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Sample records for materia medica cmm

  1. [Good agricultural practice (GAP) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) for ten years: achievements, problems and proposals].

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    Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Wang, Gui-Hua; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Mei-Lan; He, Ya-Li; Han, Bang-Xing; Chen, Nai-Fu; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-04-01

    This paper aims to summarize the achievements during the implementation process of good agricultural practice (GAP) in Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), and on basis of analyzing the existing problems of GAP, to propose further implementation of GAP in TCM growing. Since the launch of GAP in CMM growing ten years ago, it has acquired great achievements, including: (1) The promulgation of a series of measures for the administration of the GAP approval in the CMM growing; (2) The expanded planting area of CMM; (3) The increased awareness of standardized CMM growing among farmers and enterprises; (4) The establishment of GAP implementation bases for CMM growing; (5) The improvement of theory and methodology for CMM growing; (6) The development of a large group of experts and scholars in GAP approval for CMM production. The problems existing in the production include: (1) A deep understanding of GAP and its certification is still needed; (2) The distribution of the certification base is not reasonable; (3) The geo-economics effect and the backward farming practices are thought to be the bottlenecks in the standardization of CMM growing and the scale production of CMM; (4) Low comparative effectiveness limits the development of the GAP; (5) The base of breeding improved variety is blank; (6) The immature of the cultivation technique lead to the risk of production process; (7) The degradation of soil microbial and the continuous cropping obstacle restrict the sustainable development of the GAP base. To further promote the health and orderly GAP in the CMM growing, the authors propose: (1) To change the mode of production; (2) To establish a sound standard system so as to ensure quality products for fair prices; (3) To fully consider the geo-economic culture and vigorously promote the definite cultivating of traditional Chinese medicinal materials; (4) To strengthen the transformation and generalization of basic researches and achievements, in order to provide technical

  2. [A accurate identification method for Chinese materia medica--systematic identification of Chinese materia medica].

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    Wang, Xue-Yong; Liao, Cai-Li; Liu, Si-Qi; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Shao, Ai-Juan; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-05-01

    This paper put forward a more accurate identification method for identification of Chinese materia medica (CMM), the systematic identification of Chinese materia medica (SICMM) , which might solve difficulties in CMM identification used the ordinary traditional ways. Concepts, mechanisms and methods of SICMM were systematically introduced and possibility was proved by experiments. The establishment of SICMM will solve problems in identification of Chinese materia medica not only in phenotypic characters like the mnorphous, microstructure, chemical constituents, but also further discovery evolution and classification of species, subspecies and population in medical plants. The establishment of SICMM will improve the development of identification of CMM and create a more extensive study space.

  3. A concise classification of bencao (materia medica).

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    Zhao, Zhongzhen; Guo, Ping; Brand, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Books that record the sources and applications of medicinal materials are commonly known as bencao ( materia medica ) in China. Bencao ( materia medica ) literature review is the very first step in the standard authentication procedure of Chinese medicinals. As an important part of China's cultural heritage, these various bencao ( materia medica ) texts represent centuries of accumulated wisdom in combating disease and preserving health. In this short review, bencao ( materia medica ) classics of China are broadly divided into three major categories in our routine practice: mainstream bencao ( materia medica ), thematic bencao ( materia medica ) and regional bencao ( materia medica ). The overall significance and current situation of exploration of bencao ( materia medica ) literature are summarized as well.

  4. Chinese materia medica used in medicinal diets.

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    Tan, Fang; Chen, Yalin; Tan, Xiaolei; Ma, Yunyun; Peng, Yong

    2017-07-12

    Medicinal diets have a history of more than 2000 years. Locally referred to as yaoshan (Chinese: ), a medicinal diet is understood in China as a dietary product that combines herbs and food with the purpose of preventing and treating diseases or improving health under the guidance of traditional Chinese medicine theory. Medicinal diets are used in Chinese people's daily life and in specialized restaurants. Hundreds of Chinese materia medica (CMM) are used in medicinal diets; however, a comprehensive evaluation of medicinal diets is lacking. This is an exploratory study that aims to identify the CMM that are most frequently used in medicinal diets and to provide an updated view of the current situation of medicinal diets in China. A field study of 1221 people in 32 Chinese provinces was conducted over a period of approximately 6 months and included various types of interviews as well as a written questionnaire. Two approaches were used to analyse the data collected in the survey: (1) estimating the frequency of CMM consumed in daily diets; and (2) collecting CMM used in medicinal diet restaurants. Complementary information on the selected CMM was obtained from relevant databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, CNKI, and Web of Science. Ten CMM were reported as commonly used by more than 50% of the participants. Among these 10 species, most medicinally used parts were seeds and fruits. Pharmacological data from the literature revealed that these species are associated with a wide spectrum of biological properties, including antitumour (80%), antioxidant (50%), anti-diabetic (40%), antilipemic (40%), anti-aging (40%), antimicrobial (40%) and cardioprotective (40%) activities. Our survey shows that most medicinal diet restaurants are located in the eastern part of China, with the greatest numbers being found in Beijing and Guangzhou. Only Dioscoreae Rhizoma, Lycii Fructus, Chrysanthemi Flos and Longan Arillus were frequently consumed both in daily

  5. New sensor technologies in quality evaluation of Chinese materia medica: 2010-2015.

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    Miao, Xiaosu; Cui, Qingyu; Wu, Honghui; Qiao, Yanjiang; Zheng, Yanfei; Wu, Zhisheng

    2017-03-01

    New sensor technologies play an important role in quality evaluation of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and include near-infrared spectroscopy, chemical imaging, electronic nose and electronic tongue. This review on quality evaluation of CMM and the application of the new sensors in this assessment is based on studies from 2010 to 2015, with prospects and opportunities for future research.

  6. Advance in quality assessment of Chinese materia medica using microscopic and morphological methods.

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    Miao, Xiao-Su; Cui, Qing-Yu; Wang, Zhao-Yi; Liu, Xiao-Na; Zhao, An-Bang; Qiao, Yan-Jiang; Wu, Zhi-Sheng

    2017-09-01

    Quality evaluation plays a vital role in ensuring safety and effectiveness of Chinese materia medica (CMM). Microscopic and morphological technologies can be used to distinguish CMM's characteristics, such as shape, size, texture, section, and smell, for authenticity and quality control of CMM. The microscopic and morphological applications of novel micro-technology, colorimeter, and texture analyzer for CMM identification are summarized and the future prospect is discussed in this paper. Various styles and complex sources of CMM are systemically reviewed, including cormophyte medicinal materials, fruit and seeds, pollen grain, and spore materials. Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The classification and application of toxic Chinese materia medica.

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    Liu, Xinmin; Wang, Qiong; Song, Guangqing; Zhang, Guangping; Ye, Zuguang; Williamson, Elizabeth M

    2014-03-01

    Many important drugs in the Chinese materia medica (CMM) are known to be toxic, and it has long been recognized in classical Chinese medical theory that toxicity can arise directly from the components of a single CMM or may be induced by an interaction between combined CMM. Traditional Chinese Medicine presents a unique set of pharmaceutical theories that include particular methods for processing, combining and decocting, and these techniques contribute to reducing toxicity as well as enhancing efficacy. The current classification of toxic CMM drugs, traditional methods for processing toxic CMM and the prohibited use of certain combinations, is based on traditional experience and ancient texts and monographs, but accumulating evidence increasingly supports their use to eliminate or reduce toxicity. Modern methods are now being used to evaluate the safety of CMM; however, a new system for describing the toxicity of Chinese herbal medicines may need to be established to take into account those herbs whose toxicity is delayed or otherwise hidden, and which have not been incorporated into the traditional classification. This review explains the existing classification and justifies it where appropriate, using experimental results often originally published in Chinese and previously not available outside China. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Authentication of Chinese Materia Medica decoction dregs, part 1: comparison of morphological and microscopic features of four Chinese Materia Medica before and after decoction.

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    Wong, Lailai; Liang, Zhitao; Chen, Hubiao; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2011-04-01

    Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) decoction dregs are the residues of medicinal materials after decoction. Accurate identification of CMM in decoction dregs will be helpful for exploring the causes of poisoning or other medical incidents arising after the ingestion of CMM decoctions. To determine how decoction affects the characteristics used to authenticate specific CMM, a systematic study was carried out. In this study, two pairs of Materia Medica that are commonly confused-namely, Baizhu (Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma) and Cangzhu (Atractylodis Rhizoma), Baishao (Paeoniae Alba Radix) and Chishao (Paeoniae Rubra Radix)-were chosen for investigation. Each pair of Materia Medica has similar morphology in appearance, but they have different functions in Chinese clinic. After decoction, with regard to gross morphological characters, the results showed that bark and wood could be easily distinguished. The striation of vessels and fibers became more prominent because of the contraction of parenchymatous cells, but the lignified cells did not. As for the microscopic characteristics, the cells with thickened walls, such as stone cells and fibers, were basically stable. Most of the parenchymatous cells were broken. Crystals of calcium oxalate showed no changes as they were insoluble in water. Starch granules were gelatinized and aggregated in parenchymatous cells. Inulins were substantially reduced in number as they dissolved in water during decoction. According to these changes in morphological and microscopic characteristics after decoction, the dregs of two pairs of Materia Medica could be distinguished. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. [Current situation of toxicity classification of Chinese materia medica and its research thoughts].

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    Sun, Wenyan; Hou, Xiujuan; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Yuelan; Zhang, Shuofeng; Chang, Hongsheng; Sun, Jianning

    2012-08-01

    Toxicity of Chinese materia medica (CMM) is an important part of Chinese herbal nature theory. In clinical application, the dosage, time limitation and compatibility of CMM is mainly determined by toxicity. At present, there is no uniform toxicity classification standard for the evaluation of Chinese herbal toxicity. Therefore, it is significant to research toxicity classification of CMM. The current situation of toxicity classification of CMM is reviewed in this paper, and proposed research thoughts are as follows: the measurement of toxicity parameters, the confirmation of poisoning target organs, the investigation on toxic mechanism by serum pharmacology and toxicokinetics, the comprehensive evaluation on toxicity based on quantitative theory.

  10. [Real-time detection of quality of Chinese materia medica: strategy of NIR model evaluation].

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    Wu, Zhi-sheng; Shi, Xin-yuan; Xu, Bing; Dai, Xing-xing; Qiao, Yan-jiang

    2015-07-01

    The definition of critical quality attributes of Chinese materia medica ( CMM) was put forward based on the top-level design concept. Nowadays, coupled with the development of rapid analytical science, rapid assessment of critical quality attributes of CMM was firstly carried out, which was the secondary discipline branch of CMM. Taking near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as an example, which is a rapid analytical technology in pharmaceutical process over the past decade, systematic review is the chemometric parameters in NIR model evaluation. According to the characteristics of complexity of CMM and trace components analysis, a multi-source information fusion strategy of NIR model was developed for assessment of critical quality attributes of CMM. The strategy has provided guideline for NIR reliable analysis in critical quality attributes of CMM.

  11. [Principles for molecular identification of traditional Chinese materia medica using DNA barcoding].

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    Chen, Shi-Lin; Yao, Hui; Han, Jian-Ping; Xin, Tian-Yi; Pang, Xiao-Hui; Shi, Lin-Chun; Luo, Kun; Song, Jing-Yuan; Hou, Dian-Yun; Shi, Shang-Mei; Qian, Zhong-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Since the research of molecular identification of Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) using DNA barcode is rapidly developing and popularizing, the principle of this method is approved to be listed in the Supplement of the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China. Based on the study on comprehensive samples, the DNA barcoding systems have been established to identify CMM, i.e. ITS2 as a core barcode and psbA-trnH as a complementary locus for identification of planta medica, and COI as a core barcode and ITS2 as a complementary locus for identification of animal medica. This article introduced the principle of molecular identification of CMM using DNA barcoding and its drafting instructions. Furthermore, its application perspective was discussed.

  12. Authentication of Chinese Materia Medica decoction dregs. Part II: comparison before and after decoction of four Chinese Materia Medica that mainly comprise storage tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lailai; Liang, Zhitao; Chen, Hubiao; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2012-02-01

    Authentication of Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) decoction dregs is important for ensuring the efficacy and safety of CMM when they are used in decoction. If someone got worse or poisoned after taking a decoction while the formula is appropriate, the authentication of CMM dregs is the effective method to explore the reasons. Therefore, a systematic study on the authentication of CMM dregs was carried out. In this study, two pairs of easily confused CMM dregs, Fenge (Puerariae Thomsonii Radix) and Shanyao (Dioscoreae Rhizoma), Dihuang (Rehmanniae Radix) and Huangjing (Polygonati Rhizoma), which mostly comprise storage tissues, were investigated by comparing the morphological and microscopic characteristics. Fenge and Shanyao contain abundant starch granules. After decoction their dregs were hard, nonstarchy and horn-like. Fully gelatinized starch granules were found in the powder of Fenge dregs while incompletely gelatinized starch granules were occasionally found in the Shanyao dregs. In contrast, Dihuang and Huangjing contain water-soluble sugars. After decoction, their dregs were hard and brittle. Their parenchymatous cells were shrunken and unknown crystals were found under microscope. Hence, the morphological and microscopic characteristics of CMM before and after decoction were different, and different changes in the CMM dregs can be illustrated by the different nature of their ergastic substance. These differences could be used to authenticate CMM dregs. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Management of Chinese materia medica market based on information asymmetry].

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    Yang, Guang; Wang, Nuo; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Yong-Yan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Liu, Jin-Xin

    2013-12-01

    Pharmaceutical market is a typical market with information asymmetry, and which can lead to "lemons" problem. In all developed countries, firms must receive regulatory approval to market a pharmaceutical product. Such administrative department including SFDA, EMA, FDA and so on. Chinese materia medica is a special part of pharmaceutical market in China. The management of Chinese materia medica is a special challenge in China.

  14. [Substance basis research on Chinese materia medica is one of key scientific problems of inheriting, development and innovation of Chinese materia medica].

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    Yang, Xiu-wei

    2015-09-01

    The compound Chinese materia medica is the medication pattern of the traditional Chinese medicine for the disease prevention and treatment. The single Chinese materia medica (mostly in decoction pieces) is the prescription composition of the compound Chinese materia medica. The study of the effective substance basis of Chinese materia medica should be based on the chemical compositions of the compound Chinese materia medica as an entry point considering the different status of "Monarch, Minister, Assistant, and Guide" for a certain single Chinese materia medica in the different compound Chinese materia medica while substance basis research of a certain single Chinese materia medica should be a full component analysis as well as both stable and controllable quality. Substance basis research on Chinese materia medica is one of key scientific problems of inheriting, development and innovation of Chinese materia medica.

  15. [Influence of compendium of Materia Medica on the materia medica in the late period of the Chosun Dynasty].

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    Oh, Chae-Kun

    2012-08-31

    In this paper, I investigated the influence of Compendium of Materia Medica (CM) on Records for Rural Life of Chosun Gentlemen (RRC), and refuted Miki Sakae's opinion, CM did not have much impact on the Materia Medica in the late period of the Chosun Dynasty. When Li Shizhen published CM, it resulted in a shift of mainstream of Materia Medica in Eastern Asia from Classified Emergency Materia Medica to CM and a new categorizing system of Materia Medica by CM led to the division of Materia Medica into medicine and natural history. It is obvious that doctors of the Chosun Dynasty also adopted the latest achievements of Materia Medica by CM, but so far there have been few studies to clarify this. Seo yugu was a scholar of the Realist School of Confucianism during the late period of the Chosun Dynasty, and RRC is his representative work. RRC is a massive encyclopedia of natural history that covers vast areas of science from agriculture, floriculture, writing and drawing, architecture, diet, and medicine, among others which absorbed the achievements of CM, the best Materia Medica book at that time. Miki Sakae also highly regarded the encyclopedic knowledge of RRC, but devalued the results of Materia Medica. He only described a part of RRC's Materia Medica, nurturing volume, on the view of life nurturing and mentioned that it had been strongly influenced by China. According to this study, a large portion of RRC, especially regarding Materia Medica, depends on CM. Seo yugu had accepted the categorizing system and new medicinal information of CM, at the same time he modified the categorizing system of CM practically by the subject of each volume of RRC. We can find many quotations of CM except the nurturing volume, but other books, Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine, Materia Medica for Relief of Famines are also quoted. Furthermore, Seo yugu emphasized the differences of natural environments between Chosun and China, and specified the editing criteria, "to be useful in

  16. [Probe into monitoring mechanism of Chinese materia medica resources].

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    Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Li, Da-Ning; Guo, Lan-Ping; Lu, Jian-Wei; Sun, Li-Ying; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-10-01

    Focusing on the problems of Chinese materia medica resources,and combining with the national Chinese materia medica resources survey, the paper probes into monitoring mechanism of Chinese materia medica resources. The establishment of the monitoring mechanism needs one organization and management agencies to supervise and guide monitoring work, one network system to gather data information, a group of people to perform monitoring work, a system of technical methods to assure monitoring work scientific and practical, a series of achievements and products to figure out the methods for solving problems, a group of monitoring index system to accumulate basic data, and a plenty of funds to keep normal operation of monitoring work.

  17. The antiepileptic Materia Medica of Pediacus Dioscorides.

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    Eadie, M J

    2004-09-01

    Since it was written about the middle of the 1st Century AD, and up to comparatively recent times, the great Herbal, or Materia Medica, of Dioscorides provided medicine with its chief source of information about what were then considered therapeutic substances. The work contained data on various materials of botanical, biological and mineral origin which were claimed to provide benefit to sufferers from epilepsy, though often with no clear underlying rationale for their use. Some of these materials continued to be used as antiepileptic remedies over many centuries till they were finally recognised to be without useful effect in the disorder. The longest survivor amongst the Dioscoridean antiepileptic remedies was a rather esoteric one, viz. two stones taken from the belly of a young swallow during the rising phase of the moon and also whilst the swallow's parent birds were absent from the nest. The stones, or one of them, were worn against the skin of the seizure sufferer. The use of the swallow stones for epilepsy was recommended as late as in the writings of Thomas Willis (1675).

  18. [Applications and prospects of on-line near infrared spectroscopy technology in manufacturing of Chinese materia medica].

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    Li, Yang; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Pan, Xiao-Ning; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Guo, Ming-Ye; Xu, Bing; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-10-01

    The quality of Chinese materia medica (CMM) is affected by every process in CMM manufacturing. According to multi-unit complex features in the production of CMM, on-line near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) is used as an evaluating technology with its rapid, non-destructive and non-pollution etc. advantages. With the research in institutions, the on-line NIR applied in process analysis and control of CMM was described systematically, and the on-line NIR platform building was used as an example to clarify the feasibility of on-line NIR technology in CMM manufacturing process. Then, from the point of application by pharmaceutical companies, the current on-line NIR research on CMM and its production in pharmaceutical companies was relatively comprehensively summarized. Meanwhile, the types of CMM productions were classified in accordance with two formulations (liquid and solid dosage formulations). The different production processes (extraction, concentration and alcohol precipitation, etc. ) were used as liquid formulation diacritical points; the different types (tablets, capsules and plasters, etc.) were used as solid dosage formulation diacritical points, and the reliability of on-line NIR used in the whole process in CMM production was proved in according to the summary of literatures in recent 10 years, which could support the modernization of CMM production.

  19. [The introduction of compendium of materia medica and praxis in the late Joseon dynasty].

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    Oh, Chaekun; Kim, Yongjin

    2011-06-30

    Sakae Miki said Classified Emergency Materia Medica had been the dominant standard of herbology throughout Joseon Dynasty, and that Compendium of Materia Medica had only been accepted so lately that a few books used herbological result of it in the late Joseon Dynasty. But according to Visiting Old Beijing Diary written by Munjoong Seo in 1690, Compendium of Materia Medica was in fact introduced before the year 1712, the year Miki Sakae argued to be the year Compendium of Materia Medica was accepted to Joseon officially. Now, we can assume that the introducing year of Compendium of Materia Medica was faster than Miki Sakae's opinion by the following reasons; the effort of Joseon government and intellectuals to buy new books of Ming & Ching; the publishing year of the book for living in countryside regarded as the first citing literature of Compendium of Materia Medica. And the True Records of the Joseon Dynasty and many collections written by intellectuals in the 18th century show that the herbological knowledge from Compendium of Materia Medica had already spread to the corners of Joseon Dynasty. Thus we can make the following assumption: Classified Emergency Materia Medica and Compendium of Materia Medica had coexisted in the late Joseon Dynasty. Sakae Miki suggested 6 examples which used Compendium of Materia Medica in the late Joseon Dynasty. I reviewed two of them in this paper, Essentials of Materia Medica & Handbook of Prescriptions from Materia Medica. Essentials of Materia Medica quoted Compendium of Materia Medica briefly focusing clinical use, and Handbook of Prescriptions from Materia Medica also re-compiled Compendium of Materia Medica to practical use according to the form of Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine. It means that the results of Compendium of Materia Medica have been used positively, based on the herbology of materia medica from countryside. From this point of view, the hyphothesis there weren't any herbological progress after accepting

  20. Targeting tumor-associated macrophages by anti-tumor Chinese materia medica.

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    Pu, Wei-Ling; Sun, Li-Kang; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Rüegg, Curzio; Cuendet, Muriel; Hottiger, Micheal O; Zhou, Kun; Miao, Lin; Zhang, Yun-Sha; Gebauer, Margaret

    2017-10-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a key role in all stages of tumorigenesis and tumor progression. TAMs secrete different kinds of cytokines, chemokines, and enzymes to affect the progression, metastasis, and resistance to therapy depending on their state of reprogramming. Therapeutic benefit in targeting TAMs suggests that macrophages are attractive targets for cancer treatment. Chinese materia medica (CMM) is an important approach for treating cancer in China and in the Asian region. According to the theory of Chinese medicine (CM) and its practice, some prescriptions of CM regulate the body's internal environment possibly including the remodeling the tumor microenvironment (TME). Here we briefly summarize the pivotal effects of TAMs in shaping the TME and promoting tumorigenesis, invasion, metastasis and immunosuppression. Furthermore, we illustrate the effects and mechanisms of CMM targeting TAMs in antitumor therapy. Finally, we reveal the CMM's dual-regulatory and multi-targeting functions on regulating TAMs, and hopefully, provide the theoretical basis for CMM clinical practice related to cancer therapy.

  1. [Understanding and development strategy of health food containing Chinese materia medica].

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    Wang, Lin-Yuan; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Wang, Chun; Wang, Jing-Xia; Zhu, Ying-Li; Wang, Jia; Gao, Xue-Min

    2016-11-01

    Health food containing Chinese materia medica (CMM) conforms to the development demands of the age of big health and the theory of preventive treatment. In the view of health care and improvement of resisting diseases, it plays an important role in the market. It is very necessary to have further study and discussion on health food containing CMM. First of all, by comparing, analyzing and summarizing, the health food containing CMM could be defined as the health food which is qualified in security and functionality evaluation, with the traditional Chinese medicines(TCM) within TCM standards as the main raw materials, and the formulation-composition is based on the theory of TCM. It is characterized by higher safety than medicines, stronger biological activities than common food, multiple forms, abundant raw materials and integrated supervision and management. Secondly, we discussed the research and development (R&D) strategies and rules of health food containing CMM, pointing out that the core tasks of R&D include the investigation of formula, technology and the standards of quality. The fundamental principles of declaration and production include scientificity, rationality, reality and uniformity. Three key requirements (security, functionality and controllability) in the review as well as the process management of R&D and the key-points of risks control were summarized in this paper. Finally, the dynamic trends of policies and regulations related to health food containing CMM were analyzed in the view of registration, recording, raw materials and functions, and then related suggestions were proposed. Therefore, this article will be helpful in overall understanding the health food containing CMM and play a guiding role for its research and development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. What has been overlooked on study of Chinese materia medica in the West?

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    Liu, Willow J H

    2015-07-01

    Chinese materia medica (CMM), including Chinese herbal, animal, and mineral medicine, has been widely researched in the past century for their biological and pharmacological activities. However, their mechanism and clinical efficacy studies did not always give expected results. For example, the most commonly used Chinese herb for menstrual disorders, Radix Angelicae sinensis, showed neither estrogenic nor progesteronic activity in laboratory and clinical studies. Its efficacy should not be denied simply based on such results, because it is mostly used together with other herbs in formulae. Moreover, its regulation on menstruation may take effect through other mechanisms, such as regulation of blood circulation. The key difference of Chinese medicine (CM) from conventional medicine is its unique holistic view on human body and diseases. CMM is mostly applied in clinic in the form of formulae. Study on individual CMM, simply using methods for development of conventional drugs, is unable to thoroughly reveal the power of CMM formulae. The reason may partly result from improper design due to the lack understanding about application principle of CMMs in CM, and/or to current lack of knowledge about the causes of some symptoms and diseases. This paper will introduce the importance of qi and blood in CM etiology and pathology, Zheng differentiation, formulation of CMMs, and explain why one formula can treat different diseases and one disease can be treated with different formulae. Examples in the paper will demonstrate that proper studies on Zheng and its corresponding clinically proven formulae could help scientists find new direction to explain and treat symptoms and diseases that so far modern medicine has been unable to, provided that the designer properly understands CM theories, etiology and pathology of CM, as well as modern medicine. Strategy suggestions about research methods for CMM and its formulae will be given at the end.

  3. [Rapid assessment of critical quality attributes of Chinese materia medica (II): strategy of NIR assignment].

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    Pei, Yan-Ling; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Zhou, Lu-Wei; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-09-01

    The present paper firstly reviewed the research progress and main methods of NIR spectral assignment coupled with our research results. Principal component analysis was focused on characteristic signal extraction to reflect spectral differences. Partial least squares method was concerned with variable selection to discover characteristic absorption band. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy was mainly adopted for spectral assignment. Autocorrelation peaks were obtained from spectral changes, which were disturbed by external factors, such as concentration, temperature and pressure. Density functional theory was used to calculate energy from substance structure to establish the relationship between molecular energy and spectra change. Based on the above reviewed method, taking a NIR spectral assignment of chlorogenic acid as example, a reliable spectral assignment for critical quality attributes of Chinese materia medica (CMM) was established using deuterium technology and spectral variable selection. The result demonstrated the assignment consistency according to spectral features of different concentrations of chlorogenic acid and variable selection region of online NIR model in extract process. Although spectral assignment was initial using an active pharmaceutical ingredient, it is meaningful to look forward to the futurity of the complex components in CMM. Therefore, it provided methodology for NIR spectral assignment of critical quality attributes in CMM.

  4. [Construction of biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica].

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    Liu, Yang; Wei, Li; Dong, Ling; Zhu, Mei-Ling; Tang, Ming-Min; Zhang, Lei

    2014-12-01

    Based on the characteristics of multicomponent of traditional Chinese medicine and drawing lessons from the concepts, methods and techniques of biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) in chemical field, this study comes up with the science framework of biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica (CMMBCS). Using the different comparison method of multicomponent level and the CMMBCS method of overall traditional Chinese medicine, the study constructs the method process while setting forth academic thoughts and analyzing theory. The basic role of this system is clear to reveal the interaction and the related absorption mechanism of multicomponent in traditional Chinese medicine. It also provides new ideas and methods for improving the quality of Chinese materia medica and the development of new drug research.

  5. [Status and suggestions for adjuvant standard for Chinese materia medica processing in China].

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    Yang, Chun-Yu; Cao, Hui; Wang, Xiao-Tao; Tu, Jia-Sheng; Qian, Zhong-Zhi; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Shang, Yue; Zhang, Bao-Xian

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the status of adjuvant standard for Chinese materia medica processing in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2015 edition, the National Specification of Chinese Materia Medica Processing, and the 29 provincial specification of Chinese materia medica was summarized, and the the status including general requirements, specific requirements, and quality standard in the three grade official specifications was collected and analyzed according to the "medicine-adjuvant homology" and "food-adjuvant homology" features of adjuvants. This paper also introduced the research situation of adjuvant standard for Chinese materia medica processing in China; In addition, analyzed and discussed the problems existing in the standard system of adjuvant for Chinese materia medica processing, such as lack of general requirements, low level of standard, inconsistent standard references, and lack of research on the standard, and provided suggestions for the further establishment of the national standards system of adjuvant for Chinese materia medica processing. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. [Elementary exploration of the origin and development of marine Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Hua-Shi; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wu, Qiang-Ming; Wang, Chang-Yun; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Deng-Zhao

    2009-05-01

    According to archaeological discoveries, humans began to make use of marine natural resources early in the Palaeolithic era. In the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, they began to use marine life as medicines and also had simple cognitions on their efficacy and processing. In the Qin and Han dynasties, people further deepened the understanding of the marine Chinese materia medica and created prescriptions making use of marine drugs. In the Tang and Song period, the number of marine Chinese materia medica species and corresponding prescriptions apparently increased. The cognitions of the property, flavor, efficacy as well as the compatible principle of marine Chinese materia medica was further deepened and the scope of their treatment also significantly expanded. In the Ming and Qing dynasties, the cognition of the marine Chinese materia medica was mainly the conclusions of the previous experience. After the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with the development of science and technologies, the ability of exploiting and utilizing the marine Chinese materia medica by people dramatically increased, and the species of marine Chinese materia medica reached more than one thousand. However, the development of marine Chinese materia medica is confronted with new problems; although the number of species of marine Chinese materia medica increased, the understanding of their property and flavor is obviously lagging behind, which seriously affects the clinical application of marine Chinese materia medica.

  7. Review of adverse reactions to injections of Chinese materia medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Zhaoxiang; Shang, Hongcai; Cheng, Chungwah; Wu, Taixiang; Li, Youping; Zhang, Boli

    2010-05-01

    Using Chinese Materia Medica (CM) as injections is an innovation that is proving effective in extensive clinical use in Mainland China. However, recent reports have focused on adverse reactions, ignoring the considerable successes of these preparations. In order to achieve balance in the media and in the minds of the public, we suggest the first step is to clarify the concepts of and differences between adverse drug reactions (ADR) and adverse events (AE) for all concerned-the public, medical practitioners, government officials, and lawmakers. Second, the State Food and Drug Administration should raise the requirements for Chinese Materia Medica Injection (CMI) registration and license approval and emphasize the importance of evidence-based CMI development and evidence-based CMI license approval. Thirdly, drug companies and institutions should reinforce basic research about the quality control of herbs and CMI-drug interactions. Fourth, the Government should clarify the legal responsibilities for CMI approval agencies, CMI developers, medical doctors, and patients. Fifth, the medical association and Government should enhance training for health care professionals concerning the usage of CMIs. And finally sixth, State Food and Drug Administration should monitor the content and quality of the directions for use of CMI. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University.

  8. [Application of zebrafish model organism in the research of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Liu, Yi; Liang, Sheng-Wang

    2012-04-01

    Zebrafish has become an important model organism in many fields of biomedical studies and been increasingly used in Chinese materia medica studies in recent years. This article summarized the achievements and prospect for zebrafish as a pharmacological and toxicological tool in the study and development of Chinese materia medica.

  9. [Ecological agriculture: future of Good Agriculture Practice of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan-ping; Zhou, Liang-yun; Mo, Ge; Wang, Sheng; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-09-01

    Based on the ecological and economic problems in Good Agriculture Practice (GAP) of Chinese material medica, we introduced the origin, concept, features and operative technology of eco-agriculture worldwide, emphasizing its modes on different biological levels of landscape, ecosystem, community, population, individual and gene in China. And on this basis, we analyzed the background and current situation of eco-agriculture of Chinese materia medica, and proposed its development ideas and key tasks, including: (1) Analysis and planning of the production pattern of Chinese material medica national wide. (2) Typical features extraction of regional agriculture of Chinese materia medica. (3) Investigation of the interaction and its mechanism between typical Chinese materia medica in each region and the micro-ecology of rhizosphere soil. (4) Study on technology of eco-agriculture of Chinese materia medica. (5) Extraction and solidification of eco-agriculture modes of Chinese materia medica. (6) Study on the theory of eco-agriculture of Chinese materia medica. Also we pointed out that GAP and eco-agriculture of Chinese material medica are both different and relative, but they are not contradictory with their own features. It is an irresistible trend to promote eco-agriculture in the GAP of Chinese material medica and coordinate ecological and economic development.

  10. [Design and implementation of information management system for Chinese materia medica resources survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Ge, Xiao-Guang; Jin, Yan; Jing, Zhi-Xian; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Yu-Ping; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2017-11-01

    By means of the established Information Management System for Chinese materia medica resources survey, the national, provincial and county level organization, personnel and the implementation of the program of Chinese materia medica resources survey, and the survey team of medicinal plant investigation, photos, Chinese herbal medicine market survey, the traditional Chinese materia medica resources knowledge survey, germplasm resources investigation and the data collation and summary specimen have been realised. Throughout the whole working process of the fourth national Chinese materia medica resources survey, it is ensured that all data were no missing, no repeat, and well stored and managed. The Information Management System can improve the standardization degree of Chinese materia medica resources survey, and maintain the continuity. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. [Application of synthetic biology to sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu-Qi; Gao, Wei; Zhou, Yong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive natural products are the material bases of Chinese materia medica resources. With successful applications of synthetic biology strategies to the researches and productions of taxol, artemisinin and tanshinone, etc, the potential ability of synthetic biology in the sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources has been attracted by many researchers. This paper reviews the development of synthetic biology, the opportunities of sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources, and the progress of synthetic biology applied to the researches of bioactive natural products. Furthermore, this paper also analyzes how to apply synthetic biology to sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources and what the crucial factors are. Production of bioactive natural products with synthetic biology strategies will become a significant approach for the sustainable utilization of Chinese materia medica resources.

  12. [Design and implementation of data reporting system for Chinese materia medica resources survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Ge, Xiao-Guang; Jing, Zhi-Xian; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Yu-Ping; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2017-11-01

    The collection, summary and sharing of all kinds of survey data are one of the main tasks and achievements in the national census of Chinese materia medica resources organized and implemented by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. It is a key link in the implementation of the national census of Chinese materia medica resources. Based on the client / server architecture, the data reporting system for Chinese materia medica resources survey has been established for reporting system application model of geospatial data service based on Web implementation, through the SOA framework, to achieve the data collection summary of the seven aspects of the local data configuration, data reporting, data verification, data reporting, PDA data import and export, APP data import, track instrument data import. The system services include the general investigation, the focus of investigation, specimen information, herbs sample information, market research, germplasm survey, traditional knowledge survey of these seven aspects of the 312 indicators of the report, serving the Chinese materia medica resource survey of field survey data collection and internal data collation. The system provides the technical support for the national census of Chinese materia medica resources, improves the efficiency of the census of Chinese materia medica resources, and is conducive to the long-term preservation of the data of Chinese materia medica resources census, the transformation and sharing of the results. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. [Research on Japanese monograph of comprehensive dietetic materia medica, the Pao chu bei yong wo ming ben cao (Japanese Materia Medica Prepared for Kitchen)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, M; Ye, J

    2017-11-28

    Japanese physicians of Edo Period (1603-1867) wrote many dietetic books, by combining the knowledge system (content and compiling style) and thoughts of diet therapy from China with local condition in Japan. Among them, the Pao chu bei yong wo ming ben cao ( Japanese Materia Medica Prepared for Kitchen ), written by Mukai Genshou, a physician in the early Edo, is the earliest comprehensive work of dietetic materia medica. In this book, the choice and usage of Japanese dietetic materia medica reveals obvious Japanese local color, including the name, morphology, cultivation, collection, identification, nature and flavor, and indication etc., reflecting the sprouting idea of edible herbal plant at the beginning of Edo period and the characteristic of absorbing Chinese diet thoughts by Japanese physician. This is the important first-hand historical material to understand the development of Japanese dietetic herbalism in early Edo and its dietotherapy culture.

  14. Chinese Marine Materia Medica Resources: Status and Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Meng-Qi; Shao, Chang-Lun; Li, Guo-Qiang; Bai, Hong; Dai, Gui-Lin; Chen, Qian-Wen; Kong, Wei; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2016-03-03

    Chinese marine materia medica (CMMM) is a vital part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Compared with terrestrial TCM, CMMM, derived from specific marine habitats, possesses peculiar chemical components with unique structures reflecting as potent pharmacological activities, distinct drug properties and functions. Nowadays, CMMM appears to be especially effective in treating such difficult diseases as cancers, diabetes, cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, immunodeficiency diseases and senile dementia, and therefore has become an important medicinal resource for the research and development of new drugs. In recent years, such development has attracted wide attention in the field of medicine. In this study, the CMMM resources in China were systematically investigated and evaluated. It was found that the historic experiences of Chinese people using CMMM have continuously accumulated over a period of more than 3600 years, and that the achievements of the research on modern CMMM are especially outstanding. By June 2015, 725 kinds of CMMMs from Chinese coastal sea areas have been identified and recorded, covering 1552 organisms and minerals. More than 3100 traditional prescriptions containing CMMMs have been imparted and inherited. However, the number of CMMMs is less than the 8188 terrestrial TCMs, from more than 12,100 medicinal terrestrial plants, animals and minerals. In the future, the research and development of CMMM should focus on the channel entries (TCM drug properties), compatibility, effective ingredients, acting mechanisms, drug metabolism and quality standard. This study reveals the high potential of CMMM development.

  15. [Discuss on effect of physical environmental factors on nature of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shihuan; Yang, Hongjun; Huang, Luqi

    2010-01-01

    Nature of Chinese materia medica is the nucleus in the theory of Chinese material medica, according to the recognition of Traditional Chinese Medicine, which is the character of the drug related on curative effect. Nature and efficacy of a drug is through the medical material, then, physical environment, including the temperature, humidity, atmospheric water, wind, topography, soil, micro-organism, and so on, influence the growth and development of the medical meterial. In this paper, we researched the explanation on nature of Chinese materia medica in the medical books of past dynasties, combined with the modem research, analyzed the relationship between generative reception and physical environmental factors, and discussed the effect of physical environmental factors on nature of Chinese materia medica. We indicated that the formation of Chinese materia medical nature is that the drug receptive the change of physical environmental factors, and resulted by the synthetic action of the factors, such as climate, soil, biology, topography, etc.

  16. UHPLC/Q-TOFMS-based metabolomics for the characterization of cold and hot properties of Chinese materia medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zhou, Shujun; Wang, Meng; Liu, Shuying; Hu, Yuanjia; He, Chengwei; Li, Peng; Wan, Jian-Bo

    2016-02-17

    The cold/hot property of Chinese materia medica (CMM) and the application of its corresponding knowledge in the diagnosis, differentiation and treatment of diseases have been considered to be the extremely important part of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). As highly abstracted TCM theory, the cold/hot property of CMMs is still not fully understood and remains to be elucidated by systems biology approach. The cold and hot properties of CMM are mainly defined by the response of the body to a given CMM. Metabolomics is a promising systems biology method to profile entire endogenous metabolites and monitor their fluctuations related to an exogenous stimulus. Thus, a metabolomics approach was applied to characterize the cold and hot properties of CMMs. Mice were intragastrically administered three selected cold property CMMs (i.e., Rheum palmatum L., radix et rhizoma; Coptis chinensis Franch, rhizome and Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, radix) and three hot property CMMs (i.e., Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J. Presl, cortex; Zingiber officinale Roscoe, rhizoma and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth., fructus) once daily for one week. The comprehensive metabolome changes in the plasma of mice after treatment with cold or hot property CMMs were characterized by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS), and the potential biomarkers related to cold and hot properties of CMM were explored. Metabolites perturbation in plasma occurs after treatment with cold CMMs and hot CMMs in mice, and 15 and 16 differential biomarkers were identified to be associated with the cold and hot properties of CMMs, respectively. Among them, LPC (18:0), LPC (18:1), LPC (20:4) and LPC (20:5) showed decreased trends in the cold property CMM treated groups, but increased in the hot property CMM treated groups. There is a strong connection between the cold/hot property of CMMs and lysophosphatidylcholines metabolism. This study offers new insight

  17. [The research on the edition of Daquanbencao (Complete Collection of Materia Medica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-xian

    2009-07-01

    Zhengleibencao (Classified Materia Medica) had been formed into several kinds of edition systems during its dissemination, among which there was the edition system of Daquanbencao (Complete Collection of Materia Medica). Daquanbencao was originally carved in the Jin dynasty, thereafter it was re-carved in the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties so as to form a series of editions such as the edition of Zhenyou in the second year of the Jin dynasty; the edition of the Zongwenshuyuan college in Dade renyan year of the Yuan dynasty; the WANG Qiu's carved edition of Shangyitang hall in the Ming dynasty; the carved edition of Jishanshuyuan, the Jishang mountain college in the Ming dynasty, the reprinted edition of PENG Duan-wu in the Ming dynasty, the supplementary edition of YANG Bi-da in the Qing dynasty;, and the carved edition of KE Feng-shi in the Qing dynasty. Among all the editions, Chongkanjingshizhengleidaquanbencao (Reprinted Classified Daquan Materia Medica from Historical Classics) was the representative one. As a representative of the above editions, the carved edition of WANG took the edition of the Zongwenshuyuan college of the Yuan dynasty as the original edition, but the images picture of materia medica adopted from the edition of Zhenghebencao (Materia Medica of the Zhenghe era).

  18. [Textual research on adulteration of Chinese materia medica in ancient China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin; Wang, De-Qun

    2013-09-01

    By investigating the mainstream works of herbal classics of successive ages, it is found that adulteration of Chinese materia medica appeared early in ancient China. The main methods of adulteration was producing fraud medicines in the Northern-Southern Dynasties, fake medicines began to appear in the Tang Dynasty, and status of adulteration of Chinese materia medica ran unchecked since the Ming and Qing Dynasty. By statistics, there were 76 kinds of adulteration varieties before the Republican period. The main varieties were precious drugs, animal drugs and artifacts. Commonly methods used in the process included forging and adulterating, dealing with 11 kinds and 68 kinds respectively. Adulteration probably lead to the result of imposing the changes of the used medicinal parts of Herba Pogostemonis; Radix Aconiti Lateralis prepared by adding salt, Radix Angelica Sinensis processed by wine, and Radix Astragalis seu Hedysaris processed with bee honey. However, the root cause of adulteration in Chinese materia medica was the dissociation of professional physician and pharmacist, resulting in the ignorance of medical practitioners became unable to recognize Chinese materia medica; and the immorality of medicinal merchants. Besides, rating the quality of materia medica based on its producing areas without differentiating the false from the genuine may also contribute to this result passively.

  19. [Hypothesis and application of bimolecular marking methods in Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu-qi; Qian, Dan; Deng, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Based on the current shortage of genuine/false authentication and quality evaluation in the molecular identification, and the weak functional gene research in the establishment of two-dimensional molecular markering methods for Chinese materia medica, the authors proposed a new method, the bimolecular marking methods (BIMM) for Chinese materia medica, combining DNA marker and metabolomics marker, that could simultaneously research the species and quality differences at the molecular level at the present stage. The authors introduced the concept, principle, methods, and technical process of BIMM, and summarized the technical advantages in this paper. Meanwhile, the application of BIMM in the identification of multiple sources of Chinese materia medica, years-identification, different locations, elite germplasm research, discovery of new drugs resources, protection of new varieties was also discussed. As a supplement of two-dimensional molecular markering method for Chinese materia medica, BIMM would not only expand connotation of identification of Chinese materia medica but also provide another effective way for quality evaluating.

  20. [The application of metabonomics in modern studies of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Bin; Zhou, Hong-Guang; Yu, Xiao-Yi

    2012-06-01

    Metabonomics, a newly developing subject secondary to genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, is an important constituent part of systems biology. It is believed to be the final direction of the systems biology. It can be directly applied to understand the physiological and biochemical states by its "metabolome profile" as a whole. Therefore, it can provide a huge amount of information different from those originating from other "omics". In the modernization of Chinese materia medica research, the application of metabonomics methods and technologies has a broad potential for future development. Especially it is of important theoretical significance and application value in holistic efficacies evaluation, active ingredients studies, and safety research of Chinese materia medica.

  1. [Revision to origin of northern Artemisia argyi in Compendium of Materia Medica (Bencao gangmu)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu-qi; Qiu, Le

    2014-12-01

    The origin of northern Artemisia argyi recorded in Compendium of Materia Medica(Bencao gangmu) is Fudao(Chinese characters) in Tangyin county, While there is only Fudao(Chinese characters) instead of Fudao(Chinese characters). Whether indeed Fudao(Chinese characters) is Fudao(Chinese characters)? By reviewing the genuine evolution of A. argyi, doing textual research on Fudao(Chinese characters) and combing with field survey data of national census of Chinese Materia Medica resources, this paper concluded that the word Fudao(Chinese characters) firstly emerged in Figure Canon of Chinese Materia Medica(Bencao tujing) of Susong in Song dynasty and was applied in later generations, but the implication was not clear, then emerged both Tangyin and Fudao(Chinese characters) in Compendium of Materia Medica(Bencao gangmu). The place Fudao(Chinese characters) is one of the graves of Bianque, that existed from Shang and Zhou dynasty and never changed until now, the A. argyi of Tangyin was famous from the grave of Bianque in Fudao(Chinese characters), which could infer that Lishizhen considered Fudao (Chinese characters) was Fudao(Chinese characters) indeed, and the origin of northern A. argyi was Fudao(Chinese characters) in Tangyin county.

  2. [Study on differences between pharmacokinetics and chromatopharmacodynamics for Chinese materia medica formulae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fuyuan; Deng, Kaiwen; Zou, Huan; Qiu, Yun; Chen, Feng; Zhou, Honghao

    2011-01-01

    To study on the differences between chromatopharmacokinetics (pharmacokinetics with fingerprint chromatography) and chromatopharmacodynamics (pharmacodynamics with fingerprint chromatography) of Chinese materia medica formulae to answer the question whether the pharmacokinetic parameters of multiple composites can be utilized to guide the medication of multiple composites. On the base of established four chromatopharmacology (pharmacology with chromatographic fingerprint), the pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics were analyzed comparably on their mathematical model and parameter definition. On the basis of quantitative pharmacology, the function expressions and total statistical parameters, such as total zero moment, total first moment, total second moment of the pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics were analyzed to the common expressions and elucidated results for single and multiple components in Chinese materia medica formulae. Total quantitative pharmacokinetic, i.e., chromatopharmacokinetic parameter were decided by each component pharmacokinetic parameters, whereas the total quantitative pharmacodynamic, i.e., chromatopharmacodynamic parameter were decided by both of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of each components. The pharmacokinetic parameters were corresponded to pharmacodynamic parameters with an existing stable effective coefficient when the constitutive ratio of each composite was a constant. The effects of Chinese materia medica were all controlled by pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic coefficient. It is a special case that the pharmacokinetic parameter could independently guide the clinical medication for single component whereas the chromatopharmacokinetic parameters are not applied to the multiple drug combination system, and not be used to solve problems of chromatopharmacokinetic of Chinese materia medica formulae.

  3. [Differences of bi-directional regulative effects between acu-moxibustion and Chinese materia medica interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xin; Yu, Zhi; Xu, Bin

    2012-10-01

    Bi-directional regulation is referred to a balancing effect of both acu-moxibustion and Chinese materia medica interventions when the human body is experiencing a hyperactivity or hypoactivity due to abnormal intrinsic or external factors. In the present paper, the authors analyze their identical and different characteristics from: 1) definition; 2) characters of regulative effects of acu-moxibustion therapy: A) differentiation of meridian and zangfu-organs being the basis of treatment, B) four factors (acupoint-location, body's functional state, acupoint-formula and needle-manipulation techniques) dependant, C) entirety regulation, and D) centrotaxis modulation; 3) characters of Chinese materia medica intervention: including a) correspondence between the drug property and the syndrome being the basis of the regulative effect, b) multi-factors [components (antagonist and agonist), combination, dosages and processing quality of Chinese materia medica, and functional state of the human body] dependant, c) entirety regulation, and d) both centrotaxis and deviation adjustment. In one word, the bi-directional regulation effect is one of the basic characteristics of both acu-moxibustion and Chinese materia medica in clinical practice, but their basis and modes for inducing effects are different.

  4. The rise of traditional Chinese medicine and its materia medica: a comparison of the frequency and safety of materials and species used in Europe and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Elizabeth M; Lorenc, Ava; Booker, Anthony; Robinson, Nicola

    2013-09-16

    Due to the global rise in the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Chinese materia medica (medicinal materials, or CMM) are giving cause for concern over their evidence base, safety/possible toxicity, questionable quality and use of endangered species of both animals and plants. However, little if anything is actually known about the range of species used to produce CMM used in Europe and even in China. This study represents the first attempt to identify and compare the most important CMM used in both regions, to begin the process of assessing the risks to public health and possible future benefits. Data were collected from a convenience sample of TCM practitioners in the EU and mainland China, using a paper/online survey. Among other questions, respondents were asked (1) which conditions they most commonly treated using CMM and the likelihood of them using herbal manufactured products and decoctions in addition to raw herbs; (2) the perceived frequency with which they observed adverse events to CMM; (3) the frequency and reasons for use of 1 herbal formula and 6 specific individual herbs; (4) an open question about other CMM they used, including materials of non-plant origin. Data were entered into PASW statistics package and analysed using frequency tables, cross-tabulations and chi-squared tests to compare EU and Chinese results. From a total of 747 useable questionnaires (420 from China, 327 from the EU) of those responding from the EU, TCM was generally more commonly used for obstetric/gynaecological and dermatological conditions, compared to neurological and gastrointestinal diseases in China. Disorders treated by Chinese practitioners were more varied, and often more serious, than those treated by their European counterparts, and the range of materials used in China was wider. The potential for toxicity was not high in either region, but although greater in China due to the use of more potent CMM, the incidence of side effects was perceived to be

  5. [Essential procedure and key methods for survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gong; Huang, Lu-qi; Xue, Da-yuan; Zhang, Xiao-bo

    2014-12-01

    The survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources is the important component and one of the innovative aspects of the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources. China has rich traditional knowledge of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the comprehensive investigation of TCM traditional knowledge aims to promote conservation and sustainable use of Chinese materia medica resources. Building upon the field work of pilot investigations, this paper introduces the essential procedures and key methods for conducting the survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources. The essential procedures are as follows. First is the preparation phrase. It is important to review all relevant literature and provide training to the survey teams so that they have clear understanding of the concept of traditional knowledge and master key survey methods. Second is the field investigation phrase. When conducting field investigations, survey teams should identify the traditional knowledge holders by using the 'snowball method', record the traditional knowledge after obtaining prior informed concerned from the traditional knowledge holders. Researchers should fill out the survey forms provided by the Technical Specification of the Fourth National Survey of Chinese Materia Medica Resources. Researchers should pay particular attention to the scope of traditional knowledge and the method of inheriting the knowledge, which are the key information for traditional knowledge holders and potential users to reach mutual agreed terms to achieve benefit sharing. Third is the data compilation and analysis phrase. Researchers should try to compile and edit the TCM traditional knowledge in accordance with intellectual property rights requirements so that the information collected through the national survey can serve as the basic data for the TCM traditional knowledge database. The key methods of the survey include regional

  6. A comparison of medicinal plant use in Sardinia and Sicily-De Materia Medica revisited?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Casu, Laura; Sanna, Francesca; Bonsignore, Leonardo

    2009-01-21

    Written records of oral medical traditions have had significant impact on the development of medicine and the pharmacopoeias. Modern ethnobotanical studies in Europe and the Mediterranean region, however, have so far largely overlooked the richness and accuracy of historic sources and ignored their probable influence on the development of today's local traditional medicines. Here, we explore the common fundament of traditional knowledge for the medicinal plant uses in Sardinia and Sicily by comparing the selection of medicinal species and specific uses with those of Dioscorides' De Materia Medica. We use (i) a quantification of citations for medicinal species mentioned in ethnobotanical studies conducted in Sardinia and Sicily (ii) a comparison of the flora and medicinal flora with a chi(2)-test (iii) a binomial approach recently introduced into ethnobotany (iv) a comparison of the most frequently used species with the indications cited in Dioscorides' De Materia Medica (v) and a crosscheck of all mentioned species with their appearance in Berendes' translation of De Materia Medica. We identified a core group of 170 medicinal species used on either islands, which accumulate 74% of all citations and are best represented in De Materia Medica. The 15 most frequently used species of both islands demonstrate intriguing parallels for indications with Dioscorides' work. The ethnopharmacopoeia of Sicily and Sardinia are shallow stereotypes of the different editions of De Materia Medica and talking of oral tradition in this respect is a contradiction. The medicinal species of Sardinia and Sicily are largely widespread and common species, including many weeds, which are not facing threat of extinction. Therefore, using traditional medicinal practices as an argument for conservation biology or vice versa is not scientifically sound.

  7. [Research progress on standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica and discussion on several key problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi; Jin, Yan; Zheng, Yu-Guang; Wang, Yong-Yan

    2014-05-01

    Standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica is an important way to solve the "Lemons Problem" of traditional Chinese medicine market. Standards of commodity classes are also helpful to rebuild market mechanisms for "high price for good quality". The previous edition of commodity classes standards of Chinese materia medica was made 30 years ago. It is no longer adapted to the market demand. This article researched progress on standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. It considered that biological activity is a better choice than chemical constituents for standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. It is also considered that the key point to set standards of commodity classes is finding the influencing factors between "good quality" and "bad quality". The article also discussed the range of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica, and how to coordinate standards of pharmacopoeia and commodity classes. According to different demands, diversiform standards can be used in commodity classes of Chinese materia medica, but efficacy is considered the most important index of commodity standard. Decoction pieces can be included in standards of commodity classes of Chinese materia medica. The authors also formulated the standards of commodity classes of Notoginseng Radix as an example, and hope this study can make a positive and promotion effect on traditional Chinese medicine market related research.

  8. [Important application of intestinal transporters and metabolism enzymes on gastrointestinal disposal of active ingredients of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaolin; Du, Qiu; Di, Liuqing

    2010-02-01

    Oral drug bioavailability depends on gastrointestinal absorption, intestinal transporters and metabolism enzymes are the important factors in drug gastrointestinal absorption and they can also be induced or inhibited by the active ingredients of Chinese materia medica. This article presents important application of intestinal transporters and metabolism enzymes on gastrointestinal disposal of the active ingredients of Chinese materia medica, and points out the importance of research on transport and metabolism of the active ingredients of Chinese materia medica in Chinese extract and Chinese medicinal formulae.

  9. [Application of bioassay in quality control of Chinese materia medica-taking Radix Isatidis as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dan; Ren, Yongshen; Luo, Jiaoyang; Li, Hanbing; Feng, Xue; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2010-10-01

    Bioassay, which construct the characteristics consistents with Chinese medical science, is the core mode and methods for the quality control of Chinese materia medica. Taking the bioassay of Radix Isatidis as an example, the contribution, status and application of bioassay in the quality control of Chinese materia medica were introduced in this article, and two key issue (the selection of reference and measurement methods) in the process of establishing bioassay were also explained. This article expects to provide a reference for the development and improvement of the bioassay of Chinese materia medica in a practical manipulation level.

  10. [Data validation methods and discussion on Chinese materia medica resource survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Ma, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Xing-Xing

    2013-07-01

    From the beginning of the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources, there were 22 provinces have conducted pilots. The survey teams have reported immense data, it put forward the very high request to the database system construction. In order to ensure the quality, it is necessary to check and validate the data in database system. Data validation is important methods to ensure the validity, integrity and accuracy of census data. This paper comprehensively introduce the data validation system of the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources database system, and further improve the design idea and programs of data validation. The purpose of this study is to promote the survey work smoothly.

  11. [Study on biopharmaceutics classification system for Chinese materia medica of extract of Huanglian].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Yin, Xiu-Wen; Wang, Zi-Yu; Li, Xue-Lian; Pan, Meng; Li, Yan-Ping; Dong, Ling

    2017-11-01

    One of the advantages of biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica (CMMBCS) is expanding the classification research level from single ingredient to multi-components of Chinese herb, and from multi-components research to holistic research of the Chinese materia medica. In present paper, the alkaloids of extract of huanglian were chosen as the main research object to explore their change rules in solubility and intestinal permeability of single-component and multi-components, and to determine the biopharmaceutical classification of extract of Huanglian from holistic level. The typical shake-flask method and HPLC were used to detect the solubility of single ingredient of alkaloids from extract of huanglian. The quantitative research of alkaloids in intestinal absorption was measured in single-pass intestinal perfusion experiment while permeability coefficient of extract of huanglian was calculated by self-defined weight coefficient method. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. [Recent advances of synthetic biology for production of functional ingredients in Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xin-Yao; Xue, Jian-Ping; Wang, Cai-Xia

    2016-11-01

    The functional ingredients in Chinese materia medica are the main active substance for traditional Chinese medicine and most of them are secondary metabolites derivatives. Until now,the main method to obtain those functional ingredients is through direct extraction from the Chinese materia medica. However, the income is very low because of the high extraction costs and the decreased medicinal plants. Synthetic biology technology, as a new and microbial approach, can be able to carry out large-scale production of functional ingredients and greatly ease the shortage of traditional Chinese medicine ingredients. This review mainly focused on the recent advances in synthetic biology for the functional ingredients production. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Ten Steps to Improve Quality of the Journal Materia Socio-Medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donev, Doncho M; Masic, Izet

    2017-03-01

    Materia Socio-Medica is one of the oldest public health journals in Europe, established in 1978, and among the most important journals for public health in South-Eastern Europe. The Journal covers all important public health professional, academic and research areas in this field. The aim of the paper is to analyze the journal articles and statistical facts in 2016 and to point out the directions for action and planned further activities for improving the quality of the published papers and visibility of the journal. Review and analysis of documentation and production of the journal, evidence of submitted and rejected manuscripts and published papers in 2016. Total number of 111 articles was published in Materia Socio-Medica during 2016. The most of them were original articles (64,5%). Articles from the fields of Health promotion and prevention were predominant (82,7%), which is one of the primary scope of the journal. Authors of the published articles in 2016 are dispersed to three continents (Europe, Asia and North America) and 15 different countries. The largest number of articles was submitted by authors from the country of origin of the journal, Bosnia and Herzegovina. The acceptance rate of Materia Socioi-Medica in 2016 was 35.7%. Total number of 116 reviewers participated in the manuscript review process in 2016. Materia Socio-Medica will continue to improve the quality of the published papers in 2017 and beyond through education of potential authors, reviewers and Editorial Board members, quality selection of reviewers, supportive editing of articles, and clearly defining instructions and ethical standards of the journal.

  14. [Four properties law of nature data of Chinese materia medica in "Chinese herbal medicine (CHM)"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue-Mei; Lin, Duan-Yi; Lai, Xin-Mei; Chen, Mei-Mei; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-05-01

    In order to provide theoretical clues and data support for the use of Chinese medicine clinical drug, experimental study of Chinese materia medica and development of new resources of Chinese materia medica, the four properties as the core, the relationships of property, flavor, channel tropism and toxicity in nature data of Chinese materia medica were analyzed. The spearman rank correlation method was employed to analyze 8 356 Chinese drugs with characteristic of four properties from " Chinese Herbal Medicine" based on data level coding. It was discovered that four properties showed significant positive correlations with tastes of "pungent and sweet" , channels of "spleen" , "stomach" , "kidney" and "toxicity" , but also showed significant negative correlations with tastes of "bitter" and "light" and six channels such as "large intestine" , "heart", "bladder" , "gallbladder" , "small intestine" and "lung" (in descending order of correlation ) (P <0. 01). It was indicated that the more hot the Chinese medicine nature, the more possible it contained "toxicity" , tastes of "pungent" and "sweet" , and the more possible it was belong to channels of "spleen" , "stomach" and "kidney". As well, the more cold the Chinese medicine nature, the more possible it contained tastes of "bitter" and "light", and the more possible it was belong to six channels such as "large intestine", etc.

  15. Authentication of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma and other two Chinese Materia Medica of the Liliaceae family by pharmacognosy technique with GC-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjiao; Liu, Canhuang; Yu, Yafei; Xu, Bei; Gong, Limin; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Xiao, Lan; Cheng, Qilai; Liu, Tasi

    2015-02-01

    Yuzhu (Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma), Kangdingyuzhu (Polygonati Prattii Rhizoma), and zhugenqiyuzhu (Disporopsis Fuscopictae Rhizoma) are of the same family, but of different genera. They have all often used in Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) as Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma in China market. Three species of CMM are confused. For better application, we need to identify these plants accurately. This study use pharmacognosy technique and GC-MS analysis, three species of CMM were authenticated. In macroscopic characteristics, the fruit of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma is blue-black, while the other two are maroon and dark purple orderly. Nodes of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma are upward and light uplift, about 1 cm spacing, while the other are not. As for microscopic characteristics, the cortex of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma only occupies about 1/5 of the radius of the transverse section with inconspicuous endodermis, which is much smaller than others. The type of vascular bundles of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma is closed collateral, but the other is amphivasal. Raphides of calcium oxalate are scattered, but Raphides of the other two are like brooms and neat rows. GC-MS analysis of essential oil could provide different characteristics to distinguish three species. Twenty-three compounds were identified from essential oil of Polygonati Odorati Rhizoma and the main components were n-hexadecanoic acid (49.45%), while n-hexadecanoic acid of the other two are 23.92% and 9.45%. The content of n-hexadecanoic is strongly different. This research was aimed to establish a method by pharmacognosy and GC-MS analysis to identify three CMM and for providing scientifical data to ensure accuracy of origin of three species. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. [Preliminary investigation on the materia medica of the Zhuang ethnic group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xiao-Xiang; Li, Gui

    2013-09-01

    By Zhuang materia medica, it refers to application of medicines under the instructions of medical theory of Zhuang ethnic group. By studying the pronunciation of the Zhuang language for the terms "zhu yu", "bai jiu", and "mi gu" included in the shan hai jing nan shan jing (The Classic of Southern Mountain in Classic of Seas and Mountains) carried out by the Zhuang scholar Qin Bao-lin, it was concluded that the Zhuang minority already applied medicines early in the pre-Qin period. Through extensive cultural communication in different regions in the Wei-Jin-Southern-Northern Dynasties, the medicinal experiences of the Zhuang ethnic group appeared in ancient literature. The antidotes in Zhou hou fang (Handbook of Prescriptions for Emergency), for instance, were mostly coming from the Southern Ridge area. Since the Sui-Tang Dynasties, many materia medica recorded in the herbal works and regional gazetteers, and Annals such as the Guangxi Annals, Gazetteer of Nanning County, and Gazetteer of Liuzhou County, Gazetteer of Binzhou County etc., also carry medicines such as Cinnamom twigs and bark, and mangosteen etc., which are similar to those of the Zhuang medicines. In the Republican period, many manuscripts of Zhuang medicines appeared. After 1949, many institutions of Zhuang medicine were set up successively, including The Nanning Medical Institute, The Medical Institute of Wuzhou, The Medical Institute of Guilin. Systematic researches were also done, with publication of a series of works on Zhuang materia medica. Reformation of part of the prescription forms of Zhuang medicine were also accomplished.

  17. [The translation and its meanings of Materia Medica Part. I in the Jejungwon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Junhyoung; Park, Hyoungwoo

    2011-12-31

    For more systematic medical education, Dr. O. R. Avison translated medical textbooks into Korean since he took charge of Jejungwon in 1893. The first book he chose was Anatomy of the Human Body. He, however, failed to see it published after losing its manuscript twice. Instead, Materia Medica Part. I was brought into the world first in 1905, for which he translated Materia Medica and Therapeutics written by John Mitchell Bruce from the U. K. At that time, this book was in widespread use in the English-speaking world as a textbook for pharmacology. It is also assumed that Avison used it as a textbook for his classes in Canada before coming to Korea. For the publication of Materia Medica Part. I, Avison did not translate Bruce's original text in full, but translated only the selected passages. He followed a principle of using Korean alphabets (Hangeul) only, but in combination with Chinese characters, if necessary. He put pharmacological terms into existing Korean equivalents or newly coined words, but also borrowed many from Japanese terms. That's because Japan moved faster to introduce Western medicine than Korea did, so that many pharmacological terms could be defined and arranged more systematically in Japanese. Moreover, Japan took such a favorable stance in the state of international affairs that many of Japanese-style terms could be introduced into Korea in most fields including medicine. By translating Materia Medica Part. I in cooperation with his disciple KIM Pilsoon after Gray's Anatomy of the Human Body, Avison tried to lay groundwork for providing medical education in Korea based on the British-American medicine. It is assumed that he took an independent stance in selecting and translating Western medical textbooks on his own rather than simply accepting the existing Chinese translation of Western medical textbooks. Despite all his efforts, he might find it difficult to translate all the Western medical terms into Korean within a short period of time

  18. [History and development of carbonization of Chinese materia medica and exploration on its mechanism of hemostatic action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, R J; Diao, T M; DU, D

    2017-03-28

    The first material recorded about hair charcoal is seen in Nei jing ( Inner Canon ). It has a history of over 2 000 years for the carbonization of Chinese materia medica. There were controversies on this matter and its clinical application was seldom seen and underdeveloped. After the Yuan Dynasty, the main theory of carbonic herbs for hemostasis, and keeping the nature of the medicines after carbonization was gradually formed, and physicians of generations began to conduct in-depth research. Through repeated practice and verification, people summed up the suitable species of Chinese materia medica and its principle for carbonization. The methods and degree of carbonization of Chinese materia medica are reasonably discussed, with its principle and basis for application primarily interpreted.

  19. Identification of species and materia medica within Angelica L. (Umbelliferae) based on phylogeny inferred from DNA barcodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qing-Jun; Zhang, Bin; Jiang, Dan; Zhang, Wen-Jing; Lin, Tsai-Yun; Wang, Nian-He; Chiou, Shu-Jiau; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2015-03-01

    DNA barcodes have been increasingly used in authentication of medicinal plants, while their wide application in materia medica is limited in their accuracy due to incomplete sampling of species and absence of identification for materia medica. In this study, 95 leaf accessions of 23 species (including one variety) and materia medica of three Pharmacopoeia-recorded species of Angelica in China were collected to evaluate the effectiveness of four DNA barcodes (rbcL, matK, trnH-psbA and ITS). Our results showed that ITS provided the best discriminatory power by resolving 17 species as monophyletic lineages without shared alleles and exhibited the largest barcoding gap among the four single barcodes. The phylogenetic analysis of ITS showed that Levisticum officinale and Angelica sinensis were sister taxa, which indicates that L. officinale should be considered as a species of Angelica. The combination of ITS + rbcL + matK + trnH-psbA performed slight better discriminatory power than ITS, recovering 23 species without shared alleles and 19 species as monophyletic clades in ML tree. Authentication of materia medica using ITS revealed that the decoction pieces of A. sinensis and A. biserrata were partially adulterated with those of L. officinale, and the temperature around 80 °C processing A. dahurica decoction pieces obviously reduced the efficiency of PCR and sequencing. The examination of two cultivated varieties of A. dahurica from different localities indicated that the four DNA barcodes are inefficient for discriminating geographical authenticity of conspecific materia medica. This study provides an empirical paradigm in identification of medicinal plants and their materia medica using DNA barcodes. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Resources Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [Design and implementation of data checking system for Chinese materia medica resources survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Ge, Xiao-Guang; Jin, Yan; Jing, Zhi-Xian; Qi, Yuan-Hua; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Yu-Ping; Wang, Wei; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2017-11-01

    The Chinese material medica resources (CMMR) national survey information management system has collected a large amount of data. To help dealing with data recheck, reduce the work of inside, improve the recheck of survey data from provincial and county level, National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medical has designed a data checking system for Chinese material medica resources survey based on J2EE technology, Java language, Oracle data base in accordance with the SOA framework. It includes single data check, check score, content manage, check the survey data census data with manual checking and automatic checking about census implementation plan, key research information, general survey information, cultivation of medicinal materials information, germplasm resources information the medicine information, market research information, traditional knowledge information, specimen information of this 9 aspects 20 class 175 indicators in two aspects of the quantity and quality. The established system assists in the completion of the data consistency and accuracy, pushes the county survey team timely to complete the data entry arrangement work, so as to improve the integrity, consistency and accuracy of the survey data, and ensure effective and available data, which lay a foundation for providing accurate data support for national survey of the Chinese material medica resources (CMMR) results summary, and displaying results and sharing. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. Compatibility of drug property in effective components of Chinese materia medica%试论组分中药的药性配伍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶丽; 陆茵; 王爱云; 陈文星

    2012-01-01

    中药有效组分配伍是当前开展中药现代化研究的重要模式,通过传统饮片活性组分分离及二次配伍以实现功效最大化.尽管有效组分配伍并不脱离原方的整体效应,但功效物质标准化即组分中药研究存在组分拆分简单而药性拆分困难的问题,因此需要明确组分样品库中各组分与其所属中药的性味离合关系.决定中药宏观药性的物质基础是其包含的微观化学成分,而基于化学信息学和知识发现的药性判别方法存在各自的局限性,真实客观的药性表征体系仍应回归到动态、可持续性定量反映药物与机体的相互作用结果的生物效应模型中去,在此基础上可以选择药少力专、基于药性组合的代表药对继而开展配伍组分的药性配伍规律研究,这对合理设计配伍组分及提高其有效性和安全性具有重大意义.%Effective components combination of Chinese materia medica (CMM) is an important model for study on the modernization of CMM. The maximum effectiveness could be obtained through the separation and secondary combination of the effective components in traditional processed pieces. Although the effective components combination does not break away from the overall effect of the original prescriptions, the effective components normalization, i.e. research on the effective components of CMM, faces the problems that is easy to decompose the components but hard to decompose the drug natures. Therefore, it needs to well define the relationship between the separation and reunion of each component and its CMM in sample library. The material basis for the CMM macroscopic drug natures is precisely their microscopic chemical ingredient. However, there are some respective limitations to recognize the drug natures by chemoinformatics and knowledge discovery, a real and objective characterization system for the evaluation on the natures of CMM and their components should return to the

  2. [New materia medica project: synthetic biology based bioactive metabolites research in medicinal plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong

    2017-03-25

    In the last decade, synthetic biology research has been gradually transited from monocellular parts or devices toward more complex multicellular systems. The emerging plant synthetic biology is regarded as the "next chapter" of synthetic biology. The complex and diverse plant metabolism as the entry point, plant synthetic biology research not only helps us understand how real life is working, but also facilitates us to learn how to design and construct more complex artificial life. Bioactive compounds innovation and large-scale production are expected to be breakthrough with the redesigned plant metabolism as well. In this review, we discuss the research progress in plant synthetic biology and propose the new materia medica project to lift the level of traditional Chinese herbal medicine research.

  3. [Key content and formulation of national Chinese materia medica resources survey at county level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Li, Hai-Tao; Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhao, Run-Huai; Zhang, Ben-Gang; Sun, Li-Ying; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-08-01

    According to National Census for Water, National Population Census, National Land and Resources Survey, and work experience of experimental measures for national Chinese materia medica resources(CMMR) survey,the national CMMR survey at the county level is the key point of whole survey, that includes organization and management, field survey, sorting data three key links. Organization and management works of national CMMR survey needs to finish four key contents, there are definite goals and tasks, practicable crew, preparation directory, and security assurance. Field survey works of the national CMMR survey needs to finish five key contents, there are preparation works for field survey, the choice of the key survey area (samples), fill in the questionnaire, video data collection, specimen and other physical collection. Sorting data works of the national CMMR survey needs to finish tree key contents, there are data, specimen and census results.

  4. [Formulation of technical specification for national survey of Chinese materia medica resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan-Ping; Lu, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Zhao, Run-Huai; Zhang, Ben-Gang; Sun, Li-Ying; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2013-04-01

    According to the process of the technical specification (TS) design for the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources (CMMR), we analyzed the assignment and objectives of the national survey and pointed out that the differences about CMMR management around China, the distribution of CMMR and their habitat, the economic and technological level, and even enthusiasm and initiative of the staff, etc. are the most difficult points for TS design. And we adopt the principle of combination of the mandatory and flexibility in TS design. We fixed the key points which would affect the quality of national survey first, then proposed the framework of TS which including 3 parts of organization and 11 parts of technique itself. The framework will serve and lead the TS preparation, which will not only provide an action standard to the national survey but will also have a profound influence to the popularization and application of the survey technology of CMMR. [Key words

  5. PAT: From Western solid dosage forms to Chinese materia medica preparations using NIR-CI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Luwei; Xu, Manfei; Wu, Zhisheng; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) is an emerging technology that combines traditional near-infrared spectroscopy with chemical imaging. Therefore, NIR-CI can extract spectral information from pharmaceutical products and simultaneously visualize the spatial distribution of chemical components. The rapid and non-destructive features of NIR-CI make it an attractive process analytical technology (PAT) for identifying and monitoring critical control parameters during the pharmaceutical manufacturing process. This review mainly focuses on the pharmaceutical applications of NIR-CI in each unit operation during the manufacturing processes, from the Western solid dosage forms to the Chinese materia medica preparations. Finally, future applications of chemical imaging in the pharmaceutical industry are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. [Academic heritage of Jiu huang ben cao (Materia Medica for Relief of Famines) in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huiling; Xiao, Yongzhi

    2014-11-01

    Jiu huang ben cao (Materia Medica for Relief of Famines) was the first monograph on famines herbal in the history of China, which creates a new research field of edible plants. Around the middle and late 17th century, Jiu huang ben cao was spread to Japan and aroused great attention of famous Japanese herbalists. Thus, all versions of different edition systems were circulated in Japan. Later, some famous Japanese scholar ssuccessively quoted texts of Jiu huang ben cao from the Nong zheng quan shu (Whole book on Agricultural Administration) spread in Japan, and block-printed it as an independent work. As a result, Jiu huang ben cao virtually circulated widely in Japan.

  7. [Impacts of multicomponent environment on solubility of puerarin in biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Cheng-Bo; Wang, Guo-Peng; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Wen-Ning; Lv, Bei-Ran; Wei, Li; Dong, Ling

    2014-12-01

    To illustrate the solubility involved in biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica (CMMBCS) , the influences of artificial multicomponent environment on solubility were investigated in this study. Mathematical model was built to describe the variation trend of their influence on the solubility of puerarin. Carried out with progressive levels, single component environment: baicalin, berberine and glycyrrhizic acid; double-component environment: baicalin and glycyrrhizic acid, baicalin and berberine and glycyrrhizic acid and berberine; and treble-component environment: baicalin, berberin, glycyrrhizic acid were used to describe the variation tendency of their influences on the solubility of puerarin, respectively. And then, the mathematical regression equation model was established to characterize the solubility of puerarin under multicomponent environment.

  8. [Design and implementation of mobile terminal data acquisition for Chinese materia medica resources survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yuan-Hua; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Jin, Yan; Ge, Xiao-Guang; Jing, Zhi-Xian; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Yu-Ping; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a data acquisition system based on mobile terminal combining GPS, offset correction, automatic speech recognition and database networking technology was designed implemented with the function of locating the latitude and elevation information fast, taking conveniently various types of Chinese herbal plant photos, photos, samples habitat photos and so on. The mobile system realizes automatic association with Chinese medicine source information, through the voice recognition function it records the information of plant characteristics and environmental characteristics, and record relevant plant specimen information. The data processing platform based on Chinese medicine resources survey data reporting client can effectively assists in indoor data processing, derives the mobile terminal data to computer terminal. The established data acquisition system provides strong technical support for the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources (CMMR). Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. [Study and comparison on HPLC fingerprints of flavonoids of frequently used Chinese materia medica in citrus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yonggang; Lin, Li

    2011-10-01

    To establish the HPLC fingerprint of flavonoids of the six clinical frequently used Chinese materia medica for regulating Qi flow,such as Citri grandis, C. grands, Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium Viride, Aurantii Fructus, and Aurantii Fructus Immaturus from Citrus, and analysis differences in the fingerprints to provide scientific basis for profile-effect research and clinical reasonable use. HPLC was performed on a C18 column with methanol-water (with acetic acid), to establish HPLC fingerprints of the six kinds of medicinal herbs on the same chromatograph condition. The six frequently used Chinese materia medica were divided into naringin type and hesperidin type according to the method of phytochemotaxonomy. Based on the retention time of chromatograph peaks, C. grandis and C. grands had fifteen common peaks; Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium Viride, Aurantii Fructus and Aurantii Fructus Immaturus had ten common peaks. All herbs had five common peaks. Compared with mutual model, the holistic similarity of chromatograms of C. grandis and C. grands was in the range of 0.9285 - 0.9962. The degree of similarity was high. For Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium, Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium Viride and Aurantii Fructus Immaturus, it was in the range of 0.9221 - 0.9973 and high. But the similarity of Aurantii Fructus was only in 0.4547 - 0.7733 with the mutual model. The established fingerprints of flavonoids of the six common traditional Chinese medicines can be used to compare the differences intuitively. Meanwhile, the peak height and peak areas of characteristic peaks are different remarkably, but whether it is connected with the different function of regulating Qi flow of the six medical materials in clinical use, is still needed to be studied.

  10. Alshamel fi Sana'at Tebbi'at: A Comprehensive Book on the Materia Medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaffa-Jahromi, Maryam; Kiani, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    Ala-al-din abu Al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi-Hazm al-Qarshi al-Dimashqi, known as Ibn al-Nafis (1210-1288 AD), was a Muslim Syrian physician primarily famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood. The most voluminous of his books is Alshamel fi Sana'at tebbi'at, which is a comprehensive medical encyclopedia. It comprised 300 volumes of notes, from which only 80 volumes are published. His writings are cataloged in many libraries around the world. The aim of this review article, as a tribute to Ibn al-Nafis, was to introduce his valuable but neglected encyclopedia of Materia Medica. Ibn al-Nafis' traditional approach in his "Alshamel fi Sana'at tebbi'at" book is studied in the present article. Alshamel fi Sana'at tebbi'at covers three branches of knowledge. The first category is devoted to theoretical traditional medicine. The second is in four sections where much of it is not available yet. The third category is on Materia Medica covering the aspect of Unani medicine, from which only 28 volumes of the comprehensive book on the traditional medicine have been found so far. The latter, introduces mono-ingredient medications in alphabetical order. Each chapter, in several parts, is dedicated to the botanical characteristics and nature of each mono-ingredient medication. In addition, this book explains traditional pharmacokinetic of every single medication for each human body organs. Based on pharmaco-mechanistic perspective on Alshamel fi Sana'at tebbi'at, it could be considered as the main reference book on traditional medicine and pharmacy, worthy of revival.

  11. [Investigation on pattern of quality control for Chinese materia medica based on famous-region drug and bioassay--the work reference].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dan; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2011-05-01

    Selection and standardization of the work reference are the technical issues to be faced with in the bioassay of Chinese materia medica. Taking the bioassay of Coptis chinensis. as an example, the manufacture process of the famous-region drugs extraction was explained from the aspects of original identification, routine examination, component analysis and bioassay. The common technologies were extracted, and the selection and standardization procedures of the work reference for the bioassay of Chinese materia medica were drawn up, so as to provide technical support for constructing a new mode and method of the quality control of Chinese materia medica based on the famous-region drugs and bioassay.

  12. Chinese vegetative materia medica in a venereological treatise by Jean Astruc from 1740.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnik, Jacek

    2016-07-01

    Historical medical sources can be still queried for forgotten cures and remedies. Traditional Chinese medicine has dealt with lues venerea (syphilis) since the Five Dynasties period (10th century). Chinese indigenous materia medica and remedies recorded, studied or imported by the Europeans can reveal known or quite unknown medicinal plants. The studied Jean Astruc's work is a published ethnopharmacological survey carried out in Beijing in the 1730s and it deserves a modern interpretation. This is the first proposal to identify historical Chinese medicinal plants listed in a scarcely known medical treatise De Morbis venereis… ('On venereal diseases…') by Jean Astruc from 1740. I searched for the current uses and position of the taxonomically identified herbal stock in both traditional Chinese and official medical knowledge, with special attention to syphilis. Chinese names of drugs and their botanical identities (originally expressed by means of pre-Linnaean polynomials, and now interpreted as accepted binomials) were independently cross-checked with younger till most recent taxonomical and ethnopharmacological sources. Plants and drugs identified this way were queried for their modern applications in traditional Chinese and official medicine with special attention to sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and other uses which are similar to the 18th-century understanding of venereology. For 24 items of medicinal stock, 34 medicinal plants have been identified or suspected: Acacia catechu, Achyranthes bidentata, Akebia quinata, Angelica dahurica, A. sinensis, Aquilaria sinensis, Aralia cordata, Aristolochia fangchi, Chaenomeles sinensis, Ch. speciosa, Clematis vitalba, Coix lacryma-jobi, Commiphora myrrha, Cydonia oblonga, Daemonorops draco, D. jenkinsiana, Dictamnus dasycarpus, Dryobalanops sumatrensis, Forsythia suspensa, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Lonicera confusa, L. hypoglauca, L. japonica, Ligusticum striatum (=L. chuanxiong), Piper kadsura, Pterocarpus

  13. [Textual research on Costus root (Aucklandia lappa Decne) in the Sheng nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangyan; Wang, Dequn; Fang, Shiying; Xu, Maohong

    2014-05-01

    Aucklandia lappa Decne was first recorded in the Sheng nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica). Through the textual research of herbal literature, it was found that the costus root in the Sheng nong ben cao jing perhaps was not the plant of Aucklandia lappa Decne of Compositae, but the eaglewood or Lignum Aquilasria Resinatum based on the comprehensive judgment of shape, taste, nature, and function etc. In the Sheng nong ben cao jing, it only includes costus root without the title of eaglewood, and Tao Hongjing recorded both herbs together in his Ming yi bie lu (Supplementary Records of Celebrated Physicians), which became a foreshadow of misunderstanding of the later generations. Beginning from the Tang ben cao (Materia Medica of the Tang Dynasty), the costus root was considered as the plant of Auckiandia lappa Decne from the Compostae with its profound influence until now.

  14. Effects of Chinese Materia Medica-Fubao Danggui Jiao on experimental endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xing; Chen, Lijue; Zeng, Fanbo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of a Chinese Materia Medica variant -Fubao Danggui Jiao (FDJ)-on experimental endometriosis. An endometriosis model was created by virtue of auto-transplantation of endometrial tissue onto rats' abdominal walls. The implants were allowed to grow for 30 days until the successful completion of the model. After that, forty endometriotic rats were randomly divided into four study groups and given different treatments: (1) negative control group (water, 2ml/kg, per os); (2) FDJ-A group (FDJ, 2ml/kg, per os); (3) FDJ-B group (FDJ, 4ml/kg, per os); (4) Danazol group (70mg/kg, per os). After 30 days with treatments, the volumes of endometriotic implants in each rat were measured. The implants and normal uterine horns were removed for routine histological examination. FDJ caused significant decreases in volumes of the surviving endometriotic implants, with two different doses having statistically equivalent effects. Upon histological examination, FDJ was observed to cause regression of epithelium and stroma of endometriotic implants. FDJ had revealed promising therapeutic effects on endometriosis.

  15. [Suitable investigation method of exploration and suggestions for investigating Chinese materia medica resources from wetland and artificial water of Hongze Lake region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Yan, Hui; Duan, Jin-Ao; Liu, Xing-Jian; Ren, Quan-Jin; Li, Hui-Wei; Bao, Bei-Hua; Zhang, Zhao-Hui

    2016-08-01

    According to the technology requirements of the fourth national survey of Chinese Materia Medica resources (pilot), suitable investigation method of exploration and suggestions for investigating Chinese Materia Medica resources was proposed based on the type of wetland and artificial water of Hongze Lake region. Environment of Hongze Lake and overview of wetland, present situation of ecology and vegetation and vegetation distribution were analyzed. Establishment of survey plan, selection of sample area and sample square and confirmation of representative water area survey plan were all suggested. The present study provide references for improving Chinese materia medica resources survey around Hongze Lake, and improving the technical specifications. It also provide references for investigating Chinese Materia Medica resources survey on similar ecological environment under the condition of artificial intervention. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. [Report quality evaluation of systematic review or Meta-analysis published in China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Yu, Dan-Dan; Cui, De-Hua; Liao, Xing; Guo, Hua

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the report quality of intervention-related systematic reviews or Meta-analysis published in China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica, we searched CNKI and China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica webpages to collect intervention-related systematic reviews or Meta-analysis since the first issue of the magazine. A total of 40 systematic reviews or Meta-analysis reports were included, including one network Meta-analysis. According to the PRISMA statement published in 2009, the report quality of the systematic reviews or Meta-analysis was evaluated. According to the results, 3 had the low quality, 30 had the medium quality, and 7 had the high quality. The average score for all of items was 30 points (21-30.5 points for the medium quality). The 17 high-quality (31-40 points) report items were title, rationale, objectives, information sources, study selection, data collection process, data items, risk of bias in individual studies, summary measures, risk of bias across studies, study selection, study characteristics, risk of bias within studies, results of individual studies, synthesis of results, risk of bias across studies and funding; the 4 medium-quality (21-30.5 points) reporting items were eligibility criteria, search, limitations and conclusions; and the 6 low-quality (Materia Medica is medium, and it is necessary to improve the quality standard of the report. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  17. [Applications and approved projectsof general program, young scientist fund and fund for less developedregion of national natural science funds in discipline of Chinese materia medica, NSFC in 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming-Qing; Han, Li-Wei; Wu, Xiu-Hong; Bi, Ming-Gang; Shang, Hong-Cai; Liu, Yun-Fang; He, Wei-Ming; Li, Dan-Dan; Dong, Yan; Wang, Chang-En

    2013-01-01

    The applications accepted and approved by general program, young scientist fund and fund for less developed region of national natural science funds in the discipline of Chinese materia medica, NSFC in 2012 have been introduced. The research contents of the funded projects in the popular research areas have been summarized and the problems in the applications have been analyzed to give a reference to the scientists in the field of Chinese materia medica.

  18. META-ANALYSIS OF THE SCIENTIFIC CONTENTS OF MATERIA SOCIO-MEDICA JOURNAL IN THE PERIOD 2009-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla; Donev, Doncho

    2016-02-01

    Materia Socio Medica Journal has a long history. It was founded in 1978. To evaluate journal articles in 2015 and compare findings to previous years. The study has retrospective and descriptive character, and included the period 2009-2015. A total of 99 articles were published in Materia Socio Medica during 2015 and it shows an upward trend during the period 2009-2015. Original articles are present in majority during the last seven years (69,2%). Analyzing the last seven years, 44,1% of articles were from the field of clinical medicine. Articles from the fields of public health show an upward trend during the last four years. Collaboration rate in 2015 was 0,95. Authors of the articles are from ten countries (four continents). H index of journal is 8 and g index is 12 (Publish or Perish software). According to GoogleScholar, h5 index for Materia Socio Medica is 8 and h5 median is 9. The objectives of the journal in the next year are: to become a part of the Scopus and Web of Science databases, further internationalization and promotion of the journal in the country and the region, revision and broadening of the Editorial Board, trying to follow trend in reducing the number of days required for a decision on acceptance or revision of article and involvement of the younger generation of professionals and scientists into the journal work and publishing scope, which will lead to emergence of new enthusiasm and ideas (Journal intends to follow the trends of modern biomedical publishing worldwide).

  19. META-ANALYSIS OF THE SCIENTIFIC CONTENTS OF MATERIA SOCIO-MEDICA JOURNAL IN THE PERIOD 2009–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla; Donev, Doncho

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Materia Socio Medica Journal has a long history. It was founded in 1978. Aim: To evaluate journal articles in 2015 and compare findings to previous years. Material and methods: The study has retrospective and descriptive character, and included the period 2009-2015. Results: A total of 99 articles were published in Materia Socio Medica during 2015 and it shows an upward trend during the period 2009-2015. Original articles are present in majority during the last seven years (69,2%). Analyzing the last seven years, 44,1% of articles were from the field of clinical medicine. Articles from the fields of public health show an upward trend during the last four years. Collaboration rate in 2015 was 0,95. Authors of the articles are from ten countries (four continents). H index of journal is 8 and g index is 12 (Publish or Perish software). According to GoogleScholar, h5 index for Materia Socio Medica is 8 and h5 median is 9. Conclusions: The objectives of the journal in the next year are: to become a part of the Scopus and Web of Science databases, further internationalization and promotion of the journal in the country and the region, revision and broadening of the Editorial Board, trying to follow trend in reducing the number of days required for a decision on acceptance or revision of article and involvement of the younger generation of professionals and scientists into the journal work and publishing scope, which will lead to emergence of new enthusiasm and ideas (Journal intends to follow the trends of modern biomedical publishing worldwide). PMID:27047258

  20. The Doctrine of Signatures, Materia Medica of Orchids, and the Contributions of Doctor - Orchidologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John

    2012-12-01

    The heritage of medicine is written in many forms. One repository is to be found in the history of orchids, the world's largest family of flowering plants. Orchids were so named by Theophrastus (c.372-288 BC) who recorded their medicinal use as an aphrodisiac and the promoter of virility, in the context of the Doctrine of Signatures. Such use endured for millennia, and was recorded both by Paracelsus (1493-1551) and Linnaeus (1707-1778). The history of orchidology and medicine are entwined in four domains: (a) orchids and their historical materia medica, within the paradigm of the Doctrine of Signatures; (b) the enduring and extensive contemporary medicinal and culinary use of orchids such as Vanilla and salep extracts of Orchis; (c) the scientific contributions of doctors as orchidologists; and (d) the heritage of more than a hundred doctors' names in the scientific etymology of the Orchidaceae family. Prominent orchidologists have included the Scottish doctor-soldier and botanist, Robert Brown (1773-1858); the Director of the State Herbarium at Leyden and the Rijks Museum, Carl Ludwig Blume (1796-1862); and Dr William Sterling MD (1888-1967). Among the more than 1250 genus names (and 33,000 species) of orchids are the names of more than a hundred doctors, their lives and works perpetuated in the scientific etymology of this family of exotic, beautiful, flamboyant, intriguing and often expensive flowers. Generic names record the lives and works of such as Aristotle (384-322BC) in Aristotelia Loureiro 1790; Cadet de Gassicourt (1769-1821) in Cadetia Gaudichaud 1826; Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911) in Sirhookera O. Kuntze 1891; and Dr Theodore Daniel Vrydag Zynen (fl. 1820-1850) in Vrydagzynea Blume 1858. One of the principal horticultural genera of orchids, Brassavola, records the life and work of the Ferrara and Padua physician and botanist, Antonio Musa Brassavola (1500-1555). The first Slipper Orchid bred as a hybrid, Paphiopedilum harrisianum (by John

  1. [Study on processing adjuvant medicines in Lei Gong's treatise on preparation and broiling of materia medica (Leigong Paozhi Lun)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Ruixian

    2010-09-01

    There were 268 kinds of medicines recorded in the book of Lei Gong's Treatise on preparation and broiling of materia medica (Leigong Paozhi Lun). Among these medicines, 178 medicines were prepared with adjuvant medicines, including general and special compatible adjuvant medicines. These adjuvant medicines used in this book can be explained by the theory of "seven-relation compatibility". The author tried to explain the usage and their compatibility of these adjuvant medicines and put forward that attention should be paid to the changes in functions of medicines and the influences of society should be paid attention.

  2. [Analysis of projects funded by NSFC in field of processing Chinese materia medica in recent five years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Xia, Xing; He, Bo-sai; Hah, Li-wei

    2015-05-01

    The general situation of the approved and concluded projects of National Natural Science Foundation of China in the field of processing Chinese Materia Medica in recent five years has been reviewed. The progresses and achievements of some projects have been summarized in accordance with research area such as the processing principle, the processing technology, quality evaluation, toxicity and safety evaluation, etc. The researchers and project support units of the funded projects have been analyzed, and the problems of the applications have been also summarized.

  3. Back to the roots: A quantitative survey of herbal drugs in Dioscorides' De Materia Medica (ex Matthioli, 1568).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, P O; Casu, L; Leonti, M

    2016-09-15

    De Materia Medica written by Pedanios Dioscorides (1 century CE) has shaped European and Mediterranean herbal medicine to a large extent. Despite its fundamental importance for modern medico-botanical traditions the content of this work has never been systematically assessed. We present a quantitative survey of the botanical drugs described in De Materia Medica (ex Matthioli, 1568) and identify overall therapeutic, diachronic and botanical patterns. The extracted data may serve as a baseline and help to better contextualize research on herbal drugs and phytotherapy. Therapeutic uses of herbal drugs were extracted through line-by-line reading of a digitized version of the treatise. For each plant usage mentioned in the text we recorded (I) the chapter number, (II) the putative botanical identity, (III) the plant part, (IV) the symptoms or disease, (V) the mode of administration, (VI) our biomedical interpretation of the ancient ailment or disease description as well as (VII) the organ- and symptom-defined category under which the use was filed. An introduction to Dioscorides' De Materia Medica and Matthioli's Renaissance commentary is followed by a description of the employed methodology. The results and discussion section introduces the generated database comprising 5314 unique therapeutic uses of 536 plant taxa and 924 herbal drugs. Separate subsections address salient patterns such as the frequent recommendation of Fabaceae seeds for dermatology, Apiaceae seeds as antidotes and Apiaceae exudates for neurology and psychosomatic disorders as well as the heavy reliance on subterranean parts as drugs. The therapeutic knowledge described in De Materia Medica (ex Matthioli, 1568) offers unique insights into classical Mediterranean epidemiology and herbal medicine. Drugs that lost importance over time as well as remedies used for diseases now controlled by preventive medicine and industrially produced drugs may be interesting starting points for research on herbal

  4. [Effect of multicomponent environment on intestinal permeability of puerarin in biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Gang; Dong, Ling; Tang, Ming-Min; Zhu, Mei-Ling; Dong, Hong-Huant; Hou, Cheng-Bo

    2014-12-01

    The evaluation of permeability in biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica (CMMBCS) requires multicomponent as a whole in order to conduct research, even in the study of a specific component, should also be put in the multicomponent environment. Based on this principle, the high content components in Gegen Qinlian decoction were used as multicomponent environmental impact factors in the experiment, and the relevant parameters of intestinal permeability about puerarin were measured with using in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion model, to investigate and evaluate the intestinal permeability of puerarin with other high content components. The experimental results showed that different proportions of baicalin, glycyrrhizic acid and berberine had certain influence on intestinal permeability of puerarin, and glycyrrhizic acid could significantly inhibit the intestinal absorption of puerarin, moreover, high concentration of berberine could promote the absorption of puerarin. The research results indicated that the important research ideas of permeability evaluation in biopharmaceutics classification system of Chinese materia medica with fully considering the effects of other ingredients in multicomponent environment.

  5. [Inheritance on and innovation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavor theory and TCM flavor standardization principle flavor theory in Compendium of Materia Medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-xian; Li, Jian

    2015-12-01

    All previous literatures about Chinese herbal medicines show distinctive traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) flavors. Compendium of Materia Medica is an influential book in TCM history. The TCM flavor theory and flavor standardization principle in this book has important significance for modern TCM flavor standardization. Compendium of Materia Medica pays attention to the flavor theory, explain the relations between the flavor of medicine and its therapeutic effects by means of Neo-Confucianism of the Song and Ming Dynasties. However,the book has not reflected and further developed the systemic theory, which originated in the Jin and Yuan dynasty. In Compendium of Materia Medica , flavor are standardized just by tasting medicines, instead of deducing flavors. Therefore, medicine tasting should be adopted as the major method to standardize the flavor of medicine.

  6. [Investigation on pattern and methods of quality control for Chinese materia medica based on dao-di herbs and bioassay - bioassay for Coptis chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dan; Xiao, Xiao-he

    2011-05-01

    Establishment of bioassay methods is the technical issues to be faced with in the bioassay of Chinese materia medica. Taking the bioassay of Coptis chinensis Franch. as an example, the establishment process and application of the bioassay methods (including bio-potency and bio-activity fingerprint) were explained from the aspects of methodology, principle of selection, experimental design, method confirmation and data analysis. The common technologies were extracted and formed with the above aspects, so as to provide technical support for constructing pattern and method of the quality control for Chinese materia medica based on the dao-di herbs and bioassay.

  7. [Classes of crude drugs and its distribution of producing area in the attached illustrations in Ben cao tu jing (Illustrated Classic of Materia Medica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, T; Peng, H S

    2016-03-01

    Ben cao tu jing (Illustrated Classic of Materia Medica) is the earliest extant atlas book of materia medica in China, with 933 attached drawings. Among them, the largest portion, amounting to 670, are herbaceous plants, mostly commonly used, with definite marks of the origin producing areas, distributed across 149 administrative divisions(prefectures and counties) of the Song Dynasty, most of them in Northern area which were distributed denser than those in Southern area. The densest ones were located in Southern Shanxi, Eastern Sichuan and Eastern Anhui. In the attached drawings, the frequency of highest occurrence appeared in this Classic are three prefectures, Chuzhou, Shizhou and Guangzhou.

  8. [The significance of drawing on experience of experimental study on Chinese materia medica during the Republican period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Wan, Fang

    2015-05-01

    During the period of the Republic of China, researches of experiments on Chinese materia medica developed extensively with the scientific process of Chinese medicine. Although the technology standard was relatively low and the reference value, limited. The experiences, positive or negative, obtained at that time still has reference significance to today's Chinese medicine scientific research. The notion that traditional Chinese medical and scientific research be conducted under the guidance of TCM theory; valuable experience contained in the ancient literature of traditional Chinese medicine be collected; and the transformation capacity of scientific research be elevated, has been accepted by modern TCM professionals. If you go back to the history, it can be seen that this notion was summarized through repeated practice during the critical moment of traditional Chinese medicine, which should be emphasized and its understanding deepened at any time.

  9. [Study on supply and demand relation based on two stages division of market of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Nuo; Zeng, Yan; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-01-01

    The complex production processes and long industrial chain in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) market result in difficulty in Chinese market microstructure research. Based on the defining the logical relationships among different concepts. This paper divides TCM market into two stages as Chinese materia medica resource market and traditional Chinese Patent Medicines market. Under this foundation, we investigated the supply capacity, approaching rules and motivation system of suppliers in TCM market, analyzed the demand situation in the perspective of demand side, and evaluated the purchasing power in terms of population profile, income, and insurance. Furthermore we also analyzed the price formation mechanism in two stages of TCM market. We hope this study can make a positive and promotion effect on TCM market related research.

  10. [Design and implementation of Chinese materia medica resources survey results display system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Ge, Xiao-Guang; Jin, Yan; Wang, Ling; Zhao, Yan-Ping; Jing, Zhi-Xian; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2017-11-01

    From the beginning of the fourth national census of traditional Chinese medicine resources in 2011, a large amount of data have been collected and compiled, including wild medicinal plant resource data, cultivation of medicinal plant information, traditional knowledge, and specimen information. The traditional paper-based recording method is inconvenient for query and application. The B/S architecture, JavaWeb framework and SOA are used to design and develop the fourth national census results display platform. Through the data integration and sorting, the users are to provide with integrated data services and data query display solutions. The platform realizes the fine data classification, and has the simple data retrieval and the university statistical analysis function. The platform uses Echarts components, Geo Server, Open Layers and other technologies to provide a variety of data display forms such as charts, maps and other visualization forms, intuitive reflects the number, distribution and type of Chinese material medica resources. It meets the data mapping requirements of different levels of users, and provides support for management decision-making. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  11. [Experience of treatment and understanding of impediment disease in Shen nong ben cao jing (Shen-ntonz's Classic of Materia Medica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hongchang; Wang, Zhenrui

    2015-01-01

    As a book with significant historical materials for the research of impediment disease not to be ignored, Shen nong ben cao jing (Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica) contains, among its 365 kinds of materia medica, 75 kinds of medicines related to impediment disease. Among the latter ones, 51 are related to "damp impediment", "cold-damp impediment", "wind-cold-damp impediment", "wind impediment", "wind-damp impediment", and "cold impediment"; 16 are related to "laryngeal impediment", "general impediment", and "blood impediment"; 8 are related to "muscular impediment", "stomach impediment", "hernia-conglomeration impediment", "internal consumptive-thirst impediment", "wilting impediment", and "hemiplegic impediment". To systematically analyze the properties, tastes, and effects of these medicines and its related knowledge, and then further explore the overall recognition and their treating experience of the physicians at that period would not only enrich the historical research on impediment disease, but also offer much help and reference to the understanding and treatment of impediment for contemporary clinicians.

  12. Distinguishing the Chinese materia medica Tiepishihu from similar Dendrobium species of the same genus using histological and microscopic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kun-Zi; Yan, Hua; Tai, Hai-Chuan; Zhang, Nan-Ping; Cheng, Xian-Long; Guo, Zeng-Xi; Ma, Shuang-Cheng; Wei, Feng

    2017-07-01

    The Chinese Materia Medica, Tiepishihu, used as a tonic for over one thousand years, is a well-known precious medicine in China. According to the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, its source is the species Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo, which is distinguished from other species in Dendrobium genus. However, these species from the same genus are similar with Tiepishihu and caused confusion in the market. To find a quick and simple method to distinguish Tiepishihu from other similar species, histologic and microscopic methods were combined together to investigate the transverse section of stem of Tiepishihu and other similar species. Phloroglucinol test solution with hydrochloric acid was used to reveal the lignified tissue by staining the transverse section of Tiepishihu and similar species. Results revealed the unique identification characteristics to distinguish Tiepishihu from similar species, which were difficult to distinguish by other methods. The identification characteristics of Tiepishihu include the cells of vascular bundle sheath were stained red, parenchyma cells were not stained red. What's more, other species can be distinguished from each other with microscopic and histological characteristics. These characteristics proved stable and can be easily observed by normal light microscopic examination. This method is rapid, accurate, stable, and inexpensive. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Applications and spproved projects of general program, young scientist fund and fund for less developed region of national natural science funds in discipline of Chinese materia medica, NSFC in 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Liwei; Wang, Yueyun; He, Wenbin; Zhang, Junjie; Bi, Minggang; Shang, Hongcai; Shang, Deyang; Wang, Chang'en

    2012-03-01

    The applications accepted and approved by general program, young scientist fund and fund for less developed region of national natural science funds in the discipline of Chinese materia medica, NSFC in 2011 have been introduced. The character and problems in these applications have been analyzed to give a reference to the scientists in the field of Chinese material medica.

  14. [Methodological quality and reporting quality evaluation of randomized controlled trials published in China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan-Dan; Xie, Yan-Ming; Liao, Xing; Zhi, Ying-Jie; Jiang, Jun-Jie; Chen, Wei

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the methodological quality and reporting quality of randomized controlled trials(RCTs) published in China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica, we searched CNKI and China Journal of Chinese Materia webpage to collect RCTs since the establishment of the magazine. The Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool was used to evaluate the methodological quality of RCTs. The CONSORT 2010 list was adopted as reporting quality evaluating tool. Finally, 184 RCTs were included and evaluated methodologically, of which 97 RCTs were evaluated with reporting quality. For the methodological evaluating, 62 trials(33.70%) reported the random sequence generation; 9(4.89%) trials reported the allocation concealment; 25(13.59%) trials adopted the method of blinding; 30(16.30%) trials reported the number of patients withdrawing, dropping out and those lost to follow-up;2 trials (1.09%) reported trial registration and none of the trial reported the trial protocol; only 8(4.35%) trials reported the sample size estimation in details. For reporting quality appraising, 3 reporting items of 25 items were evaluated with high-quality,including: abstract, participants qualified criteria, and statistical methods; 4 reporting items with medium-quality, including purpose, intervention, random sequence method, and data collection of sites and locations; 9 items with low-quality reporting items including title, backgrounds, random sequence types, allocation concealment, blindness, recruitment of subjects, baseline data, harms, and funding;the rest of items were of extremely low quality(the compliance rate of reporting item<10%). On the whole, the methodological and reporting quality of RCTs published in the magazine are generally low. Further improvement in both methodological and reporting quality for RCTs of traditional Chinese medicine are warranted. It is recommended that the international standards and procedures for RCT design should be strictly followed to conduct high-quality trials

  15. [The Seongho () School's Study of the Ancient Learning () and Its Influence on the Debate about Materia Medica in the Late Joseon Dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-San

    2015-08-01

    This study will determine the ways in which the ancient learning (gu xue, ) scholarship of the Seongho School, and its interest in the materia medica (ben cao xue, ) were related during the late Joseon period. The Seongho School centered its studies mainly on classical Chinese texts of the Han (206 BC-AD 220) and pre-Han (?-221 BC) (xian-qin lianghan, ) periods rather than those of the Tang and Song dynasties (618-1279). gu xue scholarship emerged during the Ming dynasty era (1368 -1644) as an alternative to the scholarly trends of the Song dynasty, which were dependent on Zhu Xi's (, 1130-1200) Neo-Confucianism and its interpretation of Han and pre-Han classical Chinese texts. This scholarly trend influenced Korean and Japanese literature, philosophy, and even medicine from the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries. Focusing on Korean scholarship, we find a great deal of research regarding the influence of gu xue on Korean classical Chinese literature and Confucian philosophy in the late Joseon period; however, no study has examined how this style of scholarship influenced the field of medicine during the same period. This study will investigate how the intellectuals of the Seongho School, who did the most to develop gu xue among Joseon intellectuals, were influenced by this style of scholarship in their study of the materia medica. Jeong Yak-yong (1762-1836), the representative intellectual of the Seongho School, did not focus on complicated metaphysical medical theories, such as the Yin-Yang and Five Elements theory (yin yang wu xing shui, ) or the Five Movements and Six Atmospheres theory (wu yun liu qi shui, ). Instead, his interests lay in the exact diagnoses of diseases and meticulous herbal prescriptions which formed an essential part of the Treatise on Exogenous Febrile Disease (Shang han lun, ) written by Zhang Zhungjing (, 150-219) in the Han dynasty. The Treatise was compatible with the scholarly purpose of gu xue in that they both

  16. An improved association-mining research for exploring Chinese herbal property theory: based on data of the Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rui; Lin, Zhi-jian; Xue, Chun-miao; Zhang, Bing

    2013-09-01

    Knowledge Discovery in Databases is gaining attention and raising new hopes for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) researchers. It is a useful tool in understanding and deciphering TCM theories. Aiming for a better understanding of Chinese herbal property theory (CHPT), this paper performed an improved association rule learning to analyze semistructured text in the book entitled Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica. The text was firstly annotated and transformed to well-structured multidimensional data. Subsequently, an Apriori algorithm was employed for producing association rules after the sensitivity analysis of parameters. From the confirmed 120 resulting rules that described the intrinsic relationships between herbal property (qi, flavor and their combinations) and herbal efficacy, two novel fundamental principles underlying CHPT were acquired and further elucidated: (1) the many-to-one mapping of herbal efficacy to herbal property; (2) the nonrandom overlap between the related efficacy of qi and flavor. This work provided an innovative knowledge about CHPT, which would be helpful for its modern research.

  17. Les gloses botaniques andalouses sur le manuscrit de Paris de la traduction arabe de la Materia Medica de Dioscorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Mrad, Ibrahim

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The following study focusses on a precious manuscript from the National Library in Paris, namely n.º 2849 of the Arabic manuscript collection. This is a manuscript of Andalusian origin of the Arabic translation of Materia Medica by Dioscorides, written in Syria at the beginning of the 13th century. Its margins are filled with glosses of synonymic nature, relating to the Greek terms of the plants described by the Greek pharmacologist and physician. These glosses, of Andalusian origin, offer a great terminological richness which is part of a large Arabic — mainly Andalusian — movement of revision and commentary of Materia Medica in Arabic. In the first part a general introduction to the manuscript is provided showing its significant value for a critical edition of the book, the glosses contained and, especially, of the Andalusian botanical glosses, insisting on their synonymic value and their terminological contribution. In a second part, a critical annotated edition of 44 glosses from the first maqāla of the book is proposed.

    Se aborda en este trabajo el estudio de un precioso manuscrito de la Biblioteca Nacional de París, el n.º 2849 de los fondos árabes. Se trata de un manuscrito de origen andalusí que contiene la traducción al árabe de la Materia Medica de Dioscórides, escrito en Siria a principios del siglo XIII, cuyos márgenes están repletos de glosas de naturaleza sinonímica, relativas a los nombres griegos que reciben las plantas descritas por la farmacología griega. Estas glosas son de orígen andalusí, y ofrecen una gran riqueza terminológica que se inscribe en un amplio movimiento árabe, y más concretamente andalusí, de revisión y comentario de la traducción árabe de la Materia Medica. En la primera parte de este estudio se ofrece una presentación general del manuscrito, mostrando su valor para una reedición crítica de la obra, de las glosas que contiene y

  18. [Preliminary textual research on Zhijintang Sanctum re-revised version of Jinling edition of Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of Materia Medica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinsheng

    2014-03-01

    The Zhijintang Sanctum version of the re-revised edition of Jinling edition of Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of Materia Medica)collected by Zhao Huiyuan of Baihe, Henan Province in 2008 was opted as one of the third batch of the National Directory of Rare Ancient Worksin 2010. On the second cover page (patent page), it is recorded as"Original Jiangxi version". However, it is investigated to find that most of its paper sheets were reprinted after the original Jinling version, only scores of paper sheets were supplemented block-printed, including the additional block-printed second preface and Li Jianyuan's submitted report of the Jiangxi version, the re-revised time of which should be after the Jiangxi edition, or 1603. The exact time can be determined only by checking it carefully against another Jinling re-revised version (the Sheyuantang Sanctum edition).

  19. Ameliorating effects of traditional Chinese medicine preparation, Chinese materia medica and active compounds on ischemia/reperfusion-induced cerebral microcirculatory disturbances and neuron damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Fan, Jingyu; Han, Jingyan

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic stroke and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury induced by thrombolytic therapy are conditions with high mortality and serious long-term physical and cognitive disabilities. They have a major impact on global public health. These disorders are associated with multiple insults to the cerebral microcirculation, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, leukocyte adhesion and infiltration, brain blood barrier (BBB) disruption, and capillary hypoperfusion, ultimately resulting in tissue edema, hemorrhage, brain injury and delayed neuron damage. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been used in China, Korea, Japan and other Asian countries for treatment of a wide range of diseases. In China, the usage of compound TCM preparation to treat cerebrovascular diseases dates back to the Han Dynasty. Even thousands of years earlier, the medical formulary recorded many classical prescriptions for treating cerebral I/R-related diseases. This review summarizes current information and underlying mechanisms regarding the ameliorating effects of compound TCM preparation, Chinese materia medica, and active components on I/R-induced cerebral microcirculatory disturbances, brain injury and neuron damage. PMID:26579420

  20. [Textual research on Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) quoted in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruixian; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jian; Liang, Fei

    2014-05-01

    Altogether 15 terms for Guang dong xin yu (New Sayings of Guangdong) were used in Ben cao gang mu shi yi (Supplements to Compendium of Materia Medica), including Yue yu (Cantonese sayings), Chong yu (Sayings from Insect Drug), Jie yu (Sayings from Crustacean Drug), Xin yu (New Sayings), Yue hai xiang yu (Fragrant Sayings from Cantonese Region), Yue zhi mu yu (Sayings from Plants in Cantonese Annals), Guang dong suo yu (Trivial Sayings from Guangdong), Yue shan lu (Records of Cantonese Mountains), Yue lu (Cantonese Records), Jiao guang lu (Joint Guangdong Records), Yue cao zhi (Records of Cantonese Grasses), Guang guo lu (Records of Guangdong Fruits), Nan yue suo ji (Trivial Records of Southern Canton), Guang zhi (Guangdong Records), Yue zhi (Cantonese Records) etc. dealing with 57 sorts of drugs (with individual overlapping ones), the author of Xin yu was Qu Dajun, a surviving fogy of the Ming Dynasty actively involved in the activities to restore the old dynasty and resist the Qing Dynasty, and was persecuted in the literary inquisition in which his works were burnt so that Zhao Xuemin, when quoting his texts, had to go in a roundabout way.

  1. Chinese Marine Materia Medica. By Huashi Guan and Shuguang Wang. Shanghai Scientific and Technical Publishers, China Ocean Press, and Chemical Industry Press: Shanghai, Beijing, China, 2009; Hardback, 7064 pp; ¥ 2920; ISBN 978-7-5323-9958-1/R•2707; ISBN 978-7-5323-9973-4/R•2708; ISBN 978-7-1220-6012-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Proksch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available China is one of the first countries to use marine materia medica for treating diseases. Ancient books on Chinese herbology, such as Shennong Bencaojing (Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica, Xinxiu Bencao (Newly Revised Materia Medica and Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica, have detailed more than 110 marine herbs and thousands of marine herbal formulas (including those for Chinese food therapy. A great deal of information on marine herbs and their applications in medicine, collected over thousands of years, has provided an important foundation for modern research in the area of marine drugs. Thanks to these records and references, the research and development of modern Chinese marine drugs continue to evolve and mature. Since the middle of the 20th century, special attention has been paid to traditional Chinese medicine, resulting in a significant increase in the number of newly discovered marine herbs. Comprehensive surveys in the past have also created a wealth of data on the pharmacology, chemistry, biology and ecology of marine medicinal bioresources. After thousands of years of research, historical references to traditional marine herbs are scattered throughout ancient books, local chronicles, medical books, or monographs on medicinal herbs. Unfortunately, there is no systematic way to collate or scientifically verify these references. Furthermore, during the last century, scientists around the world have accumulated large quantities of information on marine natural products, but these are also scattered throughout academic books and journals.

  2. Translation and Transliteration of Plant names in Ḥunayn b. Iḥsāq´s and Iṣṭifān b. Bāsil´s Arabic version of Dioscorides, De materia medica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touwaide, Alain

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Arabic translation of De materia medica by the Greek author Dioscorides (1st century A.D., particularly the rendering of plant names, which were sometimes properly translated and sometimes transliterated from the Greek. According to a traditional interpretation, the transliteration strategy was used by the translators when they did not know the exact Arabic equivalent of the plant names. I re-examine this interpretation here taking into account the role of plant names in the Greek text and the Andalusian works of botanical lexicography. As a result, I propose to interpret transliterations as a mean used by translators to keep visible the structure of the work, in which plant names played a certain role.

    Este artículo se ocupa de la traducción árabe del texto griego del tratado De materia medica de Dioscórides (siglo I, especialmente de los fitónimos que, en unos casos, fueron traducidos al árabe y, en otros, transliterados del griego. Según la interpretación tradicional, la transliteración era una estrategia utilizada por los traductores cuando no conocían el equivalente exacto árabe de los nombres de las plantas. Se propone en este trabajo una revisión de esta interpretación, teniendo en cuenta el importante papel que los nombres de las plantas desempeñan en el texto griego, así como en las obras de los lexicógrafos y botánicos andalusíes, llegando a la conclusión de que las transliteraciones eran una técnica utilizada por los traductores para mantener visible la estructura general de la obra de Dioscórides, basada en gran parte en la nomenclatura de las plantas.

  3. CMM Interim Check (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length. Unfortunately, several nonconformance reports have been generated to document the discovery of a certified machine found out of tolerance during a calibration closeout. In an effort to reduce risk to product quality two solutions were proposed – shorten the calibration cycle which could be costly, or perform an interim check to monitor the machine’s performance between cycles. The CMM interim check discussed makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge. This off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. Data was gathered, analyzed, and simulated from seven machines in seventeen different configurations to create statistical process control run charts for on-the-floor monitoring.

  4. [Development of rapid setting-drying device for herbarium specimens and its application in survey of Chinese materia medica resources in Anhui].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Han; Xu, Tao; Li, Chuan-Run; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Xiang, Long; Zhao, Wei-Bo; Liu, He-Ling; Zhou, Jian-Li; Yang, Qing-Shan; Peng, Dai-Yin

    2016-07-01

    Herbarium specimens are the basis for the plant classification and indispensable media in teaching, scientific research and resources investigation. They have also played an important role in identifying and producing traditional Chinese medicine. High-quality herbarium specimens shall meet high requirements for integrity, smoothness, color and fabricating efficiency. Therefore, we designed a rapid setting and drying device for herbarium specimens, which could make the herbarium specimens smooth, colorful and not easy to mildew. In this paper, we pointed out the deficiency of traditional methods in making herbarium specimens, and introduced the structure and working principle of the device. Besides, we also discussed the effect of the device in setting and drying herbarium specimens and its application in the fourth national survey of the Chinese material medica resources (CMMR) in Anhui province. As a result, the device provides new ideas for producing herbarium specimens, with a reasonable design, good uniformity, high efficiency, safety and portability, and so is worthy of promotion and application in the national survey of CMMR. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. [Freeze drying process optimization of ginger juice-adjuvant for Chinese materia medica processing and stability of freeze-dried ginger juice powder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Yu; Guo, Feng-Qian; Zang, Chen; Cao, Hui; Zhang, Bao-Xian

    2018-02-01

    Ginger juice, a commonly used adjuvant for Chinese materia medica, is applied in processing of multiple Chinese herbal decoction pieces. Because of the raw materials and preparation process of ginger juice, it is difficult to be preserved for a long time, and the dosage of ginger juice in the processing can not be determined base on its content of main compositions. Ginger juice from different sources is hard to achieve consistent effect during the processing of traditional Chinese herbal decoction pieces. Based on the previous studies, the freeze drying of ginger juice under different shelf temperatures and vacuum degrees were studied, and the optimized freeze drying condition of ginger juice was determined. The content determination method for 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol and 6-shagaol in ginger juice and redissolved ginger juice was established. The content changes of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, 6-gingerol, 6-shagaol, volatile oil and total phenol were studied through the drying process and 30 days preservation period. The results showed that the freeze drying time of ginger juice was shortened after process optimization; the compositions basically remained unchanged after freeze drying, and there was no significant changes in the total phenol content and gingerol content, but the volatile oil content was significantly decreased( P <0.05). Within 30 days, the contents of gingerol, total phenol, and volatile oil were on the decline as a whole. This study has preliminarily proved the feasibility of freeze-drying process of ginger juice as an adjuvant for Chinese medicine processing. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Digital Materia

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Marcus; Richey, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Med tankar från pedagogen Montessori och filosoferna Platon och Baudrillard har detta arbete behandlat frågor om datorn och dess betydelse för en grafiker. Frågeställningen formulerades efter hand och lydde tillslut: ”Hur kan materia te sig i digital form?” Forskningen resulterade i en hypotes för hur digital materia skulle födas i datorn: genom att blanda två uppsättningar av data, såsom två genuppsättningar tillsammans skapar en ny organism. Under produktionen utvecklades därmed en metod fö...

  7. AFM-CMM integrated instrument user manual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinello, Francesco; Bariani, Paolo

    This manual gives general important guidelines for a proper use of the integrated AFM-CMM instrument. More information can be collected reading: • N. Kofod Ph.D thesis [1]; • P. Bariani Ph.D thesis [2]; • Dualscope DME 95-200 operation manuals [3]; • SPIP help [4] • Stitching software user manual...

  8. Focal Plane Alignment Utilizing Optical CMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, Carl Christian; Meras, Patrick L.; Clark, Gerald J.; Sedaka, Jack J.; Kaluzny, Joel V.; Hirsch, Brian; Decker, Todd A.; Scholtz, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    In many applications, an optical detector has to be located relative to mechanical reference points. One solution is to specify stringent requirements on (1) mounting the optical detector relative to the chip carrier, (2) soldering the chip carrier onto the printed circuit board (PCB), and (3) installing the PCB to the mechanical structure of the subsystem. Figure 1 shows a sketch of an optical detector mounted relative to mechanical reference with high positional accuracy. The optical detector is typically a fragile wafer that cannot be physically touched by any measurement tool. An optical coordinate measuring machine (CMM) can be used to position optical detectors relative to mechanical reference points. This approach will eliminate all requirements on positional tolerances. The only requirement is that the PCB is manufactured with oversized holes. An exaggerated sketch of this situation is shown in Figure 2. The sketch shows very loose tolerances on mounting the optical detector in the chip carrier, loose tolerance on soldering the chip carrier to the PCB, and finally large tolerance on where the mounting screws are located. The PCB is held with large screws and oversized holes. The PCB is mounted loosely so it can move freely around. The optical CMM measures the mechanical reference points. Based on these measurements, the required positions of the optical detector corners can be calculated. The optical CMM is commanded to go to the position where one detector corner is supposed to be. This is indicated with the cross-hairs in Figure 2(a). This figure is representative of the image of the optical CMM monitor. Using a suitable tapping tool, the PCB is manually tapped around until the corner of the optical detector is at the crosshairs of the optical CMM. The CMM is commanded to another corner, and the process is repeated a number of times until all corners of the optical detector are within a distance of 10 to 30 microns of the required position. The situation

  9. CMM Interim Check Design of Experiments (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-29

    Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) are widely used in industry, throughout the Nuclear Weapons Complex and at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to verify part conformance to design definition. Calibration cycles for CMMs at LANL are predominantly one year in length and include a weekly interim check to reduce risk. The CMM interim check makes use of Renishaw’s Machine Checking Gauge which is an off-the-shelf product simulates a large sphere within a CMM’s measurement volume and allows for error estimation. As verification on the interim check process a design of experiments investigation was proposed to test a couple of key factors (location and inspector). The results from the two-factor factorial experiment proved that location influenced results more than the inspector or interaction.

  10. Improving Customer Satisfaction: A People CMM Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-11

    Work Environment Customer Relationship Management Program 19 Improving Customer Satisfaction: A People CMM Perspective P. Buttles, S. McGraw, D...Professional in 2009 and Customer Care Manager in July 2006. He has a bachelor of arts degree from the University of Pittsburgh and a bachelor of science...conferences throughout the United States and Europe. He has as a bachelor of science degree in management . 4 Improving Customer Satisfaction: A

  11. Managerial and Organizational Assumptions in the CMM's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Aaen, Ivan; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2008-01-01

    Thinking about improving the management of software development in software firms is dominated by one approach: the capability maturity model devised and administered at the Software Engineering Institute at Carnegie Mellon University. Though CMM, and its replacement CMMI are widely known and used...... thinking about large production and manufacturing organisations (particularly in America) in the late industrial age. Many of the difficulties reported with CMMI can be attributed basing practice on these assumptions in organisations which have different cultures and management traditions, perhaps...

  12. [Ecology suitability study of Chinese materia medica Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, You-Yuan; Yang, Yan-Mei; Ma, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Jin, Ling

    2016-09-01

    This paper is aimed to predict ecology suitability distribution of Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix and search the main ecological factors affecting the suitability distribution. The 313 distribution information about G. macrophylla, 186 distribution information about G. straminea, 343 distribution information about G. dauricaand 131 distribution information about G. crasicaulis were collected though investigation and network sharing platform data . The ecology suitable distribution factors for production Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix was analyzed respectively by the software of ArcGIS and MaxEnt with 55 environmental factors. The result of MaxEnt prediction was very well (AUC was above 0.9). The results of predominant factors analysis showed that precipitation and altitude were all the major factors impacting the ecology suitable of Getiana Macrophylla Radix production. G. macrophylla ecology suitable region was mainly concentrated in south of Gansu, Shanxi, central of Shaanxi and east of Qinghai provinces. G. straminea ecology suitable region was mainly concentrated in southwest of Gansu, east of Qinghai, north and northwest of Sichuan, east of Xizang province. G. daurica ecology suitable region was mainly concentrated in south and southwest of Gansu, east of Qinghai, Shanxi and north of Shaanxi province. G. crasicaulis ecology suitable region was mainly concentrated in Sichuan and north of Yunnan, east of Xizang, south of Gansu and east of Qinghai province. The ecological suitability distribution result of Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix was consistent with each species actual distribution. The study could provide reference for the collection and protection of wild resources, meanwhile, provide the basis for the selection of cultivation area of Gentiana Macrophylla Radix. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. [Status and future of natural resource for Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao-jing; Guo, Juan; Tang, Jin-fu; Ma, Xiao-hui; Ma, Ying; Dai, Zhu-bo; Guo, Lan-ping; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-05-01

    For thousands of years, the natural resource for Chinese materiamedica has been the foundation of the traditional Chinese medicine industry, which provides abundant medicine for human. In recent years, increasing demands and irrational exploitation led to a lot of problems such as rapid decrease of traditional Chinese herbs reserves, low quality of medicine and dismishing traditional cultures. These restricted the development of the traditional Chinese medicine. To solve these problems, scientists have done much work on investigating traditional Chinese medicine resources, exploring the metabolic pathway of bioactive ingredients, cultivating new varieties, and carrying out synthetic biology. These studies provided a theoretical basis for sustainable utilizationand future developmentof traditional Chinese medicine resources.

  14. Characterization of Fiber Optic CMM Probe System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.W.Swallow

    2007-05-15

    This report documents a study completed on the fiber optic probe system that is a part of the Werth optical CMM. This study was necessary due to a lack of documentation from the vendor for the proper use and calibration of the fiber probe, and was performed in support of the Lithographie Galvanoformung Abformung (LIGA) development program at the FM&T. As a result of this study, a better understanding of the fiber optic probe has been developed, including guidelines for its proper use and calibration.

  15. Using Industrial Robots to Manipulate the Measured Object in CMM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Lemes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Coordinate measuring machines (CMMs are widely used to check dimensions of manufactured parts, especially in the automotive industry. The major obstacles in automation of these measurements are fixturing and clamping assemblies, which are required in order to position the measured object within the CMM. This paper describes how an industrial robot can be used to manipulate the measured object within the CMM work space, in order to enable automation of complex geometry measurement.

  16. Shell Inspection History and Current CMM Inspection Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-26

    The following report provides a review of past and current CMM Shell Inspection efforts. Calibration of the Sheffield rotary contour gauge has expired and the primary inspector, Matthew Naranjo, has retired. Efforts within the Inspection team are transitioning from maintaining and training new inspectors on Sheffield to off-the-shelf CMM technology. Although inspection of a shell has many requirements, the scope of the data presented in this report focuses on the inner contour, outer contour, radial wall thickness and mass comparisons.

  17. Indice por Materias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montoya H Luz Marina

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available Un índice es una lista de palabras o frases indicadores asociados que permite la ubicación de material al interior de un libro o una publicación, en este caso será por el nombre de la materia.

  18. Materia strana romanzo scientifico

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez Cadenas, Juan José

    2012-01-01

    Nel Laboratorio europeo per la fisica delle particelle, il CERN di Ginevra, sta per vedere la luce uno dei più grandi progressi scientifici di tutti i tempi: la scoperta di un nuovo stato della materia, il cosiddetto "plasma di quark". La direttrice del CERN, Helena Le Guin, teme però che insieme al plasma si stiano formando grumi letali di materia strana, in grado di scatenare una reazione a catena che potrebbe distruggere l'intero pianeta. Mentre Helena cerca disperatamente di far fronte alla crisi, a Ginevra arrivano Irene de Ávila, una giovane e promettente fisica teorica, e il maggiore Héctor Espinosa, un militare americano assegnato alla sede dell'ONU per lavorare a un progetto ultrasegreto legato alla non proliferazione delle armi nucleari: inizia così un'appassionante vicenda in cui convergono rivalità scientifiche, peripezie personali e rischiose operazioni di spionaggio che porteranno i protagonisti fino in Iran.

  19. MEASURING INFORMATION INTEGR-ATION MODEL FOR CAD/CMM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A CAD/CMM workpiece modeling system based on IGES file is proposed. The modeling system is implemented by using a new method for labelling the tolerance items of 3D workpiece. The concept-"feature face" is used in the method. First the CAD data of workpiece are extracted and recognized automatically. Then a workpiece model is generated, which is the integration of pure 3D geometry form with its corresponding inspection items. The principle of workpiece modeling is also presented. At last, the experiment results are shown and correctness of the model is certified.

  20. Nuclear safety culture evaluation model based on SSE-CMM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaohua; Liu Zhenghai; Liu Zhiming; Wan Yaping; Peng Guojian

    2012-01-01

    Safety culture, which is of great significance to establish safety objectives, characterizes level of enterprise safety production and development. Traditional safety culture evaluation models emphasis on thinking and behavior of individual and organization, and pay attention to evaluation results while ignore process. Moreover, determining evaluation indicators lacks objective evidence. A novel multidimensional safety culture evaluation model, which has scientific and completeness, is addressed by building an preliminary mapping between safety culture and SSE-CMM's (Systems Security Engineering Capability Maturity Model) process area and generic practice. The model focuses on enterprise system security engineering process evaluation and provides new ideas and scientific evidences for the study of safety culture. (authors)

  1. Systems Security Engineering Capability Maturity Model SSE-CMM Model Description Document

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    The Systems Security Engineering Capability Maturity Model (SSE-CMM) describes the essential characteristics of an organization's security engineering process that must exist to ensure good security engineering...

  2. [Analysis of several key problems of good agricultural practice (GAP) of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhou, Xiu-Teng; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2016-04-01

    This paper reviewed the historical background of the GAP, analyzed the development experience of five Ps (GMP, GLP, GSP, GCP, GAP), analyzed the GAP based on economic theories, and pointed out that the core problem of GAP is ignoring economic laws. Once the GAP, is a process of certification, but neither the GAP announcement could be transformed into signal transmission quality in the product market, nor consumers could recognize the difference between GAP and non-GAP herbs in the terminal market, so manufacturers lack motivation for GAP certification. In this paper, we pointed out, that the GAP certification system should be redesigned under the guidance of economics, third party certification body, supervised by drug administration organization, to certificate GAP as high quality standards, to improve signal transduction mechanism of GAP certification, and to integrate GAP with the market. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. A Statistical Approach To Prediction Of The CMM Drift Behaviour Using A Calibrated Mechanical Artefact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuesta Eduardo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multivariate regression predictive model of drift on the Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM behaviour. Evaluation tests on a CMM with a multi-step gauge were carried out following an extended version of an ISO evaluation procedure with a periodicity of at least once a week and during more than five months. This test procedure consists in measuring the gauge for several range volumes, spatial locations, distances and repetitions. The procedure, environment conditions and even the gauge have been kept invariables, so a massive measurement dataset was collected over time under high repeatability conditions. A multivariate regression analysis has revealed the main parameters that could affect the CMM behaviour, and then detected a trend on the CMM performance drift. A performance model that considers both the size of the measured dimension and the elapsed time since the last CMM calibration has been developed. This model can predict the CMM performance and measurement reliability over time and also can estimate an optimized period between calibrations for a specific measurement length or accuracy level.

  4. Ants Colony Optimisation of a Measuring Path of Prismatic Parts on a CMM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojadinovic Slavenko M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents optimisation of a measuring probe path in inspecting the prismatic parts on a CMM. The optimisation model is based on: (i the mathematical model that establishes an initial collision-free path presented by a set of points, and (ii the solution of Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP obtained with Ant Colony Optimisation (ACO. In order to solve TSP, an ACO algorithm that aims to find the shortest path of ant colony movement (i.e. the optimised path is applied. Then, the optimised path is compared with the measuring path obtained with online programming on CMM ZEISS UMM500 and with the measuring path obtained in the CMM inspection module of Pro/ENGINEER® software. The results of comparing the optimised path with the other two generated paths show that the optimised path is at least 20% shorter than the path obtained by on-line programming on CMM ZEISS UMM500, and at least 10% shorter than the path obtained by using the CMM module in Pro/ENGINEER®.

  5. [Irrigants and intracanal medicaments in endodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Matthias; Lehnert, Birgit; Schönenberger, Kathrin; Waltimo, Tuomas

    2003-01-01

    Modern, biologic root canal therapy should be performed with suitable irrigating solutions and intracanal medicaments. The goal of endodontic treatment is to free the treated tooth from infection and prevent reinfection as thoroughly as possible by means which do not put the organism at risk. In this review of the literature, an evidence-based concept for irrigation and medication of root canal systems is presented. Irrigants and medicaments are discussed with respect to their antimicrobial, tissue-dissolving and endotoxin-decontaminating capacity in relation to their systemic toxicity. Recent findings pertaining to interactions of root canal medicaments and irrigating solutions and their impact on a sound irrigating and medicating concept are discussed.

  6. Lessons learned on utilizing the SEI/CMM in the federal government work for others environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, A.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on lessons learned on utilizing the Software Engineering Institute Capability Maturity Model in the federal government work for others environment. These viewgraphs outline: data systems research and development; what is the SEI/CMM; Data Systems Research and Development process improvement approach; accomplishments; and lessons learned.

  7. Identifying extensions required by RUP (Rational Unified Process) to comply with CMM (Capability Maturity Model) levels 2 and 3

    OpenAIRE

    Manzoni, Lisandra Vielmo; Price, Roberto Tom

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment of the Rational Unified Process (RUP) based on the Capability Maturity Model (CMM). For each key practice (KP) identified in each key process area (KPA) of CMM levels 2 and 3, the Rational Unified Process was assessed to determine whether it satisfied the KP or not. For each KPA, the percentage of the key practices supported was calculated, and the results were tabulated. The report includes considerations about the coverage of each key process area, describ...

  8. Dos enfoques no abordados en los modelos de calidad: CMM y SPICE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudith Rodríguez Pérez

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Muchas organizaciones de software tienden a resolver sus problemas de calidad institucionalizando sus procesos a través de la certificación de un modelo de calidad, sin tener en cuenta que en estos modelos no se abordan aspectos tan importantes en la vida de una organización como son la gestión de los recursos humanos y la gestión de comercialización. Con el objetivo de señalar cuales son las deficiencias de los modelos SPICE y CMM se desarrolla este trabajo.

  9. DES13S2cmm: the first superluminous supernova from the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulos, A.; D' Andrea, C. B.; Sullivan, M.; Nichol, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Biswas, R.; Brown, P. J.; Covarrubias, R. A.; Finley, D. A.; Fischer, J. A.; Foley, R. J.; Goldstein, D.; Gupta, R. R.; Kessler, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S. E.; Lidman, C.; March, M.; Nugent, P. E.; Sako, M.; Smith, R. C.; Spinka, H.; Wester, W.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F.; Allam, S. S.; Banerji, M.; Bernstein, J. P.; Bernstein, R. A.; Carnero, A.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Eifler, T.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J. A.; Gerdes, D.; Gruen, D.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Maia, M. A. G.; Makler, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Merritt, K. W.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Roe, N. A.; Romer, A. K.; Rykoff, E.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B. X.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla, I.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Tucker, L. D.; Wechsler, R. H.; Zuntz, J.

    2015-03-20

    We present DES13S2cmm, the first spectroscopically-confirmed superluminous supernova (SLSN) from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We briefly discuss the data and search algorithm used to find this event in the first year of DES operations, and outline the spectroscopic data obtained from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope to confirm its redshift (z = 0.663 +/- 0.001 based on the host-galaxy emission lines) and likely spectral type (Type I). Using this redshift, we find M-U(peak) = -21.05(-0.09)(+0.10) for the peak, rest-frame U-band absolute magnitude, and find DES13S2cmm to be located in a faint, low-metallicity (subsolar), low stellar-mass host galaxy (log (M/M-circle dot) = 9.3 +/- 0.3), consistent with what is seen for other SLSNe-I. We compare the bolometric light curve of DES13S2cmm to 14 similarly well-observed SLSNe-I in the literature and find that it possesses one of the slowest declining tails (beyond +30 d rest-frame past peak), and is the faintest at peak. Moreover, we find the bolometric light curves of all SLSNe-I studied herein possess a dispersion of only 0.2-0.3 mag between +25 and +30 d after peak (rest frame) depending on redshift range studied; this could be important for 'standardizing' such supernovae, as is done with the more common Type Ia. We fit the bolometric light curve of DES13S2cmm with two competing models for SLSNe-I-the radioactive decay of Ni-56, and a magnetar - and find that while the magnetar is formally a better fit, neither model provides a compelling match to the data. Although we are unable to conclusively differentiate between these two physical models for this particular SLSN-I, further DES observations of more SLSNe-I should break this degeneracy, especially if the light curves of SLSNe-I can be observed beyond 100 d in the rest frame of the supernova.

  10. 3D CMM strain-gauge triggering probe error characteristics modeling using fuzzy logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiche, Sofiane; Wozniak, A; Fan, Zhun

    2008-01-01

    FKBs based on two optimization paradigms are used for the reconstruction of the direction- dependent probe error w. The angles beta and gamma are used as input variables of the FKBs; they describe the spatial direction of probe triggering. The learning algorithm used to generate the FKBs is a real......The error values of CMMs depends on the probing direction; hence its spatial variation is a key part of the probe inaccuracy. This paper presents genetically-generated fuzzy knowledge bases (FKBs) to model the spatial error characteristics of a CMM module-changing probe. Two automatically generated...

  11. 3D CMM Strain-Gauge Triggering Probe Error Characteristics Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiche, Sofiane; Wozniak, Adam; Fan, Zhun

    2008-01-01

    FKBs based on two optimization paradigms are used for the reconstruction of the directiondependent probe error w. The angles β and γ are used as input variables of the FKBs; they describe the spatial direction of probe triggering. The learning algorithm used to generate the FKBs is a real/ binary like......The error values of CMMs depends on the probing direction; hence its spatial variation is a key part of the probe inaccuracy. This paper presents genetically-generated fuzzy knowledge bases (FKBs) to model the spatial error characteristics of a CMM module-changing probe. Two automatically generated...

  12. Creato un nuovo stato della materia

    CERN Document Server

    Valsecchi, M C

    2004-01-01

    "Nei laboratori di tutto il mondo nascono continuamente nuovi materiali plastici, leghe di metallo, molecole progettate e assemblate atomo per atomo. I ricercatori dell'Istituto nazionale di fisica nucleare hanno fatto un passo in piu': manipolando i costituenti fondamentali dei nuclei atomici, hanno creato una nuova forma di materia, radicalmente diversa da quella che noi conosciamo" (1 page)

  13. Kaempferol, a flavonoid compound from Gynura medica induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Kaempferol, a natural flavonoid, has been shown to induce cancer cell apoptosis and cell growth inhibition in several tumors. Previously we have conducted a full investigation on the chemical constituents of Gynura medica, kaempferol and its glycosides are the major constituents of G. medica. Here we ...

  14. Application of Translational Medicine Theory in Chinese Materia Medica: Effect and Mechanism of Mahuang and Wuweizi on Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-zhi QIN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the clinical efficacy and safety of rituximab combined with chemotherapy and single chemotherapy for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL. Methods: A total of 97 patients with DLBCL were selected. Patients treated by single chemotherapy were designed as control group, while those by rituximab combined with chemotherapy as observational group. All patients were treated for at least 4 cycles. The short-term and long-term efficacy and related adverse reactions of 2 groups were observed. Results: The rate of complete remission (CR in observational group was significantly higher than in control group (χ2=4.6589, P=0.0309. However, there was no significant difference in objective remission rate (ORR between 2 groups (P=0.3651. The rates of 3-year overall survival (OS, progression-free survival (PFS and disease-free survival (DFS were 80.30% (53/66, 69.70% (46/66 and 59.09% (39/66 in observational group, and 61.29% (19/31, 58.06% (18/31 and 58.06% (18/31 in control group, respectively. The OS in observational group was significantly longer than in control group (P=0.035. However, there was no significant difference in PFS, DFS and rate adverse reactions between 2 groups (P=0.089; P=0.438; χ2=0.1562, P=0.6927. Conclusion: Rituximab combined with chemotherapy can improve the efficacy of DLBCL without increasing the adverse reactions, which can be used as the first-line treatment for DLBCL, thus deserving to be widely applied in clinic.

  15. Technical note: Comparison of metal-on-metal hip simulator wear measured by gravimetric, CMM and optical profiling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, L. Russell; Martinez-Nogues, Vanesa; Baker Cook, Richard; Maul, Christian; Bills, Paul; Racasan, R.; Stolz, Martin; Wood, Robert J. K.

    2018-03-01

    Simulation of wear in artificial joint implants is critical for evaluating implant designs and materials. Traditional protocols employ the gravimetric method to determine the loss of material by measuring the weight of the implant components before and after various test intervals and after the completed test. However, the gravimetric method cannot identify the location, area coverage or maximum depth of the wear and it has difficulties with proportionally small weight changes in relatively heavy implants. In this study, we compare the gravimetric method with two geometric surface methods; an optical light method (RedLux) and a coordinate measuring method (CMM). We tested ten Adept hips in a simulator for 2 million cycles (MC). Gravimetric and optical methods were performed at 0.33, 0.66, 1.00, 1.33 and 2 MC. CMM measurements were done before and after the test. A high correlation was found between the gravimetric and optical methods for both heads (R 2  =  0.997) and for cups (R 2  =  0.96). Both geometric methods (optical and CMM) measured more volume loss than the gravimetric method (for the heads, p  =  0.004 (optical) and p  =  0.08 (CMM); for the cups p  =  0.01 (optical) and p  =  0.003 (CMM)). Two cups recorded negative wear at 2 MC by the gravimetric method but none did by either the optical method or by CMM. The geometric methods were prone to confounding factors such as surface deformation and the gravimetric method could be confounded by protein absorption and backside wear. Both of the geometric methods were able to show the location, area covered and depth of the wear on the bearing surfaces, and track their changes during the test run; providing significant advantages to solely using the gravimetric method.

  16. Mapping and correction of the CMM workspace error with the use of an electronic gyroscope and neural networks--practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swornowski, Pawel J

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the application of neural networks in determining and correction of the deformation of a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) workspace. The information about the CMM errors is acquired using an ADXRS401 electronic gyroscope. A test device (PS-20 module) was built and integrated with a commercial measurement system based on the SP25M passive scanning probe and with a PH10M module (Renishaw). The proposed solution was tested on a Kemco 600 CMM and on a DEA Global Clima CMM. In the former case, correction of the CMM errors was performed using the source code of WinIOS software owned by The Institute of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Cracow, Poland and in the latter on an external PC. Optimum parameters of full and simplified mapping of a given layer of the CMM workspace were determined for practical applications. The proposed method can be employed for the interim check (ISO 10360-2 procedure) or to detect local CMM deformations, occurring when the CMM works at high scanning speeds (>20 mm/s). © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Research on the method of improving the accuracy of CMM (coordinate measuring machine) testing aspheric surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Wang; Xu, Lingdi; Li, Ang

    2017-10-01

    Large aspheric surface which have the deviation with spherical surface are being used widely in various of optical systems. Compared with spherical surface, Large aspheric surfaces have lots of advantages, such as improving image quality, correcting aberration, expanding field of view, increasing the effective distance and make the optical system compact, lightweight. Especially, with the rapid development of space optics, space sensor resolution is required higher and viewing angle is requred larger. Aspheric surface will become one of the essential components in the optical system. After finishing Aspheric coarse Grinding surface profile error is about Tens of microns[1].In order to achieve the final requirement of surface accuracy,the aspheric surface must be quickly modified, high precision testing is the basement of rapid convergence of the surface error . There many methods on aspheric surface detection[2], Geometric ray detection, hartmann detection, ronchi text, knifeedge method, direct profile test, interferometry, while all of them have their disadvantage[6]. In recent years the measure of the aspheric surface become one of the import factors which are restricting the aspheric surface processing development. A two meter caliber industrial CMM coordinate measuring machine is avaiable, but it has many drawbacks such as large detection error and low repeatability precision in the measurement of aspheric surface coarse grinding , which seriously affects the convergence efficiency during the aspherical mirror processing. To solve those problems, this paper presents an effective error control, calibration and removal method by calibration mirror position of the real-time monitoring and other effective means of error control, calibration and removal by probe correction and the measurement mode selection method to measure the point distribution program development. This method verified by real engineer examples, this method increases the original industrial

  18. Agile machining and inspection thrust area team-on-machine probing / compatibility assessment of Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) pro/CMM DMIS with Zeiss DMISEngine.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, James Rokwel; Tomlinson, Kurt; Bryce, Edwin Anthony

    2008-09-01

    The charter goal of the Agile Machining and Inspection Thrust Area Team is to identify technical requirements, within the nuclear weapons complex (NWC), for Agile Machining and Inspection capabilities. During FY 2008, the team identified Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) Pro/CMM as a software tool for use in off-line programming of probing routines--used for measurement--for machining and turning centers. The probing routine would be used for in-process verification of part geometry. The same Pro/CMM program used on the machine tool could also be employed for program validation / part verification using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Funding was provided to determine the compatibility of the Pro/CMM probing program with CMM software (Zeiss DMISEngine).

  19. La Física de la Materia Desordenada

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrillo García, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Presentado en el IV Curso de Iniciación a la Investigación en Estructura de la Materia: Desde las partículas subatómicas hasta los compuestos moleculares (Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, 28-30 de Marzo de 2007).

  20. A scanning contact probe for a micro-coordinate measuring machine (CMM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Kuang-Chao; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Weili; Chen, Yejin; Lin, Jia-You

    2010-01-01

    A new high precision contact scanning probe able to measure miniature components on a micro/nano-coordinate measuring machine (CMM) is proposed. This contact probe is composed of a fiber stylus with a ball tip, a floating plate and focus sensors. The stylus is attached to a floating plate, which is connected to the probe housing via four elastic wires. When the probe tip is touched and then deflected by the workpiece, the wires experience elastic deformations and the four mirrors mounted on the plate will be displaced. These displacements can be detected by four corresponding laser focus probes. To calibrate this touch trigger probe, a double-trigger method is developed for a high-speed approach and a low-speed touch. Experimental results show that the probe has a symmetric contact property in the horizontal XY plane. The contact force is found to be about 109 µN. The standard deviation of the unidirectional touch is less than 10 nm and the pre-travel distance is around 10 nm with a standard deviation of less than 3 nm

  1. La realidad como materia novelable: Alejo Carpentier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Arias Careaga

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde que en 1897 Benito Pérez Galdós defendiera como materia prima legítima de la literatura «la vida misma, de donde el artista saca las ficciones que nos instruyen y embelesan» (Pérez Galdós, 1990: 159, el realismo como instrumento de indagación y análisis de la sociedad no ha dejado de crecer y expandirse. Realismo crítico, como este de Galdós, que implica una ampliación del concepto chato de «realidad», incluyendo en ella «recuerdos, sueños, imaginación, locura, símbolos» para contribuir a la formación de un «realismo total» (Rodríguez Puértolas, 2000, II: 93, al que se une también la asimilación de enseñanzas esenciales como la que representa la narrativa de Cervantes: La novelística de Galdós hunde sus raíces en el mejor Cervantes, como puede verse en su peculiar sentido del humor y de la ironía, en la concepción perspectivista de la realidad y en tantas otras cosas, algunas de ellas en verdad fundamentales. Así el concepto de la Naturaleza y sus relaciones dialécticas con el ser humano; así el Amor como elemento vital y animador del orden cósmico, muy alejado del idealismo vulgar romántico (Ibid., 93.

  2. Materia y Pobreza = Matter and Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Muñoz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa acumulación material es uno de los signos más identificables de la pobreza. El pobre vive apegado a la tierra, esa es su única posesión y a partir de ella construirá sus refugios, sus habitaciones, sus utensilios. Las construcciones de arcilla, de barro, moldeadas con gran abundancia de materia  se encuentran en los poblados primitivos, pero cualquier situación marcada por la extrema pobreza lo estará también por las acumulaciones de material. Resulta inimaginable una situación de pobreza que no implique la acumulación de materia y esto es particularmente evidente en las sociedades desarrolladas, donde un mendigo es reconocible por su montaña de ropas, calzado o enseres de todo tipo.Resulta, sin embargo, significativo que en los discursos de los ideólogos de la modernidad, la identificación de ésta con el advenimiento de una sociedad sin clases venga acompañada de una apelación a la pobreza, una nueva pobreza fría y sobria, propia de una habitación humana abierta y transparente, casi desnuda, e igualitaria para todos los hombres sin distinción de clases sociales. Así, la pobreza moderna estaría ligada al material, a los nuevos materiales, pero no es una condición impuesta, sino elegida, o al menos aceptada como inevitable por el nuevo hombre.La convivencia entre una pobreza de la acumulación material y una pobreza de ascetismo y renuncia es un hecho tanto en los discursos como en las obras de las vanguardias del siglo XX. La acumulación de materia informe y trabajada manualmente tiene lugar al mismo tiempo que la exhibición de la desnudez y la frialdad de los materiales producidos por la industria.  Y en ambos casos, se apela a la pobreza como última referencia para las obras que tratan de ser una expresión fiel de las aspiraciones de su época.Palabras clavemateria, pobreza, material, acumulación, modernidad, sociedadAbstractAccumulation of matter is one of the most recognizable signs of poverty. The poor

  3. Effect of intracanal medicament on bond strength of fibre posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Melike Bayram

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of calcium hydroxide (CH, triple antibiotic paste (TAP and double antibiotic paste (DAP on the push-out bond strengths of three different self-adhesive resin cements. Forty-eight single-rooted human maxillary central incisors were selected. The crowns were removed and the root canals were performed. After the irrigation protocols, the post space was prepared. The teeth were then randomly divided into a control group (no intracanal medicament and three medicament groups (n = 12 for each group. After three weeks, the medicaments were removed using 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and EndoActivator agitation. The teeth were divided into three subgroups according to the fibre-post luting cement: Maxcem Elite, RelyX Unicem and BisCem. The specimens were sectioned and the push-out test was performed. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc tests were used for statistical analyses. Regarding the type of cement, BisCem had significantly lower bond strength values than Maxcem and RelyX. There was no significant difference between the bond strength values of Maxcem and RelyX (p > 0.05. The TAP-RelyX group had the highest bond strength value and the DAP-BisCem group had the lowest bond strength value. RelyX and Maxcem had higher bond strength to root canal dentin than BisCem. The bond strength of BisCem, RelyX and Maxcem was not negatively affected by the use of DAP, CH and TAP as intracanal medicaments.

  4. Bread as Food and Medicament in Oribasius’ Writings

    OpenAIRE

    Kokoszko, Maciej; Jagusiak, Krzysztof; Dybała, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    Treatises left by Oribasius (first and foremost his Collectiones medicae and Eclogae medicamentorum) preserve a vast body of information on the varieties of bread eaten in late antiquity, characterise them from the point of view of dietetics, list medical conditions in which a given variety is especially beneficial, and name medical preparations which include the product. The present study elaborates on Oribasius’ dietetic knowledge and his input into the development of dietetic discourse (na...

  5. Salving Distribution Information System on PT. Anugerah Argon Medica

    OpenAIRE

    Yunus, Halimah

    2015-01-01

    Medica's Argon godsend constitute moving firm at salving sell area filing system and its reporting is still utilize archives and ledger before utilizes.Data collecting on observational it utilizes to methodic observation, interview and `studi` is library.Meanwhile software development methods that is utilized is model Waterfall. Implementation of model Waterfall this was worded utilize `document`'s flowing charts, diagram context, `flow`'s data diagramdesignoutput` is input design databasedat...

  6. Extraction, Modelling and Purification of Flavonoids from Citrus Medica Peel

    OpenAIRE

    M. Parvathi Nandan; Vangalapati Meena

    2015-01-01

    Soxhlet extraction technique is widely employed for the extraction and separation of chemical constituents in the medicinal plants. Citrus medica L commonly called as Citron belongs to family Rutaceae, is a slow-growing shrub. It is mainly cultivated for the production of edible fruits which are sour in taste like lime and lemon and the main content of a citron fruit is the thick rind, which is very adherent to the segments. From the phytochemical analysis the peel extract is rich source of p...

  7. Trazando la materia oscura con cúmulos globulares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, J. C.

    Se describe la estrategia adoptada para mapear la distribución de materia oscura y bariónica en galaxias elípticas cuyos cúmulos globulares están siendo observados con los telescopios VLT y Gemini. Se ejemplifican los resultados con los datos obtenidos en el cúmulo de Fornax.

  8. Immunity ratione materiae of foreign state officials before Rwandan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article seeks to determine when, as a matter of international law, foreign state officials should be granted immunity ratione materiae when they are sued in civil and criminal proceedings in Rwanda. It also investigates the questions as to whether this immunity can be waived by the state on behalf of which the official ...

  9. Relationship of intracanal medicaments to endodontic flare-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trope, M

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effect of three intracanal medicaments on the incidence of post-instrumentation flare-ups. All teeth were instrumented to a predetermined minimum size using a 0.5% solution of sodium hypochlorite as the irrigant. Formocresol, Ledermix, and calcium hydroxide were placed in strict sequence irrespective of the presence or absence of symptoms or radiographic signs of apical periodontitis. The patients were given written post-operative instructions and a prescription for 600 mg ibuprofen to be taken if mild to moderate pain developed. If severe pain and/or swelling developed the patient was instructed to call the office immediately and was considered to have had a flare-up. Twelve flare-ups occurred in teeth with radiographic signs of apical periodontitis; none in teeth without periapical radiolucencies. Six of the twelve flare-ups occurred in retreatment cases and the other six occurred in teeth without previous endodontic treatment. No significant difference was found in the flare-up rate among the three intracanal medicaments.

  10. Good practice in reviewing and publishing studies on herbal medicine, with special emphasis on traditional Chinese medicine and Chinese materia medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kelvin; Shaw, Debbie; Simmonds, Monique S J; Leon, Christine J; Xu, Qihe; Lu, Aiping; Sutherland, Ian; Ignatova, Svetlana; Zhu, You-Ping; Verpoorte, Rob; Williamson, Elizabeth M; Duez, Pierre

    2012-04-10

    Studies on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), like those of other systems of traditional medicine (TM), are very variable in their quality, content and focus, resulting in issues around their acceptability to the global scientific community. In an attempt to address these issues, an European Union funded FP7 consortium, composed of both Chinese and European scientists and named "Good practice in traditional Chinese medicine" (GP-TCM), has devised a series of guidelines and technical notes to facilitate good practice in collecting, assessing and publishing TCM literature as well as highlighting the scope of information that should be in future publications on TMs. This paper summarises these guidelines, together with what has been learned through GP-TCM collaborations, focusing on some common problems and proposing solutions. The recommendations also provide a template for the evaluation of other types of traditional medicine such as Ayurveda, Kampo and Unani. GP-TCM provided a means by which experts in different areas relating to TCM were able to collaborate in forming a literature review good practice panel which operated through e-mail exchanges, teleconferences and focused discussions at annual meetings. The panel involved coordinators and representatives of each GP-TCM work package (WP) with the latter managing the testing and refining of such guidelines within the context of their respective WPs and providing feedback. A Good Practice Handbook for Scientific Publications on TCM was drafted during the three years of the consortium, showing the value of such networks. A "deliverable - central questions - labour division" model had been established to guide the literature evaluation studies of each WP. The model investigated various scoring systems and their ability to provide consistent and reliable semi-quantitative assessments of the literature, notably in respect of the botanical ingredients involved and the scientific quality of the work described. This resulted in the compilation of (i) a robust scoring system and (ii) a set of minimum standards for publishing in the herbal medicines field, based on an analysis of the main problems identified in published TCM literature. Good quality, peer-reviewed literature is crucial in maintaining the integrity and the reputation of the herbal scientific community and promoting good research in TCM. These guidelines provide a clear starting point for this important endeavour. They also provide a platform for adaptation, as appropriate, to other systems of traditional medicine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Citrus medica: nutritional, phytochemical composition and health benefits - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhikara, Navnidhi; Kour, Ragni; Jaglan, Sundeep; Gupta, Pawan; Gat, Yogesh; Panghal, Anil

    2018-04-25

    Citrus medica (Citron) is an underutilized fruit plant having various bioactive components in all parts of the plant. The major bioactive compounds present are iso-limonene, citral, limonene, phenolics, flavonones, vitamin C, pectin, linalool, decanal, and nonanal, accounting for several health benefits. Pectin and heteropolysachharides also play a major role as dietary fibers. The potential impact of citron and its bioactive components to prevent or reverse destructive deregulated processes responsible for certain diseases has attracted different researchers' attention. The fruit has numerous nutraceutical benefits, proven by pharmacological studies; for example, anti-catarrhal, capillary protector, anti-hypertensive, diuretic, antibacterial, antifungal, anthelmintic, antimicrobial, analgesic, strong antioxidant, anticancerous, antidiabetic, estrogenic, antiulcer, cardioprotective, and antihyperglycemic. The present review explores new insights into the benefits of citron in various body parts. Throughout the world, citron has been used in making carbonated drinks, alcoholic beverages, syrup, candied peels, jams, marmalade, cordials, and many other value added products, which suggests it is an appropriate raw material to develop healthy processed food. In the present review, the fruit taxonomical classification, beneficial phytochemicals, antioxidant activities, and health benefits are discussed.

  12. Effects of dentin on the antimicrobial properties of endodontic medicaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapasalo, Markus; Qian, Wei; Portenier, Isabelle; Waltimo, Tuomas

    2007-08-01

    Successful treatment of apical periodontitis is dependent on the elimination of the infective microflora from the necrotic root canal system. Antimicrobial irrigating solutions and other locally used disinfecting agents and medicaments have a key role in the eradication of the microbes. While most if not all presently used disinfecting agents rapidly kill even the resistant microbes when tested in vitro in a test tube, the effectiveness of the same agents is clearly weaker in the in vivo conditions. Recent studies have given valuable information about the interaction of endodontic disinfecting agents with dentin and other compounds present in the necrotic root canal. As a result of such interactions the antimicrobial effectiveness of several of our key disinfectants may be weakened, or even eliminated under certain circumstances. Different disinfectants show different sensitivity to the action by the various potential inactivators, such as dentin, serum proteins, hydroxyapatite, collagen derived from different sources, and microbial biomass. This review is a summary of our present knowledge of the mostly negative interactions between endodontic disinfecting agents and the various compounds present in the root canal environment.

  13. Acta informatica medica is indexed in pubmed and archived in pubmed central.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2013-03-01

    Acta Informatica Medica journal has been accepted for archiving in PubMed Central from 2011 onward. The journal started in 1993 as the official journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina. During the last 3 years, Acta Informatica Medica has een included in almost all prestigious online databases, including PubMed, Scopus and EMBASE. The 20th volume of the journal is fully international, with papers from 18 countries.

  14. The effect of endodontic regeneration medicaments on mechanical properties of radicular dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassen, Ghaeth H.

    Endodontic regeneration treatment of necrotic immature teeth has gained popularity in recent years. The approach suggests a biological alternative to induce a continuous root development. In this project, three in vitro experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of three medicaments used in endodontic regeneration on mechanical properties and chemical structure of radicular dentin. In the first experiment, we investigated longitudinally the effect of medicaments on the indentation properties of the root canal surface of immature teeth using a novel BioDent reference point indenter. A significant difference in the majority of indentation parameters between all groups was found after one-week and one-month application of medicaments (p double antibiotic paste (DAP) > control > calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]. The four-week exposure of dentin to TAP and DAP caused 43% and 31% increase in total indentation distance outcome, respectively. In the second experiment, we investigated longitudinally the effect of medicaments on the chemical structure of immature radicular dentin by measuring the phosphate/amide I ratios of dentin using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Phosphate/amide I ratios were significantly different between the four groups after one week, two weeks and four week application of medicaments (p untreated dentin > DAP-treated dentin > TAP-treated dentin. In the third experiment, we investigated longitudinally the effect of medicaments on root fracture resistance and microhardness of radicular dentin. For the microhardness, the two-way interaction between group and time was significant (pmedicaments caused significant decrease in fracture resistance ranging between 19%-30% after three month application compared to one week application. The three medicaments used in endodontic regeneration caused significant change in the chemical integrity of the superficial radicular dentin and significantly affected the indentation

  15. Inactivation of local root canal medicaments by dentine: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapasalo, H K; Sirén, E K; Waltimo, T M; Ørstavik, D; Haapasalo, M P

    2000-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the inactivation by dentine of the antibacterial activity of various commonly used local root canal medicaments. The medicaments tested were saturated calcium hydroxide solution, 1% sodium hypochlorite, 0.5% and 0.05% chlorhexidine acetate, and 2/4% and 0.2/0.4% iodine potassium iodide. Dentine was sterilized by autoclaving and crushed into powder with a particle size of 0.2-20 microns. Aliquots of dentine suspension were incubated with the medicaments in sealed test tubes at 37 degrees C for 24 h or 1 h before adding the bacteria. In some experiments bacteria were added simultaneously with dentine powder and the medicament. Enterococcus faecalis A197A was used as a test organism. Samples for bacterial culturing were taken from the suspensions at 5 min, 1 h and 24 h after adding the bacteria. Dentine powder had an inhibitory effect on all medicaments tested. The effect was dependent on the concentration of the medicament as well as on the length of the time the medicament was preincubated with dentine powder before adding the bacteria. The effect of calcium hydroxide on E. faecalis was totally abolished by the presence of dentine powder. Similarly, 0.2/0.4% iodine potassium iodide lost its effect after preincubation for 1 h with dentine before adding the bacteria. The effect of 0.05% chlorhexidine and 1% sodium hypochlorite on E. faecalis was reduced but not totally eliminated by the presence of dentine. No inhibition could be measured when full strength solutions of chlorhexidine and iodine potassium iodide were used in killing E. faecalis. The dentine powder model appears to be an efficient tool for the study of interactions between local endodontic medicaments, dentine, and microbes.

  16. The risk of severe salicylate poisoning following the ingestion of topical medicaments or aspirin.

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, T. Y.

    1996-01-01

    Apart from isolated reports of severe salicylate poisoning after ingesting an unusually large amount of a medicinal oil, there are no published data on the threat arising from attempted suicide with topical medicaments containing methyl salicylate or wintergreen oil compared with aspirin tablets. In this retrospective study, the admission plasma salicylate concentrations and clinical presentations were compared in 80 subjects who had taken aspirin tablets (n = 42) or topical medicaments (n = ...

  17. Retos constitucionales en materia de género

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Esther Seijas Villadangos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La Constitución es la norma más valiosa sobre la que se erigen los pilares de los Estados democráticos contemporáneos. Reflexionar desde la Constitución y con una perspectiva de género ha sido el leit motiv del número 10 de la Revista “Cuestiones de Género: de la igualdad y la diferencia”, titulado Retos constitucionales en materia de género. Los atributos con los que se ha querido afrontar esta tarea son los siguientes: legalidad, globalidad, particularidad, humanidad y pragmatismo.

  18. La materia en condiciones extremas de densidad y temperatura

    OpenAIRE

    Morones Ibarra, José Rubén

    2013-01-01

    El estudio de las propiedades de la materia cuando se encuentra sometida a condiciones extremas de temperatura y presión ha llamado la atención de los físicos nucleares y de partículas elementales debido a la importancia que este tema tiene para conocer las condiciones iniciales del universo. En los primeros instantes del Gran Estallido (Big Bang) el universo era una región muy pequeña del espacio y por lo tanto su densidad y temperatura eran enormes. Para ente...

  19. KAEMPFEROL, A FLAVONOID COMPOUND FROM GYNURA MEDICA INDUCED APOPTOSIS AND GROWTH INHIBITION IN MCF-7 BREAST CANCER CELL

    OpenAIRE

    Yi, Xiaofang; Zuo, Jiangcheng; Tan, Chao; Xian, Sheng; Luo, Chunhua; Chen, Sai; Yu, Liangfang; Luo, Yucheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Kaempferol, a natural flavonoid, has been shown to induce cancer cell apoptosis and cell growth inhibition in several tumors. Previously we have conducted a full investigation on the chemical constituents of Gynura medica, kaempferol and its glycosides are the major constituents of G. medica. Here we investigated the growth inhibition and apoptosis induction effect of kaempferol extracted from G. medica. Materials and Methods: The inhibition effects of kaempferol were evaluated by...

  20. Materias activas permitidas en producción integrada. Frutales de hueso 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Departamento de Desarrollo Rural y Sostenibilidad

    2016-01-01

    Materias activas admitidas en producción integrada para frutales de hueso y las restricciones de uso. Las materias activas de nueva inclusión se indican con asterisco y son admitidas a partir del 1 de enero de 2016.

  1. A Software Module for High-Accuracy Calibration of Rings and Cylinders on CMM using Multi-Orientation Techniques (Multi-Step and Reversal methods)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    . The Centre for Geometrical Metrology (CGM) at the Technical University of Denmark takes care of free form measurements, in collaboration with DIMEG, University of Padova, Italy. The present report describes a software module, ROUNDCAL, to be used for high-accuracy calibration of rings and cylinders....... The purpose of the software is to calculate the form error and the least square circle of rings and cylinders by mean of average of pontwise measuring results becoming from so-called multi-orientation techniques (both reversal and multi-step methods) in order to eliminate systematic errors of CMM ....

  2. Reuse of worn-out medicaments with adsorbent properties for the removal of manganese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millan C, E.

    2005-01-01

    The current investigations on the treatment of worn-out medicaments in Mexico, reveal that most of these treatments are carried out with the purpose to reduce the packing and diminish the toxic level that presents each one of those medicaments. That it reach to reuse of them is their packing material and/or their cover. Once treated, the worn-out medicaments move to a sanitary filler. With relationship to the investigation works that have been carried out for the manganese removal in solution, they show a great number of materials that they are used for this end, as well as the parameters that influence in the process, such as the concentration of the element, the solution type in that is content and the pH. However, it is not mentioned in none of them the reuse of the worn-out medicaments (Talcid and Melox), as adsorbent materials for the removal of metals from the water. To carry out the present investigation they were selected therefore, to the one Talcid and the Melox because its present adsorbent properties, with the purpose to remove the manganese like water pollutant. Once that the worn-out medicaments were obtained, they put on in contact with different organic solvents, to obtain the active principle, due to the pharmaceutical presentation of the two medicaments that was obtained was in suspension. The active principles of the two medicaments were characterized by means of high vacuum scanning electron microscopy (SEM), elementary microanalysis (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental part consisted in putting in contact manganese solutions with the active principles of the worn-out medicaments, varying the time of contact and the concentration. The manganese quantification in the liquid phase carried out by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). It was found that the kinetic model that better describes the sorption process of manganese in both worn-out medicaments (Talcid and Melox) it is that of pseudo second order. Those results of

  3. Superficie Específica y Estado Vital de la Materia

    OpenAIRE

    J. Hernando Ordoñez

    1992-01-01

    Se propone reemplazar el término de materia viva por el de estado vital de la materia por considerarlo adecuado, pues la materia es la misma, lo que cambia es su estado. Se estudia la relación entre la superficie específica y el estado vital de la materia. Constante del estado vital y el valor crítico de la superficie específica. Qué es la fuerza de inducción vital? Diferenciación funcional de las células. Cómo regula la unidad biológica su superficie específica? La materia que piens...

  4. El electrón en la materia condensada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojo, Juan Manuel

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Not available.Se lleva a cabo una discusión sobre las características de los estados de los electrones en la materia condensada. Se analizan tres propiedades importantes de dichos estados: 1 el canje entre electrones, responsable del magnetismo, con énfasis en sistemas de interés actual como aglomerados pequeños y materiales amorfos; 2 el apareamiento entre electrones con una nota sobre la superconductividad a alta temperatura y 3 el túnel de electrones, mostrándose algunos ejemplos recientes de la aplicación del túnel al estudio a escala atómica de fenómenos de superficie.

  5. Variations of 57Fe hyperfine parameters in medicaments containing ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Novikov, E. G.; Dubiel, S. M.; Semionkin, V. A.

    2010-01-01

    Several commercially available medicaments containing ferrous fumarate (FeC 4 H 2 O 4 ) and ferrous sulfate (FeSO 4 ), as a source of ferrous iron, were studied using a high velocity resolution Mössbauer spectroscopy. A comparison of the 57 Fe hyperfine parameters revealed small variations for the main components in both medicaments indicating some differences in the ferrous fumarates and ferrous sulfates. It was also found that all spectra contained additional minor components probably related to ferrous and ferric impurities or to partially modified main components.

  6. Variations of {sup 57}Fe hyperfine parameters in medicaments containing ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail: oshtrakh@mail.utnet.ru; Novikov, E. G. [Ural Federal University (The former Ural State Technical University-UPI), Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation); Dubiel, S. M. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Computer Science (Poland); Semionkin, V. A. [Ural Federal University (The former Ural State Technical University-UPI), Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation)

    2010-04-15

    Several commercially available medicaments containing ferrous fumarate (FeC{sub 4}H{sub 2}O{sub 4}) and ferrous sulfate (FeSO{sub 4}), as a source of ferrous iron, were studied using a high velocity resolution Moessbauer spectroscopy. A comparison of the {sup 57}Fe hyperfine parameters revealed small variations for the main components in both medicaments indicating some differences in the ferrous fumarates and ferrous sulfates. It was also found that all spectra contained additional minor components probably related to ferrous and ferric impurities or to partially modified main components.

  7. Estado Vital de la Materia. Su origen, su evolución y su futuro.

    OpenAIRE

    J. Hernando Ordoñez

    2001-01-01

    En este artlculo se hacen algunas observaciones sobre un estado de la materia (estado vital), propuesto para reemplazar el de materia viva, que se usa habitualmente.

    La materia en estado vital se organiza por una fuerza interna, que podríamos calificar como inteligente, que hace que los átomos se orienten y se organicen con determinada finalidad para fabricar células, para modelar órganos y, éstos, para culminar su obra integrándose con la armonía más admirable, par...

  8. Home Delivery Medicament Program: access, inactivity and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Roque da Silva; Arcuri, Edna Apparecida Moura; Lopes, Victor Cauê

    2016-10-10

    to verify causes of inactivity in the Home Delivery Medicament Program, as referred by users from a Primary Health Care Service in São Paulo, comparing them to the causes registered in the program and analyzing them in the theoretical model Concept of Access to Health. cross-sectional study, interviewing 111 inactive users; and documentary study in the program records. half of the users did not know the condition of inactivity. Discrepancies were found between the user's and the program's information, observing different levels of agreement: Absence of physician and administrative staff member 0%; Transfer to other service 25%; Death 50%; Option to quit 50%; Address change 57% and Change in therapeutic schedule 80%. The users' feeling of accepting the program was observed. In the health access concept, inactivity can be explained in the information dimension, in the degree of asymmetry between the patient's and the health professional's knowledge, identified through the indicators: education, knowledge and information sources. due to the low education level, the user does not assimilate the information on the steps of the program flowchart, does not return for the assessment that guarantees its continuity. Consequently, (s)he stops receiving the medication and spends a long time without treatment, increasing the cardiovascular risk of hypertensive (92% of the sample), diabetic (44%) and dyslipidemic patients (31%). verificar causas de inatividade no Programa Remédio em Casa, referidas por usuários de Unidade Básica de Saúde de São Paulo, comparando-as às registradas pelo programa e analisando-as no modelo teórico Conceito de Acesso à Saúde. estudo transversal entrevistando 111 usuários inativos; e documental, nos registros do programa. metade dos usuários desconhecia a condição de inatividade. Constatadas discrepâncias nas informações usuário versus programa, observando-se diferentes níveis de concordância: Falta de médico e funcion

  9. Purposing Division Strategy for Pharmaceutical Producer Dexa Medica in the Demanding Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawati, Cut Irna; Wahyono, Agatha Christy

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to purpose the division strategy for a pharmaceutical producer in Kalimantan area, named Dexa Medica Samarinda. Currently, this firm is facing a competitive market condition and evolving a decline position in the market. This research uses qualitative research method by organising intensive interview to important informants so…

  10. [Medicaments and oral healthcare 4. Pharmacotherapy in (frail and care dependent) older people].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baat, C. de; Putten, G.J. van der; Visser, A.; Vissink, A.

    2017-01-01

    Polypharmacy is the consequence of multimorbidity. Both phenomena may cause functional limitations and/or frailty and/or care dependency in older people. In the human body, a medicament undergoes at least 3 important actions: absorption, distribution and elimination. These actions may proceed

  11. Review of the Journal Acta Informatica Medica During Eight Year Period: 2008-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla

    2016-04-01

    Acta Informatica Medica is official journal of the Academy for Medical Sciences of Bosnia and Herzegovina (from 2014 Acta Inform Med is published bimonthly). To evaluate journal "Acta Informatica Medica" in 2015 and compare findings to previous years. The study has retrospective and descriptive character, and included the period 2008-2015 (included 36 issues of journal). A total of 83 (average 13,8 articles per journal) articles were published in Acta Informatica Medica during 2015. Analyzing the type of articles, original articles are present in majority during 2015 (68,6%) (by analyzing last eight years, 310 (67,3%) were original). During 2015, 27,7% of articles were related to the applied of Health informatics in field of clinical medicine, 63,8% preclinical medicine and 8,5% to public health. Collaboration rate in 2015 was 0,84. Most often the time required for decision on acceptance of article in 2015 is between 50 and 60 days. Articles came from 16 countries. According to scimagojr.com for 2014, Acta Informatica Medica has SCImago Journal Rank 0,166, while Cites / Doc. (2 years) parameter (widely used as impact index) is 0,70. According to GoogleScholar, h5 index is 11 and h5 median is 19. We analyzed the Acta Informatica Medica by "Publish or Perish" software - H index was 14, g index was 19 and e-index was 10.39. Year after year the highest number of original articles are published. Although the period of revision of articles is acceptable, the period up to two months is certainly not long, the goal is to reduce this period. Although the magazine in mentioned field found its place, although it is indexed in numerous bases, including: PubMed, PubMed Central, SCOPUS, EMBASE, EBSCO, etc. The main goal for next year is that the magazine becomes part of the Web of Science. Imperative is further internationalization of the magazine.

  12. 204: THE ROLE OF IMCI PROGRAM IN THE RATIONALIZATION OF MEDICAMENT USE IN PEDIATRICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Chreitah

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) is an EBM guideline prepared by WHO and UNICEF guideline in primary health care for better assessment and management in pediatrics. The study was carried out to demonstrate the reduction of medicament prescription by the application of IMCI program in two months up to five years old children presenting with an infectious disease. Methods Before and after study was carried out in July 2012 at a pediatric E.R children who met with the inclusion criteria were rolled in: ▸ Consulting for infectious disease. ▸ With no anterior treatment with antibiotics. ▸ No need of hospitalization. In total 112 patients were assessed separately by two groups of doctors (classical approach vs. IMCI guideline). The two prescriptions of each patient were analyzed using Mac Nemar, comparison of proportion tests. Results 112 patients (64 boys, 48 girls) with cough, diarrhea, sore throat, otalgia and fever were studied. In total 280 medicaments were prescribed firstly vs. 160 medicaments with IMCI guideline (P<0.0001). There were 103 oral antibiotics prescribed vs. 28 with IMCI guideline (P<0.0001). There were 20 intra muscular injections prescribed (15 antibiotics) vs. 9 with IMCI guideline (P<0.02). Only 37 antibiotics were justified vs. 82 non-justified (p<0.0001). Conclusion the assessment and management by IMCI program for children age 2 months up to 5 years in outpatient clinic may contribute for a better prescription with a significant reduction in total medicament prescribed, in oral antibiotics and intra muscular injections.

  13. Yeast α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Phenolic Compounds Isolated from Gynura medica Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gynura medica leaf extract contains significant amounts of flavonols and phenolic acids and exhibits powerful hypoglycemic activity against diabetic rats in vivo. However, the hypoglycemic active constituents that exist in the plant have not been fully elaborated. The purpose of this study is to isolate and elaborate the hypoglycemic activity compounds against inhibition the yeast α-glucosidase in vitro. Seven phenolic compounds including five flavonols and two phenolic acids were isolated from the leaf of G. medica. Their structures were identified by the extensive NMR and mass spectral analyses as: kaempferol (1, quercetin (2, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (4, rutin (5, chlorogenic acid (6 and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester (7. All of the compounds except 1 and 3 were isolated for the first time from G. medica. Compounds 1–7 were also assayed for their hypoglycemic activity against yeast α-glucosidase in vitro. All of the compounds except 1 and 6 showed good yeast α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with the IC50 values of 1.67 mg/mL, 1.46 mg/mL, 0.38 mg/mL, 0.10 mg/mL and 0.53 mg/mL, respectively.

  14. [Medicaments and oral healthcare 4. Pharmacotherapy in (frail and care dependent) older people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Baat, C; van der Putten, G J; Visser, A; Vissink, A

    2017-05-01

    Polypharmacy is the consequence of multimorbidity. Both phenomena may cause functional limitations and/or frailty and/or care dependency in older people. In the human body, a medicament undergoes at least 3 important actions: absorption, distribution and elimination. These actions may proceed aberrantly in older people. Following interaction with receptors, a medicament triggers a chain reaction in the human body. The receptors and each link of the chain reaction may be subject to changes due to diseases as well as ageing. This, particularly, is the case with regard to medications directed towards the central nervous system and the cardiovascular system. Furthermore, interactions may occur between various medications mutually and between medications on the one hand and on the other hand food and water intake, self-medication with herbs, and diseases. Moreover, older people usually experience more adverse effects of medications when compared to younger people. This is due to altered body actions and reactions, polypharmacy and the many possible interactions. In older people, utilisation and intake of medications often give rise to problems that can be divided into medicament-related, patient-related, care- and care provider-related and other problems.

  15. The direct cytotoxic effects of medicaments used in endodontic regeneration on human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labban, Nawaf; Yassen, Ghaeth H; Windsor, L Jack; Platt, Jeffrey A

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of intracanal medicaments commonly used in endodontic regeneration on the survival of human dental pulp cells (DPCs). DPCs were cultured and exposed to either no medicament treatment or low concentrations (0.3-5 mg ml(-1) ) of calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2 ], triple antibiotic paste (TAP), or double antibiotic paste (DAP) for 3 days. After that, toxicity to the DPCs was determined by lactate dehydrogenase activity assays (LDH) and cell proliferation was measured by colorimetric assays (WST-1). Two-way anova followed by Fisher's protected least significant differences was used for statistical analyses (α = 0.05). The group-by-concentration interactions were significant for the LDH and WST-1 assays (P medicaments tested in this study were not cytotoxic in cultured cells. However, these concentrations are much lower than the concentrations that have been advocated in endodontic regeneration. Furthermore, the negative effects of TAP on DPCs were detected at lower concentrations by using the WST-1 assays than by measuring the LDH release. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Use of digital applications in the medicament calculation education for nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gilberto Fernandes Pereira

    Full Text Available Objective.To evaluate the influence of the use of digital applications in medicament calculation education for nursing students. Methods. An experimental study was developed with a sample of 100 nursing students, who were divided randomly into two groups (use of the Calculation Medicines - CalcMed application - available free on the Internet, n=50 and control (conventional method of the calculator use and pre-math skills, n=50. Both groups were assessed before and after the application of the teaching strategy through a test with ten specific questions of medicament calculations. Results. The study group showed a mean score of 8.14 versus an average of 5.02 in the control group. The average time of test execution was faster in the study group compared to the control group (15.7 versus 38.9 minutes. Conclusion. The strategy of using this application positively influences learning and enables greater security in the implementation of medicament calculations.

  17. Comparison of antibacterial efficacy of intracanal medicaments in multiple visit pulpectomies in primary molars-an in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lele G

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibacterial efficacy of formocresol, 2% gluteraldehyde and iodine-potassium iodide was assessed by obtaining cultures at consecutive appointments in multiple visit pulpectomies in primary molars. Formocresol and 2% gluteraldehyde were more effective as intracanal medicaments and caused significant reduction in the counts of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, thereby supporting the need for placing intracanal medicaments with antibacterial properties, in multiple visit pulpectomies in primary molars.

  18. Superficie Específica y Estado Vital de la Materia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hernando Ordoñez

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Se propone reemplazar el término de materia viva por el de estado vital de la materia por considerarlo adecuado, pues la materia es la misma, lo que cambia es su estado. Se estudia la relación entre la superficie específica y el estado vital de la materia. Constante del estado vital y el valor crítico de la superficie específica. Qué es la fuerza de inducción vital? Diferenciación funcional de las células. Cómo regula la unidad biológica su superficie específica? La materia que piensa es el fenómeno más grandioso de la creación.

    Sin entrar en disquisiciones sobre la naturaleza, manifestaciones y formas de la energía, me permito hacer unas a manera de divagaciones sobre los diferentes estados de la materia, que es una forma de la energía.

    Estados de la materia

    Sabemos que la mínima porción de la materia es el átomo, que tiene una composición compleja, que no es del caso estudiar. Los átomos pueden existir aislados y estar en lo que llamamos estado iónico. Si los átomos se juntan, forman moléculas, y su existencia constituye el estado molecular. Si las moléculas se juntan, forman complejos más grandes y tendremos las micelas, que constituyen el estado coloidal.

    Hasta aquí nuestros conocimientos nos son familiares, triviales. Pero hay un estado más complejo, en el cual entra materia en estado iónico, molecular y coloidal entrelazados entre sí, con propiedades totalmente diferentes. La materia en este estado adquiere caracteres extraordinarios tales como el de crecer, reproducirse, independizarse de las leyes físicas, puede autorregular su composición química, autorregular sus manifestaciones físicas, reaccionar ante los estímulos más variados, puede llegar hasta alturas inconcebibles integrando ideas. A este estado fue al que llamé en publicación anterior (1 estado vital, concepto que fue corroborado más ‘tarde por J.R. Brown (2 cuando me coment

  19. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the CMM2 region of the Arabidopsis thaliana Morpheus' molecule 1 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Tom J; Nishimura, Taisuke; Emamzadah, Soheila; Gabus, Caroline; Paszkowski, Jerzy; Halazonetis, Thanos D; Thore, Stéphane

    2010-08-01

    Of the known epigenetic control regulators found in plants, the Morpheus' molecule 1 (MOM1) protein is atypical in that the deletion of MOM1 does not affect the level of epigenetic marks controlling the transcriptional status of the genome. A short 197-amino-acid fragment of the MOM1 protein sequence can complement MOM1 deletion when coupled to a nuclear localization signal, suggesting that this region contains a functional domain that compensates for the loss of the full-length protein. Numerous constructs centred on the highly conserved MOM1 motif 2 (CMM2) present in these 197 residues have been generated and expressed in Escherichia coli. Following purification and crystallization screening, diamond-shaped single crystals were obtained that diffracted to approximately 3.2 A resolution. They belonged to the trigonal space group P3(1)21 (or P3(2)21), with unit-cell parameters a=85.64, c=292.74 A. Structure determination is ongoing.

  20. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the CMM2 region of the Arabidopsis thaliana Morpheus’ molecule 1 protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Tom J.; Nishimura, Taisuke; Emamzadah, Soheila; Gabus, Caroline; Paszkowski, Jerzy; Halazonetis, Thanos D.; Thore, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Of the known epigenetic control regulators found in plants, the Morpheus’ molecule 1 (MOM1) protein is atypical in that the deletion of MOM1 does not affect the level of epigenetic marks controlling the transcriptional status of the genome. A short 197-amino-acid fragment of the MOM1 protein sequence can complement MOM1 deletion when coupled to a nuclear localization signal, suggesting that this region contains a functional domain that compensates for the loss of the full-length protein. Numerous constructs centred on the highly conserved MOM1 motif 2 (CMM2) present in these 197 residues have been generated and expressed in Escherichia coli. Following purification and crystallization screening, diamond-shaped single crystals were obtained that diffracted to ∼3.2 Å resolution. They belonged to the trigonal space group P3121 (or P3221), with unit-cell parameters a = 85.64, c = 292.74 Å. Structure determination is ongoing. PMID:20693667

  1. Expression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the CMM2 region of the Arabidopsis thaliana Morpheus’ molecule 1 protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, Tom J.; Nishimura, Taisuke; Emamzadah, Soheila; Gabus, Caroline; Paszkowski, Jerzy; Halazonetis, Thanos D.; Thore, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate its function in transcriptional gene silencing, the highly conserved motif 2 from A. thaliana Morpheus’ molecule 1 protein was expressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction analysis is reported to a resolution of 3.2 Å. Of the known epigenetic control regulators found in plants, the Morpheus’ molecule 1 (MOM1) protein is atypical in that the deletion of MOM1 does not affect the level of epigenetic marks controlling the transcriptional status of the genome. A short 197-amino-acid fragment of the MOM1 protein sequence can complement MOM1 deletion when coupled to a nuclear localization signal, suggesting that this region contains a functional domain that compensates for the loss of the full-length protein. Numerous constructs centred on the highly conserved MOM1 motif 2 (CMM2) present in these 197 residues have been generated and expressed in Escherichia coli. Following purification and crystallization screening, diamond-shaped single crystals were obtained that diffracted to ∼3.2 Å resolution. They belonged to the trigonal space group P3 1 21 (or P3 2 21), with unit-cell parameters a = 85.64, c = 292.74 Å. Structure determination is ongoing

  2. [Hypochondria sine materia as a psychosomatic problem: a model of hypochondriac disorders realized in the cutaneous sphere].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulevich, A B; Dorozhenok, I Iu; Romanov, D V; L'vov, A N

    2012-01-01

    Hypochondria sine materia is a disorder with physical complains corresponding to no any somatic diagnosis. Hypochondria sine materia is a more complicated psychopathological condition compared to hypochondria cum materia. Hypochondria sine materia could be diagnosed not only in psychiatry, but mainly in general medicine. It is especially prevalent in dermatology. As a result of analysis of hypochondriac disorders involving cutaneous sphere in patients without dermatological diseases, a binary model of psychodermatological syndromes presenting with hypochondria sine materia in dermatology was developed. The binary structure of the psychodermatological syndromes includes secondary psychiatric symptoms based on primary coenesthesiopathic phenomena. The heterogeneous psychodermatological syndromes (cutaneous organ neurosis, impulsive excoriations syndrome, circumscripta hypochondria, coenesthesiopathic paranoia) could be arranged in a continuum of consecutively worsening conditions from neurotic to psychotic severity register. The syndromes differ in clinical and social prognosis requiring different approach to diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Salpeterzuurdestructie en ICP-MS analyse van biotisch materiaal en voeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde-Koerts T van der; LAC

    2000-01-01

    Voor de bepaling van elementen in voeding en biotisch materiaal werd een analytische methode ontwikkeld, bestaande uit een salpeterzuurdestructie en een ICP-MS-analyse. De destructie werd geoptimaliseerd op basis van de salpeterzuurconcentratie en de destructietijd. De ICP-MS-analyse werd

  4. Robotica medica

    OpenAIRE

    Di Martino, Assunta

    2017-01-01

    Tra la vasta area della cosiddetta “robotica dei servizi” un settore sempre più importante e destinato a crescere enormemente è quello dei robot usati in campo medico, in particolare per le operazioni chirurgiche di grande precisione. L’idea di applicare le tecnologie robotiche alla chirurgia prende corpo nella seconda metà degli anni 90 con lo scopo precipuo di sostituire l’intervento umano in situazioni di guerra o calamità( ). Oggi un sistema robotico può ricoprire vari ruoli funzionali in...

  5. Medical Business Ethics in the XXI century; Deontologia medica del siglo XXI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moya Pueyo, V.

    2009-07-01

    Since ancient times the medical professional practice included moral rules in order to assure a correct approach of capital problems. These rules evolve and are now gathered in the Deontological Codes watching the Constitution and other higher Laws. There has been an increase of interest for none strictly clinical matter since the appearance of the term Bioethics. The book Deontologia medica en el siglo XXI tackles problems of first interest in the present times, thru statistics and analysis, trying to help the medical doctors that have to take ethic decisions. (Author)

  6. Bacteriological evaluation of Allium sativum oil as a new medicament for pulpotomy of primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effects of Allium sativum oil and formocresol on the pulp tissue of the pulpotomized teeth. Twenty children were selected for this study. All children had a pair of non-vital primary molars. A sterile paper point was dipped in the root canals prior to the mortal pulpotomy. These paper points were collected in transfer media and immediately transported to the microbiological lab to be investigated microbiologically (for Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus). Then the procedure of mortal pulpotomy was performed. After 2 weeks, the cotton pellets were removed and sterile paper points were dipped in the root canals for microbiological examination. Then comparison between the count of bacteria before and after treatment was conducted. Statistical analysis was performed using independent t-test and paired t-test at the significance level of α = 0.05. After application of both medicaments, there was a marked decrease in S. mutans and L. acidophilus counts. The difference between the mean of log values of the count before and after the application was highly significant for both medicaments (P sativum oil was used. A. sativum oil had more powerful antimicrobial effects than formocresol on the bacteria of the infected root canals.

  7. Pectin extraction from Citron peel (Citrus medica Linn. and its use in food system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojanakorn, T.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Screening experiments using 25-1 fractional factorial design showed that pH, temperature, and extracting time were the main factors affecting the amount and quality of extracted pectin from Citrus medica Linn. Optimum condition of pectin extraction was studied using central composite design (CCD. Mathematical models relating pH, temperature and extracted time to amount of extracted pectin, equivalent weight, methyl content and anhydrogalacturonic acid content were established. Based on the mathematics models, the condition of pH 2, 100ºC and 105 min was found to be the optimum conditions for pectin extraction from Citrus medica Linn. Mathematical and experimental results were verified. The use of extracted pectin as a gelling agent in pineapple jam revealed no significant difference in gel consistency compared to that of commercial pectin grade 150 (p>0.05. However, the commercial pectin had a higher liking score on the spreadability, texture and overall liking. As a stabilizer in chocolate pasteurised milk, 0.2% of the extracted pectin was required to prevent precipitation of chocolate powder with the similar viscosity obtained from 0.06% κ-carageenan

  8. The role of medicaments, exosomes and miRNA molecules in modulation of macrophage immune activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Nazimek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages play an important role in innate immunity, in induction and orchestration of acquired immune response as well as in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Macrophages as antigen presenting cells induce or inhibit the development of immune response and as effector cells play an important role in innate immunity to infectious agents and in delayed--type hypersensitivity as well. Thus, either up- or down-regulation of their activity leads to the impairment of different biological processes. This often results in the development of immunological diseases or inflammatory response associated with metabolic, cardiovascular or neuroendocrine disorders. Therefore, the possibility of modulation of macrophage function should allow for elaboration of new effective therapeutic strategies. Noteworthy, interaction of medicaments with macrophages may directly mediate their therapeutic activity or is an additional beneficial effect increasing efficacy of treatment. Further, macrophage differentiation is regulated by miRNA-223, while expression of miRNA-146 and miRNA-155 may modulate and/or be a result of the current cell phenotype. Present review is focused on the current knowledge about the action of medicaments, microRNA molecules, exosomes and related vesicles on macrophages leading to modulation of their biological activity.

  9. Estado Vital de la Materia. Su origen, su evolución y su futuro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hernando Ordoñez

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available

    En este artlculo se hacen algunas observaciones sobre un estado de la materia (estado vital, propuesto para reemplazar el de materia viva, que se usa habitualmente.

    La materia en estado vital se organiza por una fuerza interna, que podríamos calificar como inteligente, que hace que los átomos se orienten y se organicen con determinada finalidad para fabricar células, para modelar órganos y, éstos, para culminar su obra integrándose con la armonía más admirable, para constituirse en organismos ya sea vegetales o animales.

    Los planetas no tienen materia en estado vital; son masas que giran y giran, aparentemente sin finalidad conocida. En cambio, en nuestro planeta una buena parte de su masa adquirió vida, lo que llamamos biomasa, que abarca todos los organismos vivos, tanto vegetales como animales, en una proporción tal que si se pudiera calcular su peso nos daría cifras astronómicas.

    Sobre el futuro de nuestro sol los científicos predicen que en los próximos 1.100 millones de años aumentará su luminosidad en un 10%. Esto sobre calentará a la Tierra como consecuencia de un severo efecto de invernadero. El agua de los mares y océanos hervirá y la vida en el planeta se extinguirá.

    El universo está constituido por energía y materia, que pueden transformarse la una en la otra. La energía se presenta en varias fases, entre ellas, en la energía eléctrica, la luz y el calor, cuya naturaleza íntima nos es tan desconocida. La materia también está en varios estados: sólido, líquido, gaseoso, iónico, molecular y coloidal.

    En el presente estudio intento hacer algunas observaciones sobre otro estado de la materia, que he denominado estado vital, nombre que propongo para reemplazar el de materia viva, que se usa habitualmente. Par hacerlo me baso en una consideración elemental: los átomos que integran la biomasa terrestre son los mismos que constituyen la materia inerte, no están vivos. En

  10. Secado de primeras materias cerámicas por atomización

    OpenAIRE

    Editorial, Equipo

    2016-01-01

    El secado por atomización consiste en inyectar una suspensión de arcilla, de pasta o de cualquier otra materia, en aire seco y caliente. El agua se evapora y las partículas, totalmente secas o con el contenido deseado en humedad, se separan de la corriente de aire. Este proceso es muy adecuado para la preparación de pastas para prensado en seco.

  11. IBARAKI materials design diffractometer (iMATERIA)-Versatile neutron diffractometer at J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigaki, T.; Hoshikawa, A.; Yonemura, M.; Morishima, T.; Kamiyama, T.; Oishi, R.; Aizawa, K.; Sakuma, T.; Tomota, Y.; Arai, M.; Hayashi, M.; Ebata, K.; Takano, Y.; Komatsuzaki, K.; Asano, H.; Takano, Y.; Kasao, T.

    2009-01-01

    Ibaraki prefecture, the local government of the area for J-PARC site, was decided to build a versatile neutron diffractometer (IBARAKI Materials Design Diffractometer, iMATERIA) to promote an industrial application for neutron beam in J-PARC. iMATERIA is planned to be a high throughput diffractometer so that materials engineers and scientists can use it like the chemical analytical instruments in their materials development process. It covers in d range 0.18< d (A)<5 with Δd/d=0.16% at high resolution bank, and covers 5< d (A)<800 with gradually changing resolution at three detector bank (90 deg., low angle and small angle). Typical measuring time to obtain a 'Rietveld-quality' data is several minutes with the sample size of laboratory X-ray diffractometer. To promote industrial application, a utilization system for this diffractometer is required. We will establish a support system for both academic and industrial users who are willing to use neutron but have not been familiar with neutron diffraction. The analysis software is also very important for powder diffraction, we will also prepare a software package consisting of combination of several powder-diffraction software, structural databases and visualization. The construction of iMATERIA will be completed in the end of April 2008, as one of day-one instruments for J-PARC.

  12. Studies of beneficial interactions between active medicaments and excipients in pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinkova, G N

    1999-09-30

    A review of "up to date" research findings leading to new concepts of the pharmaceutical formulations and their interactions has been presented. The rational approaches to the excipients choice as well as to their interactions with medicaments have been shown as a basis for modern modelling of pharmaceutical formulations. The importance of complexation, hydrogen bonding, ion-dipole, dipole-dipole and van der Waals attractions as the tools which can modify the physicochemical, pharmacological or pharmacokinetical behaviour of the medicaments has been emphasised. In vivo studies (carried out in healthy human subjects-volunteers, in beagle dogs, in rats etc.) and in vitro studies (on excised human skin, hairless mouse skin etc.) as well as studies of chemical stability and bioavailability serve also as a proof of these interactions. Therefore, excipients are important components of pharmaceutical formulations and they can take an active part in the improvement of the characteristics of formulations (but they may also reduce the effectiveness of some preparations). In this context, the so called active and inactive ingredients in pharmaceutical formulations are inexact, old and "out-of date". Their further use is only conventional. In conclusion, among the various modern techniques applied the combination of infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction has been estimated as the most successful in proving the interactions between drugs and excipients. Finally, pharmaceutical formulations and their interactions have constituted a diverse and rapidly expanding field of Pharmacy (Pharmaceutical Technology, Pharmaceutical Industry and Pharmaceutical Sciences) which covers a wide range of numerical topics within an unified framework.

  13. Effect of four different intracanal medicaments on the apical seal of the root canal system: a dye extraction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandan, Monika; Hegde, Mithra N; Hegde, Priyadarshini

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of four different intracanal medicaments on the apical seal of the root canal system in vitro. Fifty freshly extracted intact human permanent maxillary central incisors were collected, stored and disinfected. The root canals were prepared to a master apical size of number 50 using step back technique. Depending upon the intracanal medicament used, the teeth were divided randomly into five groups of 10 teeth each including one control group and four experimental groups. Group A: No intracanal medicament. Group B: Calcium hydroxide powder mixed with distilled water. Group C: Calcium hydroxide gutta percha points (calcium hydroxide points). Group D: 1% chlorhexidine gel (hexigel). Group E: Chlorhexidine gutta percha points (Roeko Activ Points). The medication was left in canals for 14 days. Following removal of the intracanal medicament, all the groups were obturated with lateral compaction technique. The apical leakage was then evaluated using dye extraction method with the help of a spectrophotometer. RESULTS were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-test, which showed statistically significant difference among the five groups tested. It can be concluded from this study that the control group showed least amount of leakage, whereas the 1% chlorhexidine gel group showed maximum amount of leakage. Apical leakage was observed with all the experimental groups with little variations in between them. Under the parameters of this study, it can be concluded that use of intracanal medicaments during endodontic treatment has a definite impact on the apical seal of the root canal system.

  14. Diagramas de energía, fuerza y materia = Diagrams of energy, force and matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Maria Montaner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEn este ensayo se va a tratar sobre arquitectura a partir de la definición de forma como “estructura esencial e interna, como construcción del espacio y de la materia”. Para ello, podemos establecer, como punto de partida, que el proceso de la arquitectura va de la energía, las fuerzas y la materia hacia la forma. Por tanto, teorizar sobre la forma en arquitectura nos lleva a reflexionar sobre tres fenómenos previos a su configuración: la energía, las fuerzas y la materia. Para seguir estos procesos físicos es útil remitirse al pensamiento postestructuralista de Gilles Deleuze y Félix Guattari, especialmente a su texto Mil Mesetas. Capitalismo y esquizofrenia (1980 y a conceptos como “rizoma” y “agenciamiento” y, sobre todo, utilizar la herramienta interpretativa y creativa del “diagrama”.Palabras claveenergía, fuerza, materia, forma, Deleuze, GuattariAbstractThis essay will deal on architecture from the defi nition of form as "critical and internal structure  as construction of space and matter." For that, we can establish, as a starting point, that the process of architecture goes from energy, forces and matter to form. Thus, theorizing about form in architecture leads us to refl ect on three prior phenomena to its confi guration: energy, forces and matter. To follow these physical processes is useful to refer the poststructuralist thought´s Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari, especially his text A Thousand Plateaus. Capitalism and Schizophrenia (1980 and concepts such as "rhizome" and "assemblage" and, above all, to use the creative and interpretative tool of "diagramme".Key wordsenergy, force, matter, form, Deleuze, Guattari

  15. Manual para la negociación colectiva inclusiva en materia de discapacidad

    OpenAIRE

    CERMI

    2013-01-01

    El Comité Español de Representantes de Personas con Discapacidad (CERMI) ha elaborado el ‘Manual de negociación colectiva inclusiva en materia de discapacidad’ que pretende proporcionar a los agentes sociales una herramienta para incluir la discapacidad en todos los ámbitos de la empresa que dependen del concierto social. La guía pretende ayudar a extender la cultura de la inclusión de la discapacidad en los convenios colectivos que negocian los agentes sociales como por ejemplo: condicion...

  16. Adaptación de dos piezas distintas a una pieza bi-materia

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Acevedo, Rocío

    2014-01-01

    El presente proyecto se ha realizado en la empresa Faurecia Automotive Exteriors [Anexo-A], para la pieza llamada Spoiler del proyecto parachoques delantero A05GPPOLO del grupo Volkswagen (VW). Dicho proyecto se enfoca en la adaptación de dos piezas compuestas por polímeros diferentes en una única pieza bi-materia, utilizando la técnica de inyección multi-componente. Se ha partido de un estudio teórico previo sobre la posible compatibilidad entre la unión rígido-suave de los mater...

  17. CONTROL DIFUSO DE CONVENCIONALIDAD EX OFFICIO EN MATERIA DE DERECHOS HUMANOS: NUEVO PARADIGMA CONSTITUCIONAL

    OpenAIRE

    ALBARRÁN SALGADO, ALEJANDRO

    2017-01-01

    El control difuso de convencionalidad es una nueva herramienta para la impartición de justicia, reconocida en México a partir de la reforma al párrafo segundo del artículo 1° Constitucional, en la que se impone como obligación a todas las autoridades, sin importar su competencia, ni materia, que velen por la protección de los derechos humanos consagrados en la Constitución y en los tratados internacionales de los que México sea parte, ello bajo dos principios rectores: la interpretación confo...

  18. Cooperación internacional en materia penal en el MERCOSUR: el cibercrimen

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Deluca; Enrique Del Carril

    2017-01-01

    En el Mercosur no existe un derecho penal común, no obstante observarse una creciente corriente orientada a la adopción de normas generales de política criminal tendiente a combatir diversos actos delictivos. Ello se cristaliza en la creación de normas de cooperación internacional en materia penal, con el objeto de lograr la asimilación y adecuación “macro” de las legislaciones penales de los Estados Parte. Es justo reconocer que en este trabajo no se pretende elaborar un corpus iuris por ...

  19. Producción de biodiesel a partir de materias primas no convencionales

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar Sánchez, Rocío

    2011-01-01

    Proyecto Fin de Carrera leído en la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos en el curso académico 2010/2011. Directores del Proyecto: Gabriel Morales Sánchez y Rebeca Sánchez Vázquez Actualmente, para la producción industrial de biodiesel se emplean aceites vegetales de alta calidad como materia prima, y se utilizan catalizadores básicos homogéneos, KOH o NaOH. Los productos de reacción son FAME y glicerina. Sin embargo, debido a los problemas derivados del uso de aceites vegetales comestible...

  20. Biochemia Medica has started using the CrossCheck plagiarism detection software powered by iThenticate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šupak-Smolčić, Vesna; Šimundić, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    In February 2013, Biochemia Medica has joined CrossRef, which enabled us to implement CrossCheck plagiarism detection service. Therefore, all manuscript submitted to Biochemia Medica are now first assigned to Research integrity editor (RIE), before sending the manuscript for peer-review. RIE submits the text to CrossCheck analysis and is responsible for reviewing the results of the text similarity analysis. Based on the CrossCheck analysis results, RIE subsequently provides a recommendation to the Editor-in-chief (EIC) on whether the manuscript should be forwarded to peer-review, corrected for suspected parts prior to peer-review or immediately rejected. Final decision on the manuscript is, however, with the EIC. We hope that our new policy and manuscript processing algorithm will help us to further increase the overall quality of our Journal. PMID:23894858

  1. How do government regulations influence the ability to practice Chinese herbal medicine in western countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Tom; Su, Yi-Chang; Lin, Sunny Jui-Shan

    2017-01-20

    The regulation policies of substances used in Chinese Herbal Medicine (CHM), have a direct influence on the ability of health providers to practice in the clinic. We set out to assess the truth behind the assumption that practice of CHM in the west is constrained by the regulations imposed by authorities in western countries. For the first part of our study we surveyed and compiled lists of banned and restricted Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) from six countries: USA, UK, Germany, Israel, Canada and Australia. Afterwards, we estimated the relevant importance of the 300 CMM most-commonly-prescribed to the practice of CHM according to prescriptions from 2,000,000 randomly selected patients, from the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We then compared both lists and determined the clinical importance of the banned and restricted CMM. Except for regulations from Canada, most of the information of banned CMM proved to be difficult to organize. The USA was found to have the least amount of banned herbs, with 9 substances. Canada had the highest amount, with 98. In Germany, Australia, the UK, and Israel 10, 29, 36, 68 banned CMM were found, respectively. Apart from aristolochic acid containing substances, ma huang (, Ephedra sinica) was the only CMM banned in all countries. Most of the banned CMM were not found to be among the most-commonly-prescribed according to the NHIRD. Authorities should make this information more accessible. No clear relation exists between CHM regulations and any 'Western' common denominator, and the amount of banned CMM varied greatly among the surveyed countries. However, even among countries with a larger amount of banned CMM, the majority of these were in the bottom two-thirds in respect to the frequency of their use. Thus, regulations in some western countries surely influence the practice of CHM, however, the variability of CMM have been influenced by regulations only to a limited extent. Copyright © 2016 The

  2. Materias primas vs materia gris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Aldemar Gómez Sierra

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Los alimentos y los combustibles, en la última década, sobre pasaron el límite de la demanda; la causa no es sólo la evolución demográfica, ni el cambio climático, también es el efecto de las emergentes y poderosas economías asiáticas, especialmente la China, que está aumentando la exigencia energética y consume más y mejores alimentos; 500 millones de ciudadanos chinos están en capacidad de requerirlos y de viajar por el mundo como turistas.

  3. Histological Evaluation of Allium sativum Oil as a New Medicament for Pulp Treatment of Permanent Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the histo pathology effects of two medicaments Allium sativum oil and formocresol on the remaining pulp tissue of the permanent teething children. A total of 18 premolars were included in this study. Two sound premolars were extracted and subjected to histological examination to show the normal pulp tissue. Pulpo tomy procedure was performed in the rest of the remaining 16 premolars; half of them using Allium sativum oil and the rest of the tested premolars were medicated using formocresol and all were sealed with suitable restoration. Then, premolars extracted at variable intervals (48 hours, 2 weeks, 1 month, 2 months), stained using hemotoxylin and eosin etain (H&E) and prepared for histopathology examination. Histological evaluation seemed far more promising for Allium sativum oil than formocresol. Histological evaluation revealed that teeth treated with Allium sativa oil showed infammatory changes that had been resolved in the end of the study. On the contrary, the severe chronic infammation of pulp tissue accompanied with formocresol eventually produced pulp necrosis with or without fibrosis. In addition, pulp calcification was evidenced in certain cases. Allium sativum oil is a biocompatible material that is compatible with vital human pulp tissue. It offers a good healing potential, leaving the remaining pulp tissue healthy and functioning.

  4. A acetamida de pirrolidona como medicação auxiliar no tratamento da paralisia cerebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Salete Pinheiro Chagas Ribeiro

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Vinte crianças, com diagnóstico de paralisia cerebral (PC e sob tratamento clássico, fisioterápico e pedagógico, receberam piracetam (acetamida de pirrolidona como medicação auxiliar. O objetivo foi melhorar os problemas de espasticidade, apredizagem, neurolabilidade, visando a um rendimento melhor do tratamento global da PC. O grupo medicado foi comparado com um grupo controle de 20 crianças que só eram objeto do tratamento habitual. A comparação mostrou resultados favoráveis no grupo medicado. A droga foi administrada na dose de 80 mg/kg/dia durante 10 semanas. Os critérios de avaliação dos resultados foram psicológicos, clínico, fisioterápico e pedagógico. A droga foi administrada em nova forma de apresentação: solução, para uso oral, a 6%.

  5. Green synthesis of copper nanoparticles by Citrus medica Linn. (Idilimbu) juice and its antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shende, Sudhir; Ingle, Avinash P; Gade, Aniket; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-06-01

    We report an eco-friendly method for the synthesis of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) using Citron juice (Citrus medica Linn.), which is nontoxic and cheap. The biogenic copper nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer showing a typical resonance (SPR) at about 631 nm which is specific for CuNPs. Nanoparticles tracking analysis by NanoSight-LM20 showed the particles in the range of 10-60 nm with the concentration of 2.18 × 10(8) particles per ml. X-ray diffraction revealed the FCC nature of nanoparticles with an average size of 20 nm. The antimicrobial activity of CuNPs was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method against some selected species of bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi. It was reported that the synthesized CuNPs demonstrated a significant inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Propionibacterium acnes and Salmonella typhi. Among the plant pathogenic fungi tested, Fusarium culmorum was found to be most sensitive followed by F. oxysporum and F. graminearum. The novelty of this work is that for the first time citron juice was used for the synthesis of CuNPs.

  6. Effect of four different intracanal medicaments on the apical seal of the root canal system: A dye extraction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Tandan

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: It can be concluded from this study that the control group showed least amount of leakage, whereas the 1% chlorhexidine gel group showed maximum amount of leakage. Apical leakage was observed with all the experimental groups with little variations in between them. Under the parameters of this study, it can be concluded that use of intracanal medicaments during endodontic treatment has a definite impact on the apical seal of the root canal system.

  7. KAEMPFEROL, A FLAVONOID COMPOUND FROM GYNURA MEDICA INDUCED APOPTOSIS AND GROWTH INHIBITION IN MCF-7 BREAST CANCER CELL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaofang; Zuo, Jiangcheng; Tan, Chao; Xian, Sheng; Luo, Chunhua; Chen, Sai; Yu, Liangfang; Luo, Yucheng

    2016-01-01

    Kaempferol, a natural flavonoid, has been shown to induce cancer cell apoptosis and cell growth inhibition in several tumors. Previously we have conducted a full investigation on the chemical constituents of Gynura medica , kaempferol and its glycosides are the major constituents of G. medica . Here we investigated the growth inhibition and apoptosis induction effect of kaempferol extracted from G. medica . The inhibition effects of kaempferol were evaluated by MTS assay and soft agar colony formation assay. Fluorescence staining and western blotting were be used to study the apoptosis. The structure was identified by 1 H- NMR), 13 C-NMR and ESI-MS analyses. Our results showed that kaempferol's inhibition of MCF-7 breast cancer cell growth may through inducing apoptosis and downregulation of Bcl2 expression. Kaempferol is a promising cancer preventive and therapeutic agent for breast cancer. List of non-standard abbreviations: MTS: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, HPLC: High-performance liquid chromatography, NMR: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, ESI-MS Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectral, PARP: Poly ADP-ribose polymerase.

  8. Biblioteca Medica in Trient und die Initiative „Es gibt ein Kind im Krankenhaus … Schenk ihm ein Buch!“

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevisan, Sergio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the autumn of 2011 the Biblioteca Medica of the hospital in Trento (Italy received four thousand children’s and youth books. They were donated during a philanthropic action by customers of a bookstore chain. Together with volunteers of the ABIO Foundation, the Biblioteca Medica has partly donated these media to the children in the hospital and, with the rest of the books, organized some bookshelf at the pediatric wards.

  9. Concepto y trascendencia del derecho de aprovechamiento en materia de aguas (Propiedad y Aprovechamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Guerra Daneri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La disciplina de las aguas se encuentra estructurada jurídicamente, sólo en base a dos derechos: el de propiedad y el de aprovechamiento. La caracterización que posee el agua como cosa, impide que puedan ejercerse otros derechos sobre ella.El punto de partida para explicar este fenómeno, radica en que el agua responde a dos hechos técnicos que ofician como fuente material o factor de calificación jurídica: el principio de territorialidad y la unidad del ciclo hidrológico. Estos dan motivo a su comportamiento universal y en ellos se asienta su disciplina, más allá de la regulación particular que cada derecho positivo quiera desarrollar, imponiendo una política en la materia.  En síntesis, el agua es un bien cuyas particularidades determinan que en definitiva, el derecho de propiedad sea desplazado en su trascendencia patrimonial por otro derecho que ocupa su lugar en jerarquía e individualidad: el derecho de aprovechamiento. Sin embargo y a pesar de los sólidos fundamentos que lo sustentan, la identidad de este derecho parece todavía opacada por los reflejos de una propiedad, que en materia de aguas, es inoperante.       

  10. IMPACTO DEL MATERIAL RECICLADO EN LOS INVENTARIOS DE MATERIAS PRIMAS DE UNA EMPRESA MANUFACTURERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Antonio Salinas López

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo, se diseña un modelo de dinámica de sistemas, que junto con algunos indicadores de gestión, se usan para dimensionar el impacto del uso del material reciclado en una industria. Lo anterior, con el fin de proveer mejores elementos en la toma de decisiones sobre la gestión de las existencias de materias primas. Para esto se hace una revisión de los principales elementos que inciden en el esquema productivo de una empresa caso de estudio, con la cual se obtiene, una caracterización de la industria y posterior configuración de la estructura y las relaciones del sistema, para modelar y simular utilizando el software Vensim DSS. A partir de dichas simulaciones, se revisa el comportamiento del sistema, así como las variaciones que presenta, ante diferentes escenarios y cambios en sus parámetros más relevantes. Al final, se obtiene un modelo que ilustra el comportamiento de los niveles de inventario de distintos tipos de materiales, así como los valores de algunos indicadores logísticos y energéticos, que revelan el importante trabajo por realizar, en materia de reciclaje en la región del Valle del Cauca y Colombia en general.

  11. Phenotypic and genetic diversity in Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. medicae from drought and salt affected regions of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udupa Sripada M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sinorhizobium meliloti and S. medicae are symbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria in root nodules of forage legume alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. In Morocco, alfalfa is usually grown in marginal soils of arid and semi-arid regions frequently affected by drought, extremes of temperature and soil pH, soil salinity and heavy metals, which affect biological nitrogen fixing ability of rhizobia and productivity of the host. This study examines phenotypic diversity for tolerance to the above stresses and genotypic diversity at Repetitive Extragenic Pallindromic DNA regions of Sinorhizobium nodulating alfalfa, sampled from marginal soils of arid and semi-arid regions of Morocco. Results RsaI digestion of PCR amplified 16S rDNA of the 157 sampled isolates, assigned 136 isolates as S. meliloti and the rest as S. medicae. Further phenotyping of these alfalfa rhizobia for tolerance to the environmental stresses revealed a large degree of variation: 55.41%, 82.16%, 57.96% and 3.18% of the total isolates were tolerant to NaCl (>513 mM, water stress (-1.5 MPa, high temperature (40°C and low pH (3.5, respectively. Sixty-seven isolates of S. meliloti and thirteen isolates of S. medicae that were tolerant to salinity were also tolerant to water stress. Most of the isolates of the two species showed tolerance to heavy metals (Cd, Mn and Zn and antibiotics (chloramphenicol, spectinomycin, streptomycin and tetracycline. The phenotypic clusters observed by the cluster analysis clearly showed adaptations of the S. meliloti and S. medicae strains to the multiple stresses. Genotyping with rep-PCR revealed higher genetic diversity within these phenotypic clusters and classified all the 157 isolates into 148 genotypes. No relationship between genotypic profiles and the phenotypes was observed. The Analysis of Molecular Variance revealed that largest proportion of significant (P Conclusion High degree of phenotypic and genotypic diversity is present in S

  12. Parámetros de Transferencia de Materia en el Secado de Frutas Mass Transfer Parameters in Fruit Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastião R Ferreira; Antônio R. S Costa

    2009-01-01

    Se desarrolló un modelo analítico para obtención de parámetros de transferencia de materia en el secado de frutas. El modelo considera la disminución del radio de las frutas durante el proceso de secado. Con el modelo matemático se predice simultánemente el coeficiente externo de transferencia de materia k m y la difusividad de agua en los frutos D AB. Para probar el modelo se obtuvo en forma expermental datos de masa de agua M A en la fruta versus el tiempo de secado t, además del radio inic...

  13. Comunicación y aprendizaje de la ciencia en estudiantes Sordos: la materia y sus transformaciones

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Martínez, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Esta investigación pretende contribuir al conocimiento de la enseñanza de las ciencias con alumnado Sordo, concretamente, sobre fenómenos relacionados con la transformación de la materia. Se han analizado las percepciones de profesores e intérpretes educativos sobre la enseñanza de las ciencias al colectivo de estudiantes Sordos, los modelos que utilizan para explicar la materia y sus transformaciones y los patrones de interacción de su discurso en el aula. Por último, se valora la implementa...

  14. EFECTO DE LA MATERIA ORGÁNICA Y EL MANEJO SOBRE LA HIDROFOBICIDAD DE SUELOS VOLCÁNICOS

    OpenAIRE

    Cuevas Becerra, José

    2006-01-01

    La repelencia al agua o hidrofobicidad de los suelos depende de una fuerte interacción entre las fracciones minerales y orgánicas del suelo. El contenido de materia orgánica condicionara de manera importante el monto de la repelencia, pero no todo el Carbono orgánico es repelente, y mas que el monto total de compuestos orgánicos, son sus características traducidas como calidad de materia orgánica, la que incidirá sobre los montos de hidrofobicidad. Es posible encontrar dos tipos de repelencia...

  15. Nuevos datos sobre el uso de materia colorante durante el Neolítico antiguo en las comarcas centrales valencianas

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    Pablo García Borja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La caracterización mineralógica de materias colorantes procedentes de los yacimientos valencianos de la Cova de l'Or, la Cova de la Sarna y la Cova Fosca de la Vall d'Ebo demuestra el uso de dos tipos de materia colorante durante el Neolítico Antiguo: Hematites y Cinabrio. Las características y distribución geográfica de cada una de ellas nos remiten a dos estrategias distintas de obtención y. probablemente. de utilización de las mismas.

  16. The "schola medica salernitana": the forerunner of the modern university medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Divitiis, Enrico; Cappabianca, Paolo; de Divitiis, Oreste

    2004-10-01

    The schola medica salernitana is considered the oldest medical school of modern civilization. Salerno's long medical tradition began during the Greco-Roman period in a Greek colony named Elea, where Parmenides decided to found a medical school. The fame of the school became more and more important during the 10th century, and it was best known in the 11th century. In the middle of 12th century, the school was at its apogee, and Salerno provided a notable contribution to the formulation of a medical curriculum for medieval universities. The most famous work of the Salernitan School was the Regimen Sanitatis Saleritanum, a Latin poem of rational, dietetic, and hygienic precepts, many of them still valid today. The school also produced a physician's reference book, with advice on how to treat a patient, a sort of code of conduct to help the physician to respect the patient and his or her relatives. The first science-based surgery appeared on the scene of the discredited medieval practice in Salerno, thanks to Roger of Salerno and his fellows. He wrote a book on surgery, called Rogerina or Post Mundi Fabricam, in which surgery from head to toe is described, with surprising originality. The important contribution to the School of Salerno made by women as female practitioners is outlined, and among them, Trotula de Ruggiero was the most renowned. The period when the School of Salerno, universally recognized as the forerunner of the modern universities, became a government academy was when Frederick II reigned over the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, as Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.

  17. Presentación del Departamento de Física Nuclear y Física Estadística del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del CSIC

    OpenAIRE

    García Borge, María José

    2007-01-01

    Presentado en el IV Curso de Iniciación a la Investigación en Estructura de la Materia: Desde las partículas subatómicas hasta los compuestos moleculares (Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, 28-30 de Marzo de 2007).

  18. Aprendizaje cooperativo en la materia dirección de producción y operaciones

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    Eloísa Díaz-Garrido

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se analizan los resultados de implantar el aprendizaje cooperativo en un grupo de estudiantes que cursan la asignatura Dirección de Producción, en el segundo curso del Grado de Administración y Dirección de Empresas de la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos (Madrid-España. Si bien la asignatura ya está adaptada al Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior (EEES y se desarrolla aplicando metodologías activas orientadas al proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje, se ha optado por aplicar un método de enseñanza diferente. La experiencia desarrollada ha permitido obtener interesantes resultados, los alumnos perciben haber mejorado sus capacidades de comunicación, sus competencias intelectuales asociadas a la materia y profesionales asociadas con el trabajo en equipo.

  19. Delimitación jurisprudencial del principio constitucional de unidad de materia legislativa

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    Manuel Alberto Restrepo-Medina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available El principio de unidad de materia legislativa es uno de los ejes fundamentales del proceso de formación de la ley, y su observancia constituye un parámetro para la determinación jurisdiccional de la validez jurídica, en la medida en que, de una parte, se verifique la existencia de coherencia y armonía en el producto normativo por la conexidad entre sus partes, y de otra parte, a partir del cumplimiento de ese mínimo, se respete la libertad de configuración del Congreso en razón de la legitimidad democrática de la cual está investido para ejercer su función legislativa.

  20. Cooperación internacional en materia penal en el MERCOSUR: el cibercrimen

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    Santiago Deluca

    2017-10-01

    Es justo reconocer que en este trabajo no se pretende elaborar un corpus iuris por simple traslación de conceptos o legislación mercosureña, todo lo contrario. Por medio del análisis de las particularidades jurídicas del proceso de integración y sus instrumentos de derecho se busca dejar sentado que el Mercosur se encuentra encaminado en la creación de un espacio integrado de cooperación en materia penal, más allá del aspecto pura y exclusivamente económico. Y, principalmente, analizar cómo se presenta hoy en día la modalidad conocida como cibercrimen y la utilidad de las herramientas señaladas para lograr combatirlo.

  1. El contencioso de interpretación en materia fiscal y administrativa. Un modelo de justicia para México

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Cué, Marco Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    El autor esboza sus reflexiones acerca de la conveniencia de la implementación en México del contencioso de interpretación en materia fiscal y administrativa, en la vía de recurso directo de interpretación, haciendo notar las ventajas y beneficios que dicho procedimiento proporcionaría a la justicia administrativa federal mexicana.

  2. Comparative Study between the "Lista de Encabezamientos de Materia" by Gloria Escamilla and the "Library of Congress Subject Heading" List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Fernando

    This study shows to what extent Gloria Escamilla's "Lista de Encabezamientos de Materia," the only published Mexican subject heading list, is equivalent to the Library of Congress subject headings (LCSH). A LCSH heading sample is obtained from OCLC's Online Union Catalog. Using the EPIC search from OCLC, 1947 bibliographic records were…

  3. Rosacea and contact allergy to cosmetics and topical medicaments--retrospective analysis of multicentre surveillance data 1995-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jappe, U; Schnuch, A; Uter, W

    2005-02-01

    The role of contact allergy in rosacea has rarely been investigated. In this retrospective study, 361 out of 76,697 patients tested and documented by the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology between 1995 and 2002 had rosacea. Patch tests included standard series and constituents of cosmetics and topical medicaments. 118/361 had additionally been patch tested with their own cosmetics/medicaments. Positive reactions occurred to nickel (II) sulfate in 9.3%, fragrance mix in 8.8%, thimerosal in 6.9%, Myroxylon pereirae resin in 5.9%, potassium dichromate in 4.6% and propolis in 2.8%. Whereas rosacea patients had a significantly higher risk of contact allergy to propolis compared to the remaining patients, in an age- and sex-adjusted analysis, contact allergy to nickel was significantly less frequent in this group. For Lyral, the risk was elevated, albeit not significantly. Only 2/329 patients were positive to neomycin sulfate and 1/100 to gentamicin sulfate, among the panel of (topical) antibiotics tested. Among 118 patients tested with their own products, 3 were tested to metronidazole, 1 reacting positively. Irritant or doubtful patch test reactions were provoked by various substances (vehicles, oxidants and preservatives of various creams), which might also be clinically important, considering the heightened sensitivity of rosaceous skin.

  4. Clinical and radiographical evaluation of mineral trioxide aggregate, biodentine and propolis as pulpotomy medicaments in primary teeth

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    Bharti Kusum

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA, Biodentine and Propolis as pulpotomy medicaments in primary dentition, both clinically and radiographically. Materials and Methods A total of 75 healthy 3 to 10 yr old children each having at least one carious primary molar tooth were selected. Random assignment of the pulpotomy medicaments was done as follows: Group I, MTA; Group II, Biodentine; Group III, Propolis. All the pulpotomized teeth were evaluated at 3, 6, and 9 mon clinically and radiographically, based on the scoring criteria system. Results The clinical success rates were found to be similar among the three groups at 3 and 6 mon where as a significant decrease in success rate was observed in Group III (84% compared to both Group I (100% and Group II (100% at 9 mon. Radiographic success rates over a period of 9 mon in Groups I, II, and III were 92, 80, and 72%, respectively. Conclusions Teeth treated with MTA and Biodentine showed more favorable clinical and radiographic success as compared to Propolis at 9 mon follow-up.

  5. GC-MS analysis and antimicrobial activity determination of Citrus medica L. var proper leaf essential oil from South Sulawesi against skin pathogen microorganism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyah; Himawan, A.; Rante, H.; Mufidah; Ningsih, D. R.

    2017-11-01

    A research about Citrus medica L. var sarcodactylis had been conducted and it showed a significant antimicrobial activity, thus drive our curiosity to investigate the other variety from the same species, Citrus medica L. var proper. This research focuses in chemical compound study and antimicrobial activity screening against Staphylococcus aureus, Propionibacterium acne, and Candida albicans of Citrus medica L. var Proper leaves’ essential oil. The essential oil is distillated from fresh leaves by hydrodestillation. The chemical compound was analysed using GC-MS instrument while the antimicrobial activity was tested using disk diffusion method. The results showed that the major component of the essential oil was Z-citral, citral and limonene compounds. The antimicrobial activity test results against the test microorganism are 9.15±0.15 mm, 11.15±1.3 mm and 8.02±0.48 mm, consecutively, for Staphylococcus aureus, Propionibacterium acne and Candida albicans.

  6. Gres porcelánico esmaltado producido por vía seca: materias primas fundentes

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    Boschi, A. O.

    2012-04-01

    densificación y, por consiguiente, determinan la temperatura de cocción y la deformación piroplástica. Los agentes fundentes que se usan habitualmente en las composiciones de gres porcelánico son: feldespatos, filitas (usadas en Brasil y nefelinas. Estas materias primas no son solubles al agua, lo que las hace particularmente adecuadas para las composiciones de gres porcelánico tradicional producido por vía húmeda. Sin embargo, existe un gran grupo de materias primas solubles que también tienen un gran potencial como fundentes y que podrían utilizarse en los procesos de vía seca. En este contexto, el objetivo de este trabajo ha sido determinar el potencial fundente de las materias primas solubles al agua, o parcialmente solubles al agua, en una composición de gres porcelánico. La efectividad de varios boratos, es decir, la colemanita, la ulexita, la hidroboracita, así como el carbonato sódico, fueron ensayados en un estudio de tipo comparativo. Los resultados de este estudio indican que la incorporación de pequeñas cantidades de estos fundentes es suficiente para reducir la temperatura de cocción de forma importante, sin causar una alta deformación piroplástica de los soportes. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con las composiciones que contenían hidroboracita. Este resultado es especialmente relevante para la creación de composiciones alternativas de piezas de gres porcelánico producidas por vía seca. El proceso de vía seca es, en la actualidad, un tema de especial interés, debido a las cuestiones medioambientales y económicas.

  7. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE LA MATERIA ORGÁNICA DISUELTA EN AGUA SUBTERRÁNEA DEL VALLE DE TOLUCA MEDIANTE ESPECTROFOTOMETRÍA DE FLUORESCENCIA 3D

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa María FUENTES RIVAS

    2015-01-01

    La materia orgánica en el agua está compuesta por miles de componentes: partículas macroscópicas, coloides o macromoléculas disueltas. Caracterizar la materia orgánica disuelta en el agua para abastecimiento humano es esencial para establecer sus condiciones físicas y los índices de contaminación del agua. La materia orgánica disuelta en 49 muestras de agua subterránea cercanas a la zona industrial Toluca-Lerma (Valle de Toluca, Toluca, Estado de México) fueron caracterizadas a través de la d...

  8. LAS RELACIONES ENTRE LOS TRIBUNALES INTERNACIONALES Y LOS TRIBUNALES NACIONALES EN MATERIA DE DERECHOS HUMANOS: EXPERIENCIAS EN LATINOAMÉRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor P. Sagüés

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El autor analiza la relación entre los tribunales nacionales e internacionales o supranacionales con competencia jurisdiccional vinculante en materia de derechos humanos, considerando la existencia de tres posiciones en la materia: la posición conflictual de la declaración de inejecutabilidad, la posición del seguimiento nacional y la del margen de apreciación.The author analyzes the relationship between national and international or supranational courts with binding jurisdiction over matters of human rights, reviewing three positions in this subject: the conflict perspective of declaration of non-executability, the position of national follow-up, and the doctrine of margin of appreciation.

  9. Historia and materia: the philosophical implications of Francis Bacon's natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglioni, Guido

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the philosophical implications underlying Bacon's views on historical knowledge, paying special attention to that variety of historical knowledge described by Bacon as "natural." More specifically, this article explores the interplay of history (historia) and fable (fabula). In the sphere of thought, fabula is the equivalent to materia in nature. Both are described by Bacon as being "versatile" and "pliant." In Bacon's system of knowledge, philosophy, as the domain of reason, starts from historiae and fabulae, once memory and the imagination have fulfilled their cognitive tasks. This means that, for Bacon, there is no such thing as a pure use of reason. He advocates a kind of reason that, precisely because it is involved with matter's inner motions (its "appetites," in Bacon's characteristic language), is constitutively 'impure'. The article shows how the terms historia and fabula cover key semantic areas in defining Bacon's philosophy: historia may mean "history" as well as "story,"fabula "myth" as well "story". In both cases, we can see significant oscillations from a stronger meaning (close to those of matter and nature) to a weaker one (connected to wit and imagination), as if the power of nature decreases moving from histories and myths to stories. On the other hand, there are cases in which Bacon seems to stick to a diachronic view of the meaning of fables and histories, such that the transition from myths to history, especially natural history, is described as a collective effort towards reality and enlightenment.

  10. I concetti di "materia", "forma" e "ordine" nel pensiero teorico musicale medievale e contemporaneo

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    Cecilia Panti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La dimensione teorica della musica occidentale, nella sua evoluzione storica, ha inevitabilmente fatto uso di concetti essenziali alla definizione di come il suono è musicalmente organizzato o organizzabile. Fra questi, risultano imprescindibili le nozioni di materia, forma e ordine, che implicano rispettivamente, nei pur diversi ambiti linguistici e contesti storico-filosofici di riferimento, ciò di cui è fatta la musica, ciò a cui la materia sonora tende, e come tale tensione è realizzata. Scopo di questo contributo è una valutazione d’insieme sulla valenza filosofica e l’uso di tali concetti nel pensiero musicale occidentale altomedievale e in quello del Novecento, che nonostante la distanza cronologica presentano convergenze significative. Nel Medioevo, un lungo processo di elaborazione teorico-pratica permise la matematizzazione dello spazio (e, più tardi, anche del tempo musicale, attraverso l’adattamento di moduli melodici, trasmessi oralmente, alle strutture scalari desunte dalla teoria greco-boeziana. La forma e l’ordo musicali furono quindi riferiti ai criteri fisico-matematici atti a distinguere nella materia sonora, in sé disorganica e indefinita, ciò che è musicale da ciò che non lo è. Tale concezione sparisce con l’affermarsi del sistema tonale, ove il suono fisico è concepito come “pre-formato” e “pre-ordinato” nella gamma scalare e nei vincoli attrattivi “naturali” degli armonici. In conseguenza, i concetti di forma e ordine abbandonano il contesto acustico, andando a definire i criteri teorici della composizione artistica, in linea con l’idea filosofica del loro esprimere la coerenza logico-sintattica dell’“insieme organico” (la Formenlehre teorizzata da Widmann. Nell’ambito del pensiero musicale del Novecento, la crisi del sistema tonale e la messa a punto di nuove modalità e tecniche di produzione del suono hanno riorientato la valenza significante e l’uso di questi tre concetti

  11. La materia dei sogni Sbirciatina su un mondo di cose soffici (lettore compreso)

    CERN Document Server

    Piazza, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Dall’aria che respiriamo ai cibi di cui ci nutriamo, dai vestiti che indossiamo ai detersivi con cui li laviamo, dai colori con cui dipingiamo agli schermi su cui li guardiamo, la nostra realtà quotidiana brulica di cose troppo piccole per essere viste, ma pur sempre enormi rispetto ai mattoni di cui è fatto il mondo, gli atomi e le molecole. Oltre ad essere alla radice di molte tecnologie di oggi e di domani, questi piccoli personaggi, ingredienti primari di quelli che gli scienziati chiamano "materiali soffici", "sistemi sovramolecolari", o " fluidi complessi", ci permettono anche di esplorare i segreti con cui la materia si organizza spontaneamente, perché anche la Vita altro non è se non l’apoteosi di questa incredibile "Terra di Mezzo", a metà strada tra le molecole e l’Uomo. Sfruttando l’esperienza scientifica accumulata dall’autore nel corso di molti anni, questo libro si propone di guidare il lettore attraverso un lungo, ma non troppo faticoso viaggio nel mondo delle nanoparticelle, dei...

  12. Proyecto de ley para un código Colombiano de ÉTICA MEDICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Academia Nacional de Medicina

    1978-10-01

    manteniendo incólume su integridad.
    4. La relación médico paciente es elemento primordial en la práctica médica. Para que dicha relación tenga pleno éxito, debe fundarse en un compromiso responsable, leal y auténtico, el cual impone la más estricta reserva profesional.
    5. Conforme con la tradición secular, el médico está obligado a trasmitir conocimientos
    al tiempo que ejerce la profesión, con miras a preservar la salud de las personas y de la comunidad. Cuando quiera que sea llamado a dirigir instituciones para la enseñanzas de la medicina o a regentar cátedras en las mismas, se someterá a las normas legales y reglamentarias sobre la materia, así como a los dictados de la ciencia, a los principios pedagógicos y a la ética profesional...

  13. Una perspectiva internacional sobre la formación en materia de seguridad y salud en el trabajo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Martín Daza

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene el propósito de explorar algunos de los retos más importantes de la formación en la seguridad y salud en el trabajo de los diferentes grupos interesados, así como para presentar los lineamientos de la Organización Internacional del Trabajo en esta materia.

  14. NCG56/31: Reglamento de R??gimen Interno del Departamento de Electromagnetismo y F??sica de la Materia

    OpenAIRE

    Universidad de Granada

    2012-01-01

    Reglamento de R??gimen Interno del Departamento de Electromagnetismo y F??sica de la Materia. Aprobado en sesi??n extraordinaria del Consejo de Gobierno de la Universidad de Granada celebrada el 20 de febrero de 2012.

  15. EVALUACIÓN AMBIENTAL PARA PROCESOS QUE USAN RESIDUOS DE LA INDUSTRIA DE LOS BIOCOMBUSTIBLES COMO MATERIAS PRIMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Julieth Valencia Botero

    Full Text Available La industria creciente de los biocombustibles genera grandes cantidades de residuos que tienen alto potencial para la obtención de productos con alto valor agregado. En el presente documento se lleva a cabo el análisis de ciclo de vida (ACV para el glicerol y el bagazo de caña de azúcar durante su producción y para su uso como materia prima en cuatro procesos diferentes. El objetivo fue determinar el impacto ambiental de los cuatro procesos, por medio de la cuantificación de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI asociados al ciclo de vida. Los resultados indican que las emisiones de GEI asociadas a los procesos que utilizan el glicerol como materia prima son mayores que las emisiones de GEI para los procesos que involucran bagazo de caña de azúcar, pero que el aprovechamiento del glicerol podría considerarse más eficiente, ya que las emisiones por unidad de masa en el uso del glicerol son 75% inferiores a las emisiones calculadas para los procedimientos utilizando bagazo de caña como materia prima.

  16. PISA: números, estandarización de la conducta y la alquimia de las materias escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S. Popkewitz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina la red de prácticas que confieren inteligibilidad a la organización del conocimiento de las materias escolares que hace PISA. El programa PISA es tratado como un acontecimiento histórico. Su estudio consiste en hacer visible los principios que ordenan y clasifican los objetos “vistos” y que actúan sobre el “conocimiento práctico” de las materias escolares. La política de PISA, a mi juicio, son los principios que rigen lo que los chicos deberían conocer, cómo ese conocimiento se hace posible, y el estudio de la inclusión y exclusión incorporadas en estas prácticas. La primera parte analiza históricamente la transformación de los números en “hechos”, una presunción que posibilita las comparaciones de PISA. En la segunda parte, dirige la atención a los principios de las materias escolares que ordenan y clasifican los “hechos” de las mediciones de PISA.

  17. Comparison of the removal of calcium hydroxide medicaments on the root canal treatment irrigated with manual and sonic agitation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Muryani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Irrigation of the root canal system is an important part of the endodontic treatment principle which aims to improve the hygiene of the root canal system from any debris and medicament residue with the hydrodynamic system. Root irrigation technique can be done with the manual and sonic system by using 2.5% NaOCI irrigation solution. Calcium hydroxide is used as a medicament for root canal sterilization. Root canal treatment will fail due to the imperfect removal of calcium hydroxide residue. The objective of this research was to analyze the comparison of the removal of calcium hydroxide medicaments on the root canal treatment irrigated with manual and sonic agitation technique using 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solution. Methods: The methods used in this study was experimental laboratory. The sample used was 30 maxillary incisors. The teeth were then divided into two groups randomly, then the root canal preparation was done by the crown down technique with manual irrigation using 2.5% NaOCI solution. The radicular part of the teeth was then split longitudinally, given a standardized groove in the one-third of the apical part, then applied with water-solved calcium hydroxide. The teeth were unified afterwards by using flowable composites, then soaked in the artificial saliva at the temperature of 37ºC. The sample of the 1st group was irrigated by manual agitation technique, and the sample of the 2nd group 2 was irrigated by sonic agitation technique, then both were viewed by stereo microscope. The data results were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: The results of calcium hydroxide removal were different between the root canals that were irrigated using 2.5% sodium hypochlorite irrigation solution by manual agitation technique compared to the sonic agitation technique. Irrigation using 2.5% sodium hypochlorite irrigation solution with the sonic agitation techniques were proven to be more effective in lifting Ca

  18. Soluciones concluidas en el MERCOSUR en materia de jurisdicción internacional: Análisis de los protocolos de Buenos Aires sobre jurisdicción internacional en materia contractual y de San Luis en materia de resp. civil emergente de accidentes de tránsito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tellechea Bergman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Contenido: Precisiones.  La jurisdicción en las relaciones privadas internacionales en el MERCOSUR. Necesidad de una regulación común a todos los estados parte. Protocolo de Buenos Aires sobre jurisdicción internacional en materia contractual. Protocolo de San Luis sobre responsabilidad civil emergente de accidentes de tránsito

  19. Twenty years of society of medical informatics of b&h and the journal acta informatica medica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2012-03-01

    In 2012, Health/Medical informatics profession celebrates five jubilees in Bosnia and Herzegovina: a) Thirty five years from the introduction of the first automatic manipulation of data; b) Twenty five years from establishing Society for Medical Informatics BiH; c) Twenty years from establishing scientific and professional journal of the Society for Medical Informatics of Bosnia and Herzegovina "Acta Informatica Medica"; d) Twenty years from establishing first Cathdra for Medical Informatics on biomedical faculties in Bosnia and Herzegovina and e) Ten years from the introduction of "Distance learning" in medical curriculum. All of the five mentioned activities in the area of Medical informatics had special importance and gave appropriate contribution in the development of Health/Medical informatics in Bosnia And Herzegovina.

  20. Concepto de “materia laboral” Vigencia material de la ley Nº 18.572

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    Mario Garmendia Arigón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo 7º de la Ley de Abreviación de los Procesos Laborales (Nº 18.572, del 13 de setiembre de 2009 define el “Ámbito de aplicación” utilizando la siguiente fórmula: “Con excepción de lo establecido en normas que prevean procedimientos especiales, en materia laboral el proceso se regirá por lo previsto en esta ley”.Es de hacer notar que el artículo 7º tiene una ubicación incorrecta dentro de la estructura general de la ley 18.572, pues aparece dentro del “Capítulo IV”, intitulado “Proceso laboral ordinario”, cuando, en realidad, su contenido no refiere solamente a esta última estructura procesal, sino a todas las disposiciones procesales consagradas en la ley. (…El análisis que se desarrolla a continuación está centrado, precisamente, en dicha expresión y, en particular, en la vinculación que existe entre el artículo 7º y el artículo 2º de la ley 18.5724, con el propósito de desentrañar si la aplicabilidad de las estructuras procesales que se consagraron en dicha ley queda sólo restringida a las Sedes laborales o si, por el contrario, corresponde entender  que las mismas también deben ser aplicadas por tribunales no pertenecientes a la jurisdicción laboral.

  1. REMOCION DE LA MATERIA ORGANICA Y TOXICIDAD EN AGUAS RESIDUALES HOSPITALARIAS APLICANDO OZONO

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    DAYANA GRISALES PENAGOS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las aguas residuales hospitalarias se consideran como una de las principales fuentes de contaminantes emergentes, resultado de las diferentes actividades que allí se realizan y la excreción de las sustancias por los pacientes. Estudios han demostrado que estos componentes no son fácilmente removidos por medio de procesos de tratamiento convencionales como las plantas de tratamiento que emplean procesos biológicos. En este sentido el propósito de este trabajo consistió en evaluar la degradación de la materia orgánica presente en aguas hospitalarias reales aplicando ozono en diferentes condiciones de pH (3,0, 6,7, 10. Para esto se analizaron los valores de la UV254, la relación de biodegradabilidad DQO/DBO5 y el color (VIS436. Adicional a esto, se realizó un ensayo de toxicidad aguda, utilizando bulbos de cebolla común (Allium cepa L. Los resultados mostraron que con una dosis aplicada de ozono de 187 mgO3/h y valores de pH=10 la biodegradabilidad se aumento en un 70% y la toxicidad aguda se redujo en 62%, mientras que para valores de pH =3,0, se favoreció la remoción de la UV254 y el color. La aplicación de ozono demostró ser una alternativa viable para tratar efluentes hospitalarios como pretratamiento de un proceso biológico.

  2. Medicina en la Sociedad Contemporánea Y Educación Medica Continuada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Gómez Martinez

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Presentado en la ciudad de Lima
    en abril de 1987

    Señores Presidentes de las Academias de Medicina Latinoamericanas.
    Señor Presidente de la Academia Nacional de España.
    Señores Participantes de la IX Reunión Directiva de la ALANAM.

    Señoras y Señores.

    La Academia Nacional de Medicina de Colombia se reunió en varias ocasiones para comentar y discutir el documento suscrito en Buenos Aires el día 15 de noviembre de 1985 sobre el tema LA MEDICINA EN LA SOCIEDAD CONTEMPORANEA.

    Sus varias comisiones estudiaron cuidadosamente las condiciones actuales de la atención médica en el país para proponer medidas adecuadas y una política que permita su realización, cuyas conclusiones nos permitimos presentar a Uds. con la seguridad de que muchas de las fallas de que adolecen nuestros sistemas son comunes a la mayoría de los países latinoamericanos y podrían servir de base para adoptar una filosofía congruente y aceptable sobre la materia.

    Existe en Colombia la Ley 23 de, de Ética Profesional que dice así en su Artículo primero:

    “La medicina es una profesión que tiene como fin cuidar de la salud del hombre y propender por la prevención en las enfermedades el perfeccionamiento de la especie humana y el mejoramiento de los patrones de vida de la colectividad, sin distinción de nacionalidad, ni de orden económico, social, racial, político o religioso. El respeto por la vida y los fueros de la persona humana constituyen su esencia espiritual. Por consiguiente, el ejercicio de la medicina tiene implicaciones humanísticas que le son inherentes”.

    1°. La medicina tiene como objetivo ideal lograr el bienestar físico y espiritual del hombre. Debe, por lo tanto, orientar sus actividades a buscar el mejoramiento permanente de la

  3. Determinación de sílice libre en materias primas para la industria del cemento

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    Calleja, J.

    1965-12-01

    Full Text Available Not availableLa existencia de sílice libre en las materias primas y, por lo tanto, en los crudos empleados en la fabricación de cemento Portland es desventajosa por la escasa reactividad de esta sílice, sobre todo si no posee una finura suficiente. La determinación de sílice cuarzosa en tales materiales es decisiva para la buena marcha de la clinkerización en fábricas cuyas materias primas adolecen de la desventaja de contenerla. Los métodos propugnados suelen ser poco reproducibles y precisos, y dan resultados bastante erráticos. En el presente trabajo, y después de haber ensayado diversos métodos citados en la bibliografía, se describe y recomienda un procedimiento, basado en el ataque del material por ácido pirofosfórico. Las variables que juegan en el proceso descrito son el tamaño de grano de la muestra, en particular el de la sílice libre, la temperatura y el tiempo de ataque. En las condiciones que se especifican se consigue una disolución prácticamente total de los silicatos, sin que apenas se· disuelvan las partículas más finas de cuarzo. Con ello se consigue una exactitud y una precisión tal como pone de manifiesto el análisis estadístico de los resultados obtenidos al determinar sílice libre en diversas materias primas y crudos para cemento.

  4. Materias primas no tradicionales en la industria cerámica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caligaris, R.

    2000-10-01

    cerámicos con el fin de mejorar sus propiedades finales. Todos los compactos, obtenidos por prensado uniaxial de estos polvos, recibieron tratamientos térmicos adecuados a sus composiciones, para luego ser caracterizados por diversas técnicas entre las que se pueden mencionar: dilatometría, difracción de rayos X, porosidad, microdureza, microscopías óptica y electrónica de barrido y análisis por dispersión de energías. Del análisis de los resultados obtenidos en estos estudios, se concluyó que los materiales ensayados constituyen una potencial fuente de materia prima para la industria cerámica.

  5. Génesis de la vida desde la dinámica procesual de la materia

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    Ignacio Núñez De Castro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available La Biología no trata de la vida, sino de la descripción fenomenológica de los organismos vivos; el estudio de la vida es propio de la Filosofía natural. Para tener un discurso coherente para describir un ser vivo necesitamos una serie de categorías: comprensión holística, sistema, proceso, emergencia de novedad, teleología, epigénesis y evolución; matrices conceptuales que conforman una racionalidad diferente a la racionalidad mecanicista predominante en la Física. El pensamiento sistémico es siempre pensamiento procesual. La Filosofía del proceso es un buen instrumento intelectual para la comprensión del viviente. Ninguna realidad es un hecho estático; debemos pasar de la metafísica de substancia (ser a la metafísica del devenir. Las propiedades emergentes surgen a un cierto nivel de complejidad. La explicación del sistema no se encuentra en los componentes básicos (análisis, sino en la organización jerárquica del mismo como una unidad, que posee una finalidad, un «télos». El genoma es el programa que fundamenta la estructura y comportamiento del organismo, que se desarrolla epigenéticamente. Los organismos vivos son sistemas abiertos en continuo intercambio con el medio de materia, energía e información. La célula es la unidad de análisis elemental de los vivientes, tanto microorganismos como vegetales o animales. Toda célula es una unidad dinámica y se encuentra siempre en una fase del proceso de división celular. El tiempo es una categoría esencial para la comprensión de todo organismo vivo; contemplada la serie de los vivientes a grandes escalas de tiempo, nos lleva a la afirmación de que vivir es evolucionar y de que nada en Biología tiene sentido sino es a la luz de la evolución.

  6. La cláusula general de competencia de los entes territoriales en materia económica

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    Aníbal Zárate

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Si la autonomía territorial con que cuentan los entes locales para la “gestión de sus intereses” permite fundar, vía una cláusula general de competencia, las iniciativas económicas locales, esta fórmula aparece sujeta a los límites constitucionales y legales sobre las modalidades de intervención local, como lo sugiere el respeto de las normas nacionales en materia de competencia económica.

  7. FBBF: un reto en la integración de las materias básicas en primero de Medicina

    OpenAIRE

    Gal Iglesias, Beatriz; Fernández Santander, Ana; Palau Beato, Luisa Cristina; Sánchez, Ana María

    2012-01-01

    Un grupo de profesores del Departamento de Ciencias Biomédicas Básicas de la UEM nos planteamos la importancia de la integración en el diseño del currículo del Grado de Medicina, desde una perspectiva tanto horizontal como vertical. En este trabajo planteamos la puesta a punto de un curriculum basado en la integración de las materias, como experiencia piloto, para los alumnos de primero de medicina. A continuación se describe la reorganización de las asignaturas y créditos así como la metodol...

  8. CARACTERIZACIÓN ESTRUCTURAL DE LA MATERIA ORGÁNICA DE TRES SUELOS PROVENIENTES DEL MUNICIPIO DE AQUITANIA BOYACÁ, COLOMBIA

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    Carmen S. Mosquera

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La materia orgánica del suelo puede variar considerablemente en su estructura, composición y conformación, de acuerdo con el origen y la edad de los materiales que la constituyen. En la presente investigación se procedió a caracterizar, mediante el empleo de la espectroscopia infrarroja y la resonancia magnética nuclear en estado sólido, dos suelos inceptisoles (I01 y I02 y un histosol (H03 destinados al cultivo de cebolla larga, en el municipio de Aquitania-Boyacá, Colombia, a dos profundidades: 0 - 10 y 40 - 50 cm. Según los espectros infrarrojos, se detectó la presencia de grupos OH (debida posiblemente a fenoles, ácidos carboxílicos o alcoholes, grupos aromáticos y alifáticos. Los espectros de 13C-RMN en estado sólido con CPMAS evidenciaron el siguiente orden respecto a la cantidad de carbonos que conforman la materia orgánica del suelo: H03-0 = 100 y H03 -40 = 88, I02-0 = 23 y I02-40 = 0, y finalmente I01-0 = 17 y I01-40 = 12, confirmándose la disminución de carbonos en la materia orgánica a través del perfil del suelo, y además se estableció que el carbón resonante en la región delta = 108-50 ppm de los espectros (N – y O-alquilos y acetales dominó en toda la MOS obtenida; le siguió el carbón aromático (delta = 168-108 ppm para los suelos I01-0 y H03-40, y el carbón alifático (delta = 0-50 ppm para los suelos I01-40, I02-0 y H03-0. Finalmente, el carbónC=O( delta= 220-162 ppm fue el menos dominante en la materia orgánica del suelo en todos los tres suelos caracterizados.

  9. La integración del Reglamento Europeo en materia sucesoria en el Derecho interregional español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS GARAU JUANEDA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Article 38 of the European Regulation on succession matters alow the non-application of this Regulation to internal conflicts of laws. This paper specifies in which cases we are dealing with an internal conflict of laws and why we must understand that Spain use this possibility. El artículo 38 del reglamento Europeo en materia sucesoria permite excluir de su aplicación los conflictos internos. En este trabajo se precisa en qué casos estamos ante un conflicto interno y por qué debemos entender que España se acoge a esta posibilidad

  10. La cláusula general de competencia de los entes territoriales en materia económica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Rafael Zárate Pérez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Si la autonomía territorial con que cuentan los entes locales para la “gestión de sus intereses” permite fundar, vía una cláusula general de competencia, las iniciativas económicas locales, esta fórmula aparece sujeta a los límites constitucionales y legales sobre las modalidades de intervención local, como lo sugiere el respeto de las normas nacionales en materia de competencia económica.

  11. Unapal-Dorado, nuevo cultivar de zapallo con alto contenido de materia seca para consumo en fresco

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    Vallejo Cabrera Franco Alirio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir de tres cruzamientos dialélicos entre poblaciones con diferente grado de endocría (S0 x S0; S1 x S1; S2 x S2 se seleccionaron 11 familias promisorias teniendo en cuenta el contenido de materia seca, producción por planta y calidad de fruto para consumo en fresco. Se realizaron dos ciclos de recombinación genética y selección ínter e intrapoblacional. Se escogieron cuatro familias las cuales fueron evaluadas en un ensayo de rendimiento en el Centro Experimental de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira (Ceunp. La familia de mejor desempeño se evaluó comparativamente con otras seis, incluyendo el testigo comercial Unapal Bolo Verde, en pruebas regionales, en tres localidades del Valle del Cauca, durante dos semestres consecutivos (2008 B- 2009A. Por su excelente comportamiento en producción (15 kg/planta, contenido de materia seca (> 16%, 3.5 kg/fruto y 5 frutos/planta y calidad de fruto para consumo en fresco, esta familia originó la nueva variedad de zapallo, conocida con el nombre comercial Unapal-Dorado.

  12. Assessment of the potential of Allium sativum oil as a new medicament for non-vital pulpotomy of primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic effects of Allium sativum oil and formocresol in nonvital pulpotomy in primary teeth. Twenty children ranging in age from 4 to 8 years were included in the study. In every one of those children, pulpotomy was indicated for the primary molars. Pulpotomy procedure was performed and the radicular pulp tissue of one molar was capped with A. sativum oil in a cotton pellet while the other molar was capped with formocresol. The teeth were evaluated clinically and radiographically before and after 6 months using standard clinical and radiographic criteria. Statistically, these results revealed significant difference between the radiographic findings of nonvital pulpotomy in primary molars with the two medicaments. Statistical analysis was performed using independent t-test and paired t-test at the significance level of α = 0.05. A. sativum oil has potent antibacterial properties that enable it to combat intracanal microbes in the infected pulp of primary molars. Better results were obtained when A. sativum oil was used. A. sativum oil had more powerful effects than formocresol on the infected pulp of primary nonvital molars.

  13. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Allium sativum Oil as a New Medicament for Vital Pulp Treatment of Primary Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Baroudi, Kusai

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare between the clinical and radiographic effects of Allium sativum oil and those of formocresol in vital pulpotomy in primary teeth. A total of 20 children age ranged from 4 to 8 years were included in the study. In every one of those children, the primary molars indicated for pulpotomy. Pulpotomy procedure was performed, and the radicular pulp tissue of one molar capped with A. sativum oil in a cotton pellet, whereas the other molar capped with formocresol, the teeth evaluated clinically and radiographically before and after 6 months, using standard clinical and radiographical criteria. Statistically, these results revealed no significant difference between the radiographic findings of vital pulpotomy in primary molars with the two medicaments was found. A. sativum oil offers a good healing potential, leaving the remaining pulp tissue healthy and functioning. Vital pulpotomy with allium sativa oil was given raise 90% success rate while that with formocresol was 85%. A. sativum oil is a biocompatible material that is compatible with vital human pulp tissue. It offers a good healing potential, leaving the remaining pulp tissue healthy and functioning.

  14. A comparative evaluation of ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement as a pulpotomy medicament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Dipti; Sunder, Ravi Kadur; Devendrappa, Shashikiran Nandihalli; Vanka, Amit; Choudaha, Nidhi

    2016-01-01

    Recently, some studies have compared mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) with portland cement (PC), concluding that the principle ingredients of PC are similar to those of MTA. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of PC as a pulpotomy medicament. Thirty premolars that scheduled for extraction for therapeutic reasons were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: ProRoot MTA (PMTA) and PC. After isolation and pulp exposure, pulpotomy was carried out and pulps were dressed with PMTA and PC. After 6 months, the teeth were extracted and prepared for histological analysis based on Cox et al. criteria. The data were analyzed by Z-test of proportion with 1% of allowed error. No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups with respect to inflammatory response, soft tissue organization, and dentine bridge formation (P > 0.05). PC was associated with similar favorable biological response to pulpotomy treatment as PMTA. The findings of this study support the idea that PC can be considered a cheaper substitute to MTA.

  15. Presentation of the DosePet application (APP) for use in Nuclear Medicine: calculation of the amount of medicament for PET / CT patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Pedro Augusto do; Rodrigues, Araken dos S. Werneck

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the application (APP) DosePet that calculates the amount of medicament for PET / CT in patients according to the predetermined radiation dose. The software has been designed using the web MIT App Inventor2 tool for Android platform. The application allows the workers to simulate the amount of radiation still existing in the premises after the applications, increasing security and reducing exposures, and enable greater efficiency in the use of the radiopharmaceutical. (author)

  16. Il ripensamento e la ridistribuzione suggeriti ai sistemi giuridici liberaldemocratici dalla naturale metamorfosi della domanda di libertà in materia religiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Domianello

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Testo, corredato delle note, dell’intervento al secondo Convegno nazionale di studio dell’A.D.E.C. “Libertà religiosa tra declino o superamento dello Stato nazionale” (Macerata, 28-30 ottobre 2010, destinato alla pubblicazione degli Atti. SOMMARIO: 1. La retromarcia da ingranare (ovvero: il ripensamento circa l’opportunità di trasferire interamente la tutela dei diritti di libertà fondamentali dall’attività parlamentare a quella giurisprudenziale in senso lato – 2. La ristrutturazione da avviare (ovvero: la ridistribuzione delle competenze in materia di pubblico intervento a garanzia dei diritti di libertà in materia religiosa – 3. Il dato da cui muovere (ovvero: la metamorfosi della domanda di libertà in materia religiosa nei sistemi liberaldemocratici.

  17. Sobre producción de la materia prima (leche en el altiplano de Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apaza-Huallpa Yesenia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Por la falta de mercados para acomodar la producción nacional de leche, muchos productores locales están reduciendo significativamente el número de sus vacas lecheras, que están siendo comercializadas como vacuno corriente en ferias o mataderos a un tercio del precio que tenían pocos años atrás. Actualmente existe una sobreproducción de leche en el departamento de La Paz y cada vez se reduce la demanda de la población, así los agricultores se quedan con el producto teniendo que darle otra finalidad, pero en muchos casos se vuelve inevitable por las grandes cantidades de materia prima, para regular esta crisis, que se ha visto agudizada, por los bajos precios internacionales de este alimento de primera necesidad, situación que estaría impulsando el ingreso de leche y productos procedentes de las países vecinos, de ahí que, es necesario realizar esfuerzos e inversiones para innovar y producir nuevas variedades de artículos lácteos, pue permitan ampliar el mercado, y así competir en mejores condiciones respecto a los productos foráneos. Sería iniciativas que necesitan apoyo del Estado para su materialización, por ejemplo con dotación de infraestructura industrial, fuentes de energía, exenciones impositivas a la importación de tecnología, mayor flexibilidad fiscal y laboral, facilidades de financiamiento, medidas orientadas a fomentar la producción láctea del país en particular y la industria nacional en general. El mercado de la leche se ve afectado por la presencia de leche en polvo de contrabando o legalmente importada, situación que un paquete de leche importada en polvo cuesta hasta 20 Bs., mientras que la Planta Industrializadora de Leche (PIL-Andina comercializa en 41.70 Bs. La leche es un nutrimento fundamental para la salud humana, su aporte en proteínas, calcio y vitaminas es absolutamente importante, sin embargo hay una tendencia muy arraigada, que la leche no le gusta a la población. Esta es una posici

  18. Effect of calcium hydroxide and triple antibiotic paste as intracanal medicaments on the incidence of inter-appointment flare-up in diabetic patients: An in vivo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Swathi; Vivekananda Pai, A. R.; Thomas, Manuel S.; Bhat, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate and compare the effect of antibacterial intracanal medicaments on inter-appointment flare-up in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: Fifty diabetic patients requiring root canal treatment were assigned into groups I, II, and III. In group I, no intracanal medicament was placed. In groups II and III, calcium hydroxide and triple antibiotic pastes were placed as intracanal medicaments, respectively. Patients were instructed to record their pain on days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14. Inter-appointment flare-up was evaluated using verbal rating scale (VRS). Results: Overall incidence of inter-appointment flare-up among diabetic patients was found to be 16%. In group I, 50% of the patients and in group II, 15% of the patients developed inter-appointment flare-up. However, no patients in group III developed inter-appointment flare-up. The comparison of these results was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.002; χ2 = 12.426). However, with respect to intergroup comparison, only the difference between groups I and III was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.002; χ2 = 12.00). Conclusions: Calcium hydroxide and triple antibiotic paste are effective for managing inter-appointment flare-ups in diabetic patients. Triple antibiotic paste is more effective than calcium hydroxide in preventing the occurrence of flare-up in diabetic patients. PMID:24944440

  19. Enseñando el oficio antropológico: prácticas pre profesionales en la materia Antropología Sociocultural II

    OpenAIRE

    Brunatti, Olga; Chaves, Mariana; Cremonesi, Mariel; Hanlon, Paula; Lago, Gabriela; Mora, Ana Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    En esta presentación compartiremos la experiencia de una propuesta de enseñanzaaprendizaje en el marco de la materia Antropología Sociocultural II de la Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo de la Universidad Nacional de La Plata, donde se incorporan prácticas pre-profesionales con trabajo de campo. Estas prácticas comenzaron a implementarse en la cátedra en el año 2013, en el contexto de una serie de cambios en el equipo docente y en el programa general de la materia. En el presente trab...

  20. Primer aislamiento de Encephalitozoon intestinalis a partir de muestra de materia fecal de un paciente colombiano con sida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luz Galván

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Los microsporidios son agentes de infecciones oportunistas en pacientes con sida y con trasplantes, principalmente. Enterocytozoon bieneusi y Encephalitozoon intestinalis son los más frecuentes, asociados con infecciones entéricas. Los cultivos celulares han contribuido al conocimiento de los microsporidios. En Colombia no se han obtenido aislamientos provenientes de pacientes con microsporidiosis y, por consiguiente, no existen cepas autóctonas de los mismos. Objetivo. Establecer el cultivo celular de microsporidios intestinales a partir de materia fecal de pacientes parasitados. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó concentración agua-éter de la materia fecal positiva para microsporidios y el sedimento resultante se trató con una mezcla de antibióticos y antimicóticos durante 18 horas a 37 oC. Se inocularon células Vero previamente cultivadas en placas de 24 pozos y en medio RPMI con suplemento de suero bovino fetal al 10% y antibióticos, con las esporas concentradas. Los cultivos se mantuvieron a 37 oC al 5% de CO2. Se cambió de medio cada dos días y se evaluó la presencia de esporas en los sobrenadantes mediante Gram-cromótropo rápido en caliente. Resultados. En la segunda semana después de la infección, se encontraron esporas de microsporidios con morfología y coloración características. Mediante PCR se determinó que el microsporidio encontrado correspondía a la especie E. intestinalis. Conclusión. Se estableció el cultivo in vitro de microsporidios de materia fecal. Este protocolo es importante para la obtención y el mantenimiento de cepas autóctonas en Colombia, y contribuirá a las investigaciones de aspectos bioquímicos, inmunológicos y epidemiológicos de dichas cepas.

  1. Oportunidades para el uso de instrumentos económicos en materia de aguas en México

    OpenAIRE

    García Lopez, Tania

    2014-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se reflexiona sobre las oportunidades en México para el uso de instrumentos económicos en materia de aguas. Tras la reforma constitucional del año 2012, en la que se añade un párrafo sexto dentro del artículo cuarto, es necesario cambiar el marco jurídico aplicable a las aguas en el país y este estudio hace una propuesta de redacción de un capítulo relativo a los instrumentos económicos en dicho ordenamiento jurídico. Se distingue, de acuerdo a lo que dispone la Ley Gen...

  2. Los desafíos de la UE en materia migratoria: la cooperación con terceros estados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracia Abad

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Los dos principales desafíos a que debe hacer frente la Unión Europea en materia migratoria son la dificultad para conseguir una aproximación común a estas cuestiones y la imposibilidad de abordarlas actuando exclusivamente desde uno de sus pilares. Como respuesta al segundo de estos desafíos la UE ha diseñado el denominado enfoque global. El artículo analiza la cooperación de la UE con terceros estados así como su importancia en el contexto del enfoque global y las dificultades que tal cooperación entraña.

  3. Materias sintéticas como auxiliares en la construcción con hormigón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1963-03-01

    Full Text Available Not availableEl desarrollo técnico de los materiales sintéticos abre hoy día, en la construcción de hormigón, muchas nuevas posibilidades de aplicación. Este hecho quedó demostrado por la empresa química Hüls AG, quien dio ocasión, a la prensa especializada, de visitar una exposición bajo el tema «Materias sintéticas de Hüls en la construcción» y a la cual siguió una conferencia. Para demostrar las amplias posibilidades de este material y para reunir nuevos conocimientos, fue erigida, en Hüls, una vivienda experimental sin tomar en consideración el aspecto de la rentabilidad.

  4. Eugeniusz Misiło, comp. and ed., with an intro. Akcja “Wisła” 1947: Dokumenty i materiały.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Borzęcki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Eugeniusz Misiło, comp. and ed., with an intro. Akcja “Wisła” 1947: Dokumenty i materiały. Warsaw: Archiwum Ukraińskie and Management Academy Group, 2012. 1246 pp. Illustrations. Maps. Documents section. Appendices section. Biographies sections. Miscellaneous lists. English-language summary. Indexes. Cloth.

  5. El suelo y la materia orgánica en la provisión de servicios ecosistémicos

    OpenAIRE

    Marañón, Teodoro

    2017-01-01

    Conferencia impartida en el Curso "Materia orgánica del suelo: metodología para su análisis y su incidencia en el medioambiente y el cambio climático". Coordinado por José María de la Rosa Arranz. IRNAS, CSIC, 16-19 octubre 2017.

  6. Prestatiekenmerken van de bepaling van As, Cd, Pb en Hg in voeding en biologisch materiaal met ICP-MS en AFS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde-Koerts T van der; Bom CM; LAC

    1999-01-01

    Een ICP-MS-methode werd ontwikkeld voor de bepaling van As, Cd en Pb in salpeterzuur-destruaten van voeding en biologisch materiaal. De methode werd geoptimaliseerd op basis van minimale spectrale storingen en matrixeffecten met behulp van correctieformules, interne standaarden en

  7. La religione nell’ordinamento algerino tra previsioni costituzionali e normativa ordinaria in materia di esercizio dei culti diversi dal musulmano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Ivaldi

    2012-11-01

    SOMMARIO: 1. Rilievi introduttivi – 2. Il trattamento riservato alla religione nelle costituzioni algerine postcoloniali – 3. La disciplina in materia di esercizio dei culti diversi dal musulmano varata nel 2006 – 4. I decreti di esecuzione della normativa de qua – 5. Tendenze evolutive:

  8. Productividad en materia seca y captura de carbono en un sistema silvopastoril y un sistema tradicional en cinco fincas ganaderas de piedemonte en el departamento de Casanare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella Cárdenas Castro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo fue comparar, en cuanto a productividad en materia seca y captura de carbono, entre un sistema silvopastoril y un sistema tradicional en cinco fincas ganaderas de piedemonte del departamento de Casanare. En el lote experimental de cada finca se sembró una mezcla de cuatro especies de pastos, de los cuales Brachiaria brizantha fue la especie que tuvo un desarrollo exitoso en las cinco fincas, y con la cual se analizó su productividad en materia seca y captura de carbono. A los cinco meses después de la renovación de pastos en los lotes experimentales se obtuvo una productividad en materia seca entre 6,3 y 14,9 tMS/ha, y en captura de carbono entre 2,7 y 6,4 tCOT/ha; mientras que en los lotes tradicionales estuvo entre 4 y 5 tMS/ha, y en captura de carbono entre 1,7 y 2,9 tCOT/ha. A los 20 meses en los lotes experimentales se obtuvo una productividad en materia seca entre 12 y 13,7 tMS/ha, y en captura de carbono entre 4,1 y 4,5 tCOT/ha; mientras que en los lotes tradicionales estuvo entre 4,4 y 6,5 tMS/ha, y en captura de carbono entre 1,4 y 2,1 tCOT/ha. Esto indica que la renovación de praderas con pastos adecuados y el pastoreo de rotación favorecen la producción en materia seca y la captura de carbono.

  9. Funcionamento intelectual em pacientes pediátricos com epilepsia: comparação de crianças controladas com medicação, não controladas com medicação e controladas com cirurgia

    OpenAIRE

    Souza-Oliveira,Cecília; Escosi-Rosset,Sara; Funayama,Sandra S.; Terra,Vera C.; Machado,Hélio R.; Sakamoto,Américo C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Comparar o quociente intelectual (QI) em três grupos de crianças com epilepsia: 1) controlados com medicação, 2) não controlados com medicação e 3) controlados com cirurgia. MÉTODOS: Noventa e oito pacientes pediátricos, com idades entre 6 e 12 anos, foram selecionados de dezembro de 2007 a julho de 2008. A Escala de Inteligência Wechsler para Crianças - terceira edição (WISC-III) foi utilizada para a avaliação neuropsicológica dos pacientes. Os resultados foram relacionados com a s...

  10. Lupus induced by medicaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canas D, Carlos Alberto; Perafan B, Pablo Eduardo

    2001-01-01

    We describe a 55 years old female patient who consulted by fever syndrome, artralgias and the presence of high tittles positives antinuclear antibodies. She had arterial hypertension in treatment with captopril. We suspected the clinical diagnoses of drug-induced lupus; the withdraw of captopril was associated with the remission of the clinical and laboratory manifestations

  11. Alternativas de medicação intracanal em casos de necrose pulpar com lesão periapical = Intracanal medication indicated for pulpal necrosis with apical osteites

    OpenAIRE

    Fachin, Elaine Vianna Freitas

    2006-01-01

    Trata-se de estudo in vivo em pacientes portadores de dentes monorradiculares apresentando necrose pulpar com lesão periapical. O objetivo foi avaliar radiograficamente a efetividade de 4 diferentes curativos de demora (PMCC, gel de clorexidina 2%, pasta de hidróxido de cálcio e hipoclorito de sódio1%). O tratamento endodôntico foi padronizado em todos os elementos através da técnica escalonada e irrigação com hipoclorito de sódio 1%. Para a medicação intracanal, os pacientes foram separados ...

  12. Materias para la industria cerámica española. Situación actual y perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez, E.

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The ceramics and glass industry in Spain has witnessed spectacular growth in recent years – particularly in the latter half of the 1990s – in products such as ceramic tiles, bricks and roofing tiles, driven by the building boom in Spain. However, at the start of the 21st century, growth has clearly flattened, owing to the emergence of production hubs in China, Brazil and Asian-Pacific countries. Raw materials have played a critical role in this new scenario, owing their impact on final product cost. With a view to analysing this role the present study first describes the principal raw materials used in ceramics and glass compositions, briefly indicating the functions of these raw materials. The study then reviews the evolution of raw materials consumption and prices in a strongly globalised business context, and seeks to identify the causes of certain mismatches between supply and demand. Finally, the challenges facing raw materials supply are discussed, particularly in regard to sustainable development of resources, threats and advantages of the global market, and research and development of new materials.

    Los datos de la industria cerámica y vidriera en España muestran un espectacular crecimiento que tuvo lugar principalmente en la segunda mitad de los 90, en particular en productos relacionados con la construcción, como baldosas cerámicas o ladrillos y tejas, impulsados por una frenética actividad en este sector industrial en España. Sin embargo, con el comienzo de siglo, el modelo cerámico español muestra claros síntomas de agotamiento, como consecuencia del gran aumento de la producción en China, Brasil y países de la zona Asia-Pacífico. Las materias primas, por su gran incidencia en el coste final del producto, han jugado y jugarán un decisivo papel en este nuevo escenario. Para analizar este rol, en el presente trabajo se ha comenzado por describir las principales materias primas que intervienen en la formulaci

  13. Degradabilidad in situ de la materia seca, proteína y fibra del forraje de morera (morus alba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Boschini

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el propósito de conocer la degradabilidad ruminal de la materia seca, de la proteína cruda, de la fibra neutro detergente y de sus fracciones contenidas en rebrotes de morera de 56, 84 y 112 días. Se determinó la degradación en hojas, tallos y la planta entera. La degradabilidad potencial en los tres componentes estudiados fue disminuyendo conforme aumentó la edad del rebrote. La fracción soluble en la materia seca varió de 29 a 25% en la hoja y de 27 a 19% en el tallo al aumentar la edad de 56 a 112 días. La fracción degradable en la hoja se mantuvo constante en las tres edades (61-63% con tasas de degradación ruminal de 14, 10 y 9%/h a 56, 84 y 112 días. En el tallo la fracción degradable disminuyó de 42 a 30% entre 56 y 112 días con velocidades de degradación de 8,4, 6,7 y 5,3%/h al aumentar la edad. La proteína cruda soluble disminuyó de 41 a 33% en la planta entera, conforme aumentó la edad, y la fracción degradable permaneció constante en 49-51%. La tasa de degradación fue superior a 9,4%/h. La fibra neutro detergente presentó una fracción degradable de 71%, 62% y 43% a 56, 84 y 112 días respectivamente, con tasas de degradación de 13, 10 y 9%/h en el mismo orden. La degradación de la fibra neutro detergente se inició en el rumen con un tiempo de rezago de 1,5 a 3,2 horas

  14. Sequential cloud-point extraction for toxicological screening analysis of medicaments in human plasma by high pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madej, Katarzyna; Persona, Karolina; Wandas, Monika; Gomółka, Ewa

    2013-10-18

    A complex extraction system with the use of cloud-point extraction technique (CPE) was developed for sequential isolation of basic and acidic/neutral medicaments from human plasma/serum, screened by HPLC/DAD method. Eight model drugs (paracetamol, promazine, chlorpromazine, amitriptyline, salicyclic acid, opipramol, alprazolam and carbamazepine) were chosen for the study of optimal CPE conditions. The CPE technique consists in partition of an aqueous sample with addition of a surfactant into two phases: micelle-rich phase with the isolated compounds and water phase containing a surfactant below the critical micellar concentration, mainly under influence of temperature change. The proposed extraction system consists of two chief steps: isolation of basic compounds (from pH 12) and then isolation of acidic/neutral compounds (from pH 6) using surfactant Triton X-114 as the extraction medium. Extraction recovery varied from 25.2 to 107.9% with intra-day and inter-day precision (RSD %) ranged 0.88-1087 and 5.32-17.96, respectively. The limits of detection for the studied medicaments at λ 254nm corresponded to therapeutic or low toxic plasma concentration levels. Usefulness of the proposed CPE-HPLC/DAD method for toxicological drug screening was tested via its application to analysis of two serum samples taken from patients suspected of drug overdosing. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Nuevo marco jurídico en materia de protección de datos de carácter personal en la Unión Europea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Ortega Giménez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo versa sobre el impacto producido por la nueva legislación europea en materia de protección de datos. Se abordarán algunas de las principales novedades que trae consigo el nuevo Reglamento Europeo de Protección de Datos, (conocido también como Reglamento General de Protección de datos o RGPD como la nueva figura del Data Protection Officer, los nuevos derechos y obligaciones promulgados, en especial, el derecho al olvido, el régimen sancionador y el futuro nuevo marco jurídico de la transmisión internacional de datos a terceros países, así como algunas menciones a la Directiva de protección de datos en materia penal y otra legislación relevante.

  16. Utilización de cenizas volantes y mineralizadores como materia prima en la fabricación de cemento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palomo Sánchez, Ángel

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research the process of formation of a low energy clinker is studied, when fly-ashes (rich in sulphates and lime and fluorspar are used as raw materials (fly-ashes replaces to the tradicional raw mix partially. The availability of those fly-ashes is shown since clinker at 1.340 °C is obtained. The mineralogical composition, mineralizer capacity and temperature of formation of the new liquid phase is studied.

    En el presente trabajo se estudia el proceso de formación de un clínker de bajo consumo energético, empleando como materia prima cenizas volantes sulfocálcicas (en sustitución parcial del crudo tradicional y fluorita. Se demuestra la validez de dichas cenizas volantes, obteniendo clínker a 1.340 °C. Se estudia la composición mineralógica, capacidad de mineralización y temperatura de formación de la nueva fase líquida.

  17. OXIDACIÓN DE MATERIA ORGÁNICA PERSISTENTE EN AGUAS RESIDUALES INDUSTRIALES MEDIANTE TRATAMIENTOS ELECTROQUÍMICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Linares-Hernández

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue implementar un sistema electroquímico, mediante tratamientos de electrocoagulación, empleando electrodos de hierro y oxidación anódica directa (OAD, empleando electrodos de diamante dopados con boro (DDB, para tratar aguas residuales provenientes de una planta de tratamiento que recibe las descargas de 144 empresas de diferentes giros, de la zona industrial Toluca-Lerma, México. Los resultados de estos tratamientos, indicaron una remoción del 99% de la demanda química de oxígeno (DQO, 99% de color y 97% de turbidez, en un tiempo de 2 h. En el sistema acoplado, la electrocoagulación removió las partículas coloidales y suspendidas y la OAD, permitió la degradación de materia orgánica persistente. Se determinó la cantidad de lodos generados en el sistema y se caracterizaron por microscopia electrónica de barrido y análisis elemental. Se concluye que los métodos electroquímicos resultan ser aplicables y eficientes en la degradación compuestos que no son fácilmente biodegradables.

  18. Conocimiento previo y comprensión lectora en un texto de materia teológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Méndez Anchía

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudio el libro Cristología, fe de Jesús, fe cristiana, de Francisco Avendaño Herrera (San José: UNED, 2002, para determinar cómo influyen los conocimientos previos del estudiantado (asociados con una perspectiva tradicionalista en su comprensión lectora del conocimiento nuevo que presenta el texto de Avendaño. Recolecté los datos mediante observación participante en las tutorías del curso de Cristología en que se utiliza el texto (programa de Teología a Distancia de la UNED y la UNA, ambas instituciones de educación superior de Costa Rica. Analizo los resultados con base en tres posibles formas de lectura: autoritaria, negociada y competente. Concluyo señalando un predominio de la lectura autoritaria y negociada, que puede explicarse por la función social de la religión en la construcción de la realidad de los sujetos, razón por la cual estos parecen resistirse a comprender un conocimiento nuevo que les genera incertidumbre en su visión de mundo en materia religiosa. Emito, finalmente, una serie de recomendaciones sobre cambios que, con base en los resultados de este estudio, podrían introducirse en una nueva edición del libro analizado.

  19. Análisis comparado en materia de obligaciones entre el derecho romano y el derecho moderno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Martínez R. de C.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio dogmático de los conceptos antiguo y moderno de la "obligación", con especial referencia al Derecho romano, así como a las fuentes y clasificación de las mismas. Del mismo modo, se analiza la influencia del derecho romano en el Código civil venezolano, en materia de obligaciones. En este sentido, la definición romana ha predominado en el Derecho Moderno, incluso en la actualidad se puede afirmar que ha permanecido incólume dentro sus concepciones fundamentales. El método utilizado es el descriptivo y documental. Se concluye que las definiciones de las obligaciones en el Derecho Moderno se limitan a reproducir los principios inspiradores romanos y que nuestro Código civil recibió una fuerte influencia del Proyecto Franco-Italiano de las Obligaciones, en el cual se desarrolló el concepto y los efectos de determinadas figuras productoras de obligaciones.

  20. Las subvenciones de la administración local en materia de deporte en Cataluña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Auré i Calvet

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Los poderes públicos catalanes, y muy en concreto los entes locales, desarrollan acciones de fomento del deporte mediante subvenciones para responder a las necesidades sociales y económicas de personas y entidades. A partir de la entrada en vigor de la Ley general de subvenciones de 2003, los ayuntamientos tuvieron que adaptar este tipo de colaboraciones a los principios que inspiran la normativa y a las obligaciones que esta establece. Las cuantías destinadas a las subvenciones ocupan un peso importante en los presupuestos municipales. De hecho, se trata de una técnica de intervención administrativa muy extendida. Es por eso que esta investigación no solo estudia el grado en que se cumplen algunos aspectos de la Ley que otorgan transparencia y objetividad al proceso de concesión, sino que también evalúa los criterios de otorgamiento más utilizados y los sistemas de valoración más comunes entre los ayuntamientos. La muestra incluye 56 bases de otorgamiento de subvenciones, publicadas durante el ejercicio 2011 y procedentes de municipios de las cuatro provincias de Cataluña. Por último, también se analiza el grado de correspondencia entre estos criterios y la normativa catalana en materia de deporte.

  1. REMOCION DE CROMO Y MATERIA ORGANICA DISUELTA EN EFLUENTES INDUSTRIALES POR ADSORCIÓN E INTERCAMBIO IONICO EN ZEOLITA Y CARBON ACTIVADO.

    OpenAIRE

    COVARRUBIAS GALLARDO, CRISTIAN MAURICIO; COVARRUBIAS GALLARDO, CRISTIAN MAURICIO

    2005-01-01

    Se estudió la remoción de cromo y materia orgánica desde solución acuosa utilizando métodos de separación basados en el uso de zeolitas y carbón activado. Para este propósito se evaluó la operación de remoción de cromo en columnas empacadas de zeolita y c 175p.

  2. Estudio comparado sobre igualdad de género en materia laboral: los casos de alemania, kazajstán y méxico.

    OpenAIRE

    Sigmond Ballestros, Karen; Cernas Díaz, Luis Antonio; Bambrila Paz, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    El propósito de esta investigación es proveer al lector una visión comparativa del progreso en materia de igualdad de género plasmado en el contenido de las leyes laborales, a través del espíritu normativo de las Constituciones y las principales normas de la República Federal de Alemania, la República de Kazajstán y México.

  3. Os Modelos Multiestágios de Maturidade: um Breve Relato de sua História, sua Difusão e sua Aplicação na Gestão de Pessoas por meio do People Capability Maturity Model (P P-CMM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Natanael Schwetter Silveira

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this theoretical article is to discuss the development and application of maturity multilevels models on people management in organizations, specifically, the People Capability Maturity Model or P-CMM (Curtis, Hefley, & Miller, 1995, 2002, an innovating methodology to measure the maturity level on people management in organizations. Starting from a bibliographic research effort about this subject, the article, featured on a theoretical and explorative approach, recovers recent historical development of maturity models and shows its main contributions. Initially, the multilevel models theoretical bases are introduced. On sequence, the dissemination of these models on organizational field is overviewed. Finally, the People Capability Maturity Model is introduced and its methods and application are examined. In conclusion, it is evidenced that the PCMM can provide a diagnostic view and an organizational processes orientation, measuring the maturity level advance and providing, at each level, the best practices to develop, organize and to stimulate the continuous improvement on people management.

  4. Identificación de dos formas polimórficas cristalinas de clopidogrel bisulfato en materia prima farmacéutica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German Leonardo Madrigal Redondo

    Full Text Available Introducción: el clopidogrel bisulfato existe en numerosas formas cristalinas, que varían en su estabilidad fisicoquímica, por lo que algunas de estas formas, patentadas o no, son útiles en la fabricación de medicamentos. Objetivo: identificar las formas cristalinas existentes en dos muestras de clopidogrel bisulfato materia prima comercializadas para la fabricación de medicamentos y el estado de pureza de ambas muestras. Métodos: las muestras de materia prima se obtuvieron de una industria nacional. Se examinaron mediante técnicas analíticas avanzadas como difracción de rayos X, calorimetría diferencial de barrido, termogravimetría y espectroscopia infrarroja. Se compararon los valores encontrados con los del estado del arte reconocidos en la literatura revisada para el clopidogrel bisulfato materias primas y tomados como referencia. Resultados: se obtuvieron los difractogramas, termogramas y espectros de absorción correspondientes a las muestras analizadas. Se utilizó el software TA Universal Analysis para obtener el porcentaje de descomposición, punto de fusión y picos identificadores en las muestras. Conclusiones: la muestra 1 contiene la forma cristalina I del bisulfato de clopidogrel, que no es pura ya que existe una banda característica de la presencia de contaminación con la forma cristalina II. La muestra 2 corresponde a la forma cristalina II del producto en forma pura.

  5. Efeito da irrigação e medicação endodôntica em dentina infectada por biofilmes orais

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Ordinola Zapata

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o efeito antimicrobiano da irrigação e da medicação endodôntica em dentina infectada por biofilmes orais. Na primeira parte do estudo, avaliaram-se as seguintes soluções irrigadoras: hipoclorito de sódio a 1%, clorexidina a 2%, ácido cítrico a 10% e EDTA a 17%. Na segunda parte, avaliaram-se soluções irrigadoras contendo associações (MTAD, Smear Clear, Qmix, ácido maleico a 7%, iodo-iodeto de potássio a 2% e ácido peracético a 4%), sendo essas soluções comp...

  6. A pré-medicação com midazolam antes de secção cesariana não tem efeitos adversos no neonato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Can Senel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Como todos os pacientes cirúrgicos, pacientes obstétricas também sentem estresse e ansieda de operatórios. Isso pode ser prevenido se forem passadas à paciente informações detalhadas sobre sua operação e se forem administrados medicamentos farmacológicos pré-operatórios. Devido aos efeitos depressivos dos sedativos nos neonatos, os medicamentos farmacológicos são omitidos, especialmente em pacientes obstétricas. A literatura contém poucos estudos concernentes ao uso de midazolam no pré-operatório em pacientes de secção cesariana (C/S. Nosso objetivo nesse estudo foi ajudar nossas pacientes passando por cirurgia C/S. Um grupo agendado para C/S eletiva recebeu midazolam 0,025 mg kg−1 por via intraveno sa; o outro grupo recebeu salina. A ansiedade materna foi avaliada com o uso dos escores da Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS (Escala de Ansiedade e Informação Pré-operatória de Amsterdam, e os neonatos foram avaliados por Apgar e pelo instrumento Neonatal Neurologic and Adaptive Capacity Score (NACS (Escore Neurológico e de Capacidade Adaptativa do Neonato. Em conclusão, os pacientes pré-medicados com midazolam 0,025 mg kg−1 medicação tiveram escores de ansiedade significativamente baixos, sem qualquer efeito adverso nos neonatos. Portanto, midazolam pode, com segurança, ser utilizado como agente de pré-medicação na cirurgia C/S.

  7. Vitalismo - Materia - Affermazione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosi Braidotti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper (transcription of a lesson given in Bologna on October 21, 2014 is centred in the discussion of the recent book of Braidotti, The Posthuman. It touches the issues of digital 'second life', genetically modified food, advanced prosthetics, robotics and reproductive technologies as facets of our globally linked and technologically mediated societies. From the discussion of the model of Humanism, passing through the question “are women human?”, she poses several questions about the meaning of our specie, also examining several forms of violence and injus-­‐‑ tice of current societies.

  8. El Arbitraje en Materia de Signos Distintivos Empresariales en el Sistema Jurídico Peruano El Arbitraje en Materia de Signos Distintivos Empresariales en el Sistema Jurídico Peruano

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    Carlos Alberto Matheus López

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Los autores inician el trabajo resaltando las características propias del Derecho Mercantil actual y la trascendencia de una de sus instituciones más importantes como es la marca. Seguidamente, se emprende el análisis del Arbitraje como una vía para solucionar conflictos en materia de signos distintivos empresariales, tocando de esta forma el tema de la disponibilidad de la cuestión litigiosa sometida a arbitraje, concluyendo con la idea de que es necesario el análisis específico del ordenamiento jurídico relacionado con la cuestión litigiosa para determinar la disponibilidad o no de una materia concreta. A continuación, se desarrollan las ideas esbozadas al inicio del trabajo, así se resalta que los signos distintivos empresariales, y especialmente las marcas, son instituciones que pertenecen a la disciplina mercantil y por este motivo el análisis de la disponibilidad de la cuestión litigiosa deberá desarrollarse dentro de los contornos del Derecho Mercantil y de los intereses que este ordenamiento busca proteger, los mismos que no son sólo los de los empresarios sino también los de los consumidores y los del sistema económico en general. Luego, se desarrolla el tema particular de la viabilidad de la aplicación de la institución arbitral en la etapa de concesión del derecho sobre la marca, diferenciando adecuadamente el tamiz supuesto por las prohibiciones absolutas y las prohibiciones relativas al registro de un signo como marca, reconociendo diferentes intereses protegidos por cada grupo de prohibiciones. A continuación, se analiza la aplicación de la institución arbitral luego de otorgado el derecho de exclusiva sobre la marca, diferenciandoen esta etapa tanto la faceta positiva y la faceta negativa del derecho sobre la marca así como las perspectivas de acción que cada una permite realizar al titular de la marca. Finalmente se rescata una idea que gira a través de todo el análisis realizado, la misma que apunta a

  9. Funcionamento intelectual em pacientes pediátricos com epilepsia: comparação de crianças controladas com medicação, não controladas com medicação e controladas com cirurgia Intellectual functioning in pediatric patients with epilepsy: a comparison of medically controlled, medically uncontrolled and surgically controlled children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Souza-Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o quociente intelectual (QI em três grupos de crianças com epilepsia: 1 controlados com medicação, 2 não controlados com medicação e 3 controlados com cirurgia. MÉTODOS: Noventa e oito pacientes pediátricos, com idades entre 6 e 12 anos, foram selecionados de dezembro de 2007 a julho de 2008. A Escala de Inteligência Wechsler para Crianças - terceira edição (WISC-III foi utilizada para a avaliação neuropsicológica dos pacientes. Os resultados foram relacionados com a síndrome epiléptica, a etiologia da epilepsia, o tratamento medicamentoso, a idade do paciente no início da epilepsia e a duração da epilepsia. RESULTADOS: Os escores da WISC foram significativamente melhores no grupo controlado com medicação quando comparados aos do grupo não controlado com medicação. O grupo controlado com medicação obteve um desempenho significativamente melhor na maioria dos subtestes da WISC quando comparado ao grupo não controlado com medicação: vocabulário, aritmética, compreensão, memória de dígitos, completar figuras, arranjo de figuras e cubos. Um número significativamente maior de pacientes com epilepsia idiopática e uso de monoterapia foi observado no grupo controlado com medicação quando comparado ao grupo não controlado. O grupo controlado com cirurgia não apresentou diferença significativa no desempenho do QI quando comparado ao grupo controlado com medicação. CONCLUSÕES: As crianças com um bom controle de crises tiveram um melhor desempenho no QI geral, verbal e de execução quando comparadas às crianças com epilepsia refratária. Esses resultados podem ser influenciados por fatores clínicos como o uso de monoterapia, o tipo de droga antiepiléptica utilizada, a síndrome epiléptica e a etiologia da epilepsia. A cirurgia de epilepsia pode causar um impacto positivo no desempenho cognitivo das crianças que ficaram livres de crises após o procedimento cirúrgico.OBJECTIVE: To

  10. Nueva materia prima borácica como componente de esmaltes cerámicos. Estudio de su solubilidad en suspensiones acuosas concentradas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galindo, M.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an alternative to the use of conventional ceramic frits as raw materials that contribute boron to glaze compositions: a new semi-processed borate (patent pending (WO 2007/148101. The solubility of this new raw material is analysed and compared with that exhibited by conventional ceramic frits and other, natural and processed borates. This comparative analysis has been performed by determining the boron percentage present in the liquid phase of several glaze compositions prepared with each of these raw materials, modifying the type of deflocculant used and the solid/liquid contact time. The results of this study demonstrate the low solubility of the new semi-processed borate and its suitability for use in ceramic glaze formulation.

    En el presente trabajo se presenta una alternativa a la utilización de fritas cerámicas convencionales como materias primas que aportan boro a las composiciones de esmalte: un nuevo borato sintético (patente pendiente WO2007/148101. Se ha estudiado y comparado la solubilidad de esta nueva materia prima con la que exhiben las fritas cerámicas convencionales y otros boratos, tanto naturales como sintéticos. Para ello, se ha determinado el porcentaje de boro presente en la fase líquida de varios esmaltes preparados con cada una de dichas materias primas, modificando el tipo de desfloculante utilizado y el tiempo de contacto sólido/líquido. El resultado de este trabajo ha puesto de manifiesto la baja solubilidad que presenta el nuevo borato sintético y su aptitud para ser usado en la formulación de esmaltes cerámicos.

  11. Contenidos teóricos de las materias generales y especializadas en los planes de estudios de las diplomaturas de ciencias de la salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Arias Navalón

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar cuantitativamente los contenidos teóricos, generales y especializados, de los planes de estudios de las diplomaturas de ciencias de la salud en España. A partir de esos datos se harán algunas recomendaciones y se destacarán aspectos que podrían necesitar modificaciones. Diseño: Revisión sistemática. Emplazamiento y material de estudio: Planes de estudios de las diplomaturas de ciencias de la salud en España: Enfermería, Fisioterapia, Logopedia, Nutrición humana y dietética, Óptica y optometría, Podología y Terapia ocupacional. Mediciones: Número de horas teóricas dedicadas a materias troncales, detallando su carácter general o especializado. Resultados y conclusiones: En conjunto, los contenidos especializados y generales suponen, respectivamente, el 66,7 y el 33,3%. La mayoría de las carreras tienen más horas asignadas a materias especializadas. Los resultados oscilan entre la ausencia de materias troncales generales en las carreras de Óptica y optometría y de Logopedia y el 71,4% de carga lectiva de carácter general en la carrera de Terapia ocupacional. La carencia de conocimientos generales sobre la salud y la enfermedad puede tener consecuencias negativas en la práctica diaria y en las expectativas que tienen para hacer investigación los profesionales implicados.

  12. Argentine regulatory experience concerning radiation protection in industrial gammagraphy; Experiencia regulatoria argentina en gammagrafia industrial en materia de radioproteccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermacora, Marcela G [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    Industrial gammagraphy has always been responsible for the highest rates of radiological incidents in almost every part of the world. This is mainly due to the high activities of the radioactive sources used, which are constantly transported in the equipment that contains them between the storage and the areas of work, and is also due to workload pressures which may induce to negligence in following the operational procedures, if a strong Safety Culture does not exist. The purpose of this paper is to present the main aspects of the Argentine Regulations relating to radiation protection to control this practice and to contribute in this way to reduce the associated risks. In addition, some incidents occurred in Argentina during the latest years, the causes that led to those events and their relation to the in observance of the regulations in force, their consequences and the measures taken to repair them are described. Finally, the importance of the role that education and training has in the strengthening of Safety Culture, key element of all undertaking, is highlighted. (author) [Spanish] La gammagrafia industrial siempre fue responsable de los mayores indices de accidentes radiologicos en casi todo el mundo. Esto se debe principalmente a las altas actividades de las fuentes radiactivas utilizadas, las cuales son transportadas constantemente en los equipos que las contienen entre el deposito y las areas de trabajo, y a presiones de carga de trabajo que pueden inducir a descuidos en el seguimiento de los procedimientos de operacion, si no existe una Cultura de la Seguridad arraigada. El proposito de este trabajo es presentar los aspectos principales de la reglamentacion argentina en materia de radioproteccion para controlar esta practica y de esta manera contribuir a reducir los riesgos asociados. Asimismo, se describen algunos incidentes ocurridos en argentina durante los ultimos anios, las causas que condujeron a dichos sucesos y su relacion con el incumplimiento

  13. IPP (INNOVACIÓN EN PRODUCTOS Y PROCESOS PARA EL SECTOR DE LAS MATERIAS PRIMAS MINERALES Y ENERGÉTICAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORREA ESPINAL ALEXANDER

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo proscrita los resultados del proyecto ce Investigación IPP (Innovación ce Procesos y Productos que plantea un análisis profundo y sistémico de las cadenas productivas, basado en el estudio de la productividad y los procesos. Este proyecto se trabajo en 4 fases: Inteligencia, Experimentación. Innovación y Apropiación tecnológica. Estas etapas están dirigidas al mejoramiento continuo ce los procesos, de los productos ce la organización y de las interacciones entre los actores de la cadena productiva de las materias primas minerales y energéticas. En la fase de inteligencia, se estudiaron las características, las ecesidades. el mercado y el entorno de la cadena productiva que son el resultado del aprovechamiento de los recursos naturales y del ambiente En la segunda fase, se caracterizó la formulación, diseño c implantación ce prototipos de procesos y productos que emulen el comportamiento del proceso en un sistema real y sean amigables con el medio ambiente. Teniendo en cuenta las dos primeras fases, la tercera se caracterizó por la formulación y el diseño ce nuevos procesos y productos que mejoren la eficiencia y la productividad. En la última fase del proyecto, se planteó el servicio de apropiación tecnológica que busca transferir innovación y conocimiento de punta a la cadena. Finalmente el resultado ce IPP es la propuesta de un centro de innovación y tecnología en la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, que garantizará la apropiación y adecuación de las soluciones a las cadenas productivas, siendo una innovación para el sector de la minería, los materiales y la energía, y teniendo como principios, productos y procesos amigables con el ambiente.

  14. Materias primas para pavimentos y revestimientos cerámicos en la región de Murcia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández, C.

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The clay industry of the Murcia Region has never had a relevant industrial importance, with only around ten brick operations in the last few years. Today only only two brid factories are operative having certain size. The extraordinary industrial development currently experienced by the Region has leaded to the development of new initiatives which need institutional backing. In this framework and under the sponsoring of the Council of Technologies, Industry and Commerce of the Autonomic Community, the Spanish Geological Survey (ITGE has carried out a general survey for raw materials for the ceramic industry in the region, mainly aimed to find clays for ceramic gres and glazed tiles, whose results are discussed in this paper. Murcia has a very complicated geology, being carbonated marine sediments the most important lithologies. Due to it, it is difficult to find no-carbonated shales or clays to produce gres tiles. We have found six zones containing different clay types, that reach a few hundreds million tons of resources. With that clays we have produce in the laboratory gres tiles and glazed tiles of commercial quality.

    La industria cerámica de la Región de Murcia no ha tenido gran importancia industrial, limitándose a una decena de fábricas de ladrillos. Hoy en día sólo operan en la región 2 fábricas de ladrillos de cierta entidad. El extraordinario desarrollo industrial que experimenta actualmente la Región suscita nuevas iniciativas empresariales, que precisan del apoyo institucional. En este marco y bajo el auspicio y con la financiación parcial de la Consejería Tecnologías, Industria y Comercio de la Comunidad Autónoma, el Instituto Tecnológico Geominero de España ha realizado en los tres últimos años una investigación general de materias primas para la industria cerámica en la región, especialmente dirigida a localizar arcillas para pavimentos y revestimientos cerámicos, cuyos resultados se exponen en este

  15. Programa de fidelización para el segmento del mercado internacional de la empresa Materia Hnos. S.A.C.I.F.

    OpenAIRE

    Materia, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Materia Hnos. S.A.C.I.F es una empresa dedicada a la elaboración de oleoquímicos con 58 años de trayectoria en el mercado, reconocida internacionalmente por la calidad de sus productos. A nivel nacional, logra acaparar todo el mercado ya que es la única industria encargada de la producción y comercialización de estos insumos. En cambio, a nivel mundial, la misma se encuentra en un entorno sumamente competitivo. Por este motivo, es indispensable la aplicación de estrategias vinculadas a gestio...

  16. Mejoramiento de la gestión de compras e inventario de materia prima en la empresa Cepeda Cía. Ltda.

    OpenAIRE

    Villacís Mayorga, Grace Silvana

    2015-01-01

    En los resultados obtenidos en el proyecto "Diagnóstico de la Gestión de Compras y Control de Inventarios en la Empresa Cepeda Cía. Ltda.", se determinaron problemas de excesos y desabastecimientos de materia prima, procedimientos no actualizados del sistema de gestión; falta de un control formal o técnico en la gestión de los procesos de compra y control de inventarios evidenciándose que se requiere de planificación y orden. Para el mejoramiento del Proceso de Compras e Inventarios de Materi...

  17. Transformaciones de la política exterior egipcia en materia de seguridad, frente al Estado de Israel, desde la caída de Mubarak. 2002- 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    El presente estudio de caso identifica las transformaciones de la política exterior egipcia en materia de seguridad frente al Estado de Israel, desde la Caída de Mubarak. La hipótesis que sustenta este ejercicio académico repasa las principales transformaciones que ha sufrido la política exterior egipcia en términos de seguridad frente a Israel pasando por la seguridad fronteriza, las relaciones diplomáticas, y el cambio del discurso gubernamental hasta la incidencia y actual importancia de ...

  18. LA EDUCACIÓN AMBIENTAL EN EL BACHILLERATO: EL CASO DE LOS DOCENTES QUE IMPARTEN LA MATERIA DE ECOLOGÍA, PUEBLA-TLAXCALA (MÉXICO

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    Adelina Espejel Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los diferentes problemas que ocurren en el medio educativo han sido abordados desde diversos enfoques de análisis. Esta diversidad disciplinaria se deriva de la complejidad de situaciones estudiadas y es resultado de la dificultad en la definición de "lo educativo" como un campo metodológico y teórico (Bertely, 2004. Una de estas situaciones complejas es la Educación Ambiental (EA, que atañe a esta investigación. El objetivo de este artículo es conocer los alcances y las limitaciones de la práctica de la EA para promover y construir una conciencia ambiental entre alumnos del Bachillerato, así como, estimular iniciativas proambientales. La aproximación metodológica adoptada es la Etnografía Institucional (EI aplicada a la Educación Ambiental, la cual permitirá por un lado retratar la realidad lo más fidedigna posible, y por otro lado, adoptar este retrato a otras situaciones que ocurren en contextos institucionales similares. Entre los resultados encontramos que: (a los docentes no tienen el perfil deseable para enseñar el curso de Ecología y ellos no tienen los conocimientos ambientales básicos; (b el programa de estudios en la materia de Ecología ha sido creado de manera superficial y muy general; (c el curso de Ecología es nominal y (d la materia de Ecología es impartida en periodos de tiempo cortos y regida por una modalidad preferentemente teórica que práctica. En general, las limitaciones formativas de los docentes y las debilidades de los contenidos programáticos de la materia restringen abordar con interés y dimensionar la problemática ambiental. En consecuencia, se genera en el alumnado una formación sin actitudes y valores ambientales. El profesorado fracasa en su intención de lograr generar estudiantes con conciencia ambiental, propósito central de la materia de Ecología.

  19. Recomendaciones para la mejora del subsistema científico-técnico español en materia de salud y seguridad en el trabajo

    OpenAIRE

    Universitat Pompeu Fabra. Observatorio de Salud Laboral

    2005-01-01

    Convocado por el Observatorio de Salud Laboral, se celebró un Taller deexpertos con un doble objetivo: 1) Presentar y debatir el informe “Subsistemascientífico-técnicos de apoyo a las políticas de salud y seguridad en el trabajo.Estudio comparativo de diferentes países”, elaborado por el OSL y que se publicacomo anexo a este documento. 2) Realizar recomendaciones para la mejora delsubsistema científico-técnico español en materia de salud y seguridad en eltrabajo.Asisten al citado Taller de Ex...

  20. Caracterización y eliminación de la materia disuelta y coloidal en la fabricación de papel reciclado

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Carreño, Rubén

    2008-01-01

    La creciente utilización del papel recuperado como materia prima para la fabricación de papel implica la necesidad de extender los límites actuales del reciclado de papel. En este sentido, la optimización del proceso de fabricación para eliminar al máximo los contaminantes y fabricar así papel reciclado de mayor calidad con un papel recuperado cuya calidad disminuye con el tiempo, es la clave para que este sector industrial siga siendo competitivo. Por tanto, el objetivo de esta tesis doctora...

  1. PROCESO ENZIMATICO PARA LA PRODUCCION DE METIL ESTERES DE ACIDOS GRASOS UTILIZANDO ACEITES RESIDUALES DE FRITURA EN MEZCLA CON ACEITE DE RAPS COMO MATERIA PRIMA

    OpenAIRE

    AZOCAR ULLOA; LAURA HAYDEE; AZOCAR ULLOA; LAURA HAYDEE

    2010-01-01

    Los procesos catalizados por lipasas han sido ampliamente investigados como alternativa para la producción de metil ésteres de ácidos grasos (fatty acid methyl ester, FAME) o biodiesel. El interés en este proceso radica en que a diferencia de los procesos convencionales catalizados con sales alcalinas, los procesos catalizados con lipasas permiten el uso de materias primas alternativas y de menor costo, tales como el aceite residual de fritura (waste frying oil, WFO). Pese a los l...

  2. Evaluación de distintas materias primas para la producción de almácigo de tomate

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Richmond

    2010-01-01

    Se evaluaron mezclas de materias primas naturales en diferentes proporciones y en el siguiente orden: fibra de coco (Cocos nucifera), aserrín de melina (Gmelina arborea) y abono orgánico Coope Victoria, para utilizarlos como sustrato en la etapa de almácigo de tomate híbrido FBM-17. Se hicieron mezclas entre sí de fibra de coco y aserrín de melina en diferentes proporciones (30%, 40% y 50% de cada material), para un total de 9 tratamientos; el abono orgánico se agregó para completar el 100%. ...

  3. Erros de medicação em hospitais: uma análise bioética dos aspectos jurídicos e de saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Souza Schumacher

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O tema dos erros de medicação envolve vários aspectos - éticos, morais, jurídicos, sociais, profissionais, assistenciais, entre outros - merecendo uma reflexão abrangente. Os aspectos éticos referem-se principalmente à adequação das ações frente aos erros e os aspectos jurídicos estão relacionados diretamente com a aferição da responsabilidade civil nos casos da ocorrência de danos. Este estudo busca estabelecer relações entre o Direito, a Saúde e a Bioética, em uma perspectiva interdisciplinar, por meio da avaliação dos acórdãos referentes a erros de medicação em hospitais na jurisprudência do Rio Grande do Sul. Materiais e Método: Foi realizada uma pesquisa qualitativa, de análise de conteúdo documental, em acórdãos colhidos na base de dados eletrônica do Tribunal de Justiça do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. O descritor utilizado para busca foi: erro de medicação em hospitais. Resultados e Discussão: foram localizados 43 acórdãos na base de dados no período de 1995 a 2011. Destes, apenas 6 acórdãos referem-se a erros de medicação especificamente, sendo que 2 não estão disponíveis na íntegra. Foram analisados os quatro acórdãos envolvendo erros de medicação. Nos 4 acórdãos os demandados foram: 3 hospitais, 1 município e 1 médico. Todas as decisões foram favoráveis aos demandantes. Considerações Finais: O conceito de erro de medicação, embora utilizado na área da saúde e por órgãos oficiais, não tem sido utilizado no Poder Judiciário, o que demonstra que uma maior aproximação das áreas envolvidas, incluindo uma melhor comunicação, é necessária para uma adequada compreensão do tema.

  4. Efecto de las deficiencias nutricionales en la distribución de la materia seca en plantas de vivero de curuba (Passiflora mollissima Bailey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabezas Marco

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Para confirmar el efecto que tienen las deficiencias de nutrientes minerales mayores en la asignación de la materia seca en órganos vegetativos de Passiflora mollissima, se realizó un experimento en condiciones de vivero, mediante la técnica de deficiencia inducida por elemento faltante. Se pudo establecer que las deficiencias de N y K reducen en alta proporción el área foliar y la masa de la planta, mientras que las deficiencias de P afectan el patrón de distribución de la biomasa, al favorecer la mayor acumulación en la raíz. En general, las deficiencias de macronutrientes afectan de forma drástica la distribución de la materia seca en los órganos vegetativos de la planta y producen síntomas específicos que pueden servir como indicadores del estado nutricional en condiciones de campo.

  5. Imágenes del átomo: un producto del esfuerzo científico por comprender la estructura de la materia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cabrera

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available En este escrito mostramos algunas de las representaciones del constituyente básico de la materia, siendo todas creaciones del intelecto humano, y no por ello son cuentos de hadas, por el contrario se encuentran basados en valores numéricos y datos experimentales, avalados por teorías aceptadas, no obstante al estar ubicadas en diferentes momentos históricos, suplían solo las necesidades de la época. Así pues, haciendo una revisión del concepto, se abarca la idea de átomo desde las ultimas concepciones de la mecánica clásica, su transición en lo que se conoce como una mezcla entre la mecánica clásica y cuántica (mecánica cuántica de antaño, y la nueva representación que implico la visión de la mecánica cuántica, en adición a esto y haciendo alusión al título, mostraremos un nuevo constituyente básico de la materia desarrollado a través de la manipulación del hombre denominados puntos cuánticos.

  6. Determinación de materia orgánica y hierro en rocas pizarrosas mediante medición de su coloración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encinas, M.

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of several Palaeozoic shales has allowed to establish a definite correlation between organic matter, or iron content, and colour (as determined with a reflectometer. Hyperbolic curves obtained by plotting the data, show correlation coefficients above 0.9. Colour in rocks is inf!uenced by carbonate content whereas reflectivity is increased by it. Use of a reflectometer, or the Munsell chart of colours, is then proposed as an easy, fast and accurate enough method of estimating organic matter or iron content on this type of pelitic rocks.El análisis de diferentes pizarras paleozoicas ha permitido establecer una correlación positiva entre el contenido en materia orgánica, así como en hierro, y su coloración, medida con un reflectómetro. . Las curvas que mejor se ajustan a los datos obtenidos son las de tipo hiperbólico, con coeficientes de correlación superiores a 0,9. La presencia de carbonatos influye notablemente en el color de las rocas, aumentando los valores de reflectividad. Se propone la utilización de un reflectómetro, o de la carta de colores de Munsell, como un método fácil, rápido y bastante preciso para estimar el porcentaje de materia orgánica y de hierro en este tipo de rocas pelíticas.

  7. Dos variantes de la alfabetización académica cuando se entrelazan la lectura y la escritura en las materias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Carlino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ste trabajo reexamina datos de tres investigaciones realizadas por el Grupo para la Inclusión y Calidad Educativas a través de Ocuparnos de la Lectura y la Escritura en todas las Materias (Giceolem, que versan sobre los modos en que escribir y leer se incluyen en distintos espacios curriculares de la educación superior. Mediante una encuesta nacional, identificamos que existen dos modalidades de trabajo con la lectura y la escritura en cada materia: la periférica y la entrelazada. A través del análisis de registros observacionales en clases de Historia y de Biología, distinguimos, a su vez, dos variantes de la modalidad entrelazada, correspon - dientes a situaciones en las que se dialoga en torno a lo leído y escrito sobre temas disciplinares. El análisis de las observaciones de clase permite caracterizar las prácticas de enseñanza, y triangularlas con lo que de ellas se declara en la encuesta. Se busca con ello aportar al debate sobre la alfabetización académica, precisando cómo, con qué fin y por qué ocuparse de la escritura y lectura a través del currículum.

  8. EVALUACIÓN DE MATERIAS PRIMAS EN UNA PLANTA DE BENEFICIO DE ARENA DE SILICE PARA AUMENTAR LA EFICIENCIA ENERGÉTICA DEL PROCESO DE MOLIENDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATRIZ ÁLVAREZ-RODRÍGUEZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por objetivo primordial optimizar el consumo energético y reducir la contaminación ambiental asociada, por la liberación de CO2, en una planta de micronización de sílice. La metodología empleada consiste en aplicar la teoría de Bond para la selección de materias primas a tratar en la mencionada planta, la cual dependiendo de las necesidades actuales opera con dos tamaños de molienda d100, 50 y 75μm. Los ensayos experimentales se llevaron a cabo sobre muestras tomadas en la planta, teniendo en cuenta que las tres materias primas son de distinta procedencia y de similares características químicas y mineralógicas. Del análisis de los resultados obtenidos se concluye que el consumo energético de la planta puede reducirse hasta algo más de un 30% en ambos tamaños y evitando las emisiones de CO2 en 293,83 kg y 128,86 kg por hora de funcionamiento respectivamente.

  9. Una fuente potencial de conflictos jurídicos: la mala praxis en materia de incorporación de la normativa en el Mercosur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pastori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Los comentarios que se desarrollan en este arÚculo, tienen por finalidad el planteo y análisis de la falta de certeza que existe en materia de vigencia de la normativa del Mercado Común del Sur (MERCOSUR, como consecuencia, esencialmente, de la mala praxis de los Estados en cumplir con las disposiciones en materia de incorporación de la normativa MERCOSUR. Esta circunstancia, que por cierto no beneficia al proceso de integración en su conjunto, se traduce en la posibilidad cierta de conflictos entre Estados o particulares, por lo que creemos de interés el estudio del tema.Aclaramos que no constituye objeto de este trabajo ahondar en el hecho comprobado de la omisión de los Estados Parte de proceder a la incorporación de las normas y en la necesidad de que activen sus procedimientos internos,a estos efectos, sino el analizar las consecuencias jurídicas de las eventuales desviaciones, por parte de éstos, en la aplicación de las disposiciones vinculadas al procedimiento de incorporación de las normas MERCOSUR. A este último aspecto únicamente es al que nos referimos entonces con la expresión "mala praxis". 

  10. La descomposición de la materia orgánica y su relación con algunos factores climáticos y microclimaticos

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    Arguello Arias Heliodoro

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available La descomposición de la materia orgánica, es un importante proceso que relaciona la dinámica de la vegetación con la dinámica del suelo. Regulando este proceso intervienen
    factores bióticos y abióticos. Algunos autores mencionan que la temperatura es el factor climático más importante,
    especialmente en condiciones muy húmedas; mientras que otros autores aseguran que es la humedad el factor climático más importante. Sin embargo, resulta claro que en las zonas templadas, la tasa de descomposición es más baja que en las zonas tropicales. También se han desarrollado modelos que
    predicen el contenido de materia orgánica y nitrógeno en suelos superficiales, con base en informaciones sobre temperatura promedio anual y un "factor de humedad". Así
    mismo otros han elaborado modelos que predicen la tasa de descomposición con base en el porcentaje de lignina contenido en el follaje. La evotranspiración actual anual, sin
    embargo, presenta curvas de regresión más ajustadas al modelo de predicción, siendo el factor de mayor importancia.

  11. Conocimiento previo y comprensión lectora en un texto de materia teológica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méndez Anchía, Silvia

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Estudio el libro Cristología, fe de Jesús, fe cristiana, de Francisco Avendaño Herrera (San José: UNED, 2002, para determinar cómo influyen los conocimientos previos del estudiantado (asociados con una perspectiva tradicionalista en su comprensión lectora del conocimiento nuevo que presenta el texto de Avendaño. Recolecté los datos mediante observación participante en las tutorías del curso de Cristología en que se utiliza el texto (programa de Teología a Distancia de la UNED y la UNA, ambas instituciones de educación superior de Costa Rica. Analizo los resultados con base en tres posibles formas de lectura: autoritaria, negociada y competente. Concluyo señalando un predominio de la lectura autoritaria y negociada, que puede explicarse por la función social de la religión en la construcción de la realidad de los sujetos, razón por la cual estos parecen resistirse a comprender un conocimiento nuevo que les genera incertidumbre en su visión de mundo en materia religiosa. Emito, finalmente, una serie de recomendaciones sobre cambios que, con base en los resultados de este estudio, podrían introducirse en una nueva edición del libro analizado.Abstract: I have studied Francisco Avendaño-Herrera’s book Cristología, fe de Jesús, fe cristiana («Christology, the faith of Jesus, the faith of Christendom» (San Jose: UNED, 2002 to determine how the students’ prior knowledge (associated with a traditionalistic outlook influences their reading comprehension of such new knowledge as could be acquired from Avendaño-Herrera’s book. I collected the data through observation while attending tutoring sessions at the Christology course where the text is used (under the distance education programme in theology of both, UNED and UNA, which are Costa Rican higher education institutions. I analysed the results based on the possibility to do an authoritarian, a negotiated, and a competent reading. In conclusion, may I point to a

  12. Aspectos a considerar en una actualización de la normativa nacional en materia de legionelosis

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    Eduardo Forján Lozano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: En España, el vigente Real Decreto 865/2003 establece una serie de medidas destinadas a la prevención de la legionelosis que inciden especialmente en el mantenimiento de las instalaciones de riesgo relacionadas con la proliferación y transmisión de Legionella. Este trabajo pretende revisar determinados aspectos estructurales, de mantenimiento, operacionales y documentales que, desde el punto de vista del Control Oficial, podrían ser incluidos en una futura nueva norma que pudiera ser más efectiva, si cabe, en la prevención y control de la legionelosis en las instalaciones de riesgo. Materiales y Métodos: Se ha utilizado la normativa nacional vigente en materia de la legionelosis, documentación técnica de apoyo, otras normativas de aplicación en países de la Unión Europea, así como servicios en línea de información científica (ISI Web of Knowledge y bases de datos de bibliografía médica (MEDLINE PubMed. Resultados y Discusión: Tras más de una década en vigor, es necesario que ciertos aspectos técnicos de las instalaciones de riesgo en la transmisión de la legionelosis sean revisados y adecuados al conocimiento actual y a la experiencia adquirida. Entre ellos se encuentran la clasificación de riesgo de las instalaciones, aspectos técnicos y operacionales de los sistemas de agua fría de consumo humano y caliente sanitaria, de los equipos de enfriamiento evaporativos, de los sistemas de agua climatizada y de los procedimientos de toma de muestras. Por último, se discute sobre la inclusión de técnicas analíticas basadas en la Biología Molecular (qPCR como método oficial en la determinación de Legionella. Conclusiones: Una posible nueva normativa sobre prevención y control de la legionelosis debe contemplar una clasificación de las instalaciones en función del riesgo, que recoja las de reciente aparición que han sido asociadas a brotes. También deberá contar con anexos sobre las medidas preventivas

  13. The treatment of Alzheimer's disease using Chinese medicinal plants: from disease models to potential clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yang; Wang, Qiuhong; Wang, Changfu; Chan, Kelvin; Sun, Yanping; Kuang, Haixue

    2014-03-28

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the sustained higher nervous disorders of the activities and functions of the brain. Due to its heavy burden on society and the patients' families, it is urgent to review the treatments for AD to provide basic data for further research and new drug development. Among these treatments, Chinese Material Medica (CMM) has been traditionally clinical used in China to treat AD for a long time with obvious efficacy. With the further research reports of CMM, new therapeutic materials may be recovered from troves of CMM. However, So far, little or no review work has been reported to conclude anti-AD drugs from CMM in literature. Therefore, a systematic introduction of CMM anti-AD research progress is of great importance and necessity. This paper strives to systematically describe the progress of CMM in the treatment of AD, and lays a basis data for anti-AD drug development from CMM, and provides the essential theoretical support for the further development and utilization of CMM resources through a more comprehensive research of the variety of databases regarding CMM anti-AD effects reports. Literature survey was performed via electronic search (SciFinder®, Pubmed®, Google Scholar and Web of Science) on papers and patents and by systematic research in ethnopharmacological literature at various university libraries. This review mainly introduces the current research on the Chinese Material Medica (CMM) theoretical research on Alzheimer's disease (AD), anti-AD active constituent of CMM, anti-AD effects on AD models, anti-AD mechanism of CMM, and anti-AD effect of CMM formula. Scholars around the world have made studies on the anti-AD molecular mechanism of CMM from different pathways, and have made substantial progress. The progress not only enriched the anti-AD theory of CMM, but also provided clinical practical significance and development prospects in using CMM to treat AD. Western pure drugs cannot replace the advantages of

  14. Medical response guide for the initial phase of a radiological emergency; Guia para la respuesta medica en la fase inicial de una emergencia radiologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Marina A; Perez, Maria del R

    2007-07-01

    In case of a sanitary emergency, the local community and its health care system are the first aid providers. Therefore, preparedness through education and training programs would allow emergency systems to provide an appropriate first medical response. The main objective of this guide is to give basic guidelines for the medical response management after situations involving radioactive materials, in an easy and simple way. The information contained in this guide is addressed to health care personnel of any local assistance center. (author) [Spanish] Las emergencias que afecten a un numero importante de personas y que tengan como protagonistas agentes 'no convencionales' como lo son las radiaciones ionizantes, deben ser abordadas mediante la implementacion de programas sanitarios especiales. En una situacion de emergencia, generalmente los primeros en proporcionar la ayuda, son la comunidad local y su sistema de salud. Por ello la preparacion previa local, a traves de la capacitacion y el entrenamiento permitira brindar una respuesta inicial adecuada que se articule con un sistema de respuesta en emergencias escalonado y de complejidad creciente. Esto requiere la participacion de las autoridades de salud en cada uno de los niveles de atencion, asi como apoyo de otros sectores para desarrollar sus planes de preparacion y respuesta. La presente guia, como instrumento de capacitacion, tiene como objetivo primario brindar las herramientas basicas para el manejo de la respuesta medica en una situacion de emergencia que involucre material radiactivo, en un lenguaje claro y sencillo, dirigida al personal de salud de todos los centros asistenciales locales. (autor)

  15. Alternativas de medicação intracanal em casos de necrose pulpar com lesão periapical = Intracanal medication indicated for pulpal necrosis with apical osteites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fachin, Elaine Vianna Freitas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de estudo in vivo em pacientes portadores de dentes monorradiculares apresentando necrose pulpar com lesão periapical. O objetivo foi avaliar radiograficamente a efetividade de 4 diferentes curativos de demora (PMCC, gel de clorexidina 2%, pasta de hidróxido de cálcio e hipoclorito de sódio1%. O tratamento endodôntico foi padronizado em todos os elementos através da técnica escalonada e irrigação com hipoclorito de sódio 1%. Para a medicação intracanal, os pacientes foram separados aleatoriamente em 4 grupos que receberam um dos medicamentos listados. Após 7 dias, os canais foram obturados e submetidos a controle radiográfico aos 3, 6 e 9 meses em que se mediu com precisão a diminuição do diâmetro radiolúcido apical. Os resultados mais satisfatórios ocorreram após o uso do PMCC, seguido pelo hidróxido de cálcio, clorexidina 2% e, por último, hipoclorito de sódio 1%

  16. Adaptação multicêntrica do guia para a gestão autônoma da medicação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Teresa Onocko Campos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso crescente de psicofármacos e o baixo empowerment dos usuários mostram-se críticos à qualificação da assistência em Saúde Mental no Brasil. Este estudo, abrangendo três cidades brasileiras, objetivou a elaboração do Guia Brasileiro da Gestão Autônoma da Medicação (GGAM-BR, com base na tradução e adaptação de guia desenvolvido no Canadá; e a avaliação dos efeitos do uso do GGAM-BR na formação de trabalhadores de saúde mental. Constituíram-se grupos de intervenção (GIs para compartilhamento das experiências com tratamento medicamentoso, a partir dos temas propostos no guia; e foram realizados grupos focais antes e após os GIs. Importantes mudanças em relação ao texto original do guia Canadense foram implementadas, levando em conta a realidade brasileira. Constatou-se que o GGAM-BR constitui estratégia potente de fomento à participação ativa dos usuários na gestão do tratamento e do serviço, incidindo positivamente na formação de trabalhadores.

  17. Parámetros de Transferencia de Materia en el Secado de Frutas, sin Necesidad de Datos de Disminución de Volumen Mass Transfer Parameters in Fruit Drying, without using Shrinkage Data

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastião R Ferreira; Antônio R. S Costa

    2010-01-01

    Se desarrolló una metodología analítica para evaluar parámetros de transferencia de materia en el secado de frutas cilindricas, sin necesidad de conocer datos de disminución de volumen, pero admitiendo implícitamente disminución de su radio en el proceso R. Con el procedimiento se predice el coeficiente externo de transferencia de materia k m, la difusividad efectiva del agua en frutos De f, el número de Biot Bi y el radio promedio Rm durante el secado. Para probar la metodología es necesario...

  18. Percepción del profesor de una propuesta de enseñanza, utilizando analogías, sobre de los estados de agregación de la materia

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Cascales, Josefa

    2017-01-01

    Se presenta la valoración de cinco profesores de una propuesta de enseñanza, implementada en nueve grupos de 3º de ESO, sobre los estados de agregación de la materia que utiliza diferentes analogías, como recurso didáctico, del modelo cinético particular. El profesorado considera las analogías empleadas como una herramienta útil para los estudiantes pues les ayuda no solo a imaginar el modelo cinético sino a comprender y explicar las propiedades y cambios de estado de la materia

  19. Validação da Prescrição Oncológica: o papel do farmacêutico na prevenção de erros de medicação

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    Livia Oliboni

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Erros de medicação são constantemente relatados na literatura médico-científica. Há casos clínicos em que a administração inadequada de doses altas de alguns citostáticos tem como consequência a toxicidade grave e a morte do paciente. As não conformidades presentes nas prescrições aos pacientes oncológicos podem ser catastróficas em função da estreita margem terapêutica dos medicamentos antineoplásicos. Prevenir erros de medicação torna-se uma prioridade na melhora do processo farmacoterapêutico em pacientes da oncologia. A multidisciplinaridade é um fator essencial de alerta aos erros de medicação de antineoplásicos e às maneiras de preveni-los Os farmacêuticos e todos os profissionais que constituem uma equipe multidisciplinar de saúde contribuem para garantia do uso seguro dos medicamentos, o que auxilia no aprimoramento de uma assistência qualificada. Para isso, além das atividades já bem estabelecidas, esses profissionais devem (i implantar um sistema de validação farmacêutica bem como (ii estabelecer um sistema de verificação da prescrição médica, o qual consiste em diferentes etapas. O objetivo dessa revisão é relatar a validação da prescrição médica, considerando-se os erros de medicação na quimioterapia e o papel do farmacêutico na prevenção desses erros. São medidas que visam a melhorar a qualidade da assistência prestada aos pacientes oncológicos.

  20. Estrategia de Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas (ABP) para explorar las concepciones alternativas relacionadas al tema estados de agregacion de la materia en estudiantes de nivel elemental =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado Olivieri, Wilda Y.

    Gran parte de la investigacion acerca de la ensenanza de las ciencias se dedica a estudiar la forma o manera en que los estudiantes visualizan los conceptos cientificos. Para Driver (1983) esas ideas o concepciones se conocen como concepciones alternativas; las cuales pueden ocasionar dificultad para comprender los conceptos de las diferentes areas del conocimiento. El proposito de este estudio fue: (a) indagar como las distintas etapas del ABP permiten explorar las concepciones alternativas que poseen los estudiantes de nivel elemental acerca de los estados de agregacion de la materia y, (b) explorar en que medida el ABP permite identificar e incorporar las concepciones alternativas que poseen los estudiantes de nivel elemental con relacion al concepto de estados de agregacion de la materia para facilitar su aprendizaje. Con el fin de explorar las concepciones alternativas en el tema de los estados agregados de la materia se implanto la estrategia de Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas (ABP) con estudiantes de quinto grado de nivel elemental. Se utilizo la metodologia mixta con varias estrategias de recopilacion de datos, como una pre y pos prueba para elucidar el conocimiento previo y al mismo tiempo las concepciones alternativas sobre el tema bajo estudio y luego verificar el aprendizaje en los estudiantes. Asimismo, el uso de mapas conceptuales para determinar la profundidad del tema estudiado y el entrelazamiento de los conceptos Una tercera estrategia fue el grupo focal para tomar en cuenta la impresion de los estudiantes acerca del proyecto ABP. El aspecto colaborativo y cooperativo fue un factor fundamental, ya que el aprendizaje ocurrio en ese contexto educativo. Para los hallazgos de esta investigacion fue tan importante el conocimiento previo como los procesos que se generaban para que la adquisicion del mismo fuera de forma significativa y funcional (Escribano & Del Valle, 2010). La estrategia de ABP constituyo en este estudio una forma para indagar las

  1. Utilización de una nueva materia prima borácica para la formulación de esmaltes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Tena, M. P.

    2010-10-01

    contenido en B2O3 entre un 10-11 % en peso. Es en gran parte amorfo, siendo el cuarzo la fase cristalina presente de forma mayoritaria. Características tales, como presentar una baja solubilidad y formar fácilmente fase vítrea, hace que sea posible utilizar el nuevo borato, como materia prima en composiciones de esmalte. Su aptitud para la formulación de esmaltes, ha sido el resultado de varios años de investigación en colaboración con el Instituto de Tecnología Cerámica. En este trabajo se ha estudiado la viabilidad de fabricar esmaltes cerámicos haciendo uso de una nueva materia prima borácica sintética, la cual permite aportar boro a la composición de los esmaltes sin necesidad de hacerlo en forma fritada. Se ha podido obtener vidriados con similares características técnicas y estéticas que los obtenidos a partir de esmaltes de uso industrial que contienen fritas típicas en su composición, por lo que resulta posible formular esmaltes mediante el empleo de la nueva materia prima de boro sintética. De los resultados se deriva, que la utilización de esta nueva materia prima (E-4972 es especialmente adecuada para la obtención de vidriados de bajo brillo a elevada temperatura.

  2. Progresividad o regresividad en materia de derechos económicos sociales y culturales. Claves para pensar Nuestramérica (2015 – 2019

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerónimo Guerrero Iraola

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Los procesos sociales, económicos, políticos y, en definitiva, culturales que vive Latinoamérica en general y la República Argentina en particular deben llevar a indagar en torno a la necesidad de crear un “mapa del ejercicio de los derechos”. En relación con los derechos económicos, sociales y Culturales deben promoverse instancias colectivas de planificación, diseño y análisis de impacto que habiliten el debido contralor popular. Lo expuesto signado por el principio de “no regresividad” como norte ineludible en materia de promoción y protección de derechos fundamentales. En dicho contexto, las universidades detentan un rol fundamental en el diseño prospectivo de las estrategias y resortes para la consecución de los fines desarrollados.

  3. ALMACENES DE CARBONO Y ESTABILIDAD DE LA MATERIA ORGÁNICA DEL SUELO EN UN AGROECOSISTEMA CAFETALERO EN LA SIERRA SUR DE OAXACA, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Alvarez Arteaga

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la capacidad de los suelos de un agroecosistema cafetalero de sombra bajo diferentes condiciones de manejo para acumular formas estables de carbono, en la Sierra Sur de Oaxaca; para ello, se cuantificó el almacén de carbono edáfico y se realizó el aislamiento y caracterización química de la materia orgánica del suelo mediante fraccionamiento químico, espectroscopía UV-visible e infrarroja en los primeros 40 cm de profundidad. Los resultaron no mostraron diferencias significativas para los almacenes de carbono entre condiciones de manejo, situándose en valores promedio de 150 Mg C ha-1. Los patrones de humificación son consistentes para todos los suelos e indican que más del 50 % de la materia orgánica del suelo se encuentra en las huminas de insolubilización y entre el 15 y 20 % corresponde a los ácidos húmicos. Esta fracción, presumiblemente la más estable, está conformada por moléculas cuya aromaticidad y maduración tiene una relación positiva con el incremento de altitud y el contenido de arcillas en el suelo. De acuerdo a lo anterior se corrobora la capacidad de los agroecosistemas cafetaleros bajo sombra para acumular elevados contenidos de carbono en formas estables asociadas con la fracción mineral del suelo.

  4. The limits of retirement social protection Los límites de la protección social en materia de jubilación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Morales Romo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of options and alternatives related to retirement in Spain during a global economic crisis. By dealing with qualitative and quantitative data we formulate answers to prior questions related to retirement social protection. We address four main topics: pension coverage, related mainly to the sum and benefi ciaries; age, by focusing on the moment of retirement; the need for an early retirement or the possibility of postponing the age of compulsory retirement; the fi nancing of the pensions system through public funds or private pension plans, and, fi nally, we raise questions on the future of retirement pensions. Last, we provide some clear conclusions about the questions raised. Keywords: Retirement. Social payments. Social protection. Pensions. Public policies. Welfare state. El texto aborda las percepciones sobre las opciones y alternativas en materia de jubilación en España en un momento de difícil coyuntura económica mundial. A partir de numerosos datos cualitativos y cuantitativos se trata de responder a cuestiones fundamentales en relación a la protección social en materia de jubilación. Los aspectos fundamentales sobre los que versa el artículo son cuatro: la cobertura de las pensiones tratando especialmente la cuantía y los benefi ciarios, la edad, centrándose en cuándo es adecuado jubilarse, la necesidad o conveniencia de las prejubilaciones o la posibilidad de postergar la edad de jubilación obligatoria, la fi nanciación del sistema de pensiones haciendo hincapié tanto en los fondos públicos como en los planes privados de pensiones y por último nos cuestionaremos sobre el futuro de las pensiones. Para fi nalizar realizaremos unas claras conclusiones sobre todas las cuestiones planteadas. Palabras claves: Jubilación. Prestaciones. Protección social. Pensiones. Políticas públicas. Estado de bienestar.

  5. Comunicar para educar. El reto de la comunicación institucional del IEEM en materia de educación cívica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Edith Álvarez-Padilla

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available En México, la reforma constitucional en materia político-electoral —publicada en el Diario Oficial de la Federación el 10 de febrero de 2014— trazó un nuevo esquema de distribución de competencias entre el Instituto Nacional Electoral (INE y los organismos públicos locales electorales (Oples. La educación cívica, a diferencia de otras atribuciones que atrajo el INE, es una facultad exclusiva de los Oples, a partir de la reforma de 2014, lo cual implica un gran reto institucional en materia de coordinación para el fomento de la educación cívica y de la participación ciudadana. En este artículo se realiza un análisis del marco jurídico actual aplicable al Instituto Electoral del Estado de México (IEEM para cumplir con las actividades relativas a la educación cívica a través de la comunicación institucional. / Mexico’s political-electoral constitutional reform (published in the February 10, 2014 issue of the Diario Oficial de la Federación, or Official Gazette laid out a new way of distributing competencies between the National Electoral Institute (INE and the local public electoral bodies (Oples. In contrast with other INE attributes, the 2014 makes civic education an exclusive faculty of the Oples, which implies an enormous institutional challenge in terms of coordination to foster civic education and public participation. This article analyzes the current legal framework in which the Electoral Institute of the State of Mexico (IEEM will have to carry out activities related to civic education through institutional communication.

  6. El ensayo Ars Medica de John Locke, y la influencia de sus ideas médicas sobre la filosofía empirista

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    Sánchez González, Miguel Ángel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available John Locke’s essay Ars medica of 1669, is presented, analyzed and translated into Spanish. This essay shows the medical problems that prompted Locke´s philosophy and provides essential clues to understanding the motives, aims and characteristics of the empiricist`s theory of knowledge. Ideas originated in medicine that profoundly influenced subsequent Locke`s works were: 1 Trust in the perfectibility of science and elucidation of the role that philosophical thinking could play. 2 Rejection of knowledge deduced from principles, hypotheses or maxims. 3 Reliance on a «plain historical method» for the production of knowledge, which tried to register facts descriptively, while abandoning the study of ultimate causes. 4 Use of a three-part classification of the sciences that enthrones semiotics, medical science par excellence, and defines it as a mere knowledge of the signs of things, that is not intended to discern either essences or substances. Locke, in his epistemology, applies to all scientific knowledge the medical theory of the signs of illnesses. He envisions all possible science as a mere descriptive knowledge of signs; and thinks that knowledge is probabilistic, analogous and pragmatic.Se presenta, analiza y traduce por primera vez al castellano, el ensayo Ars Medica escrito por John Locke en 1669. Este ensayo muestra los problemas médicos que dieron origen al conjunto de la filosofía de Locke; y ofrece claves esenciales para comprender los motivos, las metas y los rasgos de la teoría del conocimiento empirista. Ideas originariamente médicas que tuvieron una repercusión directa en la obra posterior de Locke fueron: 1 Confianza en la perfectibilidad de la ciencia y elucidación del papel que la reflexión filosófica podía desempeñar en ello. 2 Rechazo del conocimiento deducido de principios, hipótesis o máximas. 3 El método «histórico simple» para edificar el conocimiento; que intentaba registrar los hechos descriptivamente

  7. A acetamida de pirrolidona como medicação auxiliar no tratamento da paralisia cerebral Pyrrolidone acetamide as an auxiliary drug in the treatment of cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Salete Pinheiro Chagas Ribeiro

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available Vinte crianças, com diagnóstico de paralisia cerebral (PC e sob tratamento clássico, fisioterápico e pedagógico, receberam piracetam (acetamida de pirrolidona como medicação auxiliar. O objetivo foi melhorar os problemas de espasticidade, apredizagem, neurolabilidade, visando a um rendimento melhor do tratamento global da PC. O grupo medicado foi comparado com um grupo controle de 20 crianças que só eram objeto do tratamento habitual. A comparação mostrou resultados favoráveis no grupo medicado. A droga foi administrada na dose de 80 mg/kg/dia durante 10 semanas. Os critérios de avaliação dos resultados foram psicológicos, clínico, fisioterápico e pedagógico. A droga foi administrada em nova forma de apresentação: solução, para uso oral, a 6%.Twenty children, with the diagnosis of cerebral palsy (CP and under classical, physiotherapeutical and pedagogical, treatment, received piracetam (pyrrolidine acetamide as an auxiliary drug. The goal was to better spasticity, learning and nervous instability problems aiming at better results of over-all treatment of CP. The group that received the drug has been compared to a control group of 20 children treated by the customary treatment only. The comparison showed favourable results for the medicated group. The drug was administered in the dose of 80 mg/kg/day during 10 weeks. The criteria for evaluation have been psychological, clinical, physiotherapeutical and pedagogical. The drug has been given in a new form of presentation: 6% solution for oral use.

  8. Comparison of Lamiaceae medicinal uses in eastern Morocco and eastern Andalusia and in Ibn al-Baytar's Compendium of Simple Medicaments (13th century CE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gharbaoui, Asmae; Benítez, Guillermo; González-Tejero, M Reyes; Molero-Mesa, Joaquín; Merzouki, Abderrahmane

    2017-04-18

    Transmission of traditional knowledge over time and across culturally and historically related territories is an important topic in ethnopharmacology. Here, we contribute to this knowledge by analysing data on medicinal uses in two neighbouring areas of the Western Mediterranean in relation to a historical text that has been scarcely mentioned in historical studies despite its interest. This paper discusses the sharing of popular knowledge on the medicinal uses of plants between eastern Morocco and eastern Andalusia (Spain), focusing on one of the most useful plant families in the Mediterranean area: Lamiaceae. Moreover, we used the classical work of Ibn al-Baytar (13th century CE) The Compendium of Simple Medicaments and Foods as a basis to contrast the possible link of this information, analysing the influence of this historical text on current popular tradition of medicinal plant use in both territories. For data collection, we performed ethnobotanical field research in the eastern part of Morocco, recording current medicinal uses for the Lamiaceae. In addition, we systematically reviewed the ethnobotanical literature from eastern Andalusia, developing a database. We investigated the possible historical link of the shared uses and included in this database the information from Ibn al-Baytar's Compendium. To compare the similarity and diversity of the data, we used Jaccard's similarity index. Our field work provided ethnobotanical information for 14 Lamiaceae species with 95 medicinal uses, serving to treat 13 different pathological groups. Of the total uses recorded in Morocco, 30.5% were shared by eastern Andalusia and found in Ibn al-Baytar's work. There was a higher similarity when comparing current uses of the geographically close territories of eastern Morocco and eastern Andalucía (64%) than for eastern Morocco and this historical text (43%). On the other hand, coincidences between current uses in eastern Andalusia and the ones related in the Compendium

  9. Revelação da ocorrência de erro de medicação em unidade de cuidados intensivos pediátricos Disclosure of medication error in a pediatric intensive care unit

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    Aline Santa Cruz Belela

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a ocorrência de comunicação do erro de medicação à equipe e família em uma unidade de cuidados intensivos pediátricos para atendimento de pacientes oncológicos. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo e exploratório, realizado no período de 1º de março a 31 de maio de 2008. Foi elaborada e implantada na unidade de cuidados intensivos pediátricos uma ficha de notificação de erros de medicação. A ficha deveria ser preenchida pelos profissionais envolvidos no sistema de medicação da unidade no período definido para coleta de dados. . RESULTADOS: A amostra foi composta por 71 fichas coletadas no período de estudo. Após a detecção do erro de medicação, a ocorrência não foi comunicada à equipe em 34 (47,9% situações. Nos 37 casos nos quais os eventos foram comunicados, o médico (48,7% foi aquele que mais recebeu a informação. Em 95,8% dos relatos a ocorrência não foi informada ao paciente e família. CONCLUSÃO: Embora a literatura atual preconize a revelação do erro, tal prática não constitui atividade freqüente na unidade de cuidados intensivos pediátricos estudada.OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency medication error disclosure to the team and to the family in an oncology pediatric patients' intensive care unit. METHODS: This was a descriptive and exploratory study performed between March 1 and May 31, 2008. A medication error report form was developed and implemented, to be completed by the professionals involved in the unit's medication process. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 71 forms collected over the 92 collection days. After medication error detection, the event was not reported to the pediatric intensive care unit's team in 34 (47.9% cases. In the 37 reported to the team cases, for most of them (48.7% the physician was the professional communicated. The event was not disclosed to the patient/family in 95.8% of medication error reports. CONCLUSIONS: Although the literature recommends

  10. Evaluación de mezclas formuladas de fertilizantes con dosis crecientes y aplicación de materia orgánica en el rendimiento de tabaco negro en un suelo arenoso bajo condiciones de invernadero

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    Aníbal Cóndor G

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo compara tres mezclas formuladas de fertilizantes —una mezcla tradicional; un fertilizante mineral 10-15-20; y un fertilizante orgánico-mineral 8-12-16 en dosis crecientes, con y sin aplicación de materia orgánica (humus de lombriz— en el cultivo de tabaco. El experimento se condujo en un suelo arenoso de irrigación utilizando 2 plántulas de tabaco negro por maceta. La fertilización al suelo para cada dosis de NPK en mg.kg-1/maceta fue: dosis baja (160-60-80, dosis media (320-120-160 y dosis alta (480-180-240. Se utilizó el diseño completo al azar con arreglo factorial, con tres repeticiones y conducido en macetas con 4 kg de suelo. La evaluación consistió en medir el rendimiento en peso fresco de la parte aérea y el peso seco total (parte aérea y radicular de las plantas. Fue posible observar que no existe superioridad en cuanto a la materia fresca y seca total producidas entre las mezclas formuladas utilizadas, con un promedio de 432,5g/maceta y 112,6g/ maceta, respectivamente. Se pudo tener así tres alternativas en la fertilización de tabaco. Sin embargo, con el uso del fertilizante orgánico-mineral se obtendría mayores beneficios en el suelo por el efecto residual que dejaría por contener en su composición un 25% de materia orgánica por cada 100 kg de fertilizante. Conforme aumentan las dosis de fertilización se incrementan también los rendimientos, notándose el efecto directo de los fertilizantes en el sustrato arenoso utilizado, sin salinidad que pueda haber afectado la asimilación de nutrientes. Además, se observó la baja fertilidad del sustrato al comparar el tratamiento adicional 0-0-0 con los demás tratamientos, lo que ha producido mas del 300% en cuanto a rendimiento. No existe efecto significativo en la interacción fertilizante vs. materia orgánica en la producción de materia fresca aérea y seca total, debido a que la dosis de materia orgánica fue baja (1%.

  11. [Essentials of pharmacophylogeny: knowledge pedigree, epistemology and paradigm shift].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Da-cheng; Xiao, Pei-gen; Liu, Li-wei; Peng, Yong; He, Chun-nian

    2015-09-01

    Chinese materia medica resource (CMM resource) is the foundation of the development of traditional Chinese medicine. In the study of sustainable utilization of CMM resource, adopting innovative theory and method to find new CMM resource is one of hotspots and always highlighted. Pharmacophylogeny interrogates the phylogenetic relationship of medicinal organisms (especially medicinal plants), as well as the intrinsic correlation of morphological taxonomy, molecular phylogeny, chemical constituents, and therapeutic efficacy (ethnopharmacology and pharmacological activity). This new discipline may have the power to change the way we utilize medicinal plant resources and develop plant-based drugs. Phylogenomics is the crossing of evolutionary biology and genomics, in which genome data are utilized for evolutionary reconstructions. Phylogenomics can be integrated into the flow chart of drug discovery and development, and extends the field of pharmacophylogeny at the omic level, thus the concept of pharmacophylogenomics could be redefined in the context of plant pharmaceutical resources. This contribution gives a brief discourse of knowledge pedigree of pharmacophylogeny, epistemology and paradigm shift, highlighting the theoretical and practical values of pharmacophylogenomics. Many medicinally important tribes and genera, such as Clematis, Pulsatilla, Anemone, Cimicifugeae, Nigella, Delphinieae, Adonideae, Aquilegia, Thalictrum, and Coptis, belong to Ranunculaceae family. Compared to other plant families, Ranunculaceae has the most species that are recorded in China Pharmacopoeia (CP) 2010. However, many Ranunculaceae species, e. g., those that are closely related to CP species, as well as those endemic to China, have not been investigated in depth, and their phylogenetic relationship and potential in medicinal use remain elusive. As such, it is proposed to select Ranunculaceae to exemplify the utility of pharmacophylogenomics and to elaborate the new concept

  12. Distribución de materia seca y nutrimentos en árboles de limón 'persa' (citrus latifolia tan. en Veracruz, México

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    E. Contreras-Morales

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se llevó a cabo en dos huertas de limón 'Persa' cada una en diferente tipo de suelo, con la finalidad de conocer la distribución de materia seca y nutrimentos en los órganos de cítricos y determinar su estado nutrimental. La huerta 1 de 12 años de edad estaba creciendo en suelo arcillo-migajón arenoso y la huerta 2, de 9 años de edad, en suelo arcilloso. El método de estudio consistió en extraer completamente cuatro árboles por huerta y fraccionarlos en sus diferentes órganos: hoja, flor, fruto, ramas, tronco y raíces. Las variables determinadas fueron: peso fresco y peso seco de cada órgano. Se determinó la concentración de nutrimentos por análisis químicos: N, P, K, Ca, Mg, B, Cu, Fe, Mn y Zn. Los datos de ambas huertas fueron sometidos a análisis de varianza y prueba de comparación de medias por separado. Las raíces fibrosas (< 1 mm de diámetro para ambas huertas presentaron concentraciones altas de micronutrimentos destacando Fe y Mn. Para ambas huertas los nutrimentos extraídos en mayor cantidad por el fruto fueron K y Ca; y en menor cantidad Zn y Cu. Con relación a la distribución de biomasa, el tronco y ramas aportaron el 60.32 %; el conjunto de raíces el 26.93 % y las hojas el 9.41 % de la materia seca total del árbol, mientras que el N en hojas representó el 17.5 % del total de la planta, en la huerta1. Esto representó 1.85 veces más de nitrógeno, con relación al peso seco de las hojas. Datos similares se tuvieron en la huerta 2. Para ambas huertas el Cu y el N fueron los nutrimentos más requeridos.

  13. Características generales, propiedades, yacimientos y aplicaciones de pirofilita. II. Yacimientos, aplicaciones y utilización como materia prima cerámica

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    Sánchez Soto, P. J.

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the main world deposits of pyrophyllite are indicated according to the literature, showing the available production data. It is emphasized the research focusing on mining and characterization of raw materials containing pyrophyllite, which shows a marked applied interest. It is described and reviewed the most relevant applications of pyrophyllite and pyrophyllite raw materials, in especial refractories and ceramics, fillers, building materials, catalysts and as a high-pressure medium for synthesis of materials. Finally, it is also described and reviewed its use as raw material for the preparation of advanced materials, such as sialon, emphasizing the possibilities of application of pyrophyllite raw materials in our country as a result of distinct investigations of relevant interest performed by several Research Institutes and University Departments. It is deduced that pyrophyllite and pyrophyllite raw materials are increasing in relative importance in many applied fields, as compared with other layer silicates, such as talc and kaolinite.

    En este trabajo se indican los principales yacimientos mundiales de pirofilita según la bibliografía, los datos de producción disponibles, además de revisar las investigaciones más destacadas sobre prospección y caracterización de materias primas que contienen pirofilita y que presentan un marcado interés aplicado. Se realiza una amplia revisión de las principales aplicaciones a las que se destinan dichas materias primas, en especial para la preparación de materiales cerámicos y refractarios, su uso como carga, en la construcción, obtención de catalizadores y síntesis de materiales a alta presión debido a sus propiedades. Por último, se describen y revisan sus aplicaciones en la preparación de nuevos materiales y materiales avanzados, como son los sialones, destacando su potencial de utilización en nuestro país como resultado de diversas investigaciones de inter

  14. La distribución de competencias entre el Estado y las Comunidades Autónomas en materia de agricultura

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    Manuel Rodríguez Portugués

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se estudia el sistema de distribución de competencias entre el Estado y las Comunidades Autónomas sobre agricultura. Con él se pretende ofrecer un estudio exhaustivo de esta vasta materia teniendo en cuenta y sistematizando la abundante jurisprudencia constitucional que se ha ido formando desde el inicio del Estado de las Autonomías hasta la actualidad, así como el nuevo contexto jurídico abierto por la reciente Sentencia del Tribunal Constitucional 31/2010, de 28 de junio, sobre el Estatuto de Autonomía de Cataluña, o por la ya consolidada posición de la Comunidad Autónoma de Canarias como región ultraperiférica de la Unión Europea en relación a la aplicación del llamado “primer pilar” de la Política Agrícola Común en su territorio. Además, y sobre la base de todo ello, se formula una propuesta de concepto general de “agricultura” que sea válido para deslindar esta materia de otras afines a efectos competenciales. In this study the power-sharing system for agriculture between the State and Spanish autonomous regions will be examined. The study aims to offer an exhaustive study of this vast subject, taking into account and systemising the abundant constitutional jurisprudence that has been forming since the creation of the autonomous regions until the present day, as well as the new legal context opened by the recent ruling of the Spanish Constitutional Court (31/2010, 28th June over the Catalan Statute of Autonomy, and for the already consolidated position of the autonomous region of the Canary Islands as the outermost region of the European Union in relation to the application of what is known as the ‘first pier’ of the Common Agricultural Policy within its territory. Also, and based on the above, a proposal regarding the general concept of ‘agriculture’ will be formulated, one which is valid to separate this subject from other matters relative to the effects of competencies.

  15. Utilization of virtual prototyping in development of CMM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raneda, A.; Pessi, P.; Siuko, M.; Handroos, H.; Palmer, J.; Vilenius, M.

    2003-01-01

    The characteristic advantages of hydraulics (high power density, simple construction and reliability) together with the characteristics of water as the pressure medium (fire and environmentally safe, chemically neutral, not activated nor affected by radiation) are highlighted in critical applications such as remote handling operations in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). However, component cost and lack of wide selection of water hydraulic components make it difficult to build and to test complex water hydraulic systems. The use of virtual prototyping for the development of water hydraulic tools can be used to address this problem. Rapidly increased computational power has created conditions for extensive numerical calculations, enabling computer aided virtual prototyping to replace physical prototype phases in product development

  16. LAS CLÁUSULAS SELF - EXECUTING DE LOS CONVENIOS DE LA ORGANIZACIÓN INTERNACIONAL DEL TRABAJO EN MATERIA DE DERECHO LABORAL COLECTIVO (CONVENIOS 87 Y 98

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    Francisco Rafael Ostau de Lafont de León

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo hace referencia a la aplicabilidad interna de los Convenios de la Organización Inter- nacional de Trabajo (OIT en cuanto a la condición de que sus cláusulas deben de ser claras y precisas para que los operadores judiciales puedan darle aplicabilidad directa en la solución de conflictos. La tesis apunta a que las cláusulas self executing y non self executing, cuando se trata de convenios sobre Derechos Humanos, pueden ser aplicables directamente por el ope- rador judicial sin tener en cuenta los criterios de auto ejecución. El interrogante que se plantea en el presente caso consiste en que si los convenios en materia de derechos laboral colectivo contemplan cláusulas non self executing o, en caso de que las contemplen por ser convenios sobre derechos humanos, ¿estos convenios podrían ser de aplicación auto ejecutiva?

  17. Energy model in regional energy system; Modello computazionale dei flussi di enegia, massa e materia in un sistema energetico regionale per la valutazione delle emissioni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mura, P.G.; Baccoli, R.; Carlini, U.; Innamorati, R.; Mariotti, S. [Cagliari Univ., Cagliari (Italy). Sezione Fisica Tecnica ed Energetica Facolta' d' Ingegneria

    2005-09-01

    In this report is presented a computational model for analysis of energy, materials and mass flux in a complex energy system, at regional scale level. Specifically is described a calculation model of electric power generation for emission forecasting of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, ashes, limestone, chalks. [Italian] Dopo aver ricordato che nel campo della Fisica Tecnica ambientale acquista sempre piu' importanza l'analisi dei processi che interessano l'ambiente esterno in stretto rapporto con i processi di conversione ed uso dell'energia e con le condizioni di benessere nell'ambiente interno, in questa memoria viene presentato un modello computazionale per l'analisi dei flussi di energia, massa e materia che hanno luogo in un sistema energetico complesso esteso al territorio di una regione. In particolare viene descritto il modello di calcolo del sottosistema di generazione elettrica finalizzato alla previsione delle emissioni nocive riversate nell'ambiente naturale quali CO{sub 2}, SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, polveri, ceneri, calcare, gessi.

  18. LA EXTENSIÓN DE LA JURISPRUDENCIA UNIFICADA DEL CONSEJO DE ESTADO: NUEVA COMPETENCIA DE LOS CONSULTORIOS JURÍDICOS EN MATERIA CONTENCIOSO ADMINISTRATIVA

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    Luz Ángela Portilla Villamizar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available La ley 1437 de 2011 implementó un procedimiento administrativo y contencioso ajustado a la protección de las garantías constitucionales de los administrados en sede administrativa y judicial, un ajuste del sistema procesal en concordancia con la Carta Política. Entre tantas novedades y cambios está la creación de una figura jurídica denominada Extensión de las Sentencias de Unificación Jurisprudencial del Consejo de Estado a terceros (Artículo 102 del Código de Procedimiento Administrativo y Contencioso Administrativo, ley 1437 de 2011, procedimiento que genera la posibilidad real de práctica desde los consultorios jurídicos de las universidades del país, puesto que sus presupuestos normativos y procesales permiten, desde las competencias contempladas en la ley y lo reiterado por la jurisprudencia constitucional, llevarlo a cabo por los estudiantes adscritos a los sultorios jurídicos. Se plantea un análisis que aborda los aspectos y características jurídicas del trámite de extensión de la jurisprudencia, en relación con las reglas de competencia de los consultorios jurídicos universitarios, generando una nueva competencia en materia de derecho administrativo.

  19. Composición quimicomineralógica de las materias primas y ahorro de energía en la industria del cemento

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    Soria Santamaría, Francisco

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available In the field of energy saving, mainly thermic, in the cement industry, not only should we consider the possibilities in the technological process or the finished product, but also the influence of the chemical-mineral composition of the raw materials. The distinct parameters which fall into the reactivity of the crudes are analyzed, such as the size of the grain (fineness, chemical and mineral composition of the principal components. There follows an exposition of the importance of the minority components as smelting and mineralizers, finally emphasizing the interest and practical behaviour of some of them.

    En el campo del ahorro de energía, principalmente térmica, en la industria cementera, no sólo deben contemplarse las posibilidades en cuanto al proceso tecnológico o el producto acabado, sino también la influencia de la composición quimicomineralógica de las materias primas. Se analizan los distintos parámetros que inciden en la reactividad de los crudos, tales como tamaño de grano (finura, composición química y mineralogía de los componentes principales. A continuación se hace una exposición de la importancia de los componentes minoritarios como fundentes y mineralizadores, destacando finalmente el interés y comportamiento práctico de alguno de ellos.

  20. Determinación espectrofotométrica de un producto activo zeolítico en materia prima y tabletas vaginales

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    Mercedes Machuá Veitía

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available El empleo de productos activos zeolíticos como fármacos de acción específica requiere el desarrollo de técnicas analíticas para el control de la calidad de las formas terminadas. Se desarrolló y validó un método espectrofotométrico de análisis para una zeolita activada con cinc (PAZ-ZZ a partir de la reacción con zincón. Se evaluó la linealidad, precisión, exactitud y especificidad del método propuesto. La técnica se aplicó posteriormente al análisis de materia prima PAZ-ZZ y tabletas vaginales que contienen este principio activo; los resultados se compararon con los obtenidos para espectroscopia de absorción atómica.The use of active zeolitic products as drugs of specific action requires the development of analytical techniques to control the quality of the finished product. A spectrophotometric method of analysis was validated for a zinc?activated zeolite (PAZ-ZZ, starting from the reaction with zincum. The lineality, precision, exactitude and specificity of the proposed method were evaluated. This technique was later applied to the analysis of PAZ-ZZ raw material and vaginal tablets containing this active principle. The results were compared with those obtained for atomic absortion spectroscopy.

  1. El convenio de la Unión Europea sobre competencia judicial, reconocimiento y ejecución de resoluciones en materia matrimonial: un ejercicio de preciosismo barroco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben B. Santos Belandro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available El grupo de países europeos que se encuentra comprometido en el proceso de integración económica formuló hace ya tiempo, los criterios para determinar las bases de competencia a fi~ de resolver los litigios de derecho privado que pudieran surgir en dicho espacio geográfico. El documento elaborado fue el Convenio de Bruselas sobre competencia judicial y ejecución de las resoluciones en materia civil y mercantil del 27 de setiembre de 1968. Sin embargo, en dicho momento no fue posible regular las bases de competencia en los procedimientos civiles que se vinculaban conlos temas del divorcio, de la separación legal de los cónyuges y acerca de las cuestiones relacionadas conla nulidad del matrimonio (...Contenido: Ambito de aplicación. Bases de competencia directa. Verificación de la competenciay verificación de la admisibilidad. Litispendentia y acciones conexas. Reconocimiento y ejecución. Definiciones. Ejecución.Procedimiento de la ejecución. Ejecución parcial. Cláusulas de compatibilidad interconvencionales. Tribunal de Justicia de las Comunidades Europeas. Una visión general del Convenio

  2. METODOLOGÍA DOCENTE Y EVALUACIÓN POR COMPETENCIAS: UNA EXPERIENCIA EN LA MATERIA DIRECCIÓN DE PRODUCCIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Peña, María Luz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El diseño de los nuevos planes de estudio adaptados a las directrices del Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior (EEES pretende acercar a los alumnos a la realidad empresarial, involucrarles más activamente en su proceso de aprendizaje y proporcionar un marco favorable para la adquisición de diversas competencias. Esto exige dise˜nar metodologías docentes más activas y establecer modelos de evaluación que permitan valorar la adquisición de competencias. El objetivo de este trabajo es doble, por un lado se pretenden identificar los métodos docentes que permiten la mejor adquisición de las competencias definidas para la materia Dirección de Producción en el marco del EEES y, por otro lado, plantear un modelo de evaluación satisfactorio para las mismas. El análisis empírico ha permitido demostrar la eficacia de los métodos docentes utilizados en el aula, así como evidenciar la importancia de la evaluación por competencias, lo que permite cumplir uno de los objetivos básicos del EEES.

  3. Investigación de fuentes de información jurídica en materia de discriminación

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    Alicia S. Cap

    Full Text Available El objetivo del proyecto fue elaborar estrategias de búsqueda eficaces, con el objeto de seleccionar citas para la composición de una bibliografía referente a la discriminación en el ámbito laboral a personas afectadas de SIDA. Se analizaron los términos de indización utilizados y la estructura de las fuentes de información, tanto impresas cuanto electrónicas, de uso más frecuente en el ámbito jurídico de la Argentina. Mediante el estudio comparativo del tratamiento que cada fuente da al tema, respecto a estructuración y términos de indización, se llegó a una hipótesis de trabajo para efectuar búsquedas específicas en materia de doctrina, legislación y jurisprudencia. En conclusión, se comprueba la efectividad de analizar la nomenclatura jurídica de los diferentes repertorios, con el fin de ajustar las estrategias de búsqueda a dichos términos y obtenerse el mayor grado de pertinencia de la información requerida, en el menor tiempo de recuperación.

  4. Carácter jurisdiccional de las resoluciones de la Dirección General del Registro Electoral en materia de faltas electorales: especial referencia a la facultad de recabar datos personales protegidos por el secreto bancario o tributario en el marco de una investigación por faltas en materia de financiamiento de los partidos políticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy López González

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda el concepto y características distintivas de la función jurisdiccional del Estado. Con este marco teórico se analiza la función jurisdiccional del Tribunal Supremo de Elecciones en materia electoral y se esboza como tesis la delegación legislativa de competencias jurisdiccionales que operó a favor de la Dirección General del Registro Electoral y de Financiamiento de Partidos Políticos en el trámite y sanción de las faltas electorales tipificadas en el nuevo Código Electoral. Bajo esta premisa, se infiere la facultad de la Dirección de recabar pruebas que contengan datos de carácter confidencial protegidos bajo los institutos del secreto bancario o tributario con el objeto de ejercer su competencia sancionadora

  5. ¿De vecinos distantes a socios estratégicos? Análisis de la política exterior brasileña hacia Colombia en materia de seguridad, desde 1995 hasta 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Escolar Pereira, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Análisis de la política exterior brasileña de Fernando Henrique Cardoso y Luis Inácio Lula da Silva con respecto a la región y cómo esto favoreció la relación con Colombia, permitiendo la Cooperación Sur Sur Horizontal en materia de desarrollo de tecnología militar

  6. Dieta del cangrejo dulceacuícola Bottiella niceforei (Schmitt & Pretzmann, 1968 (Decapoda: Trichodactylidae y su relación con el procesamiento de la materia orgánica en una corriente intermitente del noroeste de Venezuela

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    Raúl Pirela

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Para aproximarse al rol que tiene el cangrejo de río Bottiella niceforei en el procesamiento de materia orgánica, en una corriente intermitente al noroeste de Venezuela, se estudió su dieta natural, mediante el análisis del contenido del tracto digestivo entre junio 2009 y febrero 2010. Se determinó la abundancia de los cangrejos sobre la base de la proporción de individuos capturados por trampas, a lo largo del muestreo, y en cada pozo. Las mayores densidades ocurrieron en septiembre (2,7 ind trampa-1, seguido de junio (2,3 ind trampa-1 y julio (2,1 ind trampa-1, mientras que las menores se obtuvieron de noviembre a febrero, posiblemente debido al efecto erosivo de la corriente durante la época de lluvia. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en la abundancia y dieta entre pozos. De junio a noviembre, se encontró que el ítem más abundante en la dieta fue el detrito vegetal, con una frecuencia de ocurrencia promedio de 68%; en segundo lugar, materia animal (restos de peces con 50% y detrito vegetal amorfo con 14%. Estos resultados demuestran la importancia de la participación del cangrejo B. niceforei en el procesamiento de la materia orgánica en forma de hojarasca en los pozos de caño Carichuano.

  7. Uso da medicação homeopática no tratamento da ceratoconjuntivite primaveril: resultados iniciais Treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis with homeopathic medicine: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Maciel de Sena

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar os primeiros resultados do uso da Homeopatia entre os pacientes com conjuntivite primaveril, avaliados no Serviço de Córnea e Doenças Externas do Hospital São Geraldo. MÉTODOS: Foram incluídos no presente estudo 13 pacientes apresentando ceratoconjuntivite primaveril, examinados no período de janeiro de 1998 a dezembro de 1999. A idade média dos pacientes foi de 9,5 anos, sendo nove do sexo masculino e quatro do sexo feminino. Todos os pacientes já haviam feito uso de corticóide tópico antes da sua inclusão no estudo. Antes de iniciar o tratamento homeopático, todos os pacientes foram examinados por um dos autores, sendo acompanhados pelo mesmo médico, mensalmente até os seis meses e depois trimestralmente até completar um ano do tratamento homeopático. O tratamento homeopático foi realizado por meio de uma dose única, via oral, baseando-se na totalidade sintomática do paciente. RESULTADOS: A porcentagem de melhora dos sinais e sintomas, entre os pacientes, foi de: lacrimejamento e dor ocular 100%; secreção ocular 92%; sensação de corpo estranho 86%; prurido e fotofobia 84%; relatavam diminuição ou ausência do desconforto que a ceratoconjuntivite primaveril provocava nas suas atividades diárias 84%; nódulos de Trantas 62,5%; hiperemia conjuntival 61%; erosões epiteliais 58% e hipertrofia da papila tarsal 8%. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo sugere efeito benéfico da medicação homeopática no tratamento da ceratoconjuntivite primaveril, com melhora dos sinais e sintomas da doença. Sugere-se a realização de estudo duplo-cego, com maior número de casos, para a confirmação desses resultados.PURPOSE: To present a preliminary report of homeopathic medicine in the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis, at the Cornea service, of the São Geraldo Hospital. METHODS: Thirteen patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis, examined from January 1998 to December 1999, were included in the present study

  8. Variabilidad espacial de la materia orgánica en un suelo dedicado al cultivo de cebada maltera (Hordeum distichum L.

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    Judith Prieto Méndez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El contenido de materia orgánica (MO en suelos es una de las propiedades de mayor interés debido a su papel en la estructura y a su reconocida influencia en la dinámica de solutos. Su caracterización es por tanto, un aspecto de gran interés. Los contenidos de MO en suelos dedicados al cultivo de cebada maltera ( Hordeum distichum L. son relativamente bajos, por lo que la incertidumbre y posibles errores del método analítico pueden condicionar estudios de variabilidad espacial. En este trabajo se elaboró y validó un método de análisis de la MO de acuerdo con los criterios de la Norma ISO-17025 y se diseñó un control de calidad, incluyendo un estudio de la variabilidad que la metodología introduce en los resultados. Con la metodología desarrollada se ha llevado a cabo un muestreo previo y un muestreo final de 39 y 248 muestras representativas de una parcela dedicada al cultivo de cebada maltera del municipio de Apan, al sur del estado de Hidalgo, México, cuyo fin fue evaluar el número de muestras necesarias que han de tomarse para caracterizar este suelo y esta propiedad (MO. El trabajo se completó con un estudio geoestadístico de los valores de MO, con lo que pueden extraerse conclusiones para planes de muestreo futuros, desarrollo de modelos de simulación a escala de campo y aplicación práctica de problemas de fertilización.

  9. Fraccionamiento y cuantificación de la materia orgánica en Andisoles bajo diferentes sistemas de producción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Montoya Salazar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En Andisoles de los municipios de Cajibío, departamento del Cauca y Sevilla, Valle del Cauca, Colombia, se evalúo el efecto del uso del suelo con sistemas de bosque; guadua (Guadua angustifolia K.; cultivo de café (Coffea arabiga var. Caturra a plena exposición, con sombra de guamo (Inga sp. y sombra de nogal (Cordia alliodora; y pastura de brachiaria (Brachiaria decumbens sobre diferentes formas de la materia orgánica (M.O.. Para el efecto en Cauca se tomaron muestras de un Typic Melanudand localizado a 1740 m.s.n.m. utilizado con los cinco primeros sistemas de cultivos, y en Sevilla de un Typic Haplustand en 1660 m.s.n.m en pasturas de brachiaria. Los suelos de ambos sitios fueron caracterizados por sus propiedades físicas (humedad higroscópica, densidad aparente, distribución de partículas, estabilidad de agregados y tamaño de arenas, y químicas (capacidad de intercambio catiónico, pH, % carbono orgánico. Las sustancias húmicas se obtuvieron con extracción secuencial en soluciones (0.1 N de tetraborato, pirofosfato e hidróxido de sodio, previa separación granulométrica por tamizado en húmedo; igualmente se purificaron y caracterizaron los ácidos húmicos y fúlvicos por diferentes técnicas analíticas y espectroscópicas. En ambos suelos, se encontraron diferencias (P 1 en ácidos húmicos y < 1 en fúlvicos. Los ácidos húmicos con mejor grado de condensación se encontraron en el Typic Melanudand.

  10. Procesamiento del grano de maíz sobre la cinética de degradación de la materia seca in vitro

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    Raul Velásquez V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar el efecto del procesamiento del grano de maíz sobre la cinética de degradación y fermentación de la materia seca in vitro. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluaron cinco tratamientos, cada uno constó de una mezcla con dos especies, 70% pasto Kikuyo (Pennisetum clandestinum y 30% grano de maíz (Zea mays. El grano fue sometido a diferentes procesamientos: maíz grueso seco (MGS, maíz fino seco (MFS, maíz reconstituido (MGH, reconstituido y ensilado (MGE y ensilado con urea (MGEU. Se realizó la técnica de gas in vitro para medir parámetros de degradación y de producción de gas en diferentes horarios hasta las 48 h. Se utilizaron los modelos de Gompertz y Ørskov y McDonald para ajustar las curvas de producción de gas y degradación de MS y se evaluaron con PROC NLIN de SAS. Resultados. Los mayores volúmenes acumulados fueron obtenidos con los tratamientos MFS y MGEU con 552.5 ml y 524.03 ml, respectivamente y fueron diferentes al tratamiento MGS (p<0.05. El potencial de degradación (A+B en MGS mostró el menor valor, siendo diferente (p<0.05 a los tratamientos MFS, MGE y MGEU. Conclusiones. El tipo de procesamiento del grano de máiz molido fino, reconstituido, ensilado con y sin urea mejoraron significativamente los parámetros de fermentación y degradación de la MS. El uso de grano molido fino (2 mm puede ser reemplazado por grano grueso reconstituido y ensilado, el cual resulta más económico que la molienda fina.

  11. Procedimiento para la gestión de los impactos ambientales negativos asociados a la recuperación de materias primas en Cienfuegos, Cuba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Javier Castro Rodríguez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available El reciclaje constituye una actividad priorizada en Cuba. El objetivo fue implementar un procedimiento para la gestión de los impactos ambientales negativos asociados a los procesos operativos de la Empresa de Recuperación de Materias Primas de Cienfuegos. El procedimiento se construyó utilizando la propuesta del Instituto Andaluz de Tecnología para la gestión por procesos y los ocho pasos en la solución de problemas. Se combinaron herramientas de gestión bajo el principio de convergencia metodológica. Los impactos ambientales fueron evaluados mediante el software GAIA versión 1.0, utilizando los criterios propuestos por la Guía Metodológica de Evaluación de Impacto Ambiental de Conesa. Se identificaron 97 impactos ambientales negativos, entre severos y moderados integraron el 80.41 % de ellos. El factor ambiental más impactado fue el físico-químico con el 50.52 %. El subproceso no metálico resultó el más impactante, con el 50 % de los impactos severos negativos totales y el 34 % de los moderados. Se identificaron las principales causas asociadas y se diseñó un plan de intervención de 35 medidas con base en los principios de Producción Más Limpia. Los resultados contribuyen a lograr la gestión de los impactos ambientales negativos de la entidad y a la sostenibilidad del reciclaje.

  12. Validación del sistema ultramicroelisa en la certificación de placenta humana como materia prima farmacéutica y cosmética

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    Maydelin Trujillo Alfonso

    Full Text Available Introducción: el Laboratorio de Control Viral de la Planta Derivados de la Placenta realiza la certificación de la placenta humana como materia prima farmacéutica y cosmética mediante el sistema ultramicroanalítico. Objetivo: validar el sistema ultramicroelisa de determinación de antígeno de superficie del virus de la hepatitis B, anticuerpos contra el virus de la hepatitis C y virus de inmunodeficiencia humana tipo 1 y 2 en muestras de suero de cordón umbilical. Métodos: se realizó la calificación de la operación y la validación del desempeño analítico de los sistemas UMELISA HBsAg Plus, UMELISA HCV y UMELISA HIV 1+2 Recombinant empleandocomo sistemas de referencia el Hepanostika HBsAg Uni-FormII, Hepanostika HCV Ultra y Vironostika HIV-Uni-Form II Ag/Ab. Resultados: la calificación de la operación para las tres técnicas analíticas resultó satisfactoria. Los parámetros de especificidad diagnóstica y analítica fueron de 100 %, así como la concordancia con las técnicas de referencia. El coeficiente de variación fue menor del 10 % durante el estudio de precisión interensayo, menor que el 20 % intraensayo y se demostró la robustez de las técnicas para pequeños cambios en la temperatura de incubación. Conclusiones: los sistemas ultramicroelisa utilizados como método de control de la calidad de la placenta humana resultaron específicos, precisos y robustos en las condiciones ensayadas, por lo que pueden emplearse de manera segura y confiable.

  13. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Qi, Yaodong; Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Haitao; Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Guoping; Terwei, André

    2016-01-01

    With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), the Uygur Medicine (UM), and the Kazak Medicine (KM) for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter) as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1) medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2) medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3) CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1), in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2), for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants. PMID:27391239

  14. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Li

    Full Text Available With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM, the Uygur Medicine (UM, and the Kazak Medicine (KM for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1 medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2 medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3 CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1, in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2, for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants.

  15. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liping; Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Qi, Yaodong; Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Haitao; Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Guoping; Terwei, André

    2016-01-01

    With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), the Uygur Medicine (UM), and the Kazak Medicine (KM) for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter) as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1) medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2) medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3) CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1), in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2), for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants.

  16. The law aspects of biotechnology patenting. The living source between discovery and invention; Aspetti giuridici del brevetto biotecnologico. La materia vivente tra scoperta e invenzione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontanella, G.; Cantale, C.; Galeffi, P. [ENEA, Divisione Biotecnologie e Agricoltura, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Ariemma, S. [ENEA, Unita' Amministrazione, Finanza e Controllo, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    points which could obstruct all future development in the biotech industry (possibly the first aim of the legislation) in cases of servile application of a law which is in reality aimed at securing rights. [Italian] Questo lavoro e' stato svolto in collaborazione con l'Universita' di Roma 3, nell'ambito della preparazione della tesi di laurea del Dott. Gianluca Fontanella. Questa trattazione si e' posta lo scopo di fornire un quadro normativo il piu' possibile omogeneo ed esauriente dell'effettiva situazione esistente nel settore biotecnologico, soffermandosi su uno degli aspetti portanti e piu' controversi in materia, quello, cioe', della definizione dell'oggetto brevettuale, alla luce dell'entrata in vigore della Direttiva 98/44/CE sulla tutela giudirica delle invenzioni biotecnologiche. Nella prima parte del rapporto, data la tecnicita' e la interdisciplinarieta' della materia, e' stato introdotto il tema da un punto di vista piu' generale con riferimento alla definizione del concetto di biotecnologie delle motivazioni che hanno indotto il legislatore ad incidere sul quadro normativo esistente, dando spazio ad un'organica e completa opera di raccolta e di interpretazione dei testi normativi nazionali ed internazionali piu' rilevanti, precedenti alla Direttiva 98/44/CE, in tema di tutela brevettuale, e di biotecnologie in particolare. Nella seconda parte, invece, si e' entrati nel merito della questione della individuazione di cosa sia possibile brevettare alla luce dell'entrata in vigore della Direttiva 98/44/CE, attraverso un accurato esame del testo normativo nella parte in cui analizza e definisce l'ogetto brevettuale in campo biotecnologico. In particolare, e' stata affrontata la questione della brevettualita' della materia vivente, analizzando anche, in modo precipuo, i concetti limitrofi, per natura del trovato, di varieta' vegetale e di razza

  17. The law aspects of biotechnology patenting. The living source between discovery and invention; Aspetti giuridici del brevetto biotecnologico. La materia vivente tra scoperta e invenzione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontanella, G; Cantale, C; Galeffi, P [ENEA, Divisione Biotecnologie e Agricoltura, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Ariemma, S [ENEA, Unita' Amministrazione, Finanza e Controllo, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    points which could obstruct all future development in the biotech industry (possibly the first aim of the legislation) in cases of servile application of a law which is in reality aimed at securing rights. [Italian] Questo lavoro e' stato svolto in collaborazione con l'Universita' di Roma 3, nell'ambito della preparazione della tesi di laurea del Dott. Gianluca Fontanella. Questa trattazione si e' posta lo scopo di fornire un quadro normativo il piu' possibile omogeneo ed esauriente dell'effettiva situazione esistente nel settore biotecnologico, soffermandosi su uno degli aspetti portanti e piu' controversi in materia, quello, cioe', della definizione dell'oggetto brevettuale, alla luce dell'entrata in vigore della Direttiva 98/44/CE sulla tutela giudirica delle invenzioni biotecnologiche. Nella prima parte del rapporto, data la tecnicita' e la interdisciplinarieta' della materia, e' stato introdotto il tema da un punto di vista piu' generale con riferimento alla definizione del concetto di biotecnologie delle motivazioni che hanno indotto il legislatore ad incidere sul quadro normativo esistente, dando spazio ad un'organica e completa opera di raccolta e di interpretazione dei testi normativi nazionali ed internazionali piu' rilevanti, precedenti alla Direttiva 98/44/CE, in tema di tutela brevettuale, e di biotecnologie in particolare. Nella seconda parte, invece, si e' entrati nel merito della questione della individuazione di cosa sia possibile brevettare alla luce dell'entrata in vigore della Direttiva 98/44/CE, attraverso un accurato esame del testo normativo nella parte in cui analizza e definisce l'ogetto brevettuale in campo biotecnologico. In particolare, e' stata affrontata la questione della brevettualita' della materia vivente, analizzando anche, in modo precipuo, i concetti limitrofi, per natura del trovato, di varieta' vegetale e di razza animale. In conclusione alla Direttiva 98/44/CE e' stato riconosciuto il pregio di aver rappresentato il primo testo

  18. Xerostomia em pacientes idosos: relação com o fluxo salivar, proteínas totais, capacidade tampão, pH e medicação em uso

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Oliveira Terci

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de investigar as relações entre a queixa de boca seca, em uma população de idosos em bom estado geral, com o fluxo salivar não estimulado, a concentração de proteínas salivares, o pH e a capacidade tampão da saliva, além de considerar as medicações de uso diário consumidas por esses indivíduos. Foram selecionados de forma seqüencial e aleatória 85 pacientes, 13 homens e 72 mulheres, entre os 60 e 82 anos de idade, com média de 68,5 anos. Vinte e um pacientes, t...

  19. Fuentes alternativas de materia prima

    OpenAIRE

    Spanevello, Rolando Angel; Suarez, Alejandra Graciela; Sarotti, Ariel Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Biomass is the source of renewable carbon that will allow to achieve the future development of our society. With the prospect of the fossil resources depletion, it is necessary to find new alternative sources of energy and raw materials. Chemistry will play a key role to design new materials from biomass which will reshape our way of living and consumption. Fil: Spanevello, Rolando Angel. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Rosario. Ins...

  20. Materia extraña

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez Cadenas, J J

    2008-01-01

    Enero, 1999. Unas extrañas burbujas se han colocado en el acelerador de particulas del CERN (Ginebra). Ante el riesgo de que esto desencadene una catástrofe a escala mundial, el centro ordena detener el experimento. Años después, Irene, una joven y promotedora científica, es contratada en la división de Física Teórica del CERN. Allí coincide con el mayor Espinosa, destinado a la sede suiza de la ONU para trabajar en un proyecto contra la proliferación de armas nucleares. La misión de Espinosa resulta ser mucho más arriesgada de lo que parecía. Irene ambiciosa y rebelde, toma una decisión de efectos imprevisibles.

  1. El consentimiento en materia penal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Iván Machado Rodríguez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se plantea un estudio de las diferentes posturas dogmáticas que se han suscitado en la doctrina jurídico-penal en torno a la relevancia del instituto del consentimiento, como su regulación, recorriendo las legislaciones penales española, alemana, italiana y colombiana. Así mismo, se toman en consideración las recientes posturas, en donde se entiende el consentimiento como un supuesto de autopuesta en peligro, o como uno de heteropuesta en peligro de la víctima. Se propone un entendimiento de la figura desde la óptica de la teoría de la imputación objetiva, y para ello se incluye el consentimiento como causa de ausencia de la imputación objetiva.

  2. Responsabilidades municipales en materia ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Pichardo Pagaza

    2009-01-01

    Este trabajo reflexiona en torno a las responsabilidades que la Constitución política impone de manera exclusiva a los municipios y que por su naturaleza tienen efectos directos en el medio ambiente. Se alude aquí a los servicios de agua po ta ble, drenaje, saneamiento, tratamiento de aguas residuales, disposición de residuos sólidos, rastros, panteones y mercados. Ahora son los desafíos ambientales de la autoridad municipal, por lo que deben ser también sus prioridades. Si esos servicios no se atienden oportuna y técnicamente la población sufrirá, se deteriorará gravemente el medio ambiente y disminuirá la calidad de la vida de la comunidad.

  3. Comercio exterior : materia y ejercicios

    OpenAIRE

    Bustillo Mesanza, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    1. Teorías y tendencias del comercio internacional: - Introducción. - Teorías de comercio internacional. - Tendencias actuales del comercio internacional. Cuestiones. 2. Política comercial comunitaria: - La nomenclatura arancelaria y el arancel aduanero común europeo. - Determinación del origen de las mercancías. - Valor en aduana de las mercancías. - Medidas de política arancelaria y comercial: franquicias aduaneras, destinos específicos, suspensiones arancelarias, c...

  4. Crecimiento y distribución de materia seca en cultivares de fresa (Fragaria sp. bajo estrés salino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casierra-Posada Fánor

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Las sales se acumulan a menudo en el suelo de los cultivos de fresa como consecuencia del agua empleada para fertirrigación. Se realizó un experimento en invernadero con el objeto de estudiar la respuesta de cultivares de fresa (Fragaria sp. a concentraciones crecientes de NaCl. Los cultivares de fresa Sweet Charlie, Camarosa y Chandler se sembraron en materas con suelo en la localidad de Tunja (Colombia. El suelo de las materas se salinizó gradualmente con NaCl mediante la adición de 0, 20, 40, 60 y 80 mM· kg-1 de suelo secado a temperatura ambiente. Las plantas se cosecharon 16 semanas luego de empezados los tratamientos. Se midió la distribución de materia seca en hojas, coronas, flores, raíces y frutos, así como el área foliar total, el área necrótica, el peso específico de las hojas, el peso seco y fresco por fruto, y la relación brote/raíz. Los resultados indicaron que la acumulación de sales en plantas de fresa reduce el vigor, retarda el crecimiento y disminuye la producción de biomasa. Se observaron con frecuencia lesiones de quemado medianas a severas en los bordes de las hojas de acuerdo con la concentración de sales en el suelo. Entre los tres cultivares de fresa evaluados, Sweet Charlie fue más tolerante al estrés por salinidad en comparación con los demás cultivares.

  5. Introducción a la Matemática Económico-Empresarial: balance de una materia de libre elección

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sala Garrido

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el curso 1997/98, y debido a la diferente formación matemática con la que los estudiantes acceden a las licenciaturas de Economía y Administración y Dirección de Empresas y a la diplomatura en Ciencias Empresariales según sus estudios previos, la Universitat de València ofrece un módulo teórico-práctico de libre elección llamado Introducción a las Matemáticas Económico-Empresariales. La génesis, objetivos y estructura de dicho módulo fueron presentados por los autores en las VI Jornadas de ASEPUMA (Santiago, 1998, junto con unos primeros resultados basados en los datos disponibles en aquellos momentos: tan sólo los de la primera convocatoria. Este primer estudio sobre datos cruzados apuntaba ya la efectividad del módulo sobre el resto de asignaturas troncales de matemáticas y, en consecuencia, sobre el resto de las materias que apoyan su desarrollo y resultados sobre las matemáticas. En la actualidad, con datos históricos suficientes, presentamos la ratificación de los resultados anteriores. Su efectividad ha sido tal que en la "contrarreforma" emprendida por la Universidad el módulo ha pasado de ser un módulo de libre elección a tener carácter optativo y de ser intensivo a tener una duración semestral. Este hecho precisa una reflexión acerca de su tamaño y enfoque. Sin embargo, este módulo ha seguido la dinámica del resto y el porcentaje de aprobados ha descendido en cada convocatoria. En este trabajo analizamos las posibles causas de este hecho y planteamos algunas modificaciones en el temario debidas a los cambios introducidos.

  6. Manejo de enmiendas para restaurar la materia orgánica del suelo en oasisde regadío de mendoza, argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abril, A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available La agricultura de regadío en zonas áridas favorece la degradación de la Materia Orgánica del suelo (MO, por lo que suelen aplicarse enmiendas orgánicas con la finalidad de restaurar el contenido de MO y mejorar la disponibilidad de nutrientes para los cultivos, aunque no siempre con resultados concluyentes. En este trabajo se analizan, de manera comparativa, cuatro ensayos con diferentes sistemas de aplicación de enmiendas orgánicas (prácticas agrícolas, tipo de enmienda, dosis, frecuencia y forma de aplicación y combinación con fertilizantes químicos en oasis de regadío de Mendoza (Argentina, con la finalidad de establecer las prácticas de manejo más adecuadas para restaurar las diferentes fracciones de MO del suelo (ácidos húmicos y fúlvicos y sustancias no húmicas. El contenido de MO aumentó en el 40% de los casos analizados (n=92 y no sufrió modificaciones en el resto, mientras que los ácidos fúlvicos también aumentaron en el 40% de los casos, pero disminuyeron en el 30%. Contrariamente, los ácidos húmicos sufrieron más disminuciones que aumentos (39% vs. 26% de los casos. Estas diferencias se explican por las prácticas de manejo agrícola y las técnicas de aplicación de las enmiendas, concluyendo que: a todas las prácticas de aplicación de enmiendas aumentan en el corto plazo la MO; b la fracción humificada aumenta en el corto plazo, con la aplicación superficial sin laboreo; y c el agua de riego con alto contenido de desechos orgánicos disminuye el efecto positivo de las enmiendas sobre la MO. Por tales motivos, las prácticas de manejo recomendadas para lograr la restauración de la MO del suelo en los oasis de regadío de Mendoza son: aumentar la dosis y la frecuencia en la aplicación de enmiendas, y reducir el laboreo y el uso de aguas de reuso.

  7. Formación en Género en la Universidad: ¿Materia de asignaturas específicas o de educación transversal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Asián Chaves

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se debaten los diferentes resultados de recibir una formación mediante asignaturas específicas o de forma transversal. La persistencia de estereotipos de género y la división sexual del trabajo están relacionadas con la falta de concienciación social, debida, entre otros factores, a la falta de formación en cuestiones de género. Esta formación es necesaria para reflexionar y "reconstruir" los mensajes sobre género para develar las premisas ideológicas y las jerarquías subyacentes en los mensajes. El objetivo principal es constatar la importancia de recibir formación en género en la Universidad. Para ello se propone comparar los resultados de las encuestas dirigidas al alumnado de las licenciaturas en Ciencias del Trabajo y en Administración y Dirección de Empresas y observar si existen diferencias entre ambos grupos, tanto en relación con su formación sobre la materia, como con su comportamiento y actitud frente a determinadas cuestiones relacionadas con el género. Además, se trataría de ver, si existe diferencia, en qué medida puede derivarse de la formación recibida. Se han pasado encuestas a una muestra representativa de alumnas/os de ambas titulaciones y se han aplicado las oportunas técnicas estadísticas a través del software SPSS. Los resultados del trabajo refuerzan la idea inicial de la necesidad de incorporar asignaturas que den formación en género en programas y titulaciones universitarias y plantear no sólo conocimientos disciplinares orientados al "saber" y profesionales orientados al "saber hacer", sino también actitudes para un compromiso ético orientadas a la equidad de género.

  8. Evaluación de distintas materias primas para la producción de almácigo de tomate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Richmond

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron mezclas de materias primas naturales en diferentes proporciones y en el siguiente orden: fibra de coco (Cocos nucifera, aserrín de melina (Gmelina arborea y abono orgánico Coope Victoria, para utilizarlos como sustrato en la etapa de almácigo de tomate híbrido FBM-17. Se hicieron mezclas entre sí de fibra de coco y aserrín de melina en diferentes proporciones (30%, 40% y 50% de cada material, para un total de 9 tratamientos; el abono orgánico se agregó para completar el 100%. Se evaluó la variable porcentaje de germinación 7 días después de la siembra (dds y porcentaje de plantas trasplantables a 27 dds en cada parcela útil. Además, en 10 plántulas escogidas al azar dentro de cada parcela útil (a 27 dds se evaluó: altura de plántula, grosor del tallo, peso seco de raíz y parte aérea, relación raíz/parte aérea y calidad de adobe. Del total de tratamientos, los mayores valores para las variables evaluadas se obtuvieron en los 3 tratamientos donde la proporción de aserrín de melina fue 30%, junto con el tratamiento de 40% de fibra de coco + 40% de aserrín de melina + 20% de abono orgánico Coope Victoria; entre ellos el sustrato con tendencia a dar mejores resultados en todas las variables fue la mezcla 30-30-40. Los valores inferiores para las variables evaluadas se obtuvieron en el tratamiento donde no se incluyó en la mezcla abono orgánico (50-50-0, excepto para las variables porcentaje de germinación y relación raíz/parte aérea. La inclusión de abono orgánico en la mezcla del sustrato favoreció la obtención de valores satisfactorios.

  9. Reseña: Abal Oliú, Alejandro: C.G.P. y conciliación previa en materia laboral, Editorial Universidad Ltda. Montevideo, 1992, 64 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    o. C. R.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abal Oliú, Alejandro: C.G.P. y conciliación previa en materia laboral, Editorial Universidad Ltda. Montevideo, 1992, 64 págs. Editorial Universidad Ltda. Montevideo, 1992, 64 págs.El autor, profesor de Derecho Procesal y de Técnica Forense en nuestra Facultad, analiza en la presente obra las distintas fórmulas que es posible estab~ecer en cuanto a la tentativa de conciliación previa a la iniciación de los procesos laborales, luego de la entrada en vigencia del Código General del Proceso. (...

  10. Transporte de materia orgánica a lo largo de un río tropical de montaña en la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Enrique Tamaris Turizo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available En los ríos tropicales, la materia orgánica es la principal fuente de energía para las comunidades que allí habitan. Las principales proporciones de materia orgánica se encuentra la materia orgánica particulada gruesa (MOPG y  la materia orgánica particulada fina (MOPF. Por lo anterior, en este trabajo se evaluó el transporte de la MOPG,  la MOPF y su relación con algunas variables físicas y químicas en tres tramos de un gradiente altitudinal de los 50 msnm hasta los 1700 msnm durante un ciclo diario en el río Gaira (Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. Para lo cual se realizaron muestreos mensuales entre los meses de marzo a junio del 2008. Se detectaron diferencias significativas en la deriva de MOPG entre las estaciones, siendo la estación 2 (parte media durante el primer muestreo, la que registró los valores más altos reportados para todo el estudio (474 kg m-3 y la estación 3 mostró la menor biomasa derivante (0,26 kg m-3. La MOPF registró valores similares durante todos los muestreos (0,58 – 6,34 g m-3. Sin embargo, se detectaron diferencias significativas en los muestreos tres y cuatro. Con el aumento de las lluvias, descendió el transporte de  MOPG. Una relación inversa entre la velocidad del agua y el transporte de MOPG (rs = -0,70; n = 12; p < 0,05 se registró, mientras que la MOPF, presentó valores constantes. Los resultados de este trabajo coinciden parcialmente con lo registrado en la literatura, lo cual indica que las dinámicas de transporte de MO están relacionadas con las variaciones ambientales locales.

  11. Relaciones entre el uso de la analogía en la enseñanza y el aprendizaje del concepto estructura íntima de la materia (EIM)

    OpenAIRE

    Ordoñez Acosta, Carlos F.; Cardona Ocampo, Jhon E.; Daza Pacheco, Alexander; Rodas Rodríguez, José M.; Ruiz Ortega, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    El propósito central de la investigación fue identificar y categorizar las analogías utilizadas por los docentes para la enseñanza de la estructura íntima de la materia (EIM). Para ello, construimos y aplicamos a docentes y estudiantes de tres instituciones de la ciudad de Manizales, Colombia, dos cuestionarios de pregunta abierta, identificándose y caracterizándose seis analogías, simples y de carácter concreto/abstracto; resultados que invitan a reflexionar sobre el uso de analogías abstrac...

  12. Relaciones entre el uso de la analogía en la enseñanza y el aprendizaje del concepto Estructura Íntima de la Materia (EIM)

    OpenAIRE

    Ordoñez Acosta, Carlos F.

    2013-01-01

    El propósito central de la investigación fue identificar y categorizar las analogías utilizadas por los docentes para la enseñanza de la estructura íntima de la materia (EIM). Para ello, construimos y aplicamos a docentes y estudiantes de tres instituciones de la ciudad de Manizales, Colombia, dos cuestionarios de pregunta abierta, identificándose y caracterizándose seis analogías, simples y de carácter concreto/abstracto; resultados que invitan a reflexionar sobre el uso de analogías abstrac...

  13. Macroproyecto: validación de propuesta educativa con investigación basada en diseño (caso: contenido no lineal. concepto: la materia y sus propiedades)

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Sarmiento, Luz Adriana

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación Validación de Propuesta Educativa con investigación basada en diseño para la enseñanza del concepto la materia y sus propiedades a través de la plataforma virtual http://luza1398.wix.com/aventurasescolares, tuvo como finalidad profundizar en las prácticas educativas de enseñanza y aprendizaje, innovando con una metodología que permitiera minimizar con el desinterés y apatía de los estudiantes de grado tercero por las labores escolares. The present...

  14. Cambios en fracciones dinámicas de la materia orgánica de dos suelos, inceptisol y ultisol, por el uso con cultivo de cítricas

    OpenAIRE

    Pulido-Moncada, Mansonia; Flores, Bestalia; Rondón S, Tatiana; Hernández-Hernández, Rosa M; Lozano, Zenaida

    2010-01-01

    La materia orgánica (MO) es uno de los parámetros más aceptados como indicador de cambios en la calidad del suelo; sin embargo, sus fracciones dinámicas pueden ser aun más sensibles a los efectos del tipo de manejo y tipo de vegetación. En los suelos del trópico es importante la determinación temprana de los cambios debido al manejo puesto que los procesos biológicos de los ecosistemas que son intervenidos pueden darse a altas velocidades. En este trabajo se planteó determinar si las fraccion...

  15. Efecto de la altura y frecuencia de corte sobre la producción de materia seca y proteína cruda de Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. Gray

    OpenAIRE

    Lugo Soto, Maria; Molina, Francelina; González, Ignacio; González, Johan; Sánchez, Eudomar

    2012-01-01

    Para evaluar el efecto de la altura y frecuencia de corte en la producción de materia seca y proteína cruda de Tithonia diversifolia, se realizó un experimento en el Campo Experimental Ciudad Bolivia del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Agrícolas (INIA), ubicado en Ciudad Bolivia, estado Barinas a 08º 22` N y 70º 36´ O, y una elevación de 186 m.s.n.m. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones en un arreglo factorial de los tratamientos en parcelas dividid...

  16. Clasificación en tiempo real de materias primas mediante un sensor espectroscópico de imagen y técnicas lineales de procesado de datos

    OpenAIRE

    García Allende, Pilar Beatriz; Conde Portilla, Olga María; Mirapeix Serrano, Jesús María; Cubillas de Cos, Ana María; López Higuera, José Miguel

    2007-01-01

    RESUMEN: En este artículo se presenta un nuevo método de procesado de imágenes hiperespectrales capturadas mediante un sensor espectroscópico de imagen. Basado en un algoritmo de clasificación lineal, permite mejorar las restricciones de tiempo real que planteaba un sistema de clasificación de materia prima diseñado previamente. El procesado de datos consta de dos bloques: compresión de características e interpretación de las mismas. La compresión se realiza empleando Análisis de Componentes ...

  17. Las interferencias parentales y la alienación parental en el contexto jurídico español: Revisión de sentencias judiciales en materia de guarda y custodia

    OpenAIRE

    González Sarrió, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    RESUMEN TESIS DOCTORAL 1. TÍTULO: LAS INTERFERENCIAS PARENTALES Y LA ALIENACIÓN PARENTAL EN EL CONTEXTO JURÍDICO ESPAÑOL: REVISIÓN DE SENTENCIAS JUDICIALES EN MATERIA DE GUARDA Y CUSTODIA. 2. AUTOR: Ignacio González Sarrió. 3. DIRECTORES: Dr. Ismael Loinaz Calvo y Dra. Mª. Jesús López Latorre. 4. TUTORA: Dra. Mª. Jesús López Latorre 5. PRESENTACIÓN. La presente tesis se estructura siguiendo dos estudios independientes a la vez que complementarios. Un primer estudio relac...

  18. Análisis de la política exterior norteamericana hacia Turquía, en materia de seguridad, y su influencia en el Kurdistán. Periodo 2003-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Pedroza, Ivonne Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar los elementos que articulan la Política Exterior de los Estados Unidos hacia Turquía, en materia de seguridad, y su influencia en el Kurdistán, ya que en el periodo 2003-2009 se presentaron acontecimientos que marcaron la vida política, económica, militar y social de la región del Medio Oriente, caracterizado por la presencia de los Estados Unidos. Esta investigación se desarrollara de acuerdo con el modelo de monografía, para dar un análisis teórico ...

  19. Psicología Jurídica-forense y juicios orales en materia penal: Perspectivas, riesgos y desafíos/Law-forensic psychology and oral proceedings in criminal matters: Outlook, risks, and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric García-López

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se plantea una reseña acerca de la necesaria y conveniente reflexión sobre el papel de la Psicología Jurídica y Forense en México, especialmente a raíz de la entrada en vigor de los juicios orales en materia penal. El planteamiento contempla algunas de las perspectivas que ofrece la Psicología Jurídica en este sentido, determinados y posibles riesgos en el ejercicio de la Psicología Forense y los principales desafíos de dicha disciplina científica.

  20. Un modelo econométrico de medición de las relaciones de sustitución entre materias primas compradas para la producción de piensos compuestos y su asignación

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Ludo; Surry, Yves

    1993-01-01

    El objeto de este artículo es presentar un modelo econométrico para estimar las relaciones de sustitución entre las materias primas compradas para la producción de piensos compuestos y su asignación entre los diferentes tipos de piensos para diferentes tipos de ganado utilizando una función dual de costes. Dicho modelo se aplica a las industrias belga y neerlandesa de piensos compuestos. El modelo empírico utiliza una función de costes Simétrica Generalizada de McFadden de outputs múltiples q...

  1. Políticas públicas desarrolladas recientemente en Chile en materia de derecho a la salud, en particular respecto al acceso a los medicamentos y su natural incidencia en la propiedad intelectual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Gallegos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente documento busca exponer el giro que se está produciendo, en materia de reconocimiento y aseguramiento del derecho a la salud y en particular respecto al acceso a los medicamentos, tanto en el poder legislativo como en el judicial. La exposición de un proyecto de ley en trámite con carácter de suma urgencia, recientemente despachado por el Senado hacia la Cámara de Diputados, así como también los precedentes sentados por diferentes fallos de nuestros tribunales de justicia, permiten ponderar el debate actual que se está dando en Chile. Las políticas en materia de medicamentos que en razón de todo lo anterior adopte el Estado, si bien deben honrar los compromisos internacionales asumidos en virtud de la incorporación al sistema multilateral de comercio y los distintos acuerdos bilaterales suscritos, deben también, necesariamente, tomar en consideración el derecho a la salud de sus habitantes, para efectos de alcanzar normas coherentes, completas y que gocen de la legitimidad necesaria dentro de la población.

  2. COMPRENSIÓN DEL COMPORTAMIENTO ELÉCTRICO DE LOS SÓLIDOS A PARTIR DE UN CONOCIMIENTO BÁSICO SOBRE LA MATERIA. UN ESTUDIO EXPLORATORIO CON ALUMNOS DE SECUNDARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García-Carmona

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se argumenta la posibilidad de enseñar nociones de electricidad partiendo de un conocimiento básico sobre la materia. Con ello se intenta favorecer una visión globalizada de las ciencias físico-químicas, estableciendo una interrelación explícita entre ambos tópicos científicos. Para ello, se fundamenta una propuesta didácticainnovadora, orientada a enseñar el comportamiento eléctrico de materiales sólidos en 3º de ESO [edad 14-15]. A fin de evaluar la propuesta se realiza un estudio de caso exploratorio con 60 alumnos, en el que se analizan sus niveles de comprensión y principales dificultades de aprendizaje. En general, los alumnos adquieren niveles de comprensión moderados, aunque llegan a integrar conceptos relativos a la materia y la electricidad en sus razonamientos. Se concluye que es posible el planteamiento didáctico propuesto, si bien es necesario profundizar con nuevas investigaciones, queayuden a superar las dificultades de aprendizaje observadas.

  3. Extracción mediante un SOXTEC® de la materia grasa de algodones procedentes de diferentes áreas productoras. Comparación extracción con diclorometano o sucesivas diclorometano-metanol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez, Mª J.

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper compares the fatty matter recovered from cotton when applying one extraction with dichloromethane or two successive extractions (the first with dichloromethane and the second one with methanol, more polar and the time required for the operation when using SOXTEC® System HT2 or the usual Soxhlet. Results showed that it is convenient to make successive extractions of 1 hr and 30 minutes, respectively, with SOXTEC®. The fatty matter extracted was homogeneous, with independence of its origin. Before the analysis of pesticides, samples should be purified by gas chromatography (ECD or MS.

    El trabajo compara la recuperación de materia grasa de algodón con una única extracción con diclorometano o dos extracciones consecutivas (la primera con diclorometano y la segunda con metanol, más polar y el tiempo necesario para la operación utilizando SOXTEC® System HT2 y el Soxhlet convencional. El resultado indica que deben hacerse dos extracciones sucesivas de una hora y 30 minutos, respectivamente, en SOXTEX®. Ello representa una considerable reducción con respecto al Soxhlet. La grasa extraída es relativamente homogénea, con independencia del origen de la materia prima. Antes del análisis de los pesticidas, la muestra debe someterse a una purificación previa mediante cromatografía gaseosa (ECD ó MS.

  4. Supervivencia de Pseudomonas fluorescens en suelos con diferente contenido de materia orgánica Pseudomonas fluorescens survival in soils with different contents of organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B.R. Perotti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas fluorescens es una bacteria PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, heterótrofa, capaz de combatir fitopatógenos edáficos. Su supervivencia podría estar favorecida por el elevado contenido de materia orgánica del suelo (MOS. Para probarlo, se inocularon, en condiciones de laboratorio, tres cepas de P. fluorescens: UP61, C7R12, y P190 (nativa de Balcarce, Buenos Aires en suelos rizosféricos de tomate representativos de diferentes zonas de Argentina: suelo Argiudol (Balcarce, y Zavalla, Santa Fe y suelo Torrifluvens (Cipolletti, Río Negro (MOS %: 7,2; 4,3 y 2,6 respectivamente. Los resultados indicaron que la supervivencia de P. fluorescens en los suelos Argiudoles fue similar; aunque las pendientes de las curvas de supervivencia en el suelo de Zavalla fueron menores que las observadas en el suelo de Balcarce. La producción de CO2 fue superior en el suelo de Balcarce que en el suelo de Zavalla (4,3 y 2,8 mmol.g-1suelo, esta diferencia podría ser explicada por la existencia de una mayor presión competitiva por parte de la microflora nativa. La supervivencia en el suelo Torrifluvens resultó mínima, lo que sería atribuible a su elevada conductividad eléctrica más que al menor contenido de MOS. La cepa UP61 presentó en todos los casos la mejor supervivencia.Pseudomonas fluorescens are plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR. The survival of this inoculated heterotrophic bacterium may be affected by soil organic matter content (SOM. To confirm this hypothesis, three strains of P. fluorescens: UP61, C7R12 y P190 (native of Balcarce, Buenos Aires were inoculated, in laboratory conditions, into three argentine rhizospheric soils: two Argiudolls (Balcarce, and Zavalla, Santa Fe and a Torrifluvens (Cipolletti, Río Negro with different SOM: 7,2; 4,3; and 2,6%, respectibily. The results indicated that the all three isolates survival in general was not different. The slopes of the regression curves in Zavalla soil were very

  5. Effect of the raw materials processing on their dustiness; Efecto del procesado de materias primas sobre su poder de emisión de polvo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López Lilaoa, A.; Juárezb, M.; Sanfelix Fornera, V.; Mallol Gascha, G.; Monfort Gimeno, E.

    2017-11-01

    During the handling and/or processing of powdered materials in the CERAMICS INDUSTRY, one of the most important risks regarding the environmental and occupational health is the potential generation of dust. In this regard, a parameter of great interest is the dustiness of the processed materials; this parameter quantifies the tendency of the powdered materials to generate dust when handled. In this study, to determine the dustiness of a ceramic raw material composition (mixture of the body raw materials), the continuous drop method has been used. This test apparatus was selected because it is considered to better simulate how ceramic materials are handled in the CERAMICS INDUSTRY. The obtained results show that the dustiness of the same ceramic composition exhibits significant changes during the manufacturing process, depending on the presentation form. In this regard, the dry milling sample presents the highest dustiness, which can be significantly reduced (>75%) applying the the moisturization and agglomeration. The obtained results also shown that the best presentation form, regarding the minimization of the dust generation, is achieved in the spray-drying process, where the dustiness is reduced by 95%. [Spanish] En la manipulación y/o procesado de materiales pulverulentos en la industria cerámica, uno de los riesgos más importantes desde el punto de vista ambiental y de higiene laboral es la generación de polvo ambiental. En este sentido, un parámetro de gran interés es el poder de emisión de polvo, que cuantifica la tendencia de los materiales pulverulentos a generar polvo cuando se manipulan. En este trabajo, para determinar el poder de emisión de polvo de una composición cerámica (mezcla de materias primas empleada para la fabricación de baldosas cerámicas) se ha empleado un método de caída continua. Este método se ha seleccionado por ser el que mejor representa las operaciones de manipulación de materiales pulverulentos que tienen lugar en

  6. Las decisiones de los habitantes de Medellín en materia de servicios de salud Health seeking behavior in Medellin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Stella Álvarez C

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: se realizó una investigación cualitativa para conocer las preferencias en materia de salud, de habitantes de diferentes estratos sociales de Medellín y las razones que explican esas preferencias. El objetivo era establecer si existían patrones de comportamiento entre los informantes y si algunos de los modelos teóricos contribuían a explicar esos patrones. Métodología: se entrevistaron 46 personas entre los meses de julio y septiembre de 2005. Se les preguntó si habían estado enfermos durante los últimos tres meses, qué pasos habían dado para solucionar su problema y por qué razón lo habían hecho. Resultados: se encontró que los factores que más pesan en las decisiones tomadas por los entrevistados son razones de índole cultural; es así como buscan recursos en la medicina popular; financiera porque de acuerdo a los recursos de que disponen, acceden a servicios de salud; e insatisfacción con la medicina occidental y con la prestación de los servicios de salud. Discusión: los elementos que las personas tuvieron en cuenta para decidir en salud fueron diferentes a aquellos planteados en los modelos teóricos de comportamiento en salud. Conclusiones: se necesita acudir a elementos aportados por otras teorías que consultan el contexto económico, social y cultural para la explicación de las decisiones en salud.Objective: a qualitative study was carried out to explore health choices of Medellín’s residents from different social strata and factors associated to decisions. The aim was to determine behavior patterns, if any, among informants and if a health behavior model contributes to explain any existing pattern. Methodology: forty six people from different social strata were interviewed from July to September 2005; informants were questioned about the diseases and ailments they suffered during the last three months, as well as the course of action taken and the reason for each decision made. Results: the study

  7. Narrativas de usuários de saúde mental em uma experiência de gestão autônoma de medicação

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    Laura Lamas Martins Gonçalves

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Numerosos estudos apontam a tendência à cronicidade dos tratamentos quando centrados no uso de medicamentos. Esta pesquisa foi realizada em uma grande cidade brasileira, com usuários de Centros de Atenção Psicossocial (CAPS, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da experimentação do Guia pessoal da Gestão Autônoma da Medicação (Guia GAM na relação desses usuários com seus tratamentos e nas suas ações de participação. Esse instrumento, criado no Canadá, traduzido e adaptado para o Brasil, foi experimentado, por meio de grupos de intervenção, com usuários de CAPS com transtorno mental grave e com história de participação política no campo da saúde. Foram realizados grupos focais e entrevistas em profundidade. As transcrições foram transformadas em narrativas, e foram definidas quatro categorias de análise: sujeitos de experiências radicais de sofrimento; experiências com a medicação; direitos de usuários; participação e militância política. Com a experimentação do Guia GAM, os usuários expressaram uma tensão entre a reprodução da identidade centrada na doença e a legitimidade da singularidade das suas experiências pessoais. Demonstraram maior conhecimento sobre os medicamentos que tomavam, passaram a reconhecer sua própria expertise, como o uso de medicamentos, e alguns buscaram ajustes no tratamento. Referiram necessidade de serem apoiados nos movimentos de reivindicação dos seus direitos e fortaleceram suas participações enquanto militantes da saúde mental. Conclui-se que a versão brasileira do Guia GAM tem potencial de contribuir com o empoderamento dos usuários, permitindo assim uma interlocução das avaliações de resultados em saúde mental com o cenário internacional.

  8. Xilazina como pré-medicação para anestesia com tiopental sódico em cães Xylazine as a pre-medicant for thiopental sodium anaesthesia in the dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Ribeiro Prado Filho

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A xilazina produz um bom efeito sedativo-analgésico quando associado à drogas anestésicas. O tiopental sódico é um barbitúrico de curta duração que produz sonolência, sedação e hipnose. O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar a eficiência da associação da xilazina como pré-medicação e do tiopental sódico na manutenção da anestesia, em cães. Foram usados 32 cães sem raça definida, adultos, machos e com peso entre 8 e 10 kg, que foram submetidos à procedimento operatório no esôfago cervical. A dose média de xilazina administrada foi de 3,8 mg/kg e de tiopental sódico foi de 7,7 mg/kg. Não houve necessidade de intubação endotraqueal e não ocorreu óbito relacionado com as medicações anestésicas. Concluindo, o procedimento anestésico descrito é de fácil execução, é seguro e diminui o estresse do animal.The xylazine produce reliable sedative-analgesic effect when coadministered with anesthetics drugs. Thiopental sodium is a shorter duration barbituric, produced somnolence, sedation and hypnosis. The aim of this work is to verify the efficiency in association of xylazine and thiopental sodium to anesthesia in dogs. Thirty-two male mongrel dogs with an average weight between 8 and 10 kg were submitted to surgical procedure with approach of cervical aesophagus. The average dose was 3,8 mg/kg to xilazine and 7,7 mg/kg to thiopental sodium. Was not necessary endotracheal intubation and no deaths due anesthesic procedure were observed. The anesthesic procedure described is easy, safe and decreases the stress of the animal.

  9. Simultaneous Determination of Flavonols and Terpene Lactones in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing ... were collected following oral administration of four different preparations and the ... disadvantages. ..... biloba leaf extracts to rats via different routes of.

  10. Protective effect of Radix Bupleuri extract against liver cirrhosis in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Oncology, Wuhan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Wuhan 430060, 2Department ... 1 Hospital; 4Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Hubei Institute for Food and Drug .... cirrhosis model rats that were treated with oral.

  11. The toxicology of Octopus maculosa: the blue-ringed octopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, M S

    1999-10-01

    The biotoxicology of the Australian blue-ringed octopus is detailed with the view of introducing it as a remedy into the homoeopathic Materia Medica and stimulating the second step of proving this venom.

  12. Publications | Page 576 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 5751 - 5760 of 6341 ... Journal articles ... Report on workshops for the development of Materia Medica Regulations for ... Natural resources systems programme R8494 annex A : scientific report; tracking social capital outcomes and ...

  13. El Desarrollo de Valores y Actitudes ético-Morales a través de las Materias Académicas con Implementación Tecnológica: Una Teoría Sustantiva-Edición Única

    OpenAIRE

    Alemán Vargas, Margarita

    2002-01-01

    El tema central del presente estudio es responder cuáles son las implicaciones pedagógicas para la institución escolar laica que busca el desarrollo valores y actitudes éticomorales y utiliza para ello, las materias académicas implantadas bajo un modelo educativo presencial auxiliado por tecnología computacional. Indagar cuáles son las implicaciones derivadas de tal acción educativa conlleva en primer lugar, al análisis de los rediseños instruccionales de las materias académica...

  14. Terapia nutricional em pacientes portadores do HIV em uso de TARV frente ao desenvolvimento de distúrbios metabólicos induzidos pela medicação.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Licks

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Embora a incidência de casos de pacientes portadores do vírus HIV ainda esteja aumentando, através da terapia antirretroviral (TARV é possível melhorar a qualidade de vida e diminuir os agravos provocados pela patologia.  No entanto, com a TARV observam-se efeitos colaterais importantes relativos ao metabolismo: resistência à insulina/intolerância à glicose, hipertensão arterial, lipodistrofia e dislipidemia. O objetivo do presente estudo foi revisar a literatura em busca de um maior entendimento acerca do efeito da terapia nutricional associada ou não às alterações nos hábitos de vida em pacientes portadores do HIV que fazem uso de TARV frente ao desenvolvimento de distúrbios metabólicos induzidos pela medicação. Foram revisados 11 estudos que preenchiam os critérios de inclusão, sendo que sete estudos demonstraram que a terapia nutricional apresenta impacto em alterações metabólicas, portanto uma adequada orientação nutricional deve ser parte integrante do tratamento de pacientes HIV positivos em terapia antirretroviral.

  15. Patterns recurrence of gastric cancer in patients treated with adjuvant chemoradiation in the Servicio de Oncologia Medica of Hospital Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia in the period 2006 and 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Vallejos, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The pattern of relapse is described in patients with gastric cancer who received adjuvant chemoradiation at the Servicio de Oncologia Medica of Hospital Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia in the period 2006-2010. The evolution of the disease is described. Types of relapse are explained in gastric cancer patients who received chemotherapy-adjuvant radiotherapy. The magnitude of the problem is identified by the calculation of incidence, survival and mortality. Patients with adenocarcinoma type gastric cancer, resected in curative R0 and treated with adjuvant chemotherapy / radiotherapy (QT/RT) were analyzed. The variables of age, sex, functional status (according to ECOG), tumor characteristics, staging (TNM), type of surgery, type of nodal dissection, period between surgery and postoperative therapy were used for a descriptive analysis. Survival analysis is performed using Kaplan - Meier curves from the date of surgery until the date of death or the last control. The online biostat and biomates programs are used to process information. Lymph node dissection has a significant impact on patient survival, as well as the duration of chemotherapy treatment, the presence of positive lymph nodes and other features such as the presence of seal ring cells and lymphovascular invasion. More radical ganglionic dissections and more effective treatments can achieve better results in patient survival [es

  16. Presentation of the DosePet application (APP) for use in Nuclear Medicine: calculation of the amount of medicament for PET / CT patients; Apresentacao do aplicativo DosedPet para uso em Medicina Nuclear: calculo do volume de medicamento necessario para paciente de PETCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Pedro Augusto do; Rodrigues, Araken dos S. Werneck, E-mail: pedroan88@gmail.com [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Faculdade Ceilandia. Programa de Pos Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnologias em Saude

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the application (APP) DosePet that calculates the amount of medicament for PET / CT in patients according to the predetermined radiation dose. The software has been designed using the web MIT App Inventor2 tool for Android platform. The application allows the workers to simulate the amount of radiation still existing in the premises after the applications, increasing security and reducing exposures, and enable greater efficiency in the use of the radiopharmaceutical. (author)

  17. Contenidos teóricos de las materias generales y especializadas en los planes de estudios de las diplomaturas de ciencias de la salud Theoretic contents of general and specialized subjects in core curricula of health sciences professions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Arias Navalón

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar cuantitativamente los contenidos teóricos, generales y especializados, de los planes de estudios de las diplomaturas de ciencias de la salud en España. A partir de esos datos se harán algunas recomendaciones y se destacarán aspectos que podrían necesitar modificaciones. Diseño: Revisión sistemática. Emplazamiento y material de estudio: Planes de estudios de las diplomaturas de ciencias de la salud en España: Enfermería, Fisioterapia, Logopedia, Nutrición humana y dietética, Óptica y optometría, Podología y Terapia ocupacional. Mediciones: Número de horas teóricas dedicadas a materias troncales, detallando su carácter general o especializado. Resultados y conclusiones: En conjunto, los contenidos especializados y generales suponen, respectivamente, el 66,7 y el 33,3%. La mayoría de las carreras tienen más horas asignadas a materias especializadas. Los resultados oscilan entre la ausencia de materias troncales generales en las carreras de Óptica y optometría y de Logopedia y el 71,4% de carga lectiva de carácter general en la carrera de Terapia ocupacional. La carencia de conocimientos generales sobre la salud y la enfermedad puede tener consecuencias negativas en la práctica diaria y en las expectativas que tienen para hacer investigación los profesionales implicados.Objective: To assess general and specialized theoretic contents of core curricula of health professions in Spain, in order to make some recommendations to improve these curricula and to highlight some areas needing further modifications. Design: Systematic revision. Setting and study selection: Core curricula of health professions in Spain: Nursing, Physical therapy, Speech-language pathology, Nutrition and dietetics, Optometry, Podiatry and Occupational therapy. Measurements: Number of theoretic hours devoted to both general and specialized subjects. Results and conclusions: Overall, specialized and general contents are 66.7% and 33

  18. Scientometric Analysis of the Journals of the Academy of Medical Sciences in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla

    2016-02-01

    Currently in Bosnia and Herzegovina there are 25 journals in the field of biomedicine, 6 of them are indexed in Medline/PubMed base (Medical Archives, Materia Socio-Medica, Acta Informatica Medica, Acta Medica Academica, Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences (BJBMS) and Medical Glasnik), and one (BJBMS) is indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE)/Web of Science base. The aim of this study was to show the scope of work of the journals that were published by Academy of Medical Sciences of Bosnia and Herzegovina - Medical Archives, Materia Socio-Medica and Acta Informatica Medica. The research presents a meta-analysis of three journals, or their issues, during the calendar year 2015 (retrospective and descriptive character). During 2015 calendar year a total of 286 articles were published (in Medical Archives 104 (36.3%), in Materia Socio-Medica 99 (34.6%), and in Acta Informatica Medica 83 (29%)). Original articles are present in the highest number in all three journals (in Medical Archives 80.7%, in Materia Socio Medica 77.7%, and in Acta Informatica Medica 68.6%). In Medical Archives, 90.3% of the articles were related to the field of clinical medicine. In Materia Socio-Medica, the domain of clinical medicine and public health was the most represented. Preclinical areas are most frequent in Acta Informatica Medica. The period of 50-60 days for a decision on the admission of article is most common in all three journals, with trend of shortening of that period. Articles came from 19 countries, mostly from Bosnia and Herzegovina, then from Iran, Kosovo, Saudi Arabia and Greece. In Medical Archives original articles in the field of clinical medicine (usually internal and surgical disciplines) are most often present, and that is the case in last four years. The number of articles in Materia Socio-Medica and Acta Informatica Medica is growing from year to year. In Materia Socio-Medica there is a trend of growth of articles in the field of public health

  19. Uso do metronidazol como medicação intracanal em dentes com necrose pulpar e reação periapical: relato de caso = The use of metronidazol as an intracanal medication for teeth with pulpar necrosis and periapical reaction: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro, Sérgio Murilo Barbalho de Souza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi comparar dois tratamentos endodônticos realizados em dentes com abscesso periapical crônico, em um mesmo paciente, empregando-se medicações intracanais diferentes. Para isso foram relatados dois casos clínicos de tratamentos endodônticos em dois dentes (31 e 41, nos quais foram empregados a mesma técnica de preparo biomecânico e obturação, variando apenas a medicação intracanal, pois no dente 31 foi empregada uma pasta a base de hidróxido de cálcio (Calen e no dente 41, o metronidazol na forma de gel ginecológico. Após um ano de proservação dos tratamentos realizados, verificou-se reparação dos tecidos periapicais em ambos os dentes, concluindo-se que, nesse caso, a variação da medicação intracanal não interferiu no resultado do tratamento instituído e que o metronidazol pode ser uma alternativa viável como coadjuvante na terapia endodôntica desse tipo de patologia

  20. Evaluación de asociaciones vegetales por su potencial como fuente de materia orgánica para los suelos de Samacá (Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viteri Silvio E.

    2006-06-01

    Hidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Emphasis" />

    El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar asociacionesdeabonosverdesquedemuestrenelmejor potencial como fuente de materia para los suelos de Samacá. El estudio se desarrolló en tres fincas, una en el páramo y dos en el valle. De cada finca se tomó una muestra representativa de suelo para análisis de fertilidad. Los tratamientos estuvieron representados por12

  1. Cooperación jurídica internacional en materia de donación y trasplante de organos: hacia un nuevo paradigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Cayón de las CUEVAS

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El trasplante de órganos puede contribuir decisivamente no sólo a salvar vidas sino también a mejorar la calidad de las mismas. Sin embargo, el problema fundamental al que se enfrenta este tipo de terapias es la desproporción entre la oferta y la demanda. El número de donantes es, por definición, muy limitado y la donación puede no resultar posible por motivos diversos tales como la falta de autorización familiar o la ausencia de condiciones necesarias. Así las cosas, la dificultad en el acceso a las terapias de trasplante constituye el reflejo de una de las desigualdades en salud. Por otra parte, la escasez de órganos hace pervivir el indeseable fenómeno de la comercialización internacional. Resulta evidente que el problema de la insuficiencia de donantes afecta a toda la comunidad trasplantadora internacional dado que las necesidades de trasplantes son equivalentes en las diferentes regiones del mundo. En este sentido, el futuro pasa por propiciar una progresiva integración de las políticas públicas en materia de donación y trasplantes de órganos, superando el actual estadio de cooperación intergubernamental, loable pero insuficiente, para adentrarnos gradualmente en un nuevo paradigma de coordinación internacional de ámbito regional, condicionado a la previa armonización de la legislación de las naciones afectadas, que permita cifras homologables de donantes. Este nuevo paradigma de coordinación debe instrumentar mecanismos de prevención del fenómeno del turismo de trasplantes pero también facilitar y potenciar el intercambio internacional de órganos, removiendo desigualdades en el acceso al tratamiento trasplantador. RESUMO O transplante de órgãos pode ser valiosa não só para salvar vidas, mas também para melhorar a qualidade dos pacientes. No entanto, o problema fundamental dessas terapias é o desequilíbrio entre oferta e demanda. O número de doadores é muito limitado e a doação pode não ser

  2. Efecto de la temperatura de la Rizosfera sobre la distribución de la materia seca en uchuva (Physalis peruviana L. Effect of rizosphere temperature on the dry matter distribution in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Gerhard

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available En el hábitat natural de la uchuva en Colombia (de 1.600 a 2.800 msnm la temperatura edáfica varía de acuerdo con los
    factores climatológicos determinados por la altitud y por el manejo que se le de al suelo y al cultivo. Para estudiar el efecto de la temperatura en la rizosfera sobre la distribución
    de la materia seca en la uchuva y encontrar mecanismos de adaptación al altiplano colombiano, se cultivaron durante 11 semanas los ecotipos 'Colombia' y 'Sudáfrica' con temperaturas edáficas de 8, 15, 22 y 29°C bajo invernadero en Berlín, Alemania. Se utilizaron macetas plásticas de 2,5 L de capacidad y arena de cuarzo como substrato. Con el
    aumento de la temperatura en la rizosfera creció la producción de biomasa hasta un máximo a 22 y 29°C dependiendo del órgano de la planta y del ecotipo. La mayor acumulación de materia seca la obtuvo 'Colombia' a 29°C y 'Sudáfrica' a 22°C. Con 8°C de temperatura radical las plantas produjeron poca masa seca radical y foliar, mientras la materia de los frutos disminuyó en menor proporción, debido posiblemente a mecanismos de adaptación a los suelos fríos del altiplano. Los 22°C fomentaron más el crecimiento de las ramas principales, mientras las laterales tuvieron su óptimo a 29°C, posiblemente debido a un efecto hormonal. La mayor acumulación de materia seca en raíces,
    hojas y frutos del ecotipo 'Colombia' a 29°C se puede interpretar como una adaptación a los suelos calientes de las laderas expuestas al sol.
    In the natu ral habitat of cape gooseberry in Colombia, on sites from 1.600 to 2.800 m.a.s.l., soil temperature is affected by c1imatologicfactors, which are determined by the altitud and cultural and soil management practices. In order to study the effect of rizosphere temperature on the distribution of dry matter in the cape gooseberry plant and to find mecanisms of adaptation to the Colombian highland conditions, during 11 weeks 'Colombia' and

  3. Use of Cellulases to Predict in vivo Digestible Organic Matter (D value in Pasture Silages Uso de Celulasas para Predecir el Contenido de Materia Orgánica Digestible (Valor D in vivo, en Ensilajes de Praderas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barchiesi-Ferrari

    2011-06-01

    ón nutricional, puede estimarse a partir de la materia orgánica digestible contenida en la materia seca (Valor-D. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la predicción del valor-D y la digestibilidad de la materia seca (DMS de ensilajes de pradera, usando el método de pepsina-celulasa. Se utilizó celulasa fúngica con diferentes concentraciones, tiempos de incubación y tipo de lavado final. Los ensilajes estudiados fueron preparados a partir de pradera permanente (Dactylis glomerata L., Lolium perenne L., Bromus catharticus Vahl var. catharticus, Trifolium repens L. y Holcus lanatus L., pradera de rotación (L. multiflorum Lam. cv. Tama, avena (Avena sativa L., y pradera mixta (L. perenne-T. repens; cosechadas en tres estados fenológicos. El tratamiento con un tiempo de incubación de 24 h, concentración de celulasa de 6,25 g L-1 y lavado con agua (Tratamiento 3 presentó la mejor capacidad de predicción del valor D in vivo (R² = 0,78 y de la digestibilidad de la materia seca (DMS in vivo (R² = 0,71. La predicción del valor D in vivo mejoró levemente (R² = 0,8 al incluir una determinación química (fibra cruda, energía bruta, fibra detergente neutro, cenizas o fibra detergente ácido junto al valor D obtenido con el Tratamiento 3 de celulasas (regresión múltiple. Los resultados obtenidos con el uso de celulasas para determinar la digestibilidad subestiman a los obtenidos in vivo, siendo más cercanos a los obtenidos con fluido ruminal. El uso de ecuaciones adecuadas podría mejorar la exactitud de las predicciones.

  4. La normativa peruana en materia de tráfico de migrantes a la luz del Derecho Internacional: ¿Hacia una protección de los derechos de las personas migrantes?

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    Cécile Blouin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo propone analizar la normativa peruana en materia de tráfico de migrantes desde una perspectiva de derechos humanos. Debido a las múltiples aristas del tema y las obligaciones del Derecho Internacional, el Estado ha adoptado de manera progresiva un conjunto de normas para atender dicha problemática. Este marco normativo enfrenta una serie de retos, en primer lugar, responde a una realidad poco conocida, debido a la falta de datos confiables sobre el tráfico; en segundo lugar, se superpone en cada momento con la trata de personas lo que resulta en una invisibilización del tráfico; y en tercer lugar, no llega a entender el tráfico como una problemática de derechos humanos para las personas migrantes.

  5. Nueva estructura para la enseñanza-aprendizaje de la materia de enfermería clínica en los estudios de Grado de Enfermería

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    Anna Falcó-Pegueroles

    Full Text Available En el Grado de Enfermería, los cambios requeridos para la adaptación al Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior se han orientado a la introducción de novedades metodológicas que han propiciado la génesis de nuevos enfoques para la enseñanza y el aprendizaje, con el objetivo último de disminuir los desajustes que en algunas ocasiones se han detectado entre la teoría y la práctica. En esta línea, partiendo de las necesidades actuales de la formación en relación a la materia de enfermería clínica del grado y de las competencias profesionales, se inició un proceso de reflexión y análisis que originó una nueva estructura organizativa de la materia. Este nuevo enfoque nace con el objetivo fundamental de mejorar la docencia de la enfermería clínica, actualizando la forma de enseñar la enfermería y los cuidados enfermeros. Lejos del modelo biomédico centrado en la enfermedad que ha imperado hasta ahora, el nuevo enfoque parte de una visión profundamente enfermera y, en consecuencia, hace explícitos los cuidados de la persona con un trastorno real o potencial de la salud. Los resultados de la implementación de esta nueva estructura en la asignatura 'Enfermería clínica I' de segundo curso de grado ponen de manifiesto que hay una mejora en la precisión diagnóstica y en la etapa de planificación del proceso enfermero, así como en la identificación de la responsabilidad profesional en los ejes autónomo e interdisciplinar.

  6. La autonomía del paciente y los derechos en materia de información y documentación clínica en el contexto de la Ley 41/2002

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    Cesáreo García Ortega

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La Ley 41/2002 Reguladora de la Autonomía del Paciente y de Derechos y Obligaciones en Materia de Información y Documentación Sanitaria, reglamenta cuestiones que la Ley General de Sanidad de 1986 trataba de forma insuficiente, como el derecho a la información sanitaria, el consentimiento informado, la documentación sanitaria, la historia clínica y demás información clínica. Así mismo, clasifica las formas de limitación de la capacidad y atribuye a los médicos la competencia de evaluarla. En consonancia con el Convenio de Oviedo sobre los Derechos del Hombre y la Biomedicina, recoge los principios rectores de la nueva bioética, como son el derecho a la intimidad de la información relativa a la salud de las personas, las voluntades anticipadas, el derecho a la autonomía del paciente y su participación en la toma de decisiones, la negativa a tratamiento o la mayoría de edad para las decisiones sanitarias en los adolescentes. Dicha ley, de carácter básico estatal, supone un gran avance en las relaciones médico-enfermo, y deberá ser desarrollada en numerosos aspectos por las diferentes Comunidades Autónomas. La finalidad del presente trabajo es una descripción de éste texto legal, y analizar su repercusión en las relaciones del ciudadano, los profesionales sanitarios y el Sistema Nacional de Salud en materia de información y documentación clínica.

  7. EFECTO DE LA MATERIA ORGÁNICA SOBRE LAS PROPIEDADES FÍSICAS DEL SUELO EN UN SISTEMA AGROFORESTAL DE LA LLANURA COSTERA NORTE DE NAYARIT, MÉXICO

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    Murray Núñez RM

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Se planteo analizar el comportamiento del contenido de materia orgánica de un suelo bajo un sistema agroforestal y los cambios ocurridos en algunas propiedades físicas. Este trabajo se llevó a cabo en un sistema agroforestal en la Llanura Costera Norte del estado de Nayarit, en el cual se valuaron propiedades del suelo, como son: materia orgánica (MO y propiedades físicas, como humedad (W, densidad aparente (Da, porosidad total (Pt y la capacidad de campo (CC. En el 2005, se realizó el perfil y se describió en cam- po y laboratorio, presentando una textura arcillosa (arena 29.1 %, limo 18.0 % y arcilla 52.8 %, pH medio (7.0, MO 0.51 %, capacidad de intercambio catiónico (CIC 24.0 cmol.kg-1, Da 1.4 kg dm-3 CC y 24.3 %. El suelo se clasificó como Fluvisol haplico. Se caracterizó el suelo a una profundidad de 0-20 cm por coincidir con el espesor del horizonte A del suelo, considerando que es el horizonte más influenciado a corto plazo por la hojarasca. Se dió un seguimiento de dos muestreos por año hasta 2010, los resultados más sobresalientes a 6 años de implantado el sistema indican una disminución enlaDade1.09kgdm-3,unaumentoenlaMOde 3.85 %, Pt de 58 %, porosidad de aireación (Pa 22.1%yenlaCC35.9%.

  8. Percepción de profesores y estudiantes de 3º ESO sobre el uso de analogías en el estudio de los estados de agregación de la materia

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    Josefa Rubio Cascales

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la valoración que 5 profesores y 218 estudiantes de 3º ESO hacen de las analogías incluidas en una propuesta de enseñanza para el estudio de los estados de agregación. Con las analogías como recurso didáctico se pretendía que los alumnos comprendieran el modelo cinético molecular de la materia necesario para justificar las propiedades de sólidos, líquidos y gases, y su comportamiento durante los cambios de estado. Se utilizaron diferentes analogías (batallón militar, pista de baile, partido de fútbol y clase de educación física, con una estrategia didáctica que evoluciona desde la presentación de la analogía por el profesor a la construcción de la analogía por los estudiantes. Para valorar las analogías se ha diferenciado el grado en que se comprenden y se consideran adecuadas, viables e interesantes para la enseñanza de las ciencias. Tanto profesores como alumnos han valorado positivamente las analogías empleadas; los primeros comparten su intencionalidad y dificultad didáctica, y los segundos consideran que las analogías son una herramienta útil que les ayuda no solo a comprender el modelo cinético molecular sino a explicar las propiedades y cambios de los estados de agregación de la materia, es decir, el fenómeno en sí mismo.

  9. Il piu grande centro europeo di ricerca oggi festeggia l'anniversario del Nobel di Rubbia e Van der Meer. Cern, vent'anni guardando al futuro Ora la sfida si gioca sull'acceleratore di particelle pronto per il 2007, che provera a svelare i segreti della materia

    CERN Multimedia

    Durante, E

    2003-01-01

    "CERN, vent'anni guardando al futuro Ora la sfida si gioca sull'acceleratore di particelle pronto per il 2007, che provera a svelare i segreti della materia" [CERN, twenty years of looking towards the future. The present challenge is the particle accelerator that will be ready in 2007, which will try to reveal the secrets of matter] (2 pages)

  10. Aplicaciones de los minerales arcillosos de Cayo Guan, Cuba, como adsorbentes de metales pesados y materia prima cerámica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca, D.

    2012-10-01

    Guan, municipio de Moa, hay junto a las importantes explotaciones industriales de lateritas, minerales arcillosos cuya caractarización química, mineralógica y evolución de fases con la temperatura han sido objeto de estudio por estos autores en un anterior trabajo; entre las características físicas, químicas y mineralógicas del yacimiento destacan los altos contenidos de óxidos de hierro y aluminio, bajas concentraciones de SiO2 y óxidos alcalinos, y la caolinita como mineral más abundante, además de hematita, gibsita y goethita en forma de geles. Se pretende en esta investigación estudiar sus propiedades tecnológicas para dilucidar la posible aplicabilidad a estos recursos minerales en la fabricación de ladrillos, baldosas de pasta roja, gres rústico y para la inmovilización de metales pesados en efluentes acuosos. El estudio por microscopía óptica de calefacción de los minerales arcillosos, indica que son unos materiales refractarios cuyo reblandecimiento aparece después de los 1500 ºC. El diagrama de trabajabilidad de las diferentes arcillas y el cálculo de la plasticidad por el método de la cuchara de Casagrande presentan dentro de la zona favorable para la extrusión sólo a una de las muestras. Los diagramas de gresificación informan que es a partir de 1400 ºC cuando se consigue una capacidad de absorción de agua < 0,6 %. El diseño de un programa ha posibilitado el cálculo de múltiples composiciones de un gres porcelánico preparado a partir de dichas arcillas, modificadas con materias primas de bajo coste que facilitan la formación de fase vítrea (feldespato potásico y casco de vidrio y/o incrementan el contenido de sílice (arena y diatomea utilizada como filtros en la industria cervecera. Se presentan los resultados de una de ellas (60 % de mineral arcilloso, 30 % de feldespato potásico y 10 % de diatomea que calcinada a 1250 ºC con una velocidad de calentamiento de 15 ºC/min dio lugar a una absorción de agua

  11. Asma e gravidez – eficácia e segurança da medicação durante a gravidez

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    Maria da Graça Freitas

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A asma é um dos problemas médicos que mais frequentemente complica a gravidez, com uma prevalência que se estima entre 4 a 7 %. O curso da asma durante a gravidez é variável, verificando-se um agravamento dos sintomas em cerca de um terço das grávidas. O período mais crítico situa-se entre a 24.ª e a 36.ª semanas. Após o parto, a tendência é para a remissão dos sintomas nos três meses seguintes, sendo de esperar nas sucessivas gravidezes um padrão de comportamento idêntico. O controlo da asma durante a gravidez baseia-se na educação da grávida e na prescrição de uma medicação segura, preferencialmente por via inalatória, que previna o aparecimento das crises. Na asma crónica, os fármacos actualmente existentes — corticóides inalados — previnem de forma eficaz o aparecimento das crises de asma, sem riscos para o feto (beclometasona e budesonido. Aos corticóides inalados existe uma sucessão de fármacos a associar — broncodilatadores agonistas beta de acção curta ou retardada — de acordo com o grau de obstrução brônquica existente e frequência das crises. No tratamento farmacológico da asma aguda, as recomendações terapêuticas não devem ser subestimadas, pois numa asma não controlada aumenta o risco de aparecimento de complicações (aumento da incidência de baixo peso e prematuros em número superior ao eventual risco de uma medicação.REV PORT PNEUMOL 2004; X (5: 405-419 ABSTRACT: Bronchial asthma is one of the most common medical problems in pregnancy, with prevalance around 4-7 %. Asthma clinical course is variable, with worsening of symptoms in one third of the cases. The most critical period occurs between the 24th and 36th week of gestation. Symptoms usually regress completely after delivery during the following three months and they are expected to recur, with the same

  12. Estudo longitudinal do sucesso clínico-radiográfico de dentes tratados com medicação intracanal de hidróxido de cálcio

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    Mauro Juvenal Nery

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O tratamento endodôntico é de fundamental importância para abolir a infecção presente em dentes que apresentam necrose pulpar. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar clínica e radiograficamente a eficácia dos tratamentos de canais radiculares de dentes com lesão periapical crônica, efetuados pelos graduandos em Odontologia, da Faculdade de Odontologia de Araçatuba - UNESP. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram selecionados 100 pacientes que possuíam dentes com lesão periapical crônica para serem tratados. Após o preparo biomecânico, os canais radiculares receberam uma medicação intracanal de hidróxido de cálcio durante o período de 14 dias. Os canais radiculares foram obturados com cimento endodôntico à base de hidróxido de cálcio. Foi realizada a proservação por um período entre oito e 11 meses. RESULTADO: A análise dos resultados permitiu constatar a porcentagem de 78,46% dos casos com reparo total da lesão periapical e de 21,54% dos casos em que não houve evidências de reparo. CONCLUSÃO: Ocorreu reparo das lesões periapicais nos dentes tratados pelos graduandos da Faculdade de Odontologia de Araçatuba - UNESP.

  13. Modificaciones de la microestructura y la materia orgánica en un Argiudol bajo distintas condiciones de cultivo y conservación Microstructure and organic matter modifications in an Agiudoll under different conditions of cultivation and conservation

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    Beatriz A. Bonel

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se comparan la microestructura y la materia orgánica del estrato superior del horizonte A de un Argiudol típico franco limoso en dos situaciones no laboreadas (NLp: parque en Estación Experimental; NLv: área preservada próxima a vía de ferrocarril con dos sistemas de manejo agrícola: con residuos incorporados (LR: labranza reducida con discos y con residuos superficiales (SD: siembra directa. Los análisis micromorfológicos evidenciaron en todos los casos una marcada anisotropía vertical con al menos tres niveles microestructurales dentro de los primeros 10 cm de suelo, siendo sus características notoriamente diferentes entre las situaciones estudiadas. Las situaciones NL evidenciaron la predominancia de huecos de empaquetamiento y rasgos biológicos. La SD se caracteriza por la aparición de agregados laminares subsuperficiales, con predominio de huecos horizontales. Por su parte, la LR se caracteriza por la aparición de costras superficiales, escasa porosidad (representada por fisuras horizontales y vesículas y escasos restos orgánicos vegetales o animales en superficie. En este trabajo no se detectaron diferencias importantes en cantidad y calidad de la materia orgánica entre las situaciones agrícolas, no existiendo evidencia de una degradación o protección diferente del carbono entre ellas. La estructura laminar permanente en la SD y la costra superficial temporaria en LR actuarían de manera convergente restringiendo la mezcla de las fases orgánica y mineral del suelo. En SD resultaría una mayor conservación de la materia orgánica superficial, pero la actividad biológica no sería suficiente para incorporarla mas allá de unos pocos milímetros de profundidad. En LR hay una incorporación más profunda de la materia orgánica, pero con una mayor degradación; de este modo el balance final de la materia orgánica del horizonte superficial sería similar entre ambos tratamientos. La similitud en el "pool

  14. Residuos cerámicos para su posible uso como materia prima en la fabricación de clínker de cemento Portland: caracterización y activación alcalina

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    Martínez-Ramírez, S.

    2006-03-01

    Kioto. El empleo de diferentes residuos y subproductos industriales como materiales alternativos en la fabricación de cemento se ha revelado como un medio muy efectivo para alcanzar, en gran parte, esa sostenibilidad. Estos materiales alternativos pueden ser incorporados en el proceso de fabricación de cemento, por la sustitución parcial de los combustibles convencionales y/o de las materias primas del crudo y por la incorporación de adiciones activas al cemento y/o clínker.En el presente trabajo se exponen los resultados preliminares obtenidos al estudiar la composición y activación alcalina de seis residuos cerámicos cocidos con vistas a su viabilidad de sustituir, parcialmente, algunas materias primas, utilizadas en la preparación de un crudo de cemento.Los resultados obtenidos han mostrado que los seis residuos tienen una composición química y mineralógica adecuada para su posible empleo como materia prima alternativa de un crudo de cemento Portland. No son ni tóxicos ni radioactivos. Como era de esperar estos residuos tienen capacidad puzolánica. A la edad de estudio (8 días la activación alcalina de los residuos es baja. El contenido en fase amorfa y la naturaleza del activador no parecen ser factores que influyan en dicho proceso de activación. El estudio de caracterización realizado sobre las pastas activadas ha demostrado que las fases feldespáticas son las más susceptibles de disolución y reacción con las disoluciones alcalinas.

  15. Influencia de la alteración meteórica de dos carbones coquizables con contenido medio de materia volátil en la calidad del coque producido

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    Casal, M. D.

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available The study of the weathering of two bituminous coals stored at the INCAR stockyard and its influence on coke quality is presented. These coals of similar rank are present in industrial blends used by the Corporación Siderúrgica Integral (CSI for the production of blast-furnace coke. Of all the techniques used to determine the degree of weathering, via thermoplastic properties, Gieseler plastometry was found to be the most sensitive. Coking tests were carried out in the semi-industrial coking plant at INCAR. The effect of weathering on each coal series is completely different. Weathering produces a loss of maximum fluidity accompanied by a decrease in aliphatic hydrogen in both coals. However, the loss rate is different in each case. Coke quality clearly decreases in one, while in the other improves at first but then gradually deteriorates. An improvement in coke quality due to weathering not only affects some high-volatile coals as it is well known but also medium volatile coals.

    Se presenta el estudio de la alteración meteórica de dos carbones bituminosos con contenido medio de materia volátil y de diferente origen geográfico, que han sido almacenados a la intemperie en el Parque del INCAR. Ambos carbones son constituyentes de las mezclas de carbones coquizables utilizadas por la Corporación Siderúrgica Integral (CSI para la producción de coque de horno alto. Entre las técnicas utilizadas para detectar el grado de meteorización de dichos carbones, la fluidez máxima Gieseler es el indicador más sensible para detectar la pérdida de propiedades plásticas. Ambas series de carbones presentan diferente comportamiento frente a la meteorización. Si bien la alteración meteórica provoca una pérdida de fluidez máxima con el tiempo de almacenamiento, debido a una pérdida de hidrógeno alifático en los dos carbones, ésta se produce a diferente velocidad. Estas diferencias se ponen de manifiesto en la calidad de los coques

  16. Iron zircon pigment synthesis: Proposal of a mixing index for the raw materials mixtures; Síntesis del pigmento de hierro-circón: Propuesta de un índice de mezclado para mezclas de materias primas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumaquero, E.; Ortsb, M.J.; Sanz, V.; Mestre, S.

    2017-11-01

    Iron zircon coral pigments are very interesting from an industrial point of view because of their high colouring power and their stability at high temperatures. However, the pigment's synthesis is particularly troublesome due to its specific reaction mechanism. As an encapsulated pigment it becomes very important how the raw materials are distributed in the reaction mixture. To evaluate the effectiveness of the mixing process, it would be convenient to define a parameter, that is the mixing index, to estimate the degree of homogeneity of the system. In the current investigation, a mixing index is proposed derived from the power spectrum of Fourier transform of scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the raw material mixture. Concretely, the number of pixels in a certain range of values in the image of the power spectrum, seems to behave relatively well as mixing index. This index allows us to distinguish between samples with different zirconia and iron oxide used as precursors. The proposed mixing index seems to be related to the colouring power of the final pigment when the synthesis generates enough zircon to encapsulate hematite particles. [Spanish] Los pigmentos coral de hierro-circón son muy interesantes desde el punto de vista industrial ya que n un alto poder colorante y estabilidad a altas temperaturas. Sin embargo, la síntesis del pigmento es particularmente problemática debido a su mecanismo de reacción. Al tratarse de un pigmento encapsulado, resulta fundamental cómo se encuentran distribuidas las materias primas en la mezcla de reacción. Para evaluar la efectividad del proceso de mezclado, es conveniente definir un parámetro, que es el índice de mezclado, para estimar el grado de homogeneidad del sistema. En el presente trabajo de investigación se propone un índice de mezclado basado en el espectro de potencia de la transformada de Fourier de imágenes obtenidas con el microscopio electrónico de barrido de las mezclas de materias

  17. Caracterización litológica y mineralógica de los materiales permo-triásicos de Castellón utilizados como materia prima cerámica: la arcilla de Moró

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Martín, J. D.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to establish the mineralogical (XRD composition of the Permo-Triassic claystone known as Moró clay. Particular emphasis is placed on the compositional variations along the litostratigraphic section. Bulk rock XRD analysis shows a homogeneous composition dominated by quartz, phyllosilicates and hematite. Minor components 5% include potassium feldspar, dolomite and calcite. The clay minerals assemblage is formed by illite ± kaolin ± chlorite ± mixed-layer illite-smectite ± mixed-layer chlorite-smectite and reveals a sedimentary distribution pattern. The study of the lithological section allows the identification and valuation of changes in the mineralogical characteristics of the raw material. Results provide evidence for the importance of mineralogical analysis in the control of raw materials and hence their use in industrial processes.

    Las lutitas de edad Pérmica que se utilizan como materia prima en la industria azulejera de Castellón se conocen en el sector cerámico como arcilla de Moró. En el presente trabajo se describen las características litológicas y composicionales de estas lutitas con el objetivo de establecer las variaciones en composición a lo largo de la serie estratigráfica tipo. Los resultados muestran una composición mineralógica de la roca total muy uniforme, formada esencialmente por cuarzo, filosilicatos y hematites. Ocasionalmente y en proporciones por debajo del 5% aparece también feldespato potásito, dolomita y calcita. La asociación de minerales de la arcilla está formada por illita ± caolinita ± clorita ± interestratificado illita-esmectita ± interestratificado clorita-esmectita y muestra un patrón de distribución sedimentario. Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto la importancia del análisis mineralógico en la caracterización de las materias primas y, por tanto, en el control de sus propiedades cerámicas y de los procesos productivos relacionados.

  18. Relaciones hídricas y distribución de materia seca en especies de fique (Furcraea sp. Vent. cultivadas bajo estrés por NaCl

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    Casierra-Posada Fánor

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El género Furcraea es miembro de la familia Agavaceae y es endémico de América Tropical, específicamente de la región andina de Colombia y Venezuela, aunque se le encuentra de manera natural desde el sur de México hasta Brasil. Una cantidad de especies de Furcraea se cultivan en  climas cálidos como plantas ornamentales en todo el mundo y para la obtención de fibras a partir de las hojas. Con el objeto de determinar las respuestas fisiológicas a la salinidad, plantas de especies locales de fique (Furcraea macrophylla, F. castilla y F. cabuya se expusieron a 20, 40, 60 y 80 mmoles de NaCl durante cinco meses. Las plantas de control no se trataron con la sal. El experimento se realizó en un invernadero en Tunja (Colombia. Las plantas se obtuvieron a partir de bulbillos. Éstos crecieron en materas con suelo, se regaron dos veces por semana, evitándose el exceso de agua después de la salinizacion inducida del suelo. Los resultados mostraron que la salinidad del suelo disminuyó la producción total de materia seca, la eficiencia agronómica en el uso del agua (WUE, siglas en inglés de water use efficiency, la relación raíz/parte aérea, la densidad específica de las hojas y el área foliar. La salinidad por NaCl indujo también una modificación en el patrón de distribución  de materia seca en las especies evaluadas. La salinidad tuvo poco efecto sobre la evapotranspiración. Las especies consideradas mostraron diferencias genotípicas en cuanto a la tolerancia a la salinidad en la mayoría de los parámetros evaluados.

  19. Unapal-Dorado, nuevo cultivar de zapallo con alto contenido de materia seca para consumo en fresco Unapal- Dorado, pumpkin new cultivar with high dry matter for fresh consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Alirio Vallejo C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A partir de tres cruzamientos dialélicos entre poblaciones con diferente grado de endocría (S0 x S0; S1 x S1; S2 x S2 se seleccionaron 11 familias promisorias teniendo en cuenta el contenido de materia seca, producción por planta y calidad de fruto para consumo en fresco. Se realizaron dos ciclos de recombinación genética y selección ínter e intrapoblacional. Se escogieron cuatro familias las cuales fueron evaluadas en un ensayo de rendimiento en el Centro Experimental de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira (Ceunp. La familia de mejor desempeño se evaluó comparativamente con otras seis, incluyendo el testigo comercial Unapal Bolo Verde, en pruebas regionales, en tres localidades del Valle del Cauca, durante dos semestres consecutivos (2008 B- 2009A. Por su excelente comportamiento en producción (15 kg/planta, contenido de materia seca (> 16%, 3.5 kg/fruto y 5 frutos/planta y calidad de fruto para consumo en fresco, esta familia originó la nueva variedad de zapallo, conocida con el nombre comercial Unapal-Dorado.From three diallelic crossings, among populations with different degree of inbreeding (S0 x S0; S1 x S1; S2 x S2, 11 family with high dry matter, production by plant and fruit quality for consumption in fresh were selected. Two cycles of genetic recombination and selection were carried out. Four selected genotypes were evaluated the Centro Experimental de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira (CEUNP. The genotype of better performance was evaluated comparatively with others six families, including the control Unapal Bolo Verde, in regional tests, in three localities of the Valle del Cauca, during two consecutive semesters (2008 B - 2009A. By its excellent behavior in production (15 kg/planta, content of dry matter (higher than 16%, 3,5 kg by fruit, and five fruits by plant, quality of fruit for consumption in fresh, this family of better performance originated the pumpkin new cultivar, with the

  20. COMPOSICIÓN QUIMICA DE LA LECHE, DIGESTIBILIDAD in vitro DE LA MATERIA SECA Y PRODUCCIÓN EN VACAS ALIMENTADAS CON GRAMÍNEAS SOLAS O ASOCIADAS CON Lotus uliginosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Morales

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar el uso de la leguminosa Lotus uliginosus como alternativa de inclusión dentro de las praderas en dos ecorregiones estratégicas de la sabana de Bogotá. en cada finca se evaluaron cuatro tratamientos: 1 kikuyo solo (P. clandestinum, 2 kikuyo asociado con trébol pata de pájaro ( P.clandes-tinum + L. uliginosus, 3 festuca alta sola (F. arundinacea y 4 Festuca alta asociada con trébol pata de pájaro (F. arundinacea + L. uliginosus. el número de bovinos varió de acuerdo a la capacidad de carga de cada finca. se utilizaron animales que se encontraban en el segundo tercio de lactancia durante un período experimental de siete días. en cada tratamiento se determinó la producción (L/día y calidad de leche (% de grasa, proteína y sólidos totales; en la pastura se evaluó la composición química (Ms, Fdn, Fda y la digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca (divMs. se midió el consumo voluntario. en la finca Megaleche la producción de biomasa presentó diferencias significativas (P<0,05 entre los tratamientos destacándose el tratamiento del kikuyo solo; la calidad nutricional de las pasturas también presentó diferencias (P<0,04 destacándose el tratamiento de kikuyo + trébol pata de pájaro, asociación que también se destacó en consumo voluntario (P< 0.05 y producción de leche (P<0,05. en la finca Colega el contenido de proteína del forraje presentó diferencias cuando las gramíneas se asociaron con el trébol pata de pájaro (P<0,001. se concluyó que la introducción del Lotus en las praderas mejoró la producción de leche y consumo de materia seca en los animales.

  1. Un entorno virtual de aprendizaje (EVA para el desarrollo de la materia matemáticas en segundo curso de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria: estudio de caso desde la perspectiva del alumnado

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    María Elena ARELLANO GONZÁLEZ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta el diseño de una propuesta didáctica para introducir una metodología semipresencial con el soporte de un aula virtual Moodle en el desarrollo completo de la materia Matemáticas de segundo curso de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria y se analizan e interpretan los efectos que tuvo su implementación en la práctica educativa, tomando como referencia el punto de vista del alumnado que participó en la experiencia. Se trata de un estudio de caso donde se intenta entender cómo percibieron los dieciséis estudiantes del grupo seleccionado –jóvenes de 12 y 13 años– una innovación metodológica de este tipo y las razones que justificaron su comportamiento en cuanto al uso de la tecnología. Para ello se analiza una encuesta de valoración que realizaron los estudiantes una vez finalizado el curso. Los principales resultados de la encuesta revelaron inconvenientes organizativos que dificultaban el acceso periódico al entorno virtual, derivados fundamentalmente de la organización de espacios y tiempos en el instituto y de las concepciones sobre el uso de las Tic en el marco familiar. Los estudiantes apreciaron la potencialidad del entorno virtual para desarrollar competencias diversas a través de la materia y se sirvieron de las tecnologías interactivas y de comunicación para llevar a cabo tareas matemáticas, pero manifestaron poco interés por el trabajo colaborativo entre iguales, valorando sobre todo la posibilidad de comunicarse con la profesora más allá del entorno presencial. Se hizo patente el peso de modelos de aprendizaje tradicionales arraigados en los hábitos del alumnado y en las concepciones de las familias que alteraron, en algunos aspectos importantes, las expectativas previstas.

  2. Aplicación de los métodos de pirólisis Rock-Eval y Fischer al estudio de la materia orgánica contenida en rocas sedimentarias de Guipúzcoa

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    González G., A.

    1987-08-01

    Full Text Available The sedimentary rocks are geochemically studied throughout the geological history of the provinces of Guipúzcoa and Vizcaya. The pyrolisis is made following fischer's modified method. On a whole of one hundred and eigthy five samples. We haven't found oil shale, except in Garay (Durango-Vizcaya, where we have managed to distil appreciable quantities of oil from the samples, oscillating between 1.5 l/Tm. and 28 l/Tm. From these ones, whe have choosed twenty which showed a bigger content of organic material than the otheres. We have made the rock-eval pyrolisis with the purpose of checking fischer's modified method. We have managed to define that the petroliferous potential is variable. As for the type of organic material and its stage of evolution (maturity, we have concluded that it is a type II (marine origin with a stage of evolution that places us on the oil generation.Se estudian geoquímicamente rocas sedimentarias a lo largo de la historia geológica de las provincias de Guipúzcoa y Vizcaya. Se realiza la pirólisis según el método modificado de Fischer sobre un total de ciento ochenta y cinco muestras. No se han encontrado rocas bituminosas, salvo en Garay (Durango-Vizcaya donde se han llegado a destilar de las muestras, cantidades apreciables de aceite, que oscilan entre 1,5 l/Tm. y 28 l/Tm. De éstas, hemos escogido veinte que presentaban un contenido mayor de materia orgánica que el resto. Hemos realizado la pirólisis Rock-Eval de ellas con el fin de contrastar el método modificado de Fischer. Hemos llegado a definir que el potencial petrolífero es variable. En cuanto al tipo de materia orgánica y su grado de evolución (madurez, hemos concluido que se trata de un tipo II (origen marino, con un grado de evolución que nos coloca en la ventana de generación de aceite.

  3. CONSIDERACIONES SOBRE EDUCACION MEDICA y SALUD

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    Jaime Escobar Triana

    1984-11-01

    Full Text Available

    l. Los cambios, las corrientes migratorias internas, transformaron un país de población rural en urbana, al mismo tiempo con un epifenómeno de ruralización de la ciudad. De un 700/0 de población rural se pasó a un 700/0 o más y con tendencia a umentar la población urbana. Esto lleva a un replanteamiento en la atención de la salud. Además, se suma a lo anterior, la información masiva sobre la población que alienta la posibilidad de alcanzar
    tratamientos y drogas maravillosas o recursos extraordinarios como las unidades de cuidados intensivos o los transplantes, para dar dos ejemplos, que motivan al público a demandar dichos servicios. De otra parte, la misma información científica que alcanza
    apabullantes cantidades, solamente permite que el médico logre obtenerla y asimilarla en forma limitada y angustiante para su aplicación práctica.

    2. En la creación de nuevas Escuelas de Medicina deben considerarse entre otros los siguientes hechos o factores, favorables o desfavorables que no sólo afectan a Colombia sino que tienen características universales en algunos de sus aspectos:
    a La demanda de cupos en educación superior, entre ellos la medicina, nunca satisfecha.
    b Las presiones sociales que tienen el estudio como un método de ascenso por prestigio local o regional o político o todos juntos y no por la necesidad de formar más médicos.
    c La inconveniencia de la masificación de la educacación médica que demerita la calidad y por tanto es preferible el crear nuevas escuelas con número limitado de estudiantes que permitan una alta calidad de formación.
    d La dificultad de modificar los curricula tradicionales establecidos que impiden actualizar la docencia a las circunstancias que vive y requiere la salud del país.
    e La politización de las universidades públicas que demeritan la actividad docente al imponerse condiciones extrauniversitarias en la formación y realización de los programas...

  4. LES MEDICAMENTS FALSIFIES, CRIME SANS CHATIMENT

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    Marc GENTILINI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Le trafic de faux médicaments n’est pas un phénomène récent, mais un fléau qui s’aggrave. Plus mortel que le Paludisme et plus rentable que le trafic des drogues, il menace tant la santé des populations que le développement économique des pays les plus pauvres. Des anticancéreux aux traitements des dysfonctionnements érectiles, princeps ou génériques, tous les types de médicaments font l’objet de falsification. Profitant de la mondialisation des échanges et de l’essor d’Internet, ce trafic mortifère s’est développé et s’étend désormais sur les 5 continents. Considéré comme « le plus gros marché noir du monde », il reste pourtant sous-estimé, voire méconnu, du grand public, des professionnels de santé et des dirigeants politiques. La prise de conscience à tous les niveaux des risques engendrés par les médicaments falsifiés est une urgence vitale.

  5. Filiation et consommation de medicaments psychotropes

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    Alain Ducousso-Lacaze

    Full Text Available A partir de deux entretiens semi-directifs l’auteur présente certains aspects des résultats d’une recherche clinique réalisée avec des patients de l’hôpital général consommant des médicaments psychotropes. Il s’agit de mette en évidence comment, pour certains patients, la consommation et la prescription prennent un sens par rapport aux enjeux de la filiation narcissique. Les analyses cliniques portent essentiellement sur la fonction de support imaginaire de la transmission que peuvent revêtir les médicaments ainsi que leur rôle dans les conflits entre appartenance et différenciation à l’égard du groupe familial.

  6. Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter; Convenio Sobre la Prevencion de la Contaminacion del mar por Vertimiento de Desechos y Otras Materias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-06-11

    The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter was drawn up at the Inter-Governmental Conference on the Dumping of Wastes at Sea, held in London from 30 October to 10 November 1972. The Governments of Mexico, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the United States of America are the Depository Governments for instruments of ratification of, and accession to, the Convention, pursuant to Articles XVII and XVIII respectively [Spanish] El Convenio sobre la Prevencion de la Contaminacion del Mar por Vertimiento de Desechos y otras Materias fue elaborado en la Conferencia Intergubernamental para el Convenio sobre Vertimiento de Desechos en el Mar, celebrada en Londres del 30 de octubre al 10 de noviembre de 1972. Los Gobiernos de los Estados Unidos de America, Mexico, Reino Unido de Gran Bretana e Irlanda del Norte y Union de Republicas Socialistas Sovieticas son los Gobiernos depositarios de los instrumentos de ratificacion del Convenio y de adhesion al mismo, en conformidad con los Articulos XVII y XVIII, respectivamente.

  7. Coeficientes de utilización digestiva aparente de materia seca, proteína y aminoácidos esenciales de ingredientes terrestres para el camarón del Pacífico Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae

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    Martín Terrazas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los aminoácidos esenciales y su disponibilidad son importantes en la formulación de alimentos. La digestibilidad de materia seca (DAMS, proteína (DAP y aminoácidos esenciales (DAAA fueron determinados (triplicado para el camarón blanco del Pacífico, Litopenaeus vannamei (15-19g, usando una dieta de referencia con 30% (de cada ingrediente. Los ingredientes evaluados fueron: caseína (CAS, harinas de subproductos avícolas (HSPA y porcícolas (HSPP, gluten de maíz (GLM y trigo (GLT, pasta de soya (PS, harinas de sorgo (HS y trigo (HT. La DAMS y DAP variaron entre 68%-109% y 70%-103%, respectivamente. La DAP en CAS, PS, HT y GLT fue mayor al 90%, en GLM y HSPA superior a 80%; HSPP (76% y HS (70% tuvieron menor digestibilidad. Hubo concordancia entre DAP y DAAA, excepto para Arg en GLM, Fen y Leu en HS, Fen en PS y Lis en HT y HSPA. Se encontró una gran variabilidad en la DAMS, DAP y DAAA en los ingredientes, lo que debe ser tomado en cuenta al formular alimentos para camarón.

  8. PROPUESTA DE METODOLOGÍA DOCENTE PARA L A ADAPTACIÓN DE MATERIAS DE GEOGRAFÍA DESCRIPTIVA AL EEES: EL CASO DE LA ASIGNATURA DE GEOGRAFÍA DE EUROPA

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    Ángel Lucendo Luis Monedero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Se expone la innovación docente desarrollada en la asignatura de Geografía de Europa del Grado en Geografía y Gestión del Territorio de la Universidad de Sevilla (2014/2015. Ésta supone un cambio en la metodología de enseñanza-aprendizaje de carácter tradicional, memorístico y pasivo empleada en materias de Geografía Descriptiva (a la que designamos Métodos Docentes Tradiciones, MDT. La nueva metodología denominada NEW por sus siglas en inglés (New Education in Works se caracteriza por ser activa, autónoma y basada en problemas, poniendo el énfasis en el desarrollo de competencias y habilidades emprendedoras cómo recomienda el Parlamento Europeo (Recomendación 2006/962/CE; y las indicaciones de adaptación al EEES (De Cos y Reques: 2010; Esparcia y Sánchez: 2012. El NEW parte de los principios de la problematización como estrategia (Santiago: 2005b, del aprendizaje basado en problemas (ABP y de la construcción de secuencias de aprendizaje (Acevedo: 2009. Palabras clave: Autoaprender, Competencias emprendedoras, Aprendizaje basado en problemas, Geografía de Europa, Grado de Geografía. 

  9. Análisis de los fundamentos jurídicos de la reforma a la legislación penal en materia de aborto en el Distrito Federal

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    Jean Cadet Odimba On'Etambalako Wetshokonda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En 2007 se aprueba y publica la reforma al Código Penal del Distrito Federal en materia de aborto, con ella se validó la despenalización del delito de aborto, modificando el tipo penal y el mismo concepto de lo que es el aborto, convirtiéndose para el df en legal la práctica de la interrupción del embarazo dentro de las primeras doce semanas de gestación. Este trabajo es un análisis de los fundamentos jurídicos nacionales internacionales que protegen el derecho fundamental a la vida, así como las argumentaciones teóricas, filosóficas, biológicas, teológicas y jurídicas que se sostuvieron en los debates que conllevaron a la aprobación de la reforma a los artículos tanto del Código Penal de Distrito Federal y la Ley de Salud de Distrito Federal. El tema central de discusión y análisis es el derecho fundamental a la vida durante el periodo del embarazo.

  10. Evolución de las emociones que experimentan los estudiantes del grado de maestro en educación primaria, en didáctica de la materia y la energía

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    Mª Antonia Dávila Acedo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En la enseñanza de las ciencias, señalar el ámbito afectivo es un aspecto básico que constituye un logroimportante, pues reconocer el afecto como una emoción en los actos de conocer, pensar, actuar y relacionarse esfundamental en el proceso de aprendizaje. En este trabajo se pretende conocer y analizar las emociones queexperimentan los futuros maestros de Primaria en la asignatura de Didáctica de la Materia y la Energía, antes ydespués de la realización de los seminarios de prácticas, donde se realizan experiencias relacionadas conconceptos químicos y físicos. La muestra está constituida por 82 estudiantes de segundo del Grado de Maestroen Educación Primaria de la Universidad de Extremadura durante el curso académico 2013/2014. Los resultadosmuestran una evolución en las emociones experimentadas por los estudiantes antes y después de la realización delos seminarios prácticos.

  11. Poder de policía: los efectos de la causa “Mendoza” sobre los principios que rigen la competencia regulatoria y judicial en materia ambiental, con particular referencia a la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires

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    Páez, María E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En el año 2008 la Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Nación dictó sentencia definitiva en la causa “Mendoza”, un proceso ambiental que fue delineado por el Alto Tribunal conforme a las pautas que se derivan del art. 41 de la Constitución Nacional y de la Ley General del Ambiente. Durante su tramitación, se creó la Autoridad de Cuenca Matanza-Riachuelo y se establecieron reglas de competencia particulares para ese proceso que dieron lugar a contiendas entre los magistrados. Partiendo de la noción de poder de policía y el deslinde de competencias entre el Estado federal y los Estados locales establecido en el texto de la Constitución Nacional, el presente trabajo tiene por objeto dar cuenta de las consecuencias que se derivan de la integración de la ACUMAR y del establecimiento de aquellas reglas, sobre las potestades de regulación en materia ambiental propias de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires y la competencia de los jueces locales.

  12. Variaciones en el pH de la rizosfera y en el porcentaje de materia seca de Vicia sativa al aplicar dos fuentes fosfatadas de baja solubilidad en un andisol del departamento de Nariño, Colombia

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    Menjivar F. Juan Carlos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En el estudio se utilizaron seis tratamientos: el testigo (T0, sin fuentes fosfatadas (T1 y con adiciones de 25 y 50 kg/ha de P como fosforita Huila (T2 y T3 y calfós (T4 y T5. Los cambios generados por la raíz se evaluaron utilizando la solución nutritiva de Marschner Römheld y Ossenberg-Neuhaus, acondicionada con agar. El porcentaje de materia seca parcial de Vicia sativa se incrementó significativamente al aplicar 25 y 50 kg/ha de P como fosforita Huila (T2 y T3 y calfos (T5 y T6 en la localidad de Genoy. El pH de la solución agarizada sufrió disminuciones significativas a través del tiempo especialmente en los tratamientos T3 y T2.

    Palabras claves: pH rizosférico, Vicia sativa, Papilionoidea, fuentes fosfatadas, solubilidad

  13. A la búsqueda de un método. Dialéctica entre composición, materia y construcción en Curro Inza

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    Ángel Verdasco

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se suma a la relectura que se está llevando a cabo en tiempos recientes sobre lo que se denominó organicismo madrileño y Escuela de Madrid de los años 60 y 70 del s.XX. El trabajo se centra en uno de los personajes más significativos: el arquitecto Curro Inza. Se analiza en dos de sus obras de juventud la relación que establece entre composición, materia y construcción, en un intento de aproximarnos con mayor acierto a su enigmática arquitectura orgánica y explicar las razones proyectuales que en ella subyacen. Todo ello, junto con el reconocimiento de una toma de postura matérica cercana al brutalismo, permite desmontar algunas percepciones actuales sobre su trabajo, a la vez que posibilita reconocer estrategias arquitectónicas de candente actualidad.

  14. MATERIAS PRIMAS, CONTEXTO Y PROCEDENCIA DE CUENTAS DE COLLAR EN LOS SITIOS ALAMITO (DEPTO. ANDALGALÁ, CATAMARCA (Raw Materials, Context, and Provenance of Necklace Beads at Alamito Sites (Andalgalá Department, Catamarca

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    María Soledad Gianfrancisco

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de análisis físicos y químicos efectuados sobre un conjunto de bienes ornamentales procedentes de los sitios Alamito. La identificación de materia prima alóctona empleada para su manufactura y la ausencia de elementos sustanciales que den cuenta de una producción local de los mismos nos permiten plantear la hipótesis de que fueron adquiridos mediante mecanismos de intercambio, como otros de los tantos productos que circularon en el flujo interregional de bienes en el contexto macrorregional del área surandina. ENGLISH: This paper presents the results of physical and chemical analyses carried out on a set of ornamental goods from Alamito sites. The identification of allochthonous material used for their manufacture and the absence of substantial elements that would indicate local production allow us to put forward the hypothesis that these ornamental goods were acquired through trade, like many other products that circulated through the interregional flow of goods in the macro-regional context of the southern Andes.

  15. Tecnologías para el aprovechamiento del gas producido por la digestión anaeróbica de la materia orgánica Technologies for the utlilzation of gas derived from anaerobic digestion of organic matter

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    Hernández A. Luis Alfredo

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available El aprovechamiento energético del gas metano, compuesto principal del biogás, subproducto gaseoso producido de la fermentación anaeróbica de la materia orgánica, en forma sólida o soluble, constituye un factor importante que complementa las bondades tenológicas para la implantación y desarrollo de sistemas de tratamiento de residuos orgánicos mediante la digestión anaeróbica. El presente artículo muestra las bondades técnicas y operativas en la implementación de tecnologías para el aprovechamiento energético del biogás en motores de combustión, lámparas para alumbrado, quemadores domésticos e idustriales y calderas.Energetic use of methane gas, main component of biogas, by product gas of anaerobic fermentation of organic material both solid or soluble forms. It's a more important factor that helps to implantation of technologies for the development of sistem for trataments of organic wastes from anaerobic digestions. The present article shows the technical operative advantages in the improvement of technologies for energetics use of biogas for
    combustion engines, lamps of lightening, domestic and industrial fires and boilers.

  16. Claudia Demattè and Alberto del Río, Parodia de la materia caballeresca y teatro áureo. Edición de Las aventuras de Grecia y su modelo serio, el «Don Florisel de Niquea» de Montalbán

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    Javier Guijarro Ceballos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of Claudia Demattè and Alberto del Río, Parodia de la materia caballeresca y teatro áureo. Edición de Las aventuras de Grecia y su modelo serio, el «Don Florisel de Niquea» de Montalbán, Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Navarra (Publicaciones digitales del GRISO, Pamplona, 2012, 247 pp. ISBN: 9788480813365.

  17. Geração de Linguagem Natural para Conversão de Dados em Texto - Aplicação a um Assistente de Medicação para o Português

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    José Casimiro Pereira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Novos equipamentos como 'smartphones' ou 'tablets' têm revolucionado a interacção do ser humano com a tecnologia, proporcionando novos desafios e oportunidades. Estes novos dispositivos são multimodais por natureza. De entre as várias modalidades, são particularmente interessantes as relacionadas com a interacção por voz e texto. Para que estas formas de interação possam ser usadas entre sistemas e utilizadores humanos, é essencial a existência de módulos capazes de traduzir as informações internas das aplicações em frases ou textos, para visualização no ecrã ou para serem sintetizados de forma a serem ouvidos. É, também, essencial que estes módulos possam gerar frases e textos nas línguas nativas dos utilizadores; que o processo de desenvolvimento não implique grandes conhecimentos e recursos, incluindo tempo de desenvolvimento; e o resultado da geração apresente a variabilidade necessária. O objectivo principal é o de propor, implementar e avaliar um método de conversão de Dados-para-português passível de ser desenvolvido com um mínimo de tempo e conhecimentos, mas sem comprometer a indispensável variabilidade e qualidade do que é gerado. O sistema apresentado, desenvolvido para um cenário de assistência à toma de medicamentos, destina-se a criar descrições, em linguagem natural, de informação sobre medicação a tomar. Motivados por resultados recentes, optou-se por uma abordagem baseada em tradução automática, com os modelos treinados num pequeno corpus paralelo. Para isso, foi criado um novo corpus que, depois de validado, foi utilizado no desenvolvimento do sistema. Foram criadas duas variantes do sistema: uma orientada à tradução baseada em sintagmas e outra fazendo uso de informação sintáctica. Foram realizadas avaliações utilizando métricas automáticas -- BLEU e Meteor -- bem como avaliações por humanos. Os resultados do sistema orientado a sintagmas foram francamente superiores

  18. Estudio y clasificación de la materia orgánica dispersa (MOD en el Lías de la Playa de Peñarrubia (Asturias

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    González Prado, J. J.

    1990-04-01

    Full Text Available A study of the organic matter of a marine sequence of the west part from Peñarrubia Beach (Asturias has been carried out using pyrolysis tests and petrographic and geochemical techniques. White light and fluorescence microscopic observations have permitted to establish a general classification of the disperse organic matter, its distribution and concentration along the series, and also the variation with the litology. The organic components have been classified into nine groups which are mainly found in the Upper part of the Pliensbachian marlaceous and lutitic beds. These bituminous leveis are composed of a kerogen type 11 or mixed, with a small contribution of terrestrial humic materials. The rank of DOM has been determined by huminite reflectance and Rock-Eval (Tmax, being both results concordant. The DOM is in an inmature stage before the oil generation window. The highest oil yields determined by pyrolysis tests at 500°C correspond to the richest DOM levels. Petrographic and geochemical data show a good correlation. AIgae, fibers, organic-mineral matrix and other submicroscopic associations are the main source for oil generation.En el presente trabajo se estudia por técnicas petrográficas y mediante ensayos de pirólisis o técnicas geoquímicas la serie marina del borde Oeste de la Playa de Peñarrubia (Asturias para conocer la naturaleza de su parte orgánica. Las observaciones microscópicas en luz blanca y por fluorescencia han permitido establecer una clasificación general de la materia orgánica dispersa, su distribución y concentración a lo largo de toda la serie y según las diferentes litologías. Se han clasificado los componentes orgánicos en 9 grupos mayoritarios que se concentran, principalmente en los niveles margosos y lutíticos del Pliensbachiense, habiéndose delimitado niveles bituminosos en la parte superior de la serie. Estos están constituidos por un kerógeno de tipo 11 mixto formado por un material aut

  19. El recurso especial en materia de contratación regulado en la Ley 34/2010, de 5 de agosto, actualmente incluida en la Ley 3/2011, de 14 de noviembre (TRLCSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Manuel Martínez Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza el recurso especial en materia de contratación en la regulación que le dio la Ley 34/2010, de 5 de agosto, de modificación de la Ley 30/2007, de 30 de octubre, de Contratos del Sector Público, y que ha sido incorporado literalmente en el Texto Refundido de la Ley de Contratos del Sector Público, aprobado por el Real Decreto Legislativo 3/2011, de 14 de noviembre. Esta regulación es la transposición a nuestro ordenamiento jurídico de la Directiva 2007/66/CE, de 11 de diciembre, por la que se modifican las Directivas 89/665/CEE y 92/13/CEE del Consejo en lo que respecta a la mejora de la eficacia de los procedimientos de recurso en materia de adjudicación de contratos públicos. El estudio analiza las cuestiones objetivas, subjetivas y procedimentales de esta nueva regulación, prestando especial atención a la aplicación del recurso especial a las Entidades Locales. En estas Administraciones el recurso está en gran medida condicionado por la creación por parte de las Comunidades Autónomas de sus respectivos Tribunales Administrativos Autonómicos de Recursos Contractuales: en tanto las Comunidades Autónomas no creen estos Tribunales, la resolución del recurso especial en las Entidades Locales por el mismo órgano de contratación, lo convierte en un mero recurso administrativo equivalente al de reposición, pero con la “penalización” de que sus resoluciones usualmente no serán ejecutivas hasta que sean firmes. This paper analyzes the special administrative appeal in contracts in the regulation of contracts given by Law 34/2010, of August 5, amending Law 30/2007 of October 30, Public Sector Contracts, which had been are incorporated literally in the Consolidated Act on Public Sector Contracts, approved by Royal Legislative Decree 3/2011 of 14 November. This regulation transposes into our legal system Directive 2007/66/EC of 11 December, amending Directives 89/665/EEC and 92/13/EEC with regard to improving

  20. EFECTO DE LA ADICIÓN DE INÓCULO Y ADITIVO EN LA DIGESTIBILIDAD in situ DE LA MATERIA SECA DEL ENSILADO DE CAÑA DE AZÚCAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Andrés Reyes-Gutiérrez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la adición de un inóculo y un aditivo artesanal, sobre la degradabilidad in situ de la materia seca (MS en el ensilado de caña de azúcar (ECS. Los tratamientos fueron: T1 ensilado de caña de azúcar sin inóculo ni aditivo, y T2 ensilado de caña de azúcar con 1% de inóculo y el 1% de aditivo. El inóculo artesanal está compuesto por 10.0% melaza, 1.0% de yogurt natural, 5.0% pollinaza, 0.5% urea y 83.0% de agua; y el aditivo esta formulado con 1.0% urea, 0.1% sulfato de amonio y 0.25% fósforo. Dos vacas Holstein con fístula ruminal permanente (PV 650±50 kg que fueron utilizados por un período de 15 d para la adaptación a los materiales experimentales y 3 d para la recolección de muestras. Hubo diferencias (p≤0.05 entre tratamientos en la digestibilidad in situ de la MS. T2 muestra un mayor porcentaje de MS en comparación con el tratamiento testigo o T1; estos resultados podrían explicarse porque el inóculo causa una fermentación previa de los nutrientes de la caña de azúcar durante el proceso de ensilaje. El uso de un inóculo y el aditivo en el ensilaje de caña de azúcar cambia la desaparición ruminal de la MS.

  1. VERIFICACIÓN DEL CONTENIDO DE MATERIA SECA COMO INDICADOR DE COSECHA PARA AGUACATE (persea americana CULTIVAR HASS EN ZONA INTERMEDIA DE PRODUCCIÓN DE LOS SANTOS, COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Milagro Cerdas Araya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue estu - diar si el contenido de materia seca (CMS de aguacate podría ser utilizado como un índice de cosecha adecuado en sustitución del contenido de aceite (CA en aguacate Hass, cultivado en una zona de altitud intermedia (1750 msnm, en Los Santos, Costa Rica. Se marcaron 100 árboles y un total de 2000 flores polinizadas; se evaluaron 35 frutos cada semana, de la semana 31 a la 44. Se encontró que ambos, CA y CMS, mostraron un aumento rápido y significativo después de la semana 39 (p≥0,05, con un coeficiente de correlación entre ellos de 0,92. Otros cambios observados simultáneamente, y relacionados con la maduración de la fruta, fueron el desarrollo del color morado en la cáscara (74% de la superficie, la reducción de la adherencia de la cubierta de la semilla a la pulpa de la fruta, y de ésta a la cáscara y a la semilla, así como la disminución de la firmeza del fruto, de 118 N durante la semana 31 hasta 57 N en la semana 40 y después de ésta. Se recomienda usar el 23% de CMS en el fruto de aguacate Hass como un índice de cosecha para el aguacate cultivado a 1750 msnm en la zona de Los Santos, como una alternativa al conteni - do de aceite de la fruta (CA.

  2. DESCOMPOSICIÓN Y LIBERACIÓN DE NITRÓGENO Y MATERIA ORGÁNICA EN HOJAS DE Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit, Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. Y Moringa oleifera Lam. EN UN BANCO MIXTO DE FORRAJE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Petit-Aldana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las tasas de descomposición, la liberación de N y MO en hojas de Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit, Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. y Moringa oleifera Lam. en un banco mixto de forraje en Yucatán, México, en las épocas de lluvias y sequía, en un diseño de bloques completos al azar, cinco tratamientos y cuatro repeticiones. Se llenaron 120 bolsas con hojas frescas de las especies colectadas, y se colocaron en cada unidad experimental. Se evaluaron tres periodos de incubación para cada tratamiento: cuatro, ocho, y 16 semanas por cada época. A finales del experimento se observó que el proceso de descomposición fue más rápido en la temporada de lluvias. La pérdida de peso y la liberación de N y MO fueron más aceleradas en M. oleifera en monocultivo y en la asociación L. leucocephala con M. oleifera. Los patrones de descomposición de todas las especies siguieron el modelo exponencial simple, con más del 80 % de la masa inicial incorporada al final del periodo de estudio. Se concluye que L. leucocephala, G. ulmifolia y M. oleifera en monocultivo y asociadas, demostraron su capacidad para producir considerables cantidades de materia orgánica y liberar importantes cantidades de N en cortos periodos.

  3. Estudio de la fracción de materia orgánica de mayor remoción en el proceso de coagulación-floculación usando agua superficial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indiana García

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we performed the separation of natural organic matter (MON present in the raw water that supplies two water treatment plants, one from river (Boaco and one from lake (Juigalpa, in two types: hydrophobic, formed by the fractions very hydrophobic (MH and slightly hydrophobic (LH; and the hydrophilic type constituted by the charged (CHA and neutral (NEU fractions. These waters obtained from each fraction were subjected to a process of coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation on a laboratory scale using aluminum sulfate as a coagulant, wherein the hydrophilic fraction (CHA and NEU was poorly removed ( 65 %. Surrogate parameters were used to characterise this MON such as dissolved organic carbon (COD, colour, ultraviolet absorbance (UV254 and specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA. Determination of SUVA values indicates a mixture of hydrophobic and hydrophilic organic matter in both raw waters as their values of specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA were between 2-4 L/mg-m; however the hydrophobic fraction (MH + LH was the predominant one, 63.6 % and 65 % measured as COD in dry season for Boaco and Juigalpa respectively, in rainy season, the percentage were a little higher (71.2 % and 66.1 %. Finally, it was found that the river water (Boaco contains higher concentrations of trihalomethanes (89-166 µg/L than the water lake (Juigalpa (28-80 µg/L after being chlorinated. Found that the hydrophobic fraction was the major contributor in 68.5 % (Boaco and 78.6 % (Juigalpa to the formation of trihalomethanes for dry season in both treated water. In rainy season, the THMs formation were a little higher. Keywords: Organic matter; Trihalomethanes; Fractionation; Superficial waterEn este trabajo, se realizó la separación de la materia orgánica natural (MON presente en el agua cruda que abastece a dos plantas potabilizadoras, una de río (Boaco y otra de lago (Juigalpa, en dos tipos: hidrofóbica, constituida por las fracciones muy hidrof

  4. Radiation protection of patients in medical exposures: regional project IAEA 2007-2008 RLA/9/57;Proteccion radiologica de pacientes en exposiciones medicas: proyecto regional IAEA 2007-2008 RLA/9/57

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    -area product (Pk, a); Mammography theme contains: Application and criteria for image quality: a study of the mammography - skull flow, Sheet for data collection in patients CC and MLO, Sheet for data collection in mammography practices, include equipment description, determination of yields, Hemi reducer thickness, determination of {sup c,} data from the patient and glandular dose; Tomography theme contains: General data about computed tomography services in the Hospital Max Peralta which include report of tests and dosimetry in phantom, in air, information from used scanners; Radiology theme contains: Dosimetry of patients in general radiology where shows forms for determining the performance of x-ray tube; Minimum values, maximum and Kerma in air average in surface of entry for PA Chest radiographs; Measures to generate the yield curve; Patient data, the technical parameters and image quality; Forms by country; Kerma in air at the entrance to the PA Chest skin, the dosimetry in general radiology is included with practices and methodology for the measurement and evaluation, also shows forms with protocols for measurements with TLDS;La proteccion radiologica de pacientes en exposiciones medicas como proyecto esta integrado por 5 regionales que abarcan unos 80 paises, 94 hospitales y 120 actividades relacionadas con radiologia y radiacion. Un taller fue desarrollado con los siguientes objetivos: proporcionar los elementos teoricos y practicos para que los profesionales en proteccion radiologica de pacientes desarrollen tareas encomendadas, identificar la metodologia de medicion mediante hojas para la captura de datos e interpretacion de los mismos, realizar ejercicios practicos de los procedimientos a aplicar en radiologia, mamografia, tomografia computarizada e intervencionismo. Dicho taller se dividio en secciones teoricas y practicas, secciones de analisis e interpretacion de datos y un examen final. Este proyecto pretende identificar fortalezas y debilidades, objetivos

  5. Radiation protection of patients in medical exposures: regional project IAEA 2007-2008 RLA/9/57; Proteccion radiologica de pacientes en exposiciones medicas: proyecto regional IAEA 2007-2008 RLA/9/57

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    -area product (Pk, a); Mammography theme contains: Application and criteria for image quality: a study of the mammography - skull flow, Sheet for data collection in patients CC and MLO, Sheet for data collection in mammography practices, include equipment description, determination of yields, Hemi reducer thickness, determination of {sup c,} data from the patient and glandular dose; Tomography theme contains: General data about computed tomography services in the Hospital Max Peralta which include report of tests and dosimetry in phantom, in air, information from used scanners; Radiology theme contains: Dosimetry of patients in general radiology where shows forms for determining the performance of x-ray tube; Minimum values, maximum and Kerma in air average in surface of entry for PA Chest radiographs; Measures to generate the yield curve; Patient data, the technical parameters and image quality; Forms by country; Kerma in air at the entrance to the PA Chest skin, the dosimetry in general radiology is included with practices and methodology for the measurement and evaluation, also shows forms with protocols for measurements with TLDS;La proteccion radiologica de pacientes en exposiciones medicas como proyecto esta integrado por 5 regionales que abarcan unos 80 paises, 94 hospitales y 120 actividades relacionadas con radiologia y radiacion. Un taller fue desarrollado con los siguientes objetivos: proporcionar los elementos teoricos y practicos para que los profesionales en proteccion radiologica de pacientes desarrollen tareas encomendadas, identificar la metodologia de medicion mediante hojas para la captura de datos e interpretacion de los mismos, realizar ejercicios practicos de los procedimientos a aplicar en radiologia, mamografia, tomografia computarizada e intervencionismo. Dicho taller se dividio en secciones teoricas y practicas, secciones de analisis e interpretacion de datos y un examen final. Este proyecto pretende identificar fortalezas y debilidades, objetivos

  6. Aspectos gerais e número de etapas do sistema de medicação de quatro hospitais brasileiros Aspectos generales y número de etapas del sistema de medicación en cuatro hospitales brasileños General aspects and number of phases of the medication system in four brazilian hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Helena de Bortoli Cassiani

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Essa investigação identificou e analisou o sistema de medicação de 04 hospitais universitários, localizados nas cidades de Recife, Ribeirão Preto, Goiânia e São Paulo, após a aprovação nos Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa e da autorização da direção dos hospitais. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevista estruturada com um dos profissionais responsáveis pelo sistema de medicação e observação não participante e direta, por uma semana, nos vários sub-sistemas. Os resultados indicaram pontos que necessitam de aperfeiçoamentos como utilização de abreviações, falta de padronização de horários de administração de medicamentos, falta de informações atualizadas e completas do paciente, farmácia não funcionando 24 horas em um hospital, falta de centro de informações de medicamentos e outros. Evidenciou-se no hospital A 66 etapas, no B 58 etapas, no C 70 etapas e no D 80 etapas do sistema de medicação. Simplificar os processos, diminuindo o número de etapas, é a chave para a redução de erros de medicação.Esa investigación identificó y analizó el sistema de medicación en 04 hospitales universitarios en las ciudades de Recife, Ribeirão Preto, Goiânia y São Paulo, Brasil. Los datos fueron recopilados en dos etapas. En la primera etapa se realizó una entrevista estructurada con uno de los profesionales responsables por el sistema de medicación. En la segunda, se hizo observación no participativa y directa durante una semana. Los resultados indicaron los puntos que necesitan ser perfeccionados, tales como uso de abreviaciones, la falta de un padrón de horarios, falta de información actualizada y completa del paciente, farmacia que no funciona las 24 horas en un hospital, y otros. Se observó en el Hospital A 66 etapas, en el B 58 etapas, en el C 70 etapas y en el D 80 etapas respecto al sistema de medicación. Simplificar el proceso, diminuyendo el número de etapas, es la clave para reducir los m

  7. Digitaalne kood kui materia prima / Raivo Kelomees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kelomees, Raivo, 1960-

    2003-01-01

    Festival "Ars Electronica 2003" Austrias Linzis 6.-11. IX oli pühendatud koodile: seaduse-, kunsti-, bioloogilise ja arvutikoodi tähenduses. Tarkvarakunstiteemalisest (software art) diskussioonist. Peapreemia Goldene Nica - Blast Theory "Can you see me now?"

  8. A caccia dei segreti della materia

    CERN Multimedia

    Dell'Aglio, Luigi

    2004-01-01

    In Stanford, Marcello Giorgi re-wrote the theories about the interactions of quarks, the bricks composing atoms; this direction of research has led to applications already being used in everyday life, like the PET scan (2 pages)

  9. APLICACION DEL DERECHO TRIBUTARIO EN MATERIA ADUANERA

    OpenAIRE

    Cosio Jara, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    El Derecho Tributario es el conjunto de normas que regulan el tributo. entendido como una fuente de recursos públicos destinados a financiar los gastos que cubrirán el costo de los servicios necesarios para satisfacer las necesidades públicas. Es una de las funciones principales de Aduana, no la única, la recaudación del tributo aduanero (no olvidemos su función de control relacionada con medidas de orden público, sanidad, defensa del consumidor y del patrimonio cultural). El Derecho Adua...

  10. Efecto de la fertilización en la producción de materia seca y extracción de nutrientes en tres accesiones de Lippia origanoides H.B.K.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Delgado-Ospina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available En las casas de vegetación de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira (930 m.s.n.m. y 26 °C, se estudió la relación entre la nutrición de plantas de las accesiones Patía, Cítrica y Típica de Lippia origanoides H.B.K., los niveles de extracción de nutrientes y la producción y distribución de materia seca (MS. Para el efecto se determinaron las concentraciones de elementos foliares, los niveles de absorción y extracción de N, P, K, Mg y Ca y su relación con la producción de cada accesión. Se utilizó un diseño en parcelas divididas con once tratamientos y tres repeticiones, las unidades experimentales consistieron en una planta sembrada en sustrato (turba. Los elementos se aplicaron con ferti-riego utilizando solución nutritiva de Hoagland y Arnon modificada. Los resultados mostraron que la accesión Patía presentó los mayores rendimientos de MS (292.0 ± 0.1 g/planta cuando la concentración original de Mg (49 mg/lt en la solución cambió para 30 mg/lt; en la accesión Cítrica fueron más altos (287.1 ± 0.1 g/planta con 72 mg/lt de Mg y en la accesión Típica el rendimiento fue mayor (255.2 ± 0.1 g/planta con la aplicación de 30 mg/lt de Mg. En términos de absorción de nutrientes, el K fue el elemento más requerido (13.9 kg/t, seguido de Ca (7.9 kg/t.

  11. Caracterización energética y proteica de materias primas de origen animal, empleadas en la formulación de alimentos balanceados para vacas lecheras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Boschini Figueroa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinóla cinética de la degradación ruminal de la materia seca, laproteína cruda y el extracto etéreo en las harinas de pescado,carne y hueso y tortave. Con base en los resultados de degradación a 48 horas de incubación ruminal, se determinó enforma biológica los contenidos digeribles reales de la proteína y grasa digerida, haciendo más precisa la medición del total de nutrientes digeribles y los valores de energía digestibley neta de los alimentos que por el método químico. Los valores de energía neta para producción fueron de 2,02, 1,66 y2,60 Mcals/kg en la harina de pescado, harina de carne y hueso y la tortave, respectivamente. La fracción de proteína soluble (A fue alta en la harina de pescado (75,29%, media enla harina de carne y hueso (46,83% y más baja en la harinade tortave (25,75%, con una fracción degradable (B de10,62, 27,66 y 42,06%; así como una fracción insoluble (Cde 14,09, 25,51, y 32,19%, respectivamente. La proteína de-gradada en el rumen fue de 83,23, 66,25 y 51,98%, en el mis-mo orden de presentación anterior. Los contenidos de proteína cruda efectivamente retenida por el animal durante elproceso de digestión total, fueron de 53,29, 51,86 y 42,05%para la harina de pescado, harina de carne y hueso y la harina de tortave.

  12. Efecto de la calidad de la materia orgánica asociada con el uso y manejo de suelos en la retención de cadmio, en sistemas altoandinos de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel del Socorro Bravo Realpe

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available El cadmio (Cd proveniente de suelos afectados por intemperismo y actividades antropogénicas puede producir efectos tóxicos, asociados con la baja afinidad de las formas adsorbentes, la alta solubilidad y la movilidad. Es de gran importancia conocer los fenómenos de adsorción y los factores de movilidad de este elemento y predecir su posible toxicidad en suelos de la región altoandina de Colombia cuyo sistema de uso está cambiando a pasturas y cultivos con aplicación de fertilizantes fosfatados que contienen cadmio. Para determinar la influencia en la retención y el factor de movilidad de Cd en estos suelos de la subcuenca Rio Las Piedras, Departamento del Cauca (Colombia, utilizados en sistemas de bosque, cultivo de papa (Solanum tuberosum y pastura de kikuyo (Pennisetum clandestinum fueron caracterizados por sus propiedades físicas y químicas, encontrando alta acidez, presencia de alófanos, alto contenido de carbono orgánico, alta capacidad de intercambio catiónico, y baja densidad. Para determinar la influencia en la retención y el factor de movilidad de cadmio, la calidad de la materia orgánica (M.O fue evaluada mediante índices de humificación obtenidos por la caracterización de sus diferentes fracciones. La retención fue evaluada mediante isotermas de adsorción de Freundlich en ácidos húmicos en suelos de los tres sistemas de uso. Los valores encontrados de K (máxima capacidad de adsorción y n (fuerza de retención fueron, respectivamente, de 131.98 y 1.18 en suelos de bosque, 340.93 y 1.19 en cultivo, y 170.36 y 1.19 en pasturas. La calidad de la M.O. tiene un efecto significativo en estos procesos, así, una mejor calidad redunda en menor movilidad de cadmio, previniendo contaminación de aguas subterráneas y toxicidad por bioacumulación de cadmio.

  13. Remoción integrada de materia orgánica, fósforo y nitrógeno en un sistema de filtros (biofiltros en serie anaerobio/anóxico/aerobio en condiciones dinámicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Andrés Correa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados obtenidos durante la operación, en condiciones dinámicas, de un sistema en serie de tres biofiltros (BF, anaerobio (ANA, anóxico (ANX y aerobio (AER a escala de laboratorio, con el fin de evaluar la remoción de materia orgánica y nutrientes (N y P. Los reactores fueron alimentados continuamente durante 200 días, incluidos los períodos de adherencia y estabilidad, con tiempos de retención hidráulicos entre 2,27 y 0,66 d. para el BFANA y entre 1,7 y 0,5 d. para el BFANX. El período de adherencia se controló mediante el seguimiento de los sólidos suspendidos volátiles en el efluente y la eficiencia en la remoción de DQO en cada uno de los BF. Luego de observar resultados satisfactorios de adherencia de biomasa sobre el medio de soporte, se procedió a alimentar el sistema con una carga orgánica volumétrica inicial promedio de 0,441 kg DQO/m3/d. y gradualmente se fue incrementando, en la medida que se observaron resultados en la remoción de DQO por encima del 50%, hasta que se logró la estabilidad del sistema para la carga orgánica máxima de 1,5 kg DQO/m3/d. El control de los reactores se realizó con determinaciones de DQO, PO43-, NTK, NO2-, NO3-, alcalinidad y sólidos suspendidos, a la entrada y salida de cada reactor. Los resultados de remoción para el sistema de reactores de crecimiento adherido fue de 90 y 96% para DQO, entre 80 y 90% para fósforo total y entre 65 y 70% para nitrógeno total

  14. Diseño e implementación de un sistema de control y monitoreo de manejo de lotes para los procesos de: almacenaje, transporte y despacho de materias primas en los predios de una planta de elaboración de cerveza

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz Campos, Mario Augusto; Martin Moreno, Cesar Antonio

    2009-01-01

    El sistema de manejo de granos constituye la primera fase en el proceso de elaboración de cerveza y desempeña un papel muy importante en la dosificación de materias primas. El siguiente articulo presenta la implementación de un sistema de control capaz de manejar los procesos de recepción, transporte, almacenaje y despacho de dos tipos de productos: arroz y malta (cebada malteada), este último utilizado en diferentes variedades. Se considera el control de lotes y dosificación de materi...

  15. The Text of a Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology. Latest Status. Declarations/Reservations; Texto de un Acuerdo de Cooperacion Regional Para la Investigacion, el Desarrollo y la Capacitacion en Materia de Ciencias y Tecnologia Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-08-18

    The text of a Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology between the Agency and Member States is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. Section 9 thereof specifies the Members that may become party to it [Spanish] Para conocimiento de todos los Estados Miembros en el presente documento se transcribe el texto de un Acuerdo de Cooperacion Regional para la investigacion, el desarrollo y la capacitacion en materia de ciencias y tecnologia nucleares entre el Organismo y los Estados Miembros. En la Seccion 9 se especifican los Estados Miembros que pueden ser partes en el Acuerdo.

  16. Instructional and Learning Modes in Math. Module CMM:006:02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexroat, Melvin E.

    This is the second module in a series on mathematics methods and materials for preservice elementary teachers. This module focuses on three instructional and learning modes: expository, guided discovery, and inquiry (pure discovery). Objectives for the module are listed, the prerequisites are stated, pre- and post-assessment standards are…

  17. Fabrication and Study of Micro Monolithic Tungsten Ball Tips for Micro/Nano-CMM Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijun Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Micro ball tips with high precision, small diameter, and high stiffness stems are required to measure microstructures with high aspect ratio. Existing ball tips cannot meet such demands because of their weak qualities. This study used an arc-discharge melting method to fabricate a micro monolithic tungsten ball tip on a tungsten stylus. The principles of arc discharge and surface tension phenomenon were introduced. The experimental setup was designed and established. Appropriate process parameters, such as impulse voltage, electro discharge time, and discharge gap were determined. Experimental results showed that a ball tip of approximately 60 µm in diameter with less than 0.6 µm roundness error and 0.6 µm center offset could be realized on a 100 µm-diameter tungsten wire. The fabricated micro ball tip was installed on a homemade probe, touched by high-precision gauge blocks in different directions. A repeatability of 41 nm (K = 2 was obtained. Several interesting phenomena in the ball-forming process were also discussed. The proposed method could be used to fabricate a monolithic probe ball tip, which is necessary for measuring microstructures.

  18. Utilization and mitigation of VAM/CMM emissions by a catalytic combustion gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K.; Yoshino, Y.; Kashihara, H. [Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd., Hyougo (Japan); Kajita, S.

    2013-07-01

    A system configured with a catalytic combustion gas turbine generator unit is introduced. The system has been developed using technologies produced by Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd., such as small gas turbines, recuperators and catalytic combustors, and catalytic oxidation units which use exhaust heat from gas turbines. The system combusts (oxidizes) ventilation air methane (less than 1% concentration) and low concentration coal mine methane (30% concentration or less) discharged as waste from coal mines. Thus, it cannot only reduce the consumption of high- quality fuel for power generation, but also mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. T-Spline Based Unifying Registration Procedure for Free-Form Surface Workpieces in Intelligent CMM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhua Han

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the modern manufacturing industry, the free-form surface is widely used in various fields, and the automatic detection of a free-form surface is an important function of future intelligent three-coordinate measuring machines (CMMs. To improve the intelligence of CMMs, a new visual system is designed based on the characteristics of CMMs. A unified model of the free-form surface is proposed based on T-splines. A discretization method of the T-spline surface formula model is proposed. Under this discretization, the position and orientation of the workpiece would be recognized by point cloud registration. A high accuracy evaluation method is proposed between the measured point cloud and the T-spline surface formula. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method has the potential to realize the automatic detection of different free-form surfaces and improve the intelligence of CMMs.

  20. Interpreting SCAMPI for a People CMM Appraisal at Tata Consultancy Services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Radice, Ron; Hefley, William E; Curtis, Bill; Ferguson, Jack; Hayes, Will

    2005-01-01

    Tata Consultancy Services (TCS) is a large information technology consulting, services, and business process outsourcing organization interested in reducing the costs of conducting process improvement appraisals at its multiple locations...

  1. Analysis of the new architecture proposal for the CMM control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkilae, L.; Saarinen, H.; Aha, L.; Viinikainen, M.; Mattila, J.; Hahto, A.; Siuko, M.; Semeraro, L.

    2011-01-01

    While developing divertor remote handling maintenance systems at the Divertor Test Platform 2 facility, some risks and sensitivity points related to the Cassette Multifunctional Mover control system software were discovered and evaluated. The control system architecture has to simultaneously fulfill the demanding ITER remote handling requirements and to face new requirements being uncovered during the trials. Especially evolving non-functional requirements such as reliability and safety have an effect on the control system architecture as it is getting more mature. An evaluation of the implications from architectural decisions is necessary before implementation efforts, as an architecture left to develop without evaluation may lead to a dead end and therefore soaring development costs. After studying existing architecture analysis methods an analysis method was developed to gain confidence to carry out the proposed changes.

  2. Methodology for identifying and representing knowledge in the scope of CMM inspection resource selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, S.; Barreiro, J.; Cuesta, E.; Álvarez, B. J.; González, D.

    2012-04-01

    This paper is focused on the task of elicitation and structuring of knowledge related to selection of inspection resources. The final goal is to obtain an informal model of knowledge oriented to the inspection planning in coordinate measuring machines. In the first tasks, where knowledge is captured, it is necessary to use tools that make easier the analysis and structuring of knowledge, so that rules of selection can be easily stated to configure the inspection resources. In order to store the knowledge a so-called Onto-Process ontology has been developed. This ontology may be of application to diverse processes in manufacturing engineering. This paper describes the decomposition of the ontology in terms of general units of knowledge and others more specific for selection of sensor assemblies in inspection planning with touch sensors.

  3. People Capability Maturity Model (P-CMM) Version 2.0, Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    competency may include a beginner , a novice, a journeyman, a senior practi- tioner, and a master or expert. 1. Competency information is aggregated at the...Textual listings of work activities • Flowcharts or other graphical depictions of work activities • Procedural descriptions of work activities 430

  4. Un sistema experto basado en minería de datos y programación entera lineal para soporte en la asignación de materias y diseño de horarios en educación superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Calle-López

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available En general, varias de las organizaciones tienden a manejar la asignación de cargas horarias de sus empleados de manera tradicional (imposición de una jornada de trabajo de 8. Todo esto a fin de mantener cierto control sobre variables como asistencia y ausentismo del personal e incluso en algunos casos considerando aquello como sinónimo de eficacia laboral. Sin embargo, la nueva tendencia organizacional ha roto ciertos paradigmas  con orientación mecanicista, pretendiendo crear un nuevo horizonte hacia la construcción de organizaciones orgánicas y dinámicas. Por lo expuesto, en este artículo se describe una propuesta de sistema experto basado en programación entera lineal y minería de datos para abordar el problema de asignación de materias y el diseño de horarios (considerado un problema NP-completo. Los resultados preliminares son alentadores, ya que han permitido realizar la asignación de materias en una base de 133.000 registros de docentes y generar horarios con un mínimo de coste computacional.

  5. Soil thermal conductivity, organic matter, activity and microbial biomass in crops systems of passion fruit in Toro, Valle del Cauca, Colombia Conductividad térmica del suelo, materia orgánica, actividad y biomasa microbianas en sistemas de cultivo de maracuyá en Toro, Valle del Cauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez Jesús

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the relationship among soil thermal conductivity (λ organic matter, activity and microbial biomass. In three systems of passion fruit crop (ecological, transitional and conventional in the municipality of Toro, Valle del Cauca, Colombia. In samples taken at random in two depths (0-15 and 15-30 cm, biological properties microbial activity (C-CO2; microbial biomass (microbial C - fumigation, extraction - and physical and chemical properties (organic matter, pH, humidity, texture, apparent density, porosity (traditional methods and thermal conductivity of the soil (electrothermal method were measured. The results were analyzed program SAS through models of lineal regression, LSD and Duncan. There were highly significant differences in organic matter, activity and microbial biomass and thermal conductivity of the soil at both depths.The most notorious among ecological and conventional crops. High correlations of direct proportionality were calculated among thermal conductivity of the soil (λ and soil organic matter, for the three crop systems. The ecological crop increased these properties and activity and microbial biomass. Key words: Passiflora edulis Sims var flavicarpa, crop systems, soil thermal conductivity, organic matter, activity and microbial biomass.El estudio evaluó la relación entre la conductividad térmica del suelo (λ, la materia orgánica, la actividad y la biomasa microbianas. En tres sistemas de cultivo de maracuyá (agroecológico, transición y convencional en el municipio de Toro (Valle del Cauca, en nueve puntos por manejo se tomaron muestras al azar a dos profundidades (0-15 y 15-30 cm y se midieron propiedades biológicas: (actividad microbiana (C-CO2; biomasa microbiana (C microbiano –fumigación, extracción– y propiedades físicas y químicas (materia orgánica, pH, humedad, textura, densidad aparente, porosidad (métodos tradicionales y conductividad térmica del suelo (m

  6. Ruminal Degradability of Dry Matter and Crude Protein from Moist Dehulled Lupin and Extruded Rapeseed Meal Degradabilidad Ruminal de la Materia Seca y de la Proteína Cruda de Lupino Descascarado y Torta de Raps Extruidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barchiesi-Ferrari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The flow of ruminal undegradable protein (RUP to the small intestine can be increased if ruminal degradation of dietary protein is reduced. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion on ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP from dehulled lupin (Lupinus albus L. (DL and rapeseed (Brassica napus L. meal (RM. Unextruded soybean (Glicine max L. meal (SBM was used as a control. The DL was extruded at 130 ºC with 20% moisture and RM was extruded at 120 ºC with 20% moisture. Ruminal degradability was evaluated in situ by incubating feed samples for 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h of fermentation in the rumen using three rumen-fistulated dairy cows. Values of CP soluble fraction (“a” in SBM, DL, extruded dehulled lupin (EDL, RM, and extruded rapeseed meal (ERM was lower in the extruded feeds (P El flujo de proteína no degradable en el rumen (RUP hacia el intestino delgado puede ser incrementado si se reduce la degradación ruminal de la proteína dietaria. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la extrusión sobre la degradabilidad ruminal de la materia seca (DM y proteína cruda (CP de lupino (Lupinus albus L. descascarado (DL y torta de raps (Brassica napus L. (RM. Se utilizó afrecho de soya (Glicine max L. sin extruir (SBM como control. El DL fue extruido a 130 ºC con 20% de humedad y la RM fue extruida a 120 ºC con 20% de humedad. La degradabilidad ruminal se evaluó in situ incubando las muestras de alimentos a 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 y 48 h de fermentación en tres vacas lecheras con fístula ruminal. Los valores de la fracción soluble de la CP (“a” en SBM, en DL, lupino descascarado extruido (EDL, RM y torta de raps extruida (ERM fue menor en los extruidos (P < 0.05. La fracción lentamente degradable (“b” de SBM, DL, EDL, RM y de ERM fue 858; 593; 622 y 451 y 457 g kg-1, respectivamente, y se incrementó por extrusión (P < 0.05. La extrusión redujo la degradabilidad efectiva

  7. Coeficientes de utilización digestiva aparente de materia seca, proteína y aminoácidos esenciales de ingredientes terrestres para el camarón del Pacífico Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Terrazas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Los aminoácidos esenciales y su disponibilidad son importantes en la formulación de alimentos. La digestibilidad de materia seca (DAMS, proteína (DAP y aminoácidos esenciales (DAAA fueron determinados (triplicado para el camarón blanco del Pacífico, Litopenaeus vannamei (15-19g, usando una dieta de referencia con 30% (de cada ingrediente. Los ingredientes evaluados fueron: caseína (CAS, harinas de subproductos avícolas (HSPA y porcícolas (HSPP, gluten de maíz (GLM y trigo (GLT, pasta de soya (PS, harinas de sorgo (HS y trigo (HT. La DAMS y DAP variaron entre 68%-109% y 70%-103%, respectivamente. La DAP en CAS, PS, HT y GLT fue mayor al 90%, en GLM y HSPA superior a 80%; HSPP (76% y HS (70% tuvieron menor digestibilidad. Hubo concordancia entre DAP y DAAA, excepto para Arg en GLM, Fen y Leu en HS, Fen en PS y Lis en HT y HSPA. Se encontró una gran variabilidad en la DAMS, DAP y DAAA en los ingredientes, lo que debe ser tomado en cuenta al formular alimentos para camarón.Apparent digestion coefficients for dry matter, protein and essential amino acids in terrestrial ingredients for Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae. Protein quality mainly depends on the essential amino acid (EAA profile, but also on its bioavailability, because EAA digestibility is generally lower than the analyzed amounts. This information is needed in the aquaculture industry for aquafeed formulation. For this purpose, the apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, protein, and essential amino acids of eight feedstuffs of terrestrial origin were determined for the juvenile whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (15-19g, using 1% chromic oxide as an inert marker. A reference diet was formulated and produced in the laboratory. Eight experimental diets were prepared each with 30% of one of the experimental ingredients added to the reference diet: casein, porcine byproduct meal poultry byproduct meal, corn meal, wheat gluten meal, soybean

  8. Variación espacial y temporal en los contenidos de mercurio, plomo, cromo y materia orgánica en sedimento del complejo de humedales de Ayapel, Córdoba, noroccidente colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Fernando Rúa Cardona

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Las planicies de inundación atlánticas colombianas están impactadas por la minería aurífera artesanal desarrollada durante las últimas décadas. Sin embargo, la contaminación local por mercurio ha sido comparada con niveles de acción de otras latitudes y no se han incluido otros metales de interés sanitario en las investigaciones. El presente estudio contribuyó al conocimiento de la respuesta geoquímica espacial inducida por el pulso hidrológico y la composición de materia orgánica (MO en el área de influencia del complejo de humedales de Ayapel. Se evaluó la distribución espacial y temporal de mercurio (Hg, plomo (Pb, cromo (Cr y MO en el sedimento reciente del complejo cenagoso de Ayapel y se contrastó con el nivel de referencia de contaminación local por Hg (0,032 μg g-1, Pb (2,39 μg g-1 y Cr (89,58 μg g-1 determinado en la Formación Betulia. Los rangos de los tres metales fueron: 0,008-0,117 μg Hg g-1; 1,090-11,870 μg Pb g-1 y 5,350- 93,430 μg Cr g-1. El Hg mostró la mayor variabilidad espacial (0,083 ± 0,064 μg g-1 y niveles superiores en el afluente del frente de explotación aurífera en la década del 80. En comparación con el nivel de referencia, el 91 % del sedimento reciente presentó enriquecimiento por Pb (6,376 ± 4,048 μg g-1 y el 66,6 % enriquecimiento por Hg. En contraste, el contenido de Cr fue relativamente bajo (96,325 ± 29,868 μg g-1 y presentó tendencia a disminuir de oriente a occidente. El sedimento fue predominantemente inorgánico, con porcentajes medios de cenizas de 88,154 ± 3,822 % y escasos niveles de MO (11,846 ± 3,822 %. Se presume el aumento en la movilidad del Hg debido a la alta tasa de respiración de MO en la zona central del espejo de agua principal de la ciénaga de Ayapel. La resuspensión y migración de sedimentos contaminados es facilitada por la inestabilidad térmica de la columna de agua influenciada por la acción del viento.

  9. Levomepromazina e atropina como medicações pré-anestésicas na anestesia pela associação tiletamina/zolazepam, em cães Comparison between levomepromazine and atropine as premedication agents before anesthesia using tiletamine/zolazepam in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Pompermayer

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar o emprego da atropina e da levomepromazina como medicações pré-anestésicas para a anestesia pela associação tiletamina/zolazepam. Foram empregados 30 cães, distribuídos em três grupos iguais. O grupo 1 (controle foi tratado com 0,2 ml/kg de solução fisiológica (placebo por via intravenosa; o grupo 2 com 0,044mg/kg de sulfato de atropina por via subcutânea e o grupo 3 com 1mg/kg de cloridrato de levomepromazina por via intravenosa. Quinze minutos após, todos os grupos receberam a associação tiletamina/zolazepam na dose de 10mg/kg por via intramuscular. Antes da medicação pré-anestésica, 15 minutos após a mesma e aos 15, 30, 60 e 105 minutos após a administração da associação tiletamina/zolazepam foram registrados: ECG, temperatura, freqüência respiratória, volume corrente, volume minuto, freqüência cardíaca, pressão arterial, valores hemogasométricos arteriais, graus de analgesia e miorrelaxamento e reflexos protetores. Outros dados como: secreção salivar, período de latência, período anestésico hábil e período de recuperação foram igualmente mensurados para efeito comparativo. De acordo com os resultados obtidos concluiu-se que o sulfato de atropina não deve ser administrado como medicação pré-anestésica, por potencializar a taquicardia induzida pela associação tiletamina/zolazepam. A levomepromazina, além de inibir a sialorréia, mantém a estabilidade cardiorrespiratória e apresenta ação potencializadora dos efeitos anestésicos da associação.The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of levomepromazine and atropine sulfate as a premedication to the dissociative anesthesia produced by a tiletamine/zolazepam combination. Ten dogs were randomly assigned to each of the three groups: control, atropine and levomepromazine. Fifteen minutes before tiletamine/zolazepam, the dogs were treated either with atropine sulfate (0.044mg/kg, subcutaneously

  10. Assessment of the behavior characteristics of medicament prescription at the health care institution, University of Antoquia, Medellín - Colombia Evaluación de las características del comportamiento de la prescripción de medicamentos en la Institución Prestadora de Salud de la Universidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Angela Tobón Marulanda

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available An exploratory research was carroed out, taking into account some variables as possible risk factors contributing to a non-optimum medicament prescription among prescriptors and users at the Health Care Institution of the University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia, in order to give a global vision of the situation of this public health problem and to obtain information that may be the subject of future quantitative-analytical research concerning Pharmacoepidemiology. The objective was to describe the characteristics of prescription according to patients‘ expectations and prescriptors‘ behavior. Our results indicate that there were no significant differences between the answers of physicians and dentists. Both groups prescribe by taking into account patients‘ expectations and to a lesser extent their personal interest; they seem to pay little attention to adverse medicine reactions. The university community and prescriptors know the risks and disadvantages involved in the inappropriate use of medicaments; however, they use them indiscriminately in some situations, without a real justification. Se realizó una investigación exploradora, considerando algunas variables como posibles factores de riesgo para una prescripción no óptima de los medicamentos entre los prescriptores y usuarios de la Institución Prestadora de Salud de la Universidad de Antioquia para dar una visión global de la situación de este problema de salud pública y obtener datos parciales que sean objeto de futuras investigaciones cuantitativas-analíticas de actualización y reflexión sobre Farmacoepidemiología, con el propósito de motivar cambios de actitud en el uso de los fármacos cuando sean realmente necesarios. El objetivo fue describir las características de la calidad de la prescripción según las expectativas del paciente y el modelo de comportamiento del prescriptor. Los resultados señalaron que no hubo diferencias significativas entre las respuestas

  11. Erros na medicação e conseqüências para profissionais de enfermagem e clientes: um estudo exploratório Errores en la medicación y consecuencias para los profesionales de enfermería y pacientes: un estudio exploratorio Medication errors and consequences for nursing professionals and clients: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Tosta de Carvalho

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar as conseqüências de erros ocorridos para os pacientes e profissionais de enfermagem com base em relatos de erros. O estudo foi realizado em um hospital do estado de São Paulo, em 1999. Adotou-se como referencial metodológico a Técnica do Incidente Crítico modificado. Os dados foram extraídos das entrevistas realizadas com 7 enfermeiros, 1 técnico e 23 auxiliares de enfermagem. Na análise foram identificadas conseqüências do erro para o paciente e para o profissional de enfermagem. Conclui-se a necessidade de se notificarem os erros na medicação para que se verifiquem suas causas, índices e conseqüências por parte das instituições hospitalares, uma vez que as taxas de erros na medicação representam matéria - prima para inúmeras investigações e constituem-se em indicadores para a melhoria do sistema hospitalar e da qualidade de assistência.El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar las consecuencias del los errores ocurridos con base en los relatos de los profesionales de enfermería de un hospital en el interior de Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Fueron entrevistados 7 enfermeros, 1 técnico de enfermería y 23 auxiliares de enfermería. El referencial metodológico adoptado fue la técnica del incidente crítico modificada. Del análisis de relatos se identificaron las consecuencias que fueron divididas en: consecuencias para el paciente y para el profesional de enfermería.This study, which was conducted in a hospital in São Paulo State, Brazil in 1999, aimed at analyzing the consequences of medication errors for patients and nursing professionals based on error reports. The Critical Incident Technique with modifications was adopted as a theoretical frameworkl. Data were collected through interviews with 7 nurses, 4 nursing technicians and 23 nursing auxiliaries. The analysis enabled the identification of consequences for patients and for the nursing professionals involved. It was

  12. O sistema de medicação nos hospitais e sua avaliação por um grupo de profissionais El sistema de medicación en los hospitales y su evaluación por un grupo de profesionales Medication systems in hospitals and their evaluation by professional groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Helena De Bortoli Cassiani

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi analisar os sistemas de medicação, em hospitais, a partir da opinião de 107 profissionais. Em relação às prescrições médicas nas instituições, 74,8% eram manuais e 50,4% dos sistemas de distribuição de medicamentos eram doses individualizadas. Quanto às causas dos erros na medicação, 91% estavam associadas ao profissional. Para 61,7%, o sistema estava adequado, mas apresentando falhas. Poucos profissionais sugeriram modificações que favoreceriam seu trabalho. Conclui-se que ainda persiste a cultura de responsabilizar o profissional pelo erro e, também, a prática de punição, sem modificação substancial da causa que levou ao erro.El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar los sistemas de medicación en los hospitales, a partir de la opinión de un grupo de 107 profesionales. Con relación a las prescripciones médicas en las instituciones, un 74,8% eran manuales y un 50,4 % de los sistemas de distribución de medicamentos eran dosis individualizadas. En lo que se refiere a las causas de los errores en la medicación, un 91% estaban asociadas al profesional. Para un 61,7% el sistema era adecuado, sin embargo presentaba fallas. Pocos profesionales sugirieron algunas modificaciones que favorezcan su trabajo. Se llegó a la conclusión de que aún persiste la costumbre de responsabilizar al profesional por el error y, también, la práctica de punición, sin modificar substancialmente la causa que llevó a cometer el error.This study was aimed at analyzing the medication systems in hospitals based on the opinions of 107 professionals. With regard to medical prescriptions in the institutions, 74.8 percent were handwritten and 50.4 percent of the medication distribution systems were in individualized doses. Concerning the causes of medication errors, 91 percent were associated with the professionals. For 61.7 percent, the system was adequate, but had shortcomings. Few professionals suggested changes that

  13. Efeito do Solo do Materias Organicos E do Adubo Formula 4N:14P:8K Para Producao DA Batata (Solanum tuberosum L.) Semente Pre-Basica no Casa de Vegetacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Márton

    2010-05-01

    apresentam- se que possivel aumentar em grande volumens o produção da batata semente pré- básica com a optimalisou solo-materia orgnicânico-adubo sistema. Estes informações oferecendo-se aplicar no sustentar-se extenção rural para aumentár o produção e produtividade da bata semente e consumo. Chave palavras: batata (Solanum tuberosum L.), casa de vegetação, latossolo vermelho novo, esterco de curral, palha de arroz queimado, adubo de 4:14:8 NPK, sustentação, produção

  14. El cuerpo como materia educativa en la prosa castellana de los siglos 13 y 14 - The body as educational content in late medieval spanish prose: 13th and 14th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Vicente Pedraz, España

    2012-07-01

    , excerpted from late-medieval spanish texts.Key-words: education of princes, body, courtesy, Middle Ages, castilian medieval literature. EL CUERPO COMO MATERIA EDUCATIVA EN LA PROSA CASTELLANA  DE LOS SIGLOS 13 Y 14ResumenEl artículo propone la siguiente hipótesis: la génesis medieval de la educación física remite, sobre todo, a la emergencia de la sensibilidad cortés, concretada en la apariencia distinguida y en el autodominio gestual. Desde esta perspectiva, las destrezas corporales propias de la actividad bélica o de la práctica lúdica caballeresca constituyen un aspecto de menor relevancia; sólo una expresión de dicha sensibilidad en la que lo fundamental es que manifiesta el relativo declive de la idea de estirpe y de los atributos de la “sangre” como dispositivos determinantes de la excelencia, proceso que abriría paso a un creciente interés educativo por la instrucción del cuerpo, más allá de la ejercitación y del mero endurecimiento físico. De acuerdo con la teoría de Norbert Elias, expuesta en El proceso de la civilización, se muestran algunos ejemplos literarios de la pujanza de esta nueva sensibilidad en el entorno de las letras castellanas del Bajo Medioevo.Palabras-clave: educación de príncipes, cuerpo, cortesía, literatura medieval castellana.  LE CORPS COMME MATIERE EDUCATIF EN LA PROSE ESPAGNOLE DU 13E ET 14E SIECLESRésumé Cet article propose l'hypothèse suivante: la genèse médiévale de l'éducation physique remete, surtout, a l'émergence de la sensibilité courtoise, qui se manifeste dans les gestes aprence distingués et la maîtrise de soi. Dans cette perspective, les compétences de corps propre de l'activité militaire ou de la pratique constituant un aspect ludique  du gentilhomme d'importance mineure; une seule expression de cette sensibilité, puisque la clé est qui exprime le déclin relatif de la notion de souche et les attributs du sang en tant que déterminants dispositifs d'excellence, un processus qui

  15. Análisis de flexibilidad y tasa de servicio de los proveedores de materias primas y artículos de acondicionamiento del departamento de logística de una fábrica L'Oréal

    OpenAIRE

    Oumakhlouf, Yasmina

    2009-01-01

    El Grupo L’Oreal es el Líder mundial de la industria cosmética. Está presente en más de 150 países y la cifra de su negocio consolidada en 2008 es de 14.300 millones de euros. En todo el mundo tiene más de 49.150 empleados. El grupo L’Oreal posee 44 fábricas, 39 de Productos Terminados (PT), y 5 de Materias Primas (MP), así como 18 centrales de distribución, nacionales e internacionales. Esas fábricas se ubican en las tres grandes zonas de actividad del grupo: Europa, Asia, y América del N...

  16. Discursos y prácticas de la cooperación Sur-Sur brasileña en materia agrícola en el África Subsahariana: el caso del ProSavana y del PAA África

    OpenAIRE

    de Andrade e Sousa, Maria Eduarda

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo aborda la Cooperación Sur-Sur (CSS) brasileña en el África Subsahariana, con el objetivo de investigar en qué medida las iniciativas en materia agrícola pueden contribuir a la seguridad alimentaria de la región. Para ello, dos proyectos, el ProSavana y el PAA África, han sido estudiados en detalle a fin de valorar sus potencialidades desde el punto de vista de la seguridad alimentaria y analizar hasta qué punto están en línea con los principios de la cooperación técnica brasileñ...

  17. La satisfacción del derecho a la justicia en el marco del proceso de paz colombiano. Una mirada a la evolución en materia de responsabilidad penal en el contexto de un proceso de paz y de los actuales estándares internacionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Eugenia Suárez López

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza los acuerdos de paz que se dieron en Colombia durante las décadas de los ochenta y noventa, con el fin de contrastar dichas experiencias con el actual proceso de negociación que se está llevando a cabo en La Habana con las farc. En particular, se estudia cómo en el marco de estos procesos de paz se abordó el derecho de las víctimas a la justicia y la concesión de amnistías e indultos a los miembros de los grupos armados ilegales. A la luz de los acuerdos mencionados, se discuten los alcances del Acto Legislativo 1 de 2012 en el proceso de paz y, sobre todo, las implicaciones en materia de responsabilidad internacional no solo para el Estado colombiano, sino también para los perpetradores de delitos de trascendencia internacional.

  18. Influencia de la estación y de las especies Phragmites australis y Schoenoplectus californicus en la eliminación de materia orgánica y nutrientes contenidos en aguas servidas durante la operación de puesta en marcha de humedales construidos de flujo horizontal subsuperficial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas de tratamiento de aguas servidas basadas en humedales construidos de flujo horizontal subsuperficial (HSS, logran su etapa de madurez después de dos años de operación. La eficiencia de operación de los sistemas depende de la estacionalidad, tipo de plantas y periodo de madurez del sistema. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la influencia de la estación y de las especies Phragmites australis y Schoenoplectus californicus, en la eficiencia de depuración en materia orgánica y nutrientes de unidades de HSS, durante la etapa operativa de puesta en marcha. Con esta finalidad, se implementaron cuatro unidades de HSS bajo condiciones climáticas mediterráneas australes. Dos unidades fueron plantadas con Phragmites australis y las otras dos, con Schoenoplectus californicus. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de la etapa de puesta en marcha, que cubre los primeros 193 días de operación. Se evaluó la influencia de la especie de planta y la estación (invierno y primavera, en la eficiencia de depuración de materia orgánica (Demanda Biológica de Oxígeno, DBO5, y Demanda Química de Oxígeno, DQO y nutrientes (nitrógeno (N-NH4+, N-NO3- y NT y fósforo (P-PO4-3 y PT. Las unidades de HSS plantadas con Phragmites australis mostraron mejor adaptación temprana que las unidades de HSS plantadas con Schoenoplectus californicus. Sin embargo, las eficiencias de eliminación fueron similares en todas las unidades. Estacionalmente, se pudo evidenciar una diferencia de eliminación para DQO (invierno: 18 a 30%, primavera: 45 a 55% y NT (invierno: 25 a 65%, primavera: 25 a 35%.

  19. Eventos adversos com medicação em Serviços de Emergência: condutas profissionais e sentimentos vivenciados por enfermeiros Eventos adversos con medicaciones en Servicios de Urgencia: conductas profesionales y sentimientos vividos por los enfermeros Medication adverse events in Emergency Department: nurse's professional conduct and personal feelings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audry Elizabeth dos Santos

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve por objetivos verificar as condutas profissionais e os sentimentos dos enfermeiros de serviços de Emergência frente a um evento adverso com medicação e suas associações com a idade, tempo de formado, tempo de experiência na área e vivência anterior com esse tipo de evento. A amostra foi constituída por 116 enfermeiros atuantes em 15 hospitais gerais do município de São Paulo que responderam a um questionário sobre uma situação fictícia com erro de medicação. Os resultados revelaram as seguintes condutas em ordem de prioridade: comunicar ao médico (69,8%, intensificar os cuidados ao paciente (55,1% e anotar no prontuário (28,0%. A preocupação (79,3% foi a manifestação afetiva predominante (79,3%, seguida pela impotência e raiva (22,4%, cada um e insegurança (24,4%. A análise das variáveis mostrou relação entre as condutas profissionais e tempo de formado, enquanto que os sentimentos relacionaram-se com a idade e vivência anterior com esse tipo de evento.El estudio tuvo como objectivo verificar las conductas profesionales y los sentimientos de los enfermeros del servicio de emergencia que se encuentra adelante de un evento adverso com medicación y sus asociaciones com la idad, tiempo del graduado, tiempo de experiencia en la area y vivencia anterior com neste tipo del evento. La muestra fue constituida por 116 enfermeros actuantes em 15 hospitales generales del municipio de São Paulo que respondieram a un cuestionario sobre una situación ficticia com error de medicaciones. Los resultados demonstraron las siguientes conductas en orden de prioridades: comunicar al médico (69,8%, intensificar los cuidados al paciente (55,1% y anotar en el prontuario (28,0%. La preocupacion (79,3% fue la manifestacion afectiva predominante (79,3%, seguida por la impotencia y rabia (22,4% cada una y inseguridad (24,4%. La analise de las variables demonstró relaciones entre las conductas profesionales y tiempo de

  20. Análise de causa raiz: avaliação de erros de medicação em um hospital universitário Análisis de causa raíz: evaluación de errores de medicación en un hospital universitario Root cause analysis: evaluation of medication errors at a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalyta Cardoso Alux Teixeira

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar e analisar os tipos de erros de medicação observados nas doses de medicamentos que foram preparadas e administradas de forma diferente daquelas prescritas. Estudo descritivo, utilizando o método de análise de causa raiz, que realizou uma análise secundária de dados de um estudo já existente. No estudo, 74 erros de medicação foram identificados, durante o preparo e a administração de medicamentos pela equipe de enfermagem. Erros de dose (24,3%, erros de horário (22,9% e medicamentos não autorizados (13,5% foram os mais frequentes. Assim, a análise de causa raiz foi realizada, identificando múltiplos fatores que contribuíram para a ocorrência dos erros, e estratégias e recomendações foram apresentadas para evitá-los.Los objetivos de este estudio consistieron en identificar y analizar los tipos de errores de medicación observados en las dosis de medicamentos que fueron preparadas y administradas de modo diferente respecto del cual fueron prescriptas. El estudio fue de carácter descriptivo, se utilizó el método de análisis de causa raíz, efectuado en forma secundaria sobre los resultados de un estudio ya existente. En el estudio, 74 errores de medicación fueron identificados durante la preparación y la administración de medicamentos por parte del equipo de Enfermería. Errores de dosis (24,3%, errores de horario (22,9% y medicamentos no autorizados (13,5% fueron los más frecuentes. Así, el análisis de causa raíz fue realizado, identificándose múltiples factores que contribuyeron para la ocurrencia de los errores. Fueron presentadas estrategias y recomendaciones para evitarlos.The objectives of this study were to identify and analyze the types of medication errors observed in doses prepared and administered differently from those prescribed. It is a descriptive study using the root cause analysis method, in which a secondary analysis of data from a previously existing

  1. Conseqüências dos erros de medicação em unidades de terapia intensiva e semi-intensiva Consecuencias de los errores de medicaciòn en unidades de cuidados intensivos - semi intensivos Consequences of medical errors in intensive and semi-intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Toffoletto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou caracterizar erros de medicação e avaliar conseqüências na gravidade dos pacientes e carga de trabalho de enfermagem em duas Unidades de Terapia Intensiva (UTI e duas Semi-Intensiva (USI de duas instituições hospitalares do município de São Paulo. A amostra foi constituída por 50 pacientes e os dados obtidos por meio do registro de ocorrências e prontuários, retrospectivamente. A gravidade e carga de trabalho de enfermagem foram avaliadas antes e após o erro. Do total de 52 erros, 12 (23,08% ocorreram por omissão de dose, 11 (21,15% e 9 (17,31% por medicamento e dose erradas, respectivamente. Não houve mudança na gravidade dos pacientes (p=0,316, porém houve aumento na carga de trabalho de enfermagem (p=0,009. Quanto ao grupo de medicamentos envolvidos, potencialmente perigosos e não potencialmente perigosos, não houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes na gravidade (p=0,456 e na carga de trabalho de enfermagem (p=0,264, após o erro de medicação.En el presente estudio se tuvo como objetivo caracterizar errores de medicación y evaluar consecuencias en la gravedad de los pacientes y carga de trabajo de enfermería en dos Unidades de cuidados Intensivos (UCI y dos Semi-Intensivos (USI de dos instituciones hospitalarias del municipio de Sao Paulo. La muestra constituida por 50 pacientes fueron obtenidos por medio del registro de ocurrencias e historias clínicas, retrospectivamente. La gravedad y carga de trabajo de enfermería fueron evaluadas antes y después del error. Del total de 52 errores, 12 (23,08% ocurrieron por omisión de la dosis, 11 (21,15% y 9 (17,31% por medicamento y dosis erradas, respectivamente. No se observó cambio en la gravedad de los pacientes (p=0,316, no obstante hubo aumento en la carga de trabajo de enfermería (p=0,009. En cuanto al grupo de medicamentos involucrados, potencial y no potencialmente peligrosos, no existieron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en

  2. Condutas adotadas por técnicos de enfermagem após ocorrência de erros de medicação Conductas adoptadas por técnicos de enfermería después de ocurrir errores de medicación Conducts adopted by nursing technicians after the occurrence of medication errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jânia Oliveira Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e analisar as condutas adotadas por técnicos de enfermagem após a ocorrência de erros de medicação. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo, de abordagem qualitativa, realizado com 23 técnicos de enfermagem de um hospital de ensino de Goiânia-GO. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas gravadas e analisadas segundo os pressupostos de Bardin. RESULTADOS: Os resultados evidenciaram duas categorias: tomando condutas relacionadas à comunicação do erro (ao médico, à enfermeira, registrando no prontuário e não comunicando o erro e adotando condutas direcionadas ao paciente (observação do paciente, monitorização e minimização das consequências. CONCLUSÃO: Ressalta-se a necessidade de que as instituições de saúde adotem uma cultura de transparência em relação aos erros de medicação, com a criação de políticas e padronizações para notificação, divulgação e fortalecimento de medidas preventivas.OBJETIVO: Identificar y analizar las conductas adoptadas por técnicos de enfermería después de ocurrir errores de medicación. METODOS: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo con abordaje cualitativo, realizado en 23 técnicos de enfermería de un hospital de enseñanza, en la ciudad de Goiania, estado de Goiás. Los datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas grabadas y analizadas según los conceptos de Bardin. RESULTADOS: Los resultados evidenciaron dos categorías: tomando conductas relacionadas a la comunicación del error (al médico, a la enfermera, registrando en la ficha y no comunicando el error y, adoptando conductas dirigidas al paciente (observación del paciente, monitorización y minimización de las consecuencias. CONCLUSIÓN: Se resalta la necesidad de que las instituciones de salud adopten una cultura de transparencia en relación a los errores de medicación, con la creación de políticas y la estandarización de las notificaciones, con la

  3. Histopathological correlation of a group of suspicious breast lesions of malignancy valued by ultrasound categorized by BIRADS classification, to which were realized core needle biopsy through sonographic guide, at the Servicio de Radiologia e Imagenes Medicas of the Hospital Mexico, in the period from January to December 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Escalante, Ruben; Salazar Blanco, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    A histological correlation is established through a transversal study of a group of suspected breast lesions of malignancy valued by ultrasound. Injuries were categorized by BIRADS system and subjected to ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy, at the Servicio de Radiologia e Imagenes Medicas of the Hospital Mexico, from January to December 2012, in order to establish casuistic and comparison with studies of other latitudes. The 99 cases analyzed have complied with inclusion criteria, where the variables have been: the age of the patient, the type of injury, laterality and location of the lesion, the sonographic characteristics of the injury, BIRADS of the lesion, the professional who has performed the biopsy, the number and quality of the sample and histological diagnostic of the injury. The results of the study have found that the average age has been 53.2 years and the group of 40-69 years has had more cases of breast lesions, the highest percentage of lesions were biopsied by an assistant or resident with residents with your assistant, left laterality has predominated (p<0.05), the upper outer quadrant has been the most frequent, the solid nodule of regular borders of 1,2 cm of diameter has predominated in the study, 4 samples per lesion have been the most frequent, the adequate quality of the sample has been of the 95%, BIRADS IVA lesions have predominated, malignant lesion most frequent has been the N2 infiltrating ductal carcinoma and the benign has been the fibroadenoma. The guidelines established by BIRADS system have achieved better handling and behavior of breast lesions, as well as adhere to the techniques described of the procedure of ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy. This last procedure has been minimally invasive of high precision, according to the results obtained of the study. (author) [es

  4. Notificação espontânea de erros de medicação em hospital universitário pediátrico Notificación espontánea de errores de medicación en un hospital universitario pediátrico Spontaneous reporting of medication errors in pediatric university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiko Suzuki Yamamoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os erros de medicação notificados em um hospital universitário pediátrico no Município de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo retrospectivo no qual foram analisadas 120 ocorrências de erros de medicação registradas em 115 notificações espontâneas, entre janeiro de 2007 e dezembro de 2008. RESULTADOS: O índice de erros foi o de 1,15 por 1.000 pacientes-dia; 27,5% das notificações envolveram pacientes na faixa etária escolar. A Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica (UTIP foi o setor com o maior número de notificações. Predominou o tipo de erro relacionado à velocidade de infusão errada (25%. A dimensão fator humano na categoria desempenho deficiente (54% foi a causa mais frequente para ocorrência do erro. CONCLUSÃO: O índice de erros de medicação foi de 1,15 por 1.000 pacientes-dia, com predomínio na faixa etária escolar (27,5% e na UTI Pediátrica (35%. Diante desses resultados, medidas de melhoria devem ser incorporadas na instituição selecionada, sejam elas relacionadas à revisão do processo de trabalho ou à capacitação da equipe.OBJETIVO: Analizar los errores de medicación notificados en un hospital universitario pediátrico en el Municipio de Sao Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo en el cual fueron analizadas 120 ocurrencias de errores de medicación registradas en 115 notificaciones espontáneas, entre enero del 2007 y diciembre del 2008. RESULTADOS: El índice de errores fue de 1,15 por 1.000 pacientes-dia; el 27,5% de las notificaciones involucraron pacientes en el grupo etáreo escolar. La Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátrico (UCIP fue el sector con el mayor número de notificaciones. Predominó el tipo de error relacionado a la velocidad de infusión errada (25%. La dimensión factor humano en la categoría desempeño deficiente (54% fue la causa más frecuente para la ocurrencia del error. CONCLUSIÓN: El índice de errores de medicación fue de 1,15 por

  5. La toxicidad por exceso de Mn y Zn disminuye la producción de materia seca, los pigmentos foliares y la calidad del fruto en fresa (Fragaria sp. cv. Camarosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casierra-Posada Fanor

    2005-12-01

    estudiar la respuesta de plantas de fresa (Fragaria sp. cv. Camarosa a niveles elevados de Zn y Mn en el suelo. Las plantas de fresa crecieron en materas llenas con suelo en un invernadero en Tunja (Colombia. Se le adicionó gradualmente 350 mg de Zn ó 150 mg de Mn, como ZnSO4.7H2O y MnSO4. H2O, respectivamente, por kilogramo de suelo secado al aire. Las plantas se cosecharon 16 semanas luego de empezados los tratamientos. Se determinó: área foliar total; producción de materia seca; contenido de clorofila a, clorofila b y carotenos en hojas; contenido de sólidos solubles totales y diámetro longitudinal en frutos. Los resultados indicaron que altas concentraciones de Zn y Mn reducen el área foliar y la producción de materia seca. La calidad de la fruta se afectó por estos metales en el suelo: en plantas tratadas con altas concentraciones, los sólidos solubles totales de los frutos fueron menores que en los testigos, se les redujo el diámetro y disminuyó el contenido de clorofila y carotenos en las hojas. Se evidenció una mayor toxicidad del Zn para las plantas que del Mn.

  6. Publications | Page 581 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 5801 - 5810 of 6374 ... Mn access to its toxic target, the brain, is a complex phenomenon subject to physiological and physiopathological processes; in which, among others, the route... Report on workshops for the development of Materia Medica Regulations for Traditional and Alternative Medicine Act No. 23 of 2002 ...

  7. advancing the frontiers of pharmacy profession to new horizons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof.Thoithi

    The practice of pharmacy has been changing over the years prompting pharmacists to explore new horizons. In many medical schools teaching of clinical pharmacology has been upgraded from the previous materia medica thus eroding the comparative advantage pharmacists previously enjoyed over their medical ...

  8. Simultaneous Determination of Flavonols and Terpene Lactones in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lactones in Beagle Dog Plasma by Ultra-Performance ... School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100102, ... Matrix effect derived from QC samples was in the range of 85.09 – 113.14 %. ..... with the suitable weighting factor of 1/x. .... pharmacokinetic studies of G. biloba and its.

  9. Simultaneous Determination of Flavonols and Terpene Lactones in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lactones in Beagle Dog Plasma by Ultra-Performance ... School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100102, China ... Purpose: To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of the major compounds in Ginkgo leaf dosage ... pharmacological effect. .... conversion factor was calculated as in Eq 1.

  10. William Burchell's medical challenges: A 19th-century natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the most riveting is his successful care of an assistant whose left hand was severely mutilated when a firearm exploded in his hands. Burchell was probably the first person to include the materia medica of the Khoi in an essentially European approach to the non-surgical management of such a serious condition.

  11. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    measurement of the Institute of Materia Medica of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Radix ranunculus ternati contains 16% of sugar, 1.2% of oil, and very little plant alkaloids (Yang et al., 1998). Japanese scholars have separated and identified monosaccharide constituents such as glucose, arabinose and galactose ...

  12. The effective method for investigation meridian tropism theory in rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... was in accordance with the MT record of Xiheliu and confirmed that tamarixetin and kaempferide was the material bases of it on MT. This is the first report for the illumination of material basis and the mechanism of Xiheliu on MT by analysis the record of Xiheliu in Compendium of Materia Medica and experimental study.

  13. Sun et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2011) 8(3):224-229

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJTCAM

    Sun et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2011) 8(3):224-229. 224. EFFECTS OF CHINESE MATERIA MEDICA-FUBAO DANGGUI JIAO ON EXPERIMENTAL. ENDOMETRIOSIS. Xing Sun*, Master; Lijue Chen, Master; Fanbo Zeng1,. Department of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong. University of Science ...

  14. Organic matter characterization and decomposition dynamics in sub-Antarctic streams impacted by invasive beavers Caracterización de la materia orgánica y la dinámica de descomposición en arroyos subantárticos impactados por castores invasores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Ulloa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite being a relatively remote and well conserved area, the sub-Antarctic ecoregion faces pressing global threats from climate change, the ozone hole and introduced species. Its freshwater ecosystems are one of the least studied components of this biome, but they are known to confront a host of invasive taxa including trout and beavers. We set out to understand the basic characterization and dynamics of organic matter processing and decomposition in sub-Antarctic streams under natural forest (NF conditions and in ponds constructed by North American beavers (Castor canadensis (BP. We found these streams have a naturally stable benthic organic matter regime throughout the year with a peak in leaf input from Nothofagus pumilio in autumn. Beaver ponds significantly increased the retention of organic matter and caused significantly higher decomposition rates, probably associated with increased density and biomass of Hyalella spp. As expected, leaf decay rates for N. pumilio, a deciduous species, were higher (NF: -0.0028 day- ± 0.0001 SE; BP: -0.0118 day-1 ± 0.0009 SE than N. betuloides (a broad-leaf evergreen (NF: -0.0018 day-1 ± 0.0005 SE; BP: -0.0040 day-1 ± 0.0003 SE. Overall these results indicate that the naturally low decomposition rates (slower than 89% of a global survey of decay rates for these cold, oligotrophic streams are being modified by introduced beavers to resemble more temperate latitudes.A pesar de ser una zona relativamente remota y bien conservado, la ecorregión subantártica se enfrenta a presiones por amenazas globales por el cambio climático, el agujero de ozono y las especies introducidas. Los ecosistemas de agua dulce son uno de los componentes menos estudiados de este bioma, pero se sabe que enfrentan una serie de taxones invasivos como la trucha y los castores. El propósito de este estudio es entender la caracterización básica y dinámica de descomposición de la materia orgánica en arroyos subantárticos de

  15. ESTUDIOS PETROGRÁFICOS Y DE CORTES DELGADOS PARA LA IDENTIFICACIÓN DE MATERIAS PRIMAS LÍTICAS EN EL SECTOR NORTE DEL VALLE DE HUALFÍN (CATAMARCA, ARGENTINA (Petrographic and Thin Section Analysis for the Identification of Raw Lithic Materials in the Northern Area of the Hualfín Valley (Catamarca, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Lynch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del siguiente trabajo se centra en el análisis macroscópico y en estudios petrográficos microscópicos realizados sobre materiales líticos arqueológicos recuperados de los sitios Villavil y Villavil 2 (Hualfín, Catamarca, Argentina. Los resultados obtenidos permitieron identificar las materias primas utilizadas en la manufactura de artefactos asociados a ocupaciones del periodo de Desarrollos Regionales/Inka (ca. 900 al 1400 d. C. y, en base a la información geológica de la zona, se realizaron observaciones acerca de su posible procedencia. Esto permitió discutir las hipótesis planteadas con anterioridad acerca de las prácticas relacionadas con su aprovisionamiento. ENGLISH: The main objective of this study is the macroscopic and microscopic petrographic analysis of lithic materials recovered from the sites of Villavil and Villavil 2 (Hualfín, Catamarca, Argentina. The results obtained from this analysis allowed for the identification of the raw materials used in the manufacture of artifacts associated with Regional Developments/Inka Period (ca. 900 to 1400 A.D. occupations. Based on regional geological information, we are able to posit the source locations of these raw materials. This allows for a discussion of previous hypotheses regarding practices of lithic procurement in the area.

  16. Communications Received from Certain Member States Regarding Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology. Nuclear Transfers and Nuclear-Related Dual-Use Transfers; Comunicaciones Recibidas De Diversos Estados Miembros Relativas A Las Directrices Para La Exportacion De Tecnologia, Equipo Y Materiales Nucleares. Transferencias Nucleares Y Transferencias De Equipo, Materiales V Tecnologia Afin Al Doble Uso En Materia Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-04-15

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale dated 5 March 1993 from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic. The purpose of the Note Verbale is to provide information on that Governments' guidelines for Nuclear Transfers and for Transfers of of Nuclear-related Dual-use Equipment, Material and Related Technology. In the light of the wish expressed at the end of each Note Verbale, the text of the Note Verbale is annexed hereto [Spanish] El Director General ha recibido una nota verbal de fecha 5 de marzo de 1993 del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores de la RepUblica Eslovaca. El objetivo de la nota verbal es proporcionar informaciOn sobre las Directrices para las transferencias nucleares y las Directrices para la transferencia de equipo, materiales y tecnologia afin al doble uso en materia nuclear, de dicho Gobierno. Atendiendo a los deseos expresados al final de la nota verbal, se adjunta al presente documento el texto de la nota verbal.

  17. EFECTO DEL OZONO EN LA REMOCIÓN DE MATERIA ORGÁNICA DISUELTA DE UN EFLUENTE SECUNDARIO EFEITO DO OZONO NA REMOÇÃO DE MATÉRIA ORGÂNICA DISSOLVIDA DE UM EFLUENTE SECUNDÁRIO EFFECT OF OZONE ON THE REMOVAL OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER FROM A SECONDARY EFFLUENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Fernando Muñoz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados del estudio sobre tratamiento con ozono y posterior fraccionamiento de la materia orgánica disuelta (MOD en el efluente secundario de la planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales de Cerro de la Estrella, localizada en la Ciudad de México. La ozonación se realizó con dos concentraciones de ozono en fase gaseosa (5 y 25 mg/L y con dos tiempos de contacto (10 y 20 min. El fraccionamiento de la MOD se hizo con las resinas XAD-4 y XAD-8, con el fin de determinar la cantidad de materia orgánica hidrofóbica e hidrofílica presente en el agua residual. Los mejores resultados de remoción se alcanzaron con una concentración de ozono de 25 mg/L y con un tiempo de contacto de 20 minutos, logrando remociones del orden del 85 % en color, 63 % en turbiedad, 71 % en demanda química de oxígeno (DQO y 78 % en UV254. También se determinó la composición de la MOD del efluente secundario en términos de carbono orgánico total (COT, encontrándose que el ozono hace que la materia orgánica hidrofóbica del efluente disminuya de 46 % a 32 % y la materia orgánica hidrofílica aumente de 32 % a 42 %.Este artigo apresenta os resultados do tratamento com ozônio e fracionamento subsequente de matéria orgânica dissolvida (MOD, no efluente secundário da planta de tratamento de esgotos de Cerro de la Estrella, localizada na Cidade do México. A ozonização foi realizada com duas concentrações diferentes de ozônio na fase gasosa (5 e 25 mg / L e com dois tempos de contato (10 e 20 min. O fraccionamento da MOD fez-se com as resinas XAD-4 e XAD-8, a fim de determinar a quantidade de matéria orgânica hidrofóbica e hidrofílica presente no esgoto. Os melhores resultados de remoção atingiram-se com uma concentração de ozônio de 25mg/L e com um tempo de contato de 20 minutos, conseguindo remoções da ordem dos 85 % em cor, 63 % em turbidez, 71 % em demanda química de oxigênio (DQO e 78 % em UV254. Também se

  18. QuaIity control of medicaI imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Joon Il; Na, Dong Gyu; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Hak Hee; Shin, Yong Moon; Ahn, Kook Jin

    2004-01-01

    Medical imaging is the one of the most important diagnostic tools of modern medical science and quality control of the medical imaging is already systemized in the advanced countries. However, in Korea, quality control of medical imaging has not been properly performed until now and low quality examinations have been done without any regulation. The Korean Radiological Society, as society of supervision of medical imaging, has emphasized the importance of quality control and in 2003, the law for the quality control of medical imaging was made. In conformity of the law, the regulation of the quality control of medical imaging will commence, but this is just the beginning and there are still many tasks left for settling down and expanding the range of the quality control of the medical imaging. We reviewed the history of the quality control of medical imaging in Korea and explained the particulars of mammography, fluoroscopy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. We also looked into future prospect and tasks of the quality control of medical imaging

  19. Pratica medica e trascendenza in Gehirne (1916 di Gottfried Benn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Meozzi

    2016-12-01

    The article analyses Gehirne (1916 by Gottfried Benn and focuses on the doctor-patient relationship which involves social hierarchies (the relationship between doctor Rönne and the «bourgeois» as well as the unconscious father-son tie. The article analyses how Benn’s «absolute prose» avoids the Oedipal competition by stressing the constant evolution of being and the equal impotence of men facing death. At the same time, Benn’s prose criticizes the everyday language based on illusory, narcisistic differences, and on aggressive ideologies. To this language of «individuality» Benn opposes an analogical prose which questions the representations of self, and which projects an erotic, «tactile» sight in the lack of meaning.

  20. Servicio de noticias medicas y farmacéuticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facultad de Medicina Revista

    1955-04-01

    Full Text Available Information Service, Inc. Un método nuevo para el desarrollo del virus de la poliomielitis emplea tejido amniótico; Utilidad de la aspirina tamponada en la artritis reumatoide; Para los hospitales pediátricos se comprueban convenientes habitaciones especiales de alta humedad; El fósforo radioactivo ayuda en el diagnóstico de los tumores de la piel.