D; West, V C

    1994-10-01

    The chemical composition, thermal behaviour and mechanical properties of three tooth positioner materials, Urethane P1 (P1), White Rubber (WR) and Elastocryl (EL) were investigated. Infra-red spectrophotometry indicated the P1 polyurethane material to be of the polyether type, and EL to be a blend of poly(ethyl methacrylate) and poly(methyl methacrylate) while WR appeared to be filled cis-poly (isoprene) (natural rubber). The glass transition temperature (Tg) for EL was determined as approximately 10 degrees C, and for both P1 and WR the Tg was less than -50 degrees C. The stress relaxation behaviour was assessed in compression by measuring the stress variation with time. The results for all three materials conformed to the superelastic theory of rubber elasticity. EL exhibited both a more rapid rate and higher degree of stress relaxation than did P1 and WR. Recovery from deformation was assessed by compressing cylinders for given periods of time and then measuring the level of reduced residual strain of the material with time. All three materials exhibited significant residual strain (epsilon(t)) over 'clinically relevant' time periods, and the reduced residual strain (epsilon(t)/epsilon(O)) following deformation was greater for EL than P1 or WR. There was some indication that the three materials have some permanent set following deformation. It was concluded that, in considering desirable mechanical properties of tooth positioner materials, EL is the least suitable of the three examined, with none of the materials being ideal.

  18. Characterization of mechanical properties of materials using ultrasound broadband spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Megha; Prasad, Abhinav; Bellare, Jayesh R; Seshia, Ashwin A

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the characterization of homogenous materials (metals, alloys, glass and polymers) by a simple broadband ultrasonic interrogation method. The novelty lies in the use of ultrasound in a continuous way with very low input power (0 dBm or less) and analysis of the transmitted acoustic wave spectrum for material property characterization like speed of sound, density and dimensions of a material. Measurements were conducted on various thicknesses of samples immersed in liquid where continuous-wave, frequency swept ultrasonic energy was incident normal to the sample surface. The electro-acoustic transmission response is analyzed in the frequency domain with respect to a specifically constructed multi-layered analytical model. From the acoustic signature of the sample materials, material properties such as speed of sound and acoustic impedance can be calculated with experimentally derived values found to be in general agreement with the literature and with pulse-echo technique establishing the basis for a non-contact and non-destructive technique for material characterization. Further, by looking at the frequency spacing of the peaks of water when the sample is immersed, the thickness of the sample can be calculated independently from the acoustic response. This technique can prove to be an effective non-contact, non-destructive and fast material characterization technique for a wide variety of materials.

  19. Electron paramagnetic resonance of material properties and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    This paper demonstrates, primarily for the non-specialist and within the context of new and recent achievements, the diagnostic value of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) in the study of material properties and processes. I have selected three EPR studies which demonstrate the elegance and uniqueness of EPR in atomic defect studies and exemplify unusual achievements through the use of new techniques for material measurement and preparation. A brief introduction into the origin, interaction, and detection of unpaired electrons is included.

  20. Thermomechanical Properties of Corundum—Mullite—Zirconia Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONGXiangchong; SUNGengcheng

    1998-01-01

    The mechanical properties at elevated tempera-tures of corundum-mullite materials and the effects of zirconia and titania additions have been investi-gated.The results are correlated with changes in microstructure,Based on the results of these investi-gations ,reaction-sintered corundum-mullite-zirco-nia materials with improved hot strength and ther-mal shock resistance have been developed for refractor-ries usage.

  1. Center for Fundamental and Applied Research in Nanostructured and Lightweight Materials. Final Technical Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullins, Michael; Rogers, Tony; King, Julia; Keith, Jason; Cornilsen, Bahne; Allen, Jeffrey; Gilbert, Ryan; Holles, Joseph

    2010-09-28

    The core projects for this DOE-sponsored Center at Michigan Tech have focused on several of the materials problems identified by the NAS. These include: new electrode materials, enhanced PEM materials, lighter and more effective bipolar plates, and improvement of the carbon used as a current carrier. This project involved fundamental and applied research in the development and testing of lightweight and nanostructured materials to be used in fuel cell applications and for chemical synthesis. The advent of new classes of materials engineered at the nanometer level can produce materials that are lightweight and have unique physical and chemical properties. The grant was used to obtain and improve the equipment infrastructure to support this research and also served to fund seven research projects. These included: 1. Development of lightweight, thermally conductive bipolar plates for improved thermal management in fuel cells; 2. Exploration of pseudomorphic nanoscale overlayer bimetallic catalysts for fuel cells; 3. Development of hybrid inorganic/organic polymer nanocomposites with improved ionic and electronic properties; 4. Development of oriented polymeric materials for membrane applications; 5. Preparation of a graphitic carbon foam current collectors; 6. The development of lightweight carbon electrodes using graphitic carbon foams for battery and fuel cell applications; and 7. Movement of water in fuel cell electrodes.

  2. The first stage of BFS integrated system for nuclear materials control and accounting. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The BFS computerized accounting system is a network-based one. It runs in a client/server mode. The equipment used in the system includes a computer network consisting of: One server computer system, including peripheral hardware and three client computer systems. The server is located near the control room of the BFS-2 facility outside of the `stone sack` to ensure access during operation of the critical assemblies. Two of the client computer systems are located near the assembly tables of the BFS-1 and BFS-2 facilities while the third one being the Fissile Material Storage. This final report details the following topics: Computerized nuclear material accounting methods; The portal monitoring system; Test and evaluation of item control technology; Test and evaluation of radiation based nuclear material measurement equipment; and The integrated demonstration of nuclear material control and accounting methods.

  3. The synthesis and properties of nanoscale ionic materials

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Robert Salgado

    2010-02-17

    In this article we discuss the effect of constituents on structure, flow, and thermal properties of nanoscale ionic materials (NIMs). NIMs are a new class of nanohybrids consisting of a nanometer-sized core, a charged corona covalently attached to the core, and an oppositely charged canopy. The hybrid nature of NIMs allows for their properties to be engineered by selectively varying their components. The unique properties associated with these systems can help overcome some of the issues facing the implementation of nanohybrids to various commercial applications, including carbon dioxide capture,water desalinization and as lubricants. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Evaluation of Water Resistance and Diffusion Properties of Paint Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Drchalová

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple method is presented for evaluating the water-proofness quality of paints on lining materials. The method is based on measuring the integral capillarity in dependence on time, and then comparing this value to the value determined for the basic lining material. Measurements of the effective water vapor permeability then provide information on the risk of condensation which may increase after applying the paint. A practical application of the method is performed with four Karlocolor paints on glass concrete substrates. All the Karlocolor paints are found to be very effective materials for driven rain protection. The diffusion properties of all the paints are found to be excellent.

  5. Determination of replicate composite bone material properties using modal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuridan, Steven; Goossens, Quentin; Pastrav, Leonard; Roosen, Jorg; Mulier, Michiel; Denis, Kathleen; Desmet, Wim; Sloten, Jos Vander

    2017-02-01

    Replicate composite bones are used extensively for in vitro testing of new orthopedic devices. Contrary to tests with cadaveric bone material, which inherently exhibits large variability, they offer a standardized alternative with limited variability. Accurate knowledge of the composite's material properties is important when interpreting in vitro test results and when using them in FE models of biomechanical constructs. The cortical bone analogue material properties of three different fourth-generation composite bone models were determined by updating FE bone models using experimental and numerical modal analyses results. The influence of the cortical bone analogue material model (isotropic or transversely isotropic) and the inter- and intra-specimen variability were assessed. Isotropic cortical bone analogue material models failed to represent the experimental behavior in a satisfactory way even after updating the elastic material constants. When transversely isotropic material models were used, the updating procedure resulted in a reduction of the longitudinal Young's modulus from 16.00GPa before updating to an average of 13.96 GPa after updating. The shear modulus was increased from 3.30GPa to an average value of 3.92GPa. The transverse Young's modulus was lowered from an initial value of 10.00GPa to 9.89GPa. Low inter- and intra-specimen variability was found. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Research of properties of modern heat-insulation materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Shcherbak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the modern heat-insulating materials presented at the market of Ukraine and to estimate the efficiency of their application. Methodology. Research and analysis of heat-insulating materials presented at the market of Ukraine, according to the existing standards. Findings. To ensure the energy efficiency in buildings and constructions it is necessary to apply the domestic heat-insulating material, which possesses the given thermo technical characteristics, reduced indexes of water absorption, flammability and toxicity, as well as durability and relatively low self–cost. Originality. Basic heat-insulating materials, which are most widely used in construction are systematized, the researches of their properties are conducted and the foam glass is chosen as the most effective heat-insulating material. It is characterized by high thermo technical characteristics and possesses the best ecological indexes, as well as the sturdiness for aggressive factors influence. Practical value. Special attention deserves the insulating material foam glass, which is a synthetic silicate material with evenly placed pores (0.1 ... 5.0 mm separated by thin septa with a vitreous substance possesses the necessary properties and by aforesaid may be accepted for studies aimed its improvement (modification. The results of researches can be applied in the foam glass production, which is used for heat-insulation of buildings and constructions, equipment, pipelines etc.

  7. Mechanics of advanced materials analysis of properties and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Matveenko, Valery

    2015-01-01

    The last decades have seen a large extension of types of materials employed in various applications. In many cases these materials demonstrate mechanical properties and performance that vary significantly from those of their traditional counterparts. Such uniqueness is sought – or even specially manufactured – to meet increased requirements on modern components and structures related to their specific use. As a result, mechanical behaviors of these materials under different loading and environmental conditions are outside the boundaries of traditional mechanics of materials, presupposing development of new characterization techniques, theoretical descriptions and numerical tools. The book presents interesting examples of recent developments in this area. Among the studied materials are bulk metallic glasses, metamaterials, special composites, piezoelectric smart structures, nonwovens, etc.

  8. Comparison of shrinkage related properties of various patch repair materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiawan, S. A.; Fitrianto, R. S.

    2017-02-01

    A patch repair material has been developed in the form of unsaturated polyester resin (UPR)-mortar. The performance and durability of this material are governed by its compatibility with the concrete being repaired. One of the compatibility issue that should be tackled is the dimensional compatibility as a result of differential shrinkage between the repair material and the concrete substrate. This research aims to evaluate such shrinkage related properties of UPR-mortar and to compare with those of other patch repair materials. The investigation includes the following aspects: free shrinkage, resistance to delamination and cracking. The results indicate that UPR-mortar poses a lower free shrinkage, lower risk of both delamination and cracking tendency in comparison to other repair materials.

  9. Surface effects on the mechanical properties of nanoporous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Re [School of Power and Mechanical Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Li Xide; Feng Xiqiao [AML, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Qin Qinghua [School of Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Liu Jianlin, E-mail: fengxq@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Mechanics, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266555 (China)

    2011-07-01

    Using the theory of surface elasticity, we investigate the mechanical properties of nanoporous materials. The classical theory of porous materials is modified to account for surface effects, which become increasingly important as the characteristic sizes of microstructures shrink to nanometers. First, a refined Timoshenko beam model is presented to predict the effective elastic modulus of nanoporous materials. Then the surface effects on the elastic microstructural buckling behavior of nanoporous materials are examined. In particular, nanoporous gold is taken as an example to illustrate the application of the proposed model. The results reveal that both the elastic modulus and the critical buckling behavior of nanoporous materials exhibit a distinct dependence on the characteristic sizes of microstructures, e.g. the average ligament width.

  10. Synthesis, Properties and Mineralogy of Important Inorganic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, Terence Edwin

    the chemical nature of the elements from which they are composed. Five of these materials contain the element copper situated in different chemical environments, which creates a convenient forum to discuss various topics, including; chemical affinity, electronegativity, acid-base chemistry, oxidation states...... students, and is intended to be used as a textbook for laboratory courses in chemistry, ceramics, materials science, and solid state physics degree programmes. It is written in a style that should encourage the student to make the transition from reading to researching for one’s degree, and thereby help......-specialists, who are interested in learning more about how technological ceramic materials and artificial minerals are made. Finally, the author assumes that the reader is familiar with the basic principles and concepts of materials chemistry (or at least has access to such knowledge), such as; thermodynamic...

  11. Bone strength and material properties of the glenoid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frich, Lars Henrik; Jensen, N.C.; Odgaard, A.;

    1997-01-01

    The quality of the glenoid bone is important to a successful total shoulder replacement. Finite element models have been used to model the response of the glenoid bone to an implanted prosthesis. Because very little is known about the bone strength and the material properties at the glenoid, thes...

  12. Food material properties and early hominin processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Katherine D; Lieberman, Daniel E; Lucas, Peter W

    2014-12-01

    Although early Homo is hypothesized to have used tools more than australopiths to process foods prior to consumption, it is unknown how much the food processing techniques they used altered the material properties of foods, and therefore the masticatory forces they generated, and how well they were able to comminute foods. This study presents experimental data on changes to food material properties caused by mechanical tenderization (pounding with a stone tool) and cooking (dry roasting) of two foods likely to have been important components of the hominin diet: meat and tubers. Mechanical tenderization significantly decreased tuber toughness by 42%, but had no effect on meat toughness. Roasting significantly decreased several material properties of tubers correlated with masticatory effort including toughness (49%), fracture stress (28%) and elastic modulus (45%), but increased the toughness (77%), fracture stress (50%-222%), and elastic modulus of muscle fibers in meat (308%). Despite increasing many material properties of meat associated with higher masticatory forces, roasting also decreased measured energy loss by 28%, which likely makes it easier to chew. These results suggest that the use of food processing techniques by early Homo probably differed for meat and tubers, but together would have reduced masticatory effort, helping to relax selection to maintain large, robust faces and large, thickly enameled teeth.

  13. Tailoring material properties of a nanofibrous extracellular matrix derived hydrogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Todd D.; Lin, Stephen Y.; Christman, Karen L.

    2011-12-01

    In the native tissue, the interaction between cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, mechanical stability, and signaling. It has been shown that decellularized ECMs can be processed into injectable formulations, thereby allowing for minimally invasive delivery. Upon injection and increase in temperature, these materials self-assemble into porous gels forming a complex network of fibers with nanoscale structure. In this study we aimed to examine and tailor the material properties of a self-assembling ECM hydrogel derived from porcine myocardial tissue, which was developed as a tissue specific injectable scaffold for cardiac tissue engineering. The impact of gelation parameters on ECM hydrogels has not previously been explored. We examined how modulating pH, temperature, ionic strength, and concentration affected the nanoscale architecture, mechanical properties, and gelation kinetics. These material characteristics were assessed using scanning electron microscopy, rheometry, and spectrophotometry, respectively. Since the main component of the myocardial matrix is collagen, many similarities between the ECM hydrogel and collagen gels were observed in terms of the nanofibrous structure and modulation of properties by altering ionic strength. However, variation from collagen gels was noted for the gelation temperature along with varied times and rates of gelation. These discrepancies when compared to collagen are likely due to the presence of other ECM components in the decellularized ECM based hydrogel. These results demonstrate how the material properties of ECM hydrogels could be tailored for future in vitro and in vivo applications.

  14. Thermal properties of hemp fibre non-woven materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freivalde, Liga; Kukle, Silvija; Russell, Stephen

    2013-12-01

    This review considers the thermal properties analysis of hemp fiber non-woven materials made by three different manufacturing technologies - thermal bonding, needle-punching and hydro-entanglement. For non-wovens development two hemp fibers cultivars grown in Latvia were used - Purini and Bialobrzeskie. Thermal resistance, conductivity and the effects of several parameters on thermal performance are revised.

  15. Investigation of Effective Material Properties of Stony Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Parul; Carlozzi, Alex; Bryson, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    To assess the threat posed by an asteroid entering Earth's atmosphere, one must predict if, when, and how it fragments during entry. A comprehensive understanding of the Asteroid material properties is needed to achieve this objective. At present, the meteorite material found on Earth are the only objects from an entering asteroid that can be used as representative material and be tested inside a laboratory setting. Therefore, unit cell models are developed to determine the effective material properties of stony meteorites and in turn deduce the properties of asteroids. The unit cell is representative volume that accounts for diverse minerals, porosity, and matrix composition inside a meteorite. The various classes under investigation includes H-class, L-class, and LL-class chondrites. The effective mechanical properties such as Young's Modulus and Poisson's Ratio of the unit cell are calculated by performing several hundreds of Monte-Carlo simulations. Terrestrial analogs such as Basalt and Gabbro are being used to validate the unit cell methodology.

  16. I. The metabolic properties of plutonium and allied materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.G.

    1948-05-24

    This report on the metabolic properties of plutonium and related radioactive materials presents experimental information in the following areas: radioautographic studies; tracer studies (with tables of accumulation in tissues) of actinium, radio-zirconium, technetium, radio-rubidium, radio-germanium, beryllium, and cadmium; decontamination and bone metabolism studies; and radio-chemical isolation.

  17. Material and Flexural Properties of Fiber-reinforced Rubber Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helminger, Nicholas P.

    The purpose of this research is to determine the material properties of rubber concrete with the addition of fibers, and to determine optimal mixture dosages of rubber and fiber in concrete for structural applications. Fiber-reinforced concrete and rubberized concrete have been researched separately extensively, but this research intends to combine both rubber and fiber in a concrete matrix in order to create a composite material, fiber-reinforced rubber concrete (FRRC). Sustainability has long been important in engineering design, but much of the previous research performed on sustainable concrete does not result in a material that can be used for practical purposes. While still achieving a material that can be used for structural applications, economical considerations were given when choosing the proportions and types of constituents in the concrete mix. Concrete mixtures were designed, placed, and tested in accordance with common procedures and standards, with an emphasis on practicality. Properties that were investigated include compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, toughness, and ductility. The basis for determining the optimal concrete mixture is one that is economical, practical, and exhibits ductile properties with a significant strength. Results show that increasing percentages of rubber tend to decrease workability, unit weight, compressive strength, split tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity while the toughness is increased. The addition of steel needle fibers to rubber concrete increases unit weight, compressive strength, split tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, toughness, and ductility of the composite material.

  18. Experimental analysis of electrical properties of composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, L.; Rovnaník, P.; Černý, R.

    2017-02-01

    Dry cement-based composites are electrically non-conductive materials that behave in electric field like dielectrics. However, a relatively low amount of electrically conductive admixture significantly increases the electrical conductivity which extends applicability of such materials in practice. Therefore, they can be used as self-monitoring sensors controlling development of cracks; as sensors monitoring moisture content or when treated by an external electrical voltage as heat sources used for deicing of material's surface layer. Alkali-activated aluminosilicates (AAA), as competing materials to cement-based materials, are intensively investigated in the present due to their superior durability and environmental impact. Whereas the electrical properties of AAA are similar to those cement-based, they can be enhanced in the same way. In both cases, it is crucial to find a reasonable amount of electrically conductive phase to design composites with a sufficient electrical conductivity at an affordable price. In this paper, electrical properties of composites based on AAA binder and electrically conductive admixture represented by carbon nanotubes (CNT) are investigated. Measurements of electrical properties are carried out by means of 2-probes DC technique on nine types of samples; reference sample without the conductive phase and samples with CNT admixture in amount of 0.1 % - 2.5 % by vol. A significant increase of the electrical conductivity starts from the amount of 0.5 % CNT admixture and in case of 2.5 % CNT is about three orders of magnitude higher compared to the reference sample.

  19. Development and Analysis of Synthetic Composite Materials Emulating Patient AAA Wall Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margossian, Christa M.

    Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) rupture accounts for 14,000 deaths a year in the United States. Since the number of ruptures has not decreased significantly in recent years despite improvements in imaging and surgical procedures, there is a need for an accurate, noninvasive technique capable of establishing rupture risk for specific patients and discriminating lesions at high risk. In this project, synthetic composite materials replicating patient-specific wall stiffness and strength were developed and their material properties evaluated. Composites utilizing various fibers were developed to give a range of stiffness from 1825.75 kPa up through 8187.64 kPa with one base material, Sylgard 170. A range of strength from 631.12 kPa to 1083 kPa with the same base material was also found. By evaluating various base materials and various reinforcing fibers, a catalogue of stiffnesses and strengths was started to allow for adaptation to specific patient properties. Three specific patient properties were well-matched with two composites fabricated: silk thread-reinforced Sylgard 170 and silk thread-reinforced Dragon Skin 20. The composites showed similar stiffnesses to the specific patients while reaching target stresses at particular strains. Not all patients were matched with composites as of yet, but recommendations for future matches are able to be determined. These composites will allow for the future evaluation of flow-induced wall stresses in models replicating patient material properties and geometries.

  20. Preparation and Properties of Carbon Fiber Chiral Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ping; HUANG Zhixin; WANG Guoqing

    2008-01-01

    The chiral materials were prepared by using the carbon fiber helices as chiral inclusions,and the composite of Fe3O4 and polyaniline as matrix.The electromagnetic properties,including the rotation angles,the axial ratios and the complex chirality parameters,were measured by using a circular waveguide method in the 8.5-11.0 GHz frequency range.The dependence of these electromagnetic properties on the frequency and the concentration of the Fe3O4 in the composite matrix were analyzed.The results show that an appropriate concentration of Fe3O4 in the matrix is useful in improving the electromagnetic properties of the chiral material.

  1. Identification of material properties of sandwich structure with piezoelectric patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemčík R.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The work focuses on light-weight sandwich structures made of carbon-epoxy skins and foam core which have unique bending stiffness compared to conventional materials. The skins are manufactured by vacuum autoclave technology from unidirectional prepregs and the sandwich is then glued together. The resulting material properties of the structure usually differ from those provided by manufacturer or even those obtained from experimental tests on separate materials, which makes computational models unreliable. Therefore, the properties are identified using the combination of experimental analysis of the sandwich with attached piezoelectric transducer and corresponding static and modal finite element analyses. Simple mathematical optimization with repetitive finite element solution is used. The model is then verified by transient analysis when the piezoelectric patch is excited by harmonic signals covering the first two eigen-frequencies and the induced oscillations are measured by laser sensor.

  2. Effects of Material Properties on Bacterial Adhesion and Biofilm Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, F; Koo, H; Ren, D

    2015-08-01

    Adhesion of microbes, such as bacteria and fungi, to surfaces and the subsequent formation of biofilms cause multidrug-tolerant infections in humans and fouling of medical devices. To address these challenges, it is important to understand how material properties affect microbe-surface interactions and engineer better nonfouling materials. Here we review the recent progresses in this field and discuss the main challenges and opportunities. In particular, we focus on bacterial biofilms and review the effects of surface energy, charge, topography, and stiffness of substratum material on bacterial adhesion. We summarize how these surface properties influence oral biofilm formation, and we discuss the important findings from nondental systems that have potential applications in dental medicine. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  3. Structure-property relationships in silica-siloxane nanocomposite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulibarri, T.A.; Derzon, D.K.; Wang, L.C.

    1997-03-01

    The simultaneous formation of a filler phase and a polymer matrix via in situ sol-gel techniques provides silica-siloxane nanocomposite materials of high strength. This study concentrates on the effects of temperature and relative humidity on a trimodal polymer system in an attempt to accelerate the reaction as well as evaluate subtle process- structure-property relations. It was found that successful process acceleration is only viable for high humidity systems when using the tin(IV) catalyst dibutyltin dilaurate. Processes involving low humidity were found to be very temperature and time dependent. Bimodal systems were investigated and demonstrated that the presence of a short-chain component led to enhanced material strength. This part of the study also revealed a link between the particle size and population density and the optimization of material properties.

  4. Millimeter wave and terahertz dielectric properties of biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Usman Ansar

    Broadband dielectric properties of materials can be employed to identify, detect, and characterize materials through their unique spectral signatures. In this study, millimeter wave, submillimeter wave, and terahertz dielectric properties of biological substances inclusive of liquids, solids, and powders were obtained using Dispersive Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DFTS). Two broadband polarizing interferometers were constructed to test materials from 60 GHz to 1.2 THz. This is an extremely difficult portion of the frequency spectrum to obtain a material's dielectric properties since neither optical nor microwave-based techniques provide accurate data. The dielectric characteristics of liquids such as cyclohexane, chlorobenzene, benzene, ethanol, methanol, 1,4 dioxane, and 10% formalin were obtained using the liquid interferometer. Subsequently the solid interferometer was utilized to determine the dielectric properties of human breast tissues, which are fixed and preserved in 10% formalin. This joint collaboration with the Tufts New England Medical Center demonstrated a significant difference between the dielectric response of tumorous and non-tumorous breast tissues across the spectrum. Powders such as anthrax, flour, talc, corn starch, dry milk, and baking soda have been involved in a number of security threats and false alarms around the globe in the last decade. To be able to differentiate hoax attacks and serious security threats, the dielectric properties of common household powders were also examined using the solid interferometer to identify the powders' unique resonance peaks. A new sample preparation kit was designed to test the powder specimens. It was anticipated that millimeter wave and terahertz dielectric characterization will enable one to clearly distinguish one powder from the other; however most of the powders had relatively close dielectric responses and only Talc had a resonance signature recorded at 1.135 THz. Furthermore, due to

  5. Material Properties Analysis of Structural Members in Pumpkin Balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, W. J.

    2003-01-01

    The efficient design, service-life qualification, and reliability predictions for lightweight aerospace structures require careful mechanical properties analysis of candidate structural materials. The demand for high-quality laboratory data is particularly acute when the candidate material or the structural design has little history. The pumpkin-shaped super-pressure balloon presents both challenges. Its design utilizes load members (tendons) extending from apex to base around the gas envelope to achieve a lightweight structure. The candidate tendon material is highly weight-efficient braided HM cord. Previous mechanical properties studies of Zylon have focused on fiber and yarn, and industrial use of the material in tensile applications is limited. For high-performance polymers, a carefully plamed and executed properties analysis scheme is required to ensure the data are relevant to the desired application. Because no directly-applicable testing standard was available, a protocol was developed based on guidelines fiom professional and industry organizations. Due to the liquid-crystalline nature of the polymer, the cord is very stiff, creeps very little, and does not yield. Therefore, the key material property for this application is the breaking strength. The pretension load and gauge length were found to have negligible effect on the measured breaking strength over the ranges investigated. Strain rate was found to have no effect on breaking strength, within the range of rates suggested by the standards organizations. However, at the lower rate more similar to ULDB operations, the strength was reduced. The breaking strength increased when the experiment temperature was decreased from ambient to 183K which is the lowest temperature ULDB is expected to experience. The measured strength under all test conditions was well below that resulting from direct scale-up of fiber strength based on the manufacturers data. This expected result is due to the effects of the

  6. Properties of granular analogue model materials: A community wide survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkmüller, M.; Schreurs, G.; Rosenau, M.; Kemnitz, H.

    2016-08-01

    We report the material properties of 26 granular analogue materials used in 14 analogue modelling laboratories. We determined physical characteristics such as bulk density, grain size distribution, and grain shape, and performed ring shear tests to determine friction angles and cohesion, and uniaxial compression tests to evaluate the compaction behaviour. Mean grain size of the materials varied between c. 100 and 400 μm. Analysis of grain shape factors shows that the four different classes of granular materials (14 quartz sands, 5 dyed quartz sands, 4 heavy mineral sands and 3 size fractions of glass beads) can be broadly divided into two groups consisting of 12 angular and 14 rounded materials. Grain shape has an influence on friction angles, with most angular materials having higher internal friction angles (between c. 35° and 40°) than rounded materials, whereas well-rounded glass beads have the lowest internal friction angles (between c. 25° and 30°). We interpret this as an effect of intergranular sliding versus rolling. Most angular materials have also higher basal friction angles (tested for a specific foil) than more rounded materials, suggesting that angular grains scratch and wear the foil. Most materials have an internal cohesion in the order of 20-100 Pa except for well-rounded glass beads, which show a trend towards a quasi-cohesionless (C < 20 Pa) Coulomb-type material. The uniaxial confined compression tests reveal that rounded grains generally show less compaction than angular grains. We interpret this to be related to the initial packing density after sifting, which is higher for rounded grains than for angular grains. Ring-shear test data show that angular grains undergo a longer strain-hardening phase than more rounded materials. This might explain why analogue models consisting of angular grains accommodate deformation in a more distributed manner prior to strain localisation than models consisting of rounded grains.

  7. Materials Properties at Internal Interfaces: Fundamental Atomic Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browning, Nigel D. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-09-12

    During the course of this research, the microscopy methods were applied to many different systems (see publication list). However, the work can be broadly classified into three main areas: the statistical distribution of grain boundary structures under different doping conditions, the identification of individual dopant atoms in oxide materials, and the evaluation of nucleation and growth processes in liquid and more recently. The main results from each of these efforts will be discussed in the final report.

  8. How to determine composite material properties using numerical homogenization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe

    2014-01-01

    Numerical homogenization is an efficient way to determine effective macroscopic properties, such as the elasticity tensor, of a periodic composite material. In this paper an educational description of the method is provided based on a short, self-contained Matlab implementation. It is shown how t...... cell of the periodic material can take the shape of a square, rectangle, or parallelogram, allowing for all kinds of 2D periodicities. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......Numerical homogenization is an efficient way to determine effective macroscopic properties, such as the elasticity tensor, of a periodic composite material. In this paper an educational description of the method is provided based on a short, self-contained Matlab implementation. It is shown how...... the basic code, which computes the effective elasticity tensor of a two material composite, where one material could be void, is easily extended to include more materials. Furthermore, extensions to homogenization of conductivity, thermal expansion, and fluid permeability are described in detail. The unit...

  9. Biologic properties of surgical scaffold materials derived from dermal ECM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulig, Katherine M; Luo, Xiao; Finkelstein, Eric B; Liu, Xiang-Hong; Goldman, Scott M; Sundback, Cathryn A; Vacanti, Joseph P; Neville, Craig M

    2013-07-01

    Surgical scaffold materials manufactured from donor human or animal tissue are increasingly being used to promote soft tissue repair and regeneration. The clinical product consists of the residual extracellular matrix remaining after a rigorous decellularization process. Optimally, the material provides both structural support during the repair period and cell guidance cues for effective incorporation into the regenerating tissue. Surgical scaffold materials are available from several companies and are unique products manufactured by proprietary methodology. A significant need exists for a more thorough understanding of scaffold properties that impact the early steps of host cell recruitment and infiltration. In this study, a panel of in vitro assays was used to make direct comparisons of several similar, commercially-available materials: Alloderm, Medeor Matrix, Permacol, and Strattice. Differences in the materials were detected for both cell signaling and scaffold architecture-dependent cell invasion. Material-conditioned media studies found Medeor Matrix to have the greatest positive effect upon cell proliferation and induction of migration. Strattice provided the greatest chemotaxis signaling and best suppressed apoptotic induction. Among assays measuring structure-dependent properties, Medeor Matrix was superior for cell attachment, followed by Permacol. Only Alloderm and Medeor Matrix supported chemotaxis-driven cell invasion beyond the most superficial zone. Medeor Matrix was the only material in the chorioallantoic membrane assay to support substantial cell invasion. These results indicate that both biologic and structural properties need to be carefully assessed in the considerable ongoing efforts to develop new uses and products in this important class of biomaterials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Temporal properties of material categorization and material rating: visual vs non-visual material features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Takehiro; Matsushima, Toshiki; Koida, Kowa; Tani, Yusuke; Kitazaki, Michiteru; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2015-10-01

    Humans can visually recognize material categories of objects, such as glass, stone, and plastic, easily. However, little is known about the kinds of surface quality features that contribute to such material class recognition. In this paper, we examine the relationship between perceptual surface features and material category discrimination performance for pictures of materials, focusing on temporal aspects, including reaction time and effects of stimulus duration. The stimuli were pictures of objects with an identical shape but made of different materials that could be categorized into seven classes (glass, plastic, metal, stone, wood, leather, and fabric). In a pre-experiment, observers rated the pictures on nine surface features, including visual (e.g., glossiness and transparency) and non-visual features (e.g., heaviness and warmness), on a 7-point scale. In the main experiments, observers judged whether two simultaneously presented pictures were classified as the same or different material category. Reaction times and effects of stimulus duration were measured. The results showed that visual feature ratings were correlated with material discrimination performance for short reaction times or short stimulus durations, while non-visual feature ratings were correlated only with performance for long reaction times or long stimulus durations. These results suggest that the mechanisms underlying visual and non-visual feature processing may differ in terms of processing time, although the cause is unclear. Visual surface features may mainly contribute to material recognition in daily life, while non-visual features may contribute only weakly, if at all.

  11. Atomistic Simulations of Material Properties under Extreme Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qi

    Extreme conditions involve low or high temperatures (> 1500 K), high pressures (> 30 MPa), high strains or strain rates, high radiation fluxes (> 100 dpa), and high electromagnetic fields (> 15T). Material properties under extreme conditions can be extremely different from those under normal conditions. Understanding material properties and performance under extreme conditions, including their dynamic evolution over time, plays an essential role in improving material properties and developing novel materials with desired properties. To understand material properties under extreme conditions, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with recently developed reactive force fields (ReaxFF) and traditional embedded atom methods (EAM) potentials to examine various materials (e.g., energetic materials and binary liquids) and processes. The key results from the simulations are summarized below. Anisotropic sensitivity of RDX crystals: Based on the compress-and-shear reactive dynamics (CS-RD) simulations of cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) crystals, we predict that for mechanical shocks between 3 and 7 GPa, RDX is the most sensitive to shocks perpendicular to the (100) and (210) planes, while it is insensitive to those perpendicular to the (120), (111), and (110) planes. The simulations demonstrate that the molecular origin of anisotropic shock sensitivity is the steric hindrance to shearing of adjacent slip planes. Mechanisms of hotspot formation in polymer bonded explosives (PBXs): The simulations of a realistic model of PBXs reveal that hotspots may form at the nonplanar interfaces where shear relaxation leads to a dramatic temperature increase that persists long after the shock front has passed the interface. For energetic materials this temperature increase is coupled to chemical reactions that eventually lead to detonation. We show that decreasing the density of the binder eliminates the hotspots or reduces the sensitivity. Cavitation in binary metallic liquids

  12. Microstructure characterization and magnetic properties of nano structured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, X.C

    2000-07-01

    The present thesis deals with the unique microstructural properties and their novel magnetic properties of core-shell Ni-Ce nano composite particles, carbon encapsulated Fe, Co, and Ni nanoparticles and the nano crystallization behavior of typical ferromagnetic Fe{sub 78}Si{sub 9}B{sub 13} ribbons. These properties have intensively been investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (Sem), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy [eds.]; selected area electron diffraction pattern (SAED), Ft-IR, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). In addition, magnetic moments measurements at different temperatures and applied fields have been performed by transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy, superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer (SQUID), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The present studies may provide the insights for the better understanding of the correlation between the unique microstructure and novel magnetic properties for several magnetic nano structured materials. (Author)

  13. Material Properties of High-Speed Steel Rolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Wu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been required to improve the material properties of high-speed steel (HSS rolls, because of the low wear resistance and low mechanical properties. To improve them, several new steels have been proposed, which have high wear resistance as well as excellent mechanical properties, e.g., hardness and tensile properties, where additional elements (V, Cr and W were employed. However, their steels may have still technical issues, as the roll surfaces become roughened during the production process. The reason for this problem is found to be affected by the oxidation of the HSS surface. In this work, we have provided the suggestions to make high wear resistance of the HSS rolls

  14. Further developments in material properties determined by vibration analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang; Andreasen, Lotte; Seifert, Mette

    1997-01-01

    have been studied by testing a number of building materials. The method has been PC-integrated with the Brüel & Kjær's type 3550 vibration equipment - and special user menus have been developed to facilitate handling of the method in practice. Limits on range of test frequencies applied are discussed...... with respect to configurations of vibration equipment and shapes of test specimens used. Sensitivity studies have been made to identify sources of errors which may disturb the reliability of the method used in practice. Practical aspects with respect to test set-ups are considered in these studies - as well......A method was described in Materialnyt 1 (1995) on "Material properties determined by vibration analysis". This new method of materials testing has been further developed as the result of research at the Building Materials Laboratory, Technical University of Denmark.Practical aspects of the method...

  15. Correlation of macroscopic material properties with microscopic nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simons, R.L.

    1981-12-18

    Two primary irradiation-induced changes occur during neutron irradiation: the displacement of atoms forming crystal defects and the transmutation of atoms into either gaseous or solid products. The material scientist studying irradiation damage to material by fusion-produced neutrons is faced with several questions: Is the nature of high-energy (14-MeV) displacement damage the same as or different from that caused by fission neutrons (< 2 MeV). How do the high helium concentrations expected in a fusion environment affect the material properties. What effects do solid transmutation products have on the behavior of the irradiated materials. In the past few years, much work has been done to answer these questions. This paper reviews recent work in this area.

  16. Thermal property of insulation material for HTS power cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeon Suk; Kim, D. L.; Shin, D. W.; Hwang, S. D.

    2012-06-01

    The thermal property of insulation material is essential in developing a high temperature superconductor (HTS) power cable operating at around liquid nitrogen temperature. The accurate estimate of the heat flux is difficult in the nonmetallic materials because nonmetallic materials have a high thermal resistance and low temperature gradient along the specimen. The objective of the present work is to develop a precise instrument for measuring the thermal conductivity of insulating materials over a temperature range of 30 K to approximately the room temperature by using a cryocooler. The thermal conductivity of Teflon is measured and the accuracy confirmation is carried out by comparing published data. In addition, the experimental results of apparent thermal conductivity of polypropylene laminated paper (PPLP) are presented and the temperature dependency is also discussed

  17. Alkali-activated cementitious materials: Mechanisms, microstructure and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weimin

    The goal of this study was to examine the activation reaction, microstructure, properties, identify the mechanisms of activation, and achieve an enhanced understanding of activation processes occurring during the synthesis of alkali activated cementitious materials (AAC). The discussions classify the following categories. (1) alkali activated slag cement; (2) alkali activated portland-slag cement; (3) alkali activated fly ash-slag cement; (4) alkali activated pozzolana-lime cement; (5) alkali activated pozzolana cement. The activators involved are NaOH, KOH; Nasb2SOsb4;\\ Nasb2COsb3;\\ CaSOsb4, and soluble silicate of sodium and potassium. The effect of alkali activation on the microstructure of these materials were analyzed at the micro-nanometer scale by SEM, EDS, ESEM, and TEM. Also sp{29}Si and sp{27}Al MAS-NMR, IR, Raman, TGA, and DTA were performed to characterize the phase in these systems. Slag, fly ash, silica fume, as well as blended cements containing mixtures of these and other components were characterized. A set of ordinary portland cement paste samples served as a control. This study confirmed that AAC materials have great potential because they could generate very early high strength, greater durability and high performance. Among the benefits to be derived from this research is a better understanding of the factors that control concrete properties when using AAC materials, and by controlling the chemistry and processing to produce desired microstructures and properties, as well as their durability.

  18. Mechanical Properties of Calcium Fluoride-Based Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleczewska, Joanna; Pryliński, Mariusz; Podlewska, Magdalena; Sokołowski, Jerzy; Łapińska, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study was to evaluate mechanical properties of light-curing composite materials modified with the addition of calcium fluoride. The study used one experimental light-curing composite material (ECM) and one commercially available flowable light-curing composite material (FA) that were modified with 0.5–5.0 wt% anhydrous calcium fluoride. Morphology of the samples and uniformity of CaF2 distribution were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Mechanical properties were tested after 24-hour storage of specimens in dry or wet conditions. Stored dry ECM enriched with 0.5–1.0 wt% CaF2 showed higher tensile strength values, while water storage of all modified ECM specimens decreased their tensile strength. The highest Vickers hardness tested after dry storage was observed for 2.5 wt% CaF2 content in ECM. The addition of 2.0–5.0 wt% CaF2 to FA caused significant decrease in tensile strength after dry storage and overall tensile strength decrease of modified FA specimens after water storage. The content of 2.0 wt% CaF2 in FA resulted in the highest Vickers hardness tested after wet storage. Commercially available composite material (FA), unmodified with fluoride addition, demonstrated overall significantly higher mechanical properties. PMID:28004001

  19. Mechanical Properties of Calcium Fluoride-Based Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Łukomska-Szymańska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to evaluate mechanical properties of light-curing composite materials modified with the addition of calcium fluoride. The study used one experimental light-curing composite material (ECM and one commercially available flowable light-curing composite material (FA that were modified with 0.5–5.0 wt% anhydrous calcium fluoride. Morphology of the samples and uniformity of CaF2 distribution were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS. Mechanical properties were tested after 24-hour storage of specimens in dry or wet conditions. Stored dry ECM enriched with 0.5–1.0 wt% CaF2 showed higher tensile strength values, while water storage of all modified ECM specimens decreased their tensile strength. The highest Vickers hardness tested after dry storage was observed for 2.5 wt% CaF2 content in ECM. The addition of 2.0–5.0 wt% CaF2 to FA caused significant decrease in tensile strength after dry storage and overall tensile strength decrease of modified FA specimens after water storage. The content of 2.0 wt% CaF2 in FA resulted in the highest Vickers hardness tested after wet storage. Commercially available composite material (FA, unmodified with fluoride addition, demonstrated overall significantly higher mechanical properties.

  20. Finite element simulations on the mechanical properties of MHS materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z.Y.Gao; T.X.Yu; D.Karagiozova

    2007-01-01

    Finite element simulations are carried out toexamine the mechanical behavior of the metallic hollowsphere (MHS) material during their large plastic defor-mation and to estimate the energy absorbing capac-ity of these materials under uniaxial compression.Asimplified model is proposed from experimental obser-vations to describe the connection between theneighboring spheres,which greatly improves the com-putation efficiency.The effects of the governing physi-cal and geometrical parameters are evaluated; whilst aspecial attention is paid to the plateau stress,which isdirectly related to the energy absorbing capacity.Finally,the empirical functions of the relative material densityare proposed for the elastic modulus,yield strength andplateau stress for FCC packing arrangement of hollowspheres,showing a good agreement with the experimen-tal results obtained in our previous study.

  1. Estimating Energy Conversion Efficiency of Thermoelectric Materials: Constant Property Versus Average Property Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Hannah; Boese, Matthew; Carmichael, Cody; Dimich, Hannah; Seay, Dylan; Sheppard, Nathan; Beekman, Matt

    2017-01-01

    Maximum thermoelectric energy conversion efficiencies are calculated using the conventional "constant property" model and the recently proposed "cumulative/average property" model (Kim et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112:8205, 2015) for 18 high-performance thermoelectric materials. We find that the constant property model generally predicts higher energy conversion efficiency for nearly all materials and temperature differences studied. Although significant deviations are observed in some cases, on average the constant property model predicts an efficiency that is a factor of 1.16 larger than that predicted by the average property model, with even lower deviations for temperature differences typical of energy harvesting applications. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the conventional dimensionless figure of merit ZT obtained from the constant property model, while not applicable for some materials with strongly temperature-dependent thermoelectric properties, remains a simple yet useful metric for initial evaluation and/or comparison of thermoelectric materials, provided the ZT at the average temperature of projected operation, not the peak ZT, is used.

  2. Tunable electronic and magnetic properties of two‐dimensional materials and their one‐dimensional derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuhua; Liu, Xiaofei; Yu, Jin; Hang, Yang; Li, Yao; Guo, Yufeng; Xu, Ying; Sun, Xu; Zhou, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Low‐dimensional materials exhibit many exceptional properties and functionalities which can be efficiently tuned by externally applied force or fields. Here we review the current status of research on tuning the electronic and magnetic properties of low‐dimensional carbon, boron nitride, metal‐dichalcogenides, phosphorene nanomaterials by applied engineering strain, external electric field and interaction with substrates, etc, with particular focus on the progress of computational methods and studies. We highlight the similarities and differences of the property modulation among one‐ and two‐dimensional nanomaterials. Recent breakthroughs in experimental demonstration of the tunable functionalities in typical nanostructures are also presented. Finally, prospective and challenges for applying the tunable properties into functional devices are discussed. WIREs Comput Mol Sci 2016, 6:324–350. doi: 10.1002/wcms.1251 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. PMID:27818710

  3. Elastic therapeutic tape: do they have the same material properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonkerd, Chuanpis; Limroongreungrat, Weerawat

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Elastic therapeutic tape has been widely used for rehabilitation and treatment of sports injuries. Tapes with different elastic properties serve different treatment purposes with inappropriate tension reducing tape effectiveness. Many tapes are available in the market, but studies on tape properties are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the material properties of elastic therapeutic tape. [Subjects and Methods] Brands of elastic therapeutic tape included KinesioTex®, ATex, Mueller, 3M, and ThaiTape. The Material Testing System Insight® 1 Electromechanical Testing Systems was used to apply a tensile force on elastic therapeutic tape. Ten specimens of each brand were tested. Stress, load, and Young’s modulus at 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, and maximum point were collected. One-way analysis of variance with post hoc testing was used to analyze tape parameters. [Results] Maximum elongation and Young’s modulus at all percentages were significantly different between brands. There were no differences in maximum load and maximum stress. [Conclusion] Mechanical properties are different for commercial elastic therapeutic tapes. Physiotherapists and other clinicians should be aware of mechanical tape properties to correctly apply kinesio tape. PMID:27190472

  4. Elastic therapeutic tape: do they have the same material properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonkerd, Chuanpis; Limroongreungrat, Weerawat

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] Elastic therapeutic tape has been widely used for rehabilitation and treatment of sports injuries. Tapes with different elastic properties serve different treatment purposes with inappropriate tension reducing tape effectiveness. Many tapes are available in the market, but studies on tape properties are limited. The aim of this study was to examine the material properties of elastic therapeutic tape. [Subjects and Methods] Brands of elastic therapeutic tape included KinesioTex(®), ATex, Mueller, 3M, and ThaiTape. The Material Testing System Insight(®) 1 Electromechanical Testing Systems was used to apply a tensile force on elastic therapeutic tape. Ten specimens of each brand were tested. Stress, load, and Young's modulus at 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, and maximum point were collected. One-way analysis of variance with post hoc testing was used to analyze tape parameters. [Results] Maximum elongation and Young's modulus at all percentages were significantly different between brands. There were no differences in maximum load and maximum stress. [Conclusion] Mechanical properties are different for commercial elastic therapeutic tapes. Physiotherapists and other clinicians should be aware of mechanical tape properties to correctly apply kinesio tape.

  5. Analysis of Mechanical Properties of Fabrics of Different Raw Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aušra ADOMAITIENĖ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzes dependence of mechanical properties (breaking force, elongation at break, static friction force and static friction coefficient on integrated fabric structure factor j and raw material density r, among the fabrics of different raw material (cotton, wool, polypropylene, polyester and polyacrylnitrile and woven in different conditions. The received results demonstrate that sometimes strong dependences exist (wool, polypropylene and polyacrylnitrile, whereas in some cases (cotton and polyester there is no correlation. It was also discovered that the breaking force and elongation at break in the direction of weft increase, when fabric structure becomes more rigid. In the meantime variations of the curves in the direction of warp are insignificant. Regarding static friction force and static friction coefficient (found in two cases, when fabrics were rubbing against leather and materials, it was discovered that consistency of the curves is irregular, i. e. they either increase or decrease, when integrated fabric structure factor j growth. It was also identified that some dependences are not strong and relationship between explored and analyzed factors does not exist. Variation of all these mechanical properties with respect to material density r enables to conclude that increase of material density r results in poor dependences or they are whatsoever non-existent.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.2.487

  6. AC Humidity Sensing Properties of Mesoporous K2CO3-SiO2 Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Guo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mesoporous silica SBA-15 and mesoporous K2CO3-SiO2 composite material were synthesized. Characterization of microstructure and morphology of materials indicated that the composite material had saved the porous framework of mesoporous silica SBA-15. Humidity sensing properties of different inverse proportion K2CO3-SiO2 composite material were studied and we found that the sample with 0.16 g/g K2CO3 exhibited excellent linearity in the wide humidity range. The complex impedance changed five orders of magnitude from 11% RH to 95% RH. The rapid response and recovery time were 10 s and 38 s, respectively. Finally a feasible ion transfer mechanism was brought forward to explain the sensing mechanism.

  7. Preparation and Properties of Orthogonal Piezoelectric Composite Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jun; Lu Ying; Zhang Xingguo; Shen Yi; Chen Chun

    2004-01-01

    . PZT piezoelectric ceramic with La2O3, SrCO3, BaO and Sb2O5 was prepared. It has high value of the piezoelectric strain constant d33 ( -681 PC/N) and high value of-d33/d31 (2.65). Orthogonal piezoelectric composite materials was designed and prepared by PZT, DAD- 40 electric conductive adhesive and E51 epoxy resin. The OPCM shows obvious orthogonal anisotropy. The matching property of the interface between piezoelectric ceramic and polymer of OPCM relies on the defects of interface. The proper conductive mid-layer could improve the matching property of the interface.

  8. Thermophysical properties of new materials; Proprietes thermophysiques des materiaux nouveaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This conference day was organized by the `thermo-kinetics` section of the French association of thermal engineers. This book of proceedings contains 5 papers entitled: `characterization of thermal properties using periodical methods at the Odeillo test centre: developments and applications`; `measurement of the distribution of local thermophysical properties by IR images processing and averaging technique`; `extension of shock probes to the characterization of multi-layers - development of a simple device for the characterization of insulating materials or shear fluids`; `thermal local diffusivity of constituents of carbon/carbon composites`; `new method for the thermal diffusivity measurement of thermo-hardenable resins during polymerization`. (J.S.)

  9. Structure/property relationships in non-linear optical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, J.M. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)]|[Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Howard, J.A.K. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); McIntyre, G.J. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    The application of neutrons to the study of structure/property relationships in organic non-linear optical materials (NLOs) is described. In particular, charge-transfer effects and intermolecular interactions are investigated. Charge-transfer effects are studied by charge-density analysis and an example of one such investigation is given. The study of intermolecular interactions concentrates on the effects of hydrogen-bonding and an example is given of two structurally similar molecules with very disparate NLO properties, as a result of different types of hydrogen-bonding. (author). 3 refs.

  10. Simulated Analysis of Dielectric Properties of Heterogeneous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Biao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the results of a numerical analysis of two phases lossless heterogeneous materials based on a three dimensional (3-D random dielectric mixture. The effective permittivity of a 3-D dielectric materials is calculated by the S-parameter retrieval method and finite element method. The calculated effective permittivity is in good agreement with theoretical models by compared with Bruggeman formula and Coherent potential formula, showing that the volume fraction of inclusions is increasing, the effective permittivity increases with radiation frequency and appear an imaginary part taking on the dielectric loss properties.

  11. Materials science studies of high-temperature superconducting ceramic oxides. Final report, May 1988-March 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vezzoli, G.C.; Chen, M.F.; Craver, F.; Katz, R.N.

    1997-12-01

    Herein is presented the results of a comprehensive program of research aimed at understanding the materials science and the mechanistic physics of high-temperature superconducting oxides. This comprehensive research program has identified the materials properties that are consistently associated with high-Tc superconductors and has shown that the mechanism that gives rise to the phenomenon of high-Tc superconductivity is associated with bound holes that are due to charge-transfer excitations at high frequency. The latter are a result of the high internal electric field present in high-Tc materials, owing to the asymmetry of the crystal structure. The interaction of bound holes with free electrons and the interaction of local spin fluctuations with the spin of free electrons generate a charge density wave and a spin density wave that cause Cooper pairing.

  12. Effect of the Freshness of Starting Material on the Final Product Quality of Dried Salted Shark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnerassery Sukumaran Sudheesh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the relationship between the freshness of the starting raw material (fish and the final product quality in experimentally dried shark fish. Sharks were stored at room temperature (25ºC for 0, 24 and 48 h and then salted, processed and sun dried at ambient temperatures ranging from 35 to 42ºC. There was marked difference in sensory and microbiological quality of fresh fish stored to different time periods, but, after drying, the quality difference was negligible. The results of this study show that storage of fish up to 48 h under experimental conditions at room temperature does not affect major microbiological quality and proximate composition of the final dried product.

  13. Finite amplitude effects on drop levitation for material properties measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari Hosseinzadeh, Vahideh; Holt, R. Glynn

    2017-05-01

    The method of exciting shape oscillation of drops to extract material properties has a long history, which is most often coupled with the technique of acoustic levitation to achieve non-contact manipulation of the drop sample. We revisit this method with application to the inference of bulk shear viscosity and surface tension. The literature is replete with references to a "10% oscillation amplitude" as a sufficient condition for the application of Lamb's analytical expressions for the shape oscillations of viscous liquids. Our results show that even a 10% oscillation amplitude leads to dynamic effects which render Lamb's results inapplicable. By comparison with samples of known viscosity and surface tension, we illustrate the complicating finite-amplitude effects (mode-splitting and excess dissipation associated with vorticity) that can occur and then show that sufficiently small oscillations allow us to recover the correct material properties using Lamb's formula.

  14. Mechanical Properties of Materials with Nanometer Scale Microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William D. Nix

    2004-10-31

    We have been engaged in research on the mechanical properties of materials with nanometer-scale microstructural dimensions. Our attention has been focused on studying the mechanical properties of thin films and interfaces and very small volumes of material. Because the dimensions of thin film samples are small (typically 1 mm in thickness, or less), specialized mechanical testing techniques based on nanoindentation, microbeam bending and dynamic vibration of micromachined structures have been developed and used. Here we report briefly on some of the results we have obtained over the past three years. We also give a summary of all of the dissertations, talks and publications completed on this grant during the past 15 years.

  15. Optical properties of glazing materials at normal incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, M.; Powles, R.

    2001-10-01

    Measurements of spectral transmittance T and reflectance R at normal incidence continue to be the most common and accurate source of energy performance data for glazing materials. Prediction of these radiometric properties from more fundamental materials data is often confounded by the complexity and uncertainty of coating structures. Angle-dependent radiometric properties of coated glazing will probably be predicted from normal-incidence data rather than being measured at many angles. The general error level demonstrated in round-robin tests is on the order 1-2%; it is often necessary to achieve better levels of performance. Based on results obtained following the round-robin tests, it is expected that accuracy of better than 0.5% can be generally achieved. A new type of absolute standard reference is described and tested with promising results.

  16. New Technique for Evaluating Adhesion Properties between Soft Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takaya; Goto, Motoaki; Nakano, Ken; Suzuki, Atsushi

    2005-11-01

    A new, simple apparatus for measuring the surface adhesion properties of soft materials was designed, where the adhesion force of a point contact between soft materials and the total energy required to separate the contact can be measured using the springs of phosphor-bronze thin plates with strain gauges. The adhesion between swollen hydrogels was studied here by this simple technique in air at room temperature. The gels used in the present preliminary experiments were poly(sodium acrylate) hydrogels physically cross-linked by aluminum ions. The adhesion force and the separation energy showed a power-law increase with separation velocity. The apparatus was applied to evaluate the adhesion properties of seven anti-inflammatory analgesic cataplasms on the market. It was found that the easiness to separate (rank of adhesion force and the separation energy) was consistent with the results of those obtained by organoleptic evaluations.

  17. Textile Materials with New Properties Used for Confections Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacşu A. N.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The quality of textile clothing depends on the quality of prime materials and also on the technology used; this must ensure a balance between transferred heat, resulted humidity and human and environmental thermal demands, all this bringing about physiological comfort. In order to meet consumers’ demands regarding the production of products which are easy to maintain and have high hygiene properties, new prime materials are searched, with a view to ensuring a wide range of clothing. Taking into consideration the acceleration of changes and the global inter-connections, a company must develop its capacity of innovation in order to bring products with new properties on the market before others do.

  18. Electronic and optical properties of strained graphene and other strained 2D materials: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumis, Gerardo G.; Barraza-Lopez, Salvador; Oliva-Leyva, Maurice; Terrones, Humberto

    2017-09-01

    This review presents the state of the art in strain and ripple-induced effects on the electronic and optical properties of graphene. It starts by providing the crystallographic description of mechanical deformations, as well as the diffraction pattern for different kinds of representative deformation fields. Then, the focus turns to the unique elastic properties of graphene, and to how strain is produced. Thereafter, various theoretical approaches used to study the electronic properties of strained graphene are examined, discussing the advantages of each. These approaches provide a platform to describe exotic properties, such as a fractal spectrum related with quasicrystals, a mixed Dirac–Schrödinger behavior, emergent gravity, topological insulator states, in molecular graphene and other 2D discrete lattices. The physical consequences of strain on the optical properties are reviewed next, with a focus on the Raman spectrum. At the same time, recent advances to tune the optical conductivity of graphene by strain engineering are given, which open new paths in device applications. Finally, a brief review of strain effects in multilayered graphene and other promising 2D materials like silicene and materials based on other group-IV elements, phosphorene, dichalcogenide- and monochalcogenide-monolayers is presented, with a brief discussion of interplays among strain, thermal effects, and illumination in the latter material family.

  19. Determination of thermal properties of composting bulking materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H K; Sauer, T J; Richard, T L; Glanville, T D

    2009-09-01

    Thermal properties of compost bulking materials affect temperature and biodegradation during the composting process. Well determined thermal properties of compost feedstocks will therefore contribute to practical thermodynamic approaches. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity of 12 compost bulking materials were determined in this study. Thermal properties were determined at varying bulk densities (1, 1.3, 1.7, 2.5, and 5 times uncompacted bulk density), particle sizes (ground and bulk), and water contents (0, 20, 50, 80% of water holding capacity and saturated condition). For the water content at 80% of water holding capacity, saw dust, soil compost blend, beef manure, and turkey litter showed the highest thermal conductivity (K) and volumetric heat capacity (C) (K: 0.12-0.81 W/m degrees C and C: 1.36-4.08 MJ/m(3) degrees C). Silage showed medium values at the same water content (K: 0.09-0.47 W/m degrees C and C: 0.93-3.09 MJ/m(3) degrees C). Wheat straw, oat straw, soybean straw, cornstalks, alfalfa hay, and wood shavings produced the lowest K and C values (K: 0.03-0.30 W/m degrees C and C: 0.26-3.45 MJ/m(3) degrees C). Thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity showed a linear relationship with moisture content and bulk density, while thermal diffusivity showed a nonlinear relationship. Since the water, air, and solid materials have their own specific thermal property values, thermal properties of compost bulking materials vary with the rate of those three components by changing water content, bulk density, and particle size. The degree of saturation was used to represent the interaction between volumes of water, air, and solids under the various combinations of moisture content, bulk density, and particle size. The first order regression models developed in this paper represent the relationship between degree of saturation and volumetric heat capacity (r=0.95-0.99) and thermal conductivity (r=0.84-0.99) well. Improved

  20. Advanced Materials From Fungal Mycelium: Fabrication and Tuning of Physical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneef, Muhammad; Ceseracciu, Luca; Canale, Claudio; Bayer, Ilker S; Heredia-Guerrero, Jose A; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2017-01-24

    In this work is presented a new category of self-growing, fibrous, natural composite materials with controlled physical properties that can be produced in large quantities and over wide areas, based on mycelium, the main body of fungi. Mycelia from two types of edible, medicinal fungi, Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus ostreatus, have been carefully cultivated, being fed by two bio-substrates: cellulose and cellulose/potato-dextrose, the second being easier to digest by mycelium due to presence of simple sugars in its composition. After specific growing times the mycelia have been processed in order to cease their growth. Depending on their feeding substrate, the final fibrous structures showed different relative concentrations in polysaccharides, lipids, proteins and chitin. Such differences are reflected as alterations in morphology and mechanical properties. The materials grown on cellulose contained more chitin and showed higher Young's modulus and lower elongation than those grown on dextrose-containing substrates, indicating that the mycelium materials get stiffer when their feeding substrate is harder to digest. All the developed fibrous materials were hydrophobic with water contact angles higher than 120°. The possibility of tailoring mycelium materials' properties by properly choosing their nutrient substrates paves the way for their use in various scale applications.

  1. Tensile Properties of Fiber Materials under Different Strain Rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Jie; GU Bo-hong; WANG Shan-yuan

    2002-01-01

    The quasi-static and dynamic tensile tests of aranid and high strength PVA fiber bundles are carried out under a wider range of strain rate by use of MTS (Materials Testing System) and bar-bar tensile impact apparatus.The influences of strain rate on mechanical properties of aramid and high strength polyvinyl alcohol fibers ar estudied. Micro failure mechanisms of fibers at different strain rates are examined by means of SEM.

  2. Models for acoustical properties of green roof materials

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    To predict the acoustical effects of green roof structures it is necessary to be able to model the acoustical properties of their materials including gravel. For time domain calculations it is convenient to use the phenomenological model due to Zwikker and Kosten. However this phenomenological model is related to a low frequency/high flow resistivity approximation of more ‘exact’ identical pore models. The results of fitting predictions to short range level difference data and to impedance da...

  3. Ocean acidification alters the material properties of Mytilus edulis shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzer, Susan C; Zhu, Wenzhong; Tanner, K Elizabeth; Phoenix, Vernon R; Kamenos, Nicholas A; Cusack, Maggie

    2015-02-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) and the resultant changing carbonate saturation states is threatening the formation of calcium carbonate shells and exoskeletons of marine organisms. The production of biominerals in such organisms relies on the availability of carbonate and the ability of the organism to biomineralize in changing environments. To understand how biomineralizers will respond to OA the common blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, was cultured at projected levels of pCO2 (380, 550, 750, 1000 µatm) and increased temperatures (ambient, ambient plus 2°C). Nanoindentation (a single mussel shell) and microhardness testing were used to assess the material properties of the shells. Young's modulus (E), hardness (H) and toughness (KIC) were measured in mussel shells grown in multiple stressor conditions. OA caused mussels to produce shell calcite that is stiffer (higher modulus of elasticity) and harder than shells grown in control conditions. The outer shell (calcite) is more brittle in OA conditions while the inner shell (aragonite) is softer and less stiff in shells grown under OA conditions. Combining increasing ocean pCO2 and temperatures as projected for future global ocean appears to reduce the impact of increasing pCO2 on the material properties of the mussel shell. OA may cause changes in shell material properties that could prove problematic under predation scenarios for the mussels; however, this may be partially mitigated by increasing temperature.

  4. Characterization of ion-exchange membrane materials: properties vs structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezina, N P; Kononenko, N A; Dyomina, O A; Gnusin, N P

    2008-06-22

    This review focuses on the preparation, structure and applications of ion-exchange membranes formed from various materials and exhibiting various functions (electrodialytic, perfluorinated sulphocation-exchange and novel laboratory-tested membranes). A number of experimental techniques for measuring electrotransport properties as well as the general procedure for membrane testing are also described. The review emphasizes the relationships between membrane structures, physical and chemical properties and mechanisms of electrochemical processes that occur in charged membrane materials. The water content in membranes is considered to be a key factor in the ion and water transfer and in polarization processes in electromembrane systems. We suggest the theoretical approach, which makes it possible to model and characterize the electrochemical properties of heterogeneous membranes using several transport-structural parameters. These parameters are extracted from the experimental dependences of specific electroconductivity and diffusion permeability on concentration. The review covers the most significant experimental and theoretical research on ion-exchange membranes that have been carried out in the Membrane Materials Laboratory of the Kuban State University. These results have been discussed at the conferences "Membrane Electrochemistry", Krasnodar, Russia for many years and were published mainly in Russian scientific sources.

  5. Thermophysical Properties of Automotive Metallic Brake Disk Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. W.; Park, K.; Lee, S. H.; Kang, K. H.; Lim, K. T.

    2008-12-01

    The temperature distribution, the thermal deformation, and the thermal stress of automotive brake disks have quite close relations with car safety; therefore, much research in this field has been performed. However, successful and satisfactory results have not been obtained because the temperature-dependent thermophysical properties of brake disk materials are not sufficiently known. In this study, the thermophysical properties (thermal diffusivity, the specific heat, and the coefficient of thermal expansion) of three kinds of iron alloy series brake disk materials, FC250, FC170, and FCD50, and two kinds of aluminum alloy series brake disk materials, Al MMC and A356, were measured in the temperature range from room temperature to 500 °C, and the thermal conductivity was calculated using the measured thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, and density. As expected, the results show that the two series have significant differences in respect of the thermophysical properties, and to reduce the thermal deformation of the brake disk, the aluminum alloys with a high thermal conductivity and the iron alloys with low thermal expansion are recommended.

  6. Filter properties of seam material from paved urban soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nehls

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We studied pavement seam material. This is the soil substrate in joints of pervious pavements in urban areas. It is mostly 1 cm thick and develops from the original seam filling by depositions of all kinds of urban residues, including anthropogenic organic substances. It was investigated, how this unique form of organic matter influences the filter properties of seam material and how the seam material influences heavy metal transport through the pavement. The seam material is characterised by a darker munsell colour, higher organic carbon content, higher surface areas, higher cation exchange capacities, but a lower fraction of high adsorption energy sites compared to the original seam filling. The deposited anthropogenic organic matter itself could be characterised as particulate and non-polar. Compared to natural soils, it has a small surface area and a low surface charge density resulting in a small cation exchange capacity of only 75 cmol(+ kg−1C. The seam material shows stronger sorption of Pb and Cd compared to the original construction sand. The retardation capacity of seam material towards Pb is similar, towards Cd it is much smaller compared to natural soils. The simulated long term displacement scenarios for a street in Berlin do not indicate an acute contamination risk for Pb. For Cd the infiltration from ponds can lead to a displacement of Cd during only one decade.

  7. Material Properties of Wire for the Fabrication of Knotted Fences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk J. Pons

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the materials properties of galvanised fencing wire, as used in the fabrication of knotted wire fences. A range of physical properties are investigated: tensile strength, ductility in tension, Young’s modulus, three-point bending, and bending span. A range of commercially available wire products were tested. The results show that most, but not all, high tensile wire samples met the minimum tensile and ductility requirements. Young’s modulus results failed to provide any meaningful insights into wire quality. Flexural modulus results also failed to provide any insight into wire quality issues, with no statistically significant differences existing between acceptable and problematic wire batches. The implications are that premature fence failures are unlikely to be caused solely by reduced tensile properties. Existing test methods, including tensile strength and ductility, are somewhat incomplete, perhaps even unreliable, as measures of wire quality.

  8. Regional material properties of the human hip joint capsule ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, J; Guilak, F; Glisson, R; Vail, T P

    2001-05-01

    The hip joint capsule functions to constrain translation between the femur and acetabulum while allowing rotational and planar movements. Despite the crucial role it plays in the pathogenesis of hip instability, little is known about its biomechanical properties. The goal of this study was to determine the regional material properties of the iliofemoral and ischiofemoral ligaments of the capsule. Ten human cadaveric specimens of each ligament were tested to failure in tension. The stress at failure, strain at failure, strain energy density at failure, toe- and linear-region elastic moduli, and the Poisson's ratio were measured for each ligament. The strain to failure was greatest in the ischiofemoral ligament, while no significant difference was noted in failure stress by region or ligament. The Young's moduli of elasticity ranged from 76.1 to 285.8 MPa among the different ligaments, and were generally consistent with properties previously reported for the shoulder capsule. The elastic moduli and strain energy density at failure differed by region. No significant differences in Poisson's ratio were found by region or ligament. The average Poisson's ratio was approximately 1.4, consistent with anisotropic behavior of ligamentous tissues. Understanding the material properties of the hip capsule may help the orthopaedic surgeon better understand normal ligament function, and thereby choose a surgical approach or strategy of repair. Furthermore, knowledge of the normal mechanical function of the hip capsule ligaments could assist in the evaluation of the success of a repair.

  9. Space-Time Transfinite Interpolation of Volumetric Material Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Mathieu; Fryazinov, Oleg; Adzhiev, Valery; Comninos, Peter; Pasko, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    The paper presents a novel technique based on extension of a general mathematical method of transfinite interpolation to solve an actual problem in the context of a heterogeneous volume modelling area. It deals with time-dependent changes to the volumetric material properties (material density, colour, and others) as a transformation of the volumetric material distributions in space-time accompanying geometric shape transformations such as metamorphosis. The main idea is to represent the geometry of both objects by scalar fields with distance properties, to establish in a higher-dimensional space a time gap during which the geometric transformation takes place, and to use these scalar fields to apply the new space-time transfinite interpolation to volumetric material attributes within this time gap. The proposed solution is analytical in its nature, does not require heavy numerical computations and can be used in real-time applications. Applications of this technique also include texturing and displacement mapping of time-variant surfaces, and parametric design of volumetric microstructures.

  10. Static Magnetic Properties of AL800 Garnet Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuharik, J. [Fermilab; Madrak, R. [Fermilab; Makarov, A. [Fermilab; Pellico, W. [Fermilab; Sun, S. [Fermilab; Tan, C. Y. [Fermilab; Terechkine, I. [Fermilab

    2017-05-17

    A second harmonic tunable RF cavity is being devel-oped for the Fermilab Booster. This device, which prom-ises reduction of the particle beam loss at the injection, transition, and extraction stages, employs perpendicularly biased garnet material for frequency tuning. The required range of the tuning is significantly wider than in previously built and tested tunable RF devices. As a result, the mag-netic field in the garnet comes fairly close to the gyromag-netic resonance line at the lower end of the frequency range. The chosen design concept of a tuner for the cavity cannot ensure uniform magnetic field in the garnet mate-rial; thus, it is important to know the static magnetic prop-erties of the material to avoid significant increase in the lo-cal RF loss power density. This report summarizes studies performed at Fermilab to understand variations in the mag-netic properties of the AL800 garnet material used to build the tuner of the cavity.

  11. Preparation and properties on hollow nano-structured smoke material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-cui; Dai, Meng-yan; Fang, Guo-feng; Shi, Wei-dong; Cheng, Xiang; Liu, Hai-feng; Zhang, Tong

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, the weapon systems of laser guidance and infrared (IR) imaging guidance have been widely used in modern warfare because of their high precision and strong anti-interference. Notwithstanding, military smoke, as a rapid and effective passive jamming means, can effectively counteract the attack of enemy precision-guided weapons by scattering and absorbability. Conventional smoke has good attenuation capability only to visible light (0.4-0.76 μm), but hardly any effect to other electromagnetic wave band. The weapon systems of laser guidance and IR imaging guidance usually work in broad band, including near IR (1-3 μm), middle IR (3-5 μm), far IR (8-14 μm), and so on. Accordingly, exploiting and using new efficient obscurant materials, which is one of the important factors that develop smoke technology, have become a focus and attracted more interests around the world. Then nano-structured materials that are developing very quickly have turned into our new choice. Hollow nano-structured materials (HNSM) have many special properties because of their nano-size wall-thickness and sub-micron grain-size. After a lot of HNSM were synthesized in this paper, their physical and chemical properties, including grain size, phase composition, microstructure, optical properties and resistivity were tested and analysed. Then the experimental results of the optical properties showed that HNSM exhibit excellent wave-absorbing ability in ultraviolet, visible and infrared regions. On the basis of the physicochemmical properties, HNSM are firstly applied in smoke technology field. And the obscuration performance of HNSM smoke was tested in smoke chamber. The testing waveband included 1.06μm and 10.6μm laser, 3-5μm and 8-14μm IR radiation. Then the main parameters were obtained, including the attenuation rate, the transmission rate, the mass extinction coefficient, the efficiency obscuring time, and the sedimentation rate, etc. The main parameters of HNSM smoke were

  12. Thermal properties measurement of dry bulk materials with a cylindrical three layers device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannot, Y.; Degiovanni, A.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a new method dedicated to thermal properties (conductivity and diffusivity) measurement of dry bulk materials including powders. The cylindrical three layers experimental device (brass/bulk material/stainless steel) and the principle of the measurement method based on a crenel thermal excitation are presented. The one-dimensional modeling of the system is used for a sensitivity analysis and to calculate the standard deviation of the estimation error. Experimental measurements are carried out on three bulk materials: glass beads, cork granules, and expanded polystyrene beads. The estimated thermal properties are compared with the values obtained by other measurement methods. Results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions: both thermal conductivity and diffusivity can be estimated with a good accuracy for low density material like cork granules or expanded polystyrene beads since only thermal diffusivity can be estimated for heavier materials like glass beads. It is finally shown that this method like all transient methods is not suited to the thermal characterization of wet bulk materials.

  13. Scanning Probe Evaluation of Electronic, Mechanical and Structural Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virwani, Kumar

    2011-03-01

    We present atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies of a range of properties from three different classes of materials: mixed ionic electronic conductors, low-k dielectrics, and polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles. (1) Mixed ionic electronic conductors are being investigated as novel diodes to drive phase-change memory elements. Their current-voltage characteristics are measured with direct-current and pulsed-mode conductive AFM (C-AFM). The challenges to reliability of the C-AFM method include the electrical integrity of the probe, the sample and the contacts, and the minimization of path capacitance. The role of C-AFM in the optimization of these electro-active materials will be presented. (2) Low dielectric constant (low-k) materials are used in microprocessors as interlayer insulators, a role directly affected by their mechanical performance. The mechanical properties of nanoporous silicate low-k thin films are investigated in a comparative study of nanomechanics measured by AFM and by traditional nanoindentation. Both methods are still undergoing refinement as reliable analytical tools for determining nanomechanical properties. We will focus on AFM, the faster of the two methods, and its developmental challenges of probe shape, cantilever force constant, machine compliance and calibration standards. (3) Magnetic nanoparticles are being explored for their use in patterned media for magnetic storage. Current methods for visualizing the core-shell structure of polymer-coated magnetic nanoparticles include dye-staining the polymer shell to provide contrast in transmission electron microscopy. AFM-based fast force-volume measurements provide direct visualization of the hard metal oxide core within the soft polymer shell based on structural property differences. In particular, the monitoring of adhesion and deformation between the AFM tip and the nanoparticle, particle-by-particle, provides a reliable qualitative tool to visualize core-shell contrast without the use

  14. Synthesis, processing and properties of materials for SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.L.; Armstrong, T.A.; Kingsley, J.J.; Pederson, L.R.

    1994-03-01

    The synthesis and processing methods of complex oxide materials can significantly influence use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). This paper discusses (1) effects of powder synthesis and conditioning on fabrication, i.e., sintering, where close, reproducible control of composition and structure are required, and (2) influences on electrical, mechanical, structural and electrochemical properties that can influence SOFC performance. Examples are given for chromites, manganites and related oxides used as interconnections and electrodes in SOFCs. Materials, from source to incorporation into the fuel cell and generator, is a major issue in the development of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). An integral part of this is the synthesis from chemicals and other virgin materials, generally as an oxide or metal powder, which can become a SOFC component. In some instances, such as with electrochemical vapor deposition, the component is formed directly from the chemicals. The synthesized materials are then conditioned and processes prior to fabrication into the fuel cell component, either separately or in conjunction with other material components.

  15. Final Report of Optimization Algorithms for Hierarchical Problems, with Applications to Nanoporous Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nash, Stephen G.

    2013-11-11

    The research focuses on the modeling and optimization of nanoporous materials. In systems with hierarchical structure that we consider, the physics changes as the scale of the problem is reduced and it can be important to account for physics at the fine level to obtain accurate approximations at coarser levels. For example, nanoporous materials hold promise for energy production and storage. A significant issue is the fabrication of channels within these materials to allow rapid diffusion through the material. One goal of our research is to apply optimization methods to the design of nanoporous materials. Such problems are large and challenging, with hierarchical structure that we believe can be exploited, and with a large range of important scales, down to atomistic. This requires research on large-scale optimization for systems that exhibit different physics at different scales, and the development of algorithms applicable to designing nanoporous materials for many important applications in energy production, storage, distribution, and use. Our research has two major research thrusts. The first is hierarchical modeling. We plan to develop and study hierarchical optimization models for nanoporous materials. The models have hierarchical structure, and attempt to balance the conflicting aims of model fidelity and computational tractability. In addition, we analyze the general hierarchical model, as well as the specific application models, to determine their properties, particularly those properties that are relevant to the hierarchical optimization algorithms. The second thrust was to develop, analyze, and implement a class of hierarchical optimization algorithms, and apply them to the hierarchical models we have developed. We adapted and extended the optimization-based multigrid algorithms of Lewis and Nash to the optimization models exemplified by the hierarchical optimization model. This class of multigrid algorithms has been shown to be a powerful tool for

  16. Mechanical properties of materials with nanometer scale dimensions and microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nix, William D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-08-05

    The three-year grant for which this final report is required extends from 2011 to 2015, including a one-year, no-cost extension. But this is just the latest in a long series of grants from the Division of Materials Sciences of DOE and its predecessor offices and agencies. These include contracts or grants from: the Metallurgy Branch of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (from the late 1960s to the mid-1970s), the Materials Science Program of the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (from the mid- to late- 1970s), and the Division of Materials Science of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the U.S. Department of Energy (from the early 1980s to the present time). Taken all together, these offices have provided nearly continuous support for our research for nearly 50 years. As we have said on many occasions, this research support has been the best we have ever had, by far. As we look back on the nearly five decades of support from the Division of Materials Sciences and the predecessor offices, we find that the continuity of support that we have enjoyed has allowed us to be most productive and terms of papers published, doctoral students graduated and influence on the field of materials science. This report will, of course, cover the three-year period of the present grant, in summary form, but will also make reference to the output that resulted from support of previous grants from the Division of Materials Sciences and its predecessor offices.

  17. Properties of Residue from Olive Oil Extraction as a Raw Material for Sustainable Construction Materials. Part I: Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Díaz-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method. This can be achieved by producing alternative structural materials to be used in the construction industry by means of a circular economy. The technical feasibility of adding said residue to ceramic paste was proven by analyzing the changes produced in the physical properties of the paste, which were then compared to the properties of the reference materials manufactured with clay without residue. Results obtained show that the heating value of wet pomace can contribute to the thermal needs of the sintering process, contributing 30% of energy in pieces containing 3% of said material. Likewise, adding larger amounts of wet pomace to the clay body causes a significant decrease in bulk density values.

  18. MINIMUM SOLID AREA MODELS FOR THE EFFECTIVE PROPERTIES OF POROUS MATERIALS - A REFUTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willi Pabst

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Minimum solid area (MSA models are popular models for the calculation of the effective properties of porous materials and are frequently used to justify the use of a simple exponential relation for fitting purposes. In this contribution it is shown that MSA models, and the simple exponentials they support, are misleading and should be avoided. In particular, taking Young modulus and conductivity (thermal or electrical as examples, it is shown that MSA models are based on the unjustified (and unjustifiable hypothesis that the relative Young modulus and relative conductivity are identical, and moreover equal to the MSA fraction itself. This claim is generally false for isotropic materials, both random or periodic. Although indeed a very specific case exists in which this claim is true for the properties in one specific direction (viz., extremely anisotropic materials with translational invariance, in this specific case MSA models are redundant, because the relative properties are given exactly by the volume- or area-weighted arithmetic mean. It is shown that the mere existence of non-trivial cross-property relations is incompatible with the existence of MSA models. Finally, it is shown by numerical (finite-element modeling that MSA models provide incorrect results even in the simplest of the cases for which they were originally designed, i.e. for simple cubic packings of partially sintered isometric (initially spherical grains. Therefore, paraphrasing Box, MSA models are not only wrong, but also useless, and should be abandoned.

  19. Properties of hadronic final states in diffractive deep inelastic ep scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Chekanov, S; Krakauer, D A; Magill, S; Musgrave, B; Pellegrino, A; Repond, J; Yoshida, R; Mattingly, M C K; Antonioli, P; Bari, G; Basile, M; Bellagamba, L; Boscherini, D; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Cara Romeo, G; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Contin, A; Corradi, M; De Pasquale, S; Giusti, P; Iacobucci, G; Levi, G; Margotti, A; Massam, Thomas; Nania, R; Palmonari, F; Pesci, A; Sar--, G; Zichichi, A; Aghuzumtsyan, G; Brock, I; Goers, S; Hartmann, H; Hilger, E; Irrgang, P; Jakob, H P; Kappes, A; Katz, U F; Kerger, R; Kind, O; Paul, E; Rautenberg, J; Schnurbusch, H; Stifutkin, A; Tandler, J; Voss, K C; Weber, A; Wieber, H; Bailey, D S; Brook, N H; Cole, J E; Heath, B; Foster G P; Heath, H F; Robins, S; Rodrigues, E; Scott, J; Tapper, R J; Wing, M; Capua, M; Mastroberardino, A; Schioppa, M; Susinno, G; Jeoung, H Y; Kim, J Y; Lee, J H; Lim, I T; Ma, K J; Pac, M Y; Caldwell, A; Helbich, M; Liu, W; Liu, X; Mellado, B; Paganis, S; Sampson, S; Schmidke, W B; Sciulli, F; Chwastowski, J; Eskreys, Andrzej; Figiel, J; Klimek, K; Olkiewicz, K; Przybycien, M B; Stopa, P; Zawiejski, L; Bednarek, B; Grabowska-Bold, I; Jelen, K; Kisielewska, D; Kowal, A M; Kowal, M; Kowalski, T; Mindur, B; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E; Suszycki, L; Szuba, D; Szuba, J; Kotanski, Andrzej; Bauerdick, L A T; Behrens, U; Borras, K; Chiochia, V; Crittenden, James Arthur; Dannheim, D; Desler, K; Drews, G; Fox-Murphy, A; Fricke, U; Geiser, A; Göbel, F; Göttlicher, P; Graciani, R; Haas, T; Hain, W; Hartner, G F; Hebbel, K; Hillert, S; Koch, W; Kötz, U; Kowalski, H; Labes, H; Löhr, B; Mankel, R; Martens, J; Martínez, M; Milite, M; Moritz, M; Notz, D; Petrucci, M C; Polini, A; Schneekloth, U; Selonke, F; Stonjek, S; Wolf, G; Wollmer, U; Whitmore, J J; Wichmann, R; Youngman, C; Zeuner, W; Coldewey, C; López-Duran-Viani, A; Meyer, A; Schlenstedt, S; Barbagli, G; Gallo, E; Pelfer, P G; Bamberger, Andreas; Benen, A; Coppola, N; Markun, P; Raach, H; Wölfle, S; Bell, M; Bussey, Peter J; Doyle, A T; Glasman, C; Lee, S W; Lupi, A; McCance, G J; Saxon, D H; Skillicorn, Ian O; Bodmann, B; Gendner, N; Holm, U; Salehi, H; Wick, K; Yildirim, A; Ziegler, A; Carli, T; Garfagnini, A; Gialas, I; Lohrmann, E; Foudas, C; Goncalo, R; Long, K R; Metlica, F; Miller, D B; Tapper, A D; Walker, R; Cloth, P; Filges, D; Kuze, M; Nagano, K; Tokushuku, K; Yamada, S; Yamazaki, Y; Barakbaev, A N; Boos, E G; Pokrovskiy, N S; Zhautykov, B O; Ahn, S H; Lee, S B; Park, S K; Lim, H; Son, D; Barreiro, F; García, G; González, O; Labarga, L; Del Peso, J; Redondo, I; Terron, J; Vázquez, M; Barbi, M; Bertolin, A; Corriveau, F; Ochs, A; Padhi, S; Stairs, D G; Tsurugai, T; Antonov, A; Bashkirov, V; Danilov, P; Dolgoshein, B A; Gladkov, D; Sosnovtsev, V V; Suchkov, S; Dementiev, R K; Ermolov, P F; Golubkov, Yu A; Katkov, I I; Khein, L A; Korotkova, N A; Korzhavina, I A; Kuzmin, V A; Levchenko, B B; Lukina, O Yu; Proskuryakov, A S; Solomin, A N; Vlasov, N N; Zotkin, S A; Bokel, C; Engelen, J; Grijpink, S; Maddox, E; Koffeman, E; Kooijman, P; Schagen, S; Tassi, E; Tiecke, H G; Tuning, N; Velthuis, J J; Wiggers, L; De Wolf, E; Brümmer, N; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Ginsburg, C M; Kim, C L; Ling, T Y; Boogert, S; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Devenish, R C E; Ferrando, J; Grosse-Knetter, J; Matsushita, T; Rigby, M; Ruske, O; Sutton, M R; Walczak, R; Brugnera, R; Carlin, R; Dal Corso, F; Dusini, S; Limentani, S; Longhin, A; Parenti, A; Posocco, M; Stanco, L; Turcato, M; Adamczyk, L; Iannotti, L; Oh, B Y; Saull, P R B; Toothacker, W S; Iga, Y; D'Agostini, Giulio; Marini, G; Nigro, A; Cormack, C; Hart, J C; McCubbin, N A; Heusch, C A; Park, I H; Pavel, N; Abramowicz, H; Dagan, S; Gabareen, A; Kananov, S; Kreisel, A; Levy, A; Abe, T; Fusayasu, T; Kohno, T; Umemori, K; Yamashita, T; Hamatsu, R; Hirose, T; Inuzuka, M; Kitamura, S; Matsuzawa, K; Nishimura, T; Arneodo, M; Cartiglia, N; Cirio, R; Costa, M; Ferrero, M I; Maselli, S; Monaco, V; Peroni, C; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Bailey, D C; Fagerstroem, C P; Galea, R; Koop, T; Levman, G M; Martin, J F; Mirea, A; Sabetfakhri, A; Butterworth, J M; Gwenlan, C; Hall-Wilton, R; Hayes, M E; Heaphy, E A; Jones, T W; Lane, J B; Lightwood, M S; West, B J; Ciborowski, J; Ciesielski, R; Grzelak, G; Nowak, R J; Pawlak, J M; Smalska, B; Tymieniecka, T; Ukleja, J; Zakrzewski, J A; Adamus, M; Plucinsky, P P; Sztuk, J; Eisenberg, Y; Gladilin, L K; Hochman, D; Karshon, U; Breitweg, J; Chapin, D; Cross, R; Kcira, D; Lammers, S; Reeder, D D; Savin, A A; Smith, W H; Deshpande, A A; Dhawan, S; Straub, V W; Hughes P B; Bhadra, S; Catterall, C D; Frisken, W R; Khakzad, M; Menary, S R

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics of the hadronic final state of diffractive deep inelastic scattering events, ep -> eXp, were studied in the kinematic range 4 < M_X < 35 GeV, 4 < Q^2 < 150 GeV^2, 70 < W < 250 GeV and 0.0003 < x_pom < 0.03 with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 13.8 pb^{-1}. The events were tagged by identifying the diffractively scattered proton using the leading proton spectrometer. The properties of the hadronic final state, X, were studied in its center-of-mass frame using thrust, thrust angle, sphericity, energy flow, transverse energy flow and ``seagull'' distributions. As the invariant mass of the system increases, the final state becomes more collimated, more aligned and more asymmetric in the average transverse momentum with respect to the direction of the virtual photon. Comparisons of the properties of the hadronic final state with predictions from various Monte Carlo model generators suggest that the final state is dominated by qqg states at the par...

  20. Advanced Materials From Fungal Mycelium: Fabrication and Tuning of Physical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneef, Muhammad; Ceseracciu, Luca; Canale, Claudio; Bayer, Ilker S.; Heredia-Guerrero, José A.; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2017-01-01

    In this work is presented a new category of self-growing, fibrous, natural composite materials with controlled physical properties that can be produced in large quantities and over wide areas, based on mycelium, the main body of fungi. Mycelia from two types of edible, medicinal fungi, Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus ostreatus, have been carefully cultivated, being fed by two bio-substrates: cellulose and cellulose/potato-dextrose, the second being easier to digest by mycelium due to presence of simple sugars in its composition. After specific growing times the mycelia have been processed in order to cease their growth. Depending on their feeding substrate, the final fibrous structures showed different relative concentrations in polysaccharides, lipids, proteins and chitin. Such differences are reflected as alterations in morphology and mechanical properties. The materials grown on cellulose contained more chitin and showed higher Young’s modulus and lower elongation than those grown on dextrose-containing substrates, indicating that the mycelium materials get stiffer when their feeding substrate is harder to digest. All the developed fibrous materials were hydrophobic with water contact angles higher than 120°. The possibility of tailoring mycelium materials’ properties by properly choosing their nutrient substrates paves the way for their use in various scale applications. PMID:28117421

  1. Mechanical properties of some granular agricultural materials used in silo design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, M.; Aguado, P. J.; Ayuga, F.

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this research was to provide values for different material properties considered in either traditional or more recent numerical silo design methods. Different samples of granular agricultural materials commonly stored in silos were tested. Common geotechnical devices have been used in order to make the replications easier. Based on these experiments it was determined that the different material properties were not affected by the test velocity, except in the case of Poisson ratio. From a practical point of view, the test velocity correlates well with the sliding velocity of grain during discharge. The values obtained for material properties considered in traditional silo design methods were similar to those reported by other authors. No significant differences were observed in the results obtained when using either the square shear box or the circular shear cell. The same conclusion was reached when comparing the results from direct shear tests with preconsolidated and unconsolidated samples. This means that simplified devices and procedures can be used in agricultural grains against other products. Finally, a table with the recommended values for the different parameters determined for each sample tested was provided in this work.

  2. Advanced Materials From Fungal Mycelium: Fabrication and Tuning of Physical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneef, Muhammad; Ceseracciu, Luca; Canale, Claudio; Bayer, Ilker S.; Heredia-Guerrero, José A.; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2017-01-01

    In this work is presented a new category of self-growing, fibrous, natural composite materials with controlled physical properties that can be produced in large quantities and over wide areas, based on mycelium, the main body of fungi. Mycelia from two types of edible, medicinal fungi, Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus ostreatus, have been carefully cultivated, being fed by two bio-substrates: cellulose and cellulose/potato-dextrose, the second being easier to digest by mycelium due to presence of simple sugars in its composition. After specific growing times the mycelia have been processed in order to cease their growth. Depending on their feeding substrate, the final fibrous structures showed different relative concentrations in polysaccharides, lipids, proteins and chitin. Such differences are reflected as alterations in morphology and mechanical properties. The materials grown on cellulose contained more chitin and showed higher Young’s modulus and lower elongation than those grown on dextrose-containing substrates, indicating that the mycelium materials get stiffer when their feeding substrate is harder to digest. All the developed fibrous materials were hydrophobic with water contact angles higher than 120°. The possibility of tailoring mycelium materials’ properties by properly choosing their nutrient substrates paves the way for their use in various scale applications.

  3. Material properties of bovine intervertebral discs across strain rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Nicolas; Grigoriadis, Grigorios; Christou, Alexandros; Carpanen, Diagarajen; Masouros, Spyros D

    2017-01-01

    The intervertebral disc (IVD) is a complex structure responsible for distributing compressive loading to adjacent vertebrae and allowing the vertebral column to bend and twist. To study the mechanical behaviour of individual components of the IVD, it is common for specimens to be dissected away from their surrounding tissues for mechanical testing. However, disrupting the continuity of the IVD to obtain material properties of each component separately may result in erroneous values. In this study, an inverse finite element (FE) modelling optimisation algorithm has been used to obtain material properties of the IVD across strain rates, therefore bypassing the need to harvest individual samples of each component. Uniaxial compression was applied to ten fresh-frozen bovine intervertebral discs at strain rates of 10(-3)-1/s. The experimental data were fed into the inverse FE optimisation algorithm and each experiment was simulated using the subject specific FE model of the respective specimen. A sensitivity analysis revealed that the IVD's response was most dependent upon the Young's modulus (YM) of the fibre bundles and therefore this was chosen to be the parameter to optimise. Based on the obtained YM values for each test corresponding to a different strain rate (ε̇), the following relationship was derived:YM=35.5lnε̇+527.5. These properties can be used in finite element models of the IVD that aim to simulate spinal biomechanics across loading rates. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Tooth and bone deformation: structure and material properties by ESPI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslansky, Paul; Shahar, Ron; Barak, Meir M.; Friesem, Asher A.; Weiner, Steve

    2006-08-01

    In order to understand complex-hierarchical biomaterials such as bones and teeth, it is necessary to relate their structure and mechanical-properties. We have adapted electronic speckle pattern-correlation interferometry (ESPI) to make measurements of deformation of small water-immersed specimens of teeth and bones. By combining full-field ESPI with precision mechanical loading we mapped sub-micron displacements and determined material-properties of the samples. By gradually and elastically compressing the samples, we compensate for poor S/N-ratios and displacement differences of about 100nm were reliably determined along samples just 2~3mm long. We produced stress-strain curves well within the elastic performance range of these materials under biologically relevant conditions. For human tooth-dentin, Young's modulus in inter-dental areas of the root is 40% higher than on the outer sides. For cubic equine bone samples the compression modulus of axial orientations is about double the modulus of radial and tangential orientations (20 GPa versus 10 GPa respectively). Furthermore, we measured and reproduced a surprisingly low Poisson's ratio, which averaged about 0.1. Thus the non-contact and non-destructive measurements by ESPI produce high sensitivity analyses of mechanical properties of mineralized tissues. This paves the way for mapping deformation-differences of various regions of bones, teeth and other biomaterials.

  5. Materials Selection, Synthesis, and Dielectrical Properties of PVC Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Mobarak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Materials selection process for electrical insulation application was carried out using Cambridge Engineering Selector (CES program. Melt mixing technique was applied to prepare polyvinyl-chloride- (PVC- nanofumed silica and nanomontmorillonite clay composites. Surface analysis and particles dispersibility were examined using scanning electron microscope. Dielectrical properties were assessed using Hipot tester. An experimental work for dielectric loss of the nanocomposite materials has been investigated in a frequency range of 10 Hz–50 kHz. The initial results using CES program showed that microparticles of silica and clay can improve electrical insulation properties and modulus of elasticity of PVC. Nano-montmorillonite clay composites were synthesized and characterized. Experimental analyses displayed that trapping properties of matrix are highly modified by the presence of nanofillers. The nanofumed silica and nanoclay particles were dispersed homogenously in PVC up to 10% wt/wt. Dielectric loss tangent constant of PVC-nanoclay composites was decreased successfully from 0.57 to 0.5 at 100 Hz using fillers loading from 1% to 10% wt/wt, respectively. Nano-fumed silica showed a significant influence on the electrical resistivity of PVC by enhancing it up to 1 × 1011 Ohm·m.

  6. Oxide Thermoelectric Materials: A Structure-Property Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Abanti; Shubha, V.

    2014-04-01

    Recent demand for thermoelectric materials for power harvesting from automobile and industrial waste heat requires oxide materials because of their potential advantages over intermetallic alloys in terms of chemical and thermal stability at high temperatures. Achievement of thermoelectric figure of merit equivalent to unity ( ZT ≈ 1) for transition-metal oxides necessitates a second look at the fundamental theory on the basis of the structure-property relationship giving rise to electron correlation accompanied by spin fluctuation. Promising transition-metal oxides based on wide-bandgap semiconductors, perovskite and layered oxides have been studied as potential candidate n- and p-type materials. This paper reviews the correlation between the crystal structure and thermoelectric properties of transition-metal oxides. The crystal-site-dependent electronic configuration and spin degeneracy to control the thermopower and electron-phonon interaction leading to polaron hopping to control electrical conductivity is discussed. Crystal structure tailoring leading to phonon scattering at interfaces and nanograin domains to achieve low thermal conductivity is also highlighted.

  7. The Study of the Thermoelectric Properties of Phase Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ming; Abdi, Mohammed; Noimande, Zibusisu; Mbamalu, Godwin; Alameeri, Dheyaa; Datta, Timir

    We study thermoelectric property that is electrical phenomena occurring in conjunction with the flow of heat of phase-change materials (PCM) in particular GeSbTe (GST225). From given sets of material parameters, COMSOL Multiphysics heat-transfer module is used to compute maps of temperature and voltage distribution in the PCM samples. These results are used to design an apparatus including the variable temperature sample holder set up. An Arbitrary/ Function generator and a circuit setup is also designed to control the alternation of heaters embedded on the sample holder in order to ensure sequential back and forward flow of heat current from both sides of the sample. Accurate values of potential differences and temperature distribution profiles are obtained in order to compute the Seebeck coefficient of the sample. The results of elemental analysis and imaging studies such as XRD, UV-VIS, EDEX and SEM of the sample are obtained. Factors affecting the thermoelectric properties of phase change memory are also discussed. NNSA/ DOD Consortium for Materials and Energy Studies.

  8. Final Report: Photo-Directed Molecular Assembly of Multifunctional Inorganic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.G. Potter, Jr.

    2010-10-15

    This final report details results, conclusions, and opportunities for future effort derived from the study. The work involved combining the molecular engineering of photoactive Ti-alkoxide systems and the optical excitation of hydrolysis and condensation reactions to influence the development of the metal-oxygen-metal network at the onset of material formation. Selective excitation of the heteroleptic alkoxides, coupled with control of alkoxide local chemical environment, enabled network connectivity to be influenced and formed the basis for direct deposition and patterning of Ti-oxide-based materials. The research provided new insights into the intrinsic photoresponse and assembly of these complex, alkoxide molecules. Using a suite of electronic, vibrational, and nuclear spectroscopic probes, coupled with quantum chemical computation, the excitation wavelength and fluence dependence of molecular photoresponse and the nature of subsequent hydrolysis and condensation processes were probed in pyridine-carbinol-based Ti-alkoxides with varied counter ligand groups. Several methods for the patterning of oxide material formation were demonstrated, including the integration of this photoprocessing approach with conventional, dip-coating methodologies.

  9. Acoustic Properties of Innovative Material from Date Palm Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamyaa Abd AL-Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: An organic material is one of the major requirements to improve living environment and the invention of materials need to consider for the best solution. This study presents an experimental investigation on pure porous from Date Palm Fibre (DPF. The effectiveness of sound absorbers depends on structural architecture of this material. This study was conducted to examine the potential of using date palm fibre as sound absorber. The effects of porous layer thicknesses, densities and compression on Acoustic Absorption Coefficient (AAC of sound absorber using date palm fibre were studied. Approach: Rigid frame Johnson-Allard Model for various sample thicknesses was used in this study. The measurements were conducted in impedance tube on normal incidence acoustic absorption. The date palm fibre was mixed with latex which used for physical treatment on this material. Acoustic absorption behaviour of a porous material with different thicknesses was studied as well as samples with same thickness but different densities. In addition, samples with same properties but different period of compression time were inspected. The tests were in accordance to ISO 10534-2 and ASTM E1050-98 international standards for Acoustic Absorption Coefficient (AAC. Results: The experimental data indicates that two peak values of AAC is 0.93 at 1356Hz for sample with 50 mm thickness, also the AAC at high frequency for same thickness is 0.99 at 4200-4353 Hz that means able to improve acoustic absorption coefficient at low and high frequencies with significant increasing. Meanwhile, another experimental results were acquired for AAC of date palm fibre, with samples thicknesses of 35 mm at different densities .The results show that denser sample (11 Kg m-3 has higher AAC value of 0.83 at 1934- 2250 Hz as compared to less dense sample (9.92 Kg m-3 with AAC value 0.84 at 2443-2587 Hz . Conclusion: Acoustic absorption coefficient AAC of date palm fibre was

  10. Saturation properties of a supercritical gas sorbed in nanoporous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Eric; Dailly, Anne

    2012-12-28

    The description of experimental gas adsorption data in terms of an accurate model is key to understand the adsorption mechanism and its limits. As a basic feature such a model should predict correctly the conditions under which saturation occurs. However, in the absence of bulk condensation properties for a supercritical adsorbate this matter remains open to discussions. In this study, the decreasing region of excess hydrogen adsorption isotherms measured down to 50 K is used to determine the adsorbed phase volume, density and pressure corresponding to saturation. The experimental method developed for these key measurements addresses the challenges of very low temperature adsorption measurements at high pressure. Therefore, the modifications specially made to a cryostat used in conjunction with a Sievert apparatus to reach high temperature stability (±10 mK) down to 40 K are presented. The approach is implemented on the novel nanoporous materials UMCM-1 and NOTT-112 over 50-77 K and 0-40 bar. The derived hydrogen saturation properties are found to be consistent with a Dubinin-Astakhov model. Importantly, the measured adsorbed hydrogen phase volume also compares well with the pore volume obtained from Ar porosimetry. The found saturation properties provide a physical basis to calculate consistent absolute adsorption isotherms and enthalpies, and to project the ultimate adsorption capacity of a conceptual material with a maximized specific surface area. The present findings provide additional evidence that the common view on supercritical adsorption, in which it is assumed that no liquid is formed and that the only possible mechanism involves monolayer coverage, does not hold in many nanoporous materials.

  11. Magnetomechanical Properties Of Composite Materials With Giant Magnetostriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomiczek A.E.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to observe the changes in the magnetomechanical properties of composite materials with different Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9 (Terfenol-D powder particle-size distributions and varying volume fractions in the polyurethane matrix. The results show a direct relationship between the properties and the particle size of the Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9 powder: the increases in the particle-size distribution of the Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.9 powder in the matrix amplify the magnetostrictive responses and the compressive modulus values. Moreover, it was found that the key role in efficiency of the transformation of magnetic energy into mechanical plays the initial compressing pre-stress.

  12. Research on lunar materials. [optical, chemical, and electrical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, T.

    1978-01-01

    Abstracts of 14 research reports relating to investigations of lunar samples are presented. The principal topics covered include: (1) optical properties of surface and core samples; (2) chemical composition of the surface layers of lunar grains: Auger electron spectroscopy of lunar soil and ground rock samples; (3) high frequency electrical properties of lunar soil and rock samples and their relevance for the interpretation of lunar radar observations; (4) the electrostatic dust transport process; (5) secondary electron emission characteristics of lunar soil samples and their relevance to the dust transportation process; (6) grain size distribution in surface soil and core samples; and (7) the optical and chemical effects of simulated solar wind (2keV proton and a particle radiation) on lunar material.

  13. Development and mechanical properties of structural materials from lunar simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Chandra S.; Girdner, K.; Saadatmanesh, H.; Allen, T.

    1991-01-01

    Development of the technologies for manufacture of structural and construction materials on the Moon, utilizing local lunar soil (regolith), without the use of water, is an important element for habitats and explorations in space. Here, it is vital that the mechanical behavior such as strength and flexural properties, fracture toughness, ductility and deformation characteristics be defined toward establishment of the ranges of engineering applications of the materials developed. The objective is to describe the research results in two areas for the above goal: (1) liquefaction of lunar simulant (at about 100 C) with different additives (fibers, powders, etc.); and (2) development and use of a new triaxial test device in which lunar simulants are first compressed under cycles of loading, and then tested with different vacuums and initial confining or in situ stress.

  14. Dosimetric properties of natural quartz grains extracted from fired materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bluszcz, A.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes an examination of the dosimetric properties of natural quartz grains extracted from ancient fired materials. Eleven samples of different origin were tested for their TL and GLSL (green light stimulated luminescence) sensitivities within the mGy dose range. Very promising results...... were obtained showing the possibility of measuring the doses of around 10 mGy with 1% precision using GLSL or TL and using the single aliquot technique for natural quartz as a dosimeter. The lowest detectable dose was estimated to be lower than 500 mu Gy. The results obtained indicate that natural...... quartz grains from selected materials could be used for the dosimetry of environmental gamma radiation for the purposes of paleodosimetric dating methods as well as for accident dosimetry....

  15. Pulsed power experiments in hydrodynamics and material properties

    CERN Document Server

    Reinovsky, R E

    1999-01-01

    A new application for high performance pulsed power program, the production of high energy density environments in materials for the study of material properties and hydrodynamics in complex geometries, has joined family of radiation source applications in the Stockpile Stewardship. The principle tool for producing high energy density environments is the high precision, magnetically imploded, near-solid density liner. The most attractive pulsed power system for driving such experiments is an ultra-high current, low impedance, microsecond time scale source that is economical both to build and operate. The 25-MJ Atlas capacitor bank system currently under construction at Los Alamos is the first system of its scale specifically designed to drive high precision solid liners. Delivering 30 MA, Atlas will provide liner velocities 12-15 km/sec and kinetic energies of 1-2 MJ /cm with extensive diagnostics and excellent reproducibility. Explosive flux compressor technology provides access to currents exceeding 100 MA ...

  16. Structure and Property Characterization of Oyster Shell Cementing Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟彬杨; 周强; 单昌锋; 于岩

    2012-01-01

    Oyster shell powder was used as the admixture of ordinary portland cement.The effects of different addition amounts and grinding ways on the strength and stability of cement mortar were discussed and proper addition amount of oyster shell powder was determined.The structure and property changes of cementing samples with different oyster shell powder contents were tested by XRD and SEM means.The results revealed that compressive and rupture strengths of the sample with 10% oyster shell powder was close to those of the original one without addition.Stability experiment showed that the sample prepared by pat method had smooth surface without crack and significant expansion or shrinkage after pre-curing and boiling,which indicated that cementing material dosed with oyster shell powder had fine stability.XRD and SEM observation showed that oyster shell independently exists in the cementing material.

  17. Comparison of Electrical Properties between Fluoroapatite and Hydroxyapatite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghzizil, A.; El Herch, N.; Bouhaouss, A.; Lorente, G.; Macquete, J.

    2001-01-01

    By appropriate modifications of existing precipitation methods, apatite samples of formula M10(PO4)6X2 (M=Ca, Pb, Ba and X=F, OH) were prepared at 80°C. Samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction, infrared, 31P NMR, SEM, and chemical analysis. By comparing the effect of fluoride and hydroxide ions on ionic conductivity measurements, it was concluded that the fluorinated materials (MFAp) were better conductors than other hydroxyapatites (MHAp). The F- and H+ ions are the main charge carriers, respectively, in fluoroapatite and in hydroxyapatite compounds. The most pronounced effect on the conduction properties was observed in the lead apatite material. These results should provide important physico-chemical information for ionic diffusion of the roles played by fluoride in inhibiting dental caries.

  18. Properties and processing of nanocrystalline materials. Quarterly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valiev, R.Z.

    1996-01-22

    The present Report completes the investigations in the frame of the project for the first year. It is important to estimate our achievements in the investigation of properties of nanocrystalline materials obtained by severe plastic deformation and their production. We think that the main results obtained can be summarized as follows: (1) We performed an improvement of the die-set for equal channel (ECA) pressing and torsion under high pressure with the aim to increase dimensions of the samples produced and to conduct processing of low ductile materials. (2) It was established that in pure metals severe plastic deformation led to the formation of an ultra fine-grained structure with a mean grain size of 100-200 nm, while in alloys due to severe plastic deformation and/or special methods of treatment (a decrease in the temperature of deformation, an increase of the pressure applied etc.) the grain size could be decreased down to a few tens of manometers.

  19. Relaxor behavior and electrical properties of high dielectric constant materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Several typical high dielectric constant materials are reviewed to study the electrical properties and relaxation mechanism. It is found that a Lorenz-type law can be used to describe the dielectric permit- tivity of either the normal ferroelectrics with or without diffuse phase transitions (DPT) or the typical ferroelectric relaxors. The ferroelectric DPT can be well described by just one fitting process using the Lorenz-type law, while the relaxor ferroelectric transition needs two independent fitting processes. The Lorenz-type law fails at the low temperature side of the dielectric maximum of a first-order ferroelectric phase transition. Above the transition temperature, the dielectric curves of all the studied materials can be well described by a Lorenz-type law.

  20. Relaxor behavior and electrical properties of high dielectric constant materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN HuiQing; KE ShanMing

    2009-01-01

    Several typical high dielectric constant materials are reviewed to study the electrical properties and relaxation mechanism.It is found that a Lorenz-type law can be used to describe the dielectric permitUvity of either the normal ferroelectrics with or without diffuse phase transitions(DPT)or the typical ferroelectric relaxors.The ferroelectric DPT can be well described by just one fitting process using the Lorenz-type law,while the relaxor ferroelectric transition needs two independent fitting processes.The Lorenz-type law fails at the low temperature side of the dielectric maximum of a first-order ferroelectric phase transition.Above the transition temperature,the dielectric curves of all the studied materials can be well described by a Lorenz-type law.

  1. Electronic, Vibrational and Thermoelectric Properties of Two-Dimensional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramaratne, Darshana

    The discovery of graphene's unique electronic and thermal properties has motivated the search for new two-dimensional materials. Examples of these materials include the layered two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) and metal mono-chalcogenides. The properties of the TMDCs (eg. MoS 2, WS2, TaS2, TaSe2) and the metal mono-chalcogenides (eg. GaSe, InSe, SnS) are diverse - ranging from semiconducting, semi-metallic and metallic. Many of these materials exhibit strongly correlated phenomena and exotic collective states such as exciton condensates, charge density waves, Lifshitz transitions and superconductivity. These properties change as the film thickness is reduced down to a few monolayers. We use first-principles simulations to discuss changes in the electronic and the vibrational properties of these materials as the film thickness evolves from a single atomic monolayer to the bulk limit. In the semiconducting TMDCs (MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2) and monochalcogenides (GaS, GaSe, InS and InSe) we show confining these materials to their monolayer limit introduces large band degeneracies or non-parabolic features in the electronic structure. These changes in the electronic structure results in increases in the density of states and the number of conducting modes. Our first-principles simulations combined with a Landauer approach show these changes can lead to large enhancements up to an order of magnitude in the thermoelectric performance of these materials when compared to their bulk structure. Few monolayers of the TMDCs can be misoriented with respect to each other due to the weak van-der-Waals (vdW) force at the interface of two monolayers. Misorientation of the bilayer semiconducting TMDCs increases the interlayer van-der-Waals gap distance, reduces the interlayer coupling and leads to an increase in the magnitude of the indirect bandgap by up to 100 meV compared to the registered bilayer. In the semi-metallic and metallic TMDC compounds (TiSe2, Ta

  2. Optimization of the magnetic properties of materials for fluxgate sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos de Carvalho Benyosef

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was made of the variation of the magnetic properties of cobalt-based alloys using different compositions of CoFeSiB and CoFeSiBCr systems, which were produced by the melt-spinning technique and some of them subjected to a stress annealing treatment. A comparative study of core geometry and supporting material was also performed in order to obtain low noise fluxgate sensor core using amorphous magnetic ribbons of these alloys. The best alloy was a stress annealed Co67.5Fe3.5Si17.4B11.6 sample, which yielded fluxgate sensors with lower noise levels than those of commercial crystalline materials.

  3. Analysis of temperatures during the firing bricks and final properties solid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Guerrero Gómez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Since the estructural behavior of the walls in a building directly depends on the properties of the blocks used, these properties are very important. In particular, the final properties of a ceramic block (often used in masonry depend on the cooking temperature of the pulp. Objective: The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between the final properties of a ceramic block and the temperature at which it was cooked. Additionally, it is wroth considering how quickly these temperatures vary in the kiln. Method: In first place, a system based on Labview was used to record the temperatures in the oven. In second place, it was considered the temperature increasing rate according to the ideal curve for baking blocks, which was classified inside the oven. In third place, samples of the product were taken according to the technical norms NTC 4017 and NTC 4205 in order to determine the properties of the block. Results: According to the samples, we determined: the Initial absorption of water (TIA, the absorption rate at 24 hours of immersion, the compressive strength, and the Modulus of Rupture (MR. Additionally, applying a multiple linear regression analysis, it was found a relationship between the TIA, the temperature increase rate, and the MR. Conclusions: From the results in the research, it is possible to conclude that: blocks baked at more than 1000 °C have the highest modulus of rupture (1.54 MPa; however, it was found that blocks baked at lower temperature presented the highest initial absorption rate (0.37 gr/cm2/min and the best compressive strength (7.28 MPa. Finally, since the temperature and time are not controlled during the baking process, it is difficult for properties to be the most suitable.

  4. Experimental Study on Low-Strength Similar-Material Proportioning and Properties for Coal Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaojie Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Similar-material simulation test is an effective tool to study the practical problems in mining and civil engineering. This paper conducts an orthogonal study on low-strength similar materials comprising sand, fly ash, and plaster and analyses the sensitivity of the materials. The mechanical properties of the similar materials strongly depend on the proportioning ratio, and they can satisfy different similar-material simulation tests. The compression strength and elastic modulus of the similar material decrease as the sand-binder ratio or cement ratio increases. There are approximately linear relations between the compression strength/elastic modulus and sand-binder ratio and approximately power relations between the compression strength/elastic modulus and sand-binder ratio. Sensitivity analysis employing the range method shows that the effects of the cement ratio on the compression strength and elastic modulus are more obvious than the effects of the sand-binder ratio. Finally, one of similar materials is used in a simulation test of coal backfill mining.

  5. Fabrication of nanoscale to macroscale nickel-multiwall carbon nanotube hybrid materials with tunable material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Ahmed M.; Majdi, Tahereh; Ghosh, Suvojit; Puri, Ishwar K.

    2016-12-01

    To utilize their superior properties, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) must be manipulated and aligned end-to-end. We describe a nondestructive method to magnetize MWNTs and provide a means to remotely manipulate them through the electroless deposition of magnetic nickel nanoparticles on their surfaces. The noncovalent bonds between Ni nanoparticles and MWNTs produce a Ni-MWNT hybrid material (NiCH) that is electrically conductive and has an enhanced magnetic susceptibility and elastic modulus. Our experiments show that MWNTs can be plated with Ni for Ni:MWNT weight ratios of γ = 1, 7, 14 and 30, to control the material properties. The phase, atom-level, and morphological information from x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dark field STEM, and atomic force microscopy clarify the plating process and reveal the mechanical properties of the synthesized material. Ni metalizes at the surface of the Pd catalyst, forming a continuous wavy layer that encapsulates the MWNT surfaces. Subsequently, Ni acts as an autocatalyst, allowing the plating to continue even after the original Pd catalyst has been completely covered. Raising γ increases the coating layer thickness from 10 to 150 nm, which influences the NiCH magnetic properties and tunes its elastic modulus from 12.5 to 58.7 GPa. The NiCH was used to fabricate Ni-MWNT macrostructures and tune their morphologies by changing the direction of an applied magnetic field. Leveraging the hydrophilic Ni-MWNT outer surface, a water-based conductive ink was created and used to print a conductive path that had an electrical resistivity of 5.9 Ω m, illustrating the potential of this material for printing electronic circuits.

  6. Hygrothermal Simulation of Foundations: Part 1 - Soil Material Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Pallin, Simon B [ORNL

    2012-10-01

    The hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is a complicated process. A computational approach for heat transfer through the ground has been well defined (EN ISO 13370:2007, 2007), and simplified methods have been developed (Staszczuk, Radon, and Holm 2010). However, these approaches generally ignore the transfer of soil moisture, which is not negligible (Janssen, Carmeliet, and Hens 2004). This study is divided into several parts. The intention of the first part is to gather, comprehend and adapt soil properties from Soil Science. The obtained information must be applicable to related tasks in Building Science and validated with hygrothermal calculation tools. Future parts of this study will focus on the validation aspect of the soil properties to be implemented. Basic changes in the software code may be requested at this time. Different types of basement construction will be created with a hygrothermal calculation tool, WUFI. Simulations from WUFI will be compared with existing or ongoing measurements. The intentions of the first part of this study have been fulfilled. The soil properties of interest in Building Science have been defined for 12 different soil textures. These properties will serve as input parameters when performing hygrothermal calculations of building constructions coupled to soil materials. The reliability of the soil parameters will be further evaluated with measurements in Part 2.

  7. Material properties of the heel fat pad across strain rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriadis, Grigoris; Newell, Nicolas; Carpanen, Diagarajen; Christou, Alexandros; Bull, Anthony M J; Masouros, Spyros D

    2017-01-01

    The complex structural and material behaviour of the human heel fat pad determines the transmission of plantar loading to the lower limb across a wide range of loading scenarios; from locomotion to injurious incidents. The aim of this study was to quantify the hyper-viscoelastic material properties of the human heel fat pad across strains and strain rates. An inverse finite element (FE) optimisation algorithm was developed and used, in conjunction with quasi-static and dynamic tests performed to five cadaveric heel specimens, to derive specimen-specific and mean hyper-viscoelastic material models able to predict accurately the response of the tissue at compressive loading of strain rates up to 150s(-1). The mean behaviour was expressed by the quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) material formulation, combining the Yeoh material model (C10=0.1MPa, C30=7MPa, K=2GPa) and Prony׳s terms (A1=0.06, A2=0.77, A3=0.02 for τ1=1ms, τ2=10ms, τ3=10s). These new data help to understand better the functional anatomy and pathophysiology of the foot and ankle, develop biomimetic materials for tissue reconstruction, design of shoe, insole, and foot and ankle orthoses, and improve the predictive ability of computational models of the foot and ankle used to simulate daily activities or predict injuries at high rate injurious incidents such as road traffic accidents and underbody blast. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Anticoagulation property and security of artificial heart valve material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xianghui; XU Jingfang; LIU Xianghuai; ZHANG Feng; LI Changrong; YU Liujiang; ZHENG Zhihong; WANG Xi; JIANG Zhenbin; CHEN Anqing

    2005-01-01

    Heart valve diseases threaten human health. One reliable way to save lives of such patients is to replace the pathologically changed heart valves by artificial ones. Over 2 million patients have received LTI-carbon heart valve's implantation. However, the thrombosis after the implantation is one of the difficulties that need to be solved. In order to improve the blood compatibility and security of mechanical heart valves, ion beam technology was used to modify the surface properties of the materials. The investigation results have been summarized in this paper.

  9. Measurement of Thermal Properties of Biosourced Building Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Thomas; Colinart, Thibaut; Glouannec, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents both experimental and theoretical works concerning the evaluation of the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of hemp concrete. Experimental measurements of thermal properties are performed using a hot-strip technique for temperatures ranging from 3 to 30 and relative humidities ranging from 0 % to 95 %, thus creating a large database for this material. These experimental thermal conductivities are then compared with the results from the Krischer theoretical predictive model. The comparison shows good agreement, and a predictive analytical relation between the hemp concrete thermal conductivity, temperature, and relative humidity is determined.

  10. Mechanical Properties of Heat Exchanger Tube Materials at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Sören; Zajac, Jozefa; Ekström, Hans-Erik

    Since automotive heat exchangers are operated at elevated temperatures and under varying pressures, both static and dynamic mechanical properties should be known at the relevant temperatures. We have collected elevated-temperature tensile test data, elevated-temperature stress amplitude-fatigue life data, and creep-rupture data in a systematic fashion over the past years. For thin, soft, and braze-simulated heat exchanger tube materials tested inside closed furnaces, none of the well-established methods for crack detection and observation can be applied. In our contribution, we present a simple statistical method to estimate the time required for crack initiation.

  11. Preparation and properties of antimony thin film anode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Shufa; CAO Gaoshao; ZHAO Xinbing

    2004-01-01

    Metallic antimony thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition. Electrochemical properties of the thin film as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were investigated and compared with those of antimony powder. It was found that both magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition are easily controllable processes to deposit antimony films with fiat charge/discharge potential plateaus. The electrochemical performances of antimony thin films, especially those prepared with magnetron sputtering, are better than those of antimony powder. The reversible capacities of the magnetron sputtered antimony thin film are above 400 mA h g-1 in the first 15 cycles.

  12. Electromagnetic properties in ferroelectric materials; Proprietes electromagnetiques des materiaux ferroelectriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravez, J.; Elissalde, C. [Institut de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee, 33 - Pessac (France); Miane, J.L. [ENSCPB, 33 - Talence (France)

    1996-12-31

    The recent development of network analyzers has allowed electromagnetic property studies in perovskite-type ferroelectric materials in a large frequency range ({approx} 10{sup 2}-10{sup 10} Hz). A high frequency ({approx} 10{sup 7}-10{sup 10} Hz) relaxation has been evidenced. The origin of the relaxation process has been determined: it is an intrinsic mechanism directly related to the crystal lattice. In the light of the obtained results, physical-chemistry laws can be used to modulate the relaxation frequency using appropriate ionic substitutions. (authors). 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. GEO-TEP. Development of thermoelectric materials for geothermal energy conversion systems. Final report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocher, L.; Weidenkaff, A.

    2008-07-01

    Geothermal heat can be directly converted into electricity by using thermoelectric converters. Thermoelectric conversion relies on intrinsic materials properties which have to be optimised. In this work novel environmentally friendly and stable oxide ceramics were developed to fulfil this task. Thus, manganate phases were studied regarding their potential thermoelectric properties for converting geothermal heat into electricity. Perovskite-type phases were synthesized by applying different methods: the ceramic route, and innovative synthesis routes such as the 'chimie douce' method by bulk thermal decomposition of the citrate precursor or using an USC process, and also the polyol-mediated synthesis route. The crystal structures of the manganate phases are evaluated by XRPD, NPD, and ED techniques while specific microstructures such as twinned domains are highlighted by HRTEM imaging. Besides, the thermal stability of the Mn-oxide phases in air atmosphere are controlled over a wide temperature range (T < 1300 K). The thermoelectric figure of merit ZT was enhanced from 0.021 to 0.3 in a broad temperature range for the studied phases which makes these phases the best perovskitic candidates as n-type polycrystalline thermoelectric materials operating in air at high temperatures. (author)

  14. Mechanical properties of gangue-containing aluminosilicate based cementitious materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    High performance aluminosilicate based cementitious materials were produced using calcined gangue as one of the major raw materials.The gangue was calcined at 500℃.The main constituent was calcined gangue, fly ash and slag, while alkali-silicate solutions were used as the diagenetic agent.The structure of gangue-containing aluminosilicate based cementitious materials was studied by the methods of IR, NMR and SEM.The results show that the mechanical properties are affected by the mass ratio between the gangue, slag and fly ash, the kind of activator and additional salt.For 28-day curing time, the compressive strength of the sample with a mass proportion of 2:1:1 (gangue: slag: fly ash) is 58.9 MPa, while the compressive strength of the sample containing 80wt%gangue can still be up to 52.3 MPa.The larger K+ favors the formation of large silicate oligomers with which Al(OH)4- prefers to bind.Therefore, in Na-K compounding activator solutions more oligomers exist which result in a stronger compressive strength of aluminosilicate-based cementitious materials than in the case of Na-containing activator.The reasons for this were found through IR and NMR analysis.Glauber's salt reduces the 3-day compressive strength of the paste, but increases its 7-day and 28-day compressive strengths.

  15. Mechanisms Responsible for Microwave Properties in High Performance Dielectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengke

    Microwave properties of low-loss commercial dielectric materials are optimized by adding transition-metal dopants or alloying agents (i.e. Ni, Co, Mn) to tune the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (tau f) to zero. This occurs as a result of the temperature dependence of dielectric constant offsetting the thermal expansion. At cryogenic temperatures, the microwave loss in these dielectric materials is dominated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) loss, which results from the spin-excitations of d-shell electron spins in exchange-coupled clusters. We show that the origin of the observed magnetically-induced shifts in the dielectric resonator frequency originates from the same mechanism, as described by the Kramers-Kronig relations. The temperature coefficient of resonator frequency, tauf, is related to three material parameters according to the equation, tau f = - (½ tauepsilon + ½ taumu + alphaL), where tauepsilon, taumu , and alphaL are the temperature coefficient of dielectric constant, magnetic permeability, and lattice constant, respectively. Each of these parameters for dielectric materials of interest are measured experimentally. These results, in combination with density functional simulations, developed a much improved understanding of the fundamental mechanisms responsible for tau f. The same experimental methods have been used to characterize in-situ the physical nature and concentration of performance-degrading point defects in the dielectrics of superconducting planar microwave resonators.

  16. Final Scientific/Technical Report for DOE/EERE project Advanced Magnetic Refrigerant Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Francis

    2014-06-30

    A team led by GE Global Research developed new magnetic refrigerant materials needed to enhance the commercialization potential of residential appliances such as refrigerators and air conditioners based on the magnetocaloric effect (a nonvapor compression cooling cycle). The new magnetic refrigerant materials have potentially better performance at lower cost than existing materials, increasing technology readiness level. The performance target of the new magnetocaloric material was to reduce the magnetic field needed to achieve 4 °C adiabatic temperature change from 1.5 Tesla to 0.75 Tesla. Such a reduction in field minimizes the cost of the magnet assembly needed for a magnetic refrigerator. Such a reduction in magnet assembly cost is crucial to achieving commercialization of magnetic refrigerator technology. This project was organized as an iterative alloy development effort with a parallel material modeling task being performed at George Washington University. Four families of novel magnetocaloric alloys were identified, screened, and assessed for their performance potential in a magnetic refrigeration cycle. Compositions from three of the alloy families were manufactured into regenerator components. At the beginning of the project a previously studied magnetocaloric alloy was selected for manufacturing into the first regenerator component. Each of the regenerators was tested in magnetic refrigerator prototypes at a subcontractor at at GE Appliances. The property targets for operating temperature range, operating temperature control, magnetic field sensitivity, and corrosion resistance were met. The targets for adiabatic temperature change and thermal hysteresis were not met. The high thermal hysteresis also prevented the regenerator components from displaying measurable cooling power when tested in prototype magnetic refrigerators. Magnetic refrigerant alloy compositions that were predicted to have low hysteresis were not attainable with conventional alloy

  17. Temperature effects on the rheological properties of current polyether and polysiloxane impression materials during setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, John C; Johnson, Glen H; Lepe, Xavier; Adán-Plaza, Sergio

    2003-08-01

    Rheological tests of elastomeric impression materials during setting have been most often conducted at room temperature rather than at intraoral temperature. Because temperature may affect properties and the setting kinetics, clinically relevant inferences may not be accurate with studies conducted at room temperature. The purpose of this study was to determine the viscoelastic properties of new low- and medium-viscosity elastomeric impression materials during setting at 33 degrees C and to evaluate the medium-viscosity materials at 3 additional temperatures. The impression materials investigated at 33 degrees C were 2 polyvinylsiloxanes (PVS) (Aquasil Deca and Aquasil LV) and 5 polyethers (PE) (Impregum Penta, Impregum Penta Soft H, Impregum Penta Soft L, Impregum Garant Soft L, and Permadyne Garant L). Three impression materials (Aquasil Deca, Impregum Penta, and Impregum Penta Soft H) were also investigated at 25 degrees, 29 degrees, and 37 degrees C. Time-dependent oscillatory rheometry was carried out on these materials (n=3) with a rheometer with a 25-mm diameter parallel plate cell. The storage modulus (G') and the loss tangent (tandelta) were determined as functions of time over a period from 0 seconds to 900 seconds, commencing 40 seconds after mixing. Induction time (t(ind)) or initial setting time and tandelta, the relative liquidlike behavior, were also computed. A single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for the properties determined at 33 degrees C and a 2-factor ANOVA was used for the temperature studies, with hypothesis testing at alpha=.05. The G'(t) curves for all materials displayed the expected sigmoidal shape with time, with the solid-like behavior rising slowly, then more rapidly, and again slowly to final set. The initial setting time (t(ind)) was found to be approximately 2.8 minutes for the PVS materials and for Impregum Penta and Impregum Penta Soft H, but was significantly longer for the remaining 3 PE low viscosity materials

  18. Fissile and Non-Fissile Material Detection using Nuclear Acoustic Resonance Signatures: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herberg, J; Maxwell, R; Tittmann, B R; Lenahan, P M; Yerkes, S; Jayaraman, S B

    2006-11-02

    This is final report on NA-22 project LL251DP, where the goal was to develop a novel technique, Nuclear Acoustic Resonance (NAR), for remote, non-destructive, nonradiation-based detection of materials of interest to Nonproliferation Programs, including {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu. In short, we have developed a magnetic shield chamber and magnetic field, develop a digital lock-in amplifier computer to integrate both the ultrasound radiation with the detector, developed strain measurements, and begun to perform initial measurements to obtain a NAR signal from aluminum at room temperature and near the earth's magnetic field. Since our funding was cut in FY06, I will discuss where this project can go in the future with this technology.

  19. Experimental Study on the Comparison of the Material Properties of Glass Wool Used as Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Woo KIM

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Artificial mineral fibers such as glass wool or stone wool are commonly used in building walls, ceilings and floors as a major insulation material for buildings. Among the material properties of building materials, thermal conductivity, the sound absorption coefficient, compressibility, and dynamic stiffness are regarded as important performance requirements since they directly affect the thermal and acoustic properties of the building. This study measured the changes of the thermal and acoustical performances of glass wool that was actually installed for a long time to the outer wall of a building as an insulation material through a comparison with recently produced glass wool. The results showed that the measured thermal conductivities of the old and the new specimens both rise with an increase of temperature, showing quite similar results in both specimens over temperature ranges of (0 – 20 ºC. The noise reduction coefficient decreased by 0.1 in the old specimen and the difference of the compressibilities in both specimens was shown to be 7.32 mm. The dynamic stiffness of the old specimen was found to be 1.28 MN/m3 higher than that of the new specimen.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.3714

  20. High-temperature cementing materials for completion of geothermal wells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyoncu, R.S.; Snyder, M.J.

    1981-05-01

    Several portland cement types, oil well cements, and various additives and admixtures were evaluated during the course of development of a number of promising compositions suitable for geothermal applications. Among the cements and various materials considered were portland cement Types I, III, and V; oil well cement Classes G, H, and J; and additives such as silica flour, blast furnace slags, pozzolan, hydrated lime, perlite, and aluminum phosphate. Properties of interest in the study were thickening time, compressive strength, cement-to-metal bond strength, and effects of the cements on the corrosion of steel well casings. Testing procedures and property data obtained on a number of compositions are presented and discussed. Several cementing compositions comprised of Class J oil well cement, pozzolan, blast furnace slags, and silica flour were found to possess properties which appear to make them suitable for use in geothermal well completions. Five of the promising cementing compositions have been submitted to the National Bureau of Standards for additional testing.

  1. Transport properties of damaged materials. Cementitious barriers partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) project is to develop tools to improve understanding and prediction of the long-term structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in low-level waste storage applications. One key concern for the long-term durability of concrete is the degradation of the cementitious matrix, which occurs as a result of aggressive chemical species entering the material or leaching out in the environment, depending on the exposure conditions. The objective of the experimental study described in this report is to provide experimental data relating damage in cementitious materials to changes in transport properties, which can eventually be used to support predictive model development. In order to get results within a reasonable timeframe and to induce as much as possible uniform damage level in materials, concrete samples were exposed to freezing and thawing (F/T) cycles. The methodology consisted in exposing samples to F/T cycles and monitoring damage level with ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements. Upon reaching pre-selected damage levels, samples were tested to evaluate changes in transport properties. Material selection for the study was motivated by the need to get results rapidly, in order to assess the relevance of the methodology. Consequently, samples already available at SIMCO from past studies were used. They consisted in three different concrete mixtures cured for five years in wet conditions. The mixtures had water-to-cement ratios of 0.5, 0.65 and 0.75 and were prepared with ASTM Type I cement only. The results showed that porosity is not a good indicator for damage caused by the formation of microcracks. Some materials exhibited little variations in porosity even for high damage levels. On the other hand, significant variations in tortuosity were measured in all materials. This implies that damage caused by internal pressure does not necessarily create additional pore space in

  2. Cementitious barriers partnership transport properties of damaged materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) project is to develop tools to improve understanding and prediction of the long-term structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in low level waste storage applications. One key concern for the long-term durability of concrete is the degradation of the cementitious matrix, which occurs as a result of aggressive chemical species entering the material or leaching out in the environment, depending on the exposure conditions. The objective of the experimental study described in this report is to provide experimental data relating damage in cementitious materials to changes in transport properties, which can eventually be used to support predictive model development. In order to get results within a reasonable timeframe and to induce as much as possible uniform damage level in materials, concrete samples were exposed to freezing and thawing (F/T) cycles. The methodology consisted in exposing samples to F/T cycles and monitoring damage level with ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements. Upon reaching pre-selected damage levels, samples were tested to evaluate changes in transport properties. Material selection for the study was motivated by the need to get results rapidly, in order to assess the relevance of the methodology. Consequently, samples already available at SIMCO from past studies were used. They consisted in three different concrete mixtures cured for five years in wet conditions. The mixtures had water-to-cement ratios of 0.5, 0.65 and 0.75 and were prepared with ASTM Type I cement only. The results showed that porosity is not a good indicator for damage caused by the formation of microcracks. Some materials exhibited little variations in porosity even for high damage levels. On the other hand, significant variations in tortuosity were measured in all materials. This implies that damage caused by internal pressure do not necessarily creates additional pore space in

  3. Elucidating the role of interfacial materials properties in microfluidic packages.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Thayne L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to discover a method to investigate the properties of interfaces as described by a numerical physical model. The model used was adopted from literature and applied to a commercially available multiphysics software package. By doing this the internal properties of simple structures could be elucidated and then readily applied to more complex structures such as valves and pumps in laminate microfluidic structures. A numerical finite element multi-scale model of a cohesive interface comprised of heterogeneous material properties was used to elucidate irreversible damage from applied strain energy. An unknown internal state variable was applied to characterize the damage process. Using a constrained blister test, this unknown internal state variable could be determined for an adherend/adhesive/adherend body. This is particularly interesting for laminate systems with microfluidic and microstructures contained within the body. A laminate structure was designed and fabricated that could accommodate a variety of binary systems joined using nearly any technique such as adhesive, welding (solvent, laser, ultrasonic, RF, etc.), or thermal. The adhesive method was the most successful and easy to implement but also one of the more difficult to understand, especially over long periods of time. Welding methods are meant to achieve a bond that is similar to bulk properties and so are easier to predict. However, methods of welding often produce defects in the bonds.. Examples of the test structures used to elucidate the internal properties of the model were shown and demonstrated. The real life examples used this research to improve upon current designs and aided in creating complex structures for sensor and other applications.

  4. Ultrafast control and monitoring of material properties using terahertz pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowlan, Pamela Renee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Lab. for Ultrafast Materials Optical Science (LUMOS)

    2016-05-02

    These are a set of slides on ultrafast control and monitoring of material properties using terahertz pulses. A few of the topics covered in these slides are: How fast is a femtosecond (fs), Different frequencies probe different properties of molecules or solids, What can a THz pulse do to a material, Ultrafast spectroscopy, Generating and measuring ultrashort THz pulses, Tracking ultrafast spin dynamics in antiferromagnets through spin wave resonances, Coherent two-dimensional THz spectroscopy, and Probing vibrational dynamics at a surface. Conclusions are: Coherent two-dimensional THz spectroscopy: a powerful approach for studying coherence and dynamics of low energy resonances. Applying this to graphene we investigated the very strong THz light mater interaction which dominates over scattering. Useful for studying coupled excitations in multiferroics and monitoring chemical reactions. Also, THz-pump, SHG-probe spectoscopy: an ultrafast, surface sensitive probe of atomic-scale symmetry changes and nonlinear phonon dymanics. We are using this in Bi2Se3 to investigate the nonlinear surface phonon dynamics. This is potentially very useful for studying catalysis.

  5. Recommended Best Practices for the Characterization of Storage Properties of Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-03-01

    This is a reference guide to common methodologies and protocols for measuring critical performance properties of advanced hydrogen storage materials. It helps users to communicate clearly the relevant performance properties of new materials as they are discovered and tested.

  6. A novel stress distribution analytical model of O-ring seals under different properties of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Di; Wang, Shao Ping; Wang, Xing Jian [School of Automation Science and Electrical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing (China)

    2017-01-15

    The elastomeric O-ring seals have been widely used as sealing elements in hydraulic systems. The sealing performance of O-ring seals is related to stress distribution. The stresses distribution depends on the squeeze rate and internal pressure, and would vary with properties of O-ring seals materials. Thus, in order to study the sealing performance of O-ring seals, it is necessary to describe the analytic relationship between stress distribution and properties of O-ring seals materials. For this purpose, a novel Stress distribution analytical model (SDAM) is proposed in this paper. The analytical model utilizes two stress complex functions to describe the stress distribution of O-ring seals. The proposed SDAM can express not only the analytical relationship between stress distribution and Young’s modulus, but also the one between stress distribution and Poisson’s ratio. Finally, compared results between finite element analysis and the SDAM validate that the proposed model can effectively reveal the stress distribution under different properties for O-ring materials.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF GREEN’S FUNCTION APPROACH CONSIDERING TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT MATERIAL PROPERTIES AND ITS APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN-OK KO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available About 40% of reactors in the world are being operated beyond design life or are approaching the end of their life cycle. During long-term operation, various degradation mechanisms occur. Fatigue caused by alternating operational stresses in terms of temperature or pressure change is an important damage mechanism in continued operation of nuclear power plants. To monitor the fatigue damage of components, Fatigue Monitoring System (FMS has been installed. Most FMSs have used Green's Function Approach (GFA to calculate the thermal stresses rapidly. However, if temperature-dependent material properties are used in a detailed FEM, there is a maximum peak stress discrepancy between a conventional GFA and a detailed FEM because constant material properties are used in a conventional method. Therefore, if a conventional method is used in the fatigue evaluation, thermal stresses for various operating cycles may be calculated incorrectly and it may lead to an unreliable estimation. So, in this paper, the modified GFA which can consider temperature-dependent material properties is proposed by using an artificial neural network and weight factor. To verify the proposed method, thermal stresses by the new method are compared with those by FEM. Finally, pros and cons of the new method as well as technical findings from the assessment are discussed.

  8. Organoapatites: materials for artificial bone. II. Hardening reactions and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupp, S I; Mejicano, G C; Hanson, J A

    1993-03-01

    This article reports on chemical reactions and the properties they generated in artificial bone materials termed "organoapatites." These materials are synthesized using methodology we reported in the previous article of this series. Two different processes were studied here for the transition from organoapatite particles to implants suitable for the restoration of the skeletal system. One process involved the hardening of powder compacts by beams of blue light derived from a lamp or a laser and the other involved pressure-induced interdiffusion of polymers. In both cases, the hardening reaction involved the formation of a polyion complex between two polyelectrolytes. In the photo-induced reaction an anionic electrolyte polymerizes to form the coulombic network and in the pressure-induced one, pressure forms the complex by interdiffusion of two polyions. Model reactions were studied using various polycations. Based on these results the organoapatite selected for the study was that containing dispersed poly(L-lysine) and sodium acrylate as the anionic monomer. The organomineral particles can be pressed at room temperature into objects of great physical integrity and hydrolytic stability relative to anorganic controls. The remarkable fact about these objects is that intimate molecular dispersion of only 2-3% by weight organic material provides integrity to the mineral network in an aqueous medium and also doubles its tensile strength. This integrity is essentially nonexistent in "anorganic" samples prepared by the same methodology used in organoapatite synthesis. The improvement in properties was most effectively produced by molecular bridges formed by photopolymerization. The photopolymerization leads to the "hardening" of pellets prepared by pressing of organoapatite powders. The reaction was found to be more facile in the microstructure of the organomineral, and it is potentially useful in the surgical application of organoapatites as artificial bone.

  9. ABINIT: First-principles approach to material and nanosystem properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, X.; Amadon, B.; Anglade, P.-M.; Beuken, J.-M.; Bottin, F.; Boulanger, P.; Bruneval, F.; Caliste, D.; Caracas, R.; Côté, M.; Deutsch, T.; Genovese, L.; Ghosez, Ph.; Giantomassi, M.; Goedecker, S.; Hamann, D. R.; Hermet, P.; Jollet, F.; Jomard, G.; Leroux, S.; Mancini, M.; Mazevet, S.; Oliveira, M. J. T.; Onida, G.; Pouillon, Y.; Rangel, T.; Rignanese, G.-M.; Sangalli, D.; Shaltaf, R.; Torrent, M.; Verstraete, M. J.; Zerah, G.; Zwanziger, J. W.

    2009-12-01

    ABINIT [ http://www.abinit.org] allows one to study, from first-principles, systems made of electrons and nuclei (e.g. periodic solids, molecules, nanostructures, etc.), on the basis of Density-Functional Theory (DFT) and Many-Body Perturbation Theory. Beyond the computation of the total energy, charge density and electronic structure of such systems, ABINIT also implements many dynamical, dielectric, thermodynamical, mechanical, or electronic properties, at different levels of approximation. The present paper provides an exhaustive account of the capabilities of ABINIT. It should be helpful to scientists that are not familiarized with ABINIT, as well as to already regular users. First, we give a broad overview of ABINIT, including the list of the capabilities and how to access them. Then, we present in more details the recent, advanced, developments of ABINIT, with adequate references to the underlying theory, as well as the relevant input variables, tests and, if available, ABINIT tutorials. Program summaryProgram title: ABINIT Catalogue identifier: AEEU_v1_0 Distribution format: tar.gz Journal reference: Comput. Phys. Comm. Programming language: Fortran95, PERL scripts, Python scripts Computer: All systems with a Fortran95 compiler Operating system: All systems with a Fortran95 compiler Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Sequential, or parallel with proven speed-up up to one thousand processors. RAM: Ranges from a few Mbytes to several hundred Gbytes, depending on the input file. Classification: 7.3, 7.8 External routines: (all optional) BigDFT [1], ETSF IO [2], libxc [3], NetCDF [4], MPI [5], Wannier90 [6] Nature of problem: This package has the purpose of computing accurately material and nanostructure properties: electronic structure, bond lengths, bond angles, primitive cell size, cohesive energy, dielectric properties, vibrational properties, elastic properties, optical properties, magnetic properties, non-linear couplings, electronic and

  10. Lifelong modelling of properties for materials with technological memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falaleev, AP; Meshkov, VV; Vetrogon, AA; Ogrizkov, SV; Shymchenko, AV

    2016-10-01

    An investigation of real automobile parts produced from dual phase steel during standard periods of life cycle is presented, which considers such processes as stamping, exploitation, automobile accident, and further repair. The development of the phenomenological model of the mechanical properties of such parts was based on the two surface plastic theory of Chaboche. As a consequence of the composite structure of dual phase steel, it was shown that local mechanical properties of parts produced from this material change significantly their during their life cycle, depending on accumulated plastic deformations and thermal treatments. Such mechanical property changes have a considerable impact on the accuracy of the computer modelling of automobile behaviour. The most significant errors of modelling were obtained at the critical operating conditions, such as crashes and accidents. The model developed takes into account the kinematics (Bauschinger effect), isotropic hardening, non-linear elastic steel behaviour and changes caused by the thermal treatment. Using finite element analysis, the model allows the evaluation of the passive safety of a repaired car body, and enables increased restoration accuracy following an accident. The model was confirmed experimentally for parts produced from dual phase steel DP780.

  11. Composition, structure and mechanical properties of several natural cellular materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The stem piths of sunflower, kaoliang and corn are natural cellular materials. In this paper, the contents of the compositions of these piths are determined and their cell shapes and structures are examined through scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope. Further research is conducted in the effects of the compositions and structures of the piths on the mechanical properties after testing the partial mechanical properties. The results show that the total cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin content of each sample approaches 75% of the dry mass of its primary cell walls. With the fall of R value, a parameter relative to the contents of the main compositions, the flexibilities of the cellular piths descend while their stresses and rigidities increase. The basic cell shape making up the sunflower pith is approximately a tetrakaidehedron. The stem piths of kaoliang and corn are made up of cells close to hexangular prisms and a few tubular ones which can observably reinforce their mechanical properties in the axial directions.

  12. Electron Transport Materials: Synthesis, Properties and Device Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosimbescu, Lelia; Wang, Liang; Helm, Monte L.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2012-06-01

    We report the design, synthesis and characterization, thermal and photophysical properties of two silane based electron transport materials, dibenzo[b,d]thiophen-2-yltriphenylsilane (Si{phi}87) and (dibenzo[b,d]thiophen-2-yl)diphenylsilane (Si{phi}88) and their performance in blue organic light emitting devices (OLEDs). The utility of these materials in blue OLEDs with iridium (III) bis[(4,6-difluorophenyl)-pyridinato-N,C']picolinate (Firpic) as the phosphorescent emitter was demonstrated. Using the silane Si{phi}87 as the electron transport material (ETm) an EQE of 18.2% was obtained, with a power efficiency of 24.3 lm/W (5.8V at 1mA/cm{sup 2}), in a heterostructure. When Si{phi}88 is used, the EQE is 18.5% with a power efficiency of 26.0 lm/W (5.5V at 1mA/cm{sup 2}).

  13. Designing functionally graded materials with superior load-bearing properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Sun, Ming-Jie; Zhang, Denzil

    2012-03-01

    Ceramic prostheses often fail from fracture and wear. We hypothesize that these failures may be substantially mitigated by an appropriate grading of elastic modulus at the ceramic surface. In this study, we elucidate the effect of elastic modulus profile on the flexural damage resistance of functionally graded materials (FGMs), providing theoretical guidelines for designing FGMs with superior load-bearing property. The Young's modulus of the graded structure is assumed to vary in a power-law relation with a scaling exponent n; this is in accordance with experimental observations from our laboratory and elsewhere. Based on the theory for bending of graded beams, we examine the effect of n value and bulk-to-surface modulus ratio (E(b)/E(s)) on stress distribution through the graded layer. Theory predicts that a low exponent (0.15graded materials with various n values and E(b)/E(s) ratios can be fabricated by infiltrating alumina and zirconia with a low-modulus glass. Flexural tests show that graded alumina and zirconia with suitable values of these parameters exhibit superior load-bearing capacity, 20-50% higher than their homogeneous counterparts. Improving load-bearing capacity of ceramic materials could have broad impacts on biomedical, civil, structural, and an array of other engineering applications.

  14. Interfacial properties and design of functional energy materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumpter, Bobby G; Liang, Liangbo; Nicolaï, Adrien; Meunier, Vincent

    2014-11-18

    CONSPECTUS: The vital importance of energy to society continues to demand a relentless pursuit of energy responsive materials that can bridge fundamental chemical structures at the molecular level and achieve improved functionality and performance. This demand can potentially be realized by harnessing the power of self-assembly, a spontaneous process where molecules or much larger entities form ordered aggregates as a consequence of predominately noncovalent (weak) interactions. Self-assembly is the key to bottom-up design of molecular devices, because the nearly atomic-level control is very difficult to realize in a top-down, for example, lithographic, approach. However, while function in simple systems such as single crystals can often be evaluated a priori, predicting the function of the great variety of self-assembled molecular architectures is complicated by the lack of understanding and control over nanoscale interactions, mesoscale architectures, and macroscale order. To establish a foundation toward delivering practical solutions, it is critical to develop an understanding of the chemical and physical mechanisms responsible for the self-assembly of molecular and hybrid materials on various support substrates. Typical molecular self-assembly involves noncovalent intermolecular and substrate-molecule interactions. These interactions remain poorly understood, due to the combination of many-body interactions compounded by local or collective influences from the substrate atomic lattice and electronic structure. Progress toward unraveling the underlying physicochemical processes that control the structure and macroscopic physical, chemical, mechanical, electrical, and transport properties of materials increasingly requires tight integration of theory, modeling, and simulation with precision synthesis, advanced experimental characterization, and device measurements. Theory, modeling, and simulation can accelerate the process of materials understanding and design

  15. Filter properties of seam material from paved urban soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nehls

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Depositions of all kinds of urban dirt and dust including anthropogenic organic substances like soot change the filter properties of the seam filling material of pervious pavements and lead to the formation of a new soil substrate called seam material.

    In this study, the impact of the particular urban form of organic matter (OM on the seam materials CECpot, the specific surface area (As, the surface charge density (SCD, the adsorption energies (Ea and the adsorption of Cd and Pb were assessed. The Cd and Pb displacement through the pavement system has been simulated in order to assess the risk of soil and groundwater contamination from infiltration of rainwater in paved urban soils.

    As, Ea and SCD derived from water vapor adsorption isotherms, CECpot, Pb and Cd adsorption isotherms where analyzed from adsorption experiments. The seam material is characterized by a darker munsell-color and a higher Corg (12 to 48g kg-1 compared to the original seam filling. Although, the increased Corg leads to higher As (16m2g-1 and higher CECpot (0.7 to 4.8cmolckg-1, with 78cmolckg-1C its specific CECpot is low compared to OM of non-urban soils. This can be explained by a low SCD of 1.2×10-6molc m-2 and a low fraction of high adsorption energy sites which is likely caused by the non-polar character of the accumulated urban OM in the seam material.

    The seam material shows stronger sorption of Pb and Cd compared to the original construction sand. The retardation capacity of seam material for Pb is similar, for Cd it is much smaller compared to natural sandy soils with similar Corg concentrations

  16. Long term test of buffer material. Final Report on the pilot parcels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnland, Ola; Sanden, Torbjoern; Johannesson, Lars-Erik [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Eriksen, Trygve E; Jansson, Mats; Wold, Susanna [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden); Pedersen, Karsten; Motamedi, Mehrdad [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden); Rosborg, Bo [Studsvik Material AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2000-12-01

    The 'Long Term Test of Buffer Material' (LOT) series at the Aespoe HRL aims at checking models and hypotheses for a bentonite buffer material under conditions similar to those in a KBS3 repository. The test series comprises seven test parcels, which are exposed to repository conditions for 1, 5 and 20 years. This report concerns the two completed pilot tests (1-year tests) with respect to construction, field data and laboratory results. Four research groups were engaged in this part of the project working on physical properties - mineralogy, cation diffusion, bacteria and copper corrosion, respectively. The experimental layout was to place parcels containing heater, central copper tube, pre-compacted bentonite blocks and instruments in vertical boreholes in crystalline rock. The heaters were used for simulating the decay power from spent nuclear fuel at standard KBS3 conditions (S1 parcel, 90 deg C) and to give adverse conditions (A1 parcel, 130 deg C). The latter was used in order to accelerate possible processes. Temperature, total pressure, water pressure and water content were measured during the heating period. The two pilot tests were terminated after approximately 12 months of heating, and the parcels were extracted by overlapping core drilling outside the original borehole. The entire 4.5 m long S1-parcel with approximately 20 cm rock cover was successfully lifted in one piece from the rock, whereas the central part of the A1 parcel was lost during drilling. The upper and lower parts were however retrieved. Reference and exposed bentonite material were analysed with respect to physical properties (triaxial, beam and oedometer tests), and to mineralogical properties (XRD, CEC, ICP-AES and SEM analyses) according to a defined test program. Some precipitation, mainly gypsum, was found in the warmest part of the parcels, and the only unpredicted change was minor uptake of Cu into the clay matrix. An overarching conclusion is that no degrading

  17. Quantitative property-structural relation modeling on polymeric dielectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ke

    Nowadays, polymeric materials have attracted more and more attention in dielectric applications. But searching for a material with desired properties is still largely based on trial and error. To facilitate the development of new polymeric materials, heuristic models built using the Quantitative Structure Property Relationships (QSPR) techniques can provide reliable "working solutions". In this thesis, the application of QSPR on polymeric materials is studied from two angles: descriptors and algorithms. A novel set of descriptors, called infinite chain descriptors (ICD), are developed to encode the chemical features of pure polymers. ICD is designed to eliminate the uncertainty of polymer conformations and inconsistency of molecular representation of polymers. Models for the dielectric constant, band gap, dielectric loss tangent and glass transition temperatures of organic polymers are built with high prediction accuracy. Two new algorithms, the physics-enlightened learning method (PELM) and multi-mechanism detection, are designed to deal with two typical challenges in material QSPR. PELM is a meta-algorithm that utilizes the classic physical theory as guidance to construct the candidate learning function. It shows better out-of-domain prediction accuracy compared to the classic machine learning algorithm (support vector machine). Multi-mechanism detection is built based on a cluster-weighted mixing model similar to a Gaussian mixture model. The idea is to separate the data into subsets where each subset can be modeled by a much simpler model. The case study on glass transition temperature shows that this method can provide better overall prediction accuracy even though less data is available for each subset model. In addition, the techniques developed in this work are also applied to polymer nanocomposites (PNC). PNC are new materials with outstanding dielectric properties. As a key factor in determining the dispersion state of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix

  18. Composite Materials with Magnetically Aligned Carbon Nanoparticles Having Enhanced Electrical Properties and Methods of Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haiping (Inventor); Peterson, G.P. (Bud) (Inventor); Salem, David R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Magnetically aligned carbon nanoparticle composites have enhanced electrical properties. The composites comprise carbon nanoparticles, a host material, magnetically sensitive nanoparticles and a surfactant. In addition to enhanced electrical properties, the composites can have enhanced mechanical and thermal properties.

  19. A mixed method for measuring low-frequency acoustic properties of macromolecular materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Hongwei; YAO; Lei; ZHAO; Hong; ZHANG; Jichuan; XUE; Zhaohong

    2006-01-01

    A mixed method for measuring low-frequency acoustic properties of macromolecular materials is presented.The dynamic mechanical parameters of materials are first measured by using Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Apparatus(DMTA) at low frequencies,usually less than 100 Hz; then based on the Principles of Time-Temperature Super position (TTS),these parameters are extended to the frequency range that acousticians are concerned about,usually from hundreds to thousands of hertz; finally the extended dynamic mechanical parameters are transformed into acoustic parameters with the help of acoustic measurement and inverse analysis.To test the feasibility and accuracy,we measure a kind of rubber sample in DMTA and acquire the basic acoustic parameters of the sample by using this method.While applying the basic parameters to calculating characteristics of the sample in acoustic pipe,a reasonable agreement of sound absorption coefficients is obtained between the calculations and measurements in the acoustic pipe.

  20. Quantitative measurement of nanomechanical properties in composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei

    results significantly, and new, power-law body of revolution models of the probe tip geometry have been applied. Due to the low yield strength of polymers compared with other engineering materials, elastic-plastic contact is considered to better represent the epoxy surface response and was used to acquire more accurate quantitative measurements. Visco-elastic contact response was introduced in the boundary condition of the AFAM cantilever vibration model, due to the creep nature of epoxy, to determine time-dependent effects. These methods have direct impact on the quantitative measurement capabilities of near-filler interphase regions in polymers and composites and the long-term influence of environmental conditions on composites. In addition, quantitative AFAM scans were made on distal surfaces of human bicuspids and molars, to determine the microstructural and spatial variation in nanomechanical properties of the enamel biocomposite. Single point AFAM measurements were performed on individual enamel prism and sheath locations to determine spatial elastic modulus. Mechanical property variation of enamel is associated to the differences in the mineral to organic content and the apatite crystal orientations within the enamel microstructure. Also, variation in the elastic modulus of the enamel ultrastructure was observed in measurements at the outer enamel versus near the dentine enamel junction (DEJ).

  1. Extended liner performance for hydrodynamics and material properties experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Reinovsky, R E

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. Over the last few years a new application for high performance pulsed power, the production of high energy density environments for the study of material properties under extreme conditions and hydrodynamics in complex geometries has joined the traditional family of radiation source applications. The newly commissioned Atlas pulsed power system at Los Alamos has replaced its predecessor, Pegasus, and joined the Shiva Star system at AFRL, Albuquerque and a variety of flux compression systems, principally at the All Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (VNIIEF) as ultra high current drivers for the high precision, magnetically imploded, near-solid density liner that is used to create the needed environments. Three families of experiments: the production of ultra strong shocks (>10 Mbar), the production of strongly coupled plasmas by liner compression of an initially dense plasma of a few eV temperature, and the compression of a magnetized plasma for ...

  2. Optimal Reconstruction of Material Properties in Complex Multiphysics Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Bukshtynov, Vladislav

    2013-01-01

    We develop an optimization-based approach to the problem of reconstructing temperature-dependent material properties in complex thermo-fluid systems described by the equations for the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. Our goal is to estimate the temperature dependence of the viscosity coefficient in the momentum equation based on some noisy temperature measurements, where the temperature is governed by a separate energy equation. We show that an elegant and computationally efficient solution of this inverse problem is obtained by formulating it as a PDE-constrained optimization problem which can be solved with a gradient-based descent method. A key element of the proposed approach, the cost functional gradients are characterized by mathematical structure quite different than in typical problems of PDE-constrained optimization and are expressed in terms of integrals defined over the level sets of the temperature field. Advanced techniques of integration on manifolds are required to evaluate numericall...

  3. Piezoelectric properties of rhombohedral ferroelectric materials with phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaofang; Soh, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    The temporal evolution of domain structure and its piezoelectric behavior of ferroelectric material BaTiO3 during the transition process from rhombohedral to tetragonal phase under an applied electric field have been studied by employing Landau-Ginzburg theory and the phase-field method. The results obtained show that, during the transformation process, the intermediate phase was monoclinic MA phase, and several peak values of piezoelectric coefficient appeared at the stage where obvious change of domain pattern occurred. In addition, by comparing the cases of applied electric field with different frequencies, it was found that the maximum piezoelectric coefficient obtained decreased with increasing frequency value. These results are of great significance in tuning the properties of engineering domains in ferroelectrics, and could provide more fundamentals to the design of ferroelectric devices.

  4. Basis Function Sampling: A New Paradigm for Material Property Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmer, Jonathan K.; Chiu, Chi-cheng; Joshi, Abhijeet A.; de Pablo, Juan J.

    2014-11-01

    Wang-Landau sampling, and the associated class of flat histogram simulation methods have been remarkably helpful for calculations of the free energy in a wide variety of physical systems. Practically, convergence of these calculations to a target free energy surface is hampered by reliance on parameters which are unknown a priori. Here, we derive and implement a method built upon orthogonal functions which is fast, parameter-free, and (importantly) geometrically robust. The method is shown to be highly effective in achieving convergence. An important feature of this method is its ability to attain arbitrary levels of description for the free energy. It is thus ideally suited to in silico measurement of elastic moduli and other material properties related to free energy perturbations. We demonstrate the utility of such applications by applying our method to calculate the Frank elastic constants of the Lebwohl-Lasher model of liquid crystals.

  5. Preliminary Material Properties Handbook. Volume 2: SI Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Aluminium 4.8 5.3 Titanium 1.6 2.0 Tungsten 5.2 5.9 Niobium 2.4 2.8 Hafnium 0.1 0.4 Zirconium — 0.015 Magnesium — 0.02 Boron — 0.015 Cerium — 0.01...alloy MA754 EP741NP (Russian Powder Material) Cobalt-Base Alloys Other Alloys C-103 (Niobium- Hafnium -Titanium) HEAT-RESISTANT ALLOYS Heat-resistant... HAFNIUM -TITANIUM) 6.5.1.0 Comments and Properties — C-103 is a Niobium-based alloy (Nb-10Hf-0.7 to1.3Ti) used for elevated temperature applications with

  6. Amplified Spontaneous Emission Properties of Semiconducting Organic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M. Calzado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to review the recent advances achieved in the field of organic solid-state lasers with respect to the usage of semiconducting organic molecules and oligomers in the form of thin films as active laser media. We mainly focus on the work performed in the last few years by our research group. The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE properties, by optical pump, of various types of molecules doped into polystyrene films in waveguide configuration, are described. The various systems investigated include N,N´-bis(3-methylphenyl-N,N´-diphenylbenzidine (TPD, several perilenediimide derivatives (PDIs, as well as two oligo-phenylenevinylene derivatives. The ASE characteristics, i.e., threshold, emission wavelength, linewidth, and photostability are compared with that of other molecular materials investigated in the literature.

  7. Amplified spontaneous emission properties of semiconducting organic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzado, Eva M; Boj, Pedro G; Díaz-García, María A

    2010-06-18

    This paper aims to review the recent advances achieved in the field of organic solid-state lasers with respect to the usage of semiconducting organic molecules and oligomers in the form of thin films as active laser media. We mainly focus on the work performed in the last few years by our research group. The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) properties, by optical pump, of various types of molecules doped into polystyrene films in waveguide configuration, are described. The various systems investigated include N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-N,N'-diphenylbenzidine (TPD), several perilenediimide derivatives (PDIs), as well as two oligo-phenylenevinylene derivatives. The ASE characteristics, i.e., threshold, emission wavelength, linewidth, and photostability are compared with that of other molecular materials investigated in the literature.

  8. Viscoelastic effective properties of two types of heterogeneous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Jan; Dabrowski, Marcin; Schmid, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    In the past, a lot of efforts have been put to describe two end cases of rock behaviors: elasticity and viscosity. In recent years, more focus has been brought on the intermediate viscoelastic cases which describe better the rheology of rocks such as shales. Shales are typically heterogeneous and the question arises as to how to derive their effective properties so that they can be approximated as homogeneous media. This question has already been dealt with at the elastic and viscous limit but still remains for some cases in between. Using MILAMIN, a fast finite element solver for large problems, we numerically investigate different approaches to derive the effective properties of several viscoelastic media. Two types of geometries are considered: layered and inclusion based media. We focus on two dimensional plane strain problems considering two phase composites deformed under pure shear. We start by investigating the case of transversely isotropic layered media made of two Maxwell materials. Using the Backus averaging method we discuss the degree of relevance of this averaging by considering some parameters as: layer periodicity, layer thickness and layer interface roughness. Other averaging methods are also discussed which provide a broader perspective on the performances of Backus averaging. In a second part we move on to inclusion based models. The advantage of these models compared to the previous one is that they provide a better approximation to real microstructures in rocks. The setup we consider in this part is the following: some viscous circular inclusions are embedded in an elastic matrix. Both the inclusions and the matrix are homogeneous but the inclusions are purely isotropic while the matrix can also be anisotropic. In order to derive the effective viscoelastic properties of the medium we use two approaches: the self-consistent averaging and the differential effective medium theory. The idea behind self-consistency is to assume that the inclusions

  9. Hygrothermal Material Properties for Soils in Building Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehrer, Manfred [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Hygrothermal performance of soils coupled to buildings is complicated because of the dearth of information on soil properties. However they are important when numerical simulation of coupled heat and moisture transport for below-grade building components are performed as their temperature and moisture content has an influence on the durability of the below-grade building component. Soils can be classified by soil texture. According to the Unified Soil Classification System (USCA), 12 different soils can be defined on the basis of three soil components: clay, sand, and silt. This study shows how existing material properties for typical American soils can be transferred and used for the calculation of the coupled heat and moisture transport of building components in contact with soil. Furthermore a thermal validation with field measurements under known boundary conditions is part of this study, too. Field measurements for soil temperature and moisture content for two specified soils are carried out right now under known boundary conditions. As these field measurements are not finished yet, the full hygrothermal validation is still missing

  10. Material simulation of charge carrier transport properties of polymer dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unge, Mikael; Christen, Thomas; Törnkvist, Christer; ABB Corporate Research Team

    To understand electron and hole transport in solid material requires to know its electronic properties, i.e. the density of states (DOS) and whether the states are spatially localized or delocalized. The states closest to the band edges may be localized, states further away can be delocalized. This transition from localized to delocalized states determines the mobility edge, above the mobility edge the mobility is expected to be high. A real polymer is never perfect; it contains a number of oxidative states, bonding defects and molecular impurities. These imperfections yield electronic states that can appear in the band gap of the polymer, traps. Traps can be shallow, i.e. close to the band edges, from these states the charge carrier easily can jump to a state in the band edge or another shallow state. Other traps can be deep, in these states it is likely that the charge carrier remains and become immobile. All these properties related to the electronic structure of the polymer, including its defects, affects the conductivity of the polymer. Linear scaling Density Functional Theory has been applied to calculate electronic structure of amorphous polyethylene. In particular DOS, trap levels and mobility edges are studied.

  11. Analysis of nonlinear optical properties in donor–acceptor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, Paul N. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); General Dynamics Information Technology, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45431 (United States); Pachter, Ruth [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Nguyen, Kiet A. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); UES, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45432 (United States)

    2014-05-14

    Time-dependent density functional theory has been used to calculate nonlinear optical (NLO) properties, including the first and second hyperpolarizabilities as well as the two-photon absorption cross-section, for the donor-acceptor molecules p-nitroaniline and dimethylamino nitrostilbene, and for respective materials attached to a gold dimer. The CAMB3LYP, B3LYP, PBE0, and PBE exchange-correlation functionals all had fair but variable performance when compared to higher-level theory and to experiment. The CAMB3LYP functional had the best performance on these compounds of the functionals tested. However, our comprehensive analysis has shown that quantitative prediction of hyperpolarizabilities is still a challenge, hampered by inadequate functionals, basis sets, and solvation models, requiring further experimental characterization. Attachment of the Au{sub 2}S group to molecules already known for their relatively large NLO properties was found to further enhance the response. While our calculations show a modest enhancement for the first hyperpolarizability, the enhancement of the second hyperpolarizability is predicted to be more than an order of magnitude.

  12. Assessment of the material properties of a fire damaged building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladipupo OLOMO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies a process for assessing the material properties of a fire damaged building so as to determine whether the remains can be utilized in construction or be demolished. Physical and chemical analysis were carried out on concrete and steel samples taken from various elements of the building after thorough visual inspection of the entire building had been conducted. The physical (non-destructive tests included the Schmidt hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity tests on the concrete samples, tensile strength test on the steel samples and chemical tests involving the assessment of the quantities of cement, sulphates and chloride concentrations in the samples. A redesign of the building elements was also carried out and the results were compared with the existing design. The non-destructive test results indicated compressive strengths as low as 9.9 N/mm2, the tensile strength test indicated a maximum strength of 397.48 N/mm2 and the chemical test indicated chloride contents as high as 0.534 g per gramme of concrete. These properties deviated significantly from standard requirements. Based on these results, it was concluded that the remains of the building should be demolished.

  13. Exploiting Novel Radiation-Induced Electromagnetic Material Changes for Remote Detection and Monitoring: Final Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    semiconductors ) or optical photons ( scintillators ) resulting from ionization events occurring in the materials. The requirement of co-located detector material...low coercivity oxide magnets, spin glass magnets, core- shell nanoparticles, and magnetic semiconductor chalcogenide materials. Working in parallel...resonator testing. Commercial materials were obtained spanning obvious materials classes for consideration: semiconductors (high resistivity Si

  14. Electrical and optoelectronic properties of two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiaoming

    Electrical and optoelectronic properties of bulk semiconductor materials have been extensively explored in last century. However, when reduced to one-dimensional and two-dimensional, many semiconductors start to show unique electrical and optoelectronic behaviors. In this dissertation, electrical and optoelectronic properties of one-dimensional (nanowires) and two-dimensional semiconductor materials are investigated by various techniques, including scanning photocurrent microscopy, scanning Kelvin probe microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and finite-element simulations. In our work, gate-tunable photocurrent in ZnO nanowires has been observed under optical excitation in the visible regime, which originates from the nanowire/substrate interface states. This gate tunability in the visible regime can be used to enhance the photon absorption efficiency, and suppress the undesirable visible-light photodetection in ZnO-based solar cells. The power conversion efficiency of CuInSe2/CdS core-shell nanowire solar cells has been investigated. The highest power conversion efficiency per unit area/volume is achieved with core diameter of 50 nm and the thinnest shell thickness. The existence of the optimal geometrical parameters is due to a combined effect of optical resonances and carrier transport/dynamics. Significant current crowding in two-dimensional black phosphorus field-effect transistors has been found, which has been significantly underestimated by the commonly used transmission-line model. This current crowding can lead to Joule heating close to the contacts. New van der Waals metal-semiconductor junctions have been mechanically constructed and systematically studied. The photocurrent on junction area has been demonstrated to originate from the photothermal effect rather than the photovoltaic effect. Our findings suggest that a reasonable control of interface/surface state properties can enable new and beneficial functionalities in nanostructures. We

  15. Computational evaluation of optoelectronic properties for organic/carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Zhigang; Wang, Dong; Peng, Qian; Geng, Hua

    2014-11-18

    CONSPECTUS: Organic optoelectronic materials are used in a variety of devices, including light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors, photovoltaics, thermoelectrics, spintronics, and chemico- and biosensors. The processes that determine the intrinsic optoelectronic properties occur either in the photoexcited states or within the electron-pumped charged species, and computations that predict these optical and electrical properties would help researchers design new materials. In this Account, we describe recent advances in related density functional theory (DFT) methods and present case studies that examine the efficiency of light emission, carrier mobility, and thermoelectric figures of merit by calculation of the electron-vibration couplings. First we present a unified vibrational correlation function formalism to evaluate the excited-state radiative decay rate constant kr, the nonradiative decay rate constant knr, the intersystem crossing rate constant kISC, and the optical spectra. The molecular parameters that appear in the formalism, such as the electronic excited-state energy, vibrational modes, and vibronic couplings, require extensive DFT calculations. We used experiments for anthracene at both low and ambient temperatures to benchmark the calculated photophysical parameters. In the framework of Fermi's golden rule, we incorporated the non-adiabatic coupling and the spin-orbit coupling to evaluate the phosphorescence efficiency and emission spectrum. Both of these are in good agreement with experimental results for anthracene and iridium compounds. Band electron scattering and relaxation processes within Boltzmann theory can describe charge transport in two-dimensional carbon materials and closely packed organic solids. For simplicity, we considered only the acoustic phonon scattering as modeled by the deformation potential approximation coupled with extensive DFT calculations for band structures. We then related the carrier mobility to the band

  16. Entropy and equilibrium property of QCD-instanton induced final state in deep-inelastic scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Wei-Bing; LU Ding; ZHANG Ji-Ying; XU Ming-Mei; Boris Levchenko; LIU Lian-Shou

    2008-01-01

    The scaling and additivity properties of Rényi entropy in rapidity space of the instanton final state (IFS) and current jet identified by the r-sorting method from the QCDINS Monte Carlo event sample are to saturation with decreasing phase space scale. Furthermore, it is found that the additivity of H2 holds well for the IFS in narrow rapidity windows at different positions. These results indicate that the IFS produced in the instanton-induced process of deep inelastic scattering has reached local equilibrium.

  17. Characterization of electrical and optical properties of silicon based materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, Guobin

    2009-12-04

    In this work, the electrical and luminescence properties of a series of silicon based materials used for photovoltaics, microelectronics and nanoelectronics have been investigated by means of electron beam induced current (EBIC), cathodoluminescence (CL), photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) methods. Photovoltaic materials produced by block casting have been investigated by EBIC on wafers sliced from different parts of the ingot. Various solar cell processings have been compared in parallel wafers by means of EBIC collection efficiency measurements and contrast-temperature C(T) behaviors of the extended defects, i. e. dislocations and grain boundaries (GBs). It was found that the solar cell processing with phosphorus diffusion gettering (PDG) followed with a SiN firing greatly reduces the recombination activity of extended defects at room temperature, and improves the bulk property simultaneously. A remaining activity of the dislocations indicates the limitation of the PDG at extended defects. Abnormal behavior of the dislocation activity after certain solar cell processes was also observed in the region with high dislocation density, the dislocations are activated after certain solar cell processings. In order to evaluate the properties of a thin polycrystalline silicon layer prepared by Al-induced layer exchange (Alile) technique, epitaxially layer grown on silicon substrate with different orientations was used as a model system to investigate the impact by the process temperature and the substrates. EBIC energy dependent collection efficiency measurements reveal an improvement of the epilayer quality with increasing substrate temperature during the growth from 450 C to 650 C, and a decrease of epilayer quality at 700 C. PL measurements on the epitaxially grown Si layer on silicon substrates revealed no characteristic dislocation-related luminescence (DRL) lines at room temperature and 77 K, while in the samples prepared by Alile process, intense

  18. Final Report: Characterization of Hydrogen Adsorption in Carbon-Based Materials by NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yue; Kleinhammes, Alfred

    2011-07-11

    In support of DOE/EERE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE), UNC conducted Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements that contributed spectroscopic information as well as quantitative analysis of adsorption processes. While NMR based Langmuir isotherms produce reliable H2 capacity measurements, the most astute contribution to the center is provided by information on dihydrogen adsorption on the scale of nanometers, including the molecular dynamics of hydrogen in micropores, and the diffusion of dihydrogen between macro and micro pores. A new method to assess the pore width using H2 as probe of the pore geometry was developed and is based on the variation of the observed chemical shift of adsorbed dihydrogen as function of H2 pressure. Adsorbents designed and synthesized by the Center were assessed for their H2 capacity, the binding energy of the adsorption site, their pore structure and their ability to release H2. Feedback to the materials groups was provided to improve the materials’ properties. To enable in situ NMR measurements as a function of H2 pressure and temperature, a unique, specialized NMR system was designed and built. Pressure can be varied between 10-4 and 107 Pa while the temperature can be controlled between 77K and room temperature. In addition to the 1H investigation of the H2 adsorption process, NMR was implemented to measure the atomic content of substituted elements, e.g. boron in boron substituted graphitic material as well as to determine the local environment and symmetry of these substituted nuclei. The primary findings by UNC are the following: • Boron substituted for carbon in graphitic material in the planar BC3 configuration enhances the binding energy for adsorbed hydrogen. • Arrested kinetics of H2 was observed below 130K in the same boron substituted carbon samples that combine enhanced binding energy with micropore structure. • Hydrogen storage material made from

  19. Study of non aqueous reprocessing methods. Final progress report. [Container materials for pyrochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teitel, R. J.; Luderer, J. E.; Henderson, T. M.

    1978-11-17

    The problems associated with container materials for selected pyrochemical processes and process containment conditions are reviewed. A rationale for container materials selection is developed. Candidate process container materials are presented, and areas warranting further development are identified. 14 tables.

  20. Micromechanical Properties of a New Polymeric Microcapsule for Self-Healing Cementitious Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Leyang; Schlangen, Erik; Yang, Zhengxian; Xing, Feng

    2016-12-20

    Self-healing cementitious materials containing a microencapsulated healing agent are appealing due to their great application potential in improving the serviceability and durability of concrete structures. In this study, poly(phenol-formaldehyde) (PF) microcapsules that aim to provide a self-healing function for cementitious materials were prepared by an in situ polymerization reaction. Size gradation of the synthesized microcapsules was achieved through a series of sieving processes. The shell thickness and the diameter of single microcapsules was accurately measured under environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The relationship between the physical properties of the synthesized microcapsules and their micromechanical properties were investigated using nanoindentation. The results of the mechanical tests show that, with the increase of the mean size of microcapsules and the decrease of shell thickness, the mechanical force required to trigger the self-healing function of microcapsules increased correspondingly from 68.5 ± 41.6 mN to 198.5 ± 31.6 mN, featuring a multi-sensitive trigger function. Finally, the rupture behavior and crack surface of cement paste with embedded microcapsules were observed and analyzed using X-ray computed tomography (XCT). The synthesized PF microcapsules may find potential application in self-healing cementitious materials.

  1. Micromechanical Properties of a New Polymeric Microcapsule for Self-Healing Cementitious Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyang Lv

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-healing cementitious materials containing a microencapsulated healing agent are appealing due to their great application potential in improving the serviceability and durability of concrete structures. In this study, poly(phenol–formaldehyde (PF microcapsules that aim to provide a self-healing function for cementitious materials were prepared by an in situ polymerization reaction. Size gradation of the synthesized microcapsules was achieved through a series of sieving processes. The shell thickness and the diameter of single microcapsules was accurately measured under environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM. The relationship between the physical properties of the synthesized microcapsules and their micromechanical properties were investigated using nanoindentation. The results of the mechanical tests show that, with the increase of the mean size of microcapsules and the decrease of shell thickness, the mechanical force required to trigger the self-healing function of microcapsules increased correspondingly from 68.5 ± 41.6 mN to 198.5 ± 31.6 mN, featuring a multi-sensitive trigger function. Finally, the rupture behavior and crack surface of cement paste with embedded microcapsules were observed and analyzed using X-ray computed tomography (XCT. The synthesized PF microcapsules may find potential application in self-healing cementitious materials.

  2. Development of switchable hygroscopic materials. Final technical report FY 1980-1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The following are covered: current considerations in desiccant dehumidification materials, switchable desiccant theory, candidate materials, test methods, test results, product design considerations, and future research.

  3. Recommended reference materials for realization of physicochemical properties pressure-volume-temperature relationships

    CERN Document Server

    Herington, E F G

    1977-01-01

    Recommended Reference Materials for Realization of Physicochemical Properties presents recommendations of reference materials for use in measurements involving physicochemical properties, namely, vapor pressure; liquid-vapor critical temperature and critical pressure; orthobaric volumes of liquid and vapor; pressure-volume-temperature properties of the unsaturated vapor or gas; and pressure-volume-temperature properties of the compressed liquid. This monograph focuses on reference materials for vapor pressures at temperatures up to 770 K, as well as critical temperatures and critical pressures

  4. Anisotropic local physical properties of human dental enamel in comparison to properties of some common dental filling materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raue, Lars; Hartmann, Christiane D; Rödiger, Matthias; Bürgers, Ralf; Gersdorff, Nikolaus

    2014-11-01

    A major aspect in evaluating the quality of dental materials is their physical properties. Their properties should be a best fit of the ones of dental hard tissues. Manufacturers give data sheets for each material. The properties listed are characterized by a specific value. This assumes (but does not prove) that there is no direction dependence of the properties. However, dental enamel has direction-dependent properties which additionally vary with location in the tooth. The aim of this paper is to show the local direction dependence of physical properties like the elastic modulus or the thermal expansion in dental hard tissues. With this knowledge the 'perfect filling/dental material' could be characterized. Enamel sections of ∼400-500 μm thickness have been cut with a diamond saw from labial/buccal to palatal/lingual (canine, premolar and molar) and parallel to labial (incisor). Crystallite arrangements have been measured in over 400 data points on all types of teeth with x-ray scattering techniques, known from materials science. X-ray scattering measurements show impressively that dental enamel has a strong direction dependence of its physical properties which also varies with location within the tooth. Dental materials possess only little or no property direction dependence. Therefore, a mismatch was found between enamel and dental materials properties. Since dental materials should possess equal (direction depending) properties, worthwhile properties could be characterized by transferring the directional properties of enamel into a property 'wish list' which future dental materials should fulfil. Hereby the 'perfect dental material' can be characterized.

  5. 29 CFR 779.336 - Sales of building materials for commercial property construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sales of building materials for commercial property... construction, maintenance or repair of commercial property or any other property not excepted in section 3(n... business for the construction, maintenance or repair of commercial property or any other property...

  6. Controlling Structure and Properties of High Surface Area Nonwoven Materials via Hydroentangling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzius, Dennis

    Hydroentangling describes a technique using a series of high-velocity water jets to mechanically interlock and entangle fibers. Over the last decades researchers worked on a fundamental understanding of the process and the factors influencing the properties of the final nonwoven material. Recent studies discovered hydroentangling to be capable to create unique, knot-like structures characterized by high- and low density regions, which are believed to have interesting properties for filtration applications. However, just little is known about the impact of hydroentangling parameters on the properties of filtration media to this day. In this study we report on the effect of various hydroentangling parameters, such as jet spacing, manifold pressure, number of manifolds but also specific energy on the structure and properties of high surface area nonwoven materials. Latter was achieved by different bicomponent fiber technologies and subsequent treatments removing the sacrificial compound from the structure. The highest BET surface area was measured to be 3.5 m2 g-1 and the smallest mean fiber size about 0.5 mum. Hydroentangling with large jet spacing was found to be a parameter significantly enhancing the filtration properties of caustic-treated island-in-the-sea nonwoven materials. Moreover, improved capture efficiencies and reduced pressure drops were achieved by reducing the manifold pressure and therefore specific energy during hydroentangling. Jet spacing but not island count was found to be the dominant factor influencing the structure and properties of island-in-the-sea nonwovens. Contrary to our initial expectations increasing the island count and thus decreasing the fiber size did not result in better filtration properties. Mixed media nonwoven structures made from homocomponent and island-in-the-sea fibers were found to have lower densities, higher air permeabilities and better quality factors compared to island-in-the-sea structures hydroentangled under the

  7. Final Scientific Report, New Proton Conductive Composite Materials for PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lvov, Serguei

    2010-11-08

    This project covered one of the main challenges in present-day PEM fuel cell technology: to design a membrane capable of maintaining high conductivity and mechanical integrity when temperature is elevated and water vapor pressure is severely reduced. The DOE conductivity milestone of 0.1 S cm-1 at 120 degrees C and 50 % relative humidity (RH) for designed membranes addressed the target for the project. Our approach presumed to develop a composite membrane with hydrophilic proton-conductive inorganic material and the proton conductive polymeric matrix that is able to “bridge” the conduction paths in the membrane. The unique aspect of our approach was the use of highly functionalized inorganic additives to benefit from their water retention properties and high conductivity as well. A promising result turns out that highly hydrophilic phosphorsilicate gels added in Nafion matrix improved PEM fuel cell performance by over 50% compared with bare Nafion membrane at 120 degrees C and 50 % RH. This achievement realizes that the fuel cell operating pressure can be kept low, which would make the PEM fuel cell much more cost efficient and adaptable to practical operating conditions and facilitate its faster commercialization particularly in automotive and stationary applications.

  8. To study the flow property of seven commercially available zinc oxide eugenol impression material at various time intervals after mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katna, Vishal; Suresh, S; Vivek, Sharma; Meenakshi, Khandelwal; Ankita, Gaur

    2014-12-01

    Aims and objective of the study was to evaluate the flow property of seven commercially available zinc oxide eugenol impression materials at various time intervals, after mixing 49 samples (seven groups) were fabricated for flow property of the material. The sample were fabricated as equal length of base and accelerator paste of the test materials was taken on the glass slab and mixed with a rigid stainless steel spatula as per manufacturers recommendation till the homogenous mix was obtained. The mix material was loaded in glass syringe and 0.5 ml material was injected on a cellophane sheet placed on marked glass plate. A cellophane sheet and glass plate 70 and 500 g weight was carefully placed on freshly dispensed zinc oxide eugenol impression paste sequentially. The diameter of the mix was noted after 30 s and 1 min of load application and also after the final set of material. The diameter gives the flow of material. The samples were stored at the room temperature. The data of the flow property was analyzed with analysis of variance, Post hoc test and t test. The flow of the zinc oxide eugenol impression paste after 30 s, 1 min and final set of load application for Group A to Group G was noted. Maximum flow was seen for Group G zinc oxide eugenol impression material followed by Group F, D, E, B, C and A in descending order respectively after 30 s, where as the flow property changed after 1 min in the sequence of maximum for Group G followed by Group E, D, B, A, C, and F. Lastly after final set of the impression material the flow maximum for Group G followed by Group E, D, C, F, A and B in descending order. Based on statistical analysis of the results and within in the limitations of this in-vitro study, the following conclusions were drawn that; the flow of zinc oxide eugenol impression material after 30 s, 1 min and that after the final set was maximum for P.S.P. (Group G) and the flow for PYREX (Group A) was minimum.

  9. Novel wide band gap materials for highly efficient thin film tandem solar cells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Brian E.; Connor, Stephen T.; Peters, Craig H.

    2012-06-11

    Tandem solar cells (TSCs), which use two or more materials to absorb sunlight, have achieved power conversion efficiencies of >25% versus 11-20% for commercialized single junction solar cell modules. The key to widespread commercialization of TSCs is to develop the wide-band, top solar cell that is both cheap to fabricate and has a high open-circuit voltage (i.e. >1V). Previous work in TSCs has generally focused on using expensive processing techniques with slow growth rates resulting in costs that are two orders of magnitude too expensive to be used in conventional solar cell modules. The objective of the PLANT PV proposal was to investigate the feasibility of using Ag(In,Ga)Se2 (AIGS) as the wide-bandgap absorber in the top cell of a thin film tandem solar cell (TSC). Despite being studied by very few in the solar community, AIGS solar cells have achieved one of the highest open-circuit voltages within the chalcogenide material family with a Voc of 949 mV when grown with an expensive processing technique (i.e. Molecular Beam Epitaxy). PLANT PV's goal in Phase I of the DOE SBIR was to (1) develop the chemistry to grow AIGS thin films via solution processing techniques to reduce costs and (2) fabricate new device architectures with high open-circuit voltage to produce full tandem solar cells in Phase II. PLANT PV attempted to translate solution processing chemistries that were successful in producing >12% efficient Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells by replacing copper compounds with silver. The main thrust of the research was to determine if it was possible to make high quality AIGS thin films using solution processing and to fully characterize the materials properties. PLANT PV developed several different types of silver compounds in an attempt to fabricate high quality thin films from solution. We found that silver compounds that were similar to the copper based system did not result in high quality thin films. PLANT PV was able to deposit AIGS

  10. Resyllabification Reconsidered: On the Durational Properties of Word-Final /s/ in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Strycharczuk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Word-final consonants in Spanish are commonly assumed to undergo resyllabification across a word boundary before a following vowel, e.g., /los#otros/ 'the others' is realised as [lo.so.tros]. However, in many dialects of Spanish, word-final pre-vocalic consonants (‘derived onsets’ pattern phonologically with canonical codas and distinctly from canonical onsets. This property of derived onsets has been the subject of much interest in the phonological literature, and has led some linguists to question whether resyllabification indeed applies in all Spanish dialects. In this paper, we evaluate evidence for resyllabification based on acoustic data from 11 speakers of Peninsular Spanish. The results show that word-final pre-vocalic /s/ has increased duration compared to coda /s/, but at the same time, it is shorter compared to word-initial or word-medial pre-vocalic /s/. This result challenges an analysis where derived onsets become phonologically indistinguishable from canonical onsets. We consider an alternative in the form of partial resyllabification, and we further discuss the role of the syllable as a relevant unit in explaining /s/-sandhi in Spanish.

  11. Material properties of zooplankton and nekton from the California current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kaylyn

    This study measured the material properties of zooplankton, Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas), and two species of myctophids (Symbolophorus californiensis and Diaphus theta) collected from the California Current ecosystem. The density contrast (g) was measured for euphausiids, decapods (Sergestes similis), amphipods (Primno macropa, Phronima sp., and Hyperiid spp.), siphonophore bracts, chaetognaths, larval fish, crab megalopae, larval squid, and medusae. Morphometric data (length, width, and height) were collected for these taxa. Density contrasts varied within and between zooplankton taxa. The mean and standard deviation for euphausiid density contrast were 1.059 +/- 0.009. Relationships between zooplankton density contrast and morphometric measurements, geographic location, and environmental conditions were investigated. Site had a significant effect on euphausiid density contrast. Density contrasts of euphausiids collected in the same geographic area approximately 4-10 days apart were significantly higher (p < 0.001). Sound speed contrast (h) was measured for euphausiids and pelagic decapods (S. similis) and it varied between taxa. The mean and standard deviation for euphausiid sound speed were 1.019 +/- 0.009. Euphausiid mass was calculated from density measurements and volume, and a relationship between euphausiid mass and length was produced. We determined that euphausiid from volumes could be accurately estimated two dimensional measurements of animal body shape, and that biomass (or biovolume) could be accurately calculated from digital photographs of animals. Density contrast (g) was measured for zooplankton, pieces of hake flesh, myctophid flesh, and of the following Humboldt squid body parts: mantle, arms, tentacle, braincase, eyes, pen, and beak. The density contrasts varied within and between fish taxa, as well as among squid body parts. Effects of animal length and environmental conditions on nekton density

  12. Hyperelastic Material Properties of Mouse Skin under Compression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang Wang

    Full Text Available The skin is a dynamic organ whose complex material properties are capable of withstanding continuous mechanical stress while accommodating insults and organism growth. Moreover, synchronized hair cycles, comprising waves of hair growth, regression and rest, are accompanied by dramatic fluctuations in skin thickness in mice. Whether such structural changes alter skin mechanics is unknown. Mouse models are extensively used to study skin biology and pathophysiology, including aging, UV-induced skin damage and somatosensory signaling. As the skin serves a pivotal role in the transfer function from sensory stimuli to neuronal signaling, we sought to define the mechanical properties of mouse skin over a range of normal physiological states. Skin thickness, stiffness and modulus were quantitatively surveyed in adult, female mice (Mus musculus. These measures were analyzed under uniaxial compression, which is relevant for touch reception and compression injuries, rather than tension, which is typically used to analyze skin mechanics. Compression tests were performed with 105 full-thickness, freshly isolated specimens from the hairy skin of the hind limb. Physiological variables included body weight, hair-cycle stage, maturity level, skin site and individual animal differences. Skin thickness and stiffness were dominated by hair-cycle stage at young (6-10 weeks and intermediate (13-19 weeks adult ages but by body weight in mature mice (26-34 weeks. Interestingly, stiffness varied inversely with thickness so that hyperelastic modulus was consistent across hair-cycle stages and body weights. By contrast, the mechanics of hairy skin differs markedly with anatomical location. In particular, skin containing fascial structures such as nerves and blood vessels showed significantly greater modulus than adjacent sites. Collectively, this systematic survey indicates that, although its structure changes dramatically throughout adult life, mouse skin at a given

  13. Property Evaluation Method Using Spherical Indentation for High-Yield Strength Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Youngsick; Marimuthu, Karuppasamy Pandian; Lee, Hyungyil [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Haeng [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, we propose a method to evaluate the material properties of high-yield strength materials exceeding 10GPa from spherical indentation. Using a regression equation considering four indentation variables, we map the load displacement relation into a stress-strain relation. To calculate the properties of high-strength materials, we then write a program that produces material properties using the loading / unloading data from the indentation test. The errors in material properties computed by the program are within 0.3, 0.8, and 6.4 for the elastic modulus, yield strength, and hardening coefficient, respectively.

  14. Property evaluation method using spherical indentation for high-yield strength materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Sick; Marimuthu, Karuppasamy Pandian; Lee, Hyung Yil [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Haeng [Reactor Mechanical Engineering Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper, we propose a method to evaluate the material properties of high-yield strength materials exceeding 10 GPa from spherical indentation. Using a regression equation considering four indentation variables, we map the load displacement relation into a stress-strain relation. To calculate the properties of high-strength materials, we then write a program that produces material properties using the loading / unloading data from the indentation test. The errors in material properties computed by the program are within 0.3, 0.8, and 6.4 for the elastic modulus, yield strength, and hardening coefficient, respectively.

  15. Method and apparatus for measuring properties of particle beams using thermo-resistive material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.; Dotson, Danny Wayne

    2007-10-09

    A beam position detector for measuring the properties of a charged particle beam, including the beam's position, size, shape, and intensity. One or more absorbers are constructed of thermo-resistive material and positioned to intercept and absorb a portion of the incoming beam power, thereby causing local heating of each absorber. The local temperature increase distribution across the absorber, or the distribution between different absorbers, will depend on the intensity, size, and position of the beam. The absorbers are constructed of a material having a strong dependence of electrical resistivity on temperature. The beam position detector has no moving parts in the vicinity of the beam and is especially suited to beam areas having high ionizing radiation dose rates or poor beam quality, including beams dispersed in the transverse direction and in their time radio frequency structure.

  16. Frequency Response of Synthetic Vocal Fold Models with Linear and Nonlinear Material Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Stephanie M.; Thomson, Scott L.; Dromey, Christopher; Smith, Simeon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to create synthetic vocal fold models with nonlinear stress-strain properties and to investigate the effect of linear versus nonlinear material properties on fundamental frequency (F[subscript 0]) during anterior-posterior stretching. Method: Three materially linear and 3 materially nonlinear models were…

  17. 15 CFR 270.322 - Voluntary permission to enter and inspect property where building components, materials...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspect property where building components, materials, artifacts, and records with respect to a building... Voluntary permission to enter and inspect property where building components, materials, artifacts, and... components, materials, artifacts, and records with respect to the building failure are located, and take...

  18. Dynamic material properties of the pregnant human uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoogian, Sarah J; Bisplinghoff, Jill A; Kemper, Andrew R; Duma, Stefan M

    2012-06-01

    Given that automobile crashes are the largest single cause of death for pregnant females, scientists are developing advanced computer models of pregnant occupants. The purpose of this study is to quantify the dynamic material properties of the human uterus in order to increase the biofidelity of these models. A total of 19 dynamic tension tests were performed on pregnant human uterus tissues taken from six separate donors. The tissues were collected during full term Cesarean style deliveries and tested within 36 h of surgery. The tissues were processed into uniform coupon sections and tested at 1.5 strains/s using linear motors. Local stress and strain were determined from load data and optical markers using high speed video. The experiments resulted in a non-linear stress versus strain curves with an overall average peak failure true strain of 0.32±0.112 and a corresponding peak failure true stress of 656.3±483.9 kPa. These are the first data available for the dynamic response of pregnant human uterus tissues, and it is anticipated they will increase the accuracy of future pregnant female computational models.

  19. Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spera, D.A. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (USA). Lewis Research Center); Esgar, J.B. (Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Cleveland, OH (USA)); Gougeon, M.; Zuteck, M.D. (Gougeon Bros., Bay City, MI (USA))

    1990-05-01

    This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue and strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 in. by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications. 9 refs.

  20. Thermomechanical Property Characterization of Ultra Low-k Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jie-Hua; Gupta, Vikas; Mortensen, Clay D.; Lu, Kuan-Hsun; Edwards, Darvin R.; Johnson, David C.; Ho, Paul S.

    2009-06-01

    To meet electrical performance requirements, the industry is implementing ultra-low dielectric constant (ULK) materials in the back end of line interconnect structure. ULK dielectrics are inherently weak compared to traditional dielectrics and pose significant challenges to electronic packaging processes and reliability. Accurate mechanical properties are a pre-requisite for upfront risk assessments associated with low-k integration using numerical simulations. In this paper, techniques used to characterize ULK dielectric elastic modulus and in-plane/out-of-plane coefficient of thermal expansion will be presented and the data for a candidate ULK dielectric will be summarized. Nanoindentation of ULK films on substrate was used to determine the plane strain modulus. In the direction normal to the film, the temperature gradient of the thermal expansion strain along the film thickness was measured by x-ray reflectivity. In the plane of the film, the temperature gradient of the biaxial thermal stress was obtained by the substrate curvature measurements. A method to deduce Poisson's ratio of the thin ULK film is proposed using the data from the afore-mentioned characterization techniques.

  1. Inversion of Scattered Waves for Material Properties in Fractured Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritto, Roland; Korneev, Valeri A.; Johnson, Lane R.

    1999-07-01

    The authors apply a recently developed low-frequency, non-linear inversion method which includes near and far field terms to a crosshole data set to determine the bulk and shear modulus, as well as the density for a fractured zone in a granitic rock mass. The method uses the scattered elastic wavefield which is extracted from the recorded data before the inversion is performed. The inversion result is appraised by investigating the resolution and standard deviation of the model estimates. The sensitivity of the three parameters to different features of the medium is revealed. While the bulk modulus appears to be sensitive to voids and welded contacts, the density is mostly affected by fractured zones. The shear modulus is least constrained due to the absence of S wave anisotropy information. It is shown that the three medium parameters are generally sensitive to other medium features than those determined by velocity inversions. Thus this method is viewed as a complimentary approach to travel time tomography which provides more insight into the material properties of inhomogeneous media.

  2. Structural Properties of Concrete Materials Containing RoadCem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall Holmes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents findings from a preliminary study to assess the structural and material properties of a nonstandard, concrete type mix containing RoadCem, a traditional soil stabilising additive. Two different mixes determined the effect of adding RoadCem in terms of compressive and flexural strengths, breaking strain, thermal expansion and contraction behaviour, permeability using a falling head, and Young’s modulus. RoadCem is a fine powder containing alkali metals and synthetic zeolites which are complemented with a complex activator. RoadCem modifies the dynamics and chemistry of cement hydration by enhancing the crystallisation process and forming longer needle crystalline structures. It reduces the heat of hydration with an early strength development. Varying the volume in the mix varies the viscosity and alters curing times while maintaining the water cement ratio. The results from this study have shown a modest increase in compressive strength and Young’s modulus with improvements in thermal performance, particularly at low temperatures. The flexural strength of the two mixes was similar with a much reduced permeability in the RoadCem mix. The results demonstrate the improved performance of concrete incorporating RoadCem but further improvements are possible by using a better graded aggregate and controlling the maximum dry density and moisture contents.

  3. Structural properties of laminated Douglas fir/epoxy composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, David A.; Esgar, Jack B.; Gougeon, Meade; Zuteck, Michael D.

    1990-01-01

    This publication contains a compilation of static and fatigue strength data for laminated-wood material made from Douglas fir and epoxy. Results of tests conducted by several organizations are correlated to provide insight into the effects of variables such as moisture, size, lamina-to-lamina joint design, wood veneer grade, and the ratio of cyclic stress to steady stress during fatigue testing. These test data were originally obtained during development of wood rotor blades for large-scale wind turbines of the horizontal-axis (propeller) configuration. Most of the strength property data in this compilation are not found in the published literature. Test sections ranged from round cylinders 2.25 in. in diameter to rectangular slabs 6 by 24 in. in cross section and approximately 30 ft. long. All specimens were made from Douglas fir veneers 0.10 in. thick, bonded together with the WEST epoxy system developed for fabrication and repair of wood boats. Loading was usually parallel to the grain. Size effects (reduction in strength with increase in test volume) are observed in some of the test data, and a simple mathematical model is presented that includes the probability of failure. General characteristics of the wood/epoxy laminate are discussed, including features that make it useful for a wide variety of applications.

  4. Correlation Between Domain Behavior and Magnetic Properties of Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leib, Jeffrey Scott [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Correlation between length scales in the field of magnetism has long been a topic of intensive study. The long-term desire is simple: to determine one theory that completely describes the magnetic behavior of matter from an individual atomic particle all the way up to large masses of material. One key piece to this puzzle is connecting the behavior of a material's domains on the nanometer scale with the magnetic properties of an entire large sample or device on the centimeter scale. In the first case study involving the FeSiAl thin films, contrast and spacing of domain patterns are clearly related to microstructure and stress. Case study 2 most clearly demonstrates localized, incoherent domain wall motion switching with field applied along an easy axis for a square hysteresis loop. In case study 3, axis-specific images of the complex Gd-Si-Ge material clearly show the influence of uniaxial anisotropy. Case study 4, the only study with the sole intent of creating domain structures for imaging, also demonstrated in fairly simple terms the effects of increasing stress on domain patterns. In case study 5, it was proven that the width of magnetoresistance loops could be quantitatively predicted using only MFM. When all of the case studies are considered together, a dominating factor seems to be that of anisotropy, both magneticrostaylline and stress induced. Any quantitative bulk measurements heavily reliant on K coefficients, such as the saturation fields for the FeSiAl films, Hc in cases 1, 3, and 5, and the uniaxial character of the Gd5(Si2Ge2), transferred to and from the domain scale quite well. In-situ measurements of domain rotation and switching, could also be strongly correlated with bulk magnetic properties, including coercivity, Ms, and hysteresis loop shape. In most cases, the qualitative nature of the domain structures, when properly considered, matched quite well to what might have been expected

  5. Correlation Between Domain Behavior and Magnetic Properties of Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Scott Leib

    2003-05-31

    Correlation between length scales in the field of magnetism has long been a topic of intensive study. The long-term desire is simple: to determine one theory that completely describes the magnetic behavior of matter from an individual atomic particle all the way up to large masses of material. One key piece to this puzzle is connecting the behavior of a material's domains on the nanometer scale with the magnetic properties of an entire large sample or device on the centimeter scale. In the first case study involving the FeSiAl thin films, contrast and spacing of domain patterns are clearly related to microstructure and stress. Case study 2 most clearly demonstrates localized, incoherent domain wall motion switching with field applied along an easy axis for a square hysteresis loop. In case study 3, axis-specific images of the complex Gd-Si-Ge material clearly show the influence of uniaxial anisotropy. Case study 4, the only study with the sole intent of creating domain structures for imaging, also demonstrated in fairly simple terms the effects of increasing stress on domain patterns. In case study 5, it was proven that the width of magnetoresistance loops could be quantitatively predicted using only MFM. When all of the case studies are considered together, a dominating factor seems to be that of anisotropy, both magneticrostaylline and stress induced. Any quantitative bulk measurements heavily reliant on K coefficients, such as the saturation fields for the FeSiAl films, H{sub c} in cases 1, 3, and 5, and the uniaxial character of the Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}), transferred to and from the domain scale quite well. In-situ measurements of domain rotation and switching, could also be strongly correlated with bulk magnetic properties, including coercivity, M{sub s}, and hysteresis loop shape. In most cases, the qualitative nature of the domain structures, when properly considered, matched quite well to what might have been expected from theory and

  6. Structure-property relationships of multiferroic materials: A nano perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Feiming

    The integration of sensors, actuators, and control systems is an ongoing process in a wide range of applications covering automotive, medical, military, and consumer electronic markets. Four major families of ceramic and metallic actuators are under development: piezoelectrics, electrostrictors, magnetostrictors, and shape-memory alloys. All of these materials undergo at least two phase transformations with coupled thermodynamic order parameters. These transformations lead to complex domain wall behaviors, which are driven by electric fields (ferroelectrics), magnetic fields (ferromagnetics), or mechanical stress (ferroelastics) as they transform from nonferroic to ferroic states, contributing to the sensing and actuating capabilities. This research focuses on two multiferroic crystals, Pb(Mg1/3Nb 2/3)O3-PbTiO3 and Fe-Ga, which are characterized by the co-existence and coupling of ferroelectric polarization and ferroelastic strain, or ferro-magnetization and ferroelastic strain. These materials break the conventional boundary between piezoelectric and electrostrictors, or magnetostrictors and shape-memory alloys. Upon applying field or in a poled condition, they yield not only a large strain but also a large strain over field ratio, which is desired and much benefits for advanced actuator and sensor applications. In this thesis, particular attention has been given to understand the structure-property relationships of these two types of materials from atomic to the nano/macro scale. X-ray and neutron diffraction were used to obtain the lattice structure and phase transformation characteristics. Piezoresponse and magnetic force microscopy were performed to establish the dependence of domain configurations on composition, thermal history and applied fields. It has been found that polar nano regions (PNRs) make significant contributions to the enhanced electromechanical properties of PMN-x%PT crystals via assisting intermediate phase transformation. With increasing PT

  7. High temperature range recuperator. Phase II. Prototype demonstration and material and analytical studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    A summary of the work performed to fully evaluate the commercial potential of a unique ceramic recuperator for use in recovering waste heat from high temperature furnace exhaust gases is presented. The recuperator concept being developed consists of a vertical cylindrical heat exchange column formed from modular sections. Within the column, the gasketed modules form two helical flow passages - one for high temperature exhaust gases and one for pre-heating combustion air. The column is operated in a counterflow mode, with the exhaust gas entering at the bottom and the combustion air entering at the top of the column. Activities included design and procurement of prototype recuperator modules, construction and testing of two prototype recuperator assemblies, exposure and mechanical properties testing of candidate materials, structural analysis of the modules, and assessment of the economic viability of the concept. The results of the project indicated that the proposed recuperator concept was feasible from a technical standpoint. Economic analysis based upon recuperator performance characteristics and module manufacturing costs defined during the program indicated that 3 to 10 years (depending upon pre-heat temperature) would be required to recover the capital cost of the system in combustion air preheat applications. At this stage in the development of the recuperator, many factors in the analysis had to be assumed. Significant changes in some of the assumptions could dramatically affect the economics. For example, utilizing $2.85 per mcf for the natural gas price (as opposed to $2.00 per mcf) could reduce the payback period by more than half in certain cases. In addition, future commercial application will depend upon ceramic component manufacturing technique advances and cost reduction.

  8. High temperature range recuperator. Phase II. Prototype demonstration and material and analytical studies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    A summary of the work performed to fully evaluate the commercial potential of a unique ceramic recuperator for use in recovering waste heat from high temperature furnace exhaust gases is presented. The recuperator concept being developed consists of a vertical cylindrical heat exchange column formed from modular sections. Within the column, the gasketed modules form two helical flow passages - one for high temperature exhaust gases and one for pre-heating combustion air. The column is operated in a counterflow mode, with the exhaust gas entering at the bottom and the combustion air entering at the top of the column. Activities included design and procurement of prototype recuperator modules, construction and testing of two prototype recuperator assemblies, exposure and mechanical properties testing of candidate materials, structural analysis of the modules, and assessment of the economic viability of the concept. The results of the project indicated that the proposed recuperator concept was feasible from a technical standpoint. Economic analysis based upon recuperator performance characteristics and module manufacturing costs defined during the program indicated that 3 to 10 years (depending upon pre-heat temperature) would be required to recover the capital cost of the system in combustion air preheat applications. At this stage in the development of the recuperator, many factors in the analysis had to be assumed. Significant changes in some of the assumptions could dramatically affect the economics. For example, utilizing $2.85 per mcf for the natural gas price (as opposed to $2.00 per mcf) could reduce the payback period by more than half in certain cases. In addition, future commercial application will depend upon ceramic component manufacturing technique advances and cost reduction.

  9. Unraveling Structure-Property Relationships in Polymer Blends for Intelligent Materials Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Matthew Tyler

    Block polymers provide an accessible route to structured, composite materials by combining two or more components with disparate mechanical, chemical, and electrical properties into a single bulk material with nanoscale domains. However, the characteristic lengthscale of these systems is limited, and the choice of components is restricted to those that are able to undergo microstructural ordering at accessible temperatures. This thesis details routes to overcoming these limitations through the addition of a lithium salt, a blend of homopolymers, or both. Chapter 2 describes a study wherein complex sphere phases such as the Frank-Kasper sigma phase can be observed in otherwise disordered asymmetric block polymers through the addition of a lithium salt. Chapter 3 discusses the development and characterization of a ternary polymer blend of an AB diblock copolymer and A and B homopolymers doped with a lithium salt. Detailed characterization showed that doping blends that are otherwise disordered with lithium salt induced microstructural ordering and largely recovers the phase behavior of traditional ternary polymer blends. A systematic study of the ionic conductivity of the blends at a fixed salt concentration demonstrates that, at a given composition, disordered, yet highly structured blends consistently exhibit better conductivity than polycrystalline morphologies with long range order. Chapter 4 extends the methodology of Chapter 3 and details a systematic study of the effects of cross-linker concentration on the performance of polymer electrolyte membranes produced via polymerization-induced microphase separation that exhibit a highly structured, globally disordered microstructure. Finally, Chapter 5 details efforts to develop a water filtration membrane using a polyethylene template derived from a polymeric bicontinuous microemulsion. Throughout all of this work, the goal is to better understand structure-property relationships at the molecular level in order to

  10. SATURATED - UNSATURATED HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF SUBBASE COURSE MATERIAL AND SUBGRADE SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Takao; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Nakashima, Shin-Ichiro; Moriishi, Kazushi; Ohnishi, Yuzo

    In order to evaluate the rainwate r storage and infiltration properties of the permeable pavement by unsaturated seepage analysis or gas-liquid two-phase flow analysis, it is important to know the unsaturated hydraulic properties of materials wh ich constitute the pavement. For this reason, we showed the unsaturated hydraulic properties of porous asphalt material s but we have not clarified the relation between the performance of the permeable pavement and the properties of all constituti on materials. In this paper, we try to determine the unsaturated hydraulic properties of subbase course and subgrade materials that greatly affect the rainwater storage and infiltration properties of the permeable pavement. We show from experiments that water retention characteristic and the un saturated hydraulic properties of subbase course and subgrade materials well match the van Genuchten model and the Irmay model.

  11. Mechanical properties of materials at micro/nano scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Hua

    Mechanical properties of materials in small dimensions, including the depth-dependent hardness at the nano/micrometer scales, and the mechanical characterization of thin films and nanotubes, are reported. The surface effect on the depth-dependent nano/microhardness was studied and an apparent surface stress was introduced to represent the energy dissipated per unit area of a solid surface. A plastic bearing ratio model was proposed for the nanoindentation of rough surfaces. The energy dissipation occurring at the indented surface is among the factors that cause the Indentation Size Effect (ISE) at the micro/nanometer scales. Furthermore, an elastic-plastic bearing ratio model was developed for nanoindentation of rough surfaces with a flat indenter tip. The theoretical predictions agree with the experimental results and finite element simulations, from which the elastic constant and the surface hardness were extracted. The surface hardness exhibits an inverse ISE due to the interaction of asperities. The nanoindentation tests on Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG) may lead to the formation of carbon tubes, which are rolled up by the delaminated graphite layers. The nanoindentation loading-unloading curves reveal single pop-in and multiple pop-in phenomena, which is induced by fracture of the graphite layers and/or by delamination between the layers. From the load at pop-in, the fracture strength of the layers and/or the bonding strength between the layers can be estimated by the elastic field model for Hertzian contact including sliding friction for transverse isotropy. Two novel methods were developed to estimate the mechanical properties of films, including the Raman spectra method for the estimation of residual stresses in thin ferroelectric films and the microbridge testing method for the mechanical characterization of trilayer thin films. Mechanical characterization was also carried out on Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) nanotubes with each being comprised of

  12. Uncertain dynamic analysis for rigid-flexible mechanisms with random geometry and material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinglai; Luo, Zhen; Zhang, Nong; Zhang, Yunqing; Walker, Paul D.

    2017-02-01

    This paper proposes an uncertain modelling and computational method to analyze dynamic responses of rigid-flexible multibody systems (or mechanisms) with random geometry and material properties. Firstly, the deterministic model for the rigid-flexible multibody system is built with the absolute node coordinate formula (ANCF), in which the flexible parts are modeled by using ANCF elements, while the rigid parts are described by ANCF reference nodes (ANCF-RNs). Secondly, uncertainty for the geometry of rigid parts is expressed as uniform random variables, while the uncertainty for the material properties of flexible parts is modeled as a continuous random field, which is further discretized to Gaussian random variables using a series expansion method. Finally, a non-intrusive numerical method is developed to solve the dynamic equations of systems involving both types of random variables, which systematically integrates the deterministic generalized-α solver with Latin Hypercube sampling (LHS) and Polynomial Chaos (PC) expansion. The benchmark slider-crank mechanism is used as a numerical example to demonstrate the characteristics of the proposed method.

  13. Mechanical properties of the beetle elytron, a biological composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the relationship between composition and mechanical properties of elytral (modified forewing) cuticle of the beetles Tribolium castaneum and Tenebrio molitor. Elytra of both species have similar mechanical properties at comparable stages of maturation (tanning). Shortly after adult ecl...

  14. An inverse method for determining the spatially resolved properties of viscoelastic-viscoplastic three-dimensional printed materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Ashcroft, I A; Wildman, R D; Tuck, C J

    2015-11-08

    A method using experimental nanoindentation and inverse finite-element analysis (FEA) has been developed that enables the spatial variation of material constitutive properties to be accurately determined. The method was used to measure property variation in a three-dimensional printed (3DP) polymeric material. The accuracy of the method is dependent on the applicability of the constitutive model used in the inverse FEA, hence four potential material models: viscoelastic, viscoelastic-viscoplastic, nonlinear viscoelastic and nonlinear viscoelastic-viscoplastic were evaluated, with the latter enabling the best fit to experimental data. Significant changes in material properties were seen in the depth direction of the 3DP sample, which could be linked to the degree of cross-linking within the material, a feature inherent in a UV-cured layer-by-layer construction method. It is proposed that the method is a powerful tool in the analysis of manufacturing processes with potential spatial property variation that will also enable the accurate prediction of final manufactured part performance.

  15. Plausible role of nanoparticle contamination in the synthesis and properties of organic electronic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananikov, Valentine P.

    2016-12-01

    Traceless transition metal catalysis (Pd, Ni, Cu, etc.) is very difficult to achieve. Metal contamination in the synthesized products is unavoidable and the most important questions are: How to control metal impurities? What amount of metal impurities can be tolerated? What is the influence of metal impurities? In this brief review, the plausible origins of nanoparticle contamination are discussed in the framework of catalytic synthesis of organic electronic materials. Key factors responsible for increasing the probability of contamination are considered from the point of view of catalytic reaction mechanisms. The purity of the catalyst may greatly affect the molecular weight of a polymer, reaction yield, selectivity and several other parameters. Metal contamination in the final polymeric products may induce some changes in the electric conductivity, charge transport properties, photovoltaic performance and other important parameters.

  16. A statistical characterization method for damping material properties and its application to structural-acoustic system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Byung C. [University of Maryland, College Park (United States); Lee, Doo Ho [Dongeui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Byeng D. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo Bum [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The performance of surface damping treatments may vary once the surface is exposed to a wide range of temperatures, because the performance of viscoelastic damping material is highly dependent on operational temperature. In addition, experimental data for dynamic responses of viscoelastic material are inherently random, which makes it difficult to design a robust damping layout. In this paper a statistical modeling procedure with a statistical calibration method is suggested for the variability characterization of viscoelastic damping material in constrained-layer damping structures. First, the viscoelastic material property is decomposed into two sources: (I) a random complex modulus due to operational temperature variability, and (II) experimental/model errors in the complex modulus. Next, the variability in the damping material property is obtained using the statistical calibration method by solving an unconstrained optimization problem with a likelihood function metric. Two case studies are considered to show the influence of the material variability on the acoustic performances in the structural-acoustic systems. It is shown that the variability of the damping material is propagated to that of the acoustic performances in the systems. Finally, robust and reliable damping layout designs of the two case studies are obtained through the reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) amidst severe variability in operational temperature and the damping material.

  17. FE analysis of cruciform welded joints considering different mechanical properties for base material, heat affected zone and weld metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqualino Corigliano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this scientific work was to investigate the behaviour of cruciform welded joints under static loading using a full-field technique: Digital Image Correlation. The material curves, relative to different zones (base material, heat affected zone, weld, were obtained by hardness measurements, which were done by means of a fully automated hardness scanner with high resolution. This innovative technique, based on the UCI method, allowed to identify the different zones and to assess their different mechanical properties, which were considered in the finite element model. Finally the finite element model was validated experimentally, comparing the results with the measurements obtained using the Digital Image Correlation technique.

  18. Synthesis, Properties and Mineralogy of Important Inorganic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, Terence Edwin

    , ferroelectric, thermoelectric, luminescent, photochromic and magnetic materials; are technologically important classes of material, that are represented by numerous inorganic phases. Yet how many of us are aware of their precise chemical compositions, and have sufficient knowledge to actually make them...

  19. Mechanics and properties of composed materials and structures

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas; Altenbach, Holm

    2014-01-01

    This volume details the latest trends in characterization and developments of composed materials and structures, including textile composites, sandwich plates, hollow sphere structures, reinforced concrete as well as classical fibre reinforced materials.

  20. Technical Progress Report for "Optical and Electrical Properties of III-Nitrides and Related Materials"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hongxing

    2008-10-31

    Investigations have been conducted focused on the fundamental material properties of AIN and high AI-content AIGaN alloys and further developed MOCVD growth technologies for obtaining these materials with improved crystalline quality and conductivities.

  1. Materials science in microelectronics II the effects of structure on properties in thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Machlin, Eugene

    2005-01-01

    The subject matter of thin-films - which play a key role in microelectronics - divides naturally into two headings: the processing / structure relationship, and the structure / properties relationship. Part II of 'Materials Science in Microelectronics' focuses on the latter of these relationships, examining the effect of structure on the following: Electrical properties Magnetic properties Optical properties Mechanical properties Mass transport properties Interface and junction properties Defects and properties Captures the importance of thin films to microelectronic development Examines the cause / effect relationship of structure on thin film properties.

  2. RF/microwave properties of nanotubes and nanowires : LDRD Project 105876 final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrymgeour, David; Lee, Mark; Hsu, Julia W. P.; Highstrete, Clark

    2009-09-01

    LDRD Project 105876 was a research project whose primary goal was to discover the currently unknown science underlying the basic linear and nonlinear electrodynamic response of nanotubes and nanowires in a manner that will support future efforts aimed at converting forefront nanoscience into innovative new high-frequency nanodevices. The project involved experimental and theoretical efforts to discover and understand high frequency (MHz through tens of GHz) electrodynamic response properties of nanomaterials, emphasizing nanowires of silicon, zinc oxide, and carbon nanotubes. While there is much research on DC electrical properties of nanowires, electrodynamic characteristics still represent a major new frontier in nanotechnology. We generated world-leading insight into how the low dimensionality of these nanomaterials yields sometimes desirable and sometimes problematic high-frequency properties that are outside standard model electron dynamics. In the cases of silicon nanowires and carbon nanotubes, evidence of strong disorder or glass-like charge dynamics was measured, indicating that these materials still suffer from serious inhomogeneities that limit there high frequency performance. Zinc oxide nanowires were found to obey conventional Drude dynamics. In all cases, a significant practical problem involving large impedance mismatch between the high intrinsic impedance of all nanowires and nanotubes and high-frequency test equipment had to be overcome.

  3. Application for managing model-based material properties for simulation-based engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward L [Alameda, CA

    2009-03-03

    An application for generating a property set associated with a constitutive model of a material includes a first program module adapted to receive test data associated with the material and to extract loading conditions from the test data. A material model driver is adapted to receive the loading conditions and a property set and operable in response to the loading conditions and the property set to generate a model response for the material. A numerical optimization module is adapted to receive the test data and the model response and operable in response to the test data and the model response to generate the property set.

  4. On draft of intergovernmental agreement for development and use of reference materials of composition and properties of substances and materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Osintseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with information of development of a draft of Agreement for development and use of reference materials of composition and properties of substances and materials which was developed within Interstate Council for Standardization, Metrology and Certification

  5. Physical properties and hydrological response of green roof substrates based on recycled construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwalleghem, Tom; Hayas, Antonio; Jiménez-Quiñones, Daniel; Peña, Adolfo; Giráldez, Juan Vicente

    2015-04-01

    Green roofs in urban areas improve the building's energy efficiency and provide a wide array of additional environmental benefits. Characterizing and predicting the physical properties and hydrological response of green roofs is necessary to understand the roof's heat balance, which is controlled to a large extent by the substrate's water content, to predict the runoff response and functioning as a part of sustainable urban drainage systems and to plan irrigation of the plants in drier climates. This study examines 10 different extensive green roof substrates, based on recycled construction materials. Green roof simulation decks were installed in boxes of 0,6 m x 0,4 m to a depth of 70 mm, 10 with and 10 without plants. Total water holding capacity of the substrates varied between 10,4 - 23,9 %, with an additional 19 % retained by the drainage layer and geotextiles used in the simulation deck. An important compaction of 30 % on average was observed after 1,5 months. Final bulk densities are between 1457 - 1993 kg m-3. In an evaporation experiment, it was shown that the water evaporated from the green roofs is controlled mainly by the relative moisture content. Substrate properties exerted only a secondary control, with the lowest evaporation rates from the substrates with highest coarse crushed aggregate content and with the highest clay content. The evaporation model proposed here was shown to work well to simulate the evolution of the water balance and therefore the specific unit weight over longer time periods in all substrates, with a Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency of 0.989. Finally, plants were found to grow satisfactorily in all substrates. Therefore, when regular irrigation is provided, it was concluded that green roofs based on recycled construction materials are a viable option. Future research will have to explore the long-term plant dynamics under water-limited conditions.

  6. [Property analysis of the finals mispronunciation in Chinese-speaking children with functional articulation disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Z H; Peng, B W; Li, X J; Huang, Z F; Yang, S Y; Chen, Z M

    2016-10-02

    Objective: To characterize the finals mispronunciation in Chinese-speaking children with functional articulation disorder (FAD), in order to promote the standardized diagnosis. Method: A retrospective study was conducted. From January to December 2013, 90 FAD children, diagnosed by Dysarthria Rating Scale and Mandarin Finals scale, were included in this study. Among them, 22 were found to have finals mispronunciation; the average age was (6.56±0.26) years. According to the finals classification, six different finals (simple finals, front vowel compound finals, central vowel compound finals, back vowel compound finals, anterior nasal finals, and posterior nasal finals) were defined; the produced sound samples of those subjects were analyzed. Result: In all these children, 22 of 90 (24%) were found having finals mispronunciation, the occurring rates of which with omission and substitution errors were: 3% (4/132) for simple finals, 30% (26/88) for front vowel compound finals, 26% (23/88) for central vowel compound finals, 7% (8/110) for back vowel compound finals, 73%(128/176) for anterior nasal finals and 73% (112/154) for posterior nasal finals, respectively. In omission and substitution errors, the ratios of the finals above were 50% (150/301), 3% (10/301), 5% (14/301), 36% (107/301), 2% (5/301) and 5% (15/301), respectively. The most frequently occurred mispronunciation were omission, substitution and distortion, with rates of 37% (273/748), 4% (28/748) and 8% (61/748), respectively. Conclusion: The FAD children have remarkable mispronunciation of finals. Omission is the main error. The nasal finals are the most commonly involved, followed by front vowel and central vowel compound finals. The simple finals and the back vowel compound finals are most commonly produced in omission and substitution. These finals production features should be considered when making and implementing rehabilitation programs.

  7. Synthesis, properties and applications of bio-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Madhusudhan

    Bio-based feedstock have become very significant as they offer a value proposition in terms of carbon balance and also in terms of endowing biodegradability where needed. Thus a lot of attention is being given to the modification such feedstock for different applications. Soybean oil is one such feedstock. The oil is a triglyceride ester composed of different fatty acids, which are common to other plant oils. Thus soybean oil serves as a platform for plant oils, as modifications of this oil, can in theory be extended to cover other plant oils. Methyl oleate was used as a model fatty acid ester, to synthesize hydroxyesters with ethylene glycol via a two stage oxidative cleavage of the double bonds. Ozone was chosen as the oxidant due to its many advantages. The first stage involved oxidation of the double bond to aldehydes, ozonides and acetals, which were subsequently converted to hydroxyesters (hydroxy values of 220 - 270) in near quantitative yield by treatment with Oxone. This method could be extended to soybean oil to make "polyols" which could find applications in resin syntheses. Silylation was employed as another platform to functionalize soybean oil and fatty acid methyl esters with a reactive silane (vinyltrimethoxy silane). This simple modification produced materials that are cured by atmospheric moisture and are useful as coatings. The silylation was controlled by varying the grafting time, cure temperature and the concentration of the silane. Products with gel content as high as 90% could be achieved. The coating exhibited good adhesion to metal, glass, concrete and paper. Steel panels coated with these coatings exhibited good stability against corrosion in high humidity conditions and moderate stability against a salt spray. The silylation was also successfully utilized to improve the tensile strength of the blend of biodegradable polyester, poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) with talc. A reactive extrusion process was employed to graft vinyl

  8. Theoretical Studies on the Electronic Structures and Properties of Complex Ceramic Crystals and Novel Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ching, Wai-Yim

    2012-01-14

    This project is a continuation of a long program supported by the Office of Basic Energy Science in the Office of Science of DOE for many years. The final three-year continuation started on November 1, 2005 with additional 1 year extension to October 30, 2009. The project was then granted a two-year No Cost Extension which officially ended on October 30, 2011. This report covers the activities within this six year period with emphasis on the work completed within the last 3 years. A total of 44 papers with acknowledgement to this grant were published or submitted. The overall objectives of this project are as follows. These objectives have been evolved over the six year period: (1) To use the state-of-the-art computational methods to investigate the electronic structures of complex ceramics and other novel crystals. (2) To further investigate the defects, surfaces/interfaces and microstructures in complex materials using large scale modeling. (3) To extend the study on ceramic materials to more complex bioceramic crystals. (4) To initiate the study on soft condensed matters including water and biomolecules. (5) To focus on the spectroscopic studies of different materials especially on the ELNES and XANES spectral calculations and their applications related to experimental techniques. (6) To develop and refine computational methods to be effectively executed on DOE supercomputers. (7) To evaluate mechanical properties of different crystals and those containing defects and relate them to the fundamental electronic structures. (8) To promote and publicize the first-principles OLCAO method developed by the PI (under DOE support for many years) for applications to large complex material systems. (9) To train a new generation of graduate students and postdoctoral fellows in modern computational materials science and condensed matter physics. (10) To establish effective international and domestic collaborations with both experimentalists and theorists in materials

  9. Oblique incidence properties of locally resonant sonic materials with resonance and Bragg scattering effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Bo; Wen Ji-Hong; Wen Xi-Sen

    2013-01-01

    A locally resonant sonic material (LRSM) is an elastic matrix containing a periodic arrangement of identical local resonators (LRs),which can reflect strongly near their natural frequencies,where the wavelength in the matrix is still much larger than the structural periodicity.Due to the periodic arrangement,an LRSM can also display a Bragg scattering effect,which is a characteristic of phononic crystals.A specific LRSM which possesses both local resonance and Bragg scattering effects is presented.Via the layered-multiple-scattering theory,the complex band structure and the transmittance of such LRSM are discussed in detail.Through the analysis of the refraction behavior at the boundary of the composite,we find that the transmittance performance of an LRSM for oblique incidence depends on the refraction of its boundary and the transmission behaviors of different wave modes inside the composite.As a result,it is better to use some low-speed materials (compared with the speed of waves in surrounding medium) as the LRSM matrix for designing sound blocking materials in underwater applications,since their acoustic properties are more robust to the incident angle.Finally,a gapcoupled LRSM with a broad sub-wavelength transmission gap is studied,whose acoustic performance is insensitive to the angle of incidence.

  10. Final versions of the initial package of classroom materials and guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorman, Michiel; Jonker, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the mascil Work Package 3 ‘classroom materials’ is to present guidelines and an online collection of teaching materials that encourage and support teachers to design their own classroom materials that connect IBL and the WoW in mathematics and science education.The collection present

  11. Performance testing of elastomeric seal materials under low and high temperature conditions: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRONOWSKI,DAVID R.

    2000-06-01

    The US Department of Energy Offices of Defense Programs and Civilian Radioactive Waste Management jointly sponsored a program to evaluate elastomeric O-ring seal materials for radioactive material shipping containers. The report presents the results of low- and high-temperature tests conducted on 27 common elastomeric compounds.

  12. Analysis and forecast of electrical distribution system materials. Final report. Volume III. Appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, C G

    1976-08-23

    These appendixes are referenced in Volume II of this report. They contain the detailed electrical distribution equipment requirements and input material requirements forecasts. Forecasts are given for three electric energy usage scenarios. Also included are data on worldwide reserves and demand for 30 raw materials required for the manufacture of electrical distribution equipment.

  13. Final Report, Materials for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems, Tasks 3 and 4 Materials for Heat Recovery in Recovery Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, James R.; Kish, Joseph R.; Singh, Preet M.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Yuan, Jerry; Gorog, J. Peter; Frederick, Laurie A.; Jette, Francois R.; Meisner, Roberta A.; Singbeil, Douglas L.

    2007-12-31

    The DOE-funded project on materials for industrial heat recovery systems included four research tasks: materials for aluminum melting furnace recuperator tubes, materials and operational changes to prevent cracking and corrosion of the co-extruded tubes that form primary air ports in black liquor recovery boilers, the cause of and means to prevent corrosion of carbon steel tubes in the mid-furnace area of recovery boilers, and materials and operational changes to prevent corrosion and cracking of recovery boiler superheater tubes. Results from studies on the latter two topics are given in this report while separate reports on results for the first two tasks have already been published. Accelerated, localized corrosion has been observed in the mid-furnace area of kraft recovery boilers. This corrosion of the carbon steel waterwall tubes is typically observed in the vicinity of the upper level of air ports where the stainless clad co-extruded wall tubes used in the lower portion of the boiler are welded to the carbon steel tubes that extend from this transition point or “cut line” to the top of the boiler. Corrosion patterns generally vary from one boiler to another depending on boiler design and operating parameters, but the corrosion is almost always found within a few meters of the cut line and often much closer than that. This localized corrosion results in tube wall thinning that can reach the level where the integrity of the tube is at risk. Collection and analysis of gas samples from various areas near the waterwall surface showed reducing and sulfidizing gases were present in the areas where corrosion was accelerated. However, collection of samples from the same areas at intervals over a two year period showed the gaseous environment in the mid-furnace section can cycle between oxidizing and reducing conditions. These fluctuations are thought to be due to gas flow instabilities and they result in an unstable or a less protective scale on the carbon steel

  14. Material Property Correlations: Comparisons between FRAPCON-3.4, FRAPTRAN 1.4, and MATPRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luscher, Walter G.; Geelhood, Kenneth J.

    2010-08-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) uses the computer codes FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN to model steady state and transient fuel behavior, respectively, in regulatory analysis. In order to effectively model fuel behavior, material property correlations must be used for a wide range of operating conditions (e.g. temperature and burnup). In this sense, a 'material property' is a physical characteristic of the material whose quantitative value is necessary in the analysis process. Further, the property may be used to compare the benefits of one material versus another. Generally speaking, the material properties of interest in regulatory analysis of nuclear fuel behavior are mechanical or thermodynamic in nature. The issue of what is and is not a 'material property' will never be universally resolved. In this report, properties such as thermal conductivity are included. Other characteristics of the material (e.g. fission gas release) are considered 'models' rather than properties, and are discussed elsewhere. Still others (e.g., neutron absorption cross-section) are simply not required in this specific analysis. The material property correlations for the FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN computer codes were documented in NUREG/CR-6534 and NUREG/CR-6739, respectively. Some of these have been modified or updated since the original code documentation was published. The primary purpose of this report is to consolidate the current material property correlations used in FRAPCON-3 and FRAPTRAN into a single document. Material property correlations for oxide fuels, including uranium dioxide (UO2) and mixed oxide (MOX) fuels, are described in Section 2. Throughout this document, the term MOX will be used to describe fuels that are blends of uranium and plutonium oxides, (U,Pu)O2. The properties for uranium dioxide with other additives (e.g., gadolinia) are also discussed. Material property correlations for cladding materials and gases are described in

  15. The Characterization of the Magnetic Properties of Soft Magnetic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Raino Michael

    1996-01-01

    The hysteresis curve and magnetic properties such as permeability, saturation induction, residual induction, coercive force and hysteresis losses are presented. The design and construction of equipment making it possible to measure true DC-values as well as AC-properties of toroid rings and cylin......The hysteresis curve and magnetic properties such as permeability, saturation induction, residual induction, coercive force and hysteresis losses are presented. The design and construction of equipment making it possible to measure true DC-values as well as AC-properties of toroid rings...

  16. The influence of boron on properties of magnesia materials; Wplyw boru na wlasnosci tworzyw magnezjowych

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulkowski, M. [Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland)

    1992-12-31

    The method of refractory magnesia materials preparation from mine salted waters has been worked out. The B{sub 2}O{sub 3} content determines the mechanical properties and the quality of such materials as well as other magnesia materials being investigated. The properties of the material have been estimated and predicted on the base of phase content and microstructure analysis. The criterion of strength desirable for refractory magnesia material has been proposed. The B{sub 2}O{sub 3} content limits have been evaluated taking into account the temperature conditions in which the material is designed to work. 108 refs, 70 figs, 14 tabs.

  17. Modeling of Impact Properties of Auxetic Materials: Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    underlying metal substrate from impact damage will be determined, and compared to the effect of solid polymer coatings (containing no honeycomb shaped air...higher indentation resistance, higher fracture toughness and greater resistance to impact damage . These unique features of the auxetic materials make... Elastoplasticity of auxetic materials, Computational Material Science, in press. [24] Horrigan, E.J., Smith, C.W., Scarpa, F.L., Gaspar, N., Javadi, A.A

  18. Anionic conducting oxide ceramics: Microstructure - property relations of BiCuVOx ceramics. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrera, T.P.; Dunn, B.; Fuqua, P.D.; Leininger, J.; Mackenzie, J.D.

    1996-06-14

    The bismuth vanadate composition, Bi4V2O11, is the parent compound for a new family of oxygen ion conductors. The substitution of various metallic ions for vanadium stabilizes the high temperature gamma-phase and leads to a series of compounds which possess the highest oxygen ion conductivities observed for temperatures below 400 deg C. This paper reports the first studies on the processing, densification and transport properties of copper-doped bismuth vanadate ceramics. Phase-pure materials with densities above 95% of theoretical were obtained using standard ceramic processing approaches. Ionic conductivities in the range of 1 x 10(exp {minus}2) S/cm at 400 deg C were observed for a variety of sintered samples.

  19. Characterization and thermophysical properties of bi-based ceramic superconductors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, Brian K. [Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC (United States)

    2001-05-31

    The BES supported research at Clemson University and South Carolina State University (1994-1999) on the BiSCCO high temperature superconductors, as well as other research at Clemson and elsewhere on a range of conducting and superconducting materials, revealed substantial evidence that dimensionality plays a key role in their magnetic and transport properties. Previous theoretical and experimental activities have shown that high magnetic fields can have novel and large effects on the ground state of low dimensional systems. Much new physics is expected to result from these interactions, not only the suppression or restoration of superconductivity, but also the enhancement (or even field induced) charge density wave nesting and the destruction of density wave states.

  20. Synchrotron Studies of Narrow Band and Low-Dimensional Materials. Final Report for July 1, 1990---December 31, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, J. W.

    2003-05-13

    This report summarizes a 12-year program of various kinds of synchrotron spectroscopies directed at the electronic structures of narrow band and low-dimensional materials that display correlated electron behaviors such as metal-insulator transitions, mixed valence, superconductivity, Kondo moment quenching, heavy Fermions, and non-Fermi liquid properties.

  1. Radiological surveys of properties in the Middlesex, New Jersey area. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, R W; Haywood, F.F. Cottrell, W.D.

    1981-03-01

    Results of the radiological surveys conducted at three properties in the Middlesex, New Jersey area as well as one additional location downstream from the Middlesex Sampling Plant (Willow Lake), are presented. The survey revealed that the yard around the church rectory on Harris Avenue is contaminated with a /sup 226/Ra-bearing material, probably pitchblende ore from the former Middlesex Sampling Plant. The elevated /sup 226/Ra concentrations around and, to a lesser extent, underneath the rectory are leading to elevated /sup 222/Rn concentrations in air in the rectory and elevated alpha contamination levels (from radon daughters) on surfaces inside the rectory. External gamma radiation levels in the rectory yard are well above background levels, and beta-gamma dose rates at many points in the yard are above federal guidelines for the release of property for unrestricted use. The radiological survey of a parking lot at the Union Carbide plant in Bound Brook, New Jersey revealed that a nearly circular region of 50-ft diam in the lot showed above-background external gamma radiation levels. Two isolated spots within this region showed concentrations of uranium in soil above the licensable level stated in 10 CFR 40. Soil samples taken in the area of elevated gamma radiation levels generally showed nearly equal activities of /sup 226/Ra and /sup 238/U. The survey at the residences on William Street in Piscataway, revealed that the front yeard is generally contaminated from near the surface to a depth of 1.5 to 2.5 ft with /sup 226/Ra-bearing material, possibly pitchblende ore. The remainder of the yard shows scattered contaminaion. External gamma radiation levels inside the house are above the background level near some outside walls.

  2. IFMIF : International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martone, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Conceptual Design Activity (CDA) on the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF), conducted during 1995 and 1996. The activity is under the auspices of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Implementing Agreement for a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials. An IEA Fusion Materials Executive Subcommittee was charged with overseeing the IFMIF-CDA work. Participants in the CDA are the European Union, Japan, and the United States, with the Russian Federation as an associate member.

  3. Materials for high-temperature hydrogen fluorine environments. Final report, June 1976-December 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Kovach, L.

    1981-03-01

    A determination has been made of the stability of 35 materials under high-temperature, fluorine rich, hydrogen fluoride torch testing. Refractory materials tested included 4 borides, 3 carbides, 3 nitrides, 12 oxides, 1 oxynitride, 1 sulfide, 10 metals, and carbon (10 types). Three materials distinctly performed better than nickel: lanthanum hexaboride, calcium hexaboride, and lanthanum silicon oxynitride. Of these, lanthanum hexaboride is the best candidate tested since it has an estimated upper use temperature > 1726 K, which is above the melting point and more than 300 K above the upper use temperature of nickel.

  4. Unravelling the materials genome: Symmetry relationships in alloy properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda-Caraballo, Isaac [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Galindo-Nava, Enrique I. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, Delft 2628 CD (Netherlands); Rivera-Díaz-del-Castillo, Pedro E.J., E-mail: pejr2@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge New Museums Site, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-25

    Highlights: ► Research strategy for Accelerated Metallurgy project is outlined. ► Surprising symmetry among atomic, nanoscale and mechanical properties. ► Generalisation of Ashby diagrams via principal component analysis. ► Atomic-related properties can be described with linear regression. ► Mechanical properties modelled via Kocks–Mecking-type physical method. -- Abstract: Metals and alloys have been indispensable for technological progress, but only a fraction of the possible ternary systems (combinations of three elements) is known. Statistical inference methods combined with physical models are presented to discover new systems of enhanced properties. It is demonstrated that properties originating from atomic-level interactions can be described employing a linear regression analysis, but properties incorporating microstructural and thermal history effects require a balance between physical and statistical modelling. In spite of this, there is a remarkable degree of symmetry among all properties, and by employing a principal components analysis it is shown that ten properties essential to engineering can be described well in a three dimensional space. This will aid in the discovery of novel alloying systems.

  5. Recent Advances in the Sound Insulation Properties of Bio-based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Zhu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Many bio-based materials, which have lower environmental impact than traditional synthetic materials, show good sound absorbing and sound insulation performances. This review highlights progress in sound transmission properties of bio-based materials and provides a comprehensive account of various multiporous bio-based materials and multilayered structures used in sound absorption and insulation products. Furthermore, principal models of sound transmission are discussed in order to aid in an understanding of sound transmission properties of bio-based materials. In addition, the review presents discussions on the composite structure optimization and future research in using co-extruded wood plastic composite for sound insulation control. This review contributes to the body of knowledge on the sound transmission properties of bio-based materials, provides a better understanding of the models of some multiporous bio-based materials and multilayered structures, and contributes to the wider adoption of bio-based materials as sound absorbers.

  6. Using JMatPro to model materials properties and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, N.; Guo, U. K. Z.; Li, X.; Miodownik, A. P.; Schillé, J.-Ph.

    2003-12-01

    This article describes the development of a new multi-platform software program called JMatPro for calculating the properties and behavior of multi-component alloys. These properties are wide ranging, including thermophysical and physical properties (from room temperature to the liquid state), time-temperature-transformation/continuous-cooling transformation diagrams, stress/strain diagrams, proof and tensile stress, hardness, coarsening of γ' and γ″, and creep. A feature of the new program is that the calculations are based on sound physical principles rather than purely statistical methods. Thus, many of the shortcomings of methods such as regression analysis can be overcome. With this program, sensitivity to microstructure can be included for many of the properties and the true inter-relationship between properties can be developed, for example in the modeling of creep and precipitation hardening.

  7. Adaptive Back Sheet Material for Acoustic Liner Applications-ARMD Seedling Fund Phase I Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Jones, Michael G.; Farrar, Dawnielle

    2014-01-01

    A recently developed piezo-electric composite film is evaluated for its usefulness in application in acoustic liners. Researchers at the NASA Langley Research Center Liner Technology Facility developed experiments to measure the electrical response of the material to acoustic excitation and the vibrational response of the material to electrical excitation. The robustness of the piezo-electric film was also assessed. The material's electrical response to acoustic excitation is found to be comparable to a commercial microphone in the range of frequencies from 500 to 3000 Hz. However, the vibrational response to electrical excitation in the frequency range of interest is an order of magnitude less than may be necessary for application to acoustic liners. Nevertheless, experimental results indicate that the potential exists for the material to produce a measurable change in the impedance spectrum of a liner. Work continues to improve the authority of the piezo-electric film.

  8. Solar-collector-materials exposure to the IPH site environment. Volume 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    In-situ environmental exposure tests were conducted at nine proposed intermediate-temperature Industrial Process Heat (IPH) sites. Three types of reflector materials were evaluated for survivability at the nine sites: second-surface silvered glass, aluminized acrylic FEK-244 film on aluminumsubstrate and Alzak (electropolished aluminum) on aluminium substrate. Black chrome absorber material and low-iron float glass were evaluated for thermal, photochemical, and environmental degradation. The reflector specimens were monitored for decreases in specular and hemispherical reflectance due to soil buildup. The absorber material was evaluated for changes in solar absorptivity and emissivity, and the float glass was monitored for changes in transmissivity. Surface and subsurface defects on all materials were examined microscopically and, where deemed of note, were documented photographically.

  9. Solar-collector materials exposure to the IPH site environment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    In-situ environmental exposure tests were conducted at nine proposed intermediate-temperature Industrial Process Heat (IPH) sites. Three types of reflector materials were evaluated for survivability at the nine sites: second-surface silvered glass, aluminized acrylic FEK-244 film on aluminum substrate, and Alzak (electropolished aluminum) on aluminum substrate. Black chrome absorber material and low-iron float glass were evaluated for thermal, photochemical, and environmental degradation. The reflector specimens were monitored for decreases in specular and hemispherical reflectance due to soil buildup. The absorber material was evaluated for changes in solar absorptivity and emissivity, and the float glass was monitored for changes in transmissivity. Surface and subsurface defects on all materials were examined microscopically and, where deemed of note, were documented photographically.

  10. Efficient insulation material for furnaces. Final report. Effektivare isolermaterial i ugnar. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rensgard, A.

    1986-03-19

    The project aim has been to test and analyze alternatives for the improvement of heat insulation and faster regulation of temperature by utilizing light ceramic insulation materials such as ceramic fibres.

  11. Precursor Derived Nanostructured Si-C-X Materials for Nuclear Applications. Final Report, October 2010 - September 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordia, Rajendra [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Tomar, Vikas [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Henager, Chuck [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-08

    Polymer derived ceramic route is an attractive approach to make structural materials with unique nanostructures that have very desirable high temperature properties. Processing techniques to make a variety of needed shapes and forms (e.g. coatings, matrices for fiber reinforced composites, porous ceramics) have been developed. With appropriate high temperature processing, the precursors can be converted to nano-crystalline materials. In this collaborative project, we investigated the processing, stability and properties of nanostructured Si-C materials, derived from polymeric precursors, and their performance under conditions appropriate for nuclear energy applications. All the milestones of the project were accomplished. Some of the results are being currently analyzed and additional papers being prepared in which support from NEUP will be acknowledged. So far, eight peer-reviewed papers have been published and one invention disclosure made. In this report, we summarize the major findings of this project.

  12. Exploratory development on laser and optical materials. Final report 1 Dec 1972-15 Aug 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hare, J.M.; Detrio, J.A.; Petty, R.D.; Yaney, P.P.

    1974-12-01

    Topics include analytical solid state material studies--(Theoretical and experimental investigations of the optical Stark spectra of rare earth ions, Judd-Ofelt theory, Quantum efficiencies); Laser materials evaluation; Studies of rare-earth doped CdF/sub 2/, SrF/sub 2/, and BaF/sub 2/--(Electroluminescence of semiconducting CdF/sub 2/, Analyses of the optical spectra of Gd/sup 3 +/ and Ce/sup 3 +/).

  13. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-02-07

    This is the final report of our research program on electronic transport experiments on Topological Insulator (TI) devices, funded by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences. TIbased electronic devices are attractive as platforms for spintronic applications, and for detection of emergent properties such as Majorana excitations , electron-hole condensates , and the topological magneto-electric effect . Most theoretical proposals envision geometries consisting of a planar TI device integrated with materials of distinctly different physical phases (such as ferromagnets and superconductors). Experimental realization of physics tied to the surface states is a challenge due to the ubiquitous presence of bulk carriers in most TI compounds as well as degradation during device fabrication.

  14. Availability and properties of materials for the Fakse Landfill biocover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gitte Bukh; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Methane produced in landfills can be oxidized in landfill covers made of compost; often called biocovers. Compost materials originating from seven different sources were characterized to determine their methane-oxidizing capacity and suitability for use in a full-scale biocover at Fakse Landfill...... in Denmark. Methane oxidation rates were determined in batch incubations. Based on material availability, characteristics, and the results of batch incubations, five of the seven materials were selected for further testing in column incubations. Three of the best performing materials showed comparable...... average methane oxidation rates: screened garden waste compost, sewage sludge compost, and an unscreened 4-year old garden waste compost (120, 112, and 108 g m2 d1, respectively). On the basis of these results, material availability and cost, the unscreened garden waste compost was determined...

  15. Development & Optimization of Materials and Processes for a Cost Effective Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production System. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarland, Eric W

    2011-01-17

    The overall project objective was to apply high throughput experimentation and combinatorial methods together with novel syntheses to discover and optimize efficient, practical, and economically sustainable materials for photoelectrochemical production of bulk hydrogen from water. Automated electrochemical synthesis and photoelectrochemical screening systems were designed and constructed and used to study a variety of new photoelectrocatalytic materials. We evaluated photocatalytic performance in the dark and under illumination with or without applied bias in a high-throughput manner and did detailed evaluation on many materials. Significant attention was given to -Fe2O3 based semiconductor materials and thin films with different dopants were synthesized by co-electrodeposition techniques. Approximately 30 dopants including Al, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Mo, Ti, Pt, etc. were investigated. Hematite thin films doped with Al, Ti, Pt, Cr, and Mo exhibited significant improvements in efficiency for photoelectrochemical water splitting compared with undoped hematite. In several cases we collaborated with theorists who used density functional theory to help explain performance trends and suggest new materials. The best materials were investigated in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visual spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photoelectrocatalytic performance of the thin films was evaluated and their incident photon

  16. Suitability of dredged material for reclamation of surface-mined land. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Van Luik, A.

    1979-12-01

    Eroding ridges of acidic coal-mine spoil in La Salle County, Illinois, were leveled to form a gently-sloped raised plateau. Four test plots were constructed: a control plot and three treatment plots that received a 0.9-m-thick cover of dredged material obtained from the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago. Two treatment plots received lime applications and all plots were seeded with a mixture of grasses. Pressure-vacuum soil water samplers were installed, in duplicate, at two levels in the control plot and at three levels in each treatment plot. The three levels in the treatment plots coincided with dredged material, the dredged-material mine-spoil interface, and the underlying mine spoil. Surface water, soil water, and groundwater were monitored for 29 water-quality parameters for one year. Rainfall, air temperature, runoff, and water-level elevation data were collected also. Detailed analysis of the data indicates that the dredged material used in this study does not adversely affect water quality; it supports abundant plant growth, lessens groundwater contamination, and controls acid runoff. The dredged material is judged to be a suitable material for use in reclamation of surface-mined land.

  17. A review: applications of the phase field method in predicting microstructure and property evolution of irradiated nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yulan; Hu, Shenyang; Sun, Xin; Stan, Marius

    2017-04-14

    Complex microstructure changes occur in nuclear fuel and structural materials due to the extreme environments of intense irradiation and high temperature. This paper evaluates the role of the phase field (PF) method in predicting the microstructure evolution of irradiated nuclear materials and the impact on their mechanical, thermal, and magnetic properties. The paper starts with an overview of the important physical mechanisms of defect evolution and the significant gaps in simulating microstructure evolution in irradiated nuclear materials. Then, the PF method is introduced as a powerful and predictive tool and its applications to microstructure and property evolution in irradiated nuclear materials are reviewed. The review shows that 1) FP models can correctly describe important phenomena such as spatial dependent generation, migration, and recombination of defects, radiation-induced dissolution, the Soret effect, strong interfacial energy anisotropy, and elastic interaction; 2) The PF method can qualitatively and quantitatively simulate 2-D and 3-D microstructure evolution, including radiation-induced segregation, second phase nucleation, void migration, void and gas bubble superlattice formation, interstitial loop evolution, hydrate formation, and grain growth, and 3) The FP method correctly predicts the relationships between microstructures and properties. The final section is dedicated to a discussion of the strengths and limitations of the PF method, as applied to irradiation effects in nuclear materials.

  18. Assessment of the Impact of the Measurement Precision of Thermal Properties of Materials on the Prediction of Their Thermal Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Ayesha

    The thermal properties of the sidewall lining materials are capturing attention since the last two decades. Good prediction of the dynamic thermal behaviour of Hall Heroult cells, including precise estimation of energy losses and location of the side ledge formed by the solidification of electrolytic bath, is made possible when the sidelining materials are well characterized in function of temperature. The present work aim at measuring the thermal diffusivity, heat capacity and thermal conductivity of silicon carbide (SiC), graphitic and graphitized carbon materials and cryolite (Na3AlF 6) based on transient characterization techniques. The thermal diffusivity and the heat capacity are measured by using state-of-the-art transient laser flash analyzer and differential scanning calorimeter respectively. The thermal conductivity is calculated by assuming a constant density. The range of precision error for each thermal property is also calculated for a finite number of data sets. Empirical correlation has been drawn for each of the properties to describe the relation with temperature in mathematical terms. Thermal characterization of the latent heat evolved during the melting of ledge is also carried out. Finally, based on the calculations conducted with a 2-D numerical model, the effect of the precision errors of temperature varying thermal properties of the sidewall materials and ledge on the dynamic behaviour of a laboratory scale phase change reactor is also presented. The results, so obtained, encourage further studies on the thermal properties of materials used in the aluminium reduction cell to find out the thermal environment inside the cell, heat loss estimation and effect of the additives on the location of ledge. Key words: Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, heat capacity, temperature varying properties, precision error, phase change profile, latent heat.

  19. Physicochemical Properties and Dentin Bond Strength of a Tricalcium Silicate-Based Retrograde Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Camila de Paula Telles Pires; Viapiana, Raqueli; Bosso-Martelo, Roberta; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Camilleri, Josette; Tanomaru-Filho, Mário

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties and the apical dentin bond strength of the tricalcium silicate-based Biodentine in comparison to white MTA and zinc oxide eugenol-based cement (ZOE). Setting time and radiopacity were evaluated according to ISO 6876:2012 specification. Final setting time, compressive strength and pH were also assessed. Material's bond strength to the apical root canal dentin was measured by the push-out assay. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey-Krammer post-hoc test. Biodentine presented the shortest initial (16.2±1.48 min) and final setting time (35.4±5.55 min). Radiopacity of Biodentine (2.79±0.27 mmAl) does not agree with ISO 6876:2012 specifications. On the other hand, Biodentine showed higher compressive strength after 21 days (37.22±5.27 MPa) and higher dentin bond strength (11.2±2.16 MPa) in comparison to white MTA (27.68±3.56 MPa for compressive strength and 2.98±0.64 MPa for bond strength) (pBiodentine produced an alkaline environment (approximately pH 10) (p>0.05) compared to ZOE (pH 7). It may be concluded that Biodentine exhibited faster setting, higher long-term compressive strength and bond strength to the apical dentin than MTA and ZOE.

  20. Porous Materials with Tunable Structure and Mechanical Properties via Templated Layer-by-Layer Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziminska, Monika; Dunne, Nicholas; Hamilton, Andrew R

    2016-08-31

    The deposition of stiff and strong coatings onto porous templates offers a novel strategy for fabricating macroscale materials with controlled architectures at the micro- and nanoscale. Here, layer-by-layer assembly is utilized to fabricate nanocomposite-coated foams with highly customizable properties by depositing polymer-nanoclay coatings onto open-cell foam templates. The compressive mechanical behavior of these materials evolves in a predictable manner that is qualitatively captured by scaling laws for the mechanical properties of cellular materials. The observed and predicted properties span a remarkable range of density-stiffness space, extending from regions of very soft elastomer foams to very stiff, lightweight honeycomb and lattice materials.

  1. Temperature Dependence and Magnetic Properties of Injection Molding Tool Materials Used in Induction Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrier, Patrick; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2015-01-01

    , in this paper, been characterized for their temperature-dependent magnetic properties. The properties have been measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer, able to reach to 350 °C. The established material database comprises the B–H loops, from which the mean B–H curve, relative permeability versus magnetic......To analyze the heating phase of an induction heated injection molding tool precisely, the temperature-dependent magnetic properties, B–H curves, and the hysteresis loss are necessary for the molding tool materials. Hence, injection molding tool steels, core materials among other materials have...

  2. Comparative study on stiffness properties of WOODCAST and conventional casting materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirhonen, Eija; Pärssinen, Antti; Pelto, Mika

    2013-08-01

    Plaster-of-Paris and synthetic materials (e.g. fibreglass) have been in clinical use as casting materials for decades. An innovative casting material, WOODCAST, brings interesting alternatives to the traditional materials. The aim of this study was to compare the stiffness properties of the WOODCAST material to traditional casting materials. In immobilization by casting, materials with variable stiffness properties are required. Ring stiffness of cylindrical samples correlates well with cast rigidity. For load-bearing structures, the use of the WOODCAST Splint is recommended as equally high stiffness was obtained with the WOODCAST Splint as was with fibreglass. The WOODCAST 2 mm product is optimal for structures where some elasticity is required, and WOODCAST Ribbon can be used in any WOODCAST structure where further reinforcement is needed. The results show that WOODCAST material can be used in replacing traditional casting materials used in extremity immobilization. The mechanical properties of casting material play an important role in safe and effective fracture immobilization. Stiffness properties of the WOODCAST casting material and conventional materials - fibreglass and plaster-of-Paris - were analysed in this study. The WOODCAST Splint appears to compare favorably with traditional materials such as Scotchcast.

  3. RANDOM MICROSTRUCTURE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD AND ITS VERIFICATION FOR EFFECTIVE PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The present study aims at developing a new method-Random M icrostructure Finite Element Method (RMFEM)for the effective properties of composite materials . In this method, a random microstructure model is used to simulate the microstructure of the real composite materials. The physical fields in such a randm microstructure model under specified boundary and initial conditions are analyzed by finite element method. The effective properties of composite materials can be obtained from the analysis results. As verification, some effective properties of composite materials, such as elastic module,thermal expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity and elastoplastic properties, are investigated by random microstructure finite element method. The numerical results are given together with the experimental data. It i- revealed that the random microstructure finite element method is a very valid method for the determination of the effective properties of composite materials.

  4. A Quantitative Property-Property Relationship for the Internal Diffusion Coefficients of Organic Compounds in Solid Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lei; Fantke, Peter; Jolliet, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Indoor releases of organic chemicals encapsulated in solid materials are major contributors to human exposures and are directly related to the internal diffusion coefficient in solid materials. Existing correlations to estimate the diffusion coefficient are only valid for a limited number...... of chemical-material combinations. This paper develops and evaluates a quantitative property-property relationship (QPPR) to predict diffusion coefficients for a wide range of organic chemicals and materials. We first compiled a training dataset of 1103 measured diffusion coefficients for 158 chemicals in 32...... consolidated material types. Following a detailed analysis of the temperature influence, we developed a multiple linear regression model to predict diffusion coefficients as a function of chemical molecular weight (MW), temperature, and material type (adjusted R2 of 0.93). The internal validations showed...

  5. Compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with motor materials under retrofit conditions. Final report, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, R.G.; Waite, T.D. [The Trane Company, La Crosse, WI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Compatibility tests were conducted on motor materials to determine if exposure to the original refrigerant/mineral oil would affect compatibility of the motor materials after retrofit to the alternative refrigerant/lubricant. The motor materials were exposed at elevated temperature to the original refrigerant and mineral oil for 500 hours, followed by exposure to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant for 500 hours. Measurements were also taken after 168 and 336 hours. As a control, some samples were exposed to the original refrigerant/mineral oil for a total of 1000 hours. The original refrigerants and the Alternatives tested for retrofit were as follows: Most motor materials exposed to the alternative refrigerant and lubricant (after an initial exposure to the original refrigerant and mineral oil) were compatible with the alternative refrigerant and lubricant. The only concern was delamination and blistering of the sheet insulation containing Nomex, especially after removal of absorbed refrigerant. This was attributed to solution of the adhesive and not to the Nomex itself. Embrittlement of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) found in Mylar and Melinex sheet and sleeving insulations was initially observed, but subsequent tests under dry conditions showed that embrittlement of the PET materials was caused by moisture present during the exposure. Compatibility tests of elastomers with R-245ca, retrofitted from R-11 and R-123, showed that the nitrile was compatible with both R-11 and R-245ca, but not with R-123. The neoprene was unsatisfactory because of shrinkage in the R-245ca.

  6. FY96 materials and processes technology area plan (TAP). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The Materials and Processes Technology Area Plan (MP TAP) describes the research and development activities performed by the Wright-Laboratory`s Materials Directorate (WL/XL) at WPAFB, OH. WL/ML is responsible for developing MP technologies for all Air Force aircraft, spacecraft, and missiles systems. MP for Structures, Propulsion, and Subsystems thrust of the MP TAP describes the development of technologies utilizing advanced composite materials, lightweight - aluminum and titanium alloys, high temperature intermetallics, and improved fluids, lubricants, and coatings. Applications include airframe and engine retrofits, high speed aircraft, spacelift, missiles and satellites. The MP for Electronics, Optics, and Survivability thrust of the MP TAP describes the development of materials for high temperature semiconductors and superconductors, advanced infrared detectors, non-linear optical devices, and laser hardening. Applications include high power radar and avionic systems, infrared countermeasures, and sensor and aircrew laser protection. The MP for Systems and Operational Support thrust of the MP TAP describes the development of nondestructive inspection (NDI) techniques and repair of composite and LO materials. It also describes ML`s interface with all Air Force fielded systems through logistic centers and system project offices (SPOs) and by conducting electronic and structural failure analysis.

  7. Predicting the Coupling Properties of Axially-Textured Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E. Fuentes-Montero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A description of methods and computer programs for the prediction of “coupling properties” in axially-textured polycrystals is presented. Starting data are the single-crystal properties, texture and stereography. The validity and proper protocols for applying the Voigt, Reuss and Hill approximations to estimate coupling properties effective values is analyzed. Working algorithms for predicting mentioned averages are given. Bunge’s symmetrized spherical harmonics expansion of orientation distribution functions, inverse pole figures and (single and polycrystals physical properties is applied in all stages of the proposed methodology. The established mathematical route has been systematized in a working computer program. The discussion of piezoelectricity in a representative textured ferro-piezoelectric ceramic illustrates the application of the proposed methodology. Polycrystal coupling properties, predicted by the suggested route, are fairly close to experimentally measured ones.

  8. Alloy Thin-films and Surfaces for New Materials. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprunger, P.T.

    2003-08-10

    Within the framework of a DOE National Laboratory/EPSCoR state partnership, investigations by researchers at Louisiana State University and Oak Ridge National Laboratory were focused on revealing the unique nanophase properties of alloy thin-films and bimetallic surfaces. Employing a number of experimental preparation techniques and characterization probes (synchrotron-based angle-resolved and valence/core-level PES and variable-temperature STM/STS), the goal of this program was to elucidate of the interconnecting physical and chemical properties of a variety of alloy surfaces and thin-films, specifically, determining the correlation between atomic structure/composition, electronic structure, and catalytic/chemisorption properties of these nanoscale.

  9. The metabolic properties of plutonium and allied materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.G.

    1949-11-16

    This report summarizes radioautographic, tracer, decontamination, and bone metabolism studies done in 1949 on rats using plutonium and allied materials: Iodine 131; zirconium 95; niobium 95; cerium 144; samarium 153; selenium 75; rhodium 105. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Production and Properties of Composite Material Comprising Gd Multiscale Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski Jacek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a novel method of producing Gd particles and preserving them from oxidation. The particles were produced in liquid paraffin by means of AC electric discharge and stored in the solidified paraffin. After seven months, the surface of the Gd was found to be exempt of oxidation. Moreover a composite material formed from mixing paraffin with Gd particles was conductive and magnetic and also presented photovoltaic effect. This method is a promising means of producing, at an industrial scale, particles from materials extremely sensitive to environment such as rare earth materials. Also the new material consisted of Gd particles in a paraffin matrix can find applications in many branches of industry.

  11. Neutron Spectrometry for Identification of filler material in UXO - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, Mary

    2007-09-12

    Unexploded ordnance (UXO)-contaminated sites often include ordnance filled with inert substances that were used in dummy rounds. During UXO surveys, it is difficult to determine whether ordnance is filled with explosives or inert material (e.g., concrete, plaster-of-paris, wax, etc.) or is empty. Without verification of the filler material, handling procedures often necessitate that the object be blown in place, which has potential impacts to the environment, personnel, communities and survey costs. The Department of Defense (DoD) needs a reliable, timely, non-intrusive and cost-effective way to identify filler material before a removal action. A new technology that serves this purpose would minimize environmental impacts, personnel safety risks and removal costs; and, thus, would be especially beneficial to remediation activities.

  12. Laboratory study of acid stimulation of drilling-mud-damaged geothermal-reservoir materials. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-05-01

    Presented here are the results of laboratory testing performed to provide site specific information in support of geothermal reservoir acidizing programs. The testing program included laboratory tests performed to determine the effectiveness of acid treatments in restoring permeability of geologic materials infiltrated with hydrothermally altered sepiolite drilling mud. Additionally, autoclave tests were performed to determine the degree of hydrothermal alteration and effects of acid digestion on drilling muds and drill cuttings from two KGRA's. Four laboratory scale permeability/acidizing tests were conducted on specimens prepared from drill cuttings taken from two geothermal formations. Two tests were performed on material from the East Mesa KGRA Well No. 78-30, from a depth of approximately 5500 feet, and two tests were performed on material from the Roosevelt KGRA Well No. 52-21, from depths of approximately 7000 to 7500 feet. Tests were performed at simulated in situ geothermal conditions of temperature and pressure.

  13. Tendon material properties vary and are interdependent among turkey hindlimb muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Matson, Andrew; KONOW, NICOLAI; Miller, Samuel; Konow, Pernille P.; Roberts, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The material properties of a tendon affect its ability to store and return elastic energy, resist damage, provide mechanical feedback and amplify or attenuate muscle power. While the structural properties of a tendon are known to respond to a variety of stimuli, the extent to which material properties vary among individual muscles remains unclear. We studied the tendons of six different muscles in the hindlimb of Eastern wild turkeys to determine whether there was variation in elastic modulus...

  14. Transient Infrared Measurement of Laser Absorption Properties of Porous Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Marynowicz Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The infrared thermography measurements of porous building materials have become more frequent in recent years. Many accompanying techniques for the thermal field generation have been developed, including one based on laser radiation. This work presents a simple optimization technique for estimation of the laser beam absorption for selected porous building materials, namely clinker brick and cement mortar. The transient temperature measurements were performed with the use of infrared camera du...

  15. Wide-gap layered oxychalcogenide semiconductors: materials, electronic structures and optoelectronic properties.

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, Kazushige; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Hirano, Masahiro; Kamiya, Toshio; Hosono, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    Applying the concept of materials design for transparent conductive oxides to layered oxychalcogenides, several p-type and n-type layered oxychalcogenides were proposed as wide-gap semiconductors and examined their basic optical and electrical properties. The layered oxychalcogenides are composed of ionic oxide layers and covalent chalcogenide layers, which bring wide-gap and conductive properties to these materials, respectively. The electronic structures of the materials were...

  16. An in vitro comparative evaluation of physical properties of four different types of core materials

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Compressive and tensile stresses of core materials are important properties because cores usually replace a large bulk of tooth structure and must resist multidirectional masticatory forces for many years. Material and Methods: The present study was undertaken to find out the best core build up material with respect to their physical properties among resin-based composites. Individual compressive, tensile, and flexural strength of fiber-reinforced dual cure resin core build...

  17. Mechanical properties and DIC analyses of CAD/CAM materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roperto, Renato; Akkus, Anna; Akkus, Ozan; Porto-Neto, Sizenando; Teich, Sorin; Lang, Lisa; Campos, Edson

    2016-01-01

    Background This study compared two well-known computer-aided-design/computer-aided-manufactured (CAD/CAM) blocks (Paradigm MZ100 [3M ESPE] and Vitablocs Mark II [Vita] in terms of fracture toughness (Kic), index of brittleness (BI) and stress/strain distributions. Material and Methods Three-point bending test was used to calculate the fracture toughness, and the relationship between the Kic and the Vickers hardness was used to calculate the index of brittleness. Additionally, digital image correlation (DIC) was used to analyze the stress/strain distribution on both materials. Results The values for fracture toughness obtained under three-point bending were 1.87Pa√m (±0.69) for Paradigm MZ100 and 1.18Pa√m (±0.17) for Vitablocs Mark II. For the index of brittleness, the values for Paradigm and Vitablocs were 73.13μm-1/2 (±30.72) and 550.22μm-1/2 (±82.46). One-way ANOVA was performed to find differences (α=0.05) and detected deviation between the stress/strain distributions on both materials. Conclusions Both CAD/CAM materials tested presented similar fracture toughness, but, different strain/stress distributions. Both materials may perform similarly when used in CAD/CAM restorations. Key words:Ceramic, CAD/CAM, hybrid materials, composite resin, fracture toughness. PMID:27957262

  18. R&D of Novel Materials for Animal Litters Using High Carbon Fly Ash Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxley, Chett J. [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Kadota, Rod [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2012-10-29

    This research program performed by Ceramatec may significantly increase the beneficial utilization of fly ash, and improve the overall performance of high quality animal litter products. Ceramatec has developed a novel high surface area material, which is capable of ammonia adsorption. High surface area zeolites when combined with agglomerated fly ash can significantly reduce the use of naturally mined materials (i.e. clay bentonite) for animal litter manufacture. This not only preserves natural resources and the natural environment, but it also will reduce CO2 emissions, via the reduced need for heavy mining equipment. This novel animal litter is made with over 85% of recycled materials, thus preventing their disposition to landfills. The novel litter material is similar to traditional clay-like litters, and it is clumpable and has superior odor control properties.

  19. The effects of the size of nanocrystalline materials on their thermodynamic and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaohua; Zhan, Zhaolin

    2014-01-01

    This work has considered the intrinsic influence of bond energy on the macroscopic, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties of crystalline materials. A general criterion is proposed to evaluate the properties of nanocrystalline materials. The interrelation between the thermodynamic and mechanical properties of nanomaterials is presented and the relationship between the variation of these properties and the size of the nanomaterials is explained. The results of our work agree well with thermodynamics, molecular dynamics simulations, and experimental results. This method is of significance in investigating the size effects of nanomaterials and provides a new approach for studying their thermodynamic and mechanical properties.

  20. Preparation, characterization, and thermal properties of the microencapsulation of a hydrated salt as phase change energy storage materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jin, E-mail: huangjiner@126.com [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, 510006 Guangzhou (China); Wang, Tingyu; Zhu, Panpan; Xiao, Junbin [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, 510006 Guangzhou (China)

    2013-04-10

    Highlights: ► Phase change point and fusion heat of samples are about 51 °Cand 150 J/g respectively. ► DSC results indicated the core material is not Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}·12H{sub 2}O but Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}·7H{sub 2}O. ► Encapsulation takes a significant role in reducing subcooling degree. - Abstract: Microcapsules loaded by disodium hydrogen phosphate heptahydrate (Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}·7H{sub 2}O) were prepared by means of the suspension copolymerization-solvent volatile method, with modified polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as coating polymer under the conditions of various organic solvents. The formation of the microencapsulated phase change materials (MEPCMs)-PMMA/Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}·7H{sub 2}O was investigated and analyzed. The morphology of the resultant materials was characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and phase contrast microscope. Its final composition was confirmed by the Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR). Thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were adopted to reveal its thermal stability and thermal properties. Results indicated that the materials owned improved subcooling degree and good thermal properties, enabling the materials to be one promising phase change materials for thermal energy storage.

  1. A Study on Mechanical Properties of Vinylester Based BioComposite Material with Starch as a Filler Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Vignesh M

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In composites a conglomeration produces material properties which are unavailable from individual constituent materials. The use of petroleum based products as constituents in polymer matrix composite has raised concerns regarding environmental issue and non-renewability of the resource. Therefore in this work an attempt has been made to develop a biocomposite material using untreated dupion silk fiber as reinforcement material and vinyl ester as matrix material with Potato Starch used as filler material by hand layup technique. The biocomposites were prepared in varying percentage of filler addition (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% and different mechanical tests (tensile, flexure and hardness were conducted on the samples prepared to the ASTM standards. From the results of the experiments conducted on the specimen it can be concluded that the performance of 10% Starch filler content Biocomposite is satisfactory in all aspects compared to 0%, 20%, and 30% Starch filler content Biocomposites.

  2. Influence of material properties on TiO2 nanoparticle agglomeration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxu Zhou

    Full Text Available Emerging nanomaterials are being manufactured with varying particle sizes, morphologies, and crystal structures in the pursuit of achieving outstanding functional properties. These variations in these key material properties of nanoparticles may affect their environmental fate and transport. To date, few studies have investigated this important aspect of nanoparticles' environmental behavior. In this study, the aggregation kinetics of ten different TiO2 nanoparticles (5 anatase and 5 rutile each with varying size was systematically evaluated. Our results show that, as particle size increases, the surface charge of both anatase and rutile TiO2 nanoparticles shifts toward a more negative value, and, accordingly, the point of zero charge shifts toward a lower value. The colloidal stability of anatase sphere samples agreed well with DLVO theoretical predictions, where an increase in particle size led to a higher energy barrier and therefore greater critical coagulation concentration. In contrast, the critical coagulation concentration of rutile rod samples correlated positively with the specific surface area, i.e., samples with higher specific surface area exhibited higher stability. Finally, due to the large innate negative surface charge of all the TiO2 samples at the pH value (pH = 8 tested, the addition of natural organic matter was observed to have minimal effect on TiO2 aggregation kinetics, except for the smallest rutile rods that showed decreased stability in the presence of natural organic matter.

  3. Correlation between microstructure, phase composition and mechanical properties of thermo-insulation bonding agents based on waste material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Anja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Building composites - thermo-insulating and/or high-temperature resistant bonding agents in which fly ash, as potentially environmentally harmful waste material, is combined with ordinary and refractory cement is new option for reapplication of this waste material. In this study, investigated bonding agents were based on two types of fly ashes from coal combustion process and cements - ordinary Portland cement and highaluminate cement. Change of mineral phase composition of the composites with increasing temperature was analyzed by means of XRD method. Microstructural changes within investigated composites were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Macro-performance - mechanical properties of the investigated bonding agents was finally correlated with its microstructure. The investigated bonding agents showed excellent compressive strength, while SEM and XRD analysis indicated its valuable refractory and thermo-insulation properties. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172057 i br. 45008

  4. Final report on CCQM-K80: Comparison of value-assigned CRMs and PT materials: Creatinine in human serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Johanna E.; Duewer, David L.; Gasca Aragon, Hugo; Lippa, Katrice A.; Toman, Blaza

    2013-01-01

    regression was used to establish the key comparison reference function (KCRF) relating the assigned values to the repeatability measurements. Parametric bootstrap Monte Carlo was used to estimate 95% level-of-confidence coverage intervals for the degrees of equivalence of materials, d +/- U95(d), and of the participating NMIs, D +/- U95(D). Because of the wide range of creatinine mass fraction in the materials, these degrees of equivalence are expressed in percent relative form: %d +/- U95(%d) and %D +/- U95(%D). On the basis of leave-one-out cross-validation, the assigned values for 16 of the 17 materials were deemed equivalent at the 95% level of confidence. These materials were used to define the KCRF. The excluded material was identified as having a marginally underestimated assigned uncertainty, giving it large and potentially anomalous influence on the KCRF. However, this material's %d of 1.4 +/- 1.5 indicates that it is equivalent with the other materials at the 95% level of confidence. The median |%d| for all 17 of the materials is 0.3 with a median U95(%d) of 1.9. All of these higher-order CRMs for creatinine in human serum are equivalent within their assigned uncertainties. The median |%D| for the participating NMIs is 0.3 with a median U95(%D) of 2.1. These results demonstrate that all participating NMIs have the ability to correctly value-assign CRMs and proficiency test materials for creatinine in human serum and similar measurands. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  5. Dielectric elastomer for stretchable sensors: influence of the design and material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Mistral, C.; Iglesias, S.; Pruvost, S.; Duchet-Rumeau, J.; Chesné, S.

    2016-04-01

    Dielectric elastomers exhibit extended capabilities as flexible sensors for the detection of load distributions, pressure or huge deformations. Tracking the human movements of the fingers or the arms could be useful for the reconstruction of sporting gesture, or to control a human-like robot. Proposing new measurements methods are addressed in a number of publications leading to improving the sensitivity and accuracy of the sensing method. Generally, the associated modelling remains simple (RC or RC transmission line). The material parameters are considered constant or having a negligible effect which can lead to serious reduction of accuracy. Comparisons between measurements and modelling require care and skill, and could be tricky. Thus, we propose here a comprehensive modelling, taking into account the influence of the material properties on the performances of the dielectric elastomer sensor (DES). Various parameters influencing the characteristics of the sensors have been identified: dielectric constant, hyper-elasticity. The variations of these parameters as a function of the strain impact the linearity and sensitivity of the sensor of few percent. The sensitivity of the DES is also evaluated changing geometrical parameters (initial thickness) and its design (rectangular and dog-bone shapes). We discuss the impact of the shape regarding stress. Finally, DES including a silicone elastomer sandwiched between two high conductive stretchable electrodes, were manufactured and investigated. Classic and reliable LCR measurements are detailed. Experimental results validate our numerical model of large strain sensor (>50%).

  6. Salt content impact on the unsaturated property of bentonite-sand buffer backfilling materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Ming [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang Huyuan, E-mail: p1314lvp@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Jia Lingyan; Cui Suli [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SWCC and infiltration process of bentonite-sand mixtures is researched. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The k{sub u} of bentonite-sand mixtures was evaluated as the buffer backfilling materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salt content impacting on the unsaturated property of bentonite-sand materials is small. - Abstract: Bentonite mixed with sand is often considered as possible engineered barrier in deep high-level radioactive waste disposal in China. In the present work, the vapor transfer technique and water infiltration apparatus were used to measure the soil water characteristic curve (SWCC) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (k{sub u}) of bentonite-sand mixtures (B/S) effected by salt content. Results show, the water-holding capacity and k{sub u} increase slightly with the concentration of Na{sup +} in pore liquid increasing from 0 g/L to 12 g/L, similar with the solution concentration of Beishan groundwater in China. Salt content in the laboratory produced only one order of magnitude increase in k{sub u}, which is the 'safe' value. The different pore liquid concentrations used in this study led to small differences in thickness of diffuse double layer of bentonite in mixtures, this might explain why some differences have been found in final values of k{sub u}.

  7. Synthesis and cation-exchange properties of a bis-zwitterionic lamellar hybrid material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besson, E. [ICSM Marcoule, UMR 5257, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze, (France); Mehdi, A.; Reye, C.; Corriu, Robert J. P. [Univ Montpellier 2, Inst Charles Gerhardt Montpellier, CNRS-UM2-ENSCM-UM1, UMR 5253, Chim Mol et Org Sol, F-34095 Montpellier 5, (France); Chollet, H. [CEA Valduc, Dept Traitement Mat Nucl, F-21120 Is Sur Tille, (France); Guilard, R. [ICMUB, CNRS, UMR 5260, F-21078 Dijon, (France)

    2008-07-01

    The synthesis of a bis-zwitterionic lamellar hybrid material containing ammonium carboxylate groups is described. Cation-exchange properties of this material towards transition metal and lanthanide ions were studied as well as the regeneration and reuse of the material. (authors)

  8. A STUDY OF HOW A CHILD LEARNS CONCEPTS ABOUT CHARACTERISTICS OF LIQUID MATERIALS. FINAL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENGELMANN, SIEGFRIED; GALLAGHER, JAMES J.

    THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY WAS TO EXPLORE THE PIAGET CONCEPT OF CONSERVATION WITH REGARD TO THE CHILD'S CONCEPT OF THE PROPERTY OF LIQUIDS. AN INVESTIGATOR-CONSTRUCTED CONSERVATION INVENTORY WAS GIVEN TO 45 KINDERGARTEN AND FIRST GRADE PUPILS SELECTED FROM THE PRAIRIE ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS, URBANA, ILLINOIS, TO PROVIDE AN INDEX OF THE CHILD'S…

  9. Characterization of temperature-dependent optical material properties of polymer powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laumer, Tobias [Bayerisches Laserzentrum GmbH, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); SAOT Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); CRC Collaborative Research Center 814 - Additive Manufacturing, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Stichel, Thomas; Bock, Thomas; Amend, Philipp [Bayerisches Laserzentrum GmbH, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); CRC Collaborative Research Center 814 - Additive Manufacturing, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Schmidt, Michael [Bayerisches Laserzentrum GmbH, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Institute of Photonic Technologies, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); SAOT Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); CRC Collaborative Research Center 814 - Additive Manufacturing, 91052 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-05-22

    In former works, the optical material properties of different polymer powders used for Laser Beam Melting (LBM) at room temperature have been analyzed. With a measurement setup using two integration spheres, it was shown that the optical material properties of polymer powders differ significantly due to multiple reflections within the powder compared to solid bodies of the same material. Additionally, the absorption behavior of the single particles shows an important influence on the overall optical material properties, especially the reflectance of the powder bed. Now the setup is modified to allow measurements at higher temperatures. Because crystalline areas of semi-crystalline thermoplastics are mainly responsible for the absorption of the laser radiation, the influence of the temperature increase on the overall optical material properties is analyzed. As material, conventional polyamide 12 and polypropylene as new polymer powder material, is used. By comparing results at room temperature and at higher temperatures towards the melting point, the temperature-dependent optical material properties and their influence on the beam-matter interaction during the process are discussed. It is shown that the phase transition during melting leads to significant changes of the optical material properties of the analyzed powders.

  10. Computing effective properties of random heterogeneous materials on heterogeneous parallel processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidi, Tiziano; Scocchi, Giulio; Grossi, Loris; Pusterla, Simone; D'Angelo, Claudio; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Ortona, Alberto

    2012-11-01

    In recent decades, finite element (FE) techniques have been extensively used for predicting effective properties of random heterogeneous materials. In the case of very complex microstructures, the choice of numerical methods for the solution of this problem can offer some advantages over classical analytical approaches, and it allows the use of digital images obtained from real material samples (e.g., using computed tomography). On the other hand, having a large number of elements is often necessary for properly describing complex microstructures, ultimately leading to extremely time-consuming computations and high memory requirements. With the final objective of reducing these limitations, we improved an existing freely available FE code for the computation of effective conductivity (electrical and thermal) of microstructure digital models. To allow execution on hardware combining multi-core CPUs and a GPU, we first translated the original algorithm from Fortran to C, and we subdivided it into software components. Then, we enhanced the C version of the algorithm for parallel processing with heterogeneous processors. With the goal of maximizing the obtained performances and limiting resource consumption, we utilized a software architecture based on stream processing, event-driven scheduling, and dynamic load balancing. The parallel processing version of the algorithm has been validated using a simple microstructure consisting of a single sphere located at the centre of a cubic box, yielding consistent results. Finally, the code was used for the calculation of the effective thermal conductivity of a digital model of a real sample (a ceramic foam obtained using X-ray computed tomography). On a computer equipped with dual hexa-core Intel Xeon X5670 processors and an NVIDIA Tesla C2050, the parallel application version features near to linear speed-up progression when using only the CPU cores. It executes more than 20 times faster when additionally using the GPU.

  11. A Model for Producing and Sharing Instructional Materials in Veterinary Medicine. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Billy C.; Niec, Alphonsus P.

    This report describes a study of factors which appear to influence the "shareability" of audiovisual materials in the field of veterinary medicine. Specific factors addressed are content quality, instructional effectiveness, technical quality, institutional support, organization, logistics, and personal attitudes toward audiovisuals. (Author/CO)

  12. Final Report - Assessment of Potential Phosphate Ion-Cementitious Materials Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, Dan J [ORNL; Mattus, Catherine H [ORNL; Dole, Leslie Robert [ORNL

    2007-06-01

    The objectives of this limited study were to: (1) review the potential for degradation of cementitious materials due to exposure to high concentrations of phosphate ions; (2) provide an improved understanding of any significant factors that may lead to a requirement to establish exposure limits for concrete structures exposed to soils or ground waters containing high levels of phosphate ions; (3) recommend, as appropriate, whether a limitation on phosphate ion concentration in soils or ground water is required to avoid degradation of concrete structures; and (4) provide a "primer" on factors that can affect the durability of concrete materials and structures in nuclear power plants. An assessment of the potential effects of phosphate ions on cementitious materials was made through a review of the literature, contacts with concrete research personnel, and conduct of a "bench-scale" laboratory investigation. Results of these activities indicate that: no harmful interactions occur between phosphates and cementitious materials unless phosphates are present in the form of phosphoric acid; phosphates have been incorporated into concrete as set retarders, and phosphate cements have been used for infrastructure repair; no standards or guidelines exist pertaining to applications of reinforced concrete structures in high-phosphate environments; interactions of phosphate ions and cementitious materials has not been a concern of the research community; and laboratory results indicate similar performance of specimens cured in phosphate solutions and those cured in a calcium hydroxide solution after exposure periods of up to eighteen months. Relative to the "primer," a separate NUREG report has been prepared that provides a review of pertinent factors that can affect the durability of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures.

  13. Modeling Material Properties of Lead-Free Solder Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhanli; Saunders, Nigel; Miodownik, Peter; Schillé, Jean-Philippe

    2008-01-01

    A full set of physical and thermophysical properties for lead-free solder (LFS) alloys have been calculated, including liquidus/solidus temperatures, fraction solid, density, coefficient of thermal expansion, thermal conductivity, Young’s modulus, viscosity, and liquid surface tension, all as a function of composition and temperature (extending into the liquid state). The results have been extensively validated against data available in the literature. A detailed comparison of the properties of two LFS alloys Sn-20In-2.8Ag and Sn-5.5Zn-4.5In-3.5Bi with Sn-37Pb has been made to show the utility and need for calculations that cover a wide range of properties, including the need to consider the effect of nonequilibrium cooling. The modeling of many of these properties follows well-established procedures previously used in JMatPro software for a range of structural alloys. This paper describes an additional procedure for the calculation of the liquid surface tension for multicomponent systems, based on the Butler equation. Future software developments are reviewed, including the addition of mechanical properties, but the present calculations can already make a useful contribution to the selection of appropriate new LFS alloys.

  14. The stress and ballistic properties of granular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proud, William G.; Chapman, David J.; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2017-01-01

    Granular materials are widespread in nature and in manufacturing. Their particulate nature gives a compressive strength of a similar order of magnitude as many continuous solids, a vanishingly small tensile strength and variable shear strength, highly dependent on the loading conditions. Previous studies have shown the effect of composition, morphology and particle size, however, compared to metals and polymers, granular materials are not so well understood. This paper will present some recent results for granular materials, placing these within the wider context. Two areas will be dealt with (i) the effect of the skeletal strength of the material and (ii) the displacements associated with ballistic impact. One clear observation is the similarity of behavior of quartz-sands in compression across a range of particle size. However, the precise pathway of compression is strongly dependent on the initial conditions e.g. density and connectivity within the granular bed, as emphasized by some data for quasi-static compression of sand. To fully embrace the range of behaviours seen requires the development of a suitable parameter to describe the material, the paper concludes with a discussion of one of those approaches.

  15. Development and mechanical properties of construction materials from lunar simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Chandra S.

    1990-01-01

    The development of construction materials such as concrete from lunar soils without the use of water requires a different methodology than that used for conventional terrestrial concrete. Currently, this research involves two aspects: (1) liquefaction of lunar simulants with various additives in a furnace so as to produce a construction material like an intermediate ceramic; and (2) cyclic loading of simulant with different initial vacuums and densities with respect to the theoretical maximum densities (TMD). In both cases, bending, triaxial compression, extension, and hydrostatic tests will be performed to define the stress-strain strength response of the resulting materials. In the case of the intermediate ceramic, bending and available multiaxial test devices will be used, while for the compacted case, tests will be performed directly in the new device. The tests will be performed by simulating in situ confining conditions. A preliminary review of high-purity metal is also conducted.

  16. Properties of Hooked Steel Fibers Reinforced Alkali Activated Material Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, alkali activated material was produced by using Class F fly ash from Manjung power station, Lumut, Perak, Malaysia. Fly ash then was activated by alkaline activator which is consisting of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3 and sodium hydroxide (NaOH. Hooked end steel fibers were added into the alkali activated material system with percentage vary from 0 % – 5 %. Chemical compositions of fly ash were first analyzed by using x-ray fluorescence (XRF. All hardened alkali activated material samples were tested for density, workability, and compression after 28 days. Results show a slight increase of density with the addition of steel fibers. However, the workability was reduced with the addition of steel fibers content. Meanwhile, the addition of steel fibers shows the improvement of compressive strength which is about 19 % obtained at 3 % of steel fibers addition.

  17. Frequency scanning capaciflector for capacitively determining the material properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles E. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A capaciflector sensor system scanned in frequency is used to detect the permittivity of the material of an object being sensed. A capaciflector sensor element, coupled to current-measuring voltage follower circuitry, is driven by a frequency swept oscillator and generates an output which corresponds to capacity as a function of the input frequency. This swept frequency information is fed into apparatus e.g. a digital computer for comparing the shape of the capacitance vs. frequency curve against characteristic capacitor vs. frequency curves for a variety of different materials which are stored, for example, in a digital memory of the computer or a database. Using a technique of pattern matching, a determination is made as to the identification of the material. Also, when desirable, the distance between the sensor and the object can be determined.

  18. Electronic and Vibrational Properties of Low-Dimensional Heterogeneous Systems: Materials and Device Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Mahesh Raj

    Due to the aggressive miniaturization of memory and logic devices, the current technologies based on silicon have nearly reached their ultimate size limit. One method to maintain the trend in device scaling observed by Moore's law is to create a heterostructure from existing materials and utilize the underlying electronic and optical properties. Another radical approach is the conceptualization of a new device design paradigm. The central objective of this thesis is to use both of these approaches to address issues associated with the aggressive scaling of memory and logic devices such as leakage current, leakage power, and minimizing gate oxide thickness and threshold voltage. In the first part of the dissertation, an atomistic, empirical tight binding method was used to perform a systematic investigation of the effect of physical (shape and size), and material dependent (heterogenity and strain) properties on the device related electronic and optical properties of the Germanium (Ge)/Silicon (Si) nanocrystal (NC) or quantum dot (QD). The device parameters pertaining to Ge-core/Si-shell NC-based floating gate memory and optical devices such as confinement energy, retention lifetimes and optical intensities are captured and analyzed. For both the memory and optical device applications, regardless of the shape and size, the Ge-core is found to play an important role in modifying the confinement energy and carrier dynamics. However, the variation in the thickness of outer Si-shell layer had no or minimal effect on the overall device parameters. In the second part of the dissertation, we present a systematic study of the effect of atomistic heterogeneity on the vibrational properties of quasi-2D systems and recently discovered 2D materials such as graphene, while investigating their applicabilities in future devices applications. At first, we investigate the vibrational properties of an experimentally observed misoriented bilayer graphene (MBG) system, a

  19. Transient Infrared Measurement of Laser Absorption Properties of Porous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marynowicz Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The infrared thermography measurements of porous building materials have become more frequent in recent years. Many accompanying techniques for the thermal field generation have been developed, including one based on laser radiation. This work presents a simple optimization technique for estimation of the laser beam absorption for selected porous building materials, namely clinker brick and cement mortar. The transient temperature measurements were performed with the use of infrared camera during laser-induced heating-up of the samples’ surfaces. As the results, the absorbed fractions of the incident laser beam together with its shape parameter are reported.

  20. Transient Infrared Measurement of Laser Absorption Properties of Porous Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marynowicz, Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    The infrared thermography measurements of porous building materials have become more frequent in recent years. Many accompanying techniques for the thermal field generation have been developed, including one based on laser radiation. This work presents a simple optimization technique for estimation of the laser beam absorption for selected porous building materials, namely clinker brick and cement mortar. The transient temperature measurements were performed with the use of infrared camera during laser-induced heating-up of the samples' surfaces. As the results, the absorbed fractions of the incident laser beam together with its shape parameter are reported.