WorldWideScience

Sample records for materials ageing issues

  1. The difficult issue of age assessment on pedo-pornographic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Cristina; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Gabriel, Peter; Gibelli, Daniele; Giudici, Elena; Poppa, Pasquale; Nohrden, Doerte; Assmann, Sabine; Schmitt, Roland; Grandi, Marco

    2009-01-10

    The issue of juvenile pornography has seen an increase in the past few years of the number of expert opinions requested to forensic pathologists, paediatricians and other various experts within the forensic and medical fields concerning the age of represented individuals. Regardless of the entity of the problem, no actual method exists which can allow us to give an objective and scientific answer, particularly in the postpubertal stage. Using parameters related to sexual maturation can be very dangerous. Nonetheless some experts still insist with similar types of "expertises". This study aims at verifying the ability of different experts in assessing age of postpubertal individuals represented in pornographic material. Results underline the difficulties and major uncertainties of age evaluation by visual observation of photographic material particularly when the subjects have reached the sexual maturation stage - and therefore in verifying whether the individual is above or below 18 years of age (an important age limit for most European countries as far as this type of crime is concerned). Furthermore the study stresses the need both to search for an alternate approach and to apply extreme caution in judicial evaluation.

  2. Selected Issues on Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Ruby D.

    Aging is a continuum which begins at birth and ends at death. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to the study of aging as a part of developmental psychology. The individual is a biological organism as well as a member of society. Biological adjustments to life are affected by physical changes which influence motives and emotions. Some of…

  3. Issue Mapping for an Ageing Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, R.; Sánchez-Querubín, N.; Kil, A.

    2015-01-01

    Issue Mapping for an Ageing Europe is a seminal guide to mapping social and political issues with digital methods. The issue at stake concerns the imminent crisis of an ageing Europe and its impact on the contemporary welfare state. The book brings together three leading approaches to issue mapping:

  4. Issue Mapping for an Ageing Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, R.; Sánchez-Querubín, N.; Kil, A.

    2015-01-01

    Issue Mapping for an Ageing Europe is a seminal guide to mapping social and political issues with digital methods. The issue at stake concerns the imminent crisis of an ageing Europe and its impact on the contemporary welfare state. The book brings together three leading approaches to issue mapping:

  5. Materials issues in fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, A. K.; Krishnamurthy, N.; Batra, I. S.

    2010-02-01

    The world scientific community is presently engaged in one of the toughest technological tasks of the current century, namely, exploitation of nuclear fusion in a controlled manner for the benefit of mankind. Scientific feasibility of controlled fusion of the light elements in plasma under magnetic confinement has already been proven. International efforts in a coordinated and co-operative manner are presently being made to build ITER - the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - to test, in this first step, the concept of 'Tokamak' for net fusion energy production. To exploit this new developing option of making energy available through the route of fusion, India too embarked on a robust fusion programme under which we now have a working tokamak - the Aditya and a steady state tokamak (SST-1), which is on the verge of functioning. The programme envisages further development in terms of making SST-2 followed by a DEMO and finally the fusion power reactor. Further, with the participation of India in the ITER program in 2005, and recent allocation of half - a - port in ITER for placing our Lead - Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) based Test Blanket Module (TBM), meant basically for breeding tritium and extracting high grade heat, the need to understand and address issues related to materials for these complex systems has become all the more necessary. Also, it is obvious that with increasing power from the SST stages to DEMO and further to PROTOTYPE, the increasing demands on performance of materials would necessitate discovery and development of new materials. Because of the 14.1 MeV neutrons that are generated in the D+T reaction exploited in a tokamak, the materials, especially those employed for the construction of the first wall, the diverter and the blanket segments, suffer crippling damage due to the high He/dpa ratios that result due to the high energy of the neutrons. To meet this challenge, the materials that need to be developed for the tokamaks

  6. Electrolyte materials - Issues and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbuena, Perla B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas, 77843 (United States)

    2014-06-16

    Electrolytes are vital components of an electrochemical energy storage device. They are usually composed of a solvent or mixture of solvents and a salt or a mixture of salts which provide the appropriate environment for ionic conduction. One of the main issues associated with the selection of a proper electrolyte is that its electronic properties have to be such that allow a wide electrochemical window - defined as the voltage range in which the electrolyte is not oxidized or reduced - suitable to the battery operating voltage. In addition, electrolytes must have high ionic conductivity and negligible electronic conductivity, be chemically stable with respect to the other battery components, have low flammability, and low cost. Weak stability of the electrolyte against oxidation or reduction leads to the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer at the surface of the cathode and anode respectively. Depending on the materials of the electrolyte and those of the electrode, the SEI layer may be composed by combinations of organic and inorganic species, and it may exert a passivating role. In this paper we discuss the current status of knowledge about electrolyte materials, including non-aqueous liquids, ionic liquids, solid ceramic and polymer electrolytes. We also review the basic knowledge about the SEI layer formation, and challenges for a rational design of stable electrolytes.

  7. Midlife and Beyond: Issues for Aging Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, Maggi G.

    2004-01-01

    The author discusses issues confronted by aging women, particularly those related to ageism and body image, emphasizing society's role in influencing women's perceptions of their bodies. Although body image issues cause anxiety throughout most women's lives, women entering middle age become more conscious of this concern. Problems related to a…

  8. Compromise Issues in Materials Development for TESOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Ying-qiong

    2015-01-01

    The paper will focus on the“Compromise”issues in developing teaching materials for speakers of other languages. It discusses inevitability will be discussed in the following part, with an analysis of examples in English teaching context of China and possible effects.

  9. Practical Issues in Component Aging Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dana L. Kelly; Andrei Rodionov; Jens Uwe-Klugel

    2008-09-01

    This paper examines practical issues in the statistical analysis of component aging data. These issues center on the stochastic process chosen to model component failures. The two stochastic processes examined are repair same as new, leading to a renewal process, and repair same as old, leading to a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. Under the first assumption, times between failures can treated as statistically independent observations from a stationary process. The common distribution of the times between failures is called the renewal distribution. Under the second process, the times between failures will not be independently and identically distributed, and one cannot simply fit a renewal distribution to the cumulative failure times or the times between failures. The paper illustrates how the assumption made regarding the repair process is crucial to the analysis. Besides the choice of stochastic process, other issues that are discussed include qualitative graphical analysis and simple nonparametric hypothesis tests to help judge which process appears more appropriate. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the issues discussed in the paper.

  10. Feature issue introduction: biophotonic materials and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Sup; Andraud, Chantal; Tamada, Kaoru; Sokolov, Konstantin; Kotz, Kenneth T; Zheng, Gang

    2016-05-01

    Biophotonics can be defined as the interplay of light and biological matter. The percolation of new optical technology into the realm of biology has literally shed new light into the inner workings of biological systems. This has revealed new applications for optics in biology. In a parallel trend, biomolecules have been investigated for their optical applications. Materials are playing a central role in the development of biophotonics. New materials, fabrication methods, and structures are enabling new biosensors, contrast agents, imaging strategies, and assay methods. Similarly, biologic materials themselves can be used in photonic devices. In this context, two open-access, rapid-publication journals from The Optical Society of America (OSA), Optical Materials Express and Biomedical Optics Express, will publish a joint feature issue covering advances in biophotonics materials.

  11. Materials Issues for Micromachines Development - ASCI Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FANG,HUEI ELIOT; BATTAILE,CORBETT C.; BENAVIDES,GILBERT L.; ENSZ,MARK T.; BUCHHEIT,THOMAS E.; LAVAN,DAVID A.; CHEN,ER-PING; CHRISTENSON,TODD R.; DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; MILLER,SAMUEL L.; DUGGER,MICHAEL T.; PRASAD,SOMURI V.; REEDY JR.,EARL DAVID; THOMPSON,AIDAN P.; WONG,CHUNGNIN C.; YANG,PIN

    2000-05-01

    This report summarizes materials issues associated with advanced micromachines development at Sandia. The intent of this report is to provide a perspective on the scope of the issues and suggest future technical directions, with a focus on computational materials science. Materials issues in surface micromachining (SMM), Lithographic-Galvanoformung-Abformung (LIGA: lithography, electrodeposition, and molding), and meso-machining technologies were identified. Each individual issue was assessed in four categories: degree of basic understanding; amount of existing experimental data capability of existing models; and, based on the perspective of component developers, the importance of the issue to be resolved. Three broad requirements for micromachines emerged from this process. They are: (1) tribological behavior, including stiction, friction, wear, and the use of surface treatments to control these, (2) mechanical behavior at microscale, including elasticity, plasticity, and the effect of microstructural features on mechanical strength, and (3) degradation of tribological and mechanical properties in normal (including aging), abnormal and hostile environments. Resolving all the identified critical issues requires a significant cooperative and complementary effort between computational and experimental programs. The breadth of this work is greater than any single program is likely to support. This report should serve as a guide to plan micromachines development at Sandia.

  12. On the materials issues for pefc applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savadogo Oumarou

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Current limitations related to the development of effective, durable and reliable MEA components for PEFC applications are addressed. Advancements made in the development of materials (catalysts, high temperature membranes, bipolar plates, etc. for PEFC are shown. The effect of the catalyst on PEFC performances based on cells fed by hydrogen, direct methanol, direct propane, or direct acetal fuels are presented. The progress in cell performance and cathode research are discussed. Perspectives related to CO tolerance anodes are indicated. The effect of the membranes on the cell performance are shown and parameters which may help the development of appropriate membranes depending on the fuel are suggested. Openings for the future in materials processing and development for PEFC mass production are discussed. The development of New Materials is the key factor to meet those requirements. The aim of this paper is to present challenges related to the development of new materials for PEFC applications and perspectives related to components cost issues are discussed.

  13. Issues in research on aging and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Kimberly A; Conwell, Yeates

    2016-01-01

    Late-life suicide is a complex clinical and public health problem. In this article, some of the key complexities inherent in studying late-life suicide are discussed in the service of promoting high-quality late-life suicide prevention science. We discuss the following research issues: the relatively greater lethality of suicidal behavior in later life (compared to younger ages); the lack of data on whether thoughts of death in later life are indicators of suicide risk; the fact that older adults do not tend to seek specialty mental health care, necessitating moving research into primary care clinics and the community; the lack of theory-based research in late-life suicide; the unclear role of cognitive impairment; and the promise of taking a 'patient centered' and 'participatory research' approach to late-life suicide research efforts. We believe that these perspectives are too often not capitalized upon in research on suicide prevention with older adults and that voice of the older person could contribute much to our understanding of why older adults think about and act on suicidal thoughts, as well as the most acceptable ways to reach and intervene with those at risk.

  14. 'Speak out' - issues in participatory materials development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zannie Bock

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the development of a beginner English course called 'Speak Out' for adults in Adult Basic Education and Training classes in the early 1990s. The course uses an innovative roleplay methodology which builds on the experiences and language knowledge of the adult learners. It was conceptualised and developed within a participatory approach to adult learning and materials development. The article explores the tension between the ideals of the participatory approach and the constraints exerted by contextual and other factors. The article begins with an introduction of the context within which the materials were conceptualised, then offers a brief overview of the participatory approach, and then considers the following aspects of the 'Speak Out' course: the language learning methodology, issues of teacher competence and development, and lastly, the materials development process itself. Hierdie artikel beskryf die ontwikkeling van 'n beginnerskursus vir Engels, getitel 'Speak Out'. Dit is ontwerp vir volwassenes in klasse binne 'n Volwasse Basiese Onderrig en Opleiding-program in die vroee 1990s. Die kursus maak gebruik van innoverende rolspel as 'n metode wat spesifiek aansluit by die ervarings en taalkennis van volwasse leerders. Dit is gekonseptualiseer en ontwikkel as deel van 'n deelnemende benadering tot die opleiding van volwassenes en die ontwikkeling van hulpmiddels. Die artikel ondersoek die spanning tussen die ideale van 'n deelnemende benadering en die beperkinge wat opgele word deur kontekstuele en ander faktore. Die inleiding van die artikel gee 'n uiteensetting van die konteks waarbinne die hulpmiddels gekonseptualiseer is. Dan volg 'n kort oorsig oor die deelnemende benadering, en die volgende aspekte van die 'Speak Out'-kursus word oorweeg: die metodologie van taalaanleer, kwessies rondom onderwysers se vaardighede en ontwikkeling, en laastens, die proses van hulpmiddel-ontwikkeling self.

  15. Ageing in civil engineering materials and structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Jean-Marc [SETEC TPI, Tour Gamma D 58, quai de la Rapee, 75583 Paris (France)

    2005-07-01

    SETEC TPI will address the 'Aging' topic of the Dijon Symposium by talking about: aging in civil engineering materials and structures, prevention of aging phenomena, in-operation monitoring of degradations related to aging and compensatory measures required to maintain a good safety level. Works as the Millau viaduct, the EdF skyscraper at La Defense - Paris, the renovation of the Grand Palais of Paris and special structures with Monaco's floating dam as well as the 'number 10' shaped gateway boat at Marseilles are illustrations for the issues discussed. The durability of civil engineering structures has become a major concern for designers. The Millau viaduct is designed for a service life of 120 years, and the Monaco dam for 100 years. Calculation rules have been evolving toward the incorporation of the concept of life cycle, for example, the Eurocodes 2 rules (reinforced concrete). The talk will expose the factors which are being taken into account to delay aging versus structure types. This part will be focused towards materials and corresponding regulations: - Reinforced concrete (coating of reinforcements, opening of cracks, choice of reinforcement types), BAEL and Eurocodes 2 rules; - Frame steel (protection, sacrificial anode), CM66 and Eurocodes 3 rules. New materials will also be mentioned: - Ultra high-performance fiber/concrete, with the example of CERACEM applied at Millau for the covering of the toll area barrier; - Titanium, which is starting to appear in the building trades, as for instance for the Beijing China Opera House shell. The second part of the talk will be devoted to a specific case namely, the 'number 10' shaped gateway bridge, a prestressed concrete structure immersed in the Port of Marseilles, which will be used to illustrate the aging phenomenon in a corrosive environment. We will focus on the types of inspection series performed by the Autonomous Port Authority of Marseilles to check the behavior of

  16. Awareness of LGBT aging issues among aging services network providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Anne K; Harold, Rena D; Boyer, Janet M

    2011-10-01

    Very little research exists examining the interactions between community-based aging service providers and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) older adults. It is unclear whether mainstream aging services acknowledge the needs of this community. We asked direct care providers and administrators in the Michigan aging services network to describe their work with LGBT older adults. We found there are very few services specific to the needs of older LGBT adults and very little outreach to this community. At the agency level, resistance to providing services was found.

  17. Eco Issues in Bulk Materials Handling Technologies in Ports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Zrnić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with eco issues in bulk materials handling in ports. Solid, free-flowing materials are said to be in bulk. Bulk materials handling is very difficult, because it incorporates all the features of liquids, gasses and mass solids. Energy efficiency, dust emissions in nearby environment, dust explosions, jamming, noise, handling of hazardous materials and protection of materials from contamination are issues that will be considered in this paper. Here are also presented possible solutions for some of these issues

  18. Key micromechanics issues in integrated material design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennoura, M.; Aboutajeddine, A.

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays the acceleration of material discovery is essential more than ever to hold the fast evolving requirements of innovative products. This acceleration depends on our ability to set up a material design process for tailoring materials from targeted engineering performances. One of the important building block passages, in the material design journey, is the bridging of micro-scale to meso-scale through micromechanical models. Unfortunately, these models include a lot of uncertainties resulting from their inbuilt ad-hoc assumptions, which inevitably impacts the material design process performance. In the present paper, robust design methods are reviewed and subsequently applied to quantify uncertainty in micromechanical models and mitigate its impact on material design performances. This includes examining principles for evaluating the level degree of uncertainty on material design process, and their use in micromechanical models. Also, developing robust design approaches to alleviate uncertainty effects and improve the quality of the design performance. Ultimately, the limitations of these approaches are discussed and the research opportunities, to overcome the shortness of actual approaches in respect to micromechanical models, are clarified.

  19. Chemical Fingerprinting of Materials Developed Due To Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Doris A.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on chemical fingerprinting of materials developed due to environmental issues. Some of the topics include: 1) Aerospace Materials; 2) Building Blocks of Capabilities; 3) Spectroscopic Techniques; 4) Chromatographic Techniques; 5) Factors that Determine Fingerprinting Approach; and 6) Fingerprinting: Combination of instrumental analysis methods that diagnostically characterize a material.

  20. Physics and Materials Issues of Organic Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Shawn R.; McGehee, Michael D.

    Organic materials hold promise for use in photovoltaic (PV) devices because of their potential to reduce the cost of electricity per kWh ultimately to levels below that of electricity produced by coal-fired power plants. Deposition of organics by techniques such as screen printing, doctor blading, inkjet printing, spray deposition, and thermal evaporation lends itself to incorporation in high-throughput low-cost roll-to-roll coating systems. These are low-temperature deposition techniques which allow the organics to be deposited on plastic substrates such that flexible devices can easily be made. In addition to the inherent economics of high-throughput manufacturing, lightweight and flexibility are qualities claimed to offer a simple way to reduce the price of PV panels by reducing installation costs. Flexible PVs also open niche markets like portable power generation and aesthetic-PV in building design.

  1. Materials & Engineering: Propelling Innovation MRS Bulletin Special Issue Session

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Gopal [Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Materials enable engineering; and, engineering in turn depends on materials to transform design concepts and equations into physical entities. This relationship continues to grow with expanding societal demand for new products and processes. MRS Bulletin, a publication of the Materials Research Society (MRS) and Cambridge University Press, planned a special issue for December 2015 on Materials and Engineering: Propelling Innovation. This special issue of MRS Bulletin captured the unique relationship between materials and engineering, which are closely intertwined. A special half day session at the 2015 MRS Fall Meeting in Boston captured this discussion through presentations by high level experts followed by a panel discussion on what it takes to translate materials discoveries into products to benefit society. The Special Session included presentations by experts who are practitioners in materials as well as engineering applications, followed by a panel discussion. Participants discussed state-of-the-art in materials applications in engineering, as well as how engineering needs have pushed materials developments, as also reflected in the 20 or so articles published in the special issue of MRS Bulletin. As expected, the discussions spanned the broad spectrum of materials and provided very strong interdisciplinary interactions and discussions by participants and presenters.

  2. Materials integration issues for high performance fusion power systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D. L.

    1998-01-14

    One of the primary requirements for the development of fusion as an energy source is the qualification of materials for the frost wall/blanket system that will provide high performance and exhibit favorable safety and environmental features. Both economic competitiveness and the environmental attractiveness of fusion will be strongly influenced by the materials constraints. A key aspect is the development of a compatible combination of materials for the various functions of structure, tritium breeding, coolant, neutron multiplication and other special requirements for a specific system. This paper presents an overview of key materials integration issues for high performance fusion power systems. Issues such as: chemical compatibility of structure and coolant, hydrogen/tritium interactions with the plasma facing/structure/breeder materials, thermomechanical constraints associated with coolant/structure, thermal-hydraulic requirements, and safety/environmental considerations from a systems viewpoint are presented. The major materials interactions for leading blanket concepts are discussed.

  3. Molecular modeling and multiscaling issues for electronic material applications

    CERN Document Server

    Iwamoto, Nancy; Yuen, Matthew; Fan, Haibo

    Volume 1 : Molecular Modeling and Multiscaling Issues for Electronic Material Applications provides a snapshot on the progression of molecular modeling in the electronics industry and how molecular modeling is currently being used to understand material performance to solve relevant issues in this field. This book is intended to introduce the reader to the evolving role of molecular modeling, especially seen through the eyes of the IEEE community involved in material modeling for electronic applications.  Part I presents  the role that quantum mechanics can play in performance prediction, such as properties dependent upon electronic structure, but also shows examples how molecular models may be used in performance diagnostics, especially when chemistry is part of the performance issue.  Part II gives examples of large-scale atomistic methods in material failure and shows several examples of transitioning between grain boundary simulations (on the atomistic level)and large-scale models including an example ...

  4. Structural materials issues for the next generation fission reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chant, I.; Murty, K. L.

    2010-09-01

    Generation-IV reactor design concepts envisioned thus far cater to a common goal of providing safer, longer lasting, proliferation-resistant, and economically viable nuclear power plants. The foremost consideration in the successful development and deployment of Gen-W reactor systems is the performance and reliability issues involving structural materials for both in-core and out-of-core applications. The structural materials need to endure much higher temperatures, higher neutron doses, and extremely corrosive environments, which are beyond the experience of the current nuclear power plants. Materials under active consideration for use in different reactor components include various ferritic/martensitic steels, austenitic stainless steels, nickel-base superalloys, ceramics, composites, etc. This article addresses the material requirements for these advanced fission reactor types, specifically addressing structural materials issues depending on the specific application areas.

  5. Book Review: Online Privacy: Issues in the Digital Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlene M Tester

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Currie, Stephen (2012: Online Privacy: Issues in the Digital Age, San Diego, CA, Reference Point Press, Inc. 96 pages, ISBN: 13-978-1-60152-194-1, US $27.95.Reviewed by Darlene M Tester, CISSP, CISM, ITIL, CHSS, JD, Metropolitan State University, Minnesota (nonsequitr60@gmail.comThis book is one of a series of books Currie has written about online areas of concern. This is the sixth book in the series. The purpose of the book is to act as a primer for people in the IT field who may need a point of reference for Internet issues such as gaming, security and privacy. The book takes a high level look at the complexities of privacy online from social networking to hackers and provides insight into what the most pressing issues of privacy are online today.(see PDF for full review

  6. Aging in Mexico: Population Trends and Emerging Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Jacqueline L; Vega, William; López-Ortega, Mariana

    2016-12-07

    Although all nations in the America's face a common demographic reality of longevity, declining fertility rates and changes in family roles a growing body of research points to a dramatic demographic transformation in Mexico. Although Mexico's population is relatively young, with a median age of 27.9 in 2015, it will age rapidly in coming years, increasing to 42 years by 2050. The rapid median age in the nation also reflects the growing proportion of people 65 or older, and is expected to triple to 20.2% by 2050. This article examines how the age and gender structure of Mexico offers important insights about current and future political and social stability, as well as economic development. Mexico is the world's eleventh largest country in terms of population size and the "demographic dividend" of a large youthful population is giving way to a growing older population that will inevitably place demands on health care and social security. The shift in age structure will result in increased dependency of retirees on the working-age population in the next 20 years. Mexico does not provide universal coverage of social security benefits and less than half of the labor force is covered by any pension or retirement plan. As a result, elderly Mexicans often continue working into old age. The high total poverty rate in the country, especially among the older population magnifies the problem of the potential dependency burden. The article ends with a discussion of key public policy issues related to aging in Mexico.

  7. NuPEER Dijon 2005 Symposium. Ageing issues in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emond, David (ed.) [BCCN, Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, ASN, 6, place du Colonel Bourgoin, 75572 Paris Cedex 12 (France)

    2005-07-01

    The French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) organized an international symposium on regulatory aspects of ageing issues for nuclear pressure equipment. The ageing of nuclear pressure equipment is an issue of growing importance for nuclear regulators and material experts worldwide as age-related degradation of major pressure-retaining components challenges the remaining operating life of nuclear power plants. This symposium aimed at providing a forum for technical exchange among the staffs responsible for nuclear pressure equipment within the safety authorities and the associated expertise organisations. The contents of the symposium is as follows: 1. Control and supervision of safety of nuclear pressure equipment in France and abroad; 1.1. Position of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (1 paper); 1.2. Regulatory practices worldwide (4 papers); 1.3. Licence renewal: Field experience (2 papers); 1.4. Role of international organisations (1 paper); 2. Management of equipment and materials: From design to degradation mechanisms; 2.1. Operation and equipment (4 papers); 2. Evolution of materials (4 papers); 2.3. Fatigue degradation mechanisms (3 papers); 2.4. Contribution of research and development (4 papers); 3. In-service inspection: Evolutions, methods and strategies; 3.1. Methods and evolution (1 paper); 3.2. Qualification of methods (2 papers); 3.3. Surveillance strategies (2 papers); 4. Testimonies and points of view of utilities (3 papers); 5. Ageing issues taken into account in non nuclear fields (2 papers). The symposium began with workshops devoted to: Operation and equipment; Behaviour of materials; Fatigue degradations; Contributions of research and development. The symposium continued with plenary session that addressed the following issues: Control and supervision of safety of nuclear pressure equipment; Role of international organisations; In-service inspection: Objectives, methods and strategies; Point of view of utilities; Technical summary and

  8. Accelerated aging of polymer composite bridge materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Nancy M.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Torres, Lucinda L.; Rodriguez, Julio G.; Yoder, Timothy S.

    1999-05-01

    Accelerated aging research on samples of composite materials and candidate UV protective coatings is determining the effects of six environmental factors on material durability. Candidate fastener materials are being evaluated to determine corrosion rates and crevice corrosion effects at load-bearing joints. This work supports field testing of a 30-ft long, 18-ft wide polymer matrix composite (PMC) bridge at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. Durability results and sensor data form test with live loads provide information required for determining the cost/benefit measures to use in life-cycle planning, determining a maintenance strategy, establishing applicable inspection techniques, and establishing guidelines, standards and acceptance criteria for PMC bridges for use in the transportation infrastructure.

  9. Accelerated Aging of Polymer Composite Bridge Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Nancy Margaret; Blackwood, Larry Gene; Torres, Lucinda Laine; Rodriguez, Julio Gallardo; Yoder, Timothy Scott

    1999-03-01

    Accelerated aging research on samples of composite material and candidate ultraviolet (UV) protective coatings is determining the effects of six environmental factors on material durability. Candidate fastener materials are being evaluated to determine corrosion rates and crevice corrosion effects at load-bearing joints. This work supports field testing of a 30-ft long, 18-ft wide polymer matrix composite (PMC) bridge at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Durability results and sensor data from tests with live loads provide information required for determining the cost/benefit measures to use in life-cycle planning, determining a maintenance strategy, establishing applicable inspection techniques, and establishing guidelines, standards, and acceptance criteria for PMC bridges for use in the transportation infrastructure.

  10. Biological issues in materials science and engineering: Interdisciplinarity and the bio-materials paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murr, L. E.

    2006-07-01

    Biological systems and processes have had, and continue to have, important implications and applications in materials extraction, processing, and performance. This paper illustrates some interdisciplinary, biological issues in materials science and engineering. These include metal extraction involving bacterial catalysis, galvanic couples, bacterial-assisted corrosion and degradation of materials, biosorption and bioremediation of toxic and other heavy metals, metal and material implants and prostheses and related dental and medical biomaterials developments and applications, nanomaterials health benefits and toxicity issue, and biomimetics and biologically inspired materials developments. These and other examples provide compelling evidence and arguments for emphasizing biological sicences in materials science and engineering curricula and the implementation of a bio-materials paradigm to facilitate the emergence of innovative interdisciplinarity involving the biological sciences and materials sciences and engineering.

  11. Materials Issues Related to Catalysts for Treatment of Diesel Exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar [ORNL; Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; Hoard, John W. [Ford Motor Company; Hammer, T. [Siemens AG, Germany

    2005-01-01

    The driver for lean NO{sub x} treatment is the need to meet regulatory standards for diesel engines and gasoline direct injection spark-ignited engines that offer better fuel economy. Efforts over the last decade have been focused toward finding an active lean NO{sub x} catalyst that can reduce NO{sub x} under oxidizing conditions or strategies such as selective catalytic reduction (SCR), plasma-catalysis, plasma catalyst SCR, and lean NO{sub x} traps with varying degrees of success. At present, it appears that SCR with urea and lean NO{sub x} traps are the leading contender technologies for commercial deployment. Key issues that remain to be resolved for these two technologies include byproduct formation, dosing control, and durability. In this review, we summarize material-related issues that are unique to each of these technologies, and point out the improvements necessary to facilitate their deployment.

  12. Comparative Issues of Cathode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. Julien

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available After an introduction to lithium insertion compounds and the principles of Li-ion cells, we present a comparative study of the physical and electrochemical properties of positive electrodes used in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs. Electrode materials include three different classes of lattices according to the dimensionality of the Li+ ion motion in them: olivine, layered transition-metal oxides and spinel frameworks. Their advantages and disadvantages are compared with emphasis on synthesis difficulties, electrochemical stability, faradaic performance and security issues.

  13. Focus issue introduction: synergy of structured light and structured materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omatsu, Takashige; Litchinitser, Natalia M; Brasselet, Etienne; Morita, Ryuji; Wang, Jian

    2017-07-10

    Structured light beams, such as optical vortices, vector beams, and non-diffracting beams, have been recently studied in a variety of fields, such as optical manipulations, optical telecommunications, nonlinear interactions, quantum physics, and 'super resolution' microscopy.. Their unique physical properties, such as annular intensity profile, helical wavefront and orbital angular momentum, give rise to a plethora of new, fundamental light-matter interactions and device applications. Recent progress in nanostructured materials, including metamaterials and metasurfaces, opened new opportunities for structured light generation on the microscale that exceed the capabilities of bulk-optics approaches such as computer generated holography and diffractive optics. Furthermore, structured optical fields may interact with matters on the subwavelength scale to yield new physical effects, such as spin-orbital momentum coupling. This special issue of Optics Express focuses on the state-of-the-art fundamental research and emerging technologies and applications enabled by the interplay of "structured light" and "structured materials".

  14. Material issues relating to high power spallation neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futakawa, M.

    2015-02-01

    Innovative researches using neutrons are being performed at the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility (MLF) at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC), in which a mercury target system is installed for MW-class pulse spallation neutron sources. In order to produce neutrons by the spallation reaction, proton beams are injected into the mercury target. At the moment, when the intense proton beam hits the target, pressure waves are generated in mercury because of the abrupt heat deposition. The pressure waves interact with the target vessel, leading to negative pressure that may cause cavitation along the vessel wall, i.e. on the interface between liquid and solid metals. On the other hand, the structural materials are subjected to irradiation damage due to protons and neutrons, very high cycle fatigue damages and so-called "liquid metal embrittlement". That is, the structural materials must be said to be exposed to the extremely severe environments. In the paper, research and development relating to the material issues in the high power spallation neutron sources that has been performed so far at J-PARC is summarized.

  15. Special cluster issue on tribocorrosion of dental materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Mathew T.; Stack, Margaret M.

    2013-10-01

    Tribocorrosion affects all walks of life from oil and gas conversion to biomedical materials. Wear can interact with corrosion to enhance it or impede it; conversely, corrosion can enhance or impede wear. The understanding of the interactions between physical and chemical phenomena has been greatly assisted by electrochemical and microscopic techniques. In dentistry, it is well recognized that erosion due to dissolution (a term physicists use to denote wear) of enamel can result in tooth decay; however, the effects of the oral environment, i.e. pH levels, electrochemical potential and any interactions due to the forces involved in chewing are not well understood. This special cluster issue includes investigations on the fundamentals of wear-corrosion interactions involved in simulated oral environments, including candidate dental implant and veneer materials. The issue commences with a fundamental study of titanium implants and this is followed by an analysis of the behaviour of commonly used temporomandibular devices in a synovial fluid-like environment. The analysis of tribocorrosion mechanisms of Ti6Al4V biomedical alloys in artificial saliva with different pHs is addressed and is followed by a paper on fretting wear, on hydroxyapatite-titanium composites in simulated body fluid, supplemented with protein (bovine serum albumin). The effects of acid treatments on tooth enamel, and as a surface engineering technique for dental implants, are investigated in two further contributions. An analysis of the physiological parameters of intraoral wear is addressed; this is followed by a study of candidate dental materials in common beverages such as tea and coffee with varying acidity and viscosity and the use of wear maps to identify the safety zones for prediction of material degradation in such conditions. Hence, the special cluster issue consists of a range of tribocorrosion contributions involving many aspects of dental tribocorrosion, from analysis of physiological

  16. COMMON ISSUES IN AGEING - WHAT OLDER PERSONS ARE SAYING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand P

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT The number of senior citizens is increasing worldwide. In India 8% of population is above 60 years as per census 2011. The peculiarity of growth of senior citizen in India is that first the population is ageing and then country is developing, unlike western countries where countries developed first and then number of senior citizen increased. This phenomenon has huge impact on planning for the needs of growing number of senior citizen. The United Nations declared the theme for international year of older people 2013. "The future we want: what older persons are saying". This is an attempt by policy makers to know what elders wish to convey. AIM This study aimed to know the basic problems concerned to social, family and health aspects of senior citizen. MATERIAL AND METHODS One hundred and thirty-three literate senior citizens participated and duly filled the questionnaire provided to them. They expressed their views and the same is presented through this study. RESULTS The senior literate senior citizen, majority of males in age group of 70-75years have conveyed that there are hidden problems and also good things happening with them. Most of them are happy with their life so far, they have accomplished their responsibilities in better way, and have a pension to take care of financial needs, want to lead a healthy life and wish to donate organs after death. Few feel that there is need for old age homes, very few are subject to abuse and many felt that their decisions should be honoured in the house hold matters. CONCLUSION This study expresses the original views of the literate senior citizen regarding their problems related to social, health and family matters. The results bring out the real scenario of life of senior citizen so for the policy makers

  17. Safety issues of tooth whitening using peroxide-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Greenwall, L

    2013-07-01

    In-office tooth whitening using hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) has been practised in dentistry without significant safety concerns for more than a century. While few disputes exist regarding the efficacy of peroxide-based at-home whitening since its first introduction in 1989, its safety has been the cause of controversy and concern. This article reviews and discusses safety issues of tooth whitening using peroxide-based materials, including biological properties and toxicology of H₂O₂, use of chlorine dioxide, safety studies on tooth whitening, and clinical considerations of its use. Data accumulated during the last two decades demonstrate that, when used properly, peroxide-based tooth whitening is safe and effective. The most commonly seen side effects are tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation, which are usually mild to moderate and transient. So far there is no evidence of significant health risks associated with tooth whitening; however, potential adverse effects can occur with inappropriate application, abuse, or the use of inappropriate whitening products. With the knowledge on peroxide-based whitening materials and the recognition of potential adverse effects associated with the procedure, dental professionals are able to formulate an effective and safe tooth whitening regimen for individual patients to achieve maximal benefits while minimising potential risks.

  18. Meeting the challenges related to material issues in chemical industries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Baldev Raj; U Kamachi Mudali; T Jayakumar; K V Kasiviswanathn; K Natarajan

    2000-12-01

    Reliable performance and profitability are two important requirements for any chemical industry. In order to achieve high level of reliability and excellent performance, several issues related to design, materials selection, fabrication, quality assurance, transport, storage, inputs from condition monitoring, failure analysis etc. have to be adequately addressed and implemented. Technology related to nondestructive testing and monitoring of the plant is also essential for precise identification of defect sites and to take appropriate remedial decision regarding repair, replacement or modification of process conditions. The interdisciplinary holistic approach enhances the life of critical engineering components in chemical plants. Further, understanding the failure modes of the components through the analysis of failed components throws light on the choice of appropriate preventive measures to be taken well in advance, to have a control over the overall health of the plant. The failure analysis also leads to better design modification and condition monitoring methodologies, for the next generation components and plants. At the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam, a unique combination of the expertise in design, materials selection, fabrication, NDT development, condition monitoring, life prediction and failure analysis exists to obtain desired results for achieving high levels of reliability and performance assessment of critical engineering components in chemical industries. Case studies related to design, materials selection and fabrication aspects of critical components in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, NDT development and condition monitoring of various components of nuclear power plants, and important failure investigations on critical engineering components in chemical and allied industries are discussed in this paper. Future directions are identified and planned approaches are briefly described.

  19. SHOCK-ABSORBING MATERIALS. REPORT 4. AGING OF BACKPACKING MATERIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven materials that are currently being considered for use as backpacking around deeply buried protective structures and silos were investigated for...characteristics necessary for a better understanding of a material’s behavior when used as a backpacking were also determined. The materials studied included

  20. Critical Issues on Materials for Gen-IV Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, M; Marian, J; Martinez, E; Erhart, P

    2009-02-27

    Within the LDRD on 'Critical Issues on Materials for Gen-IV Reactors' basic thermodynamics of the Fe-Cr alloy and accurate atomistic modeling were used to help develop the capability to predict hardening, swelling and embrittlement using the paradigm of Multiscale Materials Modeling. Approaches at atomistic and mesoscale levels were linked to build-up the first steps in an integrated modeling platform that seeks to relate in a near-term effort dislocation dynamics to polycrystal plasticity. The requirements originated in the reactor systems under consideration today for future sources of nuclear energy. These requirements are beyond the present day performance of nuclear materials and calls for the development of new, high temperature, radiation resistant materials. Fe-Cr alloys with 9-12% Cr content are the base matrix of advanced ferritic/martensitic (FM) steels envisaged as fuel cladding and structural components of Gen-IV reactors. Predictive tools are needed to calculate structural and mechanical properties of these steels. This project represents a contribution in that direction. The synergy between the continuous progress of parallel computing and the spectacular advances in the theoretical framework that describes materials have lead to a significant advance in our comprehension of materials properties and their mechanical behavior. We took this progress to our advantage and within this LDRD were able to provide a detailed physical understanding of iron-chromium alloys microstructural behavior. By combining ab-initio simulations, many-body interatomic potential development, and mesoscale dislocation dynamics we were able to describe their microstructure evolution. For the first time in the case of Fe-Cr alloys, atomistic and mesoscale were merged and the first steps taken towards incorporating ordering and precipitation effects into dislocation dynamics (DD) simulations. Molecular dynamics (MD) studies of the transport of self

  1. Evaluation of issues around road materials for sustainable transport

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJVDM

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In addition to a number of other factors (social, economic, etc) sustainable transport requires the sustainable supply and use of construction materials. This includes the use of marginal materials, waste materials, novel / innovative materials...

  2. Materialism across the lifespan : An age-period-cohort analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, Esther; Pieters, Rik

    This research examined the development of materialism across the lifespan. Two initial studies revealed that: 1) lay beliefs were that materialism declines with age; and 2) previous research findings also implied a modest, negative relationship between age and materialism. Yet, previous research has

  3. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  4. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  5. Computational Age Dating of Special Nuclear Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-06-30

    This slide-show presented an overview of the Constrained Progressive Reversal (CPR) method for computing decays, age dating, and spoof detecting. The CPR method is: Capable of temporal profiling a SNM sample; Precise (compared with known decay code, such a ORIGEN); Easy (for computer implementation and analysis). We have illustrated with real SNM data using CPR for age dating and spoof detection. If SNM is pure, may use CPR to derive its age. If SNM is mixed, CPR will indicate that it is mixed or spoofed.

  6. Preservation and conservation of library materials in the digital age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preservation and conservation of library materials in the digital age. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... for achieving sustainability of library materials as long as possible in their original format.

  7. Issues in aging in individuals with life long disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly,BH

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The major research data and findings related to aging among persons with developmental disabilities are discussed. Topics addressed include prevalence and mortality rates, as well as the effects of aging on the sensory systems, the neuromusculoskeletal system and the cardiopulmonary system. The discussion also focuses on the clinical implications of these changes among aging individuals with developmental disabilities. CONCLUSION: Although the individual needs of persons with de...

  8. Lithium hydride - A space age shielding material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    Men and materials performing in the environment of an operating nuclear reactor require shielding from the escaping neutron particles and gamma rays. For efficient shielding from gamma rays, dense, high atomic number elements such as iron, lead, or tungsten are required, whereas light, low atomic number elements such as hydrogen, lithium, or beryllium are required for efficient neutron shielding. The use of lithium hydride (LiH) as a highly efficient neutron-shielding material is considered. It contains, combined into a single, stable compound, two of the elements most effective in attenuating and absorbing neutrons.

  9. Special nuclear materials cutoff exercise: Issues and lessons learned. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libby, R.A.; Segal, J.E.; Stanbro, W.D.; Davis, C.

    1995-08-01

    This document is appendices D-J for the Special Nuclear Materials Cutoff Exercise: Issues and Lessons Learned. Included are discussions of the US IAEA Treaty, safeguard regulations for nuclear materials, issue sheets for the PUREX process, and the LANL follow up activity for reprocessing nuclear materials.

  10. Assessing sedimentation issues within aging of flood-control reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood control reservoirs designed and built by federal agencies have been extremely effective in reducing the ravages of floods nationwide. Yet some structures are being removed for a variety of reasons, while other structures are aging rapidly and require either rehabilitation or decommissioning. ...

  11. Viewing Aging Issues From a Family Theory and Therapy Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Kathleen B.

    When applied to older persons, basic concepts of Bowen Family Systems Theory, the most well developed theory emerging from the family movement in psychiatry, focus on the family systems of older people rather than on the problems of the aged. This Bowen focus on the value of intergenerational contact and continuity leads naturally to seeing the…

  12. National All-Age Career Guidance Services: Evidence and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    The three major national all-age career guidance services--in New Zealand, Scotland and Wales--have been reviewed using an adaptation of the methodology adopted in the OECD Career Guidance Policy Review. The main features of the three services are summarised, and some key differences and distinctive strengths are outlined. The alternative approach…

  13. The Issue of Nutrition in an Aging Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Viewed from a global perspective, Japan is often considered a country where the progression towards a low birthrate and longevity has been prominent. In 2007, the ratio of the aged population reached 21.5%, propelling Japan into the classification of a super aging society. The long-term care insurance system in Japan was initiated in the year 2000, as a general long-term care service system for the whole society, covering the nutrition, medical care, and welfare fields. The goal of nutrition in an aged society is the extension of healthy life expectancy. The ratio of elderly citizens with malnutrition is high. Due to the loss of teeth, and a decrease in digestive and physical functions, there is often a decrease in appetite, and the inability to obtain enough nutrition for physical homeostasis is related to such conditions as frailty and the partial loss of physical functions due to sarcopenia, as well as a decrease in the quality of life (QOL). The elderly can easily fall into a state of protein and energy malnutrition (PEM), due to a variety of causes. Accordingly, it is important to adopt an appropriate approach that ensures a correct understanding of the causes of malnutrition and the special characteristics of malnutrition in the elderly.

  14. Issues of structure formation of multi-component construction materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorenko Yulia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing volumes of construction result in the rising demand for high-quality wall materials and products, growing relevance of availability of resource and raw-material base of natural and industrial products for the construction industry. Structural, physical and mechanical qualities of these products can be improved through systematical selection of compositions based on natural and raw materials, including nano-scale products. The goal of this paper is to provide rationale for structure formation mechanisms of multicomponent materials (silica-lime, silicate, cement materials, with the possibility of using nano-scale products in their production. The primary mechanism of directed structure formation at the interface boundaries of binders are nano- and ultra-disperse particles with high absorption and adhesion properties, which are primarily intended to strengthen the contact area (one of the key structural units of multicomponent binders. The knowledge of genesis, chemical, mineralogical, and phase compositions, as well as specific features of formation of nano-technological raw materials, enables optimization of construction product properties. Using the small-angle neutron scattering method, we identified granulometric and surface properties of a series of nano-technological products (binary and sludge and materials where such products are used, which enabled us to design optimal mixture compositions and parameters of pressing operations.

  15. Age as a Problematic and Problematized Issue of Criminal Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vávra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with young people as they are depicted in discussions on "youth delinquency" and "juvenile justice". I focus on the political discourse (as represented by debates taking place within the Parliament in 1930–2009 and the expert discourse (as represented by academic texts on the subject from the same time period. I tried to solve one paradox which motivated my research: Why was the time period of relative toughening of penal policy when, according to public opinion polls, a substantial majority of Czech adults favoured the decreasing of the minimum age of criminal responsibility and such an amendment was actually repeatedly proposed in the legislature, marked by consistent victories of the approach to juvenile persons which prefers care, education and therapy instead of punishment?

  16. New smart materials to address issues of structural health monitoring.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaplya, Pavel Mikhail

    2004-12-01

    Nuclear weapons and their storage facilities may benefit from in-situ structural health monitoring systems. Appending health-monitoring functionality to conventional materials and structures has been only marginally successful. The purpose of this project was to evaluate feasibility of a new smart material that includes self-sensing health monitoring functions similar to that of a nervous system of a living organism. Reviews of current efforts in the fields of heath-monitoring, nanotechnology, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), and wireless sensor networks were conducted. Limitations of the current nanotechnology methods were identified and new approaches were proposed to accelerate the development of self-sensing materials. Wireless networks of MEMS sensors have been researched as possible prototypes of self-sensing materials. Sensor networks were also examined as enabling technologies for dense data collection techniques to be used for validation of numerical methods and material parameter identification. Each grain of the envisioned material contains sensors that are connected in a dendritic manner similar to networks of neurons in a nervous system. Each sensor/neuron can communicate with the neighboring grains. Both the state of the sensor (on/off) and the quality of communication signal (speed/amplitude) should indicate not only a presence of a structural defect but the nature of the defect as well. For example, a failed sensor may represent a through-grain crack, while a lost or degraded communication link may represent an inter-granular crack. A technology to create such material does not exist. While recent progress in the fields of MEMS and nanotechnology allows to envision these new smart materials, it is unrealistic to expect creation of self-sensing materials in the near future. The current state of MEMS, nanotechnology, communication, sensor networks, and data processing technologies indicates that it will take more than ten years for the

  17. Materials issues in diagnostic systems for BPX and ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Farnum, E.H. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Griscom, D.L. (Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States)); Mattas, R.F. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Medley, S.S.; Young, K. M. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.); Wiffen, F.W. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)); Wojtowicz, S.S. (General Atomics, San Diego, CA (Unit

    1991-01-01

    Diagnostic systems in advanced D-T-burning fusion devices will be subjected to intense fluxes and fluences of high-energy neutrons and gamma rays. Materials used in these systems may suffer significant degradation of structural, optical, and electrical properties, either promptly upon irradiation or after accumulation of structural damage. Of particular concern are windows, optical fibers, reflectors, and insulators. Many materials currently specified for these components are known to degrade under anticipated operating conditions. However, careful materials selection and modification based on an appropriate irradiation testing program, when combined with optimization of design-sensitive factors such as location, shielding, and ease of replacement, should help to alleviate these materials problems. 30 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Materials issues in some advanced forming techniques, including superplasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsworth, J.; Henshall, G.A.; Nieh, T.G. [and others

    1995-08-22

    From mechanics and macroscopic viewpoints, the sensitivity of the flow stress of a material to the strain rate, i.e. the strain rate sensitivity (m), governs the development of neck formation and therefore has a strong influence on the tensile ductility and hence formability of materials. Values of strain rate sensitivity range from unity, for the case of Newtonian viscous materials, to less than 0.1 for some dispersion strengthened alloys. Intermediate values of m = 0.5 are associated with classical superplastic materials which contain very fine grain sizes following specialized processing. An overview is given of the influence of strain rate sensitivity on tensile ductility and of the various materials groups that can exhibit high values of strain rate sensitivity. Recent examples of enhanced formability (or extended tensile ductility) in specific regimes between m = 1 and m = 0.3 are described, and potential areas for commercial exploitation are noted. These examples include: internal stress superplasticity, superplastic ceramics, superplastic intermetallics, superplastic laminated composites, superplastic behavior over six orders of magnitude of strain rate in a range of aluminum-based alloys and composites, and enhanced ductility in Al-Mg alloys that require no special processing for microstructural development.

  19. New smart materials to address issues of structural health monitoring.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaplya, Pavel Mikhail

    2004-12-01

    Nuclear weapons and their storage facilities may benefit from in-situ structural health monitoring systems. Appending health-monitoring functionality to conventional materials and structures has been only marginally successful. The purpose of this project was to evaluate feasibility of a new smart material that includes self-sensing health monitoring functions similar to that of a nervous system of a living organism. Reviews of current efforts in the fields of heath-monitoring, nanotechnology, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS), and wireless sensor networks were conducted. Limitations of the current nanotechnology methods were identified and new approaches were proposed to accelerate the development of self-sensing materials. Wireless networks of MEMS sensors have been researched as possible prototypes of self-sensing materials. Sensor networks were also examined as enabling technologies for dense data collection techniques to be used for validation of numerical methods and material parameter identification. Each grain of the envisioned material contains sensors that are connected in a dendritic manner similar to networks of neurons in a nervous system. Each sensor/neuron can communicate with the neighboring grains. Both the state of the sensor (on/off) and the quality of communication signal (speed/amplitude) should indicate not only a presence of a structural defect but the nature of the defect as well. For example, a failed sensor may represent a through-grain crack, while a lost or degraded communication link may represent an inter-granular crack. A technology to create such material does not exist. While recent progress in the fields of MEMS and nanotechnology allows to envision these new smart materials, it is unrealistic to expect creation of self-sensing materials in the near future. The current state of MEMS, nanotechnology, communication, sensor networks, and data processing technologies indicates that it will take more than ten years for the

  20. Special Issue: 15 Years of SU8 as MEMS Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Bertsch

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1997, the first paper using SU-8 as a material for microfabrication was published [1], demonstrating the interest of this negative photoresist for the near-UV structuration of thick layers and the manufacturing of high aspect-ratio components.[...

  1. Issues in the preservation of manually tanned skin materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torunn Klokkernes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The field of conservation relates to material science and technology as a fundamental aspect to understand artefacts’ material properties and deterioration. The research performed in this study is an initial approach to the understanding of the complex nature of manually tanned skin materials manufactured by individual tradition bearers from indigenous cultures in the circumpolar area; it instigates a series of research topics which can be further addressed. Contextual interpretation comprises traditional knowledge and practices as well as the empirical information obtained through investigative and analytical methods. This requires collaboration between several areas of knowledge, and raises questions with regard to the interpretation of analytical results in the investigation of these material groups.La  conservation use de l’analyse matérielle et des technologies pour mieux comprendre les propriétés des artefacts et leurs mécanismes de dégradation. La présente recherche constitue une approche de la nature complexe des cuirs tannés au sein des cultures indigènes de la région circumpolaire. Elle suscite par ailleurs de nouveaux thèmes de recherches connexes. L’interprétation contextuelle, de son côté, englobe la connaissance des pratiques ainsi que les informations obtenues par des méthodes d’investigation analytique et exige la collaboration entre divers secteurs et disciplines.

  2. Prime-time television exposure to high priority school-aged social-developmental issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Sherrie; Itano, Davin; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the material children and adolescents are exposed to while watching prime-time television so that school educators, health professionals, and parents can focus on issues of maximum exposure that must be addressed. Prime-time programming was recorded from 7 p.m. to 10 p.m. Hawaiian Standard Time daily for 2 weeks in July 2005. Recordings were then viewed to identify social behaviors of interest. Each hour on average, sex was referenced 1.8 times, drugs 0.6 times, tobacco 0.3 times, alcohol 2.4 times, and violence/crime 6.0 times per network. Messages advocating exercise, anti-drug advocacy, and anti-smoking advocacy were each shown 0.2 times per hour; while anti-alcohol advocacy was shown 0.1 times per hour. School educators, health professionals, and parents must recognize that prime-time television frequently exposes viewers to issues that are of critical importance to the health and social development of school-aged children and adolescents.

  3. Controllability and reliability issues related to electrorheological material adaptive structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiang, A.; Coulter, J. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics--Packard Lab.

    1994-12-31

    The present investigation focused on the controllability and reliability of an electrorheological (ER) material filled adaptive beam. An AC ER material-filled composite beam was constructed and tested over a period of 500 hours. Attention was focused on changes in fundamental vibration frequencies and modal loss factor over the test period. Controllability in terms of beam vibration response time to both increasing and decreasing field strengths was also studied. Response times at the first two fundamental frequencies of 15 and 35 Hertz were focused on. The results indicated that at 35 Hertz, the structural response time was faster for both switching on and switching off of the electric field. In switching off the electric field, the structure returned to zero-field behavior within three seconds on all occasions. The duration of the electric field application did not affect beam response time.

  4. Issues in the growth of bulk crystals of infrared materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, K. J.; Golowsky, H.

    1987-01-01

    Attention is given to the relevant criteria governing materials choice in the growth of IR optoelectronic bulk single crystals of III-V and II-VI alloy and I-III-VI2 compound types. The most important considerations concern the control of crystal purity, microstructural perfection, stoichiometry, and uniformity during crystal growth, as well as the control of surface properties in wafer fabrication. Specific examples are given to illustrate the problems encountered and their preferred solutions.

  5. Materials Properties at Internal Interfaces: Fundamental Atomic Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browning, Nigel D. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-09-12

    During the course of this research, the microscopy methods were applied to many different systems (see publication list). However, the work can be broadly classified into three main areas: the statistical distribution of grain boundary structures under different doping conditions, the identification of individual dopant atoms in oxide materials, and the evaluation of nucleation and growth processes in liquid and more recently. The main results from each of these efforts will be discussed in the final report.

  6. Special issue on exercise immunology: Current perspectives on aging, health and extreme performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simpson, R.J.; Bosch, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this special issue is to highlight outstanding exemplars of empirical research and review papers that reflect the breadth of current developments in exercise immunology. The contributions to this issue are categorized according to four major themes: (1) exercise and immune-aging; (2) the

  7. Resolving Issues Relevant to the Education of Secondary School Aged Youth with Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Robert G.

    The article provides a format for a workshop in which three issues which must be resolved by educators of secondary aged students with behavior disorders are discussed. The three issues to be addressed are: (1) determination of appropriate curriculum emphasis, (2) parent training/involvement in intervention strategies, and (3) criteria for…

  8. Serpentinitic waste materials: possible reuses and critical issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    The extraction and processing of marbles, rocks and granites produces a significant amount of waste materials, in the form of shapeless blocks, scraps, gravel and sludge. Current regulations and a greater concern to the environment promote the reuse of these wastes: quartz-feldspathic materials are successfully used for ceramics, crushed porphyry as track ballast, whereas carbonatic wastes for lime, cement and fillers. However, there are currently no reuses for serpentinitic materials: a striking example is represented by the Valmalenco area (central Alps, northern Italy), a relatively small productive district. In this area 22 different enterprises operate in the quarrying and/or processing of serpentinites with various textures, schistose to massive, and color shades; the commercial products are used all over the world and are known with many commercial names. The total volume extracted in the quarries is estimated around 68000 m3/yr. and the resulting commercial blocks and products can be estimated around the 40 - 50 % of the extracted material. The processing wastes can vary significantly according to the finished product: 35 % of waste can be estimated in the case of slab production, whereas 50 % can be estimated in the case of gang-saw cutting of massive serpentinite blocks. The total estimate of the processing rock waste in the Valmalenco area is about 12700 m3/yr; together with the quarry waste, the total amount of waste produced in the area is more than 43000 m3/yr. The sludge (approximately 12000 m3/yr, more than 95 % has grain size waste materials (85 samples) were characterized by quantitative XRPD (FULLPAT software), whole-rock geochemistry (ICP-AES, ICP-MS and Leco®) and SEM-EDS. The mineralogical composition is quite variable from quarry to quarry, with abundant antigorite (up to 90 wt. %) and olivine (up to 38 wt. %), and variable contents of diopside, chlorite, magnetite, chromite and brucite. The chemical composition reflects the protolith: Mg

  9. Materials and Manufacturing Processing; Special Issue on Hard Carbon Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Materials and Processes, Vol.6, p.29, (1989). 29. Weissmantel, C., K. Bewilogua, K. Breuer, D. Dietrich, U. Ebersbach, Ch. Erler , B. Ray and G. Reiss, Thin...C.. K. Bevilogua, D. Dietrich, H.J. Erler , H.J. Hinnenberg, S. Klose, W. Nowick, and G. Reisse, T’hin Solid Film, Vol.72. p. 19, (1980). 37. Spencer...Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, Vol.18, p.1931, (1979). 75. Reisse, G., C. Schurer, D. Ebersbach, K. Bewilogana, K. Breuer, H.-J. Erler , and C

  10. Narayanaswamy’s 1971 aging theory and material time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2015-01-01

    The Bochkov-Kuzovlev nonlinear fluctuation-dissipation theorem is used to derive Narayanaswamy’s phenomenological theory of physical aging, in which this highly nonlinear phenomenon is described by a linear material-time convolution integral. A characteristic property of the Narayanaswamy aging......; this is equivalent to the well-known triangular relation for time-autocorrelation functions of aging spin glasses [L. F. Cugliandolo and J. Kurchan, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 27, 5749 (1994)]. The unique-triangles property implies a simple geometric interpretation of out-of-equilibrium time-autocorrelation functions......, which extends to aging a previously proposed framework for such functions in equilibrium...

  11. Assessment of Materials Issues for Light-Water Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, David; Lunceford, Wayne; Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Catalan, Michael A.

    2013-02-01

    The primary objective of this report is to evaluate materials degradation issue unique to the operational environments of LWSMR. Concerns for specific primary system components and materials are identified based on the review of design information shared by mPower and NuScale. Direct comparisons are made to materials issues recognized for advanced large PWRs and research activities are recommended as needed. The issues identified are intended to improve the capability of industry to evaluate the significance of any degradation that might occur during long-term LWSMR operation and by extension affect the importance of future supporting R&D.

  12. Introduction to the Issue “Adolescents in the Digital Age: Effects on Health and Development”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Romer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This thematic issue brings together papers by researchers who are studying the ways that today’s adolescents interact with their peers, families, and the larger media environment in the digital age. The contributors highlight both the challenges and the opportunities that this new age presents for the healthy development of young people.

  13. Central Issues in the Use of Computer-Based Materials for High Volume Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Billy

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses issues relating to the use of computer-based learning (CBL) materials for entrepreneurship education at university level. It considers CBL as a means of addressing the increased volume and range of provision required in the current context. The issues raised in this article have importance for all forms of computer-based…

  14. Environmental Issues in the Didactic Materials in Schools in Republic of Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravic, Milutin; Ivkovic, Sonja; Segedinac, Mirjana; Adamov, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    The main task of the examination is to establish environmental issues in the didactic materials for primary and secondary school in Republic of Serbia. Environmental issues in the secondary school curriculum in Serbia, according to the current educational curricula and educational programs, is limited to general subjects (chemistry and biology…

  15. Metal Adornments of Clothing and Headwear in the Bronze Age of Western Siberia (issues of research and reconstruction ..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umerenkova Olga V.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers issues related to the principals of scientific approach, methods and procedure of costume reconstruction on the basis of archaeological materials dating back to the Bronze Age discovered in the territory of Western Siberia. The costume is considered by researchers as one of the brightest manifestations of material culture. Its decoration provides multidisciplinary information containing elements of ideology and aesthetic norms together with traditions and social relationships. Reconstruction of clothing and headwear adornments in archaeological literature related to the Bronze Age is one of the understudied topics. Researchers use various sources for its recreation: archaeological materials, written historical, literature and folklore sources, and fine art items. A significant amount of source items has accumulated over the last decades, although the analysis and principles of processing thereof have not been sufficiently covered in special literature. In order to increase the informative capabilities of adornments as sources for the reconstruction of the Bronze Age costume, the author suggested a scheme of accounting for the location of adornments with respect to the remains of the buried when the excavations are documented. The article features the results of the author's reconstruction of women's headwear decoration with metal articles executed on the basis of Bronze Age materials.

  16. Clinical intervention in aging: ethicolegal issues in assessing risk and benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Pierre

    2010-12-02

    The ethical dimension of treating the elderly, including risk-benefit analysis, focuses mainly on quality of life and end-of-life issues. These include arguments on advance directives and the concept of extraordinary treatments. This paper looks more closely at the philosophical approach to aging in order to address questions on the direction of research and issues such as longevity and social construction of the aging process. It is the way society moves to understand the value-laden choices on aging that directs the goals of treatment and research. Whilst these vary culturally, one has to reckon with a postmodern view of aging which may, in turn, reflect on the course of action of future care and research in aging. The paper canvasses how, in reality, four principles act as guidelines for moral discourse, and discusses how changing values in society decide this course of action.

  17. The effect of plant aging on equipment qualification and human performance issues related to license renewal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunther, W.E.; Higgins, J.C. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Aggarwal, S.K. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The aging of nuclear power plants is one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry worldwide. Aging encompasses as forms of degradation to nuclear power plant components, systems, and structures that result from exposure to environmental conditions or from operational stresses. Both the degradation from aging and actions taken to address the aging, such as increased maintenance and testing, can significantly impact human performance in the plant. Research into the causes and effects of aging as obtained through the assessment of operating experience and testing have raised questions regarding the adequacy of existing industry standards for addressing the concerns raised by this research. This paper discusses these issues, with particular emphasis in the area of equipment qualification and human performance.

  18. The effect of plant aging on equipment qualification and human performance issues related to license renewal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunther, W.E.; Higgins, J.C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Aggarwal, S.K. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The aging of nuclear power plants is one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry worldwide. Aging encompasses as forms of degradation to nuclear power plant components, systems, and structures that result from exposure to environmental conditions or from operational stresses. Both the degradation from aging and actions taken to address the aging, such as increased maintenance and testing, can significantly impact human performance in the plant. Research into the causes and effects of aging as obtained through the assessment of operating experience and testing have raised questions regarding the adequacy of existing industry standards for addressing the concerns raised by this research. This paper discusses these issues, with particular emphasis in the area of equipment qualification and human performance.

  19. International Law in a Global Age. Student Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croddy, Marshall; Maxey, Phyllis

    This global approach to teaching high school students about international law uses existing curriculum materials from a variety of social studies disciplines to present five major perspectives. Perspective I "Global Links," focuses on the meaning of citizenship in a global age and the interconnectedness between individuals and the…

  20. Monitoring early age cementitious materials using ultrasonic guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgerson, Jacob L.

    The evaluation of early age concrete is critical for reducing construction times and ensuring quality. In this study, the use of ultrasonic guided waves for monitoring the development of early age cementitious materials is investigated. A torsional wave is transmitted and received through a waveguide that is embedded in early age mortar or concrete. As the cementitious material sets and hardens, the received wave(s) change, indicating the transition from a semifluid to a solid state. This thesis proposes two systems. The first system is a through-transmission system; a wave is transmitted on one end of an embedded waveguide using a sensor arrangement and then it is received on the opposite end of the rod with another sensor. This approach monitors the attenuation of the fundamental torsional wave mode, resulting from the leakage of energy from the cylindrical steel rod to the surrounding cementitious material. The evolution of the material's properties is related to the energy leakage or attenuation of the guided wave. The second system is a pulse-echo system; a wave is transmitted on one end of a partially embedded waveguide via a sensor arrangement that also receives the reflected signals. This approach monitors both the reflection from the end of the rod and the reflection from the point where the waveguide enters the material. The development of the cementitious material's mechanical properties is related to both the energy leaked into the surrounding material and the energy reflected at the point of entry. The ability of this method to only require access to one side of the specimen makes it attractive for monitoring early age cementitious materials in the field. Experiments were performed on mixtures with varying water-cement ratios (w/c = 0.40, 0.50, and 0.60), chemical admixtures (accelerant and retardant), mineral admixtures (silica fume and fly ash), and coarse aggregate (pea gravel). The time of setting and compressive strength of the various mixtures

  1. Knowledge and Morality of School-Age Children and Adolescents Regarding Environmental Issues and Moral Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestena, Carla Luciane Blum; Piske, Fernanda Hellen Ribeiro

    2017-01-01

    A research gap exists with regard to the analysis of school children and adolescents' awareness on environmental issues. Current investigation analyzes data of 240 children and adolescents, aged between 8 and 14 years, within different school contexts in the mid-southern region of Brazil, on their knowledge level and moral judgment on solid…

  2. Prologue: Toward an Understanding of Literacy Issues in Multicultural School-Age Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Joyce L.

    2003-01-01

    This article introduces a forum that explores issues surrounding literacy in multicultural school-age populations. It discusses sociocultural factors that overshadow traditional literacy-learning objectives, the relationship between low socioeconomic status and low literacy, environmental influences that affect literacy, and culturally biased…

  3. Transformation of Printed Course Materials into Self Instructional Materials (SIMs): Some Basic Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausaria, R. R.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the use of self-instructional materials (SIMs) in distance learning at Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) and State Open Universities (SOUs) in India. Focuses on the need for Correspondence Course Institutes in conventional Indian universities to transform printed course materials into SIMs. Discusses revision and…

  4. Environmental Issues in the Didactic Materials in Schools in Republic of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Maravić, Milutin; IVKOVIĆ, Sonja; Segedinac, Mirjana; Adamov, Jasna

    2015-01-01

    The main task of the examination is to establish environmental issues in the didactic materials for primary and secondary school in Republic of Serbia. Environmental issues in the secondary school curriculum in Serbia, according to the current educational curricula and educational programs, is limited to general subjects (chemistry and biology above all), and to the subject of Ecology in some profiles of secondary vocational education. There is no equal distribution of the environ...

  5. A Study on the Issue of Population Aging among Ethnic Minorities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Changde

    2014-01-01

    There are differences in the issue of population aging among China ’ s various ethnic groups.The aging process of some ethnic groups is very fast, and the structure of their population ag-ing belongs to a typical aging model .Some ethnic groups ’ aging process is relatively slow , and the structure of their aging still belongs to a young model.Moreover, the rate of aging of various eth-nic groups in the same region is also different , e-ven the rates and trends of aging within one specif-ic ethnic group also differ .Hence , the situation of population aging among minorities in China is very complicated . Based on the data from three demographic censuses conducted in 1990, 2000 and 2010, this article analyzes the differences of population aging among various ethnic groups . 1.The Basic Situation of Population Aging a-mong Ethnic Minorities in China According to the census , the population above age 60 among minority populations was 6.29 million in 1990.; It increased to 9.02 million in 2010;and reached above 11.75 million in 2010.The popula-tion above the age of 65 among the minority popula-tion was 4.05 million in 1990; 5.87 million in 1990;and reached 7.83 million in 2010. According to typical international standards of population aging frameworks and statistics from the 2000 census , China ’ s population has already be-come an aging population .Among the total popula-tion of that year , 10.46%of the population was a-bove the age of 60;7.10% of the population was above the age of 65.Among the ethnic minority populations , 8.57% of the population was above the age of 60 , and 5.58% was above the age of 65.Hence, the minority population had not yet become a typical aging population .However , in 2010, the rate of aging in the total minority popu-lation further increased , and it also became a typi-cal aging population . 2 .Ethnic Differences of Population Aging a-mong the Minorities There are 55 ethnic minorities in China , and the rate of aging among these

  6. Problematic issues of the development of reference materials of composition and properties for aircraft industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Lutsenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considered problematic issues of the development of reference materials (RMs for aircraft industry. The focus is on the methods for choosing the RM chemical composition and metallographic structure, and the use of different technologies for their production with high intra- and between item homogeneity. Considered problematic issues of the RM program, shows the need to expand and optimize the range of RMs. The present work is performed within framework of the integrated research concept 2.1. "Fundamentally oriented research" ("Strategic concepts of development of materials and technologies for their processing for the period up to 2030".

  7. Identification and quantification of environmental issues of aging coal-based power plant - Case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, M.; Vyas, P. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering, Environmental Engineering & Management Programme

    2001-12-01

    This research has focused on three environmental issues: (1) fugitive dust emissions; (2) water management; and (3) operational parameters (such as thermal efficiency) of aging coal-based thermal power plants, using a case study. Regarding dust emissions, it was observed that the identified sources are fugitive in nature and contribute to a significant loss of raw material and particulate emissions. These sources include coal dust emissions from a wagon tippler area, ball mill operations, and leakage from the ash hoppers of electrostatic precipitators. In situ measurements of air quality and meteorological measurements were undertaken to estimate the emissions from a wagon tippler area, and a mass balance technique was applied across other operations to estimate the emissions. These fugitive emissions were about 98% of the total particulate emissions and the remaining 2% emissions were from the stack. The losses of water in various unit operations were also examined. The sources of water losses include the clariflocculator, the demineralization plant, and auxiliary water cooling of motors and pumps. The operational parameters such as auxiliary power requirement and thermal efficiency that indirectly affect the environment were also studied. The auxiliary power requirement was estimated as 9 MW against the accepted requirement of 7 MW. The thermal efficiency of the plant was estimated to be 26%, against the acceptable level of 32% of such plants in India. This study suggests that a significant reduction in cost and improvements in the environment could be achieved if the plant could be operated at rated efficiencies. It was observed that nonpoint (fugitive) sources, although significant, are ignored.

  8. Evaluation of the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative: community program to promote awareness about mental health and aging issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanjani, Faika; Kruger, Tina; Murray, Deborah

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the Mental Healthiness Aging Initiative, designed to promote community awareness and knowledge about mental health and aging issues. This study occurred during 2007-2009 in 67 of 120 counties in Kentucky. A rural region (11 counties) received the intervention, consisting of focus groups, Extension Agent training, and television-based social marketing campaign. Partial-intervention counties (29 counties) received only the television-based social marketing campaign. The control counties (27 counties) received no intervention activities. Results indicated that the intervention counties agreed more with being able to assist elder adults with a potential mental illness. Also, the intervention counties understood the risk of consuming alcohol and medications better, but had a poorer recognition of drinking problems in elder adults. These findings need to be considered within study limitations, such as measurement error, degree of intervention exposure, and regional differences across intervention groups. The study demonstrates that community interventions on mental health awareness and knowledge are feasible within majority rural regions, with Extension Agents being gatekeepers, for promoting positive messages about mental health and aging issues.

  9. Clinical intervention in aging: ethicolegal issues in assessing risk and benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Mallia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Pierre MalliaMedical School, University of Malta, Mater Dei Hospital, MaltaAbstract: The ethical dimension of treating the elderly, including risk–benefit analysis, focuses mainly on quality of life and end-of-life issues. These include arguments on advance directives and the concept of extraordinary treatments. This paper looks more closely at the philosophical approach to aging in order to address questions on the direction of research and issues such as longevity and social construction of the aging process. It is the way society moves to understand the value-laden choices on aging that directs the goals of treatment and research. Whilst these vary culturally, one has to reckon with a postmodern view of aging which may, in turn, reflect on the course of action of future care and research in aging. The paper canvasses how, in reality, four principles act as guidelines for moral discourse, and discusses how changing values in society decide this course of action.Keywords: aging, principles, decision-making, conflict, treatment, clinical decision-making, social construction 

  10. Temperature control and calibration issues in the growth, processing and characterization of electronic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B. A.

    1989-01-01

    The temperature control and calibration issues encountered in the growth, processing, and characterization of electronic materials are summarized. The primary problem area is identified as temperature control during epitaxial materials growth. While qualitative thermal measurements are feasible and reproducibility is often achievable within a given system, absolute calibration is essentially impossible in many cases, precluding the possibility of portability from one system to another. The procedures utilized for thermal measurements during epitaxial growth are described, and their limitations discussed.

  11. Competition in the Franchise Business. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Materials. Business Issues in the Classroom. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxey, Phyllis F.

    One of a series of units designed to acquaint secondary students with business issues, this packet examines the franchise as a type of business organization. Teacher and student materials are provided in separate sections. The teacher's guide provides an overview, objectives, four detailed lesson plans, answer keys, background information, and…

  12. Japan's regulatory and safety issues regarding nuclear materials transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T. [Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, Government of Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Yamanaka, T. [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization, Government of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    This paper focuses on the regulatory and safety issues on nuclear materials transport which the Government of Japan (GOJ) faces and needs to well handle. Background information about the status of nuclear power plants (NPP) and nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) facilities in Japan will promote a better understanding of what this paper addresses.

  13. Exploring Preservice Elementary Teachers' Critique and Adaptation of Science Curriculum Materials in Respect to Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Cory T.; Davis, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    The work presented here represents a preliminary effort undertaken to address the role of teachers in supporting students' learning and decision-making about socioscientific issues (SSI) by characterizing preservice elementary teachers' critique and adaptation of SSI-based science curriculum materials and identifying factors that serve to mediate…

  14. Where We Live: A Curriculum Guide. ABE Materials that Address Housing Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellowitch, Azi

    This curriculum was developed to give adult basic education (ABE) teachers starting points for developing their own units around housing-related issues. The texts have been chosen thematically, rather than by skill level. The materials are designed for group work--oral reading and discussion. Readings focus on housing repairs, court procedures,…

  15. CORROSION ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL COMPONENTS USED IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS EXTRACTION AND SEPARATION PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Louthan, M.; Sindelar, R.

    2012-12-17

    This paper illustrated the magnitude of the systems, structures and components used at the Savannah River Site for nuclear materials extraction and separation processes. Corrosion issues, including stress corrosion cracking, pitting, crevice corrosion and other corrosion induced degradation processes are discussed and corrosion mitigation strategies such as a chloride exclusion program and corrosion release testing are also discussed.

  16. First Exploratory Study on the Ageing of Rammed Earth Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quoc-Bao Bui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rammed earth (RE is attracting renewed interest throughout the world thanks to its “green” characteristics in the context of sustainable building. In this study, the ageing effects on RE material are studied on the walls which have been constructed and exposed for 22 years to natural weathering. First, mechanical characteristics of the “old” walls were determined by two approaches: in-situ dynamic measurements on the walls; laboratory tests on specimens which had been cut from the walls. Then, the walls’ soil was recycled and reused for manufacturing of new specimens which represented the initial state. Comparison between the compressive strength, the Young modulus of the walls after 22 years on site and that of the initial state enables to assess the ageing of the studied walls.

  17. First Exploratory Study on the Ageing of Rammed Earth Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Quoc-Bao; Morel, Jean-Claude

    2014-12-23

    Rammed earth (RE) is attracting renewed interest throughout the world thanks to its "green" characteristics in the context of sustainable building. In this study, the ageing effects on RE material are studied on the walls which have been constructed and exposed for 22 years to natural weathering. First, mechanical characteristics of the "old" walls were determined by two approaches: in-situ dynamic measurements on the walls; laboratory tests on specimens which had been cut from the walls. Then, the walls' soil was recycled and reused for manufacturing of new specimens which represented the initial state. Comparison between the compressive strength, the Young modulus of the walls after 22 years on site and that of the initial state enables to assess the ageing of the studied walls.

  18. Afterword to the Issue “Adolescents in the Digital Age: Effects on Health and Development”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Romer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The articles in this thematic issue suggest both opportunities and hazards for the health and development of adolescents in the digital age. We place these concerns in the context of improving health for young people in the US and elsewhere, and suggest that based on evidence uncovered to date, increasing digital connection may be having no less favorable than adverse effect on adolescents.

  19. DEVELOPING OF HIGH QUALITY COURSE MATERIALS TO IMPROVE EARLY AGE PRACTITIONERS’ EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONA VINTILA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The pre-primary age is an especially sensitive period in children’s development but high quality education and care from a very early age creates a good foundation for lifelong learning. This is why performant teacher education is needed.This paper addresses the issue of early age practitioners’ education presenting an European project that aims to develop course materials that focus on the major areas in early learning and contribute to the development of research based, pedagogical approaches within three areas that are crucial in respect to get all toddlers on a successful life learning road: learning of language(s and focus on the teacher-child communication, improved knowledge of how to foster toddlers'wellbeing, identifying crucial aspects for improved parental involvement.

  20. Introduction to the special issue on the technical status of materials for a fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, D.; Zinkle, S. J.

    2017-09-01

    Materials determine in a fundamental way the performance and environmental attractiveness of a fusion reactor: through the size (power fluxes to the divertor, neutron fluxes to the first wall); economics (replacement lifetime of critical in-vessel components, thermodynamic efficiency through operating temperature etc); plasma performance (erosion by plasma fluxes to the divertor surfaces); robustness against off-normal accidents (safety); and the effects of post-operation radioactivity on waste disposal and maintenance. The major philosophies and methodologies used to formulate programmes for the development of fusion materials are outlined, as the basis for other articles in this special issue, which deal with the fundamental understanding of the issues regarding these materials and their technical status and prospects for development.

  1. LIFE Materials: Overview of Fuels and Structural Materials Issues Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J

    2008-09-08

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project, a laser-based Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiment designed to achieve thermonuclear fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and will be completed in April of 2009. Experiments designed to accomplish the NIF's goal will commence in late FY2010 utilizing laser energies of 1 to 1.3 MJ. Fusion yields of the order of 10 to 20 MJ are expected soon thereafter. Laser initiated fusion-fission (LIFE) engines have now been designed to produce nuclear power from natural or depleted uranium without isotopic enrichment, and from spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors without chemical separation into weapons-attractive actinide streams. A point-source of high-energy neutrons produced by laser-generated, thermonuclear fusion within a target is used to achieve ultra-deep burn-up of the fertile or fissile fuel in a sub-critical fission blanket. Fertile fuels including depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NatU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and thorium (Th) can be used. Fissile fuels such as low-enrichment uranium (LEU), excess weapons plutonium (WG-Pu), and excess highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be used as well. Based upon preliminary analyses, it is believed that LIFE could help meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the nation's and world's stockpile of spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials. LIFE takes advantage of the significant advances in laser-based inertial confinement fusion that are taking place at the NIF at LLNL where it is expected that thermonuclear ignition will be achieved in the 2010-2011 timeframe. Starting from as little as 300 to 500 MW of fusion power, a single LIFE engine will be able to generate 2000 to 3000 MWt in steady state for periods of years to decades, depending on the nuclear fuel and engine configuration. Because the fission

  2. Supporting Infrastructure and Acceptability Issues for Materials Used in New Generation Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.; Curlee, T.R.; Jones, D.W.; Leiby, P.E.; Rubin, J.D.; Schexnayder, S.M.; Vogt, D.P.; Wolfe, A.K.

    1999-03-01

    To achieve its goal of producing vehicles that use two thirds less fuel than current vehicles, the Partnership of a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) is designing vehicles that will use lightweight materials in place of heavier materials used in current vehicles. using new materials in automobiles will require the development of a supporting infrastructure to produce both the substitute materials and the components of the substitute materials, as well as the automotive parts constructed from the new materials. This report documents a set of analyses that attempt to identify potential barriers--economic, infrastructure, and public acceptance barriers--to the materials substitution in New Generation Vehicles. The analyses rely on hypothetical vehicle market penetration scenarios and material composition. The approach is comprehensive, examining issues ranging from materials availability to their eventual disposition and its effect on the automobile recycling industry, and from supporting industries' capacity to the public acceptability of these vehicles. The analyses focus on two likely substitute materials, aluminum and glass-reinforced polymer composites.

  3. Electrochemical migration technique to accelerate ageing of cementitious materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Z.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Durability assessment of concrete structures for constructions in nuclear waste repositories requires long term service life predictions. As deposition of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW takes up to 100 000 years, it is necessary to analyze the service life of cementitious materials in this time perspective. Using acceleration methods producing aged specimens would decrease the need of extrapolating short term data sets. Laboratory methods are therefore, needed for accelerating the ageing process without making any influencing distortion in the properties of the materials. This paper presents an electro-chemical migration method to increase the rate of calcium leaching from cementitious specimens. This method is developed based on the fact that major long term deterioration process of hardened cement paste in concrete structures for deposition of LILW is due to slow diffusion of calcium ions. In this method the cementitious specimen is placed in an electrochemical cell as a porous path way through which ions can migrate at a rate far higher than diffusion process. The electrical field is applied to the cell in a way to accelerate the ion migration without making destructions in the specimen’s micro and macroscopic properties. The anolyte and catholyte solutions are designed favoring dissolution of calcium hydroxide and compensating for the leached calcium ions with another ion like lithium.

  4. Electrochemical migration technique to accelerate ageing of cementitious materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaahmadi, A.; Tang, L.; Abbas, Z.

    2013-07-01

    Durability assessment of concrete structures for constructions in nuclear waste repositories requires long term service life predictions. As deposition of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) takes up to 100 000 years, it is necessary to analyze the service life of cementitious materials in this time perspective. Using acceleration methods producing aged specimens would decrease the need of extrapolating short term data sets. Laboratory methods are therefore, needed for accelerating the ageing process without making any influencing distortion in the properties of the materials. This paper presents an electro-chemical migration method to increase the rate of calcium leaching from cementitious specimens. This method is developed based on the fact that major long term deterioration process of hardened cement paste in concrete structures for deposition of LILW is due to slow diffusion of calcium ions. In this method the cementitious specimen is placed in an electrochemical cell as a porous path way through which ions can migrate at a rate far higher than diffusion process. The electrical field is applied to the cell in a way to accelerate the ion migration without making destructions in the specimen's micro and macroscopic properties. The anolyte and catholyte solutions are designed favoring dissolution of calcium hydroxide and compensating for the leached calcium ions with another ion like lithium.

  5. A study on light-aging resistance of instrument panel materials and bumper materials on the automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wentao; Liu Qiang; Li Li; Li Huilian

    2014-01-01

    The light-aging test method commonly used in the automotive industry is utilized to carry out light- aging research on automotive instrument panel (IP) materials and bumper materials. On one hand, the impacts of common light-aging test methods on aging degree of automotive component materials are reviewed; on the other hand, the light-aging resistances of different component materials are compared. The results show that, for light-aging behavior of IP materials, the aging degree of the third test method is not severer than that of the second method, but it is severer than that of the first method. The light-aging resistance of IP material A is al- most the same as that of IP material B. With reference to light-aging behavior of bumper materials, the aging de- gree of three common test methods indicates that the aging degree of the sixth test method is not severer than that of the fourth method, but it is severer than that of the fifth method. The light-aging resistance of bumper material D is superior to that of bumper material C.

  6. A study on light-aging resistance of instrument panel materials and bumper materials on the automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wentao; Liu Qiang; Li Li; Li Huilian

    2014-01-01

    The light-aging test method commonly used in the automotive industry is utilized to carry out light-aging research on automotive instrument panel (IP) materials and bumper materials. On one hand,the impacts of common light-aging test methods on aging degree of automotive component materials are reviewed;on the other hand,the light-aging resistances of different component materials are compared. The results show that, for light-aging behavior of IP materials,the aging degree of the third test method is not severer than that of the second method,but it is severer than that of the first method. The light-aging resistance of IP material A is al-most the same as that of IP material B. With reference to light-aging behavior of bumper materials,the aging de-gree of three common test methods indicates that the aging degree of the sixth test method is not severer than that of the fourth method,but it is severer than that of the fifth method. The light-aging resistance of bumper material D is superior to that of bumper material C.

  7. LIFE Materials: Overview of Fuels and Structural Materials Issues Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J

    2008-09-08

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project, a laser-based Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiment designed to achieve thermonuclear fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and will be completed in April of 2009. Experiments designed to accomplish the NIF's goal will commence in late FY2010 utilizing laser energies of 1 to 1.3 MJ. Fusion yields of the order of 10 to 20 MJ are expected soon thereafter. Laser initiated fusion-fission (LIFE) engines have now been designed to produce nuclear power from natural or depleted uranium without isotopic enrichment, and from spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors without chemical separation into weapons-attractive actinide streams. A point-source of high-energy neutrons produced by laser-generated, thermonuclear fusion within a target is used to achieve ultra-deep burn-up of the fertile or fissile fuel in a sub-critical fission blanket. Fertile fuels including depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NatU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and thorium (Th) can be used. Fissile fuels such as low-enrichment uranium (LEU), excess weapons plutonium (WG-Pu), and excess highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be used as well. Based upon preliminary analyses, it is believed that LIFE could help meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the nation's and world's stockpile of spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials. LIFE takes advantage of the significant advances in laser-based inertial confinement fusion that are taking place at the NIF at LLNL where it is expected that thermonuclear ignition will be achieved in the 2010-2011 timeframe. Starting from as little as 300 to 500 MW of fusion power, a single LIFE engine will be able to generate 2000 to 3000 MWt in steady state for periods of years to decades, depending on the nuclear fuel and engine configuration. Because the fission

  8. Aging of organic materials around high-energy particle accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavlet, Marc

    1997-08-01

    Around particle accelerators used for fundamental research on the basic structure of matter, materials and components are exposed to ionizing radiation caused by beam losses in the proton machines and by synchrotron radiation in the lepton machines. Furthermore, with the high-energy and high-intensity collisions produced from future colliders, radiation damage is also to be expected in particle-physics detectors. Therefore, for a safe and reliable operation, the radiation aging of most of the components has to be assessed prior to their selection. An extensive radiation-damage test program has been carried out at CERN for decades on a routine basis and many results have been published. The tests have mainly concentrated on magnet-coil insulations and cable-insulating materials; they are carried out in accordance with the IEC 544 standard which defines the mechanical tests to be performed and the methods of degradation evaluation. The mechanical tests are also used to assess the degradation of composite structural materials. Moreover, electrical properties of high-voltage insulations and optical properties of organic scintillators and wave guides have also been studied. Our long-term experience has pointed out many parameters to be taken into account for the estimate of the lifetime of components in the radiation environment of our accelerators. One of the main parameters is the dose-rate effect, but the influence of other parameters has sometimes to be taken into account.

  9. Materials compatibility and aging for flux and cleaner combinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, Kim M. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Piatt, Rochelle [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A materials study of high reliability electronics cleaning is presented here. In Phase 1, mixed type substrates underwent a condensed contaminants application to view a worst- case scenario for unremoved flux with cleaning agent residue for parts in a silicone oil filled environment. In Phase 2, fluxes applied to copper coupons and to printed wiring boards underwent gentle cleaning then accelerated aging in air at 65% humidity and 30 O C. Both sets were aged for 4 weeks. Contaminants were no-clean (ORL0), water soluble (ORH1 liquid and ORH0 paste), and rosin (RMA; ROL0) fluxes. Defluxing agents were water, solvents, and engineered aqueous defluxers. In the first phase, coupons had flux applied and heated, then were placed in vials of oil with a small amount of cleaning agent and additional coupons. In the second phase, pairs of copper coupons and PWB were hand soldered by application of each flux, using tin-lead solder in a strip across the coupon or a set of test components on the PWB. One of each pair was cleaned in each cleaning agent, the first with a typical clean, and the second with a brief clean. Ionic contamination residue was measured before accelerated aging. After aging, substrates were removed and a visual record of coupon damage made, from which a subjective rank was applied for comparison between the various flux and defluxer combinations; more corrosion equated to higher rank. The ORH1 water soluble flux resulted in the highest ranking in both phases, the RMA flux the least. For the first phase, in which flux and defluxer remained on coupons, the aqueous defluxers led to worse corrosion. The vapor phase cleaning agents resulted in the highest ranking in the second phase, in which there was no physical cleaning. Further study of cleaning and rinsing parameters will be required.

  10. A Comparison of Materials Issues for Cermet and Graphite-Based NTP Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark E.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares material issues for cermet and graphite fuel elements. In particular, two issues in NTP fuel element performance are considered here: ductile to brittle transition in relation to crack propagation, and orificing individual coolant channels in fuel elements. Their relevance to fuel element performance is supported by considering material properties, experimental data, and results from multidisciplinary fluid/thermal/structural simulations. Ductile to brittle transition results in a fuel element region prone to brittle fracture under stress, while outside this region, stresses lead to deformation and resilience under stress. Poor coolant distribution between fuel element channels can increase stresses in certain channels. NERVA fuel element experimental results are consistent with this interpretation. An understanding of these mechanisms will help interpret fuel element testing results.

  11. Materials-related issues in the safety and licensing of nuclear fusion facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, N.; Merrill, B.; Cadwallader, L.; Di Pace, L.; El-Guebaly, L.; Humrickhouse, P.; Panayotov, D.; Pinna, T.; Porfiri, M.-T.; Reyes, S.; Shimada, M.; Willms, S.

    2017-09-01

    Fusion power holds the promise of electricity production with a high degree of safety and low environmental impact. Favourable characteristics of fusion as an energy source provide the potential for this very good safety and environmental performance. But to fully realize the potential, attention must be paid in the design of a demonstration fusion power plant (DEMO) or a commercial power plant to minimize the radiological hazards. These hazards arise principally from the inventory of tritium and from materials that become activated by neutrons from the plasma. The confinement of these radioactive substances, and prevention of radiation exposure, are the primary goals of the safety approach for fusion, in order to minimize the potential for harm to personnel, the public, and the environment. The safety functions that are implemented in the design to achieve these goals are dependent on the performance of a range of materials. Degradation of the properties of materials can lead to challenges to key safety functions such as confinement. In this paper the principal types of material that have some role in safety are recalled. These either represent a potential source of hazard or contribute to the amelioration of hazards; in each case the related issues are reviewed. The resolution of these issues lead, in some instances, to requirements on materials specifications or to limits on their performance.

  12. Special Issue: 14th International Symposium on Novel and Nano Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo-Byoung; Choa, Yong-Ho; Ahn, Hyo-Jin; Park, Il-Kyu

    2017-09-01

    This Special Issue of Applied Surface Science is intended to provide a collection of peer-reviewed contributions presented at the 14th International Symposium on Novel Nano Materials (ISNNM) held in Budapest, Hungary as one of the most beautiful cities in Europe from July 3 to July 8, 2016. All selected papers underwent the regular peer review process as set by the journal of Applied Surface Science and its publisher (Elsevier).

  13. Impact of aging and material structure on CANDU plant performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadeau, E.; Ballyk, J.; Ghalavand, N. [Candu Energy Inc., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In-service behaviour of pressure tubes is a key factor in the assessment of safety margins during plant operation. Pressure tube deformation (diametral expansion) affects fuel bundle dry out characteristics resulting in reduced margin to trip for some events. Pressure tube aging mechanisms also erode design margins on fuel channels or interfacing reactor components. The degradation mechanisms of interest are primarily deformation, loss of fracture resistance and hydrogen ingress. CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium, a registered trademark of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited used under exclusive licence by Candu Energy Inc.) owners and operators need to maximize plant capacity factor and meet or exceed the reactor design life targets while maintaining safety margins. The degradation of pressure tube material and geometry are characterized through a program of inspection, material surveillance and assessment and need to be managed to optimize plant performance. Candu is improving pressure tubes installed in new build and life extension projects. Improvements include changes designed to reduce or mitigate the impact of pressure tube elongation and diametral expansion rates, improvement of pressure tube fracture properties, and reduction of the implications of hydrogen ingress. In addition, Candu provides an extensive array of engineering services designed to assess the condition of pressure tubes and address the impact of pressure tube degradation on safety margins and plant performance. These services include periodic and in-service inspection and material surveillance of pressure tubes and deterministic and probabilistic assessment of pressure tube fitness for service to applicable standards. Activities designed to mitigate the impact of pressure tube deformation on safety margins include steam generator cleaning, which improves trip margins, and trip design assessment to optimize reactor trip set points restoring safety and operating margins. This paper provides an

  14. Materials and building techniques in Mugello from the Late Middle Ages to the Early Modern Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Arrighetti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mugello is a medium-high seismic risk area situated on the Italian Apennine mountain range, between Tuscany and Emilia Romagna. The territory is characterized by a large presence of long duration settlements characterized by well-preserved historic buildings, most of which are religious’ architectonical complexes. An area of Mugello, between 2010 and 2014, was characterized by the project “Archaeology of Buildings and seismic risk in Mugello”, a research focused on testing the potential information of the process of archaeological analysis of buildings as a form of knowledge, prevention and protection of medieval seismic risk settlements. Among the results that have emerged from the archaeoseismological investigation have played a central role the considerations pertaining to the supplying and use of building materials for the construction and modification of architectural structures, in a period between the late Middle Ages and the Modern Age.

  15. Energy and materials conservation: applying pioneering research and techniques to current non-energy materials conservation issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Bruce

    2013-03-13

    The research of the Energy Research Group (ERG) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign through the 1970s and early 1980s has recurring bouts of popularity. That research traced the flow of various energy types from nature to the final product or service, using modified economic input-output analysis. That information allowed for a comparison of alternative uses of products and services that delivered the same demand. The goal of the study was to identify the energy-conserving potential of the alternatives. Interest in that research has risen and fallen with the price of energy through three cycles now, with the current interest also encompassing materials conservation. Although the specific numerical results of this work are dated, the process by which the analysis was conducted creates, at least, a suggestion for future analysis in the arena of materials research. A review of the ERG history, including techniques pioneered for investigating the potential for energy conservation and some of the ancillary lessons learned along the way, may be of some use to those working on issues of materials conservation today. In the coming years, the most relevant research will include assessment of the socio-economic-ecological impact of technological materials conservation policies.

  16. Materials issues in high temperature ultrasonic transducers for under-sodium viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, L. J.; Griffin, J. W.; Posakony, G. J.; Harris, R. V.; Baldwin, D. L.

    2012-05-01

    Liquid sodium is used as the coolant in some fast spectrum nuclear reactors. This material is optically opaque. To facilitate operations and maintenance activities, an ultrasonic under-sodium viewing system has been developed. In the USA, the technology was successfully demonstrated in the 1970s and, over the intervening 30+ years, the capability was lost. This paper reports materials challenges encountered in developing both single-element and linear phased-array 2-MHz transducers that must operate at temperatures up to 260°C. The critical issues are fundamentally material selection: the ability of a transducer to be immersed into liquid sodium and function at 260°C, to achieve wetting and transmission of ultrasound into the sodium, and to be able to be removed and re-used.

  17. Direct waste heat recovery via thermoelectric materials - chosen issues of the thermodynamic description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasiński, Piotr; Kolasińska, Ewa

    2016-02-01

    The effective waste heat recovery is one of the present-day challenges in the industry and power engineering. The energy systems dedicated for waste heat conversion into electricity are usually characterized by low efficiency and are complicated in the design. The possibility of waste heat recovery via thermoelectric materials may be an interesting alternative to the currently used technologies. In particular, due to their material characteristics, conducting polymers may be competitive when compared with the power machinery and equipment. These materials can be used in a wide range of the geometries e.g. the bulk products, thin films, pristine form or composites and the others. In this article, the authors present selected issues related to the mathematical and thermodynamic description of the heat transfer processes in the thermoelectric materials dedicated for the waste heat recovery. The link of these models with electrical properties of the material and a material solution based on a conducting polymer have also been presented in this paper.

  18. “Early Classical Settlements” and the Iron Age of the Central Balkans: Issues of Ethnic Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vranić

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Balkan archaeologies, ethnic identity has been traditionally treated as a stable and monolithic category, readily recognizable in the material culture. The issue of “ethnogenesis” of the Palaeo-Balkan “peoples” is the dominant topic and the basic research subject in culture-historical archaeology, today regarded as the consequence of the modern European nationalisms. Starting from the constructivist point, the paper seeks to examine the interpretations of ethnicity in the Balkan Iron Age, on the example of the so-called “early Classical settlements” – a series of mutually very similar fortified settlements located in the vast lands of the Balkan hinterland, today in the territory of several modern states. These settlements are broadly dated into the period from the 5th to the 3rd centuries BC, and have traditionally been interpreted as the final phase of the ethnogenesis of the Palaeo-Balkan communities, supposed to have been living in “tribal states”, whose population has been recognized as “people” or even “nation”. In the traditional literature, the ethnic characteristics have been readily recognized, projecting directly the modern socio-political structures onto the communities of the past that could have been founded on completely different group identity or political organization. The paper deals with the issue of the political aspects of these interpretations in various Balkan countries, favoring certain Palaeo-Balkan communities, and an attempt is made to contextualize these nationalistic narratives into the present.

  19. Breeding blanket design for ITER and prototype (DEMO) fusion reactors and breeding materials issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsu, H.; Enoeda, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Current status of the designs of the ITER breeding blanket and DEMO blankets is introduced placing emphasis on the breeding materials selection and related issues. The former design is based on the up-to-date design activities, as of October 1997, being performed jointly by Joint Central Team (JCT) and Home Teams (HT`s), while the latter is based on the DEMO blanket test module designs being proposed by each Party at the TBWG (Test Blanket Working Group) meetings. (J.P.N.)

  20. Potential of Technogenic Mineral Raw Materials in Russia and the Issues of its Rational Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Ivanovna Goncharova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing negative impact of mining waste on natural ecosystems often leads to their irreversible destruction, a trend that is gradually becoming global. The particular relevance of the research is explained, on the one hand, by the possibilities of minimization of specific volumes of formation of mining waste in all types of industries; on the other hand, by the possibilities of maximization of comp rehensive use of their valuable components as secondary material resources on an economically rational basis and the possibilities of restoring the disturbed natural environment. The rational use of natural and technogenic mineral raw materials is greatly facilitated by the geological exploration and geological-economic evaluation of the resources, which requires the development of specific methodological approaches to the economic justification of resource estimation parameters for outlining and calculating the multicomponent commercial reserves of raw materials and separate valuable components in them. Analysis shows that researchers’ opinions on a number of methodological principles of sustainable mining, complex processing of multicomponent materials are often contradictory. Scientific publications do not consider the issue of the price valuation of mining waste as secondary material resources. Mining waste processing should be considered as an important part of the overall socio-ecological-economic system for rational nature management. The analysis of the existing practice of using the mining waste should be based on the system approach and take into consideration geological, technological, economic, environmental and social characteristics throughout the cycle of production, combined processing and treatment of secondary waste according to the principle “from the earth to the earth”. The article identifies the main barriers to the recycling of mining wastes, proposes several methodological guidelines for the sustainable mining and

  1. Promoting awareness of LGBT issues in aging in a baccalaureate nursing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Fidelindo A; Bernstein, Ilya

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that up to 10 percent of the American population is lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) and that up to 7 million members of this population are elderly. Both the Institute of Medicine and Healthy People 2020 have addressed the health disparities that affect elderly members of the LGBT community. Nurses are well positioned to bridge health disparities and provide culturally sensitive care across the lifespan, but compared with that of other disciplines, the nursing literature is lacking in content addressing LGBT health. Eliminating health disparities in the care of LGBT elders should be a priority in nursing education.The authors review the issues LGBT elders face and recommend how content related to LGBT aging can be integrated into nursing curricula.

  2. Measuring Children's Media Use in the Digital Age: Issues and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Lee, Sook-Jung

    2009-04-01

    In this new and rapidly changing era of digital technology, there is increasing consensus among media scholars that there is an urgent need to develop measurement approaches which more adequately capture media use The overarching goal of this paper is facilitate the development of measurement approaches appropriate for capturing children's media use in the digital age. The paper outlines various approaches to measurement, focusing mainly on those which have figured prominently in major existing studies of children's media use. We identify issues related to each technique, including advantages and disadvantages. We also include a review of existing empirical comparisons of various methodologies. The paper is intended to foster discussion of the best ways to further research and knowledge regarding the impact of media on children.

  3. US Army Research Office Workshop on Smart Materials, Structures and Mathematical Issues proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Craig A.; Ahmad, I.

    This workshop was held to identify recent significant developments and breakthroughs in science and technology. Its main objective is to evolve a consensus on the definition and characteristics of a smart/intelligent material or structure, and discuss mechanisms and possible methods to produce them. Another objective is to identify directions of future research in this field. Included are the abstracts/papers presented at the three sessions. The three sessions contain a wide range of presentations concerning numerous technologies for actuators, sensors, intelligence, control, constitutive modeling, and other scientific fields that have become essential to the emerging science and technologies of smart materials and structures. At the end of each session a discussion period was held to address some of the issues of general concern related to the mission of the workshop.

  4. Social implications and workforce issues in the oral health of an ageing population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Fac

    2015-03-01

    A functional and socially acceptable level of oral health is an integral part of healthy ageing! More teeth, more sophisticated dental technology and increasing co-morbidities of an ageing Australian society will have significant impacts on oral health professionals and their capacities to work within expanded teams of health, education and social organizations. Society is adapting its perspective on the social role of older citizens; replacing its perception of the elderly as an economic social burden, to one of senior citizens as being a respected and active source of social and economic benefit. Maintaining general and oral health for older Australians will bring into sharp focus the need for recognizing and managing not only the biological markers associated with ageing and frailty, but also the potential mediators on health outcomes associated with changing health and social behaviours. Increasing social capital of older Australians through national policy initiatives such as the Living Longer Living Better reforms, and greater involvement of allied health and carers' organizations in oral health education and health promotion will set a new scene for the roles of dental professionals. Issues of equity will drive the service delivery agenda, and a socio-cultural shift to 'consumer-directed' health outcomes will shape the range of services, quality of care and support required by an older Australian population. Formal education and training modules for aged care workers, allied health practitioners and geriatricians will develop. The challenge for the dental profession is the coordination and integration of these changes into new models of dental and general health care.

  5. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Nathaniel P; Garbach, Kelly; Guillozet, Kathleen; Haden, Van R; Hedao, Prashant; Hollander, Allan D; Huber, Patrick R; Ingersoll, Christina; Langner, Megan; Lipari, Genevieve; Mohammadi, Yaser; Musker, Ruthie; Piatto, Marina; Riggle, Courtney; Schweisguth, Melissa; Sin, Emily; Snider, Sara; Vidic, Nataša; White, Aubrey; Brodt, Sonja; Quinn, James F; Tomich, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent them. Issues in the

  6. Sustainable Sourcing of Global Agricultural Raw Materials: Assessing Gaps in Key Impact and Vulnerability Issues and Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel P Springer

    Full Text Available Understanding how to source agricultural raw materials sustainably is challenging in today's globalized food system given the variety of issues to be considered and the multitude of suggested indicators for representing these issues. Furthermore, stakeholders in the global food system both impact these issues and are themselves vulnerable to these issues, an important duality that is often implied but not explicitly described. The attention given to these issues and conceptual frameworks varies greatly--depending largely on the stakeholder perspective--as does the set of indicators developed to measure them. To better structure these complex relationships and assess any gaps, we collate a comprehensive list of sustainability issues and a database of sustainability indicators to represent them. To assure a breadth of inclusion, the issues are pulled from the following three perspectives: major global sustainability assessments, sustainability communications from global food companies, and conceptual frameworks of sustainable livelihoods from academic publications. These terms are integrated across perspectives using a common vocabulary, classified by their relevance to impacts and vulnerabilities, and categorized into groups by economic, environmental, physical, human, social, and political characteristics. These issues are then associated with over 2,000 sustainability indicators gathered from existing sources. A gap analysis is then performed to determine if particular issues and issue groups are over or underrepresented. This process results in 44 "integrated" issues--24 impact issues and 36 vulnerability issues--that are composed of 318 "component" issues. The gap analysis shows that although every integrated issue is mentioned at least 40% of the time across perspectives, no issue is mentioned more than 70% of the time. A few issues infrequently mentioned across perspectives also have relatively few indicators available to fully represent

  7. Nanomaterials for environmental studies: classification, reference material issues, and strategies for physico-chemical characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Vicki; Nowack, Bernd; Baun, Anders; van den Brink, Nico; Kammer, Frank von der; Dusinska, Maria; Handy, Richard; Hankin, Steven; Hassellöv, Martin; Joner, Erik; Fernandes, Teresa F

    2010-03-01

    NanoImpactNet is a European Commission Framework Programme 7 (FP7) funded project that provides a forum for the discussion of current opinions on nanomaterials in relation to human and environmental issues. In September 2008, in Zurich, a NanoImpactNet environmental workshop focused on three key questions: 1. What properties should be characterised for nanomaterials used in environmental and ecotoxicology studies? 2. What reference materials should be developed for use in environmental and ecotoxicological studies? 3. Is it possible to group different nanomaterials into categories for consideration in environmental studies? Such questions have been, at least partially, addressed by other projects/workshops especially in relation to human health effects. Such projects provide a useful basis on which this workshop was based, but in this particular case these questions were reformulated in order to focus specifically on environmental studies. The workshop participants, through a series of discussion and reflection sessions, generated the conclusions listed below. The physicochemical characterisation information identified as important for environmental studies included measures of aggregation/agglomeration/dispersability, size, dissolution (solubility), surface area, surface charge, surface chemistry/composition, with the assumption that chemical composition would already be known. There is a need to have test materials for ecotoxicology, and several substances are potentially useful, including TiO(2) nanoparticles, polystyrene beads labelled with fluorescent dyes, and silver nanoparticles. Some of these test materials could then be developed into certified reference materials over time. No clear consensus was reached regarding the classification of nanomaterials into categories to aid environmental studies, except that a chemistry-based classification system was a reasonable starting point, with some modifications. It was suggested, that additional work may be

  8. Status and key issues of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels as the structural material for a DEMO blanket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanigawa, H.; Shiba, K.; Möslang, A.; Stoller, R. E.; Lindau, R.; Sokolov, M. A.; Odette, G. R.; Kurtz, R. J.; Jitsukawa, S.

    2011-10-01

    The status and key issues of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels R&D are reviewed as the primary candidate structural material for fusion energy demonstration reactor blankets. This includes manufacturing technology, the as-fabricated and irradiates material database and joining technologies. The review indicated that the manufacturing technology, joining technology and database accumulation including irradiation data are ready for initial design activity, and also identifies various issues that remain to be solved for engineering design activity and qualification of the material for international fusion material irradiation facility (IFMIF) irradiation experiments that will validate the data base.

  9. Status and key issues of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels as the structural material for a DEMO blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigawa, Hiroyasu [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL; Sokolov, Mikhail A [ORNL; Odette, G.R. [University of California, Santa Barbara; Jitsukawa, Shiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Shiba, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA); Kurtz, Richard [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Moeslang, A. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany; Lindau, R. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany

    2011-01-01

    The status and key issues of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels R&D are reviewed as the primary candidate structural material for fusion energy demonstration reactor blankets. This includes manufacturing technology, the as-fabricated and irradiates material database and joining technologies. The review indicated that the manufacturing technology, joining technology and database accumulation including irradiation data are ready for initial design activity, and also identifies various issues that remain to be solved for engineering design activity and qualification of the material for international fusion material irradiation facility (IFMIF) irradiation experiments that will validate the data base.

  10. Some Materials Degradation Issues in the U.S. High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository Study (The Yucca Mountain Project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Hua; P. Pasupathi; N. Brown; K. Mon

    2005-09-19

    The safe disposal of radioactive waste requires that the waste be isolated from the environment until radioactive decay has reduced its toxicity to innocuous levels for plants, animals, and humans. All of the countries currently studying the options for disposing of high-level nuclear waste (HLW) have selected deep geologic formations to be the primary barrier for accomplishing this isolation. In U.S.A., the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) designated Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site to be characterized for high-level nuclear waste (HLW) disposal. Long-term containment of waste and subsequent slow release of radionuclides into the geosphere will rely on a system of natural and engineered barriers including a robust waste containment design. The waste package design consists of a highly corrosion resistant Ni-based Alloy 22 cylindrical barrier surrounding a Type 316 stainless steel inner structural vessel. The waste package is covered by a mailbox-shaped drip shield composed primarily of Ti Grade 7 with Ti Grade 24 structural support members. The U.S. Yucca Mountain Project has been studying and modeling the degradation issues of the relevant materials for some 20 years. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art understanding of the degradation processes based on the past 20 years studies on Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) materials degradation issues with focus on interaction between the in-drift environmental conditions and long-term materials degradation of waste packages and drip shields within the repository system during the 10,000 years regulatory period. This paper provides an overview of the current understanding of the likely degradation behavior of the waste package and drip shield in the repository after the permanent closure of the facility. The degradation scenario discussed in this paper include aging and phase instability, dry oxidation, general and localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and hydrogen induced

  11. FABRICATION AND MATERIAL ISSUES FOR THE APPLICATION OF SiC COMPOSITES TO LWR FUEL CLADDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WEON-JU KIM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication methods and requirements of the fiber, interphase, and matrix of nuclear grade SiCf/SiC composites are briefly reviewed. A CVI-processed SiCf/SiC composite with a PyC or (PyC-SiCn interphase utilizing Hi-Nicalon Type S or Tyranno SA3 fiber is currently the best combination in terms of the irradiation performance. We also describe important material issues for the application of SiC composites to LWR fuel cladding. The kinetics of the SiC corrosion under LWR conditions needs to be clarified to confirm the possibility of a burn-up extension and the cost-benefit effect of the SiC composite cladding. In addition, the development of end-plug joining technology and fission products retention capability of the ceramic composite tube would be key challenges for the successful application of SiC composite cladding.

  12. Practical issues for using solar-reflective materials to mitigate urban heat islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretz, Sarah; Akbari, Hashem; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    Solar-reflective or high-albedo, alternatives to traditionally absorptive urban surfaces such as rooftops and roadways can reduce cooling energy use and improve urban air quality at almost no cost. This paper presents information to support programs that mitigate urban heat islands with solar-reflective surfaces: estimates of the achievable increase in albedo for a variety of surfaces, issues related to the selection of materials and costs and benefits of using them. As an example, we present data for Sacramento, California. In Sacramento, we estimate that 20% of the 96 square mile area is dark roofing and 10% is dark pavement. Based on the change in albedo that is achievable for these surfaces, the overall albedo of Sacramento could be increased by 18%, a change that would produce significant energy savings and increase comfort within the city. Roofing market data indicate which roofing materials should be targeted for incentive programs. In 1995, asphalt shingle was used for over 65% of residential roofing area in the U.S. and 6% of commercial. Built-up roofing was used for about 5% of residential roofing and about 30% of commercial roofing. Single-ply membranes covered about 9% of the residential roofing area and over 30% of the commercial area. White, solar-reflective alternatives are presently available for these roofing materials but a low- first-cost, solar-reflective alternative to asphalt shingles is needed to capture the sloped-roof market. Since incoming solar radiation has a large non-visible component, solar-reflective materials can also be produced in a variety of colors.

  13. ENVEJECIMIENTO COGNITIVO Y PROCESAMIENTO DEL LENGUAJE: CUESTIONES RELEVANTES COGNITIVE AGING AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING: RELEVANT ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÓNICA VÉLIZ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available ¿Qué sucede con el lenguaje cuando se envejece? ¿Se produce una declinación de las habilidades lingüísticas? ¿Cambian los patrones de desempeño de los mayores si se los compara con los jóvenes? ¿Qué variables pueden explicar los cambios que se producen? Para dar respuesta a estas y otras interrogantes se presentan las teorías más revelantes que se han desarrollado para dar cuenta de los efectos del envejecimiento cognitivo en los procesos de comprensión y producción del lenguaje, a saber: enlentecimiento, déficit inhibitorio, déficit de transmisión, reducción de la memoria operativa. Se hace también una revisión de los hallazgos más relevantes de la investigación psicolingüística de orientación gerontológica. El examen abarca todos los niveles de procesamiento y considera los fenómenos de comprensión y de producción vinculados a la palabra, la oración y el discurso. El análisis del problema se completa presentando aportes provenientes de la neuropsicología y discutiendo cuestiones críticas relacionadas con los métodos de investigación que se usan en el área y el papel que juegan los factores culturales y sociales.What happens to language when humans age? Is there a decline in the language abilities in old age? Do performance patterns in the elderly change when compared to those of younger individuals? What variables can explain these changes? In order to answer these and other questions, the authors present the most relevant theories developed to explain age-related cognitive effects in language comprehension and production processes, for instance slowing, inhibitory deficit, transmission deficit, working memory decline. Furthermore the most notable findings of gerontology-based psycholinguistic research are reviewed, covering all language processing levels. It also takes into account the language comprehension and production phenomena regarding word, sentence and discourse levels. The problem analysis is

  14. Study of issues in difficult-to-weld thick materials by hybrid laser arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazar Atabaki, Mehdi

    There is a high interest for the high strength-to-weight ratio with good ductility for the welds of advanced alloys. The concern about the welding of thick materials (Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) and 5xxx and 6xxx series of aluminum alloys) has stimulated the development of manufacturing processes to overcome the associated issues. The need to weld the dissimilar materials (AHSS and aluminum alloys) is also required for some specific applications in different industries. Hence, the requirement in the development of a state-of-the-art welding procedure can be helpful to fulfill the constraints. Among the welding methods hybrid laser/arc welding (HLAW) has shown to be an effective method to join thick and difficult-to-weld materials. This process benefits from both advantages of the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and laser welding processes. The interaction of the arc and laser can help to have enough penetration of weld in thick plates. However, as the welding of dissimilar aluminum alloys and steels is very difficult because of the formation of brittle intermetallics the present work proposed a procedure to effectively join the alloys. The reports showed that the explosively welded aluminum alloys to steels have the highest toughness, and that could be used as an "insert" (TRICLAD) for welding the thick plates of AHSS to aluminum alloys. Therefore, the HLAW of the TRICLAD-Flange side (Aluminum alloy (AA 5456)) to the Web side (Aluminum alloys (AA 6061 and AA 5456)) and the TRICLAD-Flange side (ASTM A516) to the Web side (AHSS) was studied in the present work. However, there are many issues related to HLAW of the dissimilar steels as well as dissimilar aluminum alloys that have to be resolved in order to obtain sound welds. To address the challenges, the most recent welding methods for joining aluminum alloys to steels were studied and the microstructural development, mechanical properties, and on-line monitoring of the welding processes were discussed as well

  15. The Aging of Cork-Rubber Decoupling Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-09

    either the Gibbs function or the Helmholtz function is done by Berlincourt, Curran, and Jaffe and can be found in Mason [8]. In this work matrix nota...materials tested in thf, acoustic impedance tube. CALL ERIISET63.. FASE ...FALSE.,,) CALL ERRSET(64,,.FALSE.,..FALSE.,,) IITE(6,903) 903 FOWLMT/, I

  16. Towards aging mechanisms of cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable insulation materials in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shuaishuai; Fifield, Leonard S.; Bowler, Nicola

    2016-12-19

    Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cable insulation material undergoes simultaneous, accelerated thermal and gamma-radiation aging to simulate the long-term aging environment within nuclear power plants (NPPs). A variety of materials characterization tests, including scanning electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, oxidation induction time, gel-fraction and dielectric properties measurement, are conducted on pristine and differently aged XLPE samples. A preliminary model of one possible aging mechanism of XLPE cable insulation material under gamma radiation at elevated temperature of 115 °C is suggested.

  17. Assessment of laboratory-aged insulating materials using the mini-static tester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, P.J.; Finnan, E. [Doble Engineering Co., Watertown, MA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    A better understanding of the electrostatic charging tendency of aged materials is required as there have been failures of {open_quotes}middle-aged{close_quotes} transformers from the effects of static electrification. The mini-static tester was used as a means to evaluate the effects on the electrostatic charging tendency (ECT) of aging both oil and paper under accelerated conditions. Two mineral oils presently manufactured in the US were aged with various mixtures of Kraft, thermally-upgraded Kraft, paper filters used in the mini-static tester, and benzotriazole (BTA), a static suppressant. A copper catalyst and elevated temperature (120{degrees}C) were the primary factors in accelerating the aging of materials in a low oxygen environment. Results showed that aging of both insulating materials affected their electrostatic charging tendency. There were some indications that BTA altered the ECT of the insulating materials after a period of time.

  18. Top-Ten IT Issues, 2013: Welcome to the Connected Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajek, Susan

    2013-01-01

    The EDUCAUSE IT Issues Panel has identified its annual top-ten IT issues for higher education, as follows: (1) Leveraging the wireless and device explosion on campus; (2) Improving student outcomes through an approach that leverages technology; (3) Developing an institution-wide cloud strategy to help the institution select the right sourcing and…

  19. Materialism across the life span: An age-period-cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Esther D T; Pieters, Rik G M

    2016-09-01

    This research examined the development of materialism across the life span. Two initial studies revealed that (a) lay beliefs were that materialism declines with age and (b) previous research findings also implied a modest, negative relationship between age and materialism. Yet, previous research has considered age only as a linear control variable, thereby precluding the possibility of more intricate relationships between age and materialism. Moreover, prior studies have relied on cross-sectional data and thus confound age and cohort effects. To improve on this, the main study used longitudinal data from 8 waves spanning 9 years of over 4,200 individuals (16 to 90 years) to examine age effects on materialism while controlling for cohort and period effects. Using a multivariate multilevel latent growth model, it found that materialism followed a curvilinear trajectory across the life span, with the lowest levels at middle age and higher levels before and after that. Thus, in contrast to lay beliefs, materialism increased in older age. Moreover, age effects on materialism differed markedly between 3 core themes of materialism: acquisition centrality, possession-defined success, and acquisition as the pursuit of happiness. In particular, acquisition centrality and possession-defined success were higher at younger and older age. Independent of these age effects, older birth cohorts were oriented more toward possession-defined success, whereas younger birth cohorts were oriented more toward acquisition centrality. The economic downturn since 2008 led to a decrease in acquisition as the pursuit of happiness and in desires for personal growth, but to an increase in desires for achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Special Issue: Intellectual Property in the Information Age: Knowledge as Commodity and its Legal Implications for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jeffrey C., Ed.; Baez, Benjamin, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This monograph examines in great detail two kinds of intellectual property: copyrights and patents. Though the authors recognize the significance of trademarks and trade secrets, they focus primarily on copyrights and patents in this monograph because they represent the most significant issues in higher education in the information age.…

  1. Materials Degradation Issues in the U.S. High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.G. Mon; F. Hua

    2005-04-12

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art understanding of the degradation processes by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) with focus on interaction between the in-drift environmental conditions and long-term materials degradation of waste packages and drip shields within the repository system during the first 10,000-years after repository closure. This paper provides an overview of the degradation of the waste packages and drip shields in the repository after permanent closure of the facility. The degradation modes discussed in this paper include aging and phase instability, dry oxidation, general and localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and hydrogen induced cracking of Alloy 22 and titanium alloys. The effects of microbial activity and radiation on the degradation of Alloy 22 and titanium alloys are also discussed. Further, for titanium alloys, the effects of fluorides, bromides, and galvanic coupling to less noble metals are considered. It is concluded that the materials and design adopted will provide sufficient safety margins for at least 10,000-years after repository closure.

  2. Age-Relevance of Content Material on Relativistic and Dialectical Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Deirdre A.; And Others

    The effects of age-relevance of content material on reasoning were systematically studied in 120 adolescents, young adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults. Subjects were presented with either an adolescent, young adult, middle-aged, or older adult interpersonal dilemma and asked a series of structured questions assessing relativistic and…

  3. Corrosion in Supercritical carbon Dioxide: Materials, Environmental Purity, Surface Treatments, and Flow Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar; Anderson, Mark

    2013-12-10

    The supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle is gaining importance for power conversion in the Generation IV fast reactor system because of its high conversion efficiencies. When used in conjunction with a sodium fast reactor, the supercritical CO{sub 2} cycle offers additional safety advantages by eliminating potential sodium-water interactions that may occur in a steam cycle. In power conversion systems for Generation IV fast reactors, supercritical CO{sub 2} temperatures could be in the range of 30°C to 650°C, depending on the specific component in the system. Materials corrosion primarily at high temperatures will be an important issue. Therefore, the corrosion performance limits for materials at various temperatures must be established. The proposed research will have four objectives centered on addressing corrosion issues in a high-temperature supercritical CO{sub 2} environment: Task 1: Evaluation of corrosion performance of candidate alloys in high-purity supercritical CO{sub 2}: The following alloys will be tested: Ferritic-martensitic Steels NF616 and HCM12A, austenitic alloys Incoloy 800H and 347 stainless steel, and two advanced concept alloys, AFA (alumina forming austenitic) steel and MA754. Supercritical CO{sub 2} testing will be performed at 450°C, 550°C, and 650°C at a pressure of 20 MPa, in a test facility that is already in place at the proposing university. High purity CO{sub 2} (99.9998%) will be used for these tests. Task 2: Investigation of the effects of CO, H{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2} impurities in supercritical CO{sub 2} on corrosion: Impurities that will inevitably present in the CO{sub 2} will play a critical role in dictating the extent of corrosion and corrosion mechanisms. These effects must be understood to identify the level of CO{sub 2} chemistry control needed to maintain sufficient levels of purity to manage corrosion. The individual effects of important impurities CO, H{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2} will be investigated by adding them

  4. Trends, Issues, Perspectives, and Values for the Aging of the Baby Boom Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornman, John M.; Kingson, Eric R.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the contours of population aging, especially the baby boom generation, and the political and economic changes in regard to the rapidly aging U.S. population. Focuses on entitlements such as social security and Medicare. Seeks to broaden national discourse on the aging of the baby boom cohorts through basic questions and clarification of…

  5. Understanding and controlling low-temperature aging of nanocrystalline materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Boyce, Brad Lee; Brons, Justin G.; Foiles, Stephen Martin; Hattar, Khalid Mikhiel; Holm, Elizabeth A; Padilla, Henry A.,; Sharon, John Anthony; Thompson, Gregory B.

    2013-10-01

    Nanocrystalline copper lms were created by both repetitive high-energy pulsed power, to produce material without internal nanotwins; and pulsed laser deposition, to produce nan- otwins. Samples of these lms were indented at ambient (298K) and cryogenic temperatures by immersion in liquid nitrogen (77K) and helium (4K). The indented samples were sectioned through the indented regions and imaged in a scanning electron microscope. Extensive grain growth was observed in the lms that contained nanotwins and were indented cryogenically. The lms that either lacked twins, or were indented under ambient conditions, were found to exhibit no substantial grain growth by visual inspection. Precession transmission elec- tron microscopy was used to con rm these ndings quantitatively, and show that 3 and 7 boundaries proliferate during grain growth, implying that these interface types play a key role in governing the extensive grain growth observed here. Molecular dynamics sim- ulations of the motion of individual grain boundaries demonstrate that speci c classes of boundaries - notably 3 and 7 - exhibit anti- or a-thermal migration, meaning that their mobilities either increase or do not change signi cantly with decreasing temperature. An in-situ cryogenic indentation capability was developed and implemented in a transmission electron microscope. Preliminary results do not show extensive cryogenic grain growth in indented copper lms. This discrepancy could arise from the signi cant di erences in con g- uration and loading of the specimen between the two approaches, and further research and development of this capability is needed.

  6. Fuel-Cycle and Nuclear Material Disposition Issues Associated with High-Temperature Gas Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shropshire, D.E.; Herring, J.S.

    2004-10-03

    The objective of this paper is to facilitate a better understanding of the fuel-cycle and nuclear material disposition issues associated with high-temperature gas reactors (HTGRs). This paper reviews the nuclear fuel cycles supporting early and present day gas reactors, and identifies challenges for the advanced fuel cycles and waste management systems supporting the next generation of HTGRs, including the Very High Temperature Reactor, which is under development in the Generation IV Program. The earliest gas-cooled reactors were the carbon dioxide (CO2)-cooled reactors. Historical experience is available from over 1,000 reactor-years of operation from 52 electricity-generating, CO2-cooled reactor plants that were placed in operation worldwide. Following the CO2 reactor development, seven HTGR plants were built and operated. The HTGR came about from the combination of helium coolant and graphite moderator. Helium was used instead of air or CO2 as the coolant. The helium gas has a significant technical base due to the experience gained in the United States from the 40-MWe Peach Bottom and 330-MWe Fort St. Vrain reactors designed by General Atomics. Germany also built and operated the 15-MWe Arbeitsgemeinschaft Versuchsreaktor (AVR) and the 300-MWe Thorium High-Temperature Reactor (THTR) power plants. The AVR, THTR, Peach Bottom and Fort St. Vrain all used fuel containing thorium in various forms (i.e., carbides, oxides, thorium particles) and mixtures with highly enriched uranium. The operational experience gained from these early gas reactors can be applied to the next generation of nuclear power systems. HTGR systems are being developed in South Africa, China, Japan, the United States, and Russia. Elements of the HTGR system evaluated included fuel demands on uranium ore mining and milling, conversion, enrichment services, and fuel fabrication; fuel management in-core; spent fuel characteristics affecting fuel recycling and refabrication, fuel handling, interim

  7. Plasmas for environmental issues: from hydrogen production to 2D materials assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarova, E.; Bundaleska, N.; Sarrette, J. Ph; Ferreira, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    It is well recognized at present that the unique, high energy density plasma environment provides suitable conditions to dissociate/atomize molecules in remediation systems, to convert waste and biomass into sustainable energy sources, to purify water, to assemble nanostructures, etc. The remarkable plasma potential is based on its ability to supply simultaneously high fluxes of charged particles, chemically active molecules, radicals (e.g. O, H, OH), heat, highly energetic photons (UV and extreme UV radiation), and strong electric fields in intrinsic sheath domains. Due to this complexity, low-temperature plasma science and engineering is a huge, highly interdisciplinary field that spans many research disciplines and applications across many areas of our daily life and industrial activities. For this reason, this review deals only with some selected aspects of low-temperature plasma applications for a clean and sustainable environment. It is not intended to be a comprehensive survey, but just to highlight some important works and achievements in specific areas. The selected issues demonstrate the diversity of plasma-based applications associated with clean and sustainable ambiance and also show the unity of the underlying science. Fundamental plasma phenomena/processes/features are the common fibers that pass across all these areas and unify all these applications. Browsing through different topics, we try to emphasize these phenomena/processes/features and their uniqueness in an attempt to build a general overview. The presented survey of recently published works demonstrates that plasma processes show a significant potential as a solution for waste/biomass-to-energy recovery problems. The reforming technologies based on non-thermal plasma treatment of hydrocarbons show promising prospects for the production of hydrogen as a future clean energy carrier. It is also shown that plasmas can provide numerous agents that influence biological activity. The simultaneous

  8. Effects of Thermal Aging on Material Properties, Stress Corrosion Cracking, and Fracture Toughness of AISI 316L Weld Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Timothy; Forsström, Antti; Saukkonen, Tapio; Ballinger, Ronald; Hänninen, Hannu

    2016-08-01

    Thermal aging and consequent embrittlement of materials are ongoing issues in cast stainless steels, as well as duplex, and high-Cr ferritic stainless steels. Spinodal decomposition is largely responsible for the well-known "748 K (475 °C) embrittlement" that results in drastic reductions in ductility and toughness in these materials. This process is also operative in welds of either cast or wrought stainless steels where δ-ferrite is present. While the embrittlement can occur after several hundred hours of aging at 748 K (475 °C), the process is also operative at lower temperatures, at the 561 K (288 °C) operating temperature of a boiling water reactor (BWR), for example, where ductility reductions have been observed after several tens of thousands of hours of exposure. An experimental program was carried out in order to understand how spinodal decomposition may affect changes in material properties in Type 316L BWR piping weld metals. The study included material characterization, nanoindentation hardness, double-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR), Charpy-V, tensile, SCC crack growth, and in situ fracture toughness testing as a function of δ-ferrite content, aging time, and temperature. SCC crack growth rates of Type 316L stainless steel weld metal under simulated BWR conditions showed an approximate 2 times increase in crack growth rate over that of the unaged as-welded material. In situ fracture toughness measurements indicate that environmental exposure can result in a reduction of toughness by up to 40 pct over the corresponding at-temperature air-tested values. Material characterization results suggest that spinodal decomposition is responsible for the degradation of material properties measured in air, and that degradation of the in situ properties may be a result of hydrogen absorbed during exposure to the high-temperature water environment.

  9. Nutritional issues for older adults: addressing degenerative ageing with long-term studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-05-01

    The ageing process is influenced by a variety of factors, including extrinsic, malleable lifestyle variables. The present paper deals with the epidemiological evidence for the role of dietary patterns and key nutritional concerns in relation to survival and ageing-related disorders that present themselves in later life. Healthful dietary patterns appear to be most relevant in old age. Specific nutritional concerns are related to vitamin D, vitamin B12 and protein malnutrition. An important challenge to further expand the knowledge base is currently addressed by the NuAge project, acknowledging the complexity of the ageing process and integrating different dimensions of research into human healthy ageing. In the meantime, reversing poor adherence to existing guidelines for a healthy diet remains a first challenge in public health nutritional practices.

  10. Continuing in Foster Care Beyond Age 18: How Courts Can Help. Issue Brief 116

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Clark; Bell, Katie S. Claussen; Zinn, Andrew; Goerge, Robert M.; Courtney, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Research has found that foster youth who remain in care beyond age 18 are more likely to participate in services and tend to have better outcomes than those who do not. However, not all youth eligible to remain in care beyond age 18 do so. This study examines Illinois, one of the few states that extends care up to age 21, to identify the major…

  11. Work, aging, and retirement in Australia : Introduction to the special issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Griffin, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Australia has an aging population and workforce, and policy makers and organizations increasingly encourage older workers to remain on the job longer and even beyond traditional retirement age. After a brief review of important demographic and political developments, we introduce the 8 articles incl

  12. Nutritional issues for older adults: addressing degenerative ageing with long-term studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    The ageing process is influenced by a variety of factors, including extrinsic, malleable lifestyle variables. The present paper deals with the epidemiological evidence for the role of dietary patterns and key nutritional concerns in relation to survival and ageing-related disorders that present them

  13. Materials Chemistry Issues in the Development of a Single-Crystal Solar/Thermal Refractive Secondary Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Biering, Robert C.

    2005-01-01

    A translucent crystal concentrates and transmits energy to a heat exchanger, which in turn heats a propellant gas, working gas of a dynamic power system, or a thermopile. Materials are the limiting issue in such a system. Central is the durability of the crystal, which must maintain the required chemical, physical/optical, and mechanical properties as it is heated and cooled. This report summarizes available data to date on the materials issues with this system. We focus on the current leading candidate materials, which are sapphire (Al2O3) for higher temperatures and silica (SiO2) for lower temperatures. We use data from thermochemical calculations; laboratory coupon tests with silica and sapphire; and system tests with sapphire. The required chemical properties include low-vapor pressure and interfacial stability with supporting structural materials. Optical properties such as transmittance and index of refraction must be maintained. Thermomechanical stability is a major challenge for a large, single-crystal ceramic and has been discussed in another report. In addition to the crystal, other materials in the proposed system include refractory metals (Nb, Ta, Mo, W, and Re), carbon (C), and high-temperature ceramic insulation. The major issue here is low levels of oxygen, which lead to volatile refractory metal oxides and rapid consumption of the refractory metal. Interfacial reactions between the ceramic crystal and refractory metal are also discussed. Finally, high-temperature ceramic insulating materials are also likely to be used in this system. Outgassing is a major issue for these materials. The products of outgassing are typically reactive with the refractory metals and must be minimized.

  14. NRC Research Program on Plant Aging: Listing and summaries of reports issued through September 1993. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vora, J.P.

    1993-12-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is conducting the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. This is a comprehensive hardware-oriented engineering research program focused on understanding the aging mechanisms of components and systems in nuclear power plants. The NPAR program also focuses on methods for simulating and monitoring the aging-related degradation of these components and systems. In addition, it provides recommendations for effective maintenance to manage aging and for implementation of the research results in the regulatory process. This document contains a listing and index of reports generated in the NPAR Program that were issued through September 1993 and summaries of those reports. Each summary describes the elements of the research covered in the report and outlines the significant results. For the convenience of the user, the reports are indexed by personal author, corporate author, and subject.

  15. The Association Between Age and Ethics-Related Issues in Using Social Media for HIV Prevention in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, ChingChe J; Menacho, Luis; Young, Sean D

    Little research has focused on the ethical issues around using social media for HIV prevention in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), such as Peru. This study surveyed participants from the HOPE social media HIV intervention HIV intervention in Peru to assess their experiences and perceptions of ethical issues in the study and the impact of age on their experiences and perceptions. This study found that, compared to younger participants, older participants were more likely to express higher levels of understanding of the consent form and trust that other participants were real. Older participants also reported being less likely to benefit in learning about their HIV status. Findings suggest that age plays a role in participants' experiences in a social media-based HIV intervention.

  16. Econometric issues in testing the age neutrality of health care expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, C; Raftery, J P

    2001-10-01

    A recent study by Zweifel et al. (Zweifel P, Felder S, Meiers M. Ageing of the population and health care expenditure: a red herring? Health Economics 1999; 8: 485-496) suggests that age is not related to health care expenditure among the elderly once 'closeness to death' is controlled for. If correct, this finding has major policy implications, but flaws in the econometric analysis undermine its credibility. We highlight two in particular, and propose methods to deal with them.

  17. Aging in Sickle Cell Disease: Co-morbidities and New Issues in Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Manpreet K; Cohen, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Availability of hydroxyurea (HU) coupled with early therapeutic interventions has increased the life expectancy of patients with sickle cell disease. Hence, the sickle cell community needs to be aware of common diseases of aging that survivors are predisposed to. We chose to investigate the sickle cell disease-related complications as well as non sickle cell disease-related medical problems of aging in 45 sickle cell patients over the age of 40 years. The most frequent chronic complications of sickle cell disease were elevated tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity on echocardiogram, chronic renal disease, iron overload and leg ulcers. Medical co-morbidities in this patient group included hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), hypercholesterolemia and symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD). In our cohort, only 38.0% had a primary care doctor. Only 11.0% over age 50 had a screening colonoscopy, and of the women, 42.0% had a screening mammography. Medical co-morbidities and lack of health maintenance in older sickle cell patients are likely to impact overall health and mortality. Aging patients with sickle cell disease may benefit from a primary medical home for age appropriate comprehensive health care.

  18. Fatigue and residual strength of concrete and other aging viscoelastic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1996-01-01

    The DVM-theory (Damaged Viscoelastic Material) previously developed by the author to predict lifetime of non-aging viscoelastic materials (like wood) is generalized in this paper such that aging viscoelastic materials such as concrete subjected to variable load can also be considered. Lifetime...... criterion. A simple time criterion is much better. The theory is successfully compared with methods previously presented in the field of concrete fatigue. Algorithms and design graphs are developed which can be used in fatigue design of concrete products....

  19. [Healthy ageing in a linguistic minority situation in Canada: issues, challenges and collective mobilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis-Blanchard, Suzanne; Villalon, Lita; Alimezelli, Hubert Tote

    2014-03-01

    In Canada, the health of both French and English speakers living in linguistic minority situations is a subject of interest to several researchers and community organizations. This article draws upon a symposium on the theme of healthy ageing in a linguistic minority situation, presented at the 4th International Colloquium for Local and Regional Health Programmes. Three aspects are presented: the identification of factors associated with perceived health, home care and malnutrition screening. The results describe: (a) The determinants of perceived health, such as health care services, the vitality of the minority community and education; (b) The lack of changes to home care services, despite the ageing of the population; and (c) The high prevalence of malnutrition among the elderly in New Brunswick, Canada. Finally, we make suggestions regarding the design and implementation of a national policy on ageing in Canada, in order to ensure high-quality services along the entire health continuum.

  20. Translucency changes of direct esthetic restorative materials after curing, aging and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Keun

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this article was to review the changes in translucency of direct esthetic restorative materials after curing, aging and treatment. As a criterion for the evaluation of clinical translucency changes, visual perceptibility threshold in translucency parameter difference (ΔTP) of 2 was used. Translucency changes after curing were perceivable depending on experimental methods and products (largest ΔTP in resin composites = 15.9). Translucency changes after aging were reported as either relatively stable or showed perceivable changes by aging protocols (largest ΔTP in resin composites = -3.8). Translucency changes after curing, aging and treatment were perceivable in several products and experimental methods. Therefore, shade matching of direct esthetic materials should be performed considering these instabilities of translucency in direct esthetic materials.

  1. Material modelling for creep-age forming of aluminium alloy 7B04

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Aaron C.L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the creep-ageing behaviour of a peak-aged aluminium alloy 7B04 under different tensile loads at 115oC and subsequently modelling it for creep-age forming (CAF applications. Mechanical properties and microstructural evolutions of creep-aged specimens were investigated. The material was modelled using a set of unified constitutive equations, which not only captures the material's creep deformation but also takes into account yield strength contributions from solid solution hardening, age hardening and dislocation hardening during creep-ageing. A possible application of the present work is demonstrated by implementing the determined material model into a commercial finite element analysis solver via a user-defined subroutine for springback prediction of creep-age formed plates. A good agreement is observed between the simulated springback values and experimental results. This material model now enables further investigations of 7B04 under various CAF scenarios to be conducted inexpensively via computational modelling.

  2. Nuclear Energy Plant Optimization (NEPO) final report on aging and condition monitoring of low-voltage cable materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assink, Roger Alan; Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Bernstein, Robert

    2005-11-01

    This report summarizes results generated on a 5-year cable-aging program that constituted part of the Nuclear Energy Plant Optimization (NEPO) program, an effort cosponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The NEPO cable-aging effort concentrated on two important issues involving the development of better lifetime prediction methods as well as the development and testing of novel cable condition-monitoring (CM) techniques. To address improved life prediction methods, we first describe the use of time-temperature superposition principles, indicating how this approach improves the testing of the Arrhenius model by utilizing all of the experimentally generated data instead of a few selected and processed data points. Although reasonable superposition is often found, we show several cases where non-superposition is evident, a situation that violates the constant acceleration assumption normally used in accelerated aging studies. Long-term aging results over extended temperature ranges allow us to show that curvature in Arrhenius plots for elongation is a common occurrence. In all cases the curvature results in a lowering of the Arrhenius activation energy at lower temperatures implying that typical extrapolation of high temperature results over-estimates material lifetimes. The long-term results also allow us to test the significance of extrapolating through the crystalline melting point of semi-crystalline materials. By utilizing ultrasensitive oxygen consumption (UOC) measurements, we show that it is possible to probe the low temperature extrapolation region normally inaccessible to conventional accelerated aging studies. This allows the quantitative testing of the often-used Arrhenius extrapolation assumption. Such testing indicates that many materials again show evidence of ''downward'' curvature (E{sub a} values drop as the aging temperature is lowered) consistent with the limited

  3. The Prekindergarten Age-Cutoff Regression-Discontinuity Design: Methodological Issues and Implications for Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsey, Mark W.; Weiland, Christina; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Wilson, Sandra Jo; Hofer, Kerry G.

    2015-01-01

    Much of the currently available evidence on the causal effects of public prekindergarten programs on school readiness outcomes comes from studies that use a regression-discontinuity design (RDD) with the age cutoff to enter a program in a given year as the basis for assignment to treatment and control conditions. Because the RDD has high internal…

  4. How Do Top Cable News Websites Portray Cognition as an Aging Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Anna E.; Price, Anna E.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Marchman, Graham; Anderson, Lynda A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: We examined messages that the websites of the top cable news companies (MSNBC, FOX, and CNN) conveyed about cognition between January 2007 and March 2010. Drawing on agenda-setting theory, this work assessed the frequency, prominence, and attributes of cognitive topics in messages targeting an aging audience. Design and…

  5. How Do Top Cable News Websites Portray Cognition as an Aging Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberg, Anna E.; Price, Anna E.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Marchman, Graham; Anderson, Lynda A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: We examined messages that the websites of the top cable news companies (MSNBC, FOX, and CNN) conveyed about cognition between January 2007 and March 2010. Drawing on agenda-setting theory, this work assessed the frequency, prominence, and attributes of cognitive topics in messages targeting an aging audience. Design and…

  6. Sociological consideration on nuclear power issue. The note for asking the present age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sata, Tsutomu [Secretatiat of the Nuclear Safety Commission (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    The issue of nuclear power is one of themes that tend to produce severe confrontation over pros and cons of its utilization. The logic of the groups promoting nuclear energy utilization contains the conception which approves people's needs to energy and the paternalism that policy-making is to be in the hands of experts of specialized knowledge and ripe experiences. Behind the opinion of anti-nuclear groups of citizen movement style there are criticisms to the centralization of power and the technocracy, and they regard nuclear power as a symbol of the modern social system. On the other hand, the general publics who are put out of the decision-making process on nuclear power development are increasing the sense of powerless and apathy on the nuclear power issue, and their attitude of free ride on energy utilization is becoming predominant. The true targets to which both proponent and opponent groups should intervene seriously are free riders and the mechanism of the society structuring such situation. If both parties become deeply aware of the problems common to them and have intension of solving the problems, the scheme of the present conflict may change into that of complementary division of work. (author)

  7. The Issue of Age Estimation in a Modern Skeletal Population: Are Even the More Modern Current Aging Methods Satisfactory for the Elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Annalisa; Cummaudo, Marco; Arrigoni, Elena; Collini, Federica; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    The main idea behind age assessment in adults is related to the analysis of the physiological degeneration of particular skeletal structures with age. The main issues with these procedures are due to the fact that they have not been tested on different modern populations and in different taphonomic contexts and that they tend to underestimate the age of older individuals. The purpose of this study was to test the applicability and the reliability of these methods on a contemporary population of skeletal remains of 145 elderly individuals of known sex and age. The results show that, due to taphonomic influences, some skeletal sites showed a lower survival. Therefore, the methods with the highest percentage of applicability were Lovejoy (89.6%) and Rougé-Maillart (81.3%), followed by Suchey-Brooks (59.3%), and those with the lowest percentage of applicability were Beauthier (26.2%) and Iscan (22.7%). In addition, this research has shown how for older adults the study of both acetabulum and auricular surface may be more reliable for aging. This is also in accordance with the fact that auricular surface and the acetabulum are the areas more frequently surviving taphonomic insult. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. [Violence in old age: the issue addressed in indexed national journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Anúbes Pereira; Guilam, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Sousa, Eduardo Sérgio Soares; Marcondes, Willer Baumgarten

    2013-05-01

    One of the consequences of increased life expectancy is the increase in the elderly population in many countries, including Brazil. Considering the vulnerability of this age group and the increasing prevalence of violence against the elderly, there is a pressing need for research and control interventions to minimize the phenomenon. This exploratory and descriptive article conducts an analysis into this topic in indexed Brazilian studies in SciELO, with special emphasis on the last five years. The themes were categorized into: Social construction and conceptualizations, 37.5%; Elderly Care and Protection Policies, 43.75%; and Typology of violence against the elderly, 18.75%. The results show that the Policy of protection of the elderly permeates the majority of discussions about violence in old age and the focus of the researchers' attention is on domestic violence, which needs to be broadened in field research.

  9. Aging of Weapon Seals – An Update on Butyl O-ring Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Mark H.

    2011-07-13

    During testing under the Enhanced Surveillance Campaign in 2001, preliminary data detected a previously unknown and potentially serious concern with recently procured butyl o-rings on several programs. All butyl o-rings molded from a proprietary formulation throughout the period circa 1999 through 2001 had less than a full cure. Engineering judgment was that under curing is detrimental and could possibly lead to sub-optimum performance or, in the worst case, premature seal failure. An aging study was undertaken to ensure that suspect o-rings installed in the stockpile will retain sufficient sealing force for a minimum ten-year service life. A new prediction model developed for this study indicates suspect o-rings do not need to be replaced before the ten-year service life. Long-term testing results are reported on a yearly basis to validate the prediction model. This report documents the aging results for the period September 2002 to January 2011.

  10. Summary of workshop on materials issues in low emission boilers and high efficiency coal-fired cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of the workshop was to review with experts in the field the materials issues associated with two of the primary coal power systems being developed by the DOE Office of Fossil Energy. The DOE-FE Advanced Power Systems Program includes natural gas-based and coal-based power systems. Major activities in the natural gas-based power systems area include the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program, the Fuel Cells Program, and Hybrid Cycles. The coal-based power systems projects include the Low Emissions Boiler Systems (LEBS) Program, the High-Performance Power Systems Program (HIPPS), the Integrated (Coal) Gasification Combined-Cycle Program, and the Fluidized-Bed Combustion Program. This workshop focused on the materials issues associated with the LEBS and HIPPS technologies.

  11. CARTEL: Annotated Bibliography of Bilingual Bicultural Materials No. 12. Cumulative Issue--1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemination and Assessment Center for Bilingual Education, Austin, TX.

    Approximately 400 books, curriculum guides, journals, and educational resource materials published between 1967 and 1973 are listed in this annotated bibliography of bilingual bicultural materials on the Spanish-speaking, American Indians, French, Portuguese, Chinese, and Russians. This listing shares with bilingual bicultural project personnel…

  12. A Summary of the Third Persh Conference: Strategic Issues in Materials for National Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Board of Regents Dr. Barry Farmer U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory Dr. Gary Fischman Future Strategy Solutions Dr. Brian Fitzgerald Business...of Defense/Defense, Research and Engineering Dr. George Spanos Materials, Metals, and Materials Society Dr. David Stepp U.S. Army Research Office

  13. Teacher Knowledge, Curriculum Materials, and Quality of Instruction: Lessons Learned and Open Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Heather C.; Charalambous, Charalambos Y.

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on four case studies to perform a cross-case analysis investigating the unique and joint contribution of mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) and curriculum materials to instructional quality. As expected, it was found that both MKT and curriculum materials matter for instruction. The contribution of MKT was more prevalent in…

  14. Reply to: Econometric issues in testing the age neutrality of health care expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweifel, P; Felder, S; Meier, M

    2001-10-01

    Salas and Raftery allege that in our paper, (1) remaining life expectancy is an endogenous explanatory variable of health care expenditure and (2) the parameter designed to correct for sample selection bias in fact represents a hidden relationship between health care expenditure and age. We argue that claim (1) is not supported by the available empirical evidence, while claim (2) seems to derive from a too cursory reading of our paper.

  15. [The issue of feasibility of a general theory of aging I. Generalized Gompertz-Makeham Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubev, A G

    2009-01-01

    Aging and longevity are interrelated so intimately that they should be treated with a unified theory. The longevity of every single cohort of living beings is determined by the rate of their dying-out. In most cases, mortality rates increase in accelerated fashions to reach values making the bulk of each finite cohort completely exhausted within a relatively narrow time interval shifted to the end of its resulting lifespan. Among simple functions with biologically interpretable parameters, the best fit to this pattern is demonstrated by the Gompertz-Makeham Law (GML): mu = C + lambda x e(gamma x t). A generalized form of GML mu = C(t) + lambda x e(-E(t)) is suggested and interpreted as a law of the dependency of mortality upon vitality rather than on age. It is reduced to the conventional GML when E depends linearly on t, that the age is an observable correlate of unobservable vitality. C(t) captures the inherently irresistible causes of death. The generalized GML can accommodate any mode of age-dependent functional decline, which should be placed into the exponent index to be translated into changes in mortality rate, and is compatible with any sort of cohort heterogeneity, which may be captured by substituting of GML parameters with relevant distributions or by combining of several generalized GML models. The generalized GML is suggested to result from the origin of life from the chemical world, which was associated with the transition of the role of the main variable in the Arrhenius equation k = A x exp[-Ea/(R x T)] for the dependency of chemical disintegration on temperature from T to Ea upon the transition from molecular to multimolecular prebiotic entities. Thus, the generalized GML is not a result of biological evolution but is a sort of chemical legacy of biology, which makes an important condition for life to evolve.

  16. Physical security and cyber security issues and human error prevention for 3D printed objects: detecting the use of an incorrect printing material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy

    2017-06-01

    A wide variety of characteristics of 3D printed objects have been linked to impaired structural integrity and use-efficacy. The printing material can also have a significant impact on the quality, utility and safety characteristics of a 3D printed object. Material issues can be created by vendor issues, physical security issues and human error. This paper presents and evaluates a system that can be used to detect incorrect material use in a 3D printer, using visible light imaging. Specifically, it assesses the ability to ascertain the difference between materials of different color and different types of material with similar coloration.

  17. 230Th-234U Model-Ages of Some Uranium Standard Reference Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R W; Gaffney, A M; Kristo, M J; Hutcheon, I D

    2009-05-28

    The 'age' of a sample of uranium is an important aspect of a nuclear forensic investigation and of the attribution of the material to its source. To the extent that the sample obeys the standard rules of radiochronometry, then the production ages of even very recent material can be determined using the {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U chronometer. These standard rules may be summarized as (a) the daughter/parent ratio at time=zero must be known, and (b) there has been no daughter/parent fractionation since production. For most samples of uranium, the 'ages' determined using this chronometer are semantically 'model-ages' because (a) some assumption of the initial {sup 230}Th content in the sample is required and (b) closed-system behavior is assumed. The uranium standard reference materials originally prepared and distributed by the former US National Bureau of Standards and now distributed by New Brunswick Laboratory as certified reference materials (NBS SRM = NBL CRM) are good candidates for samples where both rules are met. The U isotopic standards have known purification and production dates, and closed-system behavior in the solid form (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) may be assumed with confidence. We present here {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U model-ages for several of these standards, determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry using a multicollector ICP-MS, and compare these ages with their known production history.

  18. Nanomaterials for environmental studies: Classification, reference material issues, and strategies for physico-chemical characterisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stone, V.; Nowack, B.; Baun, A.; Brink, van den N.W.; Kammer, von den F.; Dusinska, M.; Handy, R.; Hankin, S.; Hassellöv, M.; Joner, E.; Fernandes, T.F.

    2010-01-01

    NanoImpactNet is a European Commission Framework Programme 7 (FP7) funded project that provides a forum for the discussion of current opinions on nanomaterials in relation to human and environmental issues. In September 2008, in Zurich, a NanoImpactNet environmental workshop focused on three key que

  19. Frontiers of ferroelectricity a special issue of the journal of materials science

    CERN Document Server

    Lang, Sidney B

    2007-01-01

    The book presents theory, fundamentals and some applications of ferroelectricy. The 24 chapters comprise reviews and research reports covering the spectrum of ferroelectricity. It is intended to describe the current levels of understanding of various aspects of ferroelectricity as presented by authorities in the field. Topics include relaxors, piezoelectrics, microscale and nanoscale studies, polymers and composites, unusual properties, and techniques and devices. The information in this book is intended for physicists, engineers and materials scientists working with ferroelectric materials including ceramics, single crystals, polymers, composites and even some biological materials.

  20. Changing epidemiology and clinical issues arising in an ageing cystic fibrosis population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkins, Michael D; Parkins, Vicky M; Rendall, Jackie C; Elborn, Stuart

    2011-04-01

    Improvements in the quality and implementation of medical care for individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) have resulted in a dramatic improvement in survival. Many of these strategies have focused on the effective management of pulmonary disease which has delayed its manifestations into later years. With an increasing number of patients surviving to later years the impact of chronic inflammation and nutritional compromise on other organ systems over a lifetime are increasingly manifest. This review highlights the changing epidemiology of the ageing CF population and the complications that may ensue.

  1. Waste management issues and their potential impact on technical specifications of CANDU fuel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tait, J.C.; Johnson, L.H. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    The technical specifications for the composition of nuclear fuels and materials used in Canada's CANDU reactors have been developed by AECL and materials manufacturers, taking into account considerations specific to their manufacture and the effect of minor impurities on fuel behaviour in reactor. Nitrogen and chlorine are examples of UO{sub 2} impurities, however, where there is no technical specification limit. These impurities are present in the source materials or introduced in the fabrication process and are neutron activated to {sup 14}C and {sup 36}C1, which after {sup 129}I , are the two most significant contributors to dose in safety assessments for the disposal of used fuel. For certain impurities, environmental factors, particularly the safety of the disposal of used fuels, should be taken into consideration when deriving 'allowable' impurity limits for nuclear fuel materials. (author)

  2. Topical issues of psychological research materials on matters related to extremism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekerazh T.N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with methodological support psychological and linguistic research "extremist" materials. Presents a comprehensive psycho-linguistic approach to the examination of information materials on matters related to combating extremism and terrorism, and certain provisions of the methodology developed by the Russian federal center of judicial examination of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation. Based on the analysis of the "verbal" crimes related to criminal legal interpretation of extremism and terrorism, highlighted the types of prohibited public expression of communicative action, corresponding to the seven types of "extremist" values. The article outlines the key features of psychological analysis "extremist" materials research stages. It is shown that the complex (psycho-linguistic approach to the study of materials of extremist orientation, is scientifically sound, methodically proven, appropriate to the needs of law enforcement, judicial and investigative practice.

  3. Who owns the image? Archiving and retention issues in the digital age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezrich, Jonathan L; Siegel, Eliot

    2014-04-01

    Patients are often confused with respect to the ownership of radiologic images and the extent to which they may exert rights over their own imaging. In general, a facility that generates imaging maintains "ownership" rights. Patients have a right to inspect their images and obtain copies but they may not have the images or reports modified or stricken. Facilities may use images not only for treatment purposes but also have rights to use images with respect to educational training, quality control, and research, subject to HIPAA requirements. A facility has statutory obligations with respect to record retention and may face financial penalty and malpractice consequences for failure to retain images. Bankruptcy and state laws address issues of transfer of ownership of a patient's images in cases in which a facility goes out of business. Future questions remain as to whether the length of time a facility maintains images should increase as digital storage media improve and whether the use of inter-facility image sharing via "cloud" technology should alter obligations with respect to which facility must retain the images. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification and Assessment of Material Models for Age-Related Degradation of Structures and Passive Components in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie,J.; Braverman, J.; Hofmayer, C.; Kim, M. K.; Choi, I-K.

    2009-04-27

    When performing seismic safety assessments of nuclear power plants (NPPs), the potential effects of age-related degradation on structures, systems, and components (SSCs) should be considered. To address the issue of aging degradation, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has embarked on a five-year research project to develop a realistic seismic risk evaluation system which will include the consideration of aging of structures and components in NPPs. Three specific areas that are included in the KAERI research project, related to seismic probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), are probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, seismic fragility analysis including the effects of aging, and a plant seismic risk analysis. To support the development of seismic capability evaluation technology for degraded structures and components, KAERI entered into a collaboration agreement with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in 2007. The collaborative research effort is intended to continue over a five year period with the goal of developing seismic fragility analysis methods that consider the potential effects of age-related degradation of SSCs, and using these results as input to seismic PRAs. In the Year 1 scope of work BNL collected and reviewed degradation occurrences in US NPPs and identified important aging characteristics needed for the seismic capability evaluations that will be performed in the subsequent evaluations in the years that follow. This information is presented in the Annual Report for the Year 1 Task, identified as BNL Report-81741-2008 and also designated as KAERI/RR-2931/2008. The report presents results of the statistical and trending analysis of this data and compares the results to prior aging studies. In addition, the report provides a description of U.S. current regulatory requirements, regulatory guidance documents, generic communications, industry standards and guidance, and past research related to aging degradation of SSCs. This report

  5. [The WHO age-friendly cities program raises the issue of strategic planning, coordination and local political structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapon, Pierre-Marie

    2011-06-01

    In 2005 the World Health Organization initiated the «global age-friendly cities project» which encourages cities to be more inclusive of older people and to develop seniors' involvement by setting up a continuous cycle of assessment and improvement of urban living. The conclusions of the first french audit, which was made in Lyon in 2011, raise the issue of the capacity of cities to implement projects in all the areas fostering active aging. The question of strategic planning and of the level of intervention is relevant for the topics selected, and especially that of health. Is the present organization between the different actors satisfactory, or should large cities have more power? Co-ordination is necessary, and the creation of «gerontopoles» could bring an answer.

  6. Holocene radiocarbon-dated sites in northeastern Siberia: issues of temporal frequency, reservoir age, and human-nature interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Yaroslav V

    2010-01-01

    The existing corpus of data on radiocarbon dates for Holocene sites in Northeastern Siberia was used as proxy to reconstruct the chronology of human occupation of the region. The problem of reservoir age correction in the Bering Sea region complicated this task and this issue needs to be solved in order to obtain more reliable age determinations for coastal archaeological sites. Using a chronology built after excluding the questionable dates from the database, the major patterns of human population dynamics and their possible correlation with climatic fluctuations were examined. No direct relationship appears to exist between these two processes. Additional archaeological and paleo environmental work needs to be carried out in this region of the North.

  7. Investigation of Hygro-Thermal Aging on Carbon/Epoxy Materials for Jet Engine Fan Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlman, Lee W.; Roberts, Gary D.; Miller, Sandi G.; Pereira, J. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This poster summarizes 2 years of aging on E862 epoxy and E862 epoxy with triaxial braided T700s carbon fiber composite. Several test methods were used to characterize chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of both the resin and composite materials. The aging cycle that was used included varying temperature and humidity exposure. The goal was to evaluate the environmental effects on a potential jet engine fan section material. Some changes were noted in the resin which resulted in increased brittleness, though this did not significantly affect the tensile and impact test results. A potential decrease in compression strength requires additional investigation.

  8. Nanoglasses: A New Kind of Noncrystalline Material and the Way to an Age of New Technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiter, Herbert

    2016-04-27

    Today's technologies are primarily based on crystalline materials (metals, semiconductors, etc.), as their properties can be controlled by varying their chemical and/or defect microstructures. This is not possible in today's glasses. The new features of nanoglasses--consisting of nanometer-sized glassy regions connected by interfaces--are that their properties may be controlled by varying their chemical and/or defect microstructures, and that their interfaces have a new kind of non-crystalline structure. By utilizing these new features, an age of new technologies based on non-crystalline materials (a "glass age") may be initiated.

  9. Drought, drying and climate change: emerging health issues for ageing Australians in rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Graeme; Hanna, Liz; Kelly, Brian

    2010-03-01

    Older Australians living in rural areas have long faced significant challenges in maintaining health. Their circumstances are shaped by the occupations, lifestyles, environments and remoteness which characterise the diversity of rural communities. Many rural regions face threats to future sustainability and greater proportions of the aged reside in these areas. The emerging changes in Australia's climate over the past decade may be considered indicative of future trends, and herald amplification of these familiar challenges for rural communities. Such climate changes are likely to exacerbate existing health risks and compromise community infrastructure in some instances. This paper discusses climate change-related health risks facing older people in rural areas, with an emphasis on the impact of heat, drought and drying on rural and remote regions. Adaptive health sector responses are identified to promote mitigation of this substantial emerging need as individuals and their communities experience the projected impact of climate change.

  10. Efficient breathing at neonatal ages: A sex and Epo-dependent issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturri, Pablo; Bairam, Aida; Soliz, Jorge

    2016-12-29

    During postnatal life, the respiratory control system undergoes intense development and is highly responsive to stimuli emerging from the environment. In fact, interruption of breathing prevents gas exchange and results in systemic hypoxia that, if prolonged, can lead to cardio-respiratory failure or sudden infant death. Moreover, in newborns and infants, respiratory disorders related to neural control dysfunction show significant sexual dimorphism with a higher prevalence in males. To this day, the therapeutic tools available to alleviate these respiratory disorders remain limited. Furthermore, the factors explaining the sexual dimorphism in newborns and during infancy remain unknown. Erythropoietin (Epo) was originally discovered as a cytokine able to increase the production of red blood cells upon conditions of reduced oxygen availability. We now know that Epo is a cytokine also secreted by neurons and astrocytes that protects the brain during trauma or hypoxic stress in a sex dependent manner. In this novel line of research, our previous studies demonstrated at adult ages that cerebral Epo acts as a respiratory stimulant in rodents and humans. These results provided a strong rationale for exploring the role of cerebral Epo in neuronal respiratory control during postnatal development. The objective of this review is to summarize our recent findings showing that cerebral Epo is a potent sex-specific respiratory stimulant at neonatal ages. Keeping in mind that Epo is routinely and safely administrated in newborn humans for anemia and neonatal asphyxia, we predict that our research provides the basis necessary to promote the clinical use of Epo against neonatal respiratory disorders related to neural control dysfunction.

  11. Women with epilepsy in reproductive age group: special issues and management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shehanaaz; Thomas, Sanjeev V

    2013-08-01

    Women with epilepsy (WWE) have several gender based problems pertaining to social and biological domains. The stigma of epilepsy and its consequences appear to be more for women than men. They have more difficulty in getting married and sustaining a married life. The cyclical variations in the reproductive hormones can adversely impact the seizure pattern in WWE. Epileptiform discharges in the brain can influence the hypothalamic functions and lead to sexual dysfunction. The Antiepileptic drugs (AED) may alter their metabolic and hormone profile and contribute to this disorder. Most WWE tend to have uneventful pregnancies and healthy babies. Nevertheless, the risk of fetal malformations appears to be increased when AEDs are used during pregnancy. This risk is higher for those who are on polytherapy, or using valproate. Recent studies have also demonstrated that antenatal exposure to AEDs could lead to neurocognitive and developmental impairment, low IQ or language problems in exposed infants. Clinicians need to consider these special issues while initiating AED therapy in adolescent girls. All WWE need to have a detailed pre conception evaluation wherein the need to continue AEDs, the ideal AED and dosage are reassessed. The AED therapy would have to be individualized according to the clinical situations, obstetric background and family concerns. Folic acid should be prescribed to all women who could potentially become pregnant. Detailed screening for fetal malformations by estimation of serum alpha fetoprotein and fetal ultrasonography need to be carried out between 14 - 18 weeks of pregnancy. The dosage of AEDs may have to be escalated in the second half of pregnancy in selected patients. The family should be provided detailed counseling and information on how to cope with the pregnancy, childbirth, lactation, and contraception.

  12. Age-dependent recall bias for material of internal versus external origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Anna M; Crucian, Gregory P; Wingard, Ellen M; Graybeal, Laura A; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2003-09-01

    To learn whether young and aged subjects exhibit different recall biases for internally derived (Internal) versus externally supplied (External) material. Internally derived knowledge, prized by educators and therapists, can bring about dramatic behavioral change. Such information, seldom assessed on formal memory testing, may be preferentially recalled compared with external-origin material. Under some circumstances, however, subjects may demonstrate a recall advantage for externally supplied over internally generated material. We compared Internal and External word recall in young and aged subjects with and without explicit intent to remember. Although overall the young and aged subjects recalled the same number of words, we did find a word-origin recall bias. This recall bias differed by age group (P = 0.005). When not instructed to remember words, the young subjects tended to remember more External words, while aged subjects remembered more Internal words. The differences in the brain mechanisms mediating Internal versus External recall bias are unknown. However, aging may modify an Internal-External memory bias.

  13. [Intensive care at extremely low gestational age: ethical issues and treatment choices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignotti, M S; Toraldo di Francia, M; Donzelli, G

    2007-01-01

    With the continuing progress of obstetrical and neonatal care, the limit of human viability has continued to shift towards younger gestational ages. The survival rate as well as the survival without disability increases with each additional week of gestation but, for infants born from 22 to 25 w GA, it is still really low, and the threshold of human viability appears to be limited to the physiological development of the lungs, which take place around the 23rd-24th w GA. At present, the care of such infants, born at the threshold of human viability, presents a variety of complex medical, social, and economical decisions assuming the characteristics of ethical decisions in that the limits between benefits and disadvantages is not so clearcut. What is the true infant's best interest is far to be understood and concern about the ethical basis of providing such intensive care is arising in the scientific community. In this paper the authors provide a review of the ethical basis of decisions related to the care of such infants: to treat, not to treat, intensive or compassionate care, withhold or withdraw treatment.

  14. Practical Issues for Atom Probe Tomography Analysis of III-Nitride Semiconductor Materials

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Cambridge University Press via http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1431927615000422 Various practical issues affecting atom probe tomography (APT) analysis of III-nitride semiconductors have been studied as part of an investigation using a c-plane InAlN/GaN heterostructure. Specimen preparation was undertaken using a focused ion beam microscope with a mono-isotopic Ga source. This enabled the unambiguous observation of impl...

  15. Special nuclear materials cutoff exercise: Issues and lessons learned, Volume 2 of 3: Appendixes A - C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libby, R.A.; Davis, C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Segal, J.E.; Stanbro, W.D.

    1995-08-01

    This document is the 2nd volume of the three volume set from the Special Nuclear Materials Cutoff Exercise held at Hanford in 1994. Volume 2 contains Appendices A-C, with Appendices A and B containing a discussion of the design of the PUREX process and Appendix C containing a discussion of the safeguards measures for the PUREX facility.

  16. Discussion Material for Small Unit Leaders: Issues of Battlefield Ethics and Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    middle-aged woman, holding two children, a boy of four years old and an infant girl, were found dead. They were hiding between the bed and the wall...Considerably delayed, the second serial followed under command of the Platoon Commander, slowed by the vehicle under tow. Slowed to a crawl

  17. Basic Issues in the Sociology of Aging%老龄社会学的基本议题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 罗晓晖

    2014-01-01

    Through reflection on previous studies on the elderly and the aging problems from the social science perspective, this paper intends to discuss some basic issues in the ifeld of the sociology of aging. The main task of the sociology of aging is to study the aging society with the sociological perspectives and methods. The characteristic of an aging society is not only related to the age structure, but also to other factors like the socio-economic conditions. In terms of methodology, the study of the elderly group should be based on the understanding of the individual behavior and its’ subjective meaning, thus we can explain the social phenomenon inclusive of the elderly group. In terms of research method, more qualitative research methods should be used besides quantitative methods. In terms of research issues, in addition to the issues in economic aspect, other aspects of social life,especially social norms, family ethics and spiritual belief, should also be concerned. It is suggested in this paper that the sociology of aging should accumulate in the ifeld of concrete research, thus can the conceptual f ramework and theoretical system of the sociology of aging be established step by step, which comply with China’s cultural tradition and social reality.%通过反思以往从社会科学角度对老年人和老龄化的研究,对老龄社会学的若干基础性问题进行了探讨。老龄社会学采用社会学的视角和方法研究老龄社会,对老龄社会特征的描述不仅和年龄结构相关,还和社会经济类型、文化传统等其他因素相关。在方法论上,对老年人群体的研究应基于对个体社会行动及其主观意义的理解,并由此得出包括老年人群体在内的整体社会现象的解释。在研究方法上,除了量化方法,还应采用更多的质性研究方法。在研究议题上,除了经济层面的问题,还应关注社会生活的其他方面,特别是社会规范、家庭伦理

  18. Application of aging methods to estimate long term performance of secondary materials for road construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akbarnejad, S.; Houben, L.J.M.; Molenaar, A.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Long term performance of secondary materials is becoming a challenging aspect in road construction since due to their benefits they are being used on a large scale, but on the other hand their future behaviors are difficult to estimate. In this study, aging is proposed as a means of exploring the lo

  19. Legal, institutional, and political issues in transportation of nuclear materials at the back end of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippek, H.E.; Schuller, C.R.

    1979-03-01

    A study was conducted to identify major legal and institutional problems and issues in the transportation of spent fuel and associated processing wastes at the back end of the LWR nuclear fuel cycle. (Most of the discussion centers on the transportation of spent fuel, since this activity will involve virtually all of the legal and institutional problems likely to be encountered in moving waste materials, as well.) Actions or approaches that might be pursued to resolve the problems identified in the analysis are suggested. Two scenarios for the industrial-scale transportation of spent fuel and radioactive wastes, taken together, high-light most of the major problems and issues of a legal and institutional nature that are likely to arise: (1) utilizing the Allied General Nuclear Services (AGNS) facility at Barnwell, SC, as a temporary storage facility for spent fuel; and (2) utilizing AGNS for full-scale commercial reprocessing of spent LWR fuel.

  20. Investigations of Accelerated Climate Aged Wood Substrates by Fourier Transform Infrared Material Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Petter Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fourier transform infrared (FTIR material characterization by applying the attenuated total reflectance (ATR experimental technique represents a powerful measurement tool. The ATR technique may be applied on both solid state materials, liquids and gases with none or only minor sample preparations, also including materials which are nontransparent to infrared radiation. This facilitation is made possible by pressing the sample directly onto various crystals, for example, diamond, with high refractive indices, in a special reflectance setup. Materials undergoing ageing processes by natural and accelerated climate exposure, decomposition and formation of chemical bonds and products, may be studied in an ATR-FTIR analysis. In this work, the ATR-FTIR technique is utilized to detect changes in selected wood building material substrates subjected to accelerated climate exposure conditions. Changes in specific FTIR absorbance peaks are designated to different wood deterioration processes. One aim is by ATR-FTIR analysis to be able to quantitatively determine the length of the wood ageing time before priming/treatment. Climate parameters like temperature (including freezing/thawing, relative air humidity, wind driven rain amount, solar and/or ultraviolet radiation, and exposure duration may be controlled in different climate ageing apparatuses. Both impregnated and raw wood samples have been employed in the experimental investigations.

  1. Material-related issues at high-power and high-energy ion beam facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Bender, M.; Tomut, M.; Trautmann, C.

    2015-01-01

    When solids are exposed to energetic ions (MeV-GeV), their physical and chemical structure can be severely modified. The change is governed by ultrafast dynamical processes starting from the deposition of large energy densities, electronic excitation and ionization processes, and finally damage creation in the atomic lattice system. In many materials, each projectile creates a cylindrical track with a few nanometers in diameter and up to many μm in length. To study and monitor the creation of damage, the GSI irradiation facility dedicated to materials science provides different in-situ and on-line techniques such as high resolution microscopy, X-ray diffraction, optical absorption spectroscopy, thermal imaging and residual gas analysis. The irradiation experiments can be performed under various gas atmospheres and under cryogenic or elevated temperature.

  2. Use of Silicon Carbide as Beam Intercepting Device Material: Tests, Issues and Numerical Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Delonca, M; Gil Costa, M; Vacca, A

    2014-01-01

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) stands as one of the most promising ceramic material with respect to its thermal shock resistance and mechanical strengths. It has hence been considered as candidate material for the development of higher performance beam intercepting devices at CERN. Its brazing with a metal counterpart has been tested and characterized by means of microstructural and ultrasound techniques. Despite the positive results, its use has to be evaluated with care, due to the strong evidence in literature of large and permanent volumetric expansion, called swelling, under the effect of neutron and ion irradiation. This may cause premature and sudden failure, and can be mitigated to some extent by operating at high temperature. For this reason limited information is available for irradiation below 100°C, which is the typical temperature of interest for beam intercepting devices like dumps or collimators. This paper describes the brazing campaign carried out at CERN, the results, and the theoretical and numeric...

  3. Safety Issues of HG and PB as IFE Target Materials: Radiological Versus Chemical Toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, S; Latkowski, J F; Cadwallader, L C; Moir, R W; Rio, G. D; Sanz, J

    2002-11-11

    We have performed a safety assessment of mercury and lead as possible hohlraum materials for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) targets, including for the first time a comparative analysis of the radiological and toxicological consequences of an accidental release. In order to calculate accident doses to the public, we have distinguished between accidents at the target fabrication facility and accidents at other areas of the power plant. Regarding the chemical toxicity assessment, we have used the USDOE regulations to determine the maximum allowable release in order to protect the public from adverse health effects. Opposite to common belief, it has been found that the chemical safety requirements for these materials appear to be more stringent than the concentrations that would result in an acceptable radiological dose.

  4. Communications issues for international radioactive materials transport, Post 9/11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, A.A. [International Transport, BNFL, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Hartenstein, M. [Transport External Affairs, Marketing, Sales and Projects Div., Cogema Logistics, Saint Quentin en Yvelines (France); Nawano, M. [Transport Headquarters, Overseas Reprocessing Committee, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11{sup th} 2001 in New York and Washington (9/11) have increased government, public and media concern over terrorist attacks in general and attack on transport systems in particular. Antinuclear groups have increasingly made unsubstantiated claims about the terrorist threat to Radioactive Materials Transport and the consequences of such a threat being realised. At the same time, the international and national security regulations relating to Nuclear Materials Transport have been reviewed and tightened since 9/11. These changes have in some cases restricted the information that can be made publicly available. It is against this background that the Industry must operate and seek to inform the public through its communications activities whilst remaining within the new security framework of security regulations. These activities must necessarily provide sufficient information to counter the incorrect claims made by opponents, allay fears of the public as far as possible and provide factual and scientifically rigorous data without compromising security.

  5. Program-oriented approach to resource saving issues in construction materials industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novikova Galina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction as a sector of the economy is one of the largest consumers of energy resources, and the building materials industry is today one of the most energy-intensive construction industry. At the enterprises of the building materials industry the different approaches and methods are used to solve resource and energy problems. Energy saving is considered not as an complex approach in the enterprise activity, but as activity for the implementation of specific energy-saving projects, which have limitations in time and in resources. The authors suggest to use a softwareoriented approach to solving the problems of resource and energy saving. For practical application of program-oriented approach we offer to use a structuring method of the decision-making, not previously used to solve problems of resource and energy saving.

  6. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Materials Issues for Generation IV Systems : Status, Open Questions and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Gorse, Dominique; Mazière, Dominique; Pontikis, Vassilis

    2008-01-01

    Global warming, shortage of low-cost oil resources and the increasing demand for energy are currently controlling the world's economic expansion while often opposing desires for sustainable and peaceful development. In this context, atomic energy satisfactorily fulfills the criteria of low carbon gas production and high overall yield. However, in the absence of industrial fast-breeders the use of nuclear fuel is not optimal, and the production of high activity waste materials is at a maximum. These are the principal reasons for the development of a new, fourth generation of nuclear reactors, minimizing the undesirable side-effects of current nuclear energy production technology while increasing yields by increasing operation temperatures and opening the way for the industrial production of hydrogen through the decomposition of water. The construction and use of such reactors is hindered by several factors, including performance limitations of known structural materials, particularly if the life of the project...

  7. Special Issue: Adaptive/Smart Structures and Multifunctional Materials with Application to Morphing Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafic Ajaj

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in smart structures and multifunctional materials have facilitated many novel aerospace technologies such as morphing aircraft. A morphing aircraft, bio-inspired by natural fliers, has gained a lot of interest as a potential technology to meet the ambitious goals of the Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe (ACARE Vision 2020 and the FlightPath 2050 documents. A morphing aircraft continuously adjusts its wing geometry to enhance flight performance, control authority, and multi-mission capability.[...

  8. Third-order nonlinear optical materials: practical issues and theoretical challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoć, Marek

    2011-09-01

    The renewed interest in all-optical switching has led to more detailed experimental investigations of nonlinear optical properties of materials within wide wavelength ranges. The objectives of these studies are discussed here in the context of the availability of suitable computational data that might be compared with the results of the experimental research. It is concluded that the currently available data are insufficient and should be augmented to provide better guidance for experimental work.

  9. High frequency material issues in scattering of sound by objects in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Christopher

    Ray theoretic models were shown to predict scattering enhancements from laboratory scale cylindrical targets in water. Synthetic aperture sonar and acoustical holographic images were constructed from bistatic scattering. Targets of increasing complexity from material properties were investigated. Models range from simple ray optic style to corrections for transversely isotropic materials. To correctly model the complexity of anisotropic material such as fiberglass, the five independent elastic constants and the density were measured. In all of the cylindrical shells and solid targets, enhancements are observable for ka values ranging from 9 to 40 where k is the wavenumber and a is the cylinder radius. The simpler targets consist of a low sound speed fluid within a thin plastic or fiberglass shell (11 image features existed from longitudinal as well as shear wave propagation within the polystyrene. A model including shear and longitudinal wave components showed good agrement with experiments with respect to timing and length of features for RexoliteRTM. Fiberglass is the most complex due to the anisotropic symmetry of the material. The slowness matrix allowed for modeling of timing aspects of the solid fiberglass cylinder. For a flat polystyrene half-space there is predicted to be a prominent enhancement of the acoustic reflection for an angle of incidence near 40°. Measurements showed the existence of a related peak in the reflection from solid Rexolite cylinders with ka near 9. Related peaks in the reflection from coated cylinders were observed. The properties of sound transmitted by a stainless steel plate in water was investigated. The relevant S2b leaky Lamb waves have been previously demonstrated on spherical shells [Kaduchak et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 3704 (1994)]. Directional properties of guided waves excited on a stainless steel plate in water were observed. Guided waves could be excited on the plate having group and phase velocities oppositely

  10. Design Issues for Using Magnetic Materials in Radiation Environments at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.

    2013-01-01

    One of the challenges of designing motors and alternators for use in nuclear powered space missions is accounting for the effects of radiation. Terrestrial reactor power plants use distance and shielding to minimize radiation damage but space missions must economize volume and mass. Past studies have shown that sufficiently high radiation levels can affect the magnetic response of hard and soft magnetic materials. Theoretical models explaining the radiation-induced degradation have been proposed but not verified. This paper reviews the literature and explains the cumulative effects of temperature, magnetic-load, and radiation-level on the magnetic properties of component materials. Magnetic property degradation is very specific to alloy choice and processing history, since magnetic properties are very much entwined with specific chemistry and microstructural features. However, there is basic theoretical as well as supportive experimental evidence that the negative impact to magnetic properties will be minimal if the bulk temperature of the material is less than fifty percent of the Curie temperature, the radiation flux is low, and the demagnetization field is small. Keywords: Magnets, Permanent Magnets, Power Converters, Nuclear Electric Power Generation, Radiation Tolerance.

  11. Research@ARL: Materials Modeling at Multiple Scales. Volume 3, Issue 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    several methods such as reaction of boric oxide and carbon in an electric arc furnace [4] or carbothermal reduction of a boric acid – citric acid gel [5...is red fuming nitric acid . In all cases, the formu- lations will also include catalysts, stabilizing agents and other additives to meet system...leads to performance degradation of the battery upon aging and cycling .12,13 Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been used to predict

  12. Issues associated with the use of Yoshida nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening material model in Advanced High Strength Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming F.; Zhang, Li; Zhu, Xinhai

    2016-08-01

    The Yoshida nonlinear isotropic/kinematic hardening material model is often selected in forming simulations where an accurate springback prediction is required. Many successful application cases in the industrial scale automotive components using advanced high strength steels (AHSS) have been reported to give better springback predictions. Several issues have been raised recently in the use of the model for higher strength AHSS including the use of two C vs. one C material parameters in the Armstrong and Frederick model (AF model), the original Yoshida model vs. Original Yoshida model with modified hardening law, and constant Young's Modulus vs. decayed Young's Modulus as a function of plastic strain. In this paper, an industrial scale automotive component using 980 MPa strength materials is selected to study the effect of two C and one C material parameters in the AF model on both forming and springback prediction using the Yoshida model with and without the modified hardening law. The effect of decayed Young's Modulus on the springback prediction for AHSS is also evaluated. In addition, the limitations of the material parameters determined from tension and compression tests without multiple cycle tests are also discussed for components undergoing several bending and unbending deformations.

  13. Development of lithium-ion batteries from micro-structured to nanostructured materials: its issues and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Harish; Rajan, Sundar; Shukla, Ashok K

    2012-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexibility, lightness in weight, design and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. A brief historical review is given of the development of Li-ion rechargeable batteries, highlighting the ongoing research strategies, and highlighting the challenges regarding synthesis, characterization, electrochemical performance and safety of these systems. This work is primarily focused on development of Li-ion batteries from micro-structured to nanostructured materials and some of the critical issues namely, electrode preparation, synthesis, and electrochemical characterization. The purpose of this review is to act as a reference for future work in this area.

  14. Special nuclear materials cutoff exercise: Issues and lessons learned. Volume 1: Summary of exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libby, R.A.; Davis, C. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Segal, J.E.; Stanbro, W.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-08-01

    In a September 1993 address to the United Nations General Assembly, President Clinton announced a new nonproliferation and export control policy that established a framework for US efforts to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The new policy proposed that the US undertake a comprehensive approach to the growing accumulation of fissile material. One of the key elements was for the US to support a special nuclear materials (SNM) multilateral convention prohibiting the production of highly enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium for nuclear explosives purposes or outside of international safeguards. This policy is often referred to as the President`s Cutoff Initiative or the Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (FMCT). Because both the US Department of Energy (DOE) and foreign reprocessing facilities similar to PUREX will likely to be inspected under a FMCT, the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation, Negotiations and Analysis Division (DOE/NN-41) tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to perform an information gathering exercise, the PUREX Exercise, using the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant located on the Hanford Site in Washington State. PUREX is a former production reactor fuel reprocessing plant currently undergoing a transition to a ``decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) ready`` mode. The PUREX Exercise was conducted March 29--30, 1994, to examine aspects of the imposition of several possible cutoff regimes and to study verification of non-production of SNM for nuclear weapons purposes or outside of safeguards. A follow-up activity to further examine various additional verification regimes was held at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) on May 10, 1994.

  15. Laser Shock Processing of Metallic Materials: Coupling of Laser-Plasma Interaction and Material Behaviour Models for the Assessment of Key Process Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña, J. L.; Morales, M.; Molpeceres, C.; Porro, J. A.

    2010-10-01

    Profiting by the increasing availability of laser sources delivering intensities above 109 W/cm2 with pulse energies in the range of several Joules and pulse widths in the range of nanoseconds, laser shock processing (LSP) is consolidating as an effective technology for the improvement of surface mechanical and corrosion resistance properties of metals. The main advantage of the laser shock processing technique consists on its capability of inducing a relatively deep compression residual stresses field into metallic alloy pieces allowing an improved mechanical behaviour, explicitly, the life improvement of the treated specimens against wear, crack growth and stress corrosion cracking. Although significant work from the experimental side has been contributed to explore the optimum conditions of application of the treatments and to assess their ultimate capability to provide enhanced mechanical behaviour to work-pieces of typical materials, only limited attempts have been developed in the way of full comprehension and predictive assessment of the characteristic physical processes and material transformations with a specific consideration of real material properties. In the present paper, a review on the physical issues dominating the development of LSP processes from a high intensity laser-matter interaction point of view is presented along with the theoretical and computational methods developed by the authors for their predictive assessment and practical results at laboratory scale on the application of the technique to different materials.

  16. Issues of intergranular embrittlement of VVER-type nuclear reactors pressure vessel materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabusov, O.

    2016-04-01

    In light of worldwide tendency to extension of service life of operating nuclear power plants - VVER-type in the first place - recently a special attention is concentrated on phenomena taking place in reactor pressure vessel materials that are able to lead to increased level of mechanical characteristics degradation (resistibility to brittle fracture) during long term of operation. Formerly the hardening mechanism of degradation (increase in the yield strength under influence of irradiation) mainly had been taken into consideration to assess pressure vessel service life limitations, but when extending the service life up to 60 years and more the non-hardening mechanism (intergranular embrittlement of the steels) must be taken into account as well. In this connection NRC “Kurchatov Institute” has initiated a number of works on investigations of this mechanism contribution to the total embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steels. The main results of these investigations are described in this article. Results of grain boundary phosphorus concentration measurements in specimens made of first generation of VVER-type pressure vessels materials as well as VVER-1000 surveillance specimens are presented. An assessment of non-hardening mechanism contribution to the total ductile-to- brittle transition temperature shift is given.

  17. Preliminary materials selection issues for the next generation nuclear plant reactor pressure vessel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Majumdar, S.; Shankar, P. S.; Shah, V. N.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-03-21

    In the coming decades, the United States and the entire world will need energy supplies to meet the growing demands due to population increase and increase in consumption due to global industrialization. One of the reactor system concepts, the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), with helium as the coolant, has been identified as uniquely suited for producing hydrogen without consumption of fossil fuels or the emission of greenhouse gases [Generation IV 2002]. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected this system for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, to demonstrate emissions-free nuclear-assisted electricity and hydrogen production within the next 15 years. The NGNP reference concepts are helium-cooled, graphite-moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactors with a design goal outlet helium temperature of {approx}1000 C [MacDonald et al. 2004]. The reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. The use of molten salt coolant, especially for the transfer of heat to hydrogen production, is also being considered. The NGNP is expected to produce both electricity and hydrogen. The process heat for hydrogen production will be transferred to the hydrogen plant through an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX). The basic technology for the NGNP has been established in the former high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) and demonstration plants (DRAGON, Peach Bottom, AVR, Fort St. Vrain, and THTR). In addition, the technologies for the NGNP are being advanced in the Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) project, and the South African state utility ESKOM-sponsored project to develop the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR). Furthermore, the Japanese HTTR and Chinese HTR-10 test reactors are demonstrating the feasibility of some of the planned components and materials. The proposed high operating temperatures in the VHTR place significant constraints on the choice of material selected for the reactor pressure vessel for

  18. A Detailed Study on Issues and Challenges of Management Education in Digital Age with Special Reference to Lucknow District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Arafat ELAHI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher education especially management education in India stands at a crossroad. Without change, the traditional university structure of educating and training tomorrow’s business leaders is likely to be surpassed and discarded in the increasingly diverse and technological global economy. The Objective of this is paper is to study the competencies and characteristics of Management Teachers in the changing digital age, to identify the issues and challenges that arise in management education. This paper will help in developing better understanding of issues and challenges related with Management Education and will be helpful for Owners, Administrators and Government. It has been found that the current curriculum in management education does not prepare students to face the challenges in business environment. Managing uncertainty and complexity are not taught in Business Schools. Business Schools merely teach the concepts with case studies and does not focus on the challenges arising out of rapid growing technology and the challenges involved in running an enterprise. Unfortunately, the best talent is going to industry where salaries are lucrative. Those who come to academic area are the ones who could not be absorbed in the industry or joined this profession by chance or chose this career out of passion. The data collected from respondents suggests that Management Students should be provided with latest teaching pedagogy and Management Teachers should be paid good remuneration for their work.

  19. Material modelling and its application to creep-age forming of aluminium alloy 7B04

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Aaron C.L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Creep-ageing behaviour of aluminium alloy 7B04-T651 at 115 °C under a range of tensile stress levels has been experimentally investigated and numerically modelled for creep-age forming (CAF applications. Creep strain, yield strength evolution and precipitate growth of creep-aged specimens were investigated. The alloy was modelled using a set of unified constitutive equations, which captures its creep deformation and takes into account yield strength contributions from three creep-age hardening mechanisms. Applications of the present work are demonstrated by implementing the determined material model into a commercial finite element analysis solver to analyse CAF operations carried out in a novel flexible CAF tool. Stress relaxation, yield strength, precipitate size and springback were predicted for the creep-age formed plates. The predicted springback were further quantified and compared with experimental measurements and a good agreement of 2.5% deviation was achieved. This material model now enables further investigations of 7B04 under various CAF scenarios to be conducted inexpensively via computational modelling.

  20. Planetary Protection, Biocontainment and Societal Issues: Planning a Sample Receiving Facility for Returned Martian Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret

    In planning for a Sample Receiving Facility (SRF), space agencies must ensure that COSPAR planetary protection requirements are met to avoid back contamination of Earth. In the United States, environmental, health and safety requirements will also apply regardless of where a facility is eventually built. The U.S. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA, requires that NASA must prepare an environmental impact statement in advance of SRF construction to inform the public about all the potential risks, plans and reviews that will be involved. Since an SRF will likely include a BSL-4 biocontainment lab, it is instructive to examine public concerns about biocontainment that have arisen at relevant analogue facilities in order to extract lessons learned for an SRF. This paper describes findings of a recent multi-year study of 18 high-level biocontainment facilities and suggests lessons learned that are applicable to any future facilty designed to handle returned martian materials. Regardless where the SRF may be built, it will be important to develop a risk communication plan that ensures the public is informed openly, honestly, and throughout the planning, construction and operational phases of the facility.

  1. Influence of artificial ageing on surface properties and Streptococcus mutans adhesion to dental composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, Sebastian; Henrich, Anne; Rosentritt, Martin; Handel, Gerhard; Bürgers, Ralf

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the influence of artificial ageing on the surface properties and early Streptococcus mutans adhesion to current dental composites for the direct restoration of class II defects. Three hundred and thirty specimens each were prepared from five dental composites, and were randomly allotted to various artificial ageing protocols (storage in distilled water/ethanol/artificial saliva for 7/90/365 days; thermal cycling, 6,000 cycles 5/55 degrees C). Prior and after each treatment, surface roughness (R(a)) and hydrophobicity were determined, and S. mutans adhesion (ATCC 25175; 2.5 h, 37 degrees C) was simulated with and without prior exposition to human whole saliva (2 h, 37 degrees C). Adherence of S. mutans was determined fluorometrically. Means and standard deviations were calculated, and analyzed using three-way ANOVA and post-hoc analysis (alpha = 0.05). For both R(a) and S. mutans adherence to uncoated and saliva-coated specimens, significant influences of the composite material, the ageing medium and the ageing duration have been observed; for surface hydrophobicity, significant influences of the composite material and the ageing duration were found. For uncoated specimens, significant increases in S. mutans adhesion were observed with prolonged artificial ageing, whereas significant decreases in S. mutans adhesion were found for the saliva-coated specimens. The data indicate influences of the artificial ageing method on surface parameters such as R(a) and hydrophobicity as well as microbial adhesion. The results underline the relevance of saliva coating on the outcome of studies simulating microbial adhesion, and highlight differences in the susceptibility of dental composites for the adhesion of oral bacteria.

  2. Femininity, Masculinity, and Body Image Issues among College-Age Women: An In-Depth and Written Interview Study of the Mind-Body Dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Patricia; Gnong, Andrea; Ross, Lauren Sardi

    2009-01-01

    In this article we investigate college-age women's body image issues in the context of dominant femininity and its polarization of the mind and body. We use original data collected through seven in-depth interviews and 32 qualitative written interviews with college-age women and men. We coded the data thematically applying feminist approaches to…

  3. The aging of wire chambers filled with dimethyl ether: Wire and construction materials and freon impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jibaly, M.; Majewski, S.; Chrusch, P. Jr.; Wojcik, R. (Florida Univ., Gainesville (USA). Dept. of Physics (USA)); Sauli, F.; Gaudaen, J. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). EP-Div. (Switzerland))

    1989-11-10

    This is a complete summary of our study of the aging of different types of wire chambers, with a variety of construction materials and wires, filled with dimethyl ether (DME) of varying degrees of purity. The resistive Nicotin and Stablohm wires were corroded by DME, producing fast aging. The moderately resistive stainless steel wires were able to withstand extended irradiation (up to 1 C/cm) in high-purity DME without any apparent damage; and gold-plated tungsten and molybdenum wires exhibited a comparable behavior. Many construction materials were tested and recommendations are thus reached as to what kinds of materials are safe in building DME-operated wire chambers. Among many different Freon and hydrocarbon impurities detected in DME by means of gas chromatography (GC), Freon-11 was found to be mostly responsible for the aging, even with noncorrosive stainless steel or gold-plated wires. The availability and feasibility of obtaining Freon-free DME is reported as well. (orig.).

  4. METHODOLOGY FOR EXAMINING SYSTEM AGING DUE TO INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CHEMICALLY INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. DENINGER; J. TANSKI

    1999-04-01

    We start with a stored and unused population of fielded engineered units that are composed of chemically incompatible materials. The units age primarily through heterogeneous chemical reactions between the materials resulting in possible degradation in performance. The engineered units are unused in storage, but may be called into actual service at any time. We sample several units from the population per year and perform a number of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, such as radiography, low-frequency vibration analysis, and ultrasonic imaging on the selected units. From those units, some are selected for destructive testing (D-test) involving disassembly and testing of internal parts and components. Chemical analyses, mechanical properties measurements and other tests are performed. All of the above steps provide information that is used in the system simulation mathematical model. The system simulation model incorporates chemical reactions and gas-solid transport processes, along with changes in both the surface and bulk properties of the solids. Model results are used to suggest improvements in NDE analyses of the units and improvements in component and material analyses. Model results give trending indications of individual component and overall system changes over time, plus some understanding of the mechanisms involved which allow science-based predictions of the aged state of the units in future times. The NDE, D-test, and model results can also be used to assess statistically the reliability and performance of the overall aging population of units.

  5. Sixth Status Report: Testing of Aged Softwood Fiberboard Material for the 9975 Shipping Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-03-31

    Samples have been prepared from several 9975 lower fiberboard subassemblies fabricated from softwood fiberboard. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties have been measured following varying periods of conditioning in each of several environments. These tests have been conducted in the same manner as previous testing on cane fiberboard samples. Overall, similar aging trends are observed for softwood and cane fiberboard samples, with a few differences. Some softwood fiberboard properties tend to degrade faster in some environments, while some cane fiberboard properties degrade faster in the two most aggressive environments. As a result, it is premature to assume both materials will age at the same rates, and the preliminary aging models developed for cane fiberboard might not apply to softwood fiberboard. However, it is expected that both cane and softwood fiberboard assemblies will perform satisfactorily in conforming packages stored in a typical KAC storage environment for up to 15 years. Samples from an additional 3 softwood fiberboard assemblies have begun aging during the past year to provide information on the variability of softwood fiberboard behavior. Aging and testing of softwood fiberboard will continue and additional data will be collected to support development of an aging model specific to softwood fiberboard.

  6. Occurence and implications of radiation dose-rate effects for material aging studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Kenneth T.; Clough, Roger L.

    A number of commercial cable materials, including ethylene propylene rubber and crosslinked polyolefin insulations and chloroprene and chlorosulfonated polyethylene jackets have been radiation aged in air and nitrogen at radiation dose rates ranging from approximately 10 3 to 10 6{rad}/{hr}. Material degradation was followed using ultimate tensile properties (elongation and tensile strength), swelling measurements and infrared spectroscopy. The tensile results indicate that in air environments radiation dose rate effects are important for all four materials, with more mechanical damage occurring as the dose rate is lowered. These results are interpreted as coming from a competition between crosslinking and oxidative scission in which scission becomes more important as the dose rate is lowered. The swelling results offer direct evidence in support of this interpretation. In addition the infrared results show increased carbonyl content at lower dose rates, also indicative of increased oxidation. The conclusions of this study have important implications for the qualification of elastomeric materials for nuclear applications, since they clearly indicate that the mechanism of degradation is quite different (and the amount usually more severe) under low dose rate exposures compared to the mechanism occurring under the high dose rate exposures normally utilized for stimulating the natural aging.

  7. Influence of Thermal Aging on Material Strength Behavior in Grade 91 Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeong-Yeon; Kim, Woo-Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, the influence of thermal aging on yield strength and ductility for Grade 91 steel has been investigated. Service exposed Gr.91 steel materials sampled from a piping system of an ultra-supercritical plant over 73716 hours were used for material testing. The test results were compared with those of the virgin Gr.91 steel and those data were compared with RCC-MRx data. In this study, thermal aging effect of Gr.91 steel on the strength and ductility has been investigated. It was shown that yield strength has dropped as much as 35.8% over the service exposed duration of 8.4 years while ductility has been improved up to 23%. Since the present design rules of ASME Code and RCC-MRx do not provide concrete strength reduction factors for the thermal aging, it was shown to be necessary based on the findings of the present study to take this thermal aging influence into account in those design codes so that the design outcomes are to be more reliable.

  8. FOURTH STATUS REPORT: TESTING OF AGED SOFTWOOD FIBERBOARD MATERIAL FOR THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.

    2013-03-05

    Samples have been prepared from a 9975 lower fiberboard subassembly fabricated from softwood fiberboard. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties have been measured following varying periods of conditioning in each of several environments. These tests have been conducted in the same manner as previous testing on cane fiberboard samples. Overall, similar aging trends are observed for softwood and cane fiberboard samples, with a few differences. Some softwood fiberboard properties tend to degrade faster in elevated humidity environments, while some cane fiberboard properties degrade faster in the hotter dry environments. As a result, it is premature to assume both materials will age at the same rates, and the preliminary aging models developed for cane fiberboard might not apply to softwood fiberboard. However, it is expected that both cane and softwood fiberboard assemblies will perform satisfactorily in conforming packages stored in a typical KAMS environment for up to 15 years. Aging and testing of softwood fiberboard will continue and additional data will be collected. Post-conditioning data have been measured on samples from a single softwood fiberboard assembly, and baseline data are also available from a limited number of vendor-provided samples. This provides minimal information on the possible sample-to-sample variation exhibited by softwood fiberboard. Data to date are generally consistent with the range seen in cane fiberboard, but some portions of the data trends are skewed toward the lower end of that range. Further understanding of the variability of softwood fiberboard properties will require testing of additional material.

  9. Critical issues related to instrumented indentation on non-uniform materials: Application to niobium subjected to high pressure torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.Z., E-mail: guoyazhou@nwpu.edu.cn [School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Behm, N.A. [Nanoscale Science PhD Program, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223-0001 (United States); Ligda, J.P. [WMRD, US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, MD 21005 (United States); Li, Y.L. [School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Pan, Z. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223-0001 (United States); Horita, Z. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); WPI, International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Wei, Q., E-mail: qwei@uncc.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223-0001 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Nanoindentation is a powerful tool for characterizing the mechanical properties of materials at small length scales. Since the loading rate can be accurately recorded and controlled during a nanoindentation test, the strain rate dependence of these properties can also be determined. However, there are still a few problems that need to be addressed when it is applied to some special materials. High pressure torsion (HPT) processed metals are examples of these materials with non-uniform microstructures and mechanical properties. In this work, commercially pure niobium disks with diameter of ∼10.0 mm and thickness of ∼1.0 mm were processed by HPT. Grain sizes from a few nanometers to a few micrometers were generated due to a strong radial strain gradient in the disk. Instrumented nanoindentation tests were conducted at different radial locations of the HPT niobium disk. During each test, the loading rate was controlled so that the indentation strain rate was kept constant. Some key issues associated with the nanoindentation experiment, such as contact stiffness, contact area and the effect of pile-up or sink-in were evaluated and discussed carefully. The work-based method was used in data processing and it was compared with other approaches. The effects of indentation location, i.e., grain size, as well as indentation strain rate were characterized.

  10. FIFTH STATUS REPORT: TESTING OF AGED SOFTWOOD FIBERBOARD MATERIAL FOR THE 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.; Skidmore, E.; Dunn, K.

    2014-04-15

    Samples have been prepared from a 9975 lower fiberboard subassembly fabricated from softwood fiberboard. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties have been measured following varying periods of conditioning in each of several environments. These tests have been conducted in the same manner as previous testing on cane fiberboard samples. Overall, similar aging trends are observed for softwood and cane fiberboard samples, with a few differences. Some softwood fiberboard properties tend to degrade faster in elevated humidity environments, while some cane fiberboard properties degrade faster in the hotter dry environments. As a result, it is premature to assume both materials will age at the same rates, and the preliminary aging models developed for cane fiberboard might not apply to softwood fiberboard. However, it is expected that both cane and softwood fiberboard assemblies will perform satisfactorily in conforming packages stored in a typical KAC storage environment for up to 15 years. Aging and testing of softwood fiberboard will continue and additional data will be collected. Additional samples will be added to each aging environment, to support development of an aging model specific to softwood fiberboard. Post-conditioning data have been measured on samples from a single softwood fiberboard assembly, and baseline data are also available from a limited number of vendor-provided samples. This provides minimal information on the possible sample-to-sample variation exhibited by softwood fiberboard. Data to date are generally consistent with the range seen in cane fiberboard, but some portions of the data trends are skewed toward the lower end of that range. Two additional softwood fiberboard source packages have been obtained and will begin to provide data on the range of variability of this material.

  11. LEVERAGING AGING MATERIALS DATA TO SUPPORT EXTENSION OF TRANSPORTATION SHIPPING PACKAGES SERVICE LIFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, K. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Bellamy, S. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Daugherty, W. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Sindelar, R. [Savannah River National Laboratory; Skidmore, E. [Savannah River National Laboratory

    2013-08-18

    Nuclear material inventories are increasingly being transferred to interim storage locations where they may reside for extended periods of time. Use of a shipping package to store nuclear materials after the transfer has become more common for a variety of reasons. Shipping packages are robust and have a qualified pedigree for performance in normal operation and accident conditions but are only certified over an approved transportation window. The continued use of shipping packages to contain nuclear material during interim storage will result in reduced overall costs and reduced exposure to workers. However, the shipping package materials of construction must maintain integrity as specified by the safety basis of the storage facility throughout the storage period, which is typically well beyond the certified transportation window. In many ways, the certification processes required for interim storage of nuclear materials in shipping packages is similar to life extension programs required for dry cask storage systems for commercial nuclear fuels. The storage of spent nuclear fuel in dry cask storage systems is federally-regulated, and over 1500 individual dry casks have been in successful service up to 20 years in the US. The uncertainty in final disposition will likely require extended storage of this fuel well beyond initial license periods and perhaps multiple re-licenses may be needed. Thus, both the shipping packages and the dry cask storage systems require materials integrity assessments and assurance of continued satisfactory materials performance over times not considered in the original evaluation processes. Test programs for the shipping packages have been established to obtain aging data on materials of construction to demonstrate continued system integrity. The collective data may be coupled with similar data for the dry cask storage systems and used to support extending the service life of shipping packages in both transportation and storage.

  12. All the things I have - handling one's material room in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson Ranada, Asa; Hagberg, Jan-Erik

    2014-12-01

    The article explores how old people who live in their ordinary home, reason and act regarding their 'material room' (technical objects, such as household appliances, communication tools and things, such as furniture, personal belongings, gadgets, books, paintings, and memorabilia). The interest is in how they, as a consequence of their aging, look at acquiring new objects and phasing out older objects from the home. This is a broader approach than in most other studies of how old people relate to materiality in which attention is mostly paid either to adjustments to the physical environment or to the importance of personal possessions. In the latter cases, the focus is on downsizing processes (e.g. household disbandment or casser maison) in connection with a move to smaller accommodation or to a nursing home. The article is based on a study in which thirteen older people (median age 87), living in a Swedish town of medium size were interviewed (2012) for a third time. The questions concerned the need and desire for new objects, replacement of broken objects, sorting out the home or elsewhere, most cherished possessions, and the role of family members such as children and grandchildren. The results reveal the complexity of how one handles the material room. Most evident is the participants' reluctance to acquire new objects or even to replace broken things. Nearly all of them had considered, but few had started, a process of sorting out objects. These standpoints in combination resulted in a relatively intact material room, which was motivated by an ambition to simplify daily life or to facilitate the approaching dissolution of the home. Some objects of special value and other cherished objects materialized the connections between generations within a family. Some participants wanted to spare their children the burden of having to decide on what to do with their possessions. Others (mostly men), on the contrary, relied on their children to do the sorting out after

  13. Las Lunas (Yuncler, Toledo. A Bronze Age hoard with metallic materials from the southern Iberian Meseta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbina Martínez, Dionisio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the results of the preliminary study carried out on a new group of metallic materials of the Final Bronze Age, recovered at the end of 2008 in the archaeological excavations at the settlement of Las Lunas (Yuncler, Toledo, Spain. Its geographical situation far away from the main zones of distribution of this type of finds, the singularity of the materials, and the evidence of Atlantic and Mediterranean relations make these materials a remarkable sample for the study of the Final Bronze Age in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula.

    Se exponen los resultados del primer estudio realizado sobre un nuevo conjunto de materiales metálicos del Bronce Final recuperado a finales de 2008 en las excavaciones arqueológicas del yacimiento de Las Lunas (Yuncler, Toledo, España. La localización geográfica del hallazgo, lejos de las principales zonas de dispersión conocidas para este tipo de conjuntos, la singularidad de los objetos que integra, y las relaciones atlánticas y mediterráneas que evidencian sus materiales, lo convierten en un ejemplo destacado para el estudio de este período en el centro de la Península Ibérica.

  14. Material property evaluations of bimetallic welds, stainless steel saw fusion lines, and materials affected by dynamic strain aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudland, D.; Scott, P.; Marschall, C.; Wilkowski, G. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Pipe fracture analyses can often reasonably predict the behavior of flawed piping. However, there are material applications with uncertainties in fracture behavior. This paper summarizes work on three such cases. First, the fracture behavior of bimetallic welds are discussed. The purpose of the study was to determine if current fracture analyses can predict the response of pipe with flaws in bimetallic welds. The weld joined sections of A516 Grade 70 carbon steel to F316 stainless steel. The crack was along the carbon steel base metal to Inconel 182 weld metal fusion line. Material properties from tensile and C(T) specimens were used to predict large pipe response. The major conclusion from the work is that fracture behavior of the weld could be evaluated with reasonable accuracy using properties of the carbon steel pipe and conventional J-estimation analyses. However, results may not be generally true for all bimetallic welds. Second, the toughness of austenitic steel submerged-arc weld (SAW) fusion lines is discussed. During large-scale pipe tests with flaws in the center of the SAW, the crack tended to grow into the fusion line. The fracture toughness of the base metal, the SAW, and the fusion line were determined and compared. The major conclusion reached is that although the fusion line had a higher initiation toughness than the weld metal, the fusion-line J-R curve reached a steady-state value while the SAW J-R curve increased. Last, carbon steel fracture experiments containing circumferential flaws with periods of unstable crack jumps during steady ductile tearing are discussed. These instabilities are believed to be due to dynamic strain aging (DSA). The paper discusses DSA, a screening criteria developed to predict DSA, and the ability of the current J-based methodologies to assess the effect of these crack instabilities. The effect of loading rate on the strength and toughness of several different carbon steel pipes at LWR temperatures is also discussed.

  15. Control of Early Age Cracking in Concrete. Phase 4 and 5: Material Modelling, Continuum Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Anders Boe; Damkilde, Lars; Hansen, Per Freiesleben

    1997-01-01

    This report deals with numerical modelling of early age concrete. The hydration process giving the strength and stiffness development after casting is discussed. Several factors influence the progress of hydration such as the temperature level and the moisture activity. The factors are coupled...... and a material model is proposed which includes some of the couplings. It is shown how more factors may be incorporated. The model is illustrated through analysis of measured creep response both at a varying load history and at a varying temperature history....

  16. Flavonoids as Natural Stabilizers and Color Indicators of Ageing for Polymeric Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Masek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Few changes have occurred in the use of various stabilizers over recent years. In the current literature, phosphate derivatives are used as anti-ageing additives in polymers, and the most popular of these are sterically hindering cyclic amines. However, most of these compounds are carcinogenic. Synthetic phenols have been increasingly used as antioxidants in food and in polymers. Ecological standards encourage the elimination of harmful additives in polymeric products that come in contact with food or with the human body. This article presents application of flavonoid (silymarin/flavonoligand for polymer stabilization and use of natural phytocompounds such as color indicators of polymers ageing time. In this research, I propose two ways of application: traditional, during processing; and the new one, by using impregnation method. Based on the change of deformation energy (ageing coefficient K, FTIR, oxidative induction time (OIT evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (OIT, thermogravimetry analysis (TG, spectrophotometric color measurements in terms of CIE-Lab color space values, I confirmed the high antioxidant activity of flavonoids in EPM. They provide coloration of the polymeric materials that changes cyclically as a function of aging time. Additionally, the use of phytocompounds in polymers provides similar stabilizing effect to those of synthetic antioxidants.

  17. The spillover effect of disclosure rules and materiality thresholds:Evidence from profit warnings issued in Hong Kong market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rencheng; Wang; Yao; Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Dual-listed firms simultaneously follow the relevant rules in their home country and in their cross-listed country.In contrast,other firms only listed in the cross-listed country are only subject to the local regulations.Previous literature has found evidence that cross-listing can improve firms’ information transparency because of more stringent listing rules in the cross-listed country.The existing research,however,has not paid enough attention to the potential influence of dual-listed firms and their home country institutional factors(e.g.unique disclosure policies) on other firms only listed in the cross-listed country(i.e.spillover effect).In the Hong Kong market,Chinese dual-listed firms are under the mandatory profit warning regulation of mainland China,but other firms listed only in Hong Kong only need to follow the voluntary disclosure rule of the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.Such a setting provides us with the opportunity to investigate a spillover effect,i.e.whether these Chinese dual-listed firms influence their peers only listed in Hong Kong to release profit warnings.We find that firms only listed in Hong Kong are more likely to issue profit warnings if their Chinese dual-listed peers have also issued warnings.We further find that this spillover effect increases with the market capitalization of Chinese duallisted firms and increases with the market share of these firms before they dominate the industry.Lastly,due to an underlying duty to disclose material information in Hong Kong,the spillover effect is weaker for firms with large earnings surprises.

  18. Electrical insulating materials - Determination of the effects of ionizing radiation - Part 5: Procedures for assessment of ageing in service

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Covers ageing assessment methods which can be applied to components based on polymeric materials (for example, cable insulation and jackets, elastomeric seals, polymeric coatings, gaiters) which are used in environments where they are exposed to radiation. The object of this part of IEC 60544 is to provide guidelines on the assessment of ageing in service. The approaches discussed cover ageing assessment programmes based on condition monitoring (CM), the use of equipment deposits in severe environments and sampling of real-time aged components.

  19. Current issues with research support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W.T.

    1996-03-01

    It would be difficult to condense current issues in nuclear reactor regulation to just a few minutes. So, let me start off by saying that I have not tried to give a comprehensive listing of issues that are currently facing the reactor program, but rather to select those that I thought were relevant as they relate to research activities. Use of probabilistic risk assessment in regulatory decisions; materials aging issues concerning steam generators and reactor vessels; high burnup fuels; accident management; and digital instrumentation and control, are just a sampling of the important issues that I want to talk about.

  20. Early-age characteristics of red mud-coal gangue cementitious material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Sun, Henghu; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jixiu

    2009-08-15

    This experimental research was to investigate the possibility of incorporating red mud and coal gangue as raw materials for the production of red mud-coal gangue cementitious material, abbreviated as RGC, including analyses of its chemical composition, physical properties, mechanical properties and hydration products. The red mud and coal gangue (at a ratio of 3:2) were mixed together and shaped in small spheres with a water to solid ratio of 0.30 and then calcined at 600 degrees C for 2h. Subsequently, the RGC was prepared by blending 50% the resultant red mud-coal gangue mixtures, 24% blast-furnace slag, 20% clinker and 6% gypsum. The hydration products of RGC were characterized by XRD, TG-DTA and SEM-EDS. The results showed that it is feasible to use red mud and coal gangue to replace up to 50% of the raw materials to produce cementitious material, which can be called as silica-alumina based cementitious material. The hydration products of RGC are mostly ettringite, calcium hydroxide and C-S-H gel. As the dominant products, C-S-H gel and ettringite are principally responsible for the strength development of RGC in early hydration process. The content of Ca(OH)(2) initially increased but later was depleted after reaching the peak value at 21 days. Moreover, it is found that the composition of the C-S-H gel shifted towards higher Si, Al and Na contents with the increase of hydration age, whereas that of Ca shifted towards lower content.

  1. Hair analysis for drugs of abuse: evaluation of analytical methods, environmental issues, and development of reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, M J; Sniegoski, L T; Allgood, C C; Habram, M

    1993-01-01

    Methods for extraction of cocaine, some of its metabolites, morphine, and codeine from hair and methods for analyzing the extracts have been investigated. Results of these studies have shown that extractions with 0.1N HCl are efficient at removing the target compounds from hair and appear to be as effective as enzymatic digestions that dissolve the hair. GC/MS with either electron ionization or chemical ionization was found to provide accurate and unambiguous determinations of the target compounds. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) also provided accurate results when performed on extracts from hair, but results were ambiguous when MS/MS was performed on hair segments directly. Environmental issues, including the removal of powdered and vapor-deposited cocaine from the hair surface and the effect of various hair treatments on the levels of cocaine entrapped in hair, have also been investigated. Removal of cocaine deposited on hair was incomplete by all approaches tested, making differentiation of hair of cocaine users from hair with environmental exposure of cocaine difficult. Cocaethylene, a cocaine metabolite believed to be formed in the liver, was found in the hair of some cocaine users and may be a good marker for proving drug use. Common hair treatments, such as shampoos, conditioners, and peroxide bleaches, reduced cocaine levels in a fortified hair material by 60 to 80% after 30 treatments. Finally, to assist laboratories in evaluating the accuracy of their methods, two human hair reference materials with recommended concentrations of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, morphine, and codeine determined by GC/MS have been developed.

  2. Critical Professional Issues in Labour Force Development for Teachers with Children up to Two Years of Age: A New Zealand Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockel, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically examines current concerns regarding professional issues in labour force development for teachers with children up to two years of age (UtoT). The concerns in New Zealand (NZ) relate to whether initial teacher-education (ITE) qualifications prepare teachers to work with children UtoT, involving synergy between ITE and the…

  3. Critical Professional Issues in Labour Force Development for Teachers with Children up to Two Years of Age: A New Zealand Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockel, Jean

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically examines current concerns regarding professional issues in labour force development for teachers with children up to two years of age (UtoT). The concerns in New Zealand (NZ) relate to whether initial teacher-education (ITE) qualifications prepare teachers to work with children UtoT, involving synergy between ITE and the…

  4. Foreword for the special issue of the 7th China-Japan bilateral symposium on high temperature strength of materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Tung TU; Yukio TAKAHASHI

    2011-01-01

    @@ The 7th China-Japan Bilateral Symposium on High Temperature Strength of Materials was held at Dalian, China, during the period August 23-27, 2010.The symposium was co-organized by the High Temperature Strength and Materials Committee, the Society of Materials, Chinese Mechanical Engineering Society and the Committee on High Temperature Strength of Materials, the Society of Materials Science Japan.

  5. Placement, Relocation and End of Life Issues in Aging Adults with and without Down's Syndrome: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, P.; Amble, K.; Flory, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Aging adults with Down's syndrome (DS) experience more relocations and other life events than adults with intellectual disabilities aged 50 and older without DS. Age-related functional decline and the higher incidence of dementia were implicated as the contributing factors that led to relocation and nursing home placement. Method: A…

  6. [?]Nonlinear Issues in the Aerothermochemistry of Gases and Materials and the Associated Physics and Dynamics of Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Joseph A., III

    1996-01-01

    Our research and technology are focused on nonlinear issues in the aerothermochemistry of gases and materials and the associated physics and dynamics of interfaces. Our program is now organized to aggressively support the NASA Aeronautics Enterprise so as to: (a) develop a new generation of environmentally compatible, economic subsonic aircraft; (b) develop the technology base for an economically viable and environmentally compatible high-speed civil transport; (c) develop the technology options for new capabilities in high-performance aircraft; (d) develop hypersonic technologies for air-breathing flight; and (e) develop advanced concepts, understanding of physical phenomena, and theoretical, experimental, and computational tools for advanced aerospace systems. The implications from our research for aeronautical and aerospace technology have been both broad and deep. For example, using advanced computational techniques, we have determined exact solutions for the Schrodinger equation in electron-molecule scattering allowing us to evaluate atmospheric models important to reentry physics. We have also found a new class of exact solutions for the Navier Stokes equations. In experimental fluid dynamics, we have found explicit evidence of turbulence modification of droplet sizes in shock tube flow with condensation. We have developed a new diagnostic tool for the direct estimation of flow velocities at MHz sampling rates in quasi-one dimensional turbulent flow. This procedure suggests an unexpected confirmation of the possibility of 'natural' closure in Reynolds stresses with deep implications for the development of turbulent models. A transient increase is observed in both the spectral energy decay rate and the degree of chaotic complexity at the interface of a shock wave and a turbulent ionized gas. Even though the gas is apparently brought to rest by the shock wave, no evidence is found either of the expected relaminarization. A unique diamond-shaped nozzle has been

  7. Measurement of volume change in cementitious materials at early ages - Review of testing protocols and interpretation of results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sant, Gaurav; Lura, Pietro; Weiss, Jason

    2006-01-01

    Early-age cracking in concrete bridge decks, pavements, and superstructure elements has served as the impetus for substantial research on early-age shrinkage in cementitious materials. Much of this research has indicated how mixture proportions, constituent materials, and construction operations...... measurement in a rigid mold, and the ASTM C 157 standard. The results of the autogenous and chemical shrinkage tests are compared with one another to describe fully early-age length change. It is shown that through careful experimentation and interpretation, the results of these tests can be completely...

  8. Simulated Aging and Characterization of Phase Change Materials for Thermal Management of Building Envelopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    powdery consistency, this material can be directly incorporated into cellulose insulation materials. Figure 2-3. Micro-encapsulated PCM materials: (a...chemical and thermal stability and can be directly incorporated into insulation materials. The appearances of both materials are white to slightly

  9. Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness. Materials for Using American Issues Forum in the American History Classroom, Topic IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    Four modules of classroom strategies provide suggestions for examining U.S. history in light of contemporary issues. "The Right to Life" uses the Karen Anne Quinlan case as a model for exploring moral, legal, and medical issues related to euthanasia. Students discuss the reasoning and viewpoints of various groups associated with the…

  10. Extending Foster Care to Age 21: Weighing the Costs to Government against the Benefits to Youth. Chapin Hall Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Clark M.; Dworsky, Amy; Courtney, Mark E.; Pollack, Harold

    2009-01-01

    The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 allows states to claim federal reimbursement for the costs of caring for and supervising Title IV-E eligible foster youth until their 21st birthday. This issue brief provides preliminary estimates of what the potential costs to government and the benefits to young people…

  11. In situ study of key material and process reliability issues in the chemical vapor deposition of copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Ishing

    With the limitations of current aluminum based metallization schemes used in microelectronics, the development of a manufacturable chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process for copper metallization schemes is crucial to meet the stringent requirements of sub-quarter micron device technology and beyond. The work presented herein focused on investigating key material and process reliability issues pertaining to Cu CVD processing. In particular, a unique combination of in-situ gas phase Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS) was employed to study the role of hydrogen in thermal CVD of copper using (tmvs)Cusp{I}(hfac). These studies showed that hydrogen provides significant enhancement in the deposition rate of copper interconnects. Based on the QMS and FTIR data, this enhancement could be attributed to the role of hydrogen in assisting in the removal of tmvs from (tmvs)Cusp{I}(hfac), thus enhancing the conversion of Cusp{I}(hfac) intermediates to Cusp{o} and Cusp{II}(hfac)sb2 and providing a wider process window with higher conversion efficiency. In addition, in-situ real time QMS studies were performed of the gas phase evolution and decomposition pathways of (tmvs)Cusp{I}(hfac) during thermal CVD of copper. The QMS investigations focused on determining the ionization efficiency curves and appearance potentials of (tmvs)Cusp{I}(hfac) under real CVD processing conditions. The resulting curves and associated potentials were then employed to identify the most likely precursor decomposition pathways and examine relevant implications for thermal CVD of copper from (tmvs)Cusp{I}(hfac). Finally, a hydrogen-plasma assisted CVD (PACVD) process was developed for the growth of device quality gold for incorporation as dopant in emerging Cu CVD based metallization interconnects. In particular, it was demonstrated that the PACVD gold process window identified can maintain very low gold deposition rates (gold is a promising in-situ Cu doping technique

  12. Degradation mechanisms of cable insulation materials during radiation-thermal ageing in radiation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguchi, Tadao; Tamura, Kiyotoshi; Ohshima, Takeshi; Shimada, Akihiko; Kudoh, Hisaaki

    2011-02-01

    Radiation and thermal degradation of ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) and crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) as cable insulation materials were investigated by evaluating tensile properties, gel-fraction, and swelling ratio, as well as by the infrared (FTIR) analysis. The activation energy of thermal oxidative degradation changed over the range 100-120 °C for both EPR and XLPE. This may be attributed to the fact that the content of an antioxidant used as the stabilizer for polymers decreases by evaporation during thermal ageing at high temperatures. The analysis of antioxidant content and oxidative products in XLPE as a model sample showed that a small amount of antioxidant significantly reduced the extent of thermal oxidation, but was not effective for radiation induced oxidation. The changes in mechanical properties were well reflected by the degree of oxidation. A new model of polymer degradation mechanisms was proposed where the degradation does not take place by chain reaction via peroxy radical and hydro-peroxide. The role of the antioxidant in the polymer is the reduction of free radical formation in the initiation step in thermal oxidation, and it could not stop radical reactions for either radiation or thermal oxidation.

  13. Degradation mechanisms of cable insulation materials during radiation-thermal ageing in radiation environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seguchi, Tadao, E-mail: seguchi@aj.wakwak.co [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai 319-1195 (Japan); Tamura, Kiyotoshi; Ohshima, Takeshi; Shimada, Akihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai 319-1195 (Japan); Kudoh, Hisaaki [University of Tokyo, Tokai 319-1195 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Radiation and thermal degradation of ethylene-propylene rubber (EPR) and crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE) as cable insulation materials were investigated by evaluating tensile properties, gel-fraction, and swelling ratio, as well as by the infrared (FTIR) analysis. The activation energy of thermal oxidative degradation changed over the range 100-120 {sup o}C for both EPR and XLPE. This may be attributed to the fact that the content of an antioxidant used as the stabilizer for polymers decreases by evaporation during thermal ageing at high temperatures. The analysis of antioxidant content and oxidative products in XLPE as a model sample showed that a small amount of antioxidant significantly reduced the extent of thermal oxidation, but was not effective for radiation induced oxidation. The changes in mechanical properties were well reflected by the degree of oxidation. A new model of polymer degradation mechanisms was proposed where the degradation does not take place by chain reaction via peroxy radical and hydro-peroxide. The role of the antioxidant in the polymer is the reduction of free radical formation in the initiation step in thermal oxidation, and it could not stop radical reactions for either radiation or thermal oxidation.

  14. Effect of Organophilic Montmorillonite on Ther-mal-oxidative Aging Behavior of SBS Modified Bitumen Crack Filling Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jianying; WANG Xilin; KUANG Dongliang; ZHANG Henglong

    2009-01-01

    Styrene-butadiene-styrene(SBS)modified bitumen crack filling material with or-ganophilic montmorillonite(OCFM)was prepared by melt blending.X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the interlayer spacing of organophilic montmorillonite(OMMT)in OCFM is widened and an exfoliated structure may be formed.Thermal-oxidative aging behavior of OCFM and SBS modified bitumen crack filling material(SCFM)was investigated.The experimental results indicate that the rate of thermal-oxidative aging of OCFM is much slower than that of SCFM,which can be attributed to barrier of exfoliated structure of OCFM to oxygen.

  15. Study of Polymer Material Aging by Laser Mass Spectrometry, UV-Visible Spectroscopy, and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Junien Exposito; Claude Becker; David Ruch; Frédéric Aubriet

    2007-01-01

    Dyed natural rubber (NR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), designed for outdoor applications, were exposed to an accelerated artificial aging in xenon light. The aging results in the deterioration of the exposed surface material properties. The ability of dyed polymers to withstand prolonged sunlight exposure without fading or undergoing any physical deterioration is largely determined not only by the photochemical characteristics of the absorbing dyestuff itself but also by the polymer str...

  16. Study of Polymer Material Aging by Laser Mass Spectrometry, UV-Visible Spectroscopy, and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Junien Exposito; Claude Becker; David Ruch; Frédéric Aubriet

    2007-01-01

    Dyed natural rubber (NR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), designed for outdoor applications, were exposed to an accelerated artificial aging in xenon light. The aging results in the deterioration of the exposed surface material properties. The ability of dyed polymers to withstand prolonged sunlight exposure without fading or undergoing any physical deterioration is largely determined not only by the photochemical characteristics of the absorbing dyestuff itself but also by the polymer str...

  17. The implementation of integrated science teaching materials based socio-scientific issues to improve students scientific literacy for environmental pollution theme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenni, Rita; Hernani, Widodo, Ari

    2017-05-01

    The study aims to determine the increasing of students' science literacy skills on content aspects and competency of science by using Integrated Science teaching materials based Socio-scientific Issues (SSI) for environmental pollution theme. The method used in the study is quasi-experiment with nonequivalent pretest and posttest control group design. The students of experimental class used teaching materials based SSI, whereas the students of control class were still using the usual textbooks. The result of this study showed a significant difference between the value of N-gain of experimental class and control class, whichalso occurred in every indicator of content aspects and competency of science. This result indicates that using of Integrated Science teaching materials based SSI can improve content aspect and competency of science and can be used as teaching materials alternative in teaching of Integrated Science.

  18. Manufacturing Processes: New Methods for the "Materials Age." Resources in Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1990

    1990-01-01

    To make the best use of new materials developed for everything from computers to artificial hearts to more fuel-efficient cars, improved materials syntheses and manufacturing processes are needed. This instructional module includes teacher materials, a student quiz, and possible student outcomes. (JOW)

  19. Assessment of Cable Aging Equipment, Status of Acquired Materials, and Experimental Matrix at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fifield, Leonard S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westman, Matthew P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zwoster, Andy [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schwenzer, Birgit [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-30

    The need for increased understanding of the aging and degradation behavior for polymer components of nuclear power plant electrical cables is described in this report. The highest priority materials for study and the resources available at PNNL for these studies are also described. The anticipated outcomes of the PNNL work described are : improved understanding of appropriate accelerated aging conditions, improved knowledge of correlation between observable aging indicators and cable condition in support of advanced non-destructive evaluation methods, and practical knowledge of condition-based cable lifetime prediction.

  20. Biogeochemical Cycles for Combining Chemical Knowledge and ESD Issues in Greek Secondary Schools Part I: Designing the Didactic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutalidi, Sophia; Scoullos, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Biogeochemical cycles support all anthropogenic activities and are affected by them, therefore they are intricately interlinked with global environmental and socioeconomic issues. Elements of these cycles that are already included in the science/chemical curriculum and textbooks intended for formal education in Greek secondary schools were…

  1. Biogeochemical Cycles for Combining Chemical Knowledge and ESD Issues in Greek Secondary Schools Part I: Designing the Didactic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutalidi, Sophia; Scoullos, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Biogeochemical cycles support all anthropogenic activities and are affected by them, therefore they are intricately interlinked with global environmental and socioeconomic issues. Elements of these cycles that are already included in the science/chemical curriculum and textbooks intended for formal education in Greek secondary schools were…

  2. Age-distribution estimation for karst groundwater: Issues of parameterization and complexity in inverse modeling by convolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, A.J.; Putnam, L.D.

    2009-01-01

    Convolution modeling is useful for investigating the temporal distribution of groundwater age based on environmental tracers. The framework of a quasi-transient convolution model that is applicable to two-domain flow in karst aquifers is presented. The model was designed to provide an acceptable level of statistical confidence in parameter estimates when only chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and tritium (3H) data are available. We show how inverse modeling and uncertainty assessment can be used to constrain model parameterization to a level warranted by available data while allowing major aspects of the flow system to be examined. As an example, the model was applied to water from a pumped well open to the Madison aquifer in central USA with input functions of CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, and 3H, and was calibrated to several samples collected during a 16-year period. A bimodal age distribution was modeled to represent quick and slow flow less than 50 years old. The effects of pumping and hydraulic head on the relative volumetric fractions of these domains were found to be influential factors for transient flow. Quick flow and slow flow were estimated to be distributed mainly within the age ranges of 0-2 and 26-41 years, respectively. The fraction of long-term flow (>50 years) was estimated but was not dateable. The different tracers had different degrees of influence on parameter estimation and uncertainty assessments, where 3H was the most critical, and CFC-113 was least influential.

  3. The research front on molecular functional switches——A special issue on organic photoswitchable multifunctional molecules and materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He TIAN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The 4th International Workshop on Organic Photoswitchable Multifunctional Molecules and Materials was held between 25th and 27th October 2009 in East China University of Science & Technology (ECUST), Shanghai. It was a great event for academic circles, and at the same time provided an excellent chance for communication between international scholars from the field of organic photoswitchable functional materials. Along with a successful series of workshops on this topic, such as those held by Japan-France (Shonan, 2006), France-Russia (Saissac, 2007) and France-Japan (Arras, 2008), ECUST (China) and CNRS's GDRI (France) joined together to host this continued workshop on novel photoswitchable multifunctional molecules and materials.

  4. Density measurements as a condition monitoring approach for following the aging of nuclear power plant cable materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, K. T.; Celina, M.; Clough, R. L.

    1999-10-01

    Monitoring changes in material density has been suggested as a potentially useful condition monitoring (CM) method for following the aging of cable jacket and insulation materials in nuclear power plants. In this study, we compare density measurements and ultimate tensile elongation results versus aging time for most of the important generic types of commercial nuclear power plant cable materials. Aging conditions, which include thermal-only, as well as combined radiation plus thermal, were chosen such that potentially anomalous effects caused by diffusion-limited oxidation (DLO) are unimportant. The results show that easily measurable density increases occur in most important cable materials. For some materials and environments, the density change occurs at a fairly constant rate throughout the mechanical property lifetime. For cases involving so-called induction-time behavior, density increases are slow to moderate until after the induction time, at which point they begin to increase dramatically. In other instances, density increases rapidly at first, then slows down. The results offer strong evidence that density measurements, which reflect property changes under both radiation and thermal conditions, could represent a very useful CM approach.

  5. Violência contra idosos: uma questão nova? Violence against aged people: a new issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula R. Amadio Sanches

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O envelhecimento da população mundial é um fato concreto e de conhecimento público. O Brasil inicia seu processo de transição demográfica seguindo o padrão mundial: o aumento do número de idosos com possibilidade de atingir elevadas faixas etárias, o que traz a necessidade de pesquisas nesse campo, devido à demanda apresentada por essa nova parcela da população. A questão da violência doméstica contra idosos tem se ampliado e sugere necessidade de maior campo de investigação nessa área, dado o risco suposto ao qual essa população mais idosa está submetida. O objetivo deste artigo é verificar os estudos relacionados ao tema já realizados no Brasil e em diferentes países, com enfoque epidemiológico. O trabalho apresenta diversos pontos de abordagem da violência contra idosos, considerando questões relacionadas à cultura do envelhecimento, ações de políticas públicas, atuação de equipes de saúde, definição do termo abordado, aspectos legais e éticos da violência contra o idoso. Tal estudo permite ao pesquisador analisar os diferentes aspectos que envolvem a temática, demonstrando a necessidade de pesquisas específicas direcionadas ao tema.The world population is getting older and this is a very well known fact. The demographic transition of the Brazilian population is just beginning, and follows the world pattern: an increase in the number of older persons with an actual chance of reaching higher ages. As a consequence, there is the need of new studies to supply data about this new aspect of the population demands. Household violence against old persons has been growing and this strongly recommends that special research studies should be conducted, in view of the risk to which these individuals are exposed. The objective of this study is to list and analyze Brazilian and international studies related to aged persons, in light of an epidemiological point of view. The article presents many ways of approaching

  6. Transitional Age Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Youth: Issues of Diversity, Integrated Identities, and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Scott M

    2017-04-01

    Although most LGBTQ youth become healthy young adults, they often face considerable stress over the course of their lives because of bullying, victimization, and overt/covert discrimination. Families, educational and religious institutions, health care professionals, and communities help shape the experience of LGBTQ transitional age youth. LGBTQ youth have higher rates of depression, suicide, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, alcohol and drug use, and preventable sexually transmitted diseases. When best practice guidelines are followed and key stakeholders take action to support LGBTQ youth, health disparities begin to disappear. Much can be done to change the trajectory for LGBTQ youth through advocacy, education, culturally competent health care, and policy-making.

  7. Age differences in response to conformity pressure for emotional and nonemotional material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasupathi, M

    1999-03-01

    Most theories of social influence do not consider adult development. Theoretical and empirical work in life span developmental psychology, however, suggests that age may reduce susceptibility to social influence. The present study examined age differences in social conformity for 2 classes of stimuli: judgments of geometric shapes and emotional facial expressions. As predicted, older people, compared with their younger counterparts, displayed lower rates of social conformity, and this age difference was most evident when judging emotional facial expressions.

  8. Barriers to Eating Traditional Foods Vary by Age Group in Ecuador With Biodiversity Loss as a Key Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penafiel, Daniela; Termote, Celine; Lachat, Carl; Espinel, Ramon; Kolsteren, Patrick; Van Damme, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    To document the perceptions of indigenous peoples for the sustainable management of natural resources against malnutrition. Initially 4 and then 12 interviews were conducted with 4 different age groups. Eight rural villages in Guasaganda, central Ecuador, were studied in 2011-2012. A total of 75 people (22 children, 18 adolescents, 20 adults, and 15 elders). Benefits, severity, susceptibility, barriers, cues to action, and self-efficacy of eating traditional foods. Qualitative content analysis was completed using NVivo software. Initial analysis was inductive, followed by a content analysis directed by the Health Belief Model. Coding was completed independently by 2 researchers and kappa statistics (κ ≥ 0.65) were used to evaluate agreement. Healthy perceptions toward traditional foods existed and differed by age. Local young people ate traditional foods for their health benefits and good taste; adults cultivated traditional foods that had an economic benefit. Traditional knowledge used for consumption and cultivation of traditional foods was present but needs to be disseminated. Nutrition education in schools is needed that supports traditional knowledge in younger groups and prevents dietary changes toward unhealthy eating. Increased production of traditional food is needed to address current economic realities. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Accelerated Aging Experiments for Prognostics of Damage Growth in Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Tension-Tension Fatigue of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials, in D3479/D3479M – 96, A. International, Editor. 2007. [12] ASTM, Standard Test Method...for Tensile Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials, in D3039/D3039M - 08. 2008, ASTM International: Pennsylvania. [13] Larossa, C., et al

  10. Quels apports des méthodologies issues de la psychologie cognitive pour comprendre le comportement alimentaire ? : impact d'un amorçage olfactif

    OpenAIRE

    Gaillet, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Il est maintenant bien établi en psychologie qu’une part significative des comportements et des choix sont influencés par des processus non-conscients. Les comportements alimentaires n’échappent pas à cette règle. L’objectif de cette thèse consistait à adapter et utiliser des méthodologies et les avancées issues de la psychologie cognitive pour étudier les comportements alimentaires. A cette fin, un paradigme d’amorçage a été utilisé. L’amorçage repose sur le fait que la perception d’un stimu...

  11. Confidentiality Issues and Use of Sexually Transmitted Disease Services Among Sexually Experienced Persons Aged 15-25 Years - United States, 2013-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichliter, Jami S; Copen, Casey; Dittus, Patricia J

    2017-03-10

    National-level data are limited regarding confidentiality-related issues and the use of sexually transmitted disease (STD) services for adolescents and young adults. Changes in the U.S. health care system have permitted dependent children to remain on a parent's health insurance plan until the child's 26th birthday and required coverage of certain preventive services, including some STD services, without cost sharing for most plans (1,2). Although these provisions likely facilitate access to the health care system, adolescents and young adults might not seek care or might delay seeking care for certain services because of concerns about confidentiality, including fears that their parents might find out (3,4). Therefore, it is important to examine STD services and confidentiality-related issues among persons aged 15-25 years in the United States. CDC analyzed data from the 2013-2015 National Survey of Family Growth and found that 12.7% of sexually experienced youths (adolescents aged 15-17 years and those young adults aged 18-25 years who were on a parent's insurance plan) would not seek sexual and reproductive health care because of concerns that their parents might find out. Particularly concerned were persons aged 15-17 years (22.6%). Females with confidentiality concerns regarding seeking sexual and reproductive health care reported a lower prevalence of receipt of chlamydia screening (17.1%) than did females who did not cite such concerns (38.7%). More adolescents aged 15-17 years who spent time alone with a health care provider (without a parent in the room) reported receipt of a sexual risk assessment (71.1%) and, among females, chlamydia testing (34.0%), than did those who did not spend time alone (36.6% and 14.9%, respectively). The results indicated that confidentiality-related issues were associated with less reported use of some STD services, especially for younger persons and females. Spending time alone with a provider (i.e., without a parent present

  12. The effects of thermal aging on material behavior and strength of CF8M in nuclear reactor coolant system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jae Do; Lee, Yong Seon; Nam, Uk Hui; Park, Jung Cheol; Pae, Yong Tak; In, Jae Hyeon; Woo, Seung Wan [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    The following investigations are performed in order to estimate the mechanism of the thermal integrity, and the life prediction. The CF8M is observed a brittle behavior in the range of 475 .deg. C. The five classes of the thermally aged CF8M specimen are prepared using an artificially accelerated aging method. Namely, after the specimen are held for 100, 300, 900, 1800 and 3600 hrs. at 430 .deg. C respectively, the specimen are water cooled to room temperature. The impact energy variations are measures for both the aged and virgin specimen at -173, -70, -32, 27 and 100 .deg. C respectively through the Charpy impact tests in addition to the hardness tests. The tests results are to be a guide line to predict the life of CF8M, a RCS component material caused by thermal aging. The critical flaw size can be estimated by KIC obtained from the impact energy.

  13. 235U–231Pa age dating of uranium materials for nuclear forensic investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eppich, Gary R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Williams, Ross W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gaffney, Amy M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schorzman, Kerri C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-04-03

    Here, age dating of nuclear material can provide insight into source and suspected use in nuclear forensic investigations. We report here a method for the determination of the date of most recent chemical purification for uranium materials using the 235U-231Pa chronometer. Protactinium is separated from uranium and neptunium matrices using anion exchange resin, followed by sorption of Pa to an SiO2 medium. The concentration of 231Pa is measured by isotope dilution mass spectrometry using 233Pa spikes prepared from an aliquot of 237Np and calibrated in-house using the rock standard Table Mountain Latite and the uranium isotopic standard U100. Combined uncertainties of age dates using this method are 1.5 to 3.5 %, an improvement over alpha spectrometry measurement methods. Model ages of five uranium standard reference materials are presented; all standards have concordant 235U-231Pa and 234U-230Th model ages.

  14. [Delphi method to identify education material on healthy food for teachers, school-age children and their parents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vio, Fernando; Lera, Lydia; Fuentes-García, Alejandra; Salinas, Judith

    2012-09-01

    Delphi method to identify education material on healthy food for teachers, school-age children and their parents. Delphi method applied to get expert consensus about healthy food topics to include in educational materials for preschool and school-age children, their parents and teachers is described. The questionnaire was developed with the results of surveys and focus groups in children, parents and teachers made previously. The questionnaire was mailed to 54 experts in nutrition, education and communication in a first round. The results were analyzed and forwarded in a second round with the subjects without consensus. The cycle was completed by a validation conducted with teachers and parents and were prioritized by audiovisual educational materials on the writings, favoring participatory activities such as cooking workshops, games, activities over the passive (information at parent meetings, delivery of educational materials and conferences of experts). There was consensus on education in health behaviors such as not giving them money to carry to school, make healthy food choices on family outings and recreational activities associated with healthy eating during weekends; prefer healthy food prepared at home instead of the processed food; restrict eating out candy and prefer family meals without watching TV and food instead of taking a snack in the evening. These results are critical to design educational materials on healthy eating plans to change current eating habits that are contributing significantly to increase the childhood obesity.

  15. Environmental guide for electronics and electrotechnics industry. Information about companies` materials and waste issues; Elektroniikka-alan ympaeristoeopas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toernblom, K.

    1999-11-01

    The guide has been planned for SME`s in electronics and electrotechnics industry, authorities, waste advisors, instructors and students as well as others interested in environmental and waste matters. The publication contains practical information about waste management, prevention, recovery and safe final storage. Waste issues are handled in great detail in the publication, taking into account all stages of in the product`s life cycle, from product design to production on processes and from sale to final storage. In addition to general environmental information, the guidebook includes a structural plan for environmental management system and instructions on how to implement it. The plan is more compact than general environmental management systems and therefore easier to carry out by SME`s. The publication contains also practical examples, instructions and contact information. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of Ultrasonic and Thermal Nondestructive Evaluation for the Characterization of Aging Degradation in Braided Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the ability of traditional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to measure the degradation of braided polymer composite materials subjected to thermal-humidity cycling to simulate aging. A series of braided composite coupons were examined using immersion ultrasonic and pulsed thermography techniques in the as received condition. These same specimens were then examined following extended thermal-humidity cycling. Results of this examination did not show a significant change in the resulting (NDE) signals.

  17. Neutron Age Determination in Fast Reactor Materials using the Group Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabanova Marina F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the methods of identifying fast neutron age in sodium (Na and uranium-238 (238U; describes the model of advanced and effective fast neutron nuclear reactors (FN, where Na is a coolant while 238U is involved in the fuel cycle in large quantities; justifies the choice of the group method for calculating the neutron age value in the substances mentioned above that can show the accuracy of the used constants for Na and estimate various versions of multilevel description of neutron moderation in 238U – the most powerful resonance absorber of the neutron reactor active zone.

  18. The effect of the accelerated aging on the mechanical properties of the PMMA denture base materials modified with itaconates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Pavle M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of accelerated ageing on the tensile strength, elongation at break, hardness and Charpy impact strength in commercial PMMA denture base material modified with di-methyl itaconate (DMI and di-n-butyl itaconate (DBI. The samples were prepared by modifying commercial formulation by addition of itaconates in the amounts of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% by weight. After polymerization samples were characterized by FT-IR and DSC analysis while residual monomer content was determined by HPLC-UV. Accelerated ageing was performed at 70°C in water for periods of 7, 15 and 30 days. Tensile measurements were performed using Instron testing machine while the hardness of the polymerized samples was measured by Shore D method. The addition of itaconate significantly reduces the residual MMA. Even at the small amounts of added itaconates (2.5% the residual MMA content was reduced by 50%. The increase of itaconate content in the system leads to the decrease of residual MMA. It has been found that the addition of di-n-alkyl itaconates decreases the tensile strength, hardness and Charpy impact strength and increases elongation at break. Samples modified with DMI had higher values of tensile strength, hardness and Charpy impact strength compared to the ones modified with DBI. This is explained by the fact that DBI has longer side chain compared to DMI. After accelerated ageing during a 30 days period the tensile strength decreased for all the investigated samples. The addition of DMI had no effect on the material ageing and the values for the tensile strength of all of the investigated samples decreased around 20%, while for the samples modified with DBI, the increase of the amount of DBI in the polymerized material leads to the higher decrease of the tensile strength after the complete accelerated ageing period od 30 days, aulthough after the first seven days of the accelerated ageing the values of hardness have increased for all of the

  19. Self-healing of Early Age Cracks in Cement-based Materials by Mineralization of Carbonic Anhydrase Microorganism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiang eQian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the self-healing potential of early age cracks in cement-based materials incorporating the bacteria which can produce carbonic anhydrase. Cement-based materials specimens were pre-cracked at the age of 7, 14, 28, 60 days to study the repair ability influenced by cracking time, the width of cracks were between 0.1 and 1.0 mm to study the healing rate influenced by width of cracks. The experimental results indicated that the bacteria showed excellent repairing ability to small cracks formed at early age of 7 days, cracks below 0.4 mm was almost completely closed. The repair effect reduced with the increasing of cracking age. Cracks width influenced self-healing effectiveness significantly. The transportation of CO2 and Ca2+ controlled the self-healing process. The computer simulation analyses revealed the self-healing process and mechanism of microbiologically precipitation induced by bacteria and the depth of precipitated CaCO3 could be predicted base on valid Ca2+.

  20. Environmental guide for mechanical engineering industry. Information about companies' materials and waste issues; Kone- ja metallituoteteollisuuden ympaeristoeopas. Tietoa yrityksen materiaali- ja jaeteasioista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsell, P.

    2000-02-01

    The guide has been planned for SME's in mechanical engineering industry, authorities, waste advisors, instructors and students as well as others interested in environmental and waste matters. The publication contains practical information about waste management, prevention, recovery and safe final storage. Waste issues are handled in great detail in the publication, taking into account all stages in the product's life cycle, from product design to production processes and from sale to final storage. In addition to general environmental information, the guidebook includes a structural plan for environmental management system and instructions on how to implement it. The plan is more compact than general environmental management systems and therefore easier to carry out by SME's. The publication contains also practical examples, instructions and contact information. Mechanical engineering, waste, waste management, material efficiency, waste prevention, materials, waste recovery, small and medium size enterprises, guidebooks. (orig.)

  1. The Bulgar materials from the Idnakar hill-fort: to the issue of the Turkic component in the population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egorov Andrey V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bulgar materials from the Idnakar settlement site in the territory of the Udmurt Republic, which had belonged to the local Finno-Ugric population, are considered. Over a long period of research in this hill-fort, a vast material was found and defined by a number of researchers as related to the Bulgars: potsherds, certain types of jewelry, household items and weapons, dating in general to the 10th-13th centuries. A hypothesis concerning the presence of the Turkic component among the population of this fortified settlement is put forward. The problem of the Volga Bulgaria’s trade mission functioning in the Idnakar hill-fort is formulated. Idnakar, a major monument of the region, had played an important role in the Bulgar trade along the Kama trade route in the territory of the Udmurt Cis-Urals. It is assumed that the trading post could be set up inorder to conduct trade operations between the Bulgar northern outpost – the Rozhdestvenskoye complex in Perm Cis-Urals (ancient Afkula and a more southern outpost – the Yelabuga fortified settlement in the eastern Cis-Kama area.

  2. High Temperature Properties and Aging-Stress Related Changes of FeCo Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    NOTES PAO case number: AFRL/WS 06-1683; Date cleared: 07 Jul 2006. 14. ABSTRACT This publication focuses on high temperature magnetic, mechanical...Testing and Materials, Philadelphia (1991) [3.12] M. R. Pinnel and J. E. Bennett, Metallurgical Trans., 5, 1273 (1974) [3.13] S. Mahajan, M. R. Pinnel and

  3. Technical issues related to the development of reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels as structural materials for a fusion blanket system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigawa, Hiroyasu, E-mail: tanigawa.hiroyasu@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Shiba, Kiyoyuki; Sakasegawa, Hideo; Hirose, Takanori; Jitsukawa, Shiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are recognized as the primary candidate structural materials for fusion blanket systems. Because of the possibility of creating sound engineering bases, such as a suitable fabrication technology and a materials database, RAFM steels can be used as structural materials for pressure equipment. Further, the development of an irradiation database in addition to design methodologies for fusion-centered applications is critical when evaluating the applicability of RAFM steels as structural materials for fusion-neutron-irradiated pressure equipment. In the International Fusion Energy Research Centre (IFERC) project in the Broader Approach (BA) activities between the EU and Japan, R and D is underway to optimize RAFM steel fabrication and processing technologies, develop a method for estimating fusion-neutron-irradiation effects, and study the deformation behaviors of irradiated structures. The results of these research activities are expected to form the basis for the DEMO power plant design criteria and licensing. The objective of this paper is to review the BA R and D status of RAFM steel development in Japan, especially F82H (Fe-8Cr-2W-V, Ta). The key technical issues relevant to the design and fabrication of the DEMO blanket and the recent achievements in Japan are introduced.

  4. Measurement with corrugated tubes of early-age autogenous shrinkage of cement-based material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Qian; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2009-01-01

    The use of a special corrugated mould enables transformation of volume strain into horizontal, linear strain measurement in the fluid stage. This allows continuous measurement of the autogenous shrinkage of cement-based materials since casting, and also effectively eliminates unwanted influence...... on the measuring results from gravity, temperature variation and mould restraint. In this paper the principle of the corrugated tube measurement is described. A systematic study was carried out on the influence on the measuring results of the material properties, size effects and encapsulated air in the corrugated...... tube. The experimental results show that there is a minor influence on the measuring results of the stiffness and size of the plastic tube as well as of the encapsulated air. However, the influence decreases with the hardening process and becomes negligible a few hours after final set....

  5. Aging performances for resisting low-temperature of three dental yttria-stabilized zirconia ceramic core materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Rui; CHU Bing-feng; ZHANG Lan; CAO Jun-kai

    2012-01-01

    Background The low-temperature resistance aging performance of Yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) is the key effective factor that influences the long-term success rate of prosthesis.The objective of this study was to test and compare the aging performances for resisting low temperature of Lava Frame,Cercon Smart,and Upcera Yttria-stabilized zirconia core materials,via analyzing the micro and the crystal phases of the materials,and measure the three-point bending strength and the fracture toughness.Methods The three zirconia green bodies were prepared as 60 test samples for three-point bending strength and as 60 test samples for fracture toughness.The test samples for three-point bending strength and fracture toughness were assigned to five groups and were treated respectively for 0,5,10,15,and 20 hours to observe the micro and the crystal phases of the test samples.Then the three-point bending strength and fracture toughness were tested by X-ray diffraction (XRD).Results The m phase content of Lava Frame was raised from 7.70% to 13.01%; the m phase content of Cercon Smart was raised from 4.95% to 8.53%; and Lava Frame is raised from 10.84% to 35.18%.The three-point bending strengths of the three zirconia core materials were higher than 1100 MPa and the fracture toughness was higher than 3 MPa·m1/2.The three-point bending strength and the fracture toughness of Upcra zirconia decreased the most,followed by Lava Frame,and then by Cercon Smart.Conclusion The aging resistance sequences of the three zirconia core materials are,from strong to weak,Cercon Smart,Lava Frame,and Upcera.

  6. A description of a contemporary human skull material in respect of age, gender, temporomandibular joint changes, and some dental variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Cecilia; Ernberg, Malin; Magnusson, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    Controversy exists concerning the etiological factors behind degenerative changes in the temporomandibularjoints (TMJs). Occlusal factors, ageing, gender and genetics are some factors that have been discussed. The aim of the present study was to examine a contemporary human skull material in respect of gender, age, occlusal variables and form and surface changes in the temporomandibular joints. The material consisted of 259 human skulls, 170 males and 89 females, with an age range of 18-100 years. The over all dental status was poor, and 22% were edentulous. Both medio-lateral and antero-posterior dimensions as well as anterior and superior shape of the condyles were in good agreement with previous results. Form and surface changes of both the condyles and the temporal components were, however, more common in the present material compared to most previous studies. Men had on average more degenerative changes in the TMJs compared to women. In agreement with many previous studies, there was an increase of such changes with increasing age. Severe tooth attrition was a common finding, especially in men, but no correlation was found between this variable and the severity of degenerative changes in the TMJs. Abfractions were found in only 3 cases. Considering the common finding of severe tooth attrition,the rare occurrence of abfractions does not lend support to the hypothesis that abfractions are mainly caused by occlusal loading. Condylar dimensions and shape of the condyles were in good agreement with previously presented results. Severe tooth attrition and pronounced degenerative changes in the TMJs were common findings but no statistically significant association was found between these two variables.

  7. Study of Polymer Material Aging by Laser Mass Spectrometry, UV-Visible Spectroscopy, and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junien Exposito

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyed natural rubber (NR and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR, designed for outdoor applications, were exposed to an accelerated artificial aging in xenon light. The aging results in the deterioration of the exposed surface material properties. The ability of dyed polymers to withstand prolonged sunlight exposure without fading or undergoing any physical deterioration is largely determined not only by the photochemical characteristics of the absorbing dyestuff itself but also by the polymer structure and fillers. Results obtained by laser mass spectrometry, UV-visible spectroscopy, and environmental scanning electron microscopy indicate that dyed filled NR and SBR samples behave differently during the photo-oxidation. The fading of the dyed polymers was found to be promoted in the NR sample. This can be correlated with LDI-FTICRMS results, which show the absence of [M-H]− orange pigment pseudomolecular ion and also its fragment ions after aging. This is confirmed by both EDX and UV/Vis spectroscopy. EDX analysis indicates a concentration of chlorine atoms, which can be considered as a marker of orange pigment or its degradation products, only at the surface of SBR flooring after aging. Reactivity of radicals formed during flooring aging has been studied and seems to greatly affect the behavior of such organic pigments.

  8. Polymer:fullerene solar cells: materials, processing issues, and cell layouts to reach power conversion efficiency over 10%, a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxebarria, Ikerne; Ajuria, Jon; Pacios, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the impressive development achieved by organic photovoltaics throughout the last decades, especially in terms of reported power conversion efficiencies, there are still important technological and fundamental obstacles to circumvent before they can be implemented into reliable and long-lasting applications. Regarding device processing, the synthesis of highly soluble polymeric semiconductors first, and then fullerene derivatives, was initially considered as an important breakthrough that would definitely change the fabrication of photovoltaics once and for all. The potential and the expectation raised by this technology is such that it is very difficult to keep track of the most significant progresses being now published in different and even monographic journals. In this paper, we review the development of polymeric solar cells from its origin to the most efficient devices published to date. We separate these achievements into three different categories traditionally followed by the scientific community to push devices over 10% power conversion efficiency: active materials, strategies-fabrication/processing procedures-that can mainly modify the active film morphology, and all the different cell layout/architectures that have been used in order to extract as high a photocurrent as possible from the Sun. The synthesis of new donors, the use of additives and postprocessing techniques, buffer interlayers, inverted and tandem designs are some of the most important aspects that are reviewed in detail in this paper. All have equally contributed to develop this technology and bring it at the doors of commercialization.

  9. Effect of ageing and immersion in different beverages on properties of denture lining materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M. F. Leite

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the color stability and hardness of two denture liners obtained by direct and indirect techniques, after thermal cycling and immersion in beverages that can cause staining of teeth. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy disc-shaped specimens (18 x 3 mm processed by direct (DT and indirect techniques (IT were made from Elite soft (n=35 and Kooliner (n=35 denture liners. For each material and technique, 10 specimens were subjected to thermal cycling (3,000 cycles and 25 specimens were stored in water, coffee, tea, soda and red wine for 36 days. The values of color change, Shore A hardness (Elite soft and Knoop hardness (Kooliner were obtained. The data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey's multiple-comparison test, and Kruskal-Wallis test (P<0.05. RESULTS: The thermal cycling promoted a decrease on hardness of Kooliner regardless of the technique used (Initial: 9.09± 1.61; Thermal cycling: 7.77± 1.47 and promoted an increase in the hardness in the DT for Elite Soft (Initial: 40.63± 1.07; Thermal cycling: 43.53± 1.03; hardness of Kooliner (DT: 8.76± 0.95; IT: 7.70± 1.62 and Elite Soft (DT: 42.75± 1.54; IT=39.30± 2.31 from the DT suffered an increase after the immersion in the beverages. The thermal cycling promoted color change only for Kooliner in the IT. Immersion in the beverages did not promote color change for Elite in both techniques. The control group of the DT of Kooliner showed a significant color change. Wine and coffee produced the greatest color change in the DT only for Elite Soft when compared to the other beverages. CONCLUSION: The three variation factors promoted alteration on hardness and color of the tested denture lining materials.

  10. Mechanism and materialism British natural philosophy in the age of reason

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, Robert E

    1970-01-01

    Robert Schofield explores the rational elements of British experimental natural philosophy in the 18th century by tracing the influence of two opposing concepts of the nature of matter and its action-mechanism and materialism. Both concepts rested on the Newtonian interpretation of their proponents, although each developed more or less independently. By integrating the developments in all the areas of experimental natural philosophy, describing their connections and the influences of Continental science, natural theology, and to a lesser degree social and institutional changes, the author dem

  11. Summary of workshop on materials issues associated with low-NO{sub x} combustion conditions in fossil-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    It was anticipated by some members of the high-temperature corrosion community that the fitting of low-NO{sub x} burners to coal-fired power plants would lead to an increase in furnace wall corrosion, as a result of the relatively substoichiometric conditions created by the staged combustion process. These expectations were not borne out by initial experience. Recently, however, cases of severe furnace wall corrosion have been reported by some U.S. utility boilers retrofitted with modern low-NO{sub x} burners. There is extensive experience of furnace wall corrosion in utility boilers in the U.K., which indicates that excessive fireside corrosion rates (>200 nm/hr; 34 mil/yr) are experienced when tubes are exposed simultaneously to substoichiometric gaseous environments (CO>3.0 percent) and high radiant heat fluxes. Such conditions may be generated when flame impingement occurs. Where such conditions persist, increases in fuel chlorine content will exacerbate the rate of metal loss. In the absence of either circumstances, corrosion rates are much reduced and little influence of coal chlorine content is anticipated. Although the corrosion is essentially sulfidation caused by H{sub 2}S in the flue gas, the contribution of fuel sulfur in the corrosion experience by U.K. boilers is unresolved, partly because of the relatively small range in sulfur content of coals burned in U.K. utility boilers. The intent of this workshop was three-fold: to better define the problem in terms of the form and rate of attack; to examine what is known about its root causes; and to review the potential for using corrosion-resistant materials as part of the solution.

  12. Neural stem cells could serve as a therapeutic material for age-related neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksuphew, Sarawut; Noisa, Parinya

    2015-03-26

    Progressively loss of neural and glial cells is the key event that leads to nervous system dysfunctions and diseases. Several neurodegenerative diseases, for instance Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease, are associated to aging and suggested to be a consequence of deficiency of neural stem cell pool in the affected brain regions. Endogenous neural stem cells exist throughout life and are found in specific niches of human brain. These neural stem cells are responsible for the regeneration of new neurons to restore, in the normal circumstance, the functions of the brain. Endogenous neural stem cells can be isolated, propagated, and, notably, differentiated to most cell types of the brain. On the other hand, other types of stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells, embryonic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells can also serve as a source for neural stem cell production, that hold a great promise for regeneration of the brain. The replacement of neural stem cells, either endogenous or stem cell-derived neural stem cells, into impaired brain is highly expected as a possible therapeutic mean for neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, clinical features and current routinely treatments of age-related neurodegenerative diseases are documented. Noteworthy, we presented the promising evidence of neural stem cells and their derivatives in curing such diseases, together with the remaining challenges to achieve the best outcome for patients.

  13. Availability and readability of emergency preparedness materials for deaf and hard-of-hearing and older adult populations: issues and assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, Linda; Ivey, Susan L; Huang, Debbie; Engelman, Alina; Tseng, Winston; Dahrouge, Donna; Gurung, Sidhanta; Kealey, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    A major public health challenge is to communicate effectively with vulnerable populations about preparing for disasters and other health emergencies. People who are Deaf or Hard of Hearing (Deaf/HH) and older adults are particularly vulnerable during health emergencies and require communications that are accessible and understandable. Although health literacy studies indicate that the readability of health communication materials often exceeds people's literacy levels, we could find no research about the readability of emergency preparedness materials (EPM) intended for Deaf/HH and older adult populations. The objective of this study was to explore issues related to EPM for Deaf/HH and older adult populations, to assess the availability and readability of materials for these populations, and to recommend improvements. In two California counties, we interviewed staff at 14 community-based organizations (CBOs) serving Deaf/HH clients and 20 CBOs serving older adults selected from a stratified, random sample of 227 CBOs. We collected 40 EPM from 10 CBOs and 2 public health departments and 40 EPM from 14 local and national websites with EPM for the public. We used computerized assessments to test the U.S. grade reading levels of the 16 eligible CBO and health department EPM, and the 18 eligible website materials. Results showed that less than half of CBOs had EPM for their clients. All EPM intended for clients of Deaf/HH-serving CBOs tested above the recommended 4(th) grade reading level, and 91% of the materials intended for clients of older adult-serving CBOs scored above the recommended 6(th) grade level. EPM for these populations should be widely available through CBOs and public health departments, adhere to health literacy principles, and be accessible in alternative formats including American Sign Language. Developers should engage the intended users of EPM as co-designers and testers. This study adds to the limited literature about EPM for these populations.

  14. Constraints on the formation age of cometary material from the NASA Stardust mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzel, J E P; Ishii, H A; Joswiak, D; Hutcheon, I D; Bradley, J P; Brownlee, D; Weber, P K; Teslich, N; Matrajt, G; McKeegan, K D; MacPherson, G J

    2010-04-23

    We measured the 26Al-26Mg isotope systematics of a approximately 5-micrometer refractory particle, Coki, returned from comet 81P/Wild 2 in order to relate the time scales of formation of cometary inclusions to their meteoritic counterparts. The data show no evidence of radiogenic 26Mg and define an upper limit to the abundance of 26Al at the time of particle formation: 26Al/27Al 1.7 million years after the oldest solids in the solar system, calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). The data suggest that high-temperature inner solar system material formed, was subsequently transferred to the Kuiper Belt, and was incorporated into comets several million years after CAI formation.

  15. Inorganic raw materials economy and provenance of chipped industry in some stone age sites of northern and central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietti, Amilcare; Boschian, Giovanni; Crisci, Gino Mirocle; Danese, Ermanno; De Francesco, Anna Maria; Dini, Mario; Fontana, Federica; Giampietri, Alessandra; Grifoni, Renata; Guerreschi, Antonio; Liagre, Jérémie; Negrino, Fabio; Radi, Giovanna; Tozzi, Carlo; Tykot, Robert

    2004-06-01

    An opportunistic and local choice of raw materials is typically attested in the Lower and Middle Paleolithic industries throughout Italy. The quality of the raw material usually affected the flaking technology and quality of the products. In the Upper Paleolithic and the Mesolithic, raw material procurement strategies were more complex. Flint was exploited both locally, in areas where abundant outcrops of raw materials were available (such as the Lessini mountains), and in distant localities, after which it was transported or exchanged over medium/long distances. Different routes of exchange were thus followed in the various periods; good reconstruction of these routes have been provided by a study of the Garfagnana sites in Northern Tuscany, and the Mesolithic deposit of Mondeval de Sora (Dolomites). An interesting example of a Late Upper Paleolithic flint quarry and workshop were found in Abruzzo, in the San Bartolomeo shelter. The extended trade of obsidian from Lipari, Palmarola and Sardinia to the Italian Peninsula is attested in the Neolithic, with some differences concerning the age and different areas.

  16. Invariant and partially invariant solutions of integro-differential equations for linear thermoviscoelastic aging materials with memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Long-Qiao; Meleshko, Sergey V.

    2017-01-01

    A linear thermoviscoelastic model for homogeneous, aging materials with memory is established. A system of integro-differential equations is obtained by using two motions (a one-dimensional motion and a shearing motion) for this model. Applying the group analysis method to the system of integro-differential equations, the admitted Lie group is determined. Using this admitted Lie group, invariant and partially invariant solutions are found. The present paper gives a first example of application of partially invariant solutions to integro-differential equations.

  17. Sr Isotope Constraints on the Age and Source of Ore—Forming Materials of Gold Deposits,Southwestern Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭建堂; 戴塔根; 等

    2000-01-01

    We have measured Rb and Sr concentrations in fluid inclusions of quartz in gold deposits,southwestern Hunan,The Rb-Sr isochron ages of 435±9Ma and 412±33Ma are respectively determined,revealing that gold mineralization in this area took place in the Caledonian period rather than in the Wuling-Xuefeng period as traditionalyy considered.Sr isotope geochemistry of the hydrothermal fluid indicates that the ore-forming materials are of crust origin,derived largely from the ore-hositng strata rather than from the basic dikes.

  18. Test of a device for accelerated ageing of polymeric material in high concentrated sunlight at the DLR solar furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witzke, A.; Neumann, A.; Kaluza, J. [German Aerospace Center (DLR), Solar Energy Technology, Cologne (Germany); Demuth, M.; Ritterskamp, P. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Strahlenchemie, Muelheim a.d.R. (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Within this study the design and first tests of a device for accelerated ageing with high concentrated sunlight have been described. Firstly, the device was designed for testing samples of lacquer for the car industry. It is based on two points: first, the photochemical effect that the ageing of polymers is mainly initiated by the UV solar radiation and, second, on the idea to accelerate the ageing process by increasing the UV radiation dose. Therefore the concentrated sunlight at the DLR Solar Furnace is filtered by a cold-mirror that reflects the radiation with a wavelength below 450 nm onto the samples. The samples are fixed in a chamber where they can simultaneously be wetted by a spraying device. The first tests show that this device enables us to radiate the relevant samples with a high UV radiation intensity without overheating them. During one day irradiation at the DLR Solar Furnace in March 2001 we reach an UV radiation dose which is about sixteen times higher than the dose after 24 hours irradiation in common used weathering devices. Further tests at the DLR Solar Furnace have to examine in what way this increased radiation dose leads to a high accelerated ageing of the polymeric material. (orig.)

  19. STATUS REPORT FOR AGING STUDIES OF EPDM O-RING MATERIAL FOR THE H1616 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefek, T.; Daugherty, W.; Skidmore, E.

    2012-08-31

    This is an interim status report for tasks carried out per Task Technical Plan SRNL-STI-2011-00506. A series of tasks/experiments are being performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory to monitor the aging performance of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) Orings used in the H1616 shipping package. The data will support the technical basis to extend the annual maintenance of the EPDM O-rings in the H1616 shipping package and to predict the life of the seals at bounding service conditions. Current expectations are that the O-rings will maintain a seal at bounding normal temperatures in service (152 F) for at least 12 months. The baseline aging data review suggests that the EPDM O-rings are likely to retain significant mechanical properties and sealing force at bounding service temperatures to provide a service life of at least 2 years. At lower, more realistic temperatures, longer service life is likely. Parallel compression stress relaxation and vessel leak test efforts are in progress to further validate this assessment and quantify a more realistic service life prediction. The H1616 shipping package O-rings were evaluated for baseline property data as part of this test program. This was done to provide a basis for comparison of changes in material properties and performance parameters as a function of aging. This initial characterization was limited to physical and mechanical properties, namely hardness, thickness and tensile strength. These properties appear to be consistent with O-ring specifications. Three H1616-1 Containment Vessels were placed in test conditions and are aging at temperatures ranging from 160 to 300 F. The vessels were Helium leak-tested initially and have been tested at periodic intervals after cooling to room temperature to determine if they meet the criterion of leaktightness defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97 (< 1E-07 std cc air/sec at room temperature). To date, no leak test failures have occurred. The cumulative time at

  20. Igneous rocks of alpine age associated with Keuper material in the Iberian Mountains, near Teruel (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Cela, V.

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, some rocks of igneous facies associated to Keuper materials, are studied. These rocks, previously referred to as ophites, consist in fact of plutonic rocks, compositionally ranging from syenites to monzogabbros. Field, petrographic and geochemical data appear to indicate that these igneous rocks facies were a consequence of metasomatic transformation processes that took place between allocthonous silica-alkaline elements and suitable wall-rocks, constituted, in this case, of evaporitic marls of Keuper facies.

    Se describen algunos caracteres geológicos, petrográficos y geoquímicos de unas rocas ígneas, que en pequeños afloramientos aparecen asociadas a materiales del Keuper. Estas rocas, que estaban citadas como ofitas, corresponden principalmente a facies granudas entre sienitas y monzogabros. El ambiente de los afloramientos, relaciones de contacto, caracteres petrográficos y químicos, parecen indicar que las rocas ígneas fueron el resultado de procesos de metasomatismo originados por fluidos sílico-alcalinos que transformaron los materiales encajantes margoevaporíticos del Keuper.

  1. PLANETARY-SCALE STRONTIUM ISOTOPIC HETEROGENEITY AND THE AGE OF VOLATILE DEPLETION OF EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moynier, Frederic; Podosek, Frank A. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science and McDonnell Center for Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Day, James M. D. [Geosciences Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA 92093-0244 (United States); Okui, Wataru; Yokoyama, Tetsuya [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Bouvier, Audrey [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455-0231 (United States); Walker, Richard J., E-mail: moynier@levee.wustl.edu, E-mail: fap@levee.wustl.edu, E-mail: jmdday@ucsd.edu, E-mail: rjwalker@umd.edu, E-mail: okui.w.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: tetsuya.yoko@geo.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: abouvier@umn.edu [Department of Geology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2012-10-10

    Isotopic anomalies in planetary materials reflect both early solar nebular heterogeneity inherited from presolar stellar sources and processes that generated non-mass-dependent isotopic fractionations. The characterization of isotopic variations in heavy elements among early solar system materials yields important insight into the stellar environment and formation of the solar system, and about initial isotopic ratios relevant to long-term chronological applications. One such heavy element, strontium, is a central element in the geosciences due to wide application of the long-lived {sup 87}Rb-{sup 87}Sr radioactive as a chronometer. We show that the stable isotopes of Sr were heterogeneously distributed at both the mineral scale and the planetary scale in the early solar system, and also that the Sr isotopic heterogeneities correlate with mass-independent oxygen isotope variations, with only CI chondrites plotting outside of this correlation. The correlation implies that most solar system material formed by mixing of at least two isotopically distinct components: a CV-chondrite-like component and an O-chondrite-like component, and possibly a distinct CI-chondrite-like component. The heterogeneous distribution of Sr isotopes may indicate that variations in initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr of early solar system materials reflect isotopic heterogeneity instead of having chronological significance, as interpreted previously. For example, given the differences in {sup 84}Sr/{sup 86}Sr between calcium aluminum inclusions and eucrites ({epsilon}{sup 84}Sr > 2), the difference in age between these materials would be {approx}6 Ma shorter than previously interpreted, placing the Sr chronology in agreement with other long- and short-lived isotope systems, such as U-Pb and Mn-Cr.

  2. Ageing of nickel used as sensitive material for early detection of sudomotor dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayoub, Hanna [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie, Chimie des Interfaces et Modelisation pour l' Energie (LECIME), CNRS-ENSCP (UMR 7575), Chimie ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Unite Pharmacologie Chimique et Genetique et Imagerie, CNRS 8151/INSERM U 1022/Universite Paris Descartes/Chimie ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Lair, Virginie [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie, Chimie des Interfaces et Modelisation pour l' Energie (LECIME), CNRS-ENSCP (UMR 7575), Chimie ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Griveau, Sophie [Unite Pharmacologie Chimique et Genetique et Imagerie, CNRS 8151/INSERM U 1022/Universite Paris Descartes/Chimie ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Galtayries, Anouk, E-mail: anouk-galtayries@chimie-paristech.fr [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces (LPCS), CNRS-ENSCP (UMR 7045), Chimie ParisTech, 11 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Brunswick, Philippe [IMPETO Medical, 17 rue Campagne Premiere, F-75014 Paris (France); and others

    2012-01-15

    The surface ageing of nickel electrodes was studied in the frame of the development of non-invasive biomedical devices, dedicated to the detection of sudomotor dysfunction manifested by an alteration of the ionic balance in human sweat. In this kind of technology, low voltage potentials with variable amplitudes are applied to nickel electrodes, placed on skin regions with a high density of sweat glands, and the electrical responses are measured. The trick is that nickel electrodes play alternately the role of anode and cathode, thus the analysis of the temporal evolution of the physico-chemical properties of nickel is of prime importance to ensure the good performance of the device. Electrochemical measurements coupled to surface chemical characterizations (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Time of Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)) were performed on pure Ni samples, immersed in buffered chloride solutions mimicking human sweat. The shapes of voltammograms, recorded in a restricted anodic potential range, show that the nickel surface was gradually passivated as a function of the number of scans. This was confirmed by XPS data, with the formation of a 1 nm thick duplex layer composed by nickel hydroxide (outermost layer) and nickel oxide (inner layer). In a negative extended potential range, though the electrochemical behavior of electrodes was not modified upon cycling the potential, XPS data show that the inner layer was thickening, indicating a surface degradation of the nickel electrode. Below pitting potentials, adsorbed chloride was only hardly detected by XPS, and the surface composition of the nickel samples was similar after treatments in chloride or chloride-free buffered solutions. In a larger potential range enabling to reach the breakdown potential, the highly chemically sensitive ToF-SIMS characterization pointed out that the surface concentration of adsorbed chloride was higher in pits than elsewhere on the surface sample.

  3. Ultrasound monitoring of applied forcing, material ageing, and catastrophic yield of crustal structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Gregori

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of data analysis is discussed – and a few case histories of actual application are presented – concerning the physical information attainable by acoustic emission (AE records in geodynamically active or volcanic areas. The previous analyses of such same kind of observations were reported in several papers appeared in the last few years, and here briefly recalled. They are concerned with the inference of the forcing ("F" acting on the physical system, and on the ageing ("T" or fatigue of its "solid" structures. The new analysis here discussed deals with the distinction between a state of applied stress ("hammer regime", compared to state of "recovery regime" of the system while it seeks a new equilibrium state after having been perturbed. For instance, in the case of a seismic event – and according to some kind of almost intuitive argument – the "hammer regime" is the phenomenon leading to the main shock, while the "recovery regime" deals with the well known aftershocks. Such same intuitive inference, however, can be investigated by a much more formal algorithm, aimed at envisaging the minor changes of the behaviour of the system, during its history and during its present dynamic evolution. As a demonstrative application, detailed consideration is given of AE records – each one lasting for a few years – collected on the Italian peninsula vs. records collected on the Kefallinìa Island (western Greece. Such two areas are well known being characterised by some great comparative difference in their respective tectonic setting. When considering planetary scale phenomena, they appear comparatively very close to each other. Hence, they are likely being presumably affected by similar large-scale external actions, although they ought to be expected to respond in some completely different way. Such facts are clearly manifested by some substantially different AE responses of the local crustal

  4. A simple-rapid method to separate uranium, thorium, and protactinium for U-series age-dating of materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew W; Eitrheim, Eric S; Nelson, Andrew W; Nelson, Steven; Schultz, Michael K

    2014-08-01

    Uranium-series dating techniques require the isolation of radionuclides in high yields and in fractions free of impurities. Within this context, we describe a novel-rapid method for the separation and purification of U, Th, and Pa. The method takes advantage of differences in the chemistry of U, Th, and Pa, utilizing a commercially-available extraction chromatographic resin (TEVA) and standard reagents. The elution behavior of U, Th, and Pa were optimized using liquid scintillation counting techniques and fractional purity was evaluated by alpha-spectrometry. The overall method was further assessed by isotope dilution alpha-spectrometry for the preliminary age determination of an ancient carbonate sample obtained from the Lake Bonneville site in western Utah (United States). Preliminary evaluations of the method produced elemental purity of greater than 99.99% and radiochemical recoveries exceeding 90% for U and Th and 85% for Pa. Excellent purity and yields (76% for U, 96% for Th and 55% for Pa) were also obtained for the analysis of the carbonate samples and the preliminary Pa and Th ages of about 39,000 years before present are consistent with (14)C-derived age of the material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Higher doses of bisphosphonates further improve bone mass, architecture, and strength but not the tissue material properties in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnazari, Mohammad; Yao, Wei; Dai, WeiWei; Wang, Bob; Ionova-Martin, Sophi S; Ritchie, Robert O; Heeren, Daniel; Burghardt, Andrew J; Nicolella, Daniel P; Kimiecik, Michael G; Lane, Nancy E

    2010-05-01

    We report the results of a series of experiments designed to determine the effects of ibandronate (Ibn) and risedronate (Ris) on a number of bone quality parameters in aged osteopenic rats to explain how bone material and bone mass may be affected by the dose of bisphosphonates (BP) and contribute to their anti-fracture efficacy. Eighteen-month old female rats underwent either ovariectomy or sham surgery. The ovariectomized (OVX) groups were left untreated for 2 months to develop osteopenia. Treatments started at 20 months of age as follows: sham and OVX control (treated with saline), OVX + risedronate 30 and 90 (30 or 90 microg/kg/dose), and OVX + ibandronate 30 and 90 (30 or 90 microg/kg/dose). The treatments were given monthly for 4 months by subcutaneous injection. At sacrifice at 24 months of age the 4th lumbar vertebra was used for microCT scans (bone mass, architecture, and degree of mineralization of bone, DMB) and histomorphometry, and the 6th lumbar vertebra, tibia, and femur were collected for biomechanical testing to determine bone structural and material strength, cortical fracture toughness, and tissue elastic modulus. The compression testing of the vertebral bodies (LVB6) was simulated using finite-element analysis (FEA) to also estimate the bone structural stiffness. Both Ibn and Ris dose-dependently increased bone mass and improved vertebral bone microarchitecture and mechanical properties compared to OVX control. Estimates of vertebral maximum stress from FEA were correlated with vertebral maximum load (r=0.5, pbone bending modulus and cortical strength increased compared to OVX with both BP but no dose-dependent effect was observed. DMB and elastic modulus of trabecular bone were improved with Ibn 30 compared to OVX but were not affected in other BP-treated groups. DMB of tibial cortical bone showed no change with BP treatments. The fracture toughness examined in midshaft femurs did not change with BP even with the higher doses. In summary, the

  6. A study on light-aging resistance of instrument panel materials and bumper materials on the automobile%汽车仪表板材料和保险杠材料光老化性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘强; 王文涛; 李莉; 李慧连; 王俊; 揭敢新; 张晓东

    2014-01-01

    The light-aging test method commonly used in the automobile industry is utilized to carry out light-aging research on automotive instrument panel (IP) materials and bumper materials. On one hand,the impacts of common light-aging test methods on aging degree of automotive component materials are compared;on the other hand,the light-aging resistances of different component materials are compared. The results show that,for light-aging behavior of IP materials,the aging degree of the third test method is not severer than that of the second method,but it is severer than that of the first method. The light-aging resistance of IP material A is almost the same as that of IP material B. With reference to light-aging behavior of bumper materials,the aging degree of three common test methods indicates that the aging degree of the sixth test method is not severer than that of the fourth method,but it is severer than that of the fifth method. The light-aging resistance of bumper material D is superior to that of bumper material C.%采用汽车行业内常用的光老化试验方法,主要针对汽车仪表板材料和汽车保险杠材料,展开了光老化研究,一方面比较了常用的光老化试验方法对汽车零部件材料老化严酷程度的影响,另一方面对比了不同零部件材料的耐光老化性能。研究结果显示,对于仪表板材料的光老化行为,3种常用试验方法的老化严酷程度基本表现为方法二>方法三>方法一,仪表板材料A和材料B的耐老化性能基本一致;对于保险杠材料的光老化行为,3种常用试验方法的老化严酷程度基本表现为方法四>方法六>方法五,保险杠材料D的耐光老化性能优于材料C。

  7. Petrographic and anatomical characteristics of plant material from two peat deposits of Holocene and Miocene age, Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T.A.; Hilbert, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    Samples from two peat-forming environments of Holocene and Miocene age in Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia, were studied petrographically using nearly identical sample preparation and microscopic methodologies. Both deposits consist of two basic types of organic material: plant organs/tissues and fine-grained matrix. There are seven predominant types of plant organs and tissues: roots possessing only primary growth, stems possessing only primary growth, leaves, stems/roots with secondary growth, secondary xylem fragments, fragments of cork cells, and macerated tissue of undetermined origin. The fine-grained matrix consists of fragments of cell walls and cell fillings, fungal remains, spores and pollen grains, and resin. Some of the matrix material does not have distinct grain boundaries (at ??500) and this material is designated amorphous matrix. The major difference between the Holocene peat and Miocene lignite in reflected light, oil immersion is a loss of red coloration in the cell walls of tissue in the lignite, presumably due to loss of cellulosic compounds. In addition, cortex and phloem tissue (hence primary roots and stems) are difficult to recognize in the lignite, probably because these large, thin-walled tissues are more susceptible to microbial degradation and compaction. Particle size in both peat and lignite samples display a bimodal distribution when measurements are transformed to a - log2 or phi (??), scale. Most plant parts have modes of 2-3?? (0.25 - 0.125 mm), whereas the finer-grained particulate matrix has modes of 7-9?? (0.008-0.002 mm). This similarity suggest certain degradative processes. The 2-3?? range may be a "stable" size for plant parts (regardless of origin) because this is a characteristics of a substrate which is most suitable for plant growth in peat. The finer-grained matrix material (7-9??) probably results from fungal decay which causes plant material to weaken and with slight physical pressure to shatter into its component

  8. Energy materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Duncan W; Walton, Richard I

    2011-01-01

    In an age of global industrialisation and population growth, the area of energy is one that is very much in the public consciousness. Fundamental scientific research is recognised as being crucial to delivering solutions to these issues, particularly to yield novel means of providing efficient, ideally recyclable, ways of converting, transporting and delivering energy. This volume considers a selection of the state-of-the-art materials that are being designed to meet some of the energy challenges we face today. Topics are carefully chosen that show how the skill of the synthetic chemist can

  9. Rb-Sr age and content of potassium, rubidium strontium, barium, and rare earths in surface material from the Sea of Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegre, C. J.; Birck, J. L.; Loubet, M.; Provost, A.

    1974-01-01

    The Luna 16 automatic station returned from the Sea of Fertility a 35 cm long column of lunar surface material. 1 g of the Luna 16 lunar surface material, taken at a depth of 22 cm, consists of fine material: surface material and fine fragments of rocks from 1 to 4 mm in diameter. Analyses made on 17 mg of the fine lunar surface material are presented. The results obtained for the Luna 16 surface material are plotted on the diagram of the isotopic evolution of strontium and show that this surface material is most depleted of radiogenic Sr-87 of all the known lunar surface materials and that the point characterizing Lunar 16 lies somewhat to the right of the line corresponding to an age of 4.6 billion years.

  10. Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  11. Microtensile Bond Strength of Composite Cement to Novel CAD/CAM Materials as a Function of Surface Treatment and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lise, D P; Van Ende, A; De Munck, J; Vieira, Lcc; Baratieri, L N; Van Meerbeek, B

    To evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on the bond strength to a composite and a polymer-infiltrated ceramic CAD/CAM block after six-month artificial aging. Two types of CAD/CAM blocks (Cerasmart, GC; Enamic, Vita Zahnfabrik) were cut in slabs of 4-mm thickness, divided into six groups, and subjected to the following surface treatments: group 1: no treatment; group 2: sandblasting (SB); group 3: SB + silane (Si); group 4: SB + Si + flowable composite (see below); group 5: 5% hydrofluoric acid etching (HF) + Si; and group 6: 37% phosphoric acid etching (H3PO4) + Si. Sections of the same group were luted together (n=3: 3 sandwich specimens/group) using a dual-cure self-adhesive cement for all groups, except for the sections of group 4 that were luted using a light-curing flowable composite. After three weeks of storage in 0.5% chloramine at 37°C, the sandwich specimens were sectioned in rectangular microspecimens and trimmed at the interface to a dumbbell shape (1.1-mm diameter). One half of the specimens was subjected to a microtensile bond strength (μTBS) test, and the other half was tested after six months of water storage (aging). Data were statistically analyzed with a linear mixed-effects model for the factors surface treatment, material type, and aging, together with their first-degree interactions (α=0.05). The lowest bond strengths were obtained in the absence of any surface treatment (group 1), while the highest μTBSs were obtained when the surface was roughened by either SB or HF, this in combination with chemical adhesion through Si. Loss in bond strength was observed after six-month aging when either surface roughening or silanization, or both, were omitted. Both the composite and polymer-infiltrated ceramic CAD/CAM blocks appeared equally bonding-receptive regardless of the surface treatment used. Creating a microretentive surface by either SB or HF, followed by chemical adhesion using Si, is mandatory to maintain the bond strength

  12. A Retrofit Theory to Prevent Fatigue Crack Initiation in Aging Riveted Bridges Using Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyas Ghafoori

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most research on fatigue strengthening of steel has focused on carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP strengthening of steel members with existing cracks. However, in many practical cases, aging steel members do not yet have existing cracks but rather are nearing the end of their designed fatigue life. Therefore, there is a need to develop a “proactive” retrofit solution that can prevent fatigue crack initiation in aging bridge members. Such a proactive retrofit approach can be applied to bridge members that have been identified to be deficient, based on structural standards, to enhance their safety margins by extending the design service life. This paper explains a proactive retrofit design approach based on constant life diagram (CLD methodology. The CLD approach is a method that can take into account the combined effect of alternating and mean stress magnitudes to predict the high-cycle fatigue life of a material. To validate the retrofit model, a series of new fatigue tests on steel I-beams retrofitted by the non-prestressed un-bonded CFRP plates have been conducted. Furthermore, this paper attempts to provide a better understanding of the behavior of un-bonded retrofit (UR and bonded retrofit (BR systems. Retrofitting the steel beams using the UR system took less than half of the time that was needed for strengthening with the BR system. The results show that the non-prestressed un-bonded ultra-high modulus (UHM CFRP plates can be effective in preventing fatigue crack initiation in steel members.

  13. Bacterial biodegradation of melamine-contaminated aged soil: influence of different pre-culture media or addition of activation material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Takashi; Takagi, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the biodegrading potential of Arthrobacter sp. MCO, Arthrobacter sp. CSP, and Nocardioides sp. ATD6 in melamine-contaminated upland soil (melamine: approx. 10.5 mg/kg dry weight) after 30 days of incubation. The soil sample used in this study had undergone annual treatment of lime nitrogen, which included melamine; it was aged for more than 10 years in field. When R2A broth was used as the pre-culture medium, Arthrobacter sp. MCO could degrade 55 % of melamine after 30 days of incubation, but the other strains could hardly degrade melamine (approximately 25 %). The addition of trimethylglycine (betaine) in soil as an activation material enhanced the degradation rate of melamine by each strain; more than 50 % of melamine was degraded by all strains after 30 days of incubation. In particular, strain MCO could degrade 72 % of melamine. When the strains were pre-cultured in R2A broth containing melamine, the degradation rate of melamine in soil increased remarkably. The highest (72 %) melamine degradation rate was noted when strain MCO was used with betaine addition.

  14. Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume II. Technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in high heat flux materials and component development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.A.; Boyd, R.D.; Easor, J.R.; Gauster, W.B.; Gordon, J.D.; Mattas, R.F.; Morgan, G.D.; Ulrickson, M.A,; Watson, R.D.; Wolfer, W.G,

    1984-06-01

    A technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas for high heat flux materials and components (HHFMC) in magnetic fusion devices shows these problems to be of critical importance for the successful operation of near-term fusion experiments and for the feasibility and attractiveness of long-term fusion reactors. A number of subgroups were formed to assess the critical HHFMC issues along the following major lines: (1) source conditions, (2) systems integration, (3) materials and processes, (4) thermal hydraulics, (5) thermomechanical response, (6) electromagnetic response, (7) instrumentation and control, and (8) test facilities. The details of the technical assessment are presented in eight chapters. The primary technical issues and needs for each area are highlighted.

  15. Gender Issues in Older Adults' Participation in Learning: Viewpoints and Experiences of Learners in the University of the Third Age (U3A).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Alan

    2000-01-01

    Comparison of 41 female and 15 male older adults participating in Universities of the Third Age found the genders approach retirement differently. Women want to experience freedom and make up for lost opportunities; men prefer to "sit." However, men with active interests before retirement continued activity in the Third Age. (SK)

  16. Purchasing Educational Materials--Questions from the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Lists 16 questions to address when pondering the purchase of educational materials. Addressed are issues of educational potential, health and safety to children, age flexibility, potential for skill development, structural integrity, and adequate customer service. (SD)

  17. Ocular health among radiologists in the age of PACS: is it time for our profession to open its eyes to this issue in light of existing European legislation?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Halpenny, D

    2012-12-01

    The regular use of visual display units (VDUs) at work has been shown to cause the development of a constellation of symptoms ranging from dry eyes to temporary myopia. European workers who use VDUs are now protected under detailed legislation enacted by the European Union (Directive 90\\/270\\/EEC). The use of picture archiving and communications systems, which are almost ubiquitous in European countries, means that, as a profession, radiologists fall under the remit of this legislation. This paper aims to assess the impact that full implementation of this law would have on a radiologist\\'s practice and to more broadly examine the issue of eye care as an occupational health issue in radiology. The authors conclude that eye care in the setting of regular VDU use among radiologists is an important quality control and occupational health issue. There is a clear legal basis requiring employers to provide regular eye examinations and reporting breaks. In the absence of leadership from employers on this issue individual radiologists have a responsibility to ensure that their work practices reflect the legal situation and minimise the effect of eye strain on their performance.

  18. The demand of public debt in Castile during the Early Modern Age: the «juros» issued on Murcia’s «alcabalas»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos ÁLVAREZ NOGAL

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish Crown not only made short term loans frommajor international bankers, it also borrowed by issuing long term bonds called «juros», which were bought by Spanish and foreign investors. The issue of such public debt instruments was particularly intense in the 16th and 17th centuries in order to finance the Spanish Crown’s ambitious foreign policy. This paper studies the «juros» issued on Murcia’s «alcabalas » using a data base with all their bonds issued on this tax and city. Theresearch tries to obtain a picture as clear as possible of the supply and demand of «juros» during that period. We were able to observe a growth in the number of «juros», changes in the average value of their annual rents and the decline of the interest rates paid over time. It shows the development of a market for public debt in Castile.

  19. Ocular health among radiologists in the age of PACS: is it time for our profession to open its eyes to this issue in light of existing European legislation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpenny, D; O'Driscoll, D; Torreggiani, W C

    2012-12-01

    The regular use of visual display units (VDUs) at work has been shown to cause the development of a constellation of symptoms ranging from dry eyes to temporary myopia. European workers who use VDUs are now protected under detailed legislation enacted by the European Union (Directive 90/270/EEC). The use of picture archiving and communications systems, which are almost ubiquitous in European countries, means that, as a profession, radiologists fall under the remit of this legislation. This paper aims to assess the impact that full implementation of this law would have on a radiologist's practice and to more broadly examine the issue of eye care as an occupational health issue in radiology. The authors conclude that eye care in the setting of regular VDU use among radiologists is an important quality control and occupational health issue. There is a clear legal basis requiring employers to provide regular eye examinations and reporting breaks. In the absence of leadership from employers on this issue individual radiologists have a responsibility to ensure that their work practices reflect the legal situation and minimise the effect of eye strain on their performance.

  20. The Biology of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprott, Richard L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen articles in this special issue discuss aging theories, biomarkers of aging, aging research, disease, cancer biology, Alzheimer's disease, stress, oxidation of proteins, gene therapy, service delivery, biogerontology, and ethics and aging research. (SK)

  1. Combined 238U/235U and Pb Isotopics of Planetary Core Material: The Absolute Age of the IVA Iron Muonionalusta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennecka, G. A.; Amelin, Y.; Kleine, T.

    2016-08-01

    We report a measured 238U/235U for the IVA iron Muonionalusta. This measured value requires an age correction of ~7 Myr to the previously published Pb-Pb age. This has major implications for our understanding of planetary core formation and cooling.

  2. Predicting borderline personality disorder features from personality traits, identity orientation, and attachment styles in Italian nonclinical adults: issues of consistency across age ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Borroni, Serena; Feeney, Judith; Maffei, Cesare

    2012-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess whether Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) features could be predicted by Big Five traits, impulsivity, identity orientation, and adult attachment patterns in a sample of 1,192 adult nonclinical participants, and to evaluate the consistency of these regression models across four age groups (50 years, respectively). In the full sample, measures of neuroticism (N), impulsivity, and anxious insecure attachment were substantial predictors of BPD features (adjusted R(2) = .38, p Attachment scales were significant predictors of BPD features across all age groups, but different scales were relevant in different age groups. Our results suggest that in nonclinical populations, BPD may represent a complex constellation of personality traits and disturbed attachment patterns.

  3. Havana: aging in an aging city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyula, Miguel

    2010-10-01

    In Cuba, various factors have led to nearly zero population growth and a rapidly aging society. In a few years, the rush of baby-boomers reaching retirement will stand the population pyramid on its head, as the country's life expectancy already nears 80 years. Almost 20% of all Cubans live in Havana, demographically and structurally an aging city. Yet, the city is not prepared to offer its older inhabitants the spaces, services and housing options they require for a healthy quality of life. Studies must be undertaken to address this issue comprehensively, generating creative alternatives for wise use of limited resources to fulfill the material, social and spiritual needs of this growing population sector. KEYWORDS Aging, quality of life, social environment, urban health, housing for the elderly, Cuba.

  4. PVC涂层膜材料老化研究进展%Progress of Study on the Aging of PVC-Coated Membrane Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫永生; 杨旭东; 丁辛; 胡淳

    2012-01-01

    The photo-oxidation mechanisms of PVC-coated membrane material is briefly explained. Both artificial accelerated and outdoor exposure tests on PVC-coated membrane material and standards related to PVC-coated membrane material as well as some testing methods after aging are introduced systematically. Finally the research of status quo and existing problems of the correlation between results from artificial accelerated ageing and that from outdoor ageing of PVC-coated membrane material are analyzed.%介绍了PVC涂层膜材料的光氧老化机理;系统地介绍了人工加速老化试验和自然老化试验方法及参照的国内外标准,并对材料老化后的测试方法做了介绍;最后分析了PVC膜材料在人工加速老化试验和自然老化试验下的相关性的研究现状及存在的问题.

  5. 7 Steps to Aging Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section 7 Steps to Aging Well Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... Exercise: A Guide from the National Institute on Aging is a publication from NIA that has strength, ...

  6. 全瓷修复材料的老化性研究%Research on the Aging of All-ceramics Restoration Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张东姣

    2011-01-01

    全瓷修复材料以良好的美学特性、生物相容性和机械性能在临床上得到了广泛的应用,但全瓷冠桥在复杂的口腔环境下常出现老化现象,致使全瓷材料的颜色及机械性能产生变化.研究全瓷材料的老化现象及其规律可为临床全瓷冠桥的可靠性和耐久性评价及其改进提供有效的理论依据.本文就全瓷材料的老化现象对其颜色和机械性能的影响及影响老化的因素作一综述和评价.%All-ceramic crowns and bridges have been widely used for dental restorations owing to their excellent func-tionalityt aesthetics and biocompatibility. However, the premature clinical failure of all-ceramic crowns and bridges may easily occur when they are subjected to the complex environment of oral cavity. In the oral environment, all-ceramic materials are prone to aging. Aging can lead all-ceramic materials to change color, to lower bending strength, and to reduce anti-fracture toughness. There are many factors affecting the aging of the all-ceramic materials, for example, the grain size, the type of stabilizer, the residual stress and the water environment. In order to analyze the aging behavior, to optimize the design of all-ceramic crowns and bridges, and to evaluate the reliability and durability, we review in this paper recent research progress of aging behavior for all-ceramics restoration materials.

  7. 我国延迟退休年龄问题浅析%On The Issue of Delayed Retirement Age in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚玲

    2015-01-01

    Delayed retirement age was put forward ,which caused a series of disputes .Opponents argue that it will certain-ly increase the pressure on employment and the presence of two -track system is unfair to delay retirement age ;what’s more , delayed retirement age is a lack of humanity and so on .Supporters consider that the practical impact on the employment of dela-ying retirement age is not as serious as that on the theory ,it not only can reduce the system of dependency ratio ,but also re-duce the burden on family pension ,which can make the return on investment be proportional to the human resources and re-lieve the pension gap problem .Facing the controversy and taking into account our growing aging population ,pension gap prob-lem ,the increasingly extend life expectancy ,as well as disadvantages of the statutory retirement age to postpone retirement and other situations around the world ,the government raised the retirement age policy ,which is realistic and imperative .It is difficult to carry out delaying retirement age but it can develope the economy ,eliminate the dual system implement progressive-ly flexible retirement system ,strengthen the supervision of pension and improve the yields of pension investment operations and other measures to deal with the problem ,which can make delaying retirement age more carry on smoothly .%__摘_延迟退休年龄一经提出,就引起了一系列的纷争,反对者认为延迟退休必将增加就业压力,双轨制的运行存在不公平现象以及延迟退休是人性化的缺失等;支持者认为延迟退休对就业的实际影响并不像理论上那样严重,另外,延迟退休不但可以降低制度赡养率、减轻家庭养老负担,还可以使人力资源的投资与回报成正比、缓解我国的养老金缺口问题。面对争议,考虑到我国日益严重的人口老龄化问题、养老金缺口问题、人口预期寿命日益延长现象、我国法定退休年龄的弊端以

  8. A Preliminary Numerical Investigation on the Influence of Material Variability in the Early-Age Cracking Behavior of Restrained Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radlinska, Aleksandra; Pease, Bradley Justin; Weiss, Jason

    2007-01-01

    development and the corresponding potential for cracking. These test methods frequently focus on the determination of material properties that can be used in deterministic computer programs to simulate stress development and cracking. While these models are a great step forward, variability is inherent...... for variability in material properties. It has been found that a log-logistic function can accurately describe variability that can be expected in the time of cracking....

  9. The effects of thermal aging on material behavior and strength of CF8M in nuclear reactor coolant system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jae Do; Lee, Yong Seon; Park, Jung Cheol; In, Jae Hyeon; Woo, Seung Wan; Pae, Yong Tak; Nam, Uk Hui; Park, Yun Won [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    The following investigations are performed in order to estimate the mechanism of the structural integrity, and the life prediction. The CF8M is observed a brittle behavior in the range of 475 .deg. C. The five classes of the thermally aged CF8M specimen are prepared using an artificially accelerated aging method. Namely, after the specimen are held for 100, 300, 900, 1800 and 3600 hrs. at 430 .deg. C respectively, the specimen are water cooled to room temperature. In addition to the thermally aged specimens the specimens associated with {delta}-phase degradation are prepared. After the specimens are maintained for 20 min, 5, 15, 50 and 150 hrs. at 700 .deg. C, respectively. which is in the range of {delta}-phase degradation, all specimens are cooled in water. The impact energy variations are measured for both the aged and virgin specimen at -173, -70, -32, 27 and 100 .deg. C, respectively, through the Charpy impact tests in addition to the hardness tests. The characteristics of the fatigue crack growth and low cycle fatigue tests are investigated using both aged and virgin specimens. Also fractured surfaces of the specimen are observed using the scanning electronic microscopy. J-R curve and J{sub IC} of the aged and virgin specimens are found J{sub IC} in order to predict the critical flaw size and fatigue life.

  10. The effects of thermal aging on material behavior and strength of CF8M in nuclear reactor coolant system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jae Do; Lee, Yong Seon; Park, Jung Cheol; In, Jae Hyeon; Woo, Seung Wan; Pae, Yong Tak; Nam, Uk Hui; Park, Yun Won [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    The following investigations are performed in order to estimate the mechanism of the structural integrity, and the life prediction. The CF8M is observed a brittle behavior in the range of 475 .deg. C. The five classes of the thermally aged CF8M specimen are prepared using an artificially accelerated aging method. Namely, after the specimen are held for 100, 300, 900, 1800 and 3600 hrs. at 430 .deg. C respectively, the specimen are water cooled to room temperature. In addition to the thermally aged specimens the specimens associated with {delta}-phase degradation are prepared. After the specimens are maintained for 20 min, 5, 15, 50 and 150 hrs. at 700 .deg. C, respectively. which is in the range of {delta}-phase degradation, all specimens are cooled in water. The impact energy variations are measured for both the aged and virgin specimen at -173, -70, -32, 27 and 100 .deg. C, respectively, through the Charpy impact tests in addition to the hardness tests. The characteristics of the fatigue crack growth and low cycle fatigue tests are investigated using both aged and virgin specimens. Also fractured surfaces of the specimen are observed using the scanning electronic microscopy. J-R curve and J{sub IC} of the aged and virgin specimens are found J{sub IC} in order to predict the critical flaw size and fatigue life.

  11. Analytic method for material aging and quality analyzing to forecast long time stability of plastic micro heliostat components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerborn, Markus; Liebenstund, Lena; Raue, Markus; Mang, Thomas; Herrmann, Ulf; Dueing, Andreas

    2017-06-01

    The Solar-Institute Jülich (SIJ) developed the micro heliostat system - a small sized heliostat - during the last years. One special performance of the micro heliostat is the option to integrate inexpensive plastic elements. The use of plastic as a cost reducer in the heliostat technique is also offering the chance to integrate complex designed components with a higher quality and special system function. The plastic for this application requires a high standing against UV radiation and thermal cycles with a daily extreme temperature variation. The temperature range inside the closed micro heliostat box can annually fluctuate between -20 °C and 80 °C in the worst case. Special aging tests were designed and performed for the first time in cooperation with the Institute for Applied Polymer Science (IAP) in order to identify and qualify a resistance plastic for the micro heliostat. This systematic plastic aging testing for the micro heliostat is introduced here. The tests were carried out under extreme ambient situations, which simulate the temperature and irradiation conditions that the heliostat has to stand for years. A particular climate of arid areas with continuous high solar radiation was defined for these tests. Two accelerating aging methods were adapted to reach adequate aging results in a reduced time. The aging of the investigated kinds of plastics were followed by tensile test, impact test, measuring Shore hardness, dynamic-mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to compare the different types of polymers. Parallel to these tests running real outdoor tests were performed, to control this accelerated aging. To have adequate conditions that the plastic in a micro heliostat has to stand, an identical closed test box with a glass cover was designed. The test samples inside the box were irradiated by the sun. The wanted forecast for the analyzed plastic was defined by the comparison of the real and

  12. Soiling of building envelope surfaces and its effect on solar reflectance – Part II: Development of an accelerated aging method for roofing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sleiman, Mohamad [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kirchstetter, Thomas W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Berdahl, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gilbert, Haley E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Quelen, Sarah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Marlot, Lea [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Preble, Chelsea V. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Chen, Sharon [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Montalbano, Amandine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rosseler, Olivier [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Akbari, Hashem [Concordia Univ., Montreal (Canada); Levinson, Ronnen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Destaillats, Hugo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-09

    Highly reflective roofs can decrease the energy required for building air conditioning, help mitigate the urban heat island effect, and slow global warming. However, these benefits are diminished by soiling and weathering processes that reduce the solar reflectance of most roofing materials. Soiling results from the deposition of atmospheric particulate matter and the growth of microorganisms, each of which absorb sunlight. Weathering of materials occurs with exposure to water, sunlight, and high temperatures. This study developed an accelerated aging method that incorporates features of soiling and weathering. The method sprays a calibrated aqueous soiling mixture of dust minerals, black carbon, humic acid, and salts onto preconditioned coupons of roofing materials, then subjects the soiled coupons to cycles of ultraviolet radiation, heat and water in a commercial weatherometer. Three soiling mixtures were optimized to reproduce the site-specific solar spectral reflectance features of roofing products exposed for 3 years in a hot and humid climate (Miami, Florida); a hot and dry climate (Phoenix, Arizona); and a polluted atmosphere in a temperate climate (Cleveland, Ohio). A fourth mixture was designed to reproduce the three-site average values of solar reflectance and thermal emittance attained after 3 years of natural exposure, which the Cool Roof Rating Council (CRRC) uses to rate roofing products sold in the US. This accelerated aging method was applied to 25 products₋single ply membranes, factory and field applied coatings, tiles, modified bitumen cap sheets, and asphalt shingles₋and reproduced in 3 days the CRRC's 3-year aged values of solar reflectance. In conclusion, this accelerated aging method can be used to speed the evaluation and rating of new cool roofing materials.

  13. Guide for Operational Configuration Management Program including the adjunct programs of design reconstitution and material condition and aging management. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This standard presents program criteria and implementation guidance for an operational configuration management program for DOE nuclear and non-nuclear facilities. This Part 2 includes chapters on implementation guidance for operational configuration management, implementation guidance for design reconstitution, and implementation guidance for material condition and aging management. Appendices are included on design control, examples of design information, conduct of walkdowns, and content of design information summaries.

  14. Age Does Not Affect the Material Properties of Expanded Polystyrene Liners in Field-Used Bicycle Helmets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, Shannon G; Bonin, Stephanie J; DeMarco, Alyssa L; Good, Craig A; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2016-04-01

    Bicycle helmet foam liners absorb energy during impacts. Our goal was to determine if the impact attenuation properties of expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam used in bicycle helmets change with age. Foam cores were extracted from 63 used and unused bicycle helmets from ten different models spanning an age range of 2-20 yrs. All cores were impact tested at a bulk strain rate of 195 s(-1). Six dependent variables were determined from the stress-strain curve derived from each impact (yield strain, yield stress, elastic modulus, plateau slope, energy at 65% compression, and stress at 65% compression), and a general linear model was used to assess the effect of age on each dependent variable with density as a covariate. Age did not affect any of the dependent variables; however, greater foam density, which varied from 58 to 100 kg/m(3), generated significant increases in all of the dependent variables except for yield strain. Higher density foam cores also exhibited lower strains at which densification began to occur, tended to stay within the plateau region of the stress-strain curve, and were not compressed as much compared with the lower density cores. Based on these data, the impact attenuation properties of EPS foam in field-used bicycle helmets do not degrade with the age.

  15. Long-term ageing tests on glazing materials for solar collectors; Langzeit-Alterungsuntersuchung an Abdeckungsmaterialien fuer thermische Sonnenkollektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruesch, F.; Brunold, S.; Haeuselmann, T.; Frank, E.; Frei, U.

    2008-02-15

    This report made by the Swiss Institute for Solar Technology at the University of Applied Sciences in Rapperswil, Switzerland, for Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a project that investigated the long-term behaviour of glazing materials for solar collectors. The locations tested and their associated meteorological data are presented and the tests made concerning the optical characteristics of several different types of glazing are discussed. Soiling and degradation are also looked at. An overview of the solar transmission of the various materials is presented. Details on the various materials such as glass, polymethyl metacrylate (PMMA), polycarbonate (PC), fluorised plastics, unsaturated polyester (UP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are presented.

  16. Thermal aging of electrolytes used in lithium-ion batteries - An investigation of the impact of protic impurities and different housing materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Patricia; Fauler, Gisela; Kapper, Katja; Schmuck, Martin; Stangl, Christoph; Fischer, Roland; Uhlig, Frank; Koller, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Thermal degradation products in lithium-ion batteries result mainly from hydrolysis sensitivity of lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6). As organic carbonate solvents contain traces of protic impurities, the thermal decomposition of electrolytes is enhanced. Therefore, resulting degradation products are studied with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The electrolyte contains 1 M LiPF6 in a binary mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and diethylene carbonate (DEC) in a ratio of 1:2 (v/v) and is aged at ambient and elevated temperature. The impact of protic impurities, either added as deionized water or incorporated in positive electrode material, upon aging is investigated. Further, the influence of different housing materials on the electrolyte degradation is shown. Difluorophosphoric acid is identified as main decomposition product by NMR-spectroscopy. Traces of other decomposition products are determined by headspace GC-MS. Acid-base and coulometric titration are used to determine the total amount of acid and water content upon aging, respectively. The aim of this investigation is to achieve profound understanding about the thermal decomposition of one most common used electrolyte in a battery-like housing material.

  17. Clinical and laboratory issues associated with persistent low-level elevations of hCG in a female of childbearing age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornson, Loring K; Rangan, Aruna; Fenster, Tamatha B; Magotra, Minoti; Nimaroff, Michael

    2014-03-20

    Persistent low-level elevations of serum concentrations of hCG in a non-pregnant female of childbearing age were investigated by a number of laboratory techniques including heterophile blocking reagents, polyethylene glycol precipitation, serial dilutions and hCG measurements on several different instrument/reagent systems. The results of these studies indicated that this patient had immunoreactive hCG in her serum that was not the intact hCG molecule but primarily the free β-hCG subunit. Differential diagnoses are discussed along with recommendation for continued surveillance of serum hCG concentrations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Measurement of volume change in cementitious materials at early ages - Review of testing protocols and interpretation of results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sant, Gaurav; Lura, Pietro; Weiss, Jason

    2006-01-01

    measurement in a rigid mold, and the ASTM C 157 standard. The results of the autogenous and chemical shrinkage tests are compared with one another to describe fully early-age length change. It is shown that through careful experimentation and interpretation, the results of these tests can be completely...

  19. Learning to Teach in the Digital Age: New Materialities and Maker Paradigms in Schools. New Literacies and Digital Epistemologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Sean

    2016-01-01

    "Learning to Teach in the Digital Age" tells the story of a group of K-12 teachers as they began to connect with digital making and learning pedagogies. Guiding questions at the heart of this qualitative case study asked how teaching practices engaged with and responded to the maker movement and digital making and learning tools and…

  20. Effect of different surface treatments on microtensile bond strength of two resin cements to aged simulated composite core materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Behnaz; Alaghehmand, Homayoon; Shakerian, Mohadese

    2015-01-01

    Roughening of the aged composite resin core (CRC) surface seems essential for durable adhesion. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of various surface treatments and different resin cements on microtensile bond strength (µ TBS) between two aged core build-up composites (CBCs) and feldspathic ceramic. A total of 16 composite blocks made of two CBCs, Core.it and Build-it were randomly assigned to four surface treatment groups after water storage and thermocycling (2 weeks and 500 cycles). Experimental groups included surface roughening with air abrasion (AA), hydrofluoric acid, pumice, and laser and then were bonded to computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing feldspathic ceramic blocks using two resin cements, Panavia F2 (PF), and Duo-link (DL). The µ TBS was tested, and the fracture mode was assessed. The data were analyzed with multiple analysis of variance to estimate the contribution of different surface treatments, resin cements, and two aged CRCs on µ TBS. Statistical significance level was set at α strength (P strength was in AA group cemented with PF (31.83 MPa). The most common failure mode was cohesive fracture in the cement. Different surface treatments had different effects on µ TBS of aged CRCs to feldspathic ceramics. PF was significantly better than DL.

  1. Fundamental Materials Issues for Thermochemical H2O and CO2 Splitting: Final Report (FY08)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coker, Eric Nicholas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodriguez, Mark A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ambrosini, Andrea [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stumpf, Roland Rudolph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stechel, Ellen Beth [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wolverton, Chris [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Meredig, Bryce [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    2008-11-01

    Hydrogen and carbon monoxide may be produced using solar-thermal energy in two-stage reactions of water and carbon dioxide, respectively, over certain metal oxide materials. The most active materials observed experimentally for these processes are complex mixtures of ferrite and zirconia based solids, and it is not clear how far the ferrites, the zirconia, or a solid solution between the two participate in the change of oxidation state during the cycling. Identification of the key phases in the redox material that enable splitting is of paramount importance to developing a working model of the materials. A three-pronged approach was adopted here: computer modeling to determine thermodynamically favorable materials compositions, bench reactor testing to evaluate materials’ performance, and in-situ characterization of reactive materials to follow phase changes and identify the phases active for splitting. For the characterization and performance evaluation thrusts, cobalt ferrites were prepared by co-precipitation followed by annealing at 1400 °C. An in-situ X-ray diffraction capability was developed and tested, allowing phase monitoring in real time during thermochemical redox cycling. Key observations made for an un-supported cobalt ferrite include: 1) ferrite phases partially reduce to wustite upon heating to 1400 °C in helium; 2) exposing the material to air at 1100 °C causes immediate re-oxidation; 3) the re-oxidized material may be thermally reduced at 1400 °C under inert; 4) exposure of a reduced material to CO2 results in gradual re-oxidation at 1100 °C, but minimization of background O2-levels is essential; 5) even after several redox cycles, the lattice parameters of the ferrites remain constant, indicating that irreversible phase separation does not occur, at least over the first five cycles; 6) substituting chemical (hydrogen) reduction for thermal reduction resulted in formation of a CoFe metallic alloy. Materials were also

  2. 新疆少数民族双语教学的教材问题分析%An Analysis of Issues in Xinjiang Minority Bilingual Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈得军; 张兴

    2012-01-01

    教材是教学活动必不可少的,学生使用最多最主要的教学资料。少数民族双语教学的教材是双语教学目标的具体化,直接关系到双语教学的成败。本文描述了新疆少数民族双语教育教材体系现状,分析认为新疆少数民族双语教学的教材内容与少数民族学生的生活脱节、教材选择不能兼顾地方发展条件和学生发展的需要、教材品种单一、缺乏教材研究和评价四个主要问题。%Teaching material is essential to teaching activities and is mainly used by students. Bilingual teach- ing material has to do with the success or failure of bilingual teaching objectives, is directly related to bilingual education. This article describes the status quo of minority bilingual education materials system. Based on analysis, the writer believed that the teaching material is not in line with the life of minority students in Xinjiang , and mate- rial selection did not reflect local development conditions and the needs of the students. There are too few text books to be chosen from, and teaching material research and evaluation are to be expected.

  3. Modeling the mechanical and aging properties of silicone rubber and foam - stockpile-historical & additively manufactured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, A; Weisgraber, T H; Gee, R H

    2014-09-30

    M97* and M9763 belong to the M97xx series of cellular silicone materials that have been deployed as stress cushions in some of the LLNL systems. Their purpose of these support foams is to distribute the stress between adjacent components, maintain relative positioning of various components, and mitigate the effects of component size variation due to manufacturing and temperature changes. In service these materials are subjected to a continuous compressive strain over long periods of time. In order to ensure their effectiveness, it is important to understand how their mechanical properties change over time. The properties we are primarily concerned about are: compression set, load retention, and stress-strain response (modulus).

  4. Forensic engineering of advanced polymeric materials Part IV: Case study of oxo-biodegradable polyethylene commercial bag - Aging in biotic and abiotic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musioł, Marta; Rydz, Joanna; Janeczek, Henryk; Radecka, Iza; Jiang, Guozhan; Kowalczuk, Marek

    2017-06-01

    The public awareness of the quality of environment stimulates the endeavor to safe polymeric materials and their degradation products. The aim of the forensic engineering case study presented in this paper is to evaluate the aging process of commercial oxo-degradable polyethylene bag under real industrial composting conditions and in distilled water at 70°C, for comparison. Partial degradation of the investigated material was monitored by changes in molecular weight, thermal properties and Keto Carbonyl Bond Index and Vinyl Bond Index, which were calculated from the FTIR spectra. The results indicate that such an oxo-degradable product offered in markets degrades slowly under industrial composting conditions. Even fragmentation is slow, and it is dubious that biological mineralization of this material would occur within a year under industrial composting conditions. The slow degradation and fragmentation is most likely due to partially crosslinking after long time of degradation, which results in the limitation of low molecular weight residues for assimilation. The work suggests that these materials should not be labeled as biodegradable, and should be further analyzed in order to avoid the spread of persistent artificial materials in nature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of core thickness and artificial aging on the biaxial flexural strength of different all-ceramic materials: An in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikicier, Sibel; Ayyildiz, Simel; Ozen, Julide; Sipahi, Cumhur

    2017-05-31

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the flexural strength of all-ceramics with varying core thicknesses submitted to aging. In-Ceram Alumina (IC), IPS e.max Press (EM) and Katana (K) (n=40), were selected. Each group contained two core groups based on the core thickness as follows: IC/0.5, IC/0.8, EM/0.5, EM/0.8, K/0.5 and K/0.8 mm in thickness (n=20 each). Ten specimens from each group were subjected to aging and all specimens were tested for strength in a testing machine either with or without being subjected aging. The mean strength of the K were higher (873.05 MPa) than that of the IC (548.28 MPa) and EM (374.32 MPa) regardless of core thickness. Strength values increased with increasing core thickness for all IC, EM and K regardless of aging. Results of this study concluded that strength was not significantly affected by aging. Different core thicknesses affected strength of the all-ceramic materials tested (p<0.05).

  6. Effect of aging on the bioavailability and fractionation of arsenic in soils derived from five parent materials in a red soil region of Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanan; Zeng, Xibai; Lu, Yahai; Su, Shiming; Bai, Lingyu; Li, Lianfang; Wu, Cuixia

    2015-12-01

    The effects of aging time and soil parent materials on the bioavailability and fractionations of arsenic (As) in five red soils were studied. The results indicated that As bioavailability in all soils decreased during aging, especially with a sharp decline occurring in the first 30 days. After aging for 360 days, the highest available As concentration, which accounted for 12.3% of the total, was observed in soils derived from purple sandy shale. While 2.67% was the lowest proportion of the available As in soils derived from quaternary red clay. Furthermore, the best fit of the available As changing with aging time was obtained using the pseudo-second-order model (R(2) = 0.939-0.998, P < 0.05). Notably, Al oxides played a more crucial role (R(2) = 0.89, P<0.05) than did Fe oxides in controlling the rate of As aging. The non-specially and specially absorbed As constituted the primary forms of available As. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 口腔纳米材料与技术的相关问题%Related issues of oral nano-materials and technology.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈治清

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, studies on nano-material and technology are widespread, but it is still in the initial stage in the field of stomatology. It is very important to develop studies on oral nano-materials and technology because of the special property of using a large number of oral materials to do the re-pair work in stomatology fields. According to the characteris-tics of oral tissue and clinical properties of oral medicine, we should study oral nano-materials from at least five aspects.First, in oral preclinical medicine, we should study relations between nano-materials and teeth, dental pulp, periodontal tissue and jaw bones. Second, in the aspect of applied materi-als of oral medicine, we should study nano-impression materi-als, nano-bonding materials, nano-reparation materials, na-no-scaffold materials, and so on. Third, in nano-fabfication technology aspect, we should study composite processing technology, surface modification technology, repair assembly technology, coating technology and so on. Fourth, in the aspect of oral nano-products, we should study various dentil pros-thetic restoration, implant, retainer and prosthetic appliance.Finally, in clinical treatment devices aspect, we should study dentinal tubules import devices, bacterial plaque cleaning de-vices, dentil caries treatment devices, periodontal reparation devices, antimicrobial and disinfectant devices and so on.Studies from different aspects can not only get various oral na-no-material and technology but also get innovation on the ba-sis of introduction and modification. Such studies have the po-tential to open up new avenues for clinical treatment in oral medicine and raise the level of oral health care.%纳米材料和技术的研究与应用已非常广泛,但在口腔医学领域中还处于起步阶段,由于口腔医学须采用大量的口腔材料进行修复治疗这一特殊性质,因此开展口腔纳米材料和技术的研究极为重要.主要是根据口腔组织特性和口腔医学

  8. Space Transportation System (STS)-133/External Tank (ET)-137 Intertank (IT) Stringer Cracking Issue and Repair Assessment: Proximate Cause Determination and Material Characterization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Several cracks were detected in stringers located beneath the foam on the External Tank (ET) following the launch scrub of Space Transportation System (STS)-133 on November 5, 2010. The stringer material was aluminum-lithium (AL-Li) 2090-T83 fabricated from sheets that were nominally 0.064 inches thick. The mechanical properties of the stringer material were known to vary between different material lots, with the stringers from ET-137 (predominately lots 620853 and 620854) having the highest yield and ultimate stresses. Subsequent testing determined that these same lots also had the lowest fracture toughness properties. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) supported the Space Shuttle Program (SSP)-led investigation. The objective of this investigation was to develop a database of test results to provide validation for structural analysis models, independently confirm test results obtained from other investigators, and determine the proximate cause of the anomalous low fracture toughness observed in stringer lots 620853 and 620854. This document contains the outcome of the investigation.

  9. Bond Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Rachel H.

    2000-01-01

    Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…

  10. Newspaper Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Thomas A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This special issue includes "The Microfilming of Newspapers: An Overview" (Thomas Bourke); "United States Newspaper Program: Progress and Propsects" (Larry Sullivan); "The Preservation of Canadian Newspapers" (Mary Jane Starr); "Current Filming of the New York Times at UMI" (Kenneth Tillman); and "The…

  11. PROBLEMATIC ISSUES OF DIAGNOSTICS AND THERAPY OF NON-PSYCHOTIC MENTAL DISORDERS IN FEMALE PATIENTS OF CLIMACTERIC AGE WITH HYSTERICAL SYMPTOM COMPLEX (LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V. Lukiyanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, problematic questions of diagnostics and therapy of non-psychotic mental disorders (NPMD in female patients of climacteric age with hysterical symptom complex are considered. Efficacy of psychotherapy (PT in NPMD, hypnopsychotherapy in hysterical states: hysterical neurosis, neurasthenia and obsessive-compulsive neurosis is indicated. In treatment of NPMD, PT by creative selfexpression is successfully used. It is highlighted that PT forms conscious-critical attitude of patients toward themselves. Combination of PT with physiotherapy in hysterical conversional symptoms has been described. In hysterical manifestations neuroleptics are recommended, in neurotic depressions – antidepressants of mild action. In severe hysterical state, psychopharmacotherapy (PPhT with tranquilizers and neuroleptics is applied on long-term basis. Stable recovery in dissociative and hysterical disorders has been shown. In vegetovascular disorders in structure of climacteric syndrome (CS vinpocetine, in psychoemotional manifestations phenibut was administered. In therapy of hysterical neurosis, “minor neuroleptics”, hypnosuggestive therapy, social rehabilitation were applied. Effective group PT of psychogenically conditioned disorders in asthenicand anxiety-depressive symptoms is effective. Complex therapy of NPMD in hysterical and asthenic neurosis, obsessive-compulsive neurosis has been suggested. Organization of specialized preventive examinations for early revealing of persons with personality pathology is based. Efficacy of a number of medications in periand post-menopause – SSRIs and gabapentin, during menopause paroxetine, in depressions of non-psychotic level – pyrazidol, coaxil, in neurotic hypochondriasis sulpiride and quetiapine, diazepam, in climacteric vegetative and mental disorders hormone replacement therapy (HRT, hormonal therapy, PPhT and PT, in neurovegetative symptoms of CS – antidepressants, in psychovegetative syndromes

  12. Aging Study Of EPDM O-Ring Material For The H1616 Shipping Package - Three Year Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefek, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daugherty, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Skidmore, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-05

    This is a 3-year status report for tasks carried out per Task Technical Plan SRNL-STI-2011-00506. A series of tasks/experiments were performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to monitor the aging performance of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) O-rings used in the H1616 shipping package. The test data provide a technical basis to extend the annual maintenance of the H1616 shipping package to three years and to predict the life of the EPDM O-rings at the bounding service conditions.

  13. 电网废旧物资销售涉税问题分析与对策%Analysis and Countermeasures of Tax-related Issues in Sales of Grid Waste Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章光东

    2014-01-01

    In sales activities of grid enterprises′waste materials, the disputes on tax-related invoice issu-ing often happens in performance of contracts with recyclers. In an example of State Grid Anhui Electric Power Corporation′s business practices, through the analysis of the relevant tax-related issues and state tax-related policies, based on compliance with laws and regulations, for ″win-win″ as the goal between power grid enterprises and waste recyclers, the countermeasures on tax invoice management in the dispos-al and sales activities of waste materials are presented, to provide a reference for regulating the disposal and sales activities of waste materials.%电网企业在废旧物资销售活动中,与回收商之间经常发生有关涉税发票开具问题的合同履行纠纷。文章以国网安徽省电力公司业务实践为例,通过对相关涉税问题和国家涉税政策的分析,在依法合规的基础上,以电网企业与废旧物资回收商“互利共赢”为目标,提出了在废旧物资处置和销售活动中的税收发票管理对策,为规范废旧物资处置销售活动提供参考。

  14. Radiolysis of Salts and Long-Term Storage Issues for Both Pure and Impure PuO{sub 2} Materials in Plutonium Storage Containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lav Tandon

    2000-05-01

    The Material Identification and Surveillance (MIS) project sponsored a literature search on the effects of radiation on salts, with focus on alkali chlorides. The goal of the survey was to provide a basis for estimating the magnitude of {alpha} radiation effects on alkali chlorides that can accompany plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) into storage. Chloride radiolysis can yield potentially corrosive gases in plutonium storage containers that can adversely affect long-term stability. This literature search was primarily done to provide a tutorial on this topic, especially for personnel with nonradiation chemistry backgrounds.

  15. Advanced Non-Destructive Assessment Technology to Determine the Aging of Silicon Containing Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, T. W.; Olson, D. L.; Mishra, B.; King, J. C.; Fletcher, J.; Gerstenberger, L.; Lawrence, S.; Martin, A.; Mejia, C.; Meyer, M. K.; Kennedy, R.; Hu, L.; Kohse, G.; Terry, J.

    2011-06-01

    To create an in-situ, real-time method of monitoring neutron damage within a nuclear reactor core, irradiated silicon carbide samples are examined to correlate measurable variations in the material properties with neutron fluence levels experienced by the silicon carbide (SiC) during the irradiation process. The reaction by which phosphorus doping via thermal neutrons occurs in the silicon carbide samples is known to increase electron carrier density. A number of techniques are used to probe the properties of the SiC, including ultrasonic and Hall coefficient measurements, as well as high frequency impedance analysis. Gamma spectroscopy is also used to examine residual radioactivity resulting from irradiation activation of elements in the samples. Hall coefficient measurements produce the expected trend of increasing carrier concentration with higher fluence levels, while high frequency impedance analysis shows an increase in sample impedance with increasing fluence.

  16. Advances in Tube Hydroforming - An Enabling Technology for Low-Mass Vehicle Manufacturing - Material, Lubrication,Loading, Simulation Issues, and Alternatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muammer Ko(c)

    2004-01-01

    The tube hydroforming process (THF) has recently found a wide application opportunity in the automotive industry, and is of increasing interest to other industries as well. The increased interest stems from the fact that, through the THF process, manufacturers are able to produce complex, consolidated, lightweight parts with reduced number of post-processing than through alternative metal forming techniques. In order to fully realize the benefits of this technology, various aspects have been under investigation in academia and industry world-wide. In this paper, effect of loading path, incoming material variation, and lubrication on the robustness of the hydroforming process and final part specifications are summarized based on previous experimental and computational work. In addition, the simulation of hydroforming and examples are presented in comparison with experimental findings. Briefly, results emphasized the importance of the loading path design whereas material variation within the experimentally tested range was not found to be significantly effective on the final part specifications. Selection of a lubricant for hydroforming of a frame rail part was presented demonstrating several aspects of lubrication selection methodology. Results of friction experiments show that only thickness, axial feeding, and force measurements are good indications of lubricant performance as these are found to be strongly discriminative.

  17. Literature review of the lifetime of DOE materials: Aging of plastic bonded explosives and the explosives and polymers contained therein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, C.E.; Woodyard, J.D. [West Texas A and M Univ., Canyon, TX (United States); Rainwater, K.A. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Lightfoot, J.M. [Pantex Plant, Amarillo, TX (United States); Richardson, B.R. [Engineered Carbons, Inc., Borger, TX (United States)

    1998-09-01

    There are concerns about the lifetime of the nation`s stockpile of high explosives (HEs) and their components. The DOE`s Core Surveillance and Enhanced Surveillance programs specifically target degradation of HE, binders, and plastic-bonded explosives (PBXs) for determination of component lifetimes and handling procedures. The principal goal of this project is to identify the decomposition mechanisms of HEs, plasticizers, and plastic polymer binders resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation, heat, and humidity. The primary HEs of concern are 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazocyclooctane (HMX). Hexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is closely related to these two compounds and is also included in the literature review. Both Kel-F 800 and Estane are polymers of interest. A stabilizer, Irganox 1010, and an energetic plasticizer that is a blend of acetaldehyde 2,2-dinitropropyl acetal, are also of interest, but the focus of this report will be on the explosives and polymers. This presents a literature review that provides background on the synthesis, degradation, and techniques to analyze TATB, HMX, RDX, Kel-F 800, Estane, and the PBXs of these compounds. As there are many factors that can influence degradation of materials, the degradation discussion will be divided into sections based on each factor and how it might affect the degradation mechanism. The factors reviewed that influence the degradation of these materials are exposure to heat, UV- and {gamma}-irradiation, and the chemistry of these compounds. The report presents a recently compiled accounting of the available literature. 80 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Theoretical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  19. Accelerating News Issue 2

    CERN Document Server

    Kahle, K; Wildner, E

    2012-01-01

    In this summer issue we look at how developments in collimator materials could have applications in aerospace and beyond, and how Polish researchers are harnessing accelerators for medical and industrial uses. We see how the LHC luminosity upgrade is linking with European industry and US researchers, and how the neutrino oscillation community is progressing. We find out the mid-term status of TIARA-PP and how it is mapping European accelerator education resources.

  20. Regulatory challenges in the management of aging of structural materials in nuclear power plants; Retos reguladores en la gestion del envejecimiento de los materiales estructurales de centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelo, C.; Mendoza, C.; Mas, E.; Conde, J. M.

    2013-07-01

    The article discusses two major pathways by which a regulatory body, and in particular the CSN, may participate in the acquisition of the necessary knowledge on mechanisms of aging of nuclear structural materials: to participate in forums to share operational experience and R and R project, both nationally and internationally. It notes the importance of this participation to carry out its regulatory function based on the knowledge acquired and the unique challenge of transferring that knowledge to rules and guidelines for their application. The article discusses various R and D projects in which the CSN participates directly. It calls for the presence of regulatory bodies in R and D project funded by the EU and the transfer of the results of such projects to codes, standards or guidelines for feasible implementation. (Author)

  1. Data supporting the role of electric field and electrode material on the improvement of the ageing effects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuto, Andrea; Valenti, Luca; Pierro, Silvio; Foti, Marina; Gerardi, Cosimo; Battaglia, Anna; Lombardo, Salvatore

    2015-09-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous Si (a-Si:H) solar cells are strongly affected by the well known Staebler-Wronski effect. This is a worsening of solar cell performances under light soaking which results in a substantial loss of cell power conversion efficiency compared to time zero performance. It is believed not to be an extrinsic effect, but rather a basic phenomenon related to the nature of a-Si:H and to the stability and motion of H-related species in the a-Si:H lattice. This work has been designed in support of the research article entitled "Role of electric field and electrode material on the improvement of the ageing effects in hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells" in Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells (Scuto et al. [1]), which discusses an electrical method based on reverse bias stress to improve the solar cell parameters, and in particular the effect of temperature, electric field intensity and illumination level as a function of the stress time. Here we provide a further set of the obtained experimental data results.

  2. Special Issue "Biomaterials and Bioprinting".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Chee Kai; Yeong, Wai Yee; An, Jia

    2016-09-14

    The emergence of bioprinting in recent years represents a marvellous advancement in 3D printing technology. It expands the range of 3D printable materials from the world of non-living materials into the world of living materials. Biomaterials play an important role in this paradigm shift. This Special Issue focuses on biomaterials and bioprinting and contains eight articles covering a number of recent topics in this emerging area.

  3. Science, technology and the ‘grand challenge’ of ageing—Understanding the socio-material constitution of later life : Science, Technology and the “Grand Challenge” of Ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peine, Alex|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314407243; Faulkner, Alex; Jæger, Birgit; Moors, Ellen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/20241664X

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we introduce the themes addressed and the approaches used in this special issue. We start by briefly discussing the state of the art in research and policy making related to science, technology and ageing. We argue that an important gap characterizes this state of the art: cu

  4. Research Opportunities in Corrosion Science for Long-Term Prediction of Materials Performance: A Report of the DOE Workshop on “Corrosion Issues of Relevance to the Yucca Mountain Waste Repository”.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payer, Joe H. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Scully, John R. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2003-07-29

    The report summarizes the findings of a U.S. Department of Energy workshop on “Corrosion Issues of Relevance to the Yucca Mountain Waste Repository”. The workshop was held on July 29-30, 2003 in Bethesda, MD, and was co-sponsored by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences and Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The workshop focus was corrosion science relevant to long-term prediction of materials performance in hostile environments, with special focus on relevance to the permanent disposal of nuclear waste at the Yucca Mountain Repository. The culmination of the workshop is this report that identifies both generic and Yucca Mountain Project-specific research opportunities in basic and applied topic areas. The research opportunities would be realized well after the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s initial construction-authorization licensing process. At the workshop, twenty-three invited scientists deliberated on basic and applied science opportunities in corrosion science relevant to long-term prediction of damage accumulation by corrosive processes that affect materials performance.

  5. Exposure age of Saturn's A and B rings, and the Cassini Division as suggested by their non-icy material content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Hayes, A. G.; Janssen, M. A.; Nicholson, P. D.; Cuzzi, J. N.; de Pater, I.; Dunn, D. E.

    2017-09-01

    Saturn's rings are composed primarily of water ice with a small fraction of non-icy constituents that are likely both intrinsic and extrinsic in origin. The intrinsic material is thought to be characteristic of the ring progenitor, while the extrinsic material is derived from the continual stream of hypervelocity impacting micrometeoroids that pollute the rings over time. Thus constraining these relative volume fractions and their radial distribution provides a powerful tool by which one can reveal clues about the rings' ultimate origin and age. In this companion to our first paper for the C ring (Zhang et al., 2017), we present new measurements of the non-icy material fraction in Saturn's B ring, Cassini Division and A ring as determined from microwave radiometry observations acquired by the Cassini spacecraft. We investigate the near-zero azimuthal angle observations and demonstrate a radially varying scattering phase function for B ring particles which transitions from half-Mie-half-isotropic in the inner and outer B ring to purely isotropic in the middle B ring. This variation follows the trend of the optical depth in that as the optical depth increases, more particles scatter isotropically. In the A ring radially inward of the Encke gap, we find that the phase function can vary from purely isotropic for 55% porous particles to a combination of 30% Mie/70% isotropic for porosities of 90%, while outwards of the Encke gap particles are most likely 90% porous and scatter light isotropically. We derive the non-icy material fractions, assuming silicate as the non-icy material, and show that there is a significant dependence on the assumed porosity in the B ring, but the radial distribution follows the same trend as the optical depth. Owing to the B ring's high opacity (i.e. high optical depth but low surface density), the particles there are likely to have 85%-90% porosity, with corresponding non-icy volume fractions of ∼0.3%-0.5% in the inner and outer B ring

  6. Avoiding Aging? Social Psychology's Treatment of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Anne E.; Redmond, Rebecca; von Rohr, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Population aging, in conjunction with social and cultural transformations of the life course, has profound implications for social systems--from large-scale structures to micro-level processes. However, much of sociology remains fairly quiet on issues of age and aging, including the subfield of social psychology that could illuminate the impact of…

  7. Oral Health and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of ... years. He spoke with NIH MedlinePlus magazine about oral health issues common in older adults. What has been ...

  8. Structural aging program status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ellingwood, B. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Research is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsorship to address aging management of safety-related concrete structures. Documentation is being prepared to provide the USNRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service evaluations of nuclear power plants. Program accomplishments have included development of the Structural Materials Information Center containing data and information of the time variation of 144 material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors of aging factors, performance assessments of reinforced concrete structures in several United Kingdom nuclear power facilities, evaluation of European and North American repair practices for concrete, an evaluation of factors affecting the corrosion of metals embedded in concrete, and application of the time-dependent reliability methodology to reinforced concrete flexure and shear structural elements to investigate the role of in-service inspection and repair on their probability of failure.

  9. Special Issue “Feature Papers”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Henson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Special Issue “Feature Papers” of the journal Processes aims to establish the scope of this new open access journal in chemical, biological, environmental, pharmaceutical, and material-process engineering, as well as the development of general process engineering methods. The Special Issue is available online at: http://www.mdpi.com/journal/processes/special_issues/feature-paper.[...

  10. Issues in waste combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Lennart; Robertson, Kerstin; Tullin, Claes [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden); Sundquist, Lena; Wrangensten, Lars [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Blom, Elisabet [AaF-Processdesign AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-05-01

    The main purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art on research and development issues related to waste combustion with relevance for Swedish conditions. The review focuses on co-combustion in grate and fluidised bed furnaces. It is primarily literature searches in relevant databases of scientific publications with to material published after 1995. As a complement, findings published in different report series, have also been included. Since the area covered by this report is very wide, we do not claim to cover the issues included completely and it has not been possitile to evaluate the referred studies in depth. Basic knowledge about combustion issues is not included since such information can be found elsewhere in the literature. Rather, this review should be viewed as an overview of research and development in the waste-to-energy area and as such we hope that it will inspire scientists and others to further work in relevant areas.

  11. Gay aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, David

    2009-01-01

    The oldest of the baby boomers (boomers) were age 63 in 2009 and on the verge of retirement. This cohort has had a history of making societal changes throughout its life cycle, and it is unlikely that retirement, as we know it, will remain unscathed. This article highlights two events-the Stonewall Inn riots and two prominent professional associations removing homosexuality from their list of personality disorders-and how they occurred early enough in the gay boomers life cycle to change their attitudes, behaviors, and lifestyles. This article introduces the reader to a broad array of facts, research findings, and issues that inform the topic of gay aging. A summary of the discrimination and legal concerns affecting the gay community are also highlighted. Two influential community programs are identified: Services and Advocacy for Gay Elders (SAGE) and the American Society on Aging's LGBT Aging Issues Network (LAIN). Gerontological educators need to be sensitive to the needs, desires, and resources of the coming cohort of gay boomers, who are more likely to advocate for responsive services, organizations, and policies than the current cohort of gay older adults.

  12. Science, technology and the 'grand challenge' of aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Birgit; Peine, Alexander; Moors, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the themes addressed and the approaches used in this special issue. We start by briefly discussing the state of the art in research and policy making related to science, technology and ageing. We argue that an important gap characterizes this state of the art: current ...... on the socio-material constitution of later life that implicates an important agenda for the future study of ageing and gerontechnology innovation....

  13. Neoprene splinting: dermatological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, E B; Callinan, N; Hank, M; Lewis, E J; Schousboe, J T; Ytterberg, S R

    1998-01-01

    Occupational therapists are expanding their use of custom and commercial soft splints fabricated from neoprene (polychloroprene), but little has been written regarding dermatological issues associated with this material. Skin contact with neoprene poses two dermatological risks: allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and miliaria rubra (i.e., prickly heat). Allergic reaction to neoprene is generally ascribed to the accelerants used to manufacture the man-made rubber, specifically thiourea compounds and mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT). Symptoms of neoprene-related ACD include itching, skin eruptions, swelling, and hemorrhages into the skin. Miliaria rubra creates small, red, elevated, inflammatory papules and a tingling, burning sensation. Although neoprene hypersensitivity is rare, its incidence may grow as neoprene becomes a more commonly used material. It is recommended that therapists screen patients for a history of dermatological reactions to neoprene or other materials containing thiourea compounds or MBT and educate patients to discontinue splint use if dermatological symptoms develop. Therapists are also encouraged to notify splint manufacturers regarding all ACD reactions.

  14. Materials for Fusion Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Matějíček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of materials foreseen for use or already used in fusion devices is given. The operating conditions, material requirements and characteristics of candidate materials in several specific application segments are briefly reviewed. These include: construction materials, electrical insulation, permeation barriers and plasma facing components. Special attention will be paid to the latter and to the issues of plasma-material interaction, materials joining and fuctionally graded interlayers.

  15. Issue 6, Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Winters

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been more interest than I'd ever anticipated in issue 6 "Digital Publication", the first themed issue of Internet Archaeology - so much so that several more related articles have been submitted and will appear in issue 7! The discussion on linearity and hypertext, arising from the contributions by Cornelius Holtorf and Andre Costopoulos, also generated some serious and lengthy debate on our email discussion list intarch-interest for the first time too, and my thanks go out to all who participated - active authorship and readership in practice. Archaeologists are using the web and other electronic media more than ever now, but I believe that this is not just "because it's there". Theoretically and practically, the internet is a valuable tool for us. On the web, rather than on the printed page, we can come closer to fulfilling our concerns about dissemination, we can more easily incorporate many "voices" and facilitate the opening up of our work and our interpretations to critical inquiry, immediately and on a global scale. At the same time, the web also offers new and experimental ways of expressing and communicating our work, and the flexibility of the medium means that our information can even be layered in complexity - depth and the building up of layers and meaning are concepts that every archaeologist is familiar with after all! But there's one more reason why I think archaeology and the web should be embraced. The printed word lies at the very core of a discipline like history; archaeology, on the other hand, is made up of what we see (images, what we feel (experience, what we find (material, what we read (text - it is multimedia. So what better way to communicate all these things than in a like-minded medium?

  16. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    demonstrated. Dodonov derives a formula which predicts a photon generation rate in a cavity due to strong variations of the complex dielectric function in a thin layer near an ideally conducting wall (simulation of the dynamic Casimir effect). Skenderovic reports how photons from two femptosecond laser pulses prepare a large molecule in a coherent superposition of vibrational states. The time evolution of this state is interrogated with a third (delayed) pulse which creates a fourth wave, the signal, giving information on the molecular dynamics. Dimitrova et al present lecture demonstrations of interference and quantum erasing with single photons. By considering electromagnetic energy flow lines as photon paths Davidovic et al explain the emergence of an interference pattern in the process of the accumulation of single photon events behind an interference grating. Atoms in a cavity, atom-atom interactions, interactions of atoms with photons and macroscopic bodies is the next important topic in this topical issue. Khanbekyan et al deal with the problem of the spontaneous emission of an excited atom in a high-Q cavity and investigate the regime when the emitted photon belongs to a wave packet simultaneously located inside and outside the cavity. Sambale et al study the resonant Casimir-Polder potential of an excited atom in front of meta-material half-space and show that for long distances it exhibits attenuated oscillations, while close to the surface the potential becomes attractive or repulsive. Buhmann et al study the nonequilibrium Casimir-Polder force on an atom prepared in an incoherent superposition of internal energy-eigenstates, which is placed in a magnetoelectric environment of nonuniform temperature. Lazarou et al discuss how two atoms, interacting with a single cavity, can be coherently evolved into an entangled state when they are controlled by a sequence of Gaussian pulses, named frequency chirps. Bougouffa et al report on field quantization between two parallel

  17. Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Heart Disease Affects Women of All Ages Past Issues / Winter ... weeks of a heart attack. For Women with Heart Disease: About 6 million American women have coronary heart ...

  18. Ageing of ships, LPG tankers

    OpenAIRE

    Ask, Martin

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades there have been several major ship accidents, and it is believed that old ships are more unsafe than newer ships. To get a better understanding of this phenomenon the thesis is investigating different issues with ship ageing. This thesis consists of a general description of the most important ageing issues, and the condition of sea water ballast tanks is identified as one of the most critical issue regarded to ageing on LPG-tankers. This investigation consists of...

  19. AGS Foundation for Health in Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Policy Issues That Affect You Health in Aging Blog read more Read posts about issues concerning older adults © 2017 Health in Aging. All rights reserved. Feedback • Site Map • Privacy Policy • ...

  20. Joining of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Messler, Robert W

    1993-01-01

    Provides an unusually complete and readable compilation of the primary and secondary options for joining conventional materials in non-conventional ways. Provides unique coverage of adhesive bonding using both organic and inorganic adhesives, cements and mortars. Focuses on materials issues without ignoring issues related to joint design, production processing, quality assurance, process economics, and joining performance in service.Joining of advanced materials is a unique treatment of joining of both conventional and advanced metals andalloys, intermetallics, ceramics, glasses, polymers, a

  1. Structural aging program -- a summary of activities, results, and conclusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ellingwood, B.R. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1997-01-01

    Research has been conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to address aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures. The purpose was to identify potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments. Primary program accomplishments have included formulation of a Structural Materials Information Center that contains data and information on the time variation of material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors and aging factors for 144 materials, an aging assessment methodology to identify critical structures and degradation factors that can potentially impact their performance, guidelines and evaluation criteria for use in condition assessments of reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current condition assessments and estimations of future performance of reinforced concrete nuclear power plant structures. In addition, the Structural Aging Program conducted in-depth evaluations of several nondestructive evaluation and repair-related technologies to develop guidance on their applicability.

  2. Pregnancy issues in scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidar, Merav; Langevitz, Pnina

    2012-05-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a systemic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease affecting the skin and viscera, manifesting pathologically with microvascular lesions, perivascular infiltration by mononuclear cells and increased deposition of extracellular collagen. The rarity of the disease as well as its propensity to appear in the early 1940s, explain the low frequency of concurrent scleroderma and pregnancy. However, the marked female excess, as well as the trend for increasing maternal age due to social change and assisted reproductive technologies, renders heightened significance to issues of fertility, pregnancy course and pregnancy outcomes. In the past, scleroderma patients were thought to be at high risk for poor fetal and maternal outcome, but more current retrospective studies show that despite an increased frequency of prematurity and small for gestational age infants, overall maternal and neonatal survival is good. Hence, at present, with close monitoring and appropriate therapy most scleroderma patients can sustain a successful pregnancy. Therapy with hydroxychloroquine and low dose steroids as well as judicious use of intravenous immunoglobulins is permitted. Renal crisis remains the most dreaded complication of a scleroderma pregnancy and necessitates prompt institution of ACE inhibitor therapy despite its potential teratogenicity. In order minimize the risk for renal crisis, pregnancies should be avoided in rapidly progressive diffuse disease as such patients are at a greater risk for developing serious cardiopulmonary and renal problems early in the disease. This review shall focus on the bi-directional effects of scleroderma on fertility and pregnancy as well as on the management of pregnancy and delivery in the scleroderma patient.

  3. 历史唯物主义视野中的中国正义问题%The Issue of Justice in China from the Perspective of Historical Materialism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林进平

    2012-01-01

    当代中国的正义问题涉及三个子问题:(1)我们应该追求什么样的正义?(2)对于分配正义,我们最需要关注什么?(3)我们应该如何看待正义批判?从历史唯物主义的视角看,中国所要追求的正义应是崇尚契约精神与人的内在价值的正义;与其关注分配正义本身,不如关注制约分配正义的权力和市场等背景因素,因为正是这些因素制约着分配正义的产生及其实现;正义批判虽然属于意识形态批判,但它对于当代中国的制度完善与社会进步有着独特的价值。%From the Perspective of Historical Materialism, three questions about the issue of justice in contemporary China are examined in this paper: (1) What kind of justice should we pursue? (2) For distributive justice, what do we need to concern about? (3) How to look at the critique of justice? The contemporary China should pursue the justice which emphasizes contractual spirit and the intrinsic val- ue of human. It is important to pay more attention to the background factors of distributive justice such as the elements of the public power and the market behind it than to the distributive justice itself, for the key of solving the distributive justice in China lies in solving the background factors such as the elements of the public power and the market. Although the critique of justice is subject to the critique of ideology, it is helpful for the development of social institution and social progress in China with distinctive value.

  4. Strategic Issues in Product Recovery Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Thierry (Martijn); M. Salomon (Marc); J.A.E.E. van Nunen (Jo); L.N. van Wassenhove (Luk)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines strategic production and operations management issues in product recovery management (PRM). PRM encompasses the management of all used and discarded products, components, and materials for which a manufacturing company is legally, contractually, or otherwise respons

  5. Strategic Issues in Product Recovery Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Thierry (Martijn); M. Salomon (Marc); J.A.E.E. van Nunen (Jo); L.N. van Wassenhove (Luk)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines strategic production and operations management issues in product recovery management (PRM). PRM encompasses the management of all used and discarded products, components, and materials for which a manufacturing company is legally, contractually, or otherwise

  6. Introduction to the Issue on Organic Nanophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    solar modules in the coming flexible electronics era. Further developments are ongoing across a broad range of organic nanophotonics topics including organic laser devices, organic phototransistors,organic plasmonic devices, etc. This issue introduces recent cutting-edge research from the fast......-breaking area of organic nanophotonics. The subject in this special issue includes organic lasers, OLEDs, organic photovoltaics, organic phototransistors,microcavities, and related materials. In particular, most papers included in this special issue offer insights into technology innovations including flexible...

  7. A research project to develop and evaluate a technical education component on materials technology for orientation to space-age technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A project was initiated to develop, implement, and evaluate a prototype component for self-pacing, individualized instruction on basic materials science. Results of this project indicate that systematically developed, self-paced instruction provides an effective means for orienting nontraditional college students and secondary students, especially minorities, to both engineering technology and basic materials science. In addition, students using such a system gain greater chances for mastering subject matter than with conventional modes of instruction.

  8. A preliminary mechanical property and stress corrosion evaluation of VIM-VAR work strengthened and direct aged Inconel 718 bar material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary mechanical property and stress corrosion evaluation of double melted (vacuum induction melted (VIM), and vacuum arc remelted (VAR)), solution treated, work strengthened and direct aged Inconel 718 alloy bar (5.50 in. (13.97 cm) diameter). Two sets of tensile specimens, one direct single aged and the other direct double aged, were tested at ambient temperature in both the longitudinal and transverse directions. Longitudinal tensile and yield strengths in excess of 200 ksi (1378.96 MPa) and 168 ksi (1158.33 MPa), respectively, were realized at ambient temperature, for the direct double aged specimen. No failures occurred in the single or double edged longitudinal and transverse tensile specimens stressed to 75 and 100 percent of their respective yield strengths and exposed to a salt fog environment for 180 days. Tensile tests performed after the stress corrosion test showed no mechanical property degradation.

  9. Power issues at school; Energie macht Schule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heup, Juergen

    2011-09-15

    Energy and power are not only current issues in politics and society but also subjects for the classroom. In these time of short budgets, energy consultants are able to offer free teaching materials. However, this is a controversial issue as they may take the opportunity to advertise themselves.

  10. Issues Primer. EEE708 Negotiated Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Leonie

    This issues primer is structured around a series of 20 contemporary concerns in the changing world of work and training in Australia in the early 1990s. It is part of the study materials for the one-semester distance education unit, Negotiated Study Program, in the Open Campus Program at Deakin University (Australia). Information on each issue is…

  11. Editorial: Newly launched activity in JMMM - Critical focused issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Samuel D.

    2016-10-01

    The Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials is pleased to announce a new category called Critical Focused Issues. Critical Focused Issues will consist of single articles on controversial or emerging topics of interest.

  12. THE AGES OF 55 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AS DETERMINED USING AN IMPROVED ΔV{sup HB}{sub TO} METHOD ALONG WITH COLOR-MAGNITUDE DIAGRAM CONSTRAINTS, AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR BROADER ISSUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VandenBerg, Don A.; Brogaard, K.; Leaman, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Victoria, B.C. V8W 3P6 (Canada); Casagrande, L., E-mail: vandenbe@uvic.ca, E-mail: kfb@phys.au.dk, E-mail: rleaman@iac.es, E-mail: luca@mso.anu.edu.au [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Mt. Stromlo Observatory, The Australian National University, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2013-10-01

    Ages have been derived for 55 globular clusters (GCs) for which Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys photometry is publicly available. For most of them, the assumed distances are based on fits of theoretical zero-age horizontal-branch (ZAHB) loci to the lower bound of the observed distributions of HB stars, assuming reddenings from empirical dust maps and metallicities from the latest spectroscopic analyses. The age of the isochrone that provides the best fit to the stars in the vicinity of the turnoff (TO) is taken to be the best estimate of the cluster age. The morphology of isochrones between the TO and the beginning part of the subgiant branch (SGB) is shown to be nearly independent of age and chemical abundances. For well-defined color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), the error bar arising just from the 'fitting' of ZAHBs and isochrones is ≈ ± 0.25 Gyr, while that associated with distance and chemical abundance uncertainties is ∼ ± 1.5-2 Gyr. The oldest GCs in our sample are predicted to have ages of ≈13.0 Gyr (subject to the aforementioned uncertainties). However, the main focus of this investigation is on relative GC ages. In conflict with recent findings based on the relative main-sequence fitting method, which have been studied in some detail and reconciled with our results, ages are found to vary from mean values of ≈12.5 Gyr at [Fe/H] ∼< – 1.7 to ≈11 Gyr at [Fe/H] ∼> –1. At intermediate metallicities, the age-metallicity relation (AMR) appears to be bifurcated: one branch apparently contains clusters with disk-like kinematics, whereas the other branch, which is displaced to lower [Fe/H] values by ≈0.6 dex at a fixed age, is populated by clusters with halo-type orbits. The dispersion in age about each component of the AMR is ∼ ± 0.5 Gyr. There is no apparent dependence of age on Galactocentric distance (R{sub G}) nor is there a clear correlation of HB type with age. As previously discovered in the case of M3 and

  13. New material of microfossils from the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation in the Zhangcunping area,Yichang, Hubei Province and its zircon SHRIMP U-Pb age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU PengJu; YIN ChongYu; GAO LinZhi; TANG Feng; CHEN ShouMing

    2009-01-01

    The Zhangcunping area is located at the north limb of the Huangling anticline in Yichang, Hubei Province. Here, the sedimentary succession of the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation is similar with that in the Weng'an area, Guizhou Province. A large number of new microfossils (mainly acanthoacritarchs) from the Doushantuo Formation in this area are reported in this paper. The fossil assemblage shows similarity as the phosphatized biota of the Doushantuo Formation at Wang'an, Guizhou Province and the silicified biota of the Doushantuo Formation at the Yangtze Gorges, which suggests that the Zhangcunping area is a key for correlation of the Doushantuo Formation between the Weng'an area,Guizhou Province and the Yangtze Gorges. Besides, a new zircon SHRIMP U-Pb age (614.0±7.6 Ma) is first obtained from a horizon underneath the exposed surface in the middle of the Doushantuo Formation in the Zhangcunping area. This age not only provides a new datum for subdivision of the Ediacaran Doushantuo Formation, but also indicates that the age of the exposed surface in the middle of the Doushantuo Formation in the Yangtze Platform should be posterior to 614.0±7.6 Ma. Due to the horizon of the Weng'an biota situated above the exposed surface, the age of the Wang'an biota should be posterior to 614.0±7.6 Ma as well.

  14. Potential of Glutathione Antioxidant in the Hippocampus Repair: Preliminary Study on Bioactive Materials Antiaging of Snakehead Fish (Channa striata in Animal Models of Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunarno Sunarno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Snakehead fish meat contains active ingredients with anti-aging potential that serves as a precursor of glutathione. The ability of glutathione as an antiaging opportunities in the utilization of fish meat, especially snakehead fish. Snakehead fish meat contains several important amino acids, such as glutamine, cysteine​​, and glycine so the potential to be developed for the production of food that is nutritious and healthy. This study examines the essential amino acid composition of the antioxidant glutathione precursors found in snakehead fish from Rawa Pening Central Java to increase glutathione in the body and brain. The results showed that every 100g of snakehead fish meat from Rawa Pening containing glutamine (32.39%, cysteine ​​(6.61%, and glycine (9.69%. Snakehead fish meat extract given at a dose of 30 ml/kg/day in both types of animal models of aging effect on the increase in the content of glutathione and glutathione precursors, both in blood and hippocampus. Increased glutathione precursor of the most high to low, respectively glutamine, glycine, and cysteine​​. Availability of essential amino acids can support increased glutathione in the brain. This is indicated by an increase in glutathione hippocampus in both animal models, both on chronological aging or aging due to oxidative stress, respectively (0.822 and 0.359 mol/g bb compared to control tissue.

  15. Dental Issues & Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Conditions » Dental Issues & Down Syndrome Dental Issues & Down Syndrome Dental care is important for everybody, but people ... is Different About the Teeth of People With Down Syndrome? Delayed Eruption The teeth of people with Down ...

  16. Sleep Issues and Sundowning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... We will not sell or share your name. Sleep Issues and Sundowning Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | ... Sleep Changes Back to top Coping strategies for sleep issues and sundowning If the person is awake ...

  17. Health, comfort, energy use and sustainability issues related to the use of biobased building materials : to what extent are the effects supported by science and data? : what are next steps to take?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Wijk, van C.A.P.; Voort, van der M.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of wood, the use of natural (biobased) materials (based on hemp, flax, straw or other natural resources) is still limited. Nevertheless, many benefits are attributed to these materials in terms of a healthier and more comfortable indoor climate. Other potential benefits of natural

  18. FOREWORD: Materials metrology Materials metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Seton; Valdés, Joaquin

    2010-04-01

    It seems that so much of modern life is defined by the materials we use. From aircraft to architecture, from cars to communications, from microelectronics to medicine, the development of new materials and the innovative application of existing ones have underpinned the technological advances that have transformed the way we live, work and play. Recognizing the need for a sound technical basis for drafting codes of practice and specifications for advanced materials, the governments of countries of the Economic Summit (G7) and the European Commission signed a Memorandum of Understanding in 1982 to establish the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS). This project supports international trade by enabling scientific collaboration as a precursor to the drafting of standards. The VAMAS participants recognized the importance of agreeing a reliable, universally accepted basis for the traceability of the measurements on which standards depend for their preparation and implementation. Seeing the need to involve the wider metrology community, VAMAS approached the Comité International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM). Following discussions with NMI Directors and a workshop at the BIPM in February 2005, the CIPM decided to establish an ad hoc Working Group on the metrology applicable to the measurement of material properties. The Working Group presented its conclusions to the CIPM in October 2007 and published its final report in 2008, leading to the signature of a Memorandum of Understanding between VAMAS and the BIPM. This MoU recognizes the work that is already going on in VAMAS as well as in the Consultative Committees of the CIPM and establishes a framework for an ongoing dialogue on issues of materials metrology. The question of what is meant by traceability in the metrology of the properties of materials is particularly vexed when the measurement results depend on a specified procedure. In these cases, confidence in results requires not only traceable

  19. Radioactive waste storage issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Daniel E. [Colorado Christian Univ., Lakewood, CO (United States)

    1994-08-15

    In the United States we generate greater than 500 million tons of toxic waste per year which pose a threat to human health and the environment. Some of the most toxic of these wastes are those that are radioactively contaminated. This thesis explores the need for permanent disposal facilities to isolate radioactive waste materials that are being stored temporarily, and therefore potentially unsafely, at generating facilities. Because of current controversies involving the interstate transfer of toxic waste, more states are restricting the flow of wastes into - their borders with the resultant outcome of requiring the management (storage and disposal) of wastes generated solely within a state`s boundary to remain there. The purpose of this project is to study nuclear waste storage issues and public perceptions of this important matter. Temporary storage at generating facilities is a cause for safety concerns and underscores, the need for the opening of permanent disposal sites. Political controversies and public concern are forcing states to look within their own borders to find solutions to this difficult problem. Permanent disposal or retrievable storage for radioactive waste may become a necessity in the near future in Colorado. Suitable areas that could support - a nuclear storage/disposal site need to be explored to make certain the health, safety and environment of our citizens now, and that of future generations, will be protected.

  20. Material efficiency: providing material services with less material production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwood, Julian M; Ashby, Michael F; Gutowski, Timothy G; Worrell, Ernst

    2013-03-13

    Material efficiency, as discussed in this Meeting Issue, entails the pursuit of the technical strategies, business models, consumer preferences and policy instruments that would lead to a substantial reduction in the production of high-volume energy-intensive materials required to deliver human well-being. This paper, which introduces a Discussion Meeting Issue on the topic of material efficiency, aims to give an overview of current thinking on the topic, spanning environmental, engineering, economics, sociology and policy issues. The motivations for material efficiency include reducing energy demand, reducing the emissions and other environmental impacts of industry, and increasing national resource security. There are many technical strategies that might bring it about, and these could mainly be implemented today if preferred by customers or producers. However, current economic structures favour the substitution of material for labour, and consumer preferences for material consumption appear to continue even beyond the point at which increased consumption provides any increase in well-being. Therefore, policy will be required to stimulate material efficiency. A theoretically ideal policy measure, such as a carbon price, would internalize the externality of emissions associated with material production, and thus motivate change directly. However, implementation of such a measure has proved elusive, and instead the adjustment of existing government purchasing policies or existing regulations-- for instance to do with building design, planning or vehicle standards--is likely to have a more immediate effect.

  1. Singapore: An Aging Society

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Minsol; Lu, Phillip I Fan

    2015-01-01

    This project is a case study on Singapore and will investigate the issue of an aging population. This project draws upon the general theory of population aging and preference theory. The first part of our analysis is to investigate empirical data of Singapore’s population, fertility rates, mortality, and life expectancy. This is investigated through the use of the general theory of population aging. The second part of our project analyzes policymaking related to population and fertility in Si...

  2. KSC Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Discussion of key electrostatic issues that have arisen during the past few years at KSC that the Electrostatics Laboratory has studied. The lab has studied in depth the Space Shuttle's Thermal Control System Blankets, the International Space Station Thermal Blanket, the Pan/Tilt Camera Blankets, the Kapton Purge Barrier Curtain, the Aclar Purge Barrier Curtain, the Thrust Vector Controller Blankets, the Tyvek Reaction Control System covers, the AID-PAK and FLU-9 pyro inflatable devices, the Velostat Solid Rocket Booster mats, and the SCAPE suits. In many cases these materials are insulating meaning that they might be a source of unsafe levels of electrostatic discharge (ESD). For each, the lab provided in-depth testing of each material within its current configuration to ensure that it does not cause an ESD concern that may violate the safety of the astronauts, the workers and equipment for NASA. For example the lab provides unique solutions and testing such as Spark Incendivity Testing that checks whether a material is capable of generating a spark strong enough to ignite a flammable gas. The lab makes recommendations to changes in specifications, procedures, and material if necessary. The lab also consults with a variety of non-safety related ESD issues for the agency.

  3. Approaching ethical, legal and social issues of emerging forensic DNA phenotyping (FDP) technologies comprehensively: Reply to ‘Forensic DNA phenotyping: Predicting human appearance from crime scene material for investigative purposes’ by Manfred Kayser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toom, V.; Wienroth, M.; M'charek, A.; Prainsack, B.; Williams, R.; Duster, T.; Heinemann, T.; Kruse, C.; Machado, H.; Murphy, E.

    2016-01-01

    In a recent special issue of the journal on new trends in forensic genetics, Manfred Kayser contributed a review of developments, opportunities and challenges of forensic DNA phenotyping (FDP). In his article he argues that FDP technologies - such as determining eye, hair and skin color - should be

  4. Approaching ethical, legal and social issues of emerging forensic DNA phenotyping (FDP) technologies comprehensively: Reply to ‘Forensic DNA phenotyping: Predicting human appearance from crime scene material for investigative purposes’ by Manfred Kayser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toom, V.; Wienroth, M.; M'charek, A.; Prainsack, B.; Williams, R.; Duster, T.; Heinemann, T.; Kruse, C.; Machado, H.; Murphy, E.

    2016-01-01

    In a recent special issue of the journal on new trends in forensic genetics, Manfred Kayser contributed a review of developments, opportunities and challenges of forensic DNA phenotyping (FDP). In his article he argues that FDP technologies - such as determining eye, hair and skin color - should be

  5. Electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, H L

    2010-01-01

    The electronic properties of solids have become of increasing importance in the age of information technology. The study of solids and materials, while having originated from the disciplines of physics and chemistry, has evolved independently over the past few decades. The classical treatment of solid-state physics, which emphasized classifications, theories and fundamental physical principles, is no longer able to bridge the gap between materials advances and applications. In particular, the more recent developments in device physics and technology have not necessarily been driven by new conc

  6. Predictive Service Life Tests for Roofing Membranes: Phase II Investigation of Accelerated Aging Tests for Tracking Degradation of Roofing Membrane Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    bitumen 2 ply SBS modified bitumen G H J K L M 2 ply APP modified bitumen 2 ply APP modified bitumen 1 ply EPDM, nonreinforced 1 ply EPDM...chloride] (PVC), and modified bitumen (MB) roofing systems, the Army currently uses these materials on all types of low-slope applications. Even when...asphalt built-up roofing (BUR), poly [vinyl choloride] (PVC,) styrene-butadiene-styrene ( SBS ) modified bi- tumen (MB), atactic polypropylene (APP) MB

  7. Non-traditional assessment and maintenance methods for aging concrete structures - technical and non-technical issues. Dedicated to Professor Dr. Bernhard Elsener on the occasion of his 60th Birthday

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Peelen, W.H.A.; Courage, W.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Based on construction dates and observed time to corrosion induced damage, the future need for repair of reinforced concrete motorway bridges in The Netherlands is predicted. Due to the age distribution and in particular the relatively short life of conventional repairs, the need for maintenance wil

  8. Mental Health and the Elderly: Issues in Service Delivery to the American Indian and the Hispanic Communities. Part II. Hearing before the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session (Denver, Colorado).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    This field hearing by the House Select Committee on Aging produced testimony on the mental health problems and service delivery needs of American Indian and Hispanic American elderly. A director of research and two American Indian advocates: (1) pointed out the high rate of depression among Indian elderly due to physical impairments and deprived…

  9. Effect of electron beam irradiation and microencapsulation on the flame retardancy of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer materials during hot water ageing test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Haibo; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Bibo; Yu, Bin; Shi, Yongqian; Song, Lei; Kundu, Chanchal Kumar; Tao, Youji; Jie, Ganxin; Feng, Hao; Hu, Yuan

    2017-04-01

    Microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate (MCAPP) in combination with polyester polyurethane (TPU) was used to flame retardant ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA). The EVA composites with different irradiation doses were immersed in hot water (80 °C) to accelerate ageing process. The microencapsulation and irradiation dose ensured positive impacts on the properties of the EVA composites in terms of better dimensional stability and flame retardant performance. The microencapsulation of APP could lower its solubility in water and the higher irradiation dose led to the more MCAPP immobilized in three dimensional crosslinked structure of the EVA matrix which could jointly enhance the flame retardant and electrical insulation properties of the EVA composites. So, the EVA composites with 180 kGy irradiation dose exhibited better dimensional stability than the EVA composites with 120 kGy due to the higher crosslinking degree. Moreover, the higher irradiation dose lead to the more MCAPP immobilizated in crosslinked three-dimensional structure of EVA, enhancing the flame retardancy and electrical insulation properties of the EVA composites. After ageing test in hot water at 80 °C for 2 weeks, the EVA/TPU/MCAPP composite with 180 kGy could still maintain the UL-94 V-0 rating and the limiting oxygen index (LOI) value was as high as 30%. This investigation indicated the flame retardant EVA cable containing MCAPP could achieve stable properties and lower electrical fire hazard risk during long-term hot water ageing test.

  10. Ageing and vascular ageing

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    There is an age related decline in various physiological processes. Vascular ageing is associated with changes in the mechanical and the structural properties of the vascular wall, which leads to the loss of arterial elasticity and reduced arterial compliance. Arterial compliance can be measured by different parameters like pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, and systemic arterial compliance. There is evidence that arterial compliance is reduced in disease states such as hypertension, di...

  11. Special Issue “Biomaterials and Bioprinting”

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of bioprinting in recent years represents a marvellous advancement in 3D printing technology. It expands the range of 3D printable materials from the world of non-living materials into the world of living materials. Biomaterials play an important role in this paradigm shift. This Special Issue focuses on biomaterials and bioprinting and contains eight articles covering a number of recent topics in this emerging area.

  12. Special Issue “Biomaterials and Bioprinting”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Kai Chua

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of bioprinting in recent years represents a marvellous advancement in 3D printing technology. It expands the range of 3D printable materials from the world of non-living materials into the world of living materials. Biomaterials play an important role in this paradigm shift. This Special Issue focuses on biomaterials and bioprinting and contains eight articles covering a number of recent topics in this emerging area.

  13. Abordagem dos temas alimentação e nutrição no material didático do ensino fundamental: interface com segurança alimentar e nutricional e parâmetros curriculares nacionais Approach to food and nutrition issues in teaching materials in elementary school: interface with food and nutritional security and national curriculum parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Gomes Fiore

    2012-12-01

    food and nutrition themes in Fundamental Education's teaching material and its interface with the concept of FNS and the PCNs. Documental research was conducted on the teaching material from 5th to 8th grades of Fundamental Education in Public School of the state of São Paulo. The diffuse presence of food and nutrition themes was found in most disciplines in all bimesters in the four series, which shows the interdisciplinarity in health. It was found that the PCNs are related to the concept of SAN in its various aspects and that most subjects include topics that approach this relationship. In the correlation between themes, there is emphasis to health promotion and food production. The methodology used in the teaching material presents the theme, but not the correspondent content, what made the analysis of its suitability impossible. We conclude that there is the approach of the issues related to food and nutrition in the teaching material, some of them in an inconsistent way; it is the educators' task to select the contents and the appropriate strategy, doing an effort of constant update. This isbeing proposed by the State, however it is not accessible to all professionals and therefore still depends on the initiative of each teacher.

  14. Scientific paradigms of structural safety of aged plants-Lessons learned from Russian activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saji, Genn [Ex-Secretariat of Nuclear Safety Commission (Japan)], E-mail: sajig@bd5.so-net.ne.jp; Timofeev, Boris [CRISM Prometey, Shpalernaja 49, St. Petersburg 193015 (Russian Federation)

    2009-09-15

    The study of the effects behind the degradation of components and materials is becoming increasingly important for the safe operation of aged plants especially when it comes to life extension. Since the Russian nuclear community began to examine life extension issues nearly 15 years ago, there is much to learn from these pioneering studies. At the Ninth International Conference entitled 'Material Issues in Design, Manufacturing and Operation of Nuclear Power Plants Equipment' held in St. Petersburg, 2006, recent data were introduced regarding the ageing effects of mechanical properties of various kinds of steel and welding joints of Russian NPP components. The meeting was organized by the Central Research Institute of Structural Materials (CRISM) 'Prometey' in cooperation with the IAEA and JRC-EU. In reviewing the recent data presented at the Ninth Conference, the authors believe that the paradigms of structural integrity issues in aged plants are now reasonably well established in (1) fracture mechanics and irradiation hardening of reactor vessels and core internals and (2) thermal ageing and annealing effects. However, the first author, G. Saji, believes that the current approach of low-cycle fatigue is still unable to prevent and predict environmentally assisted cracks such as demonstrated in the IGSCC issues in the down-comer pipes of RBMK plants and various steam generator corrosion issues. This fundamental flaw stems from design codes, which do not incorporate the basic knowledge of electrochemical corrosion mechanisms as represented by the corrosion current.

  15. Taking into account of the aging and the damage in the size determination of composite materials structures; Prise en compte du vieillissement et de l'endommagement dans le dimensionnement de structures en materiaux composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercier, J

    2006-11-15

    The aim of this study was to better understand the aging of glass fibres-epoxy composites exposed to humid conditions and loading so as to predict its effects on the lifetimes of composite structures. Water diffusion was first experimentally investigated by gravimetric method to determine water sorption kinetics for different humid conditions. A Fickian model of diffusion could describe the results obtained. Specimens, saturated at different levels, were mechanically characterised. Decreases of mechanical properties as a function of water uptake were revealed by tensile tests. Damage by cracking and the coupling with humidity were then studied. Differences between reversible and irreversible changes in properties were revealed and analysed in detail. A predictive model taking into account effects due to water and/or mechanical loading is proposed, using finite element method. As a first step, in modelling the diffusion process, the non-uniform water distribution across the composite are determined for any conditions (temperature, humidity, aging time). The resulting mechanical properties of the material, as a function of the absorbed water concentration, are determined in each point. Then, diffusion/mechanic coupled calculation allows to determine material global properties from properties at each point. It is then possible to predict continuous evolution of rigidity during aging time, at all stages of water absorption and matrix cracking, for any condition (temperature, humidity, thickness, mechanical loading level). (author)

  16. Bambusa vulgaris as a roof material : A field study about bamboo age, treatment and the possibility to build with bamboo in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Holmström, Emelie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to investigate bamboo (Bambusa vulgaris) and to gain a wider knowledge about bamboo as a construction material. A growing problem all over the world is global warming caused by carbon dioxide emissions. Bamboo is a giant grass and can absorb more carbon dioxide in comparison to same-sized trees. The majority of bamboo species growing in Ghana is Bambusa vulgaris. The results are based on six qualitative semi-structured interviews conducted in Ghana and five supp...

  17. 复合绝缘材料热氧老化中局部放电特性的实验研究%Partial Discharge Characteristics Study of Composite Insulating Materials in Thermo Oxidative Ageing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高山; 贾勇勇; 杨景刚; 陶风波; 董金龙; 张国钢

    2016-01-01

    The partial discharge (PD) characteristics of SMC, BMC, GPO-3, and epoxy resin composite material before and after thermal oxidative ageing were studied. The dielectrical properties and partial discharge characteristics of four composite insulating materials before and after thermal oxidative ageing under different frequency voltages were compared and analyzed. The results show that with the increase of applied voltage, when the voltage attains or exceeds the partial discharge inception voltage, the four composite insulation materials show different PD characteristics and PRPD spectra evolution patterns. After ageing, the partial discharge inception voltage of four materials increases, and the discharge amplitude of PD varies with the increase of applied voltage, but the PD phase and discharge density change little. The common and difference of partial discharge of different materials under different operating conditions should be considered in the evaluation of insulating properties of materials.%对SMC、BMC、GPO-3、环氧树脂复合材料在热氧老化前后的局部放电特性进行研究,对比分析未老化和经过热氧老化的4种复合绝缘材料在不同工频电压下的介电特性和局部放电特性.结果表明:随着外施电压的升高,当达到或超过材料的局部放电起始电压后,4种复合绝缘材料呈现不同的局部放电特性和PRPD谱图演变规律;经过老化后4种材料的起始局部放电电压均有所提高,局部放电量随外施电压升高而呈现不同的变化规律,放电相位和放电密度变化较小.对于材料的绝缘性能评估应综合考虑不同材料在不同运行条件下局部放电的共性和差异.

  18. Gestational age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal age - gestational age; Gestation; Neonatal gestational age; Newborn gestational age ... Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ultrasound to ...

  19. Geopolymer resin materials, geopolymer materials, and materials produced thereby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Medpelli, Dinesh; Ladd, Danielle; Mesgar, Milad

    2016-03-29

    A product formed from a first material including a geopolymer resin material, a geopolymer resin, or a combination thereof by contacting the first material with a fluid and removing at least some of the fluid to yield a product. The first material may be formed by heating and/or aging an initial geopolymer resin material to yield the first material before contacting the first material with the fluid. In some cases, contacting the first material with the fluid breaks up or disintegrates the first material (e.g., in response to contact with the fluid and in the absence of external mechanical stress), thereby forming particles having an external dimension in a range between 1 nm and 2 cm.

  20. Approaching ethical, legal and social issues of emerging forensic DNA phenotyping (FDP) technologies comprehensively: Reply to ‘Forensic DNA phenotyping: Predicting human appearance from crime scene material for investigative purposes’ by Manfred Kayser

    OpenAIRE

    Toom, V.; Wienroth, M.; M'Charek, A.; Prainsack, B.; Williams, R.; Duster, T.; Heinemann, T.; C. Kruse; Machado, H; Murphy, E.

    2016-01-01

    In a recent special issue of the journal on new trends in forensic genetics, Manfred Kayser contributed a review of developments, opportunities and challenges of forensic DNA phenotyping (FDP). In his article he argues that FDP technologies - such as determining eye, hair and skin color - should be considered as akin to a "biological witness" with the potential of providing more accurate information than traditional eye witnesses.

  1. Contact materials for nanoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.

    2011-02-01

    In this article, we review current research activities in contact material development for electronic and nanoelectronic devices. A fundamental issue in contact materials research is to understand and control interfacial reactions and phenomena that modify the expected device performance. These reactions have become more challenging and more difficult to control as new materials have been introduced and as device sizes have entered the deep nanoscale. To provide an overview of this field of inquiry, this issue of MRS Bulletin includes articles on gate and contact materials for Si-based devices, junction contact materials for Si-based devices, and contact materials for alternate channel substrates (Ge and III-V), nanodevices. © 2011 Materials Research Society.

  2. National Security in the Nuclear Age: Public Library Proposal and Booklist. May 1987 Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Ernest B.

    To increase public understanding of national security issues, this document proposes that a balanced and up-to-date collection of books and other materials on national security in the nuclear age be included in all U.S. public libraries. The proposal suggests that the books be grouped together on an identified shelf. Selection criteria for the…

  3. Seven Issues Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Whitehead, Jim; De Bra, Paul

    2002-01-01

    It has been 15 years since the original presentation by Frank Halasz at Hypertext'87 on seven issues for the next generation of hypertext systems. These issues are: Search and Query Composites Virtual Structures Computation in/over hypertext network Versioning Collaborative Work Extensibility...... and Tailorability Since that time, these issues have formed the nucleus of multiple research agendas within the Hypertext community. Befitting this direction-setting role, the issues have been revisited several times, by Halasz in his 1991 Hypertext keynote talk, and by Randy Trigg in his 1996 Hypertext keynote...... five years later. Additionally, over the intervening 15 years, many research systems have addressed the original seven issues, and new research avenues have opened up. The goal of this panel is to begin the process of developing a new set of seven issues for the next generation of hypertext system...

  4. Energy storage capacitors: Aging and diagnostic approaches for life validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarjeant, W.J. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States); Larson, D.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); MacDougall, F.W. [Aerovox, Inc., New Bedford, MA (United States); Kohlberg, I. [I. Kohlberg Associates, Inc., Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Over the last decade, significant increases in capacitor reliability have been achieved through a combination of advanced manufacturing techniques, new materials, and diagnostic methodologies to provide requisite life-cycle reliability for high energy pulse applications. Recent innovations in analysis of aging, including dimensional analysis, are introduced for predicting component performance and fault tolerance. In addition, voltage scaling issues that may drive bank fault-tolerance performance are described.

  5. Ageing and vascular ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, B; Rajkumar, C

    2006-01-01

    There is an age related decline in various physiological processes. Vascular ageing is associated with changes in the mechanical and the structural properties of the vascular wall, which leads to the loss of arterial elasticity and reduced arterial compliance. Arterial compliance can be measured by different parameters like pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, and systemic arterial compliance. There is evidence that arterial compliance is reduced in disease states such as hypertension, diabetes, and end stage renal failure. Changes in arterial compliance can be present before the clinical manifestation of cardiovascular disease. Pharmacological and non‐pharmacological measures have been shown to improve arterial compliance. Arterial compliance may constitute an early cardiovascular risk marker and may be useful in assessing the effects of drugs on the cardiovascular system. Pharmacogenetics and genetics of arterial compliance in the future will improve our knowledge and understanding about vascular ageing. PMID:16754702

  6. Current issues and actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the progress that has been made toward achieving full regulatory compliance at the Hanford Site. Ongoing compliance self-assessments, implementation of the Tri-Party Agreement, and public meetings continue to identify environmental compliance issues. These issues are discussed openly with the regulatory agencies and with the public to ensure that all environmental compliance issues are addressed.

  7. Issues of Land Circulation in the Context of Aging Population:a Case Study of Suzhou%人口老龄化背景下的农地流转问题--以宿州为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚冬伟; 张雷; 张宏志

    2013-01-01

    With fast aging population, rural land circulation catches more attention. The aging population in rural areas bears the charac-teristics of low level in developing regions and high level in developed regions. Problems brought about by aging population in rural areas of Suzhou are severe. The local government shall improve land circulation policy and related measures to cultivate professional farmers, de-velop modern industry, increase benefits of growing crops, create system of land circulation, make better agricultural management, revise population policy and encourage population backflow.%在人口老龄化趋势加快的大背景下,农地流转日益受到了关注。农村人口老龄化程度具有地域性特点,经济较发达地区的农村人口老龄化程度略低,经济欠发达地区的农村人口老龄化程度略高。人口老龄化在宿州市农村表现得更加突出。宿州市应对农村人口老龄化,应尽快完善土地流转政策及措施,主要包括培育职业农民,发展现代农业;推进土地流转,提高种粮效益;推动土地流转制度创新,改善农业经营;调整人口政策,鼓励人口回流等方面内容。

  8. Nutrients, Microglia Aging, and Brain Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhou; Yu, Janchun; Zhu, Aiqin; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    As the life expectancy continues to increase, the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) becomes a big major issue in the world. After cellular activation upon systemic inflammation, microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, start to release proinflammatory mediators to trigger neuroinflammation. We have found that chronic systemic inflammatory challenges induce differential age-dependent microglial responses, which are in line with the impairment of learning and memory, even in middle-aged animals. We thus raise the concept of "microglia aging." This concept is based on the fact that microglia are the key contributor to the acceleration of cognitive decline, which is the major sign of brain aging. On the other hand, inflammation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage, which leads to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species by the numerous types of cells, including macrophages and microglia. Oxidative stress-damaged cells successively produce larger amounts of inflammatory mediators to promote microglia aging. Nutrients are necessary for maintaining general health, including the health of brain. The intake of antioxidant nutrients reduces both systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation and thus reduces cognitive decline during aging. We herein review our microglia aging concept and discuss systemic inflammation and microglia aging. We propose that a nutritional approach to controlling microglia aging will open a new window for healthy brain aging.

  9. Relation on penetration depth and ages of concrete with permeated crystalline materials%混凝土渗透结晶材料渗透深度与混凝土龄期的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王可良; 隋同波

    2012-01-01

    In order to study chemical action on composition of concrete, reaction crystallization and penetration depth of active ion for active component of permeated crystalline materials. Penetration depth of permeated crystalline materials in concrete had been determined with Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray. The results showed that the main diffraction peak of the mortar with permeated crystalline materials had no change, but relative intensity of peak had change. Reaction crystallization of active component in permeated crystalline materials and Ca(OH)2 in concrete permeated in crack of concrete. And penetration depth increased with increasing of ages. A few of crystallization can be reached 120 mm at the age of 180 d.%为研究混凝土渗透结晶材料中活性组分对混凝土组成的化学作用,反应可能生成的结晶产物及活性离子的渗透深度.利用扫描电镜和X衍射仪测定渗透结晶材料在混凝土中的渗透深度.结果表明,掺有渗透结晶材料的水泥浆中各主要衍射峰没有发生变化,只是峰的相对强度发生了变化.渗透结晶防水材料中的活性化学物质与Ca(OH)2生成的结晶体,能很好地渗入混凝土微裂缝中,渗透深度随龄期的增长而逐渐加深.龄期为180d时,在120mm处可见少量结晶体.

  10. Aging Brain, Aging Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkoe, Dennis J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the aging process related to physical changes of the human neural structure involved in learning, memory, and reasoning. Presents evidence that indicates such alterations do not necessarily signal the decline in cognitive function. Vignettes provide images of brain structures involved in learning, memory, and reasoning; hippocampal…

  11. Materials inventory management manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This NASA Materials Inventory Management Manual (NHB 4100.1) is issued pursuant to Section 203(c)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 (42 USC 2473). It sets forth policy, performance standards, and procedures governing the acquisition, management and use of materials. This Manual is effective upon receipt.

  12. Material Writer's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Patricia, Ed.

    This guide is a collection of essays on the writing of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) textbooks and other instructional materials. Articles include: "Writing and Publishing Textbooks (Patricia Byrd); "The Craft of Materials Writing" (Fraida Dubin); "Considering Culture: Guidelines for ESL/EFL Textbook Writers" (Gayle Nelson); "Issues in the…

  13. Material Writer's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Patricia, Ed.

    This guide is a collection of essays on the writing of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) textbooks and other instructional materials. Articles include: "Writing and Publishing Textbooks (Patricia Byrd); "The Craft of Materials Writing" (Fraida Dubin); "Considering Culture: Guidelines for ESL/EFL Textbook Writers" (Gayle Nelson); "Issues in the…

  14. Focus issue introduction: nonlinear optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Benoît; Cundiff, Steven T; Gauthier, Daniel J; Karlsson, Magnus; Lu, Yan-Qing; Norwood, Robert A; Skryabin, Dmitry; Taira, Takunori

    2011-11-07

    It is now fifty years since the original observation of second harmonic generation ushered in the field of nonlinear optics, close on the heels of the invention of the laser. This feature issue celebrates this anniversary with papers that span the range from new nonlinear optical materials, through the increasingly novel methods that have been developed for phase matching, to emerging areas such as nonlinear metamaterials and plasmonic enhancement of optical properties. It is clear that the next fifty years of nonlinear optics will witness a proliferation of new applications with increasing technological impact.

  15. JPRS Report, Proliferation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    competence in handling delicate and agricultral projects, medical research, sterilizing issues. tools, and digging oilfields. Electricity Minister Engineer ...CONTENTS 21 October 1992 [This report contains foreign media information on issues related to worldwide proliferation and transfer activities in nuclear...be built by shipping plutonium through the Strait of Malacca, For- the year 2006 to meet the soaring electricity demand, eign Ministry officials said

  16. Medical Issues in Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teaching Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Medical Issues in Adoption KidsHealth > For Parents > Medical Issues in Adoption Print A A A What's ... some things to know about the health and medical care of an adopted child, before, during, and ...

  17. Editorial Introduction - Issue 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Lynema

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to the 5th issue of the Code4Lib Journal. We've come a long way in just over a year! We hope you take a few minutes to celebrate those accomplishments with us as you explore issue 5 and read about the innovations, ideas, and experiences shared there. Let's learn from each other.

  18. Ethical issues in genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, T A

    1999-03-01

    The first section of the Notes on Moral Theology reviews ethical issues in genetics through the lenses of privacy-confidentiality; risk-benefit analysis in relation to prenatal diagnosis and gene therapy; and freedom-determinism/human dignity in the context of cloning. The author provides an overview of developments in genetics and highlights thematic issues common to these developments.

  19. Variations in battery life of a heart-lung machine using different pump speeds, pressure loads, boot material, centrifugal pump head, multiple pump usage, and battery age.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Marshall, Cornelius

    2012-02-03

    Electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has previously been reported to occur in 1 of every 1500 cases. Most heart-lung machine pump consoles are equipped with built-in battery back-up units. Battery run times of these devices are variable and have not been reported. Different conditions of use can extend battery life in the event of electrical failure. This study was designed to examine the run time of a fully charged battery under various conditions of pump speed, pressure loads, pump boot material, multiple pump usage, and battery life. Battery life using a centrifugal pump also was examined. The results of this study show that battery life is affected by pump speed, circuit pressure, boot stiffness, and the number of pumps in service. Centrifugal pumps also show a reduced drain on battery when compared with roller pumps. These elements affect the longevity and performance of the battery. This information could be of value to the individual during power failure as these are variables that can affect the battery life during such a challenging scenario.

  20. A mechanical property and stress corrosion evaluation of VIM-ESR-VAR work strengthened and direct double aged Inconel 718 bar material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    Presented are the mechanical properties and the stress corrosion resistance of triple melted vacuum induction melted (VIM), electro-slag remelted (ESR), and vacuum arc remelted (VAR), solution treated, work strengthened and direct double aged Inconel 718 alloy bars 4.00 in. (10.16) and 5.75 in. (14.60 cm) diameter. Tensile, charpy v-notched impact, and compact tension specimens were tested at ambient temperature in both the longitudinal and transverse directions. Longitudinal tensile and yield strengths in excess of 220 ksi (1516.85 MPa) and 200 ksi (1378.00 MPa) respectively, were realized at ambient temperature. Additional charpy impact and compact tension tests were performed at -100 F (-73 C). Longitudinal charpy impact strength equalled or exceeded 12.0 ft-lbs (16.3 Joules) at ambient and at -100 F(-73 C) while longitudinal compact (LC) tension fracture toughness strength remained above 79 ksi (86.80 MPa) at ambient and at -100 F(-73 C) temperatures. No failures occurred in the longitudinal or transverse tensile specimens stressed to 75 and 100 percent of their respective yield strengths and exposed to a salt fog environment for 180 days. Tensile tests performed after the stress corrosion test indicated no mechanical property degradation.

  1. Utility interconnection issues for wind power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, J. I.; Lawler, J. S.; Reddoch, T. W.; Sullivan, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    This document organizes the total range of utility related issues, reviews wind turbine control and dynamic characteristics, identifies the interaction of wind turbines to electric utility systems, and identifies areas for future research. The material is organized at three levels: the wind turbine, its controls and characteristics; connection strategies as dispersed or WPSs; and the composite issue of planning and operating the electric power system with wind generated electricity.

  2. Forewords Special Topic Issue on Nanophotonics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiping Cui; Joseph W.Haus

    2009-01-01

    @@ This Special Topic Issue has grown out of research that has been highlighted at the Nanophotonics Conference series held in China for the past three years.The fourteen papers appearing in this issue are a small sampling of the total scope of the conference.Broadly speaking,the subjects covered by the contributing authors include quantum properties using semiconductor materials,nanocharacterization especially with applications to medical fields,photonic crystals and fibers,and plasmonics.

  3. Perspectives: Using Historical Documents To Think about NIF Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Service (GSA), Washington, DC.

    The purpose of using historical documents in the classroom is to generate and enhance discussion by providing a historical perspective for issues. Five documents are included in this packet and are to be used as a supplemental material for the National Issues Forum (NIF) topics. Issues raised include (1) an analysis of the documents and (2)…

  4. Navigating "thorny" issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Kashema; Gilbert, Aderinsola; Malyukova, Anna

    2016-09-01

    In their article Mindfulness and discussing ` thorny' issues in the classroom Konstantinos Alexakos et al. (Cult Stud Sci Educ, 2016. doi: 10.1007/s11422-015-9718-0) describe "thorny" issues as "difficult topics to discuss because they are more personal to some perhaps even cause pain and violence." As women from different backgrounds, we engage in a metalogue, which expands on our thoughts and emotions the thorny issues evoked. Our discussion is grounded in theoretical frameworks of mindfulness, wellness, and safe space for learning. We also reflect on our experiences of facing some of the thorny issues in our academic and personal lives. Having trust and respect for one another and being aware of thorny issues allows for a meaningful conversation about the complexity and nuances involved in discussing difficult topics in a classroom setting.

  5. Community Colleges--Prevention Challenges. Issues in Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on prevention challenges facing community colleges. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Prevention at Community Colleges; (2) Q&A With William Auvenshine; (3) Chancellor's Initiative at the University of Wisconsin-Stout; (4) Alcohol Marketing in the Digital Age; and (5) Higher Education…

  6. Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Appendix B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U. [and others

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volume s 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This report consists of Volume 2, which consists of the GALL literature review tables for the NUMARC Industry Reports reviewed for the report.

  7. In This Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Composing the Curriculum For your summer reading pleasure this month's issue provides a wide range of subjects and activities. Our lead article is a tribute to a chemist-composer, Lejaren A. Hiller, Jr., as well as an examination of the interesting relationship between chemistry (and science) and music. Like Hiller, Wamser and Wamser (page 601) love both chemistry and music, and this comes through loud and clear in their historical perspective on Hiller's work. Much of the rest of the issue impinges on the chemistry curriculum in one form or another. Rettich, Bailey, Frank, and Frick (page 638) describe an integrated first- and second-year curriculum being developed at Illinois Wesleyan University that includes all subdisciplines of chemistry. They describe ways to teach topics such as acids and bases so that the perspectives of (for example) organic and inorganic chemistry are integrated and contemporaneous. Those contemplating a popular reform, group work or cooperative learning, will be interested in Birk and Kurtz's program (page 615) for training teaching assistants using cooperative learning. Surely TAs who have participated in cooperative groups to develop their own techniques for handling discussion and lab sessions will be able to use group learning to better advantage. Several years ago the ACS Division of Chemical Education set up a Task Force on the General Chemistry Curriculum. With support from the National Science Foundation and others, the task force has been quite active. In addition to the summative reports published here (pages 617-636) on four areas in which general chemistry teaching can be improved, they have contributed many Forum columns in earlier issues of the Journal and have published much of their work in New Directions for General Chemistry: A Resource for Curricular Change; Baird W. Lloyd, ed. Our current approach to teaching electron configurations of the atoms is largely based on quantum theory Because of the mathematics required

  8. Why Was Silcrete Heat-Treated in the Middle Stone Age? An Early Transformative Technology in the Context of Raw Material Use at Mertenhof Rock Shelter, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schmidt

    Full Text Available People heat treated silcrete during the Middle Stone Age (MSA in southern Africa but the spatial and temporal variability of this practice remains poorly documented. This paucity of data in turn makes it difficult to interrogate the motive factors underlying the application of this technique. In this paper we present data on heat treatment of silcrete through the Howiesons Poort and post-Howiesons Poort of the rock shelter site Mertenhof, located in the Western Cape of South Africa. In contrast to other sites where heat treatment has been documented, distance to rock source at Mertenhof can be reasonably well estimated, and the site is known to contain high proportions of a diversity of fine grained rocks including silcrete, hornfels and chert at various points through the sequence. Our results suggest the prevalence of heat treatment is variable through the sequence but that it is largely unaffected by the relative abundance of silcrete prevalence. Instead there is a strong inverse correlation between frequency of heat treatment in silcrete and prevalence of chert in the assemblage, and a generally positive correlation with the proportion of locally available rock. While it is difficult to separate individual factors we suggest that, at Mertenhof at least, heat treatment may have been used to improve the fracture properties of silcrete at times when other finer grained rocks were less readily available. As such, heat treatment appears to have been a component of the MSA behavioural repertoire that was flexibly deployed in ways sensitive to other elements of technological organisation.

  9. Application of LC-MS and LC-MS-MS to the analysis of photo-decomposed crystal violet in the investigation of cultural heritage materials aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, Gabriella; Confortin, Daria; Pastore, Paolo; Brustolon, Marinarosa

    2012-12-01

    In this work, the accurate liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-visible (LC-UV-Vis), LC-mass spectrometry (MS) and LC-MS-MS analysis of the photo-degradation products of crystal violet (CV) is reported. CV is a light fugitive early synthetic dye which had a widespread diffusion into the market starting from the end of the XIX century and was used among others by V. Van Gogh and P. Gauguin in their writings, drawings or paintings. On-line photodiode array detector enabled simultaneous UV-Vis spectra acquisition. Many degradation compounds were identified through their exact mass (2 ppm accuracy) and MS-MS technique. In particular, all CV demethylated products, demethylated Michler's ketone and particularly some compounds that most likely contain oxygen, such as N-oxides, were found. Fragmentation products are all justified by the proposed fragmentation scheme, in term of precursor exact mass and isotopic profile, characteristic losses in fragmentation and rebuilt structure formula. In particular, we hypothesized the presence of N-imido oxides and hydroxylamine derivates, never reported before, together with the demethylated derivatives of the studied dyes. All these compounds, although at trace level in our samples, contribute to the discoloration and fading of works of arts made with CV. In particular, demethylation of CV by UV light leads to formation of compounds absorbing at shorter wavelengths than CV (blue shift) or no-absorbing in visible range (yellow-colourless) with an overall effect that may appear reddish-brown. This phenomenon justifies drawings appearing grey or brown on aged yellowed paper, when CV-based inks or paints were used. The final aim was to better characterize the photo-degradation of early synthetic dyes (in particular of CV) and to gain a better insight into the discoloration and fading of purple ink strokes made of CV. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This is the twenty-ninth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It is a double issue covering two issues of the Soviet Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine Journal. Issue 29 contains abstracts of 60 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of three Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. A review of a book on environmental hygiene and a list of papers presented at a Soviet conference on space biology and medicine are also included. The materials in this issue were identified as relevant to 28 areas of space biology and medicine. The areas are: adaptation, aviation medicine, biological rhythms, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, digestive system, endocrinology, equipment and instrumentation, genetics, habitability and environment effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive system, space biology and medicine, and the economics of space flight.

  11. General Issues in International and European Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentian Zyberi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available As a former editor of the predecessor to this journal, namely Merkourios, it gives me great pleasure to write the editorial for the 81st issue of the Utrecht Journal of International and European Law (“UJIEL” on ‘General Issues in International and European Law’. After first providing a general overview of the materials contained in this issue, I will briefly highlight some of the main points made in, the five articles, the case note, two book reviews, and the interview.

  12. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table ... turn Javascript on. What is a High-Risk Pregnancy? All pregnancies involve a certain degree of risk ...

  13. Tailored Porous Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARTON,THOMAS J.; BULL,LUCY M.; KLEMPERER,WALTER G.; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; MCENANEY,BRIAN; MISONO,MAKOTO; MONSON,PETER A.; PEZ,GUIDO; SCHERER,GEORGE W.; VARTULI,JAMES C.; YAGHI,OMAR M.

    1999-11-09

    Tailoring of porous materials involves not only chemical synthetic techniques for tailoring microscopic properties such as pore size, pore shape, pore connectivity, and pore surface reactivity, but also materials processing techniques for tailoring the meso- and the macroscopic properties of bulk materials in the form of fibers, thin films and monoliths. These issues are addressed in the context of five specific classes of porous materials: oxide molecular sieves, porous coordination solids, porous carbons, sol-gel derived oxides, and porous heteropolyanion salts. Reviews of these specific areas are preceded by a presentation of background material and review of current theoretical approaches to adsorption phenomena. A concluding section outlines current research needs and opportunities.

  14. Aging and neuroplasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Gwenn S.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroplasticity can be defined as a final common pathway of neurobiological processes, including structural, functional or molecular mechanisms, that result in stability or compensation for age- or disease-related changes. The papers in this issue address the aging process, as well as depression, dementia, and stroke and a range of interventions, including manipulations in behavior (physical and cognitive activity/exercise), physiological factors (caloric restriction, cholesterol), pharmacolo...

  15. Succesful Aging at Work

    OpenAIRE

    Bruni, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    As the context of work and the age composition of the workforce are changing, this raises several issues to the work capacity and participation of the older age groups in the workforce. With the growth of positive psychology researchers have begun to focus not only on the problems that mature workers encounter in the workplace, such as cognitive loss and discrimination deriving from stereotypes, but also on the potential strengths and resources. Despite the attention paid to this subject, the...

  16. Contrast Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Contrast Materials What are contrast materials and how do they ... material? Pregnancy and contrast materials What are contrast materials and how do they work? Contrast materials, also ...

  17. High-Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry for (234)U/(238)Pu Age Dating of Plutonium Materials and Comparison to Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krachler, Michael; Alvarez-Sarandes, Rafael; Rasmussen, Gert

    2016-09-06

    Employing a commercial high-resolution inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (HR-ICP-OES) instrument, an innovative analytical procedure for the accurate determination of the production age of various Pu materials (Pu powder, cardiac pacemaker battery, (242)Cm heat source, etc.) was developed and validated. This undertaking was based on the fact that the α decay of (238)Pu present in the investigated samples produced (234)U and both mother and daughter could be identified unequivocally using HR-ICP-OES. Benefiting from the high spectral resolution of the instrument (U and (238)Pu were selectively and directly determined in the dissolved samples, i.e., without a chemical separation of the two analytes from each other. Exact emission wavelengths as well as emission spectra of (234)U centered around λ = 411.590 nm and λ = 424.408 nm are reported here for the first time. Emission spectra of the isotopic standard reference material IRMM-199, comprising about one-third each of (233)U, (235)U, and (238)U, confirmed the presence of (234)U in the investigated samples. For the assessment of the (234)U/(238)Pu amount ratio, the emission signals of (234)U and (238)Pu were quantified at λ = 424.408 nm and λ = 402.148 nm, respectively. The age of the investigated samples (range: 26.7-44.4 years) was subsequently calculated using the (234)U/(238)Pu chronometer. HR-ICP-OES results were crossed-validated through sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICPMS) analysis of the (234)U/(238)Pu amount ratio of all samples applying isotope dilution combined with chromatographic separation of U and Pu. Available information on the assumed ages of the analyzed samples was consistent with the ages obtained via the HR-ICP-OES approach. Being based on a different physical detection principle, HR-ICP-OES provides an alternative strategy to the well-established mass spectrometric approach and thus effectively adds to the quality assurance of (234)U

  18. Processing Issues for Preliminary Melts of the Intermetallic Compound 60-NITINOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.; Thomas, Fransua; DellaCorte, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The effect of various high temperature heat treatments and cooling rates on the hardness of cast 60-NITINOL (60wt%Ni- 40wt%Ti) was studied. The hardness ranged from approximately 33 HRC for annealed specimens to 63 HRC for water quenched specimens. Aging did not have a further effect on the hardness of the heat-treated and quenched material. The issue of material contamination and its possible effect on quench cracking during heat treatment above 1000 C was explored. The Charpy impact energy of the material was found to be relatively low (ranging from 0.4 to 1.0 J) and comparable to that of cast magnesium. Selection of service environments and applications for this material based on these findings should consider the processing route by which it was produced.

  19. Methods for age estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sümeyra Demirkıran

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Concept of age estimation plays an important role on both civil law and regulation of criminal behaviors. In forensic medicine, age estimation is practiced for individual requests as well for request of the court. In this study it is aimed to compile the methods of age estimation and to make recommendations for the solution of the problems encountered. In radiological method the epiphyseal lines of the bones and views of the teeth are used. In order to estimate the age by comparing bone radiographs; Greulich-Pyle Atlas (GPA, Tanner-Whitehouse Atlas (TWA and “Adli Tıpta Yaş Tayini (ATYT” books are used. Bone age is found to be 2 years older averagely than chronologic age, especially in puberty, according to the forensic age estimations described in the ATYT book. For the age estimation with teeth, Demirjian method is used. In time different methods are developed by modifying Demirjian method. However no accurate method was found. Histopathological studies are done on bone marrow cellularity and dermis cells. No correlation was found between histopathoogical findings and choronologic age. Important ethical and legal issues are brought with current age estimation methods especially in teenage period. Therefore it is required to prepare atlases of bone age compatible with our society by collecting the findings of the studies in Turkey. Another recommendation could be to pay attention to the courts of age raising trials of teenage women and give special emphasis on birth and population records

  20. Assessment of Issue Handling Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijten, B.; Visser, J.; Zaidman, A.

    2013-01-01

    We mined the issue database of GNOME to assess how issues are handled. How many issues are submitted and resolved? Does the backlog grow or decrease? How fast are issues resolved? Does issue resolution speed increase or decrease over time? In which subproject are issues handled most efficiently? To

  1. Assessment of Issue Handling Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijten, B.; Visser, J.; Zaidman, A.

    2013-01-01

    We mined the issue database of GNOME to assess how issues are handled. How many issues are submitted and resolved? Does the backlog grow or decrease? How fast are issues resolved? Does issue resolution speed increase or decrease over time? In which subproject are issues handled most efficiently? To

  2. ICFA Instrumentation Bulletin, Volume 24, Spring 2002 Issue (SLAC-J-ICFA-024)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Va' Vra, J.

    2003-10-21

    The publication of the ICFA Instrumentation Bulletin is an activity of the Panel on Future Innovation and Development of ICFA (International Committee for Future Accelerators). The Bulletin reports on research and progress in the field of instrumentation with emphasis on application in the field of high-energy physics. It encourages issues of generic instrumentation. This volume covers the following articles: (1) ''Physics and Chemistry of Aging--Early Developments; (2) ''Summary and Outlook of the International Workshop on Aging Phenomena in Gaseous Detectors (DESY, Hamburg, October 2001)''; (3) ''Studies of Aging and High Voltage Break Down Problems during Development and Operation of MSGC and GEM Detectors for the Inner Tracking System of HERA-B''; and (4) ''Aging of Gaseous Detectors: Assembly Materials and Procedures.

  3. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  4. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... entity which has various aims and uses various designs and plans to ... which exists in distribution systems, the possibility of error detection and its restoration .... To examine the issue of mobile agents security, two concepts ...

  5. Gambling: A Consumer Issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makela, Carole J.; Tucker, Suzanne

    1993-01-01

    Focuses upon gambling, the twelfth largest industry in the United States, and its impact on families. Discusses the history of gambling, the cost of gambling, and the growth of lotteries. Suggests issues for consumer professionals to explore. (JOW)

  6. Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Relationships Pregnancy Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Pregnancy and Reproductive Issues Tahirah Diagnosed in 2003 Pregnancy ... in control groups without the disease. Effects of pregnancy on MS Before 1950, most women with MS ...

  7. Environmental Compliance Issue Coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    An order to establish the Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for coordination of significant environmental compliance issues to ensure timely development and consistent application of Departmental environmental policy and guidance

  8. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-17

    Jul 17, 2016 ... Work environment in the organization is one of important issues that ... and their help we can create environments to help resolve problems in the workplace and ..... Entrepreneurship: 101 creative problem solving techniques.

  9. Ethical issues in immunisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, David; Kilham, Henry; Leask, Julie; Tobin, Bernadette

    2009-01-29

    Discussions about current and future immunisation programmes raise novel questions about familiar ethical issues. Two sets of ethical issues dominate these discussions. The first is the issue of compulsory immunisation: what should be done about parents who fail to immunise their children? The second is: given competing demands on health care budgets, how should principles of justice in access and distribution inform vaccination programmes? This paper considers these two issues in the light of traditional ethical principles. With respect to the first, we argue that compulsion is justified only in cases in which we know with practical certainty that parental failure to immunise puts their own child or other children at high risk of severe illness. We also argue that the state should compensate those who suffer vaccine-related injury. With respect to the second, we claim that allocating resources according to health care need requires establishing priorities between public health programmes such as immunisation and other treatment programmes.

  10. Medical Issues: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > nutrition Nutrition Good nutrition is essential to health and growth. ... must make decisions based on their own needs. Nutrition Considerations Since we are still waiting for clinical ...

  11. Osteogenesis Imperfecta Issues: Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    OI Issues: Constipation 804 W. Diamond Ave., Ste. 210 Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (800) 981-2663 (301) 947-0083 Fax: (301) 947- ... a cure, education, awareness, and mutual support. Introduction Constipation is a problem for some people with osteogenesis ...

  12. Modeling Manufacturing Impacts on Aging and Reliability of Polyurethane Foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Rekha R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roberts, Christine Cardinal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mondy, Lisa Ann [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Soehnel, Melissa Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lorenzo, Henry T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-09-25

    Polyurethane is a complex multiphase material that evolves from a viscous liquid to a system of percolating bubbles, which are created via a CO2 generating reaction. The continuous phase polymerizes to a solid during the foaming process generating heat. Foams introduced into a mold increase their volume up to tenfold, and the dynamics of the expansion process may lead to voids and will produce gradients in density and degree of polymerization. These inhomogeneities can lead to structural stability issues upon aging. For instance, structural components in weapon systems have been shown to change shape as they age depending on their molding history, which can threaten critical tolerances. The purpose of this project is to develop a Cradle-to-Grave multiphysics model, which allows us to predict the material properties of foam from its birth through aging in the stockpile, where its dimensional stability is important.

  13. Modeling Manufacturing Impacts on Aging and Reliability of Polyurethane Foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Rekha R.; Roberts, Christine Cardinal; Mondy, Lisa Ann; Soehnel, Melissa Marie; Johnson, Kyle; Lorenzo, Henry T.

    2016-10-01

    Polyurethane is a complex multiphase material that evolves from a viscous liquid to a system of percolating bubbles, which are created via a CO2 generating reaction. The continuous phase polymerizes to a solid during the foaming process generating heat. Foams introduced into a mold increase their volume up to tenfold, and the dynamics of the expansion process may lead to voids and will produce gradients in density and degree of polymerization. These inhomogeneities can lead to structural stability issues upon aging. For instance, structural components in weapon systems have been shown to change shape as they age depending on their molding history, which can threaten critical tolerances. The purpose of this project is to develop a Cradle-to-Grave multiphysics model, which allows us to predict the material properties of foam from its birth through aging in the stockpile, where its dimensional stability is important.

  14. Can ageing be slowed?

    OpenAIRE

    Gaman, L; Stoian, I; Atanasiu, V

    2011-01-01

    Redox metabolism has long been considered to play important roles in aging and the development of age-related diseases. Both dietary and pharmacological manipulations of redox metabolism have been associated with the extension of lifespan. Increasing new evidence s also suggests that the process of aging may derive from imperfect clearance of oxidatively damaged material. The accumulation of this molecular “garbage”, relatively indigestible, further hinders cellular functions, induces progres...

  15. Aging in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy J. Karlin PhD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This exploratory study sought to measure current self-reported experiences of older Saudi adults. Method: Self-reported aging perceptions and demographic data from semistructured questions were obtained from 52 community-dwelling older Saudi adults aged 50 or older. A thematic content analysis was completed around issues of family life/social support, daily/weekly activities, health and health programs, and older adults’ own thoughts about aging and the experience and future of personal aging. Results: Several key themes emerged from the interviews. The majority of respondents in this preliminary study acknowledge a preference for family care. Formal programs in Saudi Arabia are attended with relative infrequency while older adults recognize family support as the preferred method of support. Older Saudi interviewees hold a positive view of aging, but physical functioning, varying financial resources, and other daily obligations are a concern for those in this study. Discussion: Data suggest as the Saudi population ages, more research is needed on the aging experience with particiular emphasis on issues relevant to older adults . Future research must work to clarify the aging experience as cultural context changes.

  16. Bioethics and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Castillo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this presentation is to discuss some concepts related to bioethics and ageing, specifically with regard to health and disease. Considerations on medical practice are made by referring to Kant and Heidelberg school of thought. Perception of time in the elderly and issues such as euthanasia and death are mentioned.

  17. 从实例工程分析“甲供材料”的计税问题%Analysising the tax issue of the material supplied by Owner basing on the examples of engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀伟

    2012-01-01

    Starting from the two aspects of the main tax and the tax price in the engineering project , this article discusses and analysises in - depth some tax issues surviving in the stage of tender pricing and the settlement auditing following the two cases under and at the same time hopes to discuss with the others each other.%本文就建设工程中常见的“甲供材料”这一采购形式,通过以下两个案例来深入剖析在招标定价的阶段以及结算审计中存在的一些计税问题,我们从建设工程“甲供材料”的计税价格和纳税主体等两个方面入手,进行深入的探讨和思考,望与大家共勉。

  18. Thermophysical properties of hydrophobised lime plasters - The influence of ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlíková, Milena; Zemanová, Lucie; Pavlík, Zbyšek

    2017-07-01

    The building envelope is a principal responsible for buildings energy loses. Lime plasters as the most popular finishing materials of historical buildings and culture monuments influence the thermal behaviour as well as construction material of masonry. On this account, the effect of ageing on the thermophysical properties of a newly designed lime plasters containing hydrophobic admixture is analysed in the paper. For the comparative purposes, the reference lime plaster is tested. The ageing is accelerated with controlled carbonation process to simulate the final plasters properties. Basic characterization of the tested materials is done using bulk density, matrix density, and porosity measurements. Thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity are experimentally assessed using a transient impulse method. The obtained data revealed the significant changes of the both studied thermal parameters in the dependence on plasters composition and age. The assessed material parameters will be stored in a material database, where will find use as an input data for computational modelling of heat transport in this type of porous building materials and evaluation of energy-savings and sustainability issues.

  19. Compatibility of Fluorinert, FC-72, with selected materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, James Henry; Sawyer, Patricia Sue

    2006-02-01

    Removable encapsulants have been developed as replacement materials for electronic encapsulation. They can be removed from an electronic assembly in a fairly benign manner. Encapsulants must satisfy a limited number of criteria to be useful. These include processing ease, certain mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties, adhesion to common clean surfaces, good aging characteristics, and compatibility. This report discusses one aspect of the compatibility of removable blown epoxy foams with electronic components. Of interest is the compatibility of the blowing agent, Fluorinert{trademark} (FC-72) electronic fluid with electronic parts, components, and select materials. Excellent compatibility is found with most of the investigated materials. A few materials, such as Teflon{reg_sign} that are comprised of chemicals very similar to FC-72 show substantial absorption of FC-72. No compatibility issues have yet been identified even for the few materials that show substantial absorption.

  20. Rural Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rural Health Topics & States Topics View more Rural Aging The nation's population is aging, and with that change comes increased healthcare needs. ... Disease Control and Prevention report, The State of Aging and Health in America 2013 , the population 65 ...

  1. Teaching Sexual Identity Issues in ESL Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandrick, Stephanie

    This paper discusses the importance of teaching issues related to sexual identity in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classrooms, highlighting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) individuals. Though the paper focuses on postsecondary students, much of the material can apply to other settings with modification. The paper looks at the…

  2. Guest editorial, special issue on biobased adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article is a preface for a special issue that showcases significant developments on adhesives made with biorenewable materials, such as agricultural crops (soybean, corn), plant extractives (bark, tannins), and marine sources (mussels). This collection of pioneering studies and reviews on bioba...

  3. Sustainability issues in circuit board recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech; Alting, Leo; Baldo, Gian Luca

    1995-01-01

    The resource recovery and environmental impact issues of printed circuit board recycling by secondary copper smelters are discussed. Guidelines concerning material selection for circuit board manufacture and concerning the recycling processes are given to enhance recovery efficiency and to lower...... the impacts on the external environment from recycling...

  4. Economic Reflection on Human Rights Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN QIANG

    2011-01-01

    @@ Economic development is decisive with regard to human rights issue.Since reform and opening up,China has established a socialist market system, which provides a market environment characterized by democracy, freedom, equity and competition and thus pushed up economic development and improved the material and spiritual wellbeing of the people.

  5. Preface JFDE Special Issue Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Knaack

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Facade Design and Engineering is a multidisciplinary field that touches many other scientific disciplines. Glass is one of the key materials for building envelopes, and a strong scientific community has developed over the last decade. Designers love glass for its transparency. It is strong but brittle and very demanding in terms of engineering. We continuously see new innovative developments in terms of its climatic performance, structural possibilities, construction design and new applications. Reason enough to dedicate this special issue to the topic. The issue would not have been possible without the contribution of our special editors Jan Belis and Christian Louter, who contributed through their outstanding editorial work and network. Most of the papers in this issue were carefully selected from of a number of invited submissions and conference papers of the COST Action TU0905 Mid-Term Conference, April 17+18 2013, Porec, (CRC Press/Balkema, Leiden and subsequently subjected to the regular blind review process of the journal. Glass as a building material demonstrates the nature of the architectural discipline, where science and building practice are closely linked. Buildings are the live testing bed for scientific research and, at the same time, building practice formulates new research questions. We found that many articles sent to us deal with this relation. Therefore we decided to introduce the new category ’Applied Practice’ for certain journal paper contributions, which from now on can be found at the end of each issue. Although they do not need to be purely scientific, ’Applied Practice’ papers will always discuss new developments, will have a clear structure and are subjected to the strict JFDE review process. Façade Design and Engineering is a peer reviewed, open access journal, funded by The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research NWO (www.nwo.nl. We see ’open access’ as the future publishing model. But it

  6. The long-term future for civilian nuclear power generation in France: The case for breeder reactors. Breeder reactors: The physical and physical chemistry parameters, associate material thermodynamics and mechanical engineering: Novelties and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautray, Robert

    2011-06-01

    The author firstly gives a summary overview of the knowledge base acquired since the first breeder reactors became operational in the 1950s. "Neutronics", thermal phenomena, reactor core cooling, various coolants used and envisioned for this function, fuel fabrication from separated materials, main equipment (pumps, valves, taps, waste cock, safety circuits, heat exchange units, etc.) have now attained maturity, sufficient to implement sodium cooling circuits. Notwithstanding, the use of metallic sodium still raises certain severe questions in terms of safe handling (i.e. inflammability) and other important security considerations. The structural components, both inside the reactor core and outside (i.e. heat exchange devices) are undergoing in-depth research so as to last longer. The fuel cycle, notably the refabrication of fuel elements and fertile elements, the case of transuranic elements, etc., call for studies into radiation induced phenomena, chemistry separation, separate or otherwise treatments for materials that have different radioactive, physical, thermodynamical, chemical and biological properties. The concerns that surround the definitive disposal of certain radioactive wastes could be qualitatively improved with respect to the pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in service today. Lastly, the author notes that breeder reactors eliminate the need for an isotope separation facility, and this constitutes a significant contribution to contain nuclear proliferation. Among the priorities for a fully operational system (power station - the fuel cycle - operation-maintenance - the spent fuel pool and its cooling system-emergency cooling system-emergency electric power-transportation movements-equipment handling - final disposal of radioactive matter, independent safety barriers), the author includes materials (fabrication of targets, an irradiation and inspection instrument), the chemistry of all sorting processes, equipment "refabrication" or rehabilitation

  7. Materials and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Theodore T.; Langenbeck, Sharon L.; Al-Jamily, Ghanim; Arnold, Joe; Barbee, Troy; Coulter, Dan; Dolgin, Ben; Fichter, Buck; George, Patricia; Gorenstein, Paul

    1992-08-01

    Materials and structures technology covers a wide range of technical areas. Some of the most pertinent issues for the Astrotech 21 missions include dimensionally stable structural materials, advanced composites, dielectric coatings, optical metallic coatings for low scattered light applications, low scattered light surfaces, deployable and inflatable structures (including optical), support structures in 0-g and 1-g environments, cryogenic optics, optical blacks, contamination hardened surfaces, radiation hardened glasses and crystals, mono-metallic telescopes and instruments, and materials characterization. Some specific examples include low coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) structures (0.01 ppm/K), lightweight thermally stable mirror materials, thermally stable optical assemblies, high reliability/accuracy (1 micron) deployable structures, and characterization of nanometer level behavior of materials/structures for interferometry concepts. Large filled-aperture concepts will require materials with CTE's of 10(exp 9) at 80 K, anti-contamination coatings, deployable and erectable structures, composite materials with CTE's less than 0.01 ppm/K and thermal hysteresis, 0.001 ppm/K. Gravitational detection systems such as LAGOS will require rigid/deployable structures, dimensionally stable components, lightweight materials with low conductivity, and high stability optics. The Materials and Structures panel addressed these issues and the relevance of the Astrotech 21 mission requirements by dividing materials and structures technology into five categories. These categories, the necessary development, and applicable mission/program development phasing are summarized. For each of these areas, technology assessments were made and development plans were defined.

  8. Volume 4, Issue 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Nelson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This issue showcases a rich variety of first year issues reported from an assortment of national and international settings.  In the Feature, Professor Phil Long (University of Queensland and Associate Professor Shane Dawson (University of South Australia share their views about the issues and challenges associated with learning analytics.  Reflecting the adage from last century that successful student engagement is the result of a combination of warmth and challenge the articles and practice reports focus on both the cognitive challenge  (e.g., assessment, forms of knowledge, distance learning, research skills, peer learning, etc. and the affective warmth (e.g., help-seeking, collaboration, identity development etc. aspects of student behaviour.

  9. Volume 7 Issue 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Creagh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuing interest and commitment to improving the student experience in the tertiary sector was reflected in yet another successful Students, Transitions, Achievement, Retention and Success (STARS Conference recently held in Perth, Western Australia (June 29-July 2, 2016.  As is customary, this issue of the journal publishes the top research papers selected via a peer review process and the top Emerging Initiatives selected by the Conference Committee.  As well, a Good Practice Report was selected for this issue.  The Invited Feature in this issue republishes an article from Professor Sally Kift, President of the Australian Learning and Teaching Fellows (and one of the Editors of Student Success. The statement draws on and is representative of the national reaction to the closure of the OLT, highlighting the substantial role it has played in developing and disseminating innovation and good practice in tertiary teaching and learning.

  10. Year 2000 commercial issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratz, M.P.J.; Booth, R.T. [Bennett Jones, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    This presentation focused on commercial aspects of the Y2K including: (1) special communication issues, (2) outsourcing transactions, (3) joint ventures and the significance for the oil and gas industry, and (4) contingency planning. Communication issues involve interaction with suppliers and vendors of critical systems, liability for Y2K communications (misrepresentation, defamation, promissory estoppel, statutory liability), securities disclosure (Canadian and US SEC requirements), protected communications, protection for Year 2000 statements. Outsourcing problems highlighted include resistance of suppliers to assume responsibility for Y2K problem remediation, factors which support and negate supplier responsibility, scope of suppliers` obligation, and warranties in respect of third party software. Regarding joint ventures, questions concerning limitations on liability, supply warranties, stand-by arrangements, stockpiling inventory, indemnities, confidentiality, operator compensation versus operator risk, and insurance were raised and addressed. Among contingency planning issues the questions of Y2K legal audit, and disclosure aspects of contingency planning were the featured concerns. figs.

  11. Special Issue: Guest Editors' Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Goodman

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available PORTAL opens 2006 with a special selection of papers focusing on the transformative power of social movements. In an age of globalisation and of ideologies of globalism, we debate sources and potential for alternative scenarios, for ‘other worlds.’ Many commentators have proclaimed this the global age, where humanity lives under one world power, one world market, and one world order. Yet many other worlds find new and fertile ground in this age, flourishing against the norm. Social movements set new agendas, inspire participation and crystalise solidarity. At the centre of contestation, they can create emancipatory knowledges—knowledges for change. In this issue of PORTAL we ask how social movements generate new ways of being, new subjectivities, or new modes of existence. We debate the role of affective meaning, of symbolic action and collective conscience, and discuss the place of reflective action. Contributors debate the dialectics between power and counter-power, and the role of strategic conflict and dialogue. They analyse sources of revolutionary and transformative change, discussing the praxis of counter-globalism.

  12. In This Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Organic Chemistry--New Challenges Perhaps more than any other of the chemical subdisciplines, the scope and focus of organic chemistry has been changed by modern technology and theoretical advances, and these changes have had an equally striking effect on the undergraduate curriculum. The main challenge in organic chemistry classes has shifted, in less than a generation, from memorizing all the groups, naming conventions, and classes of reactions to understanding complex interactions at the structural and electronic orbital level. As biochemistry and polymer chemistry have grown from being the purview of a few specialists to full-blown disciplines of their own, they have also migrated from interesting, but optional, chapters at the back of the book to separate courses in the curriculum. The availability of inexpensive instrumentation means undergraduates routinely use NMR and mass spec instead of melting points to identify their products. And the changes are continuing: segments of biochemistry are metamorphizing into molecular biology and polymer chemistry is finding interconnections with materials science. In fact, as our understanding of chemical reactions at molecular and electronic levels expands, it becomes more and more difficult to decide on demarcations between the subdisciplines. Organic chemistry is an organizational construct that once was useful for segregating certain topics into a coherent two-semester introductory course. Today, it covers so much territory that no one who is an "organic chemist" can know even a small fraction of the territory and faces unique challenges when designing and teaching undergraduate courses. In a wide spectrum of articles in this issue that fall under the "organic" umbrella--from environmental chemistry to new polymer products--teachers share their specific experiences and creative solutions to these challenges, providing their colleagues with new ideas, processes, and pedagogic approaches. To start off, we can examine

  13. [Ethical issues in personal genome research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kazuto; Minari, Jusaku

    2013-03-01

    The rapid expansion of techniques for studying human genomics has remarkably changed research and practice. It is expected that more progress will be made in the field of medical and biological research owing to the technological advances. Genomics researchers collect human genetic material, including DNA and cells, from a large number of individuals and carry out "personal genome analysis"; as a result, new types of ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI) have arisen, including issues such as informed consent procedures, data sharing, protection of genetic information, and return of research results. To address these issues, many large research projects have established specialist groups that are devoted to manage ELSI of their research. The guidelines for genomics research set by the government are also expected to be revised accordingly. In this paper, we present an overview of ELSI of personal genome research and discuss necessary measures to tackle these issues.

  14. Materials development for TESOL

    CERN Document Server

    Mishan, Freda

    2015-01-01

    Materials development has become much more important in the field of TESOL in the last twenty years: modules on materials development are now commonplace on MA TESOL courses around the world. The overall aim of the book is to introduce readers to a wide range of theoretical and practical issues in materials development to enable them to make informed and principled choices in the selection, evaluation, adaptation and production of materials. The book aims to show how these choices need to be informed by an awareness of culture, context and purpose.

  15. Innovative Solar Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Carl M.

    1984-02-01

    A variety of optical coatings are discussed in the context of solar energy utilization. Well-known coatings such as transparent conductors (heat mirrors), selective absorbers, and reflective films are surveyed briefly. Emphasis is placed on the materials' limitations and on use of lesser-known optical coatings and materials. Physical and optical properties are detailed for protective antireflection films, cold mirrors, fluorescent concentrator materials, radiative cooling surfaces, and optical switching films including electrochromic, thermochromic, photochromic, and liquid crystal types. For many of these materials, research has only recently been considered, so various design and durability issues need to be addressed.

  16. SPECIAL ISSUE EDITORIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amy J.C.TRAPPEY; Fataneh Taghaboni DUTTA; Kai-Ying CHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ This special issue of Journal of Systems Science and Systems Engineering recognizes the contributions of authors and participants in the 16th ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering (CE2009), 2009 ASME International Manufacturing - Science and Engineering Conference (MSEC) and 2009 IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics. Among related papers presented in these conferences, the guest editors have selectively identified and invited the authors to re-write and extend their works to full-length papers for re-submission to the special issue.

  17. Ocean Disposal of Dredged Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permits and authorizations for the ocean dumping of dredged material is issued by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Information is provided about where to dispose dredged material and the process for obtaining an ocean dumping permit for dredged material.

  18. Parylene C Aging Studies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achyuthan, Komandoor; Sawyer, Patricia Sue.; Mata, Guillermo Adrian; White II, Gregory Von; Bernstein, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Parylene C is used in a device because of its conformable deposition and other advantages. Techniques to study Parylene C aging were developed, and "lessons learned" that could be utilized for future studies are the result of this initial study. Differential Scanning Calorimetry yielded temperature ranges for Parylene C aging as well as post-deposition treatment. Post-deposition techniques are suggested to improve Parylene C performance. Sample preparation was critical to aging regimen. Short-term (%7E40 days) aging experiments with free standing and ceramic-supported Parylene C films highlighted "lessons learned" which stressed further investigations in order to refine sample preparation (film thickness, single sided uniform coating, machine versus laser cutting, annealing time, temperature) and testing issues ("necking") for robust accelerated aging of Parylene C.

  19. Recent progress in hybrid materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Clément; Shea, Kenneth J; Kitagawa, Susumu

    2011-02-01

    This themed issue of Chemical Society Reviews reviews recent progress made in hybrid materials science. Guest editors Clément Sanchez, Susumu Kitagawa and Ken Shea introduce the issue and the academic and industrial importance of the field.

  20. About this issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Mulligan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available I am delighted to have been asked to be the consulting editor for this special issue on disability and diversity. It covers a range of interesting articles that are relevant for anybody working in community eye health specifically, as well as in the health sector generally.