WorldWideScience

Sample records for mataga tadashi okada

  1. An archival study on the fusion researches in Japan from 1965 to 1986. An interview with Sekiguchi Tadashi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisio, Sigeko; Uematsu, Eisui

    2001-12-01

    We here report an archival study undertaken by the method of an interview with Sekiguchi Tadashi, Professor Emeritus at the University of Tokyo. The theme covers the circumstances of the fusion research during the period (1965-1976) when fusion project was launched in Japan, and during the period (1970-1986) when JT-60 was initiated and subsequently developed. This interview was arranged as a part of the collaborative works organized with the Data and Planning Center of NIFS since 1999. (author)

  2. An archival study on the nuclear fusion research in Japan later half of 1980's. An interview with SEKIGUCHI Tadashi, Professor Emeritus at the University of Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisio, Sigeko; Uematsu, Eisui; Obayashi, Haruo

    2003-05-01

    An interview record with SEKIGUCHI Tadashi, Professor Emeritus at The University of Tokyo, on the nuclear fusion researches in Japan later half of 1980's is given. The major topics concerned are: activities of Science Council of Japan, the establishment of the Japan Society of Plasma Science and Nuclear Fusion Research, the history of establishing National Institute for Fusion Science, and effects of Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, and others. (author)

  3. An archival study on the nuclear fusion research in Japan later half of 1980's. An interview with SEKIGUCHI Tadashi, Professor Emeritus at the University of Tokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisio, Sigeko; Uematsu, Eisui [Nihon Univ., College of Science and Technology, Funabashi, Chiba (Japan); Obayashi, Haruo [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)] [and others

    2003-05-01

    An interview record with SEKIGUCHI Tadashi, Professor Emeritus at The University of Tokyo, on the nuclear fusion researches in Japan later half of 1980's is given. The major topics concerned are: activities of Science Council of Japan, the establishment of the Japan Society of Plasma Science and Nuclear Fusion Research, the history of establishing National Institute for Fusion Science, and effects of Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, and others. (author)

  4. Identification of dynamic changes in proteins associated with the cellular cytoskeleton after exposure to okadaic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opsahl, Jill A; Ljostveit, Sonja; Solstad, Therese

    2013-01-01

    be combined with control cells before the isolation of lipid rafts. Protein phosphorylation events and translocations induced by okadaic acid were identified by mass spectrometry. Okadaic acid was shown to regulate the phosphorylation status and location of proteins associated with the actin cytoskeleton...... of the cortical actin cytoskeleton and cell detachment....

  5. Teater peab alati proovima leida uut / Toshiki Okada ; intervjueerinud Evelyn Raudsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Okada, Toshiki

    2011-01-01

    20. aprillist 6. maini Tallinnas toimuva rahvusvahelise etenduskunstide festivali POT kaugema külalise jaapani teatritrupi Chelfitsch looja, dramaturgi ja lavastaja Toshiki Okada mõtteid tööst teatris

  6. Okadaic Acid, a Bioactive Fatty Acid from Halichondria okadai, Stimulates Lipolysis in Rat Adipocytes: The Pivotal Role of Perilipin Translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nen-Chung Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid metabolism in visceral fat cells is correlated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. Okadaic-acid, a 38-carbon fatty acid isolated from the black sponge Halichondria okadai, can stimulate lipolysis by promoting the phosphorylation of several proteins in adipocytes. However, the mechanism of okadaic acid-induced lipolysis and the effects of okadaic acid on lipid-droplet-associated proteins (perilipins and beta-actin remain unclear. We isolated adipocytes from rat epididymal fat pads and treated them with isoproterenol and/or okadaic acid to estimate lipolysis by measuring glycerol release. Incubating adipocytes with okadaic acid stimulated time-dependent lipolysis. Lipid-droplet-associated perilipins and beta-actin were analyzed by immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, and the association of perilipin A and B was found to be decreased in response to isoproterenol or okadaic acid treatment. Moreover, okadaic-acid treatment could enhance isoproterenol-mediated lipolysis, whereas treatment of several inhibitors such as KT-5720 (PKA inhibitor, calphostin C (PKC inhibitor, or KT-5823 (PKG inhibitor did not attenuate okadaic-acid-induced lipolysis. By contrast, vanadyl acetylacetonate (tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor blocked okadaic-acid-dependent lipolysis. These results suggest that okadaic acid induces the phosphorylation and detachment of lipid-droplet-associated perilipin A and B from the lipid droplet surface and thereby leads to accelerated lipolysis.

  7. Physico-chemical analysis of fish pond water in Okada and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water samples were collected from concrete and earthen fish ponds in different locations in Okada and its environs, Edo State, Nigeria. Twenty-one different physiochemical parameters were analyzed using standard laboratory methods and procedures. In the present study, the values of the parameters ranged from pH 6.75 ...

  8. Okadaic acid inhibits cell growth and photosynthetic electron transport in the alga Dunaliella tertiolecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perreault, Francois; Matias, Marcelo Seleme; Oukarroum, Abdallah [Department of Chemistry, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, 2101, Rue Jeanne Mance, Montreal, QC, Canada H2X 2J6 (Canada); Matias, William Gerson [Department of Chemistry, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, 2101, Rue Jeanne Mance, Montreal, QC, Canada H2X 2J6 (Canada); Laboratorio de Toxicologia Ambiental, LABTOX, Depto. de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario, CEP: 88040-970, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Popovic, Radovan, E-mail: popovic.radovan@uqam.ca [Department of Chemistry, Universite du Quebec a Montreal, 2101, Rue Jeanne Mance, Montreal, QC, Canada H2X 2J6 (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA), which is produced by several dinoflagellate species, is a phycotoxin known to induce a decrease of biomass production in phytoplankton. However, the mechanisms of OA cytotoxicity are still unknown in microalgae. In this study, we exposed the green microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta to OA concentrations of 0.05 to 0.5 {mu}M in order to evaluate its effects on cell division, reactive oxygen species production and photosynthetic electron transport. After 72 h of treatment under continuous illumination, OA concentrations higher than 0.10 {mu}M decreased culture cell density, induced oxidative stress and inhibited photosystem II electron transport capacity. OA effect in D. tertiolecta was strongly light dependent since no oxidative stress was observed when D. tertiolecta was exposed to OA in the dark. In the absence of light, the effect of OA on culture cell density and photosystem II activity was also significantly reduced. Therefore, light appears to have a significant role in the toxicity of OA in microalgae. Our results indicate that the site of OA interaction on photosynthetic electron transport is likely to be at the level of the plastoquinone pool, which can lead to photo-oxidative stress when light absorbed by the light-harvesting complex of photosystem II cannot be dissipated via photochemical pathways. These findings allowed for a better understanding of the mechanisms of OA toxicity in microalgae. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposition of Dunaliella tertiolecta to okadaic acid in light conditions results in reactive oxygen species formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of photosystem II is dependent on oxidative stress and effects of okadaic acid on the plastoquinone pool. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress and inhibition of photosynthesis increase okadaic acid effect on cell density in light conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Okadaic acid induces toxicity in algae via both light-dependent and light

  9. Diverse Bacterial PKS Sequences Derived From Okadaic Acid-Producing Dinoflagellates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S. Rein

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Okadaic acid (OA and the related dinophysistoxins are isolated from dinoflagellates of the genus Prorocentrum and Dinophysis. Bacteria of the Roseobacter group have been associated with okadaic acid producing dinoflagellates and have been previously implicated in OA production. Analysis of 16S rRNA libraries reveals that Roseobacter are the most abundant bacteria associated with OA producing dinoflagellates of the genus Prorocentrum and are not found in association with non-toxic dinoflagellates. While some polyketide synthase (PKS genes form a highly supported Prorocentrum clade, most appear to be bacterial, but unrelated to Roseobacter or Alpha-Proteobacterial PKSs or those derived from other Alveolates Karenia brevis or Crytosporidium parvum.

  10. On The Computation Of The Best-fit Okada-type Tsunami Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J. M. A.; Luis, J. M. F.; Baptista, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The forward simulation of earthquake-induced tsunamis usually assumes that the initial sea surface elevation mimics the co-seismic deformation of the ocean bottom described by a simple "Okada-type" source (rectangular fault with constant slip in a homogeneous elastic half space). This approach is highly effective, in particular in far-field conditions. With this assumption, and a given set of tsunami waveforms recorded by deep sea pressure sensors and (or) coastal tide stations it is possible to deduce the set of parameters of the Okada-type solution that best fits a set of sea level observations. To do this, we build a "space of possible tsunami sources-solution space". Each solution consists of a combination of parameters: earthquake magnitude, length, width, slip, depth and angles - strike, rake, and dip. To constrain the number of possible solutions we use the earthquake parameters defined by seismology and establish a range of possible values for each parameter. We select the "best Okada source" by comparison of the results of direct tsunami modeling using the solution space of tsunami sources. However, direct tsunami modeling is a time-consuming process for the whole solution space. To overcome this problem, we use a precomputed database of Empirical Green Functions to compute the tsunami waveforms resulting from unit water sources and search which one best matches the observations. In this study, we use as a test case the Solomon Islands tsunami of 6 February 2013 caused by a magnitude 8.0 earthquake. The "best Okada" source is the solution that best matches the tsunami recorded at six DART stations in the area. We discuss the differences between the initial seismic solution and the final one obtained from tsunami data This publication received funding of FCT-project UID/GEO/50019/2013-Instituto Dom Luiz.

  11. Evaluation of the glycemic indices of three commonly eaten mixed meals in Okada, Edo State

    OpenAIRE

    Omage, Kingsley; Omage, Sylvia O.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract People do not generally eat single or individual meals; rather they eat mixed meals, consisting of two or more individual meals. These mixed meals usually have glycemic indices which differ from that of the individual food type. This study was aimed at evaluating the glycemic indices of three commonly consumed mixed meals eaten in Okada; rice and beans (test food 1), rice and plantain (test food 2), beans and plantain (test food 3). Two hundred and forty healthy subjects aged between...

  12. Adsorption of marine phycotoxin okadaic acid on a covalent organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Laura M; Pinela, Sara R; Fernandes, Soraia P S; Louçano, João; Carbó-Argibay, Enrique; Sarriá, Marisa P; Rodríguez-Abreu, Carlos; Peixoto, João; Espiña, Begoña

    2017-11-24

    Phycotoxins, compounds produced by some marine microalgal species, can reach high concentrations in the sea when a massive proliferation occurs, the so-called harmful algal bloom. These compounds are especially dangerous to human health when concentrated in the digestive glands of seafood. In order to generate an early warning system to alert for approaching toxic outbreaks, it is very important to improve monitoring methods of phycotoxins in aquatic ecosystems. Solid-phase adsorption toxin tracking devices reported thus far based on polymeric resins have not been able to provide an efficient harmful algal bloom prediction system due to their low adsorption capabilities. In this work, a water-stable covalent organic framework (COF) was evaluated as adsorbent for the hydrophobic toxin okadaic acid, one of the most relevant marine toxins and the parental compound of the most common group of toxins responsible for the diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. Adsorption kinetics of okadaic acid onto the COF in seawater showed that equilibrium concentration was reached in only 60min, with a maximum experimental adsorption of 61mgg -1 . Desorption of okadaic acid from the COF was successful with both 70% ethanol and acetonitrile as solvent, and the COF material could be reused with minor losses in adsorption capacity for three cycles. The results demonstrate that COF materials are promising candidates for solid-phase adsorption in water monitoring devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Okadaic acid and trifluoperazine enhance Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in eastern white pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Lin, Jinxing; Newton, Ronald J

    2007-05-01

    Mature zygotic embryos of recalcitrant Christmas tree species eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) were used as explants for Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101-mediated transformation using the uidA (beta-Glucuronidase) gene as a reporter. Influence of the time of sonication and the concentrations of protein phosphatase inhibitor (okadaic acid) and kinase inhibitor (trifluoperazine) on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation have been evaluated. A high transformation frequency was obtained after embryos were sonicated for 45-50 s, or treated with 1.5-2.0 microM okadaic acid or treated with 100-200 microM trifluoperazine, respectively. Protein phosphatase and kinase inhibitors enhance Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in eastern white pine. A 2-3.5-fold higher rate of hygromycin-resistant callus was obtained with an addition of 2 microM okadaic acid or 150 microM trifluoperazine or sonicated embryos for 45 s. Stable integration of the uidA gene in the plant genome of eastern white pine was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern and northern blot analyses. These results demonstrated that a stable and enhanced transformation system has been established in eastern white pine and this system would provide an opportunity to transfer economically important genes into this Christmas tree species.

  14. Use of Okadaic Acid to Identify Relevant Phosphoepitopes in Pathology: A Focus on Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Avila

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein phosphorylation is involved in the regulation of a wide variety of physiological processes and is the result of a balance between protein kinase and phosphatase activities. Biologically active marine derived compounds have been shown to represent an interesting source of novel compounds that could modify that balance. Among them, the marine toxin and tumor promoter, okadaic acid (OA, has been shown as an inhibitor of two of the main cytosolic, broad-specificity protein phosphatases, PP1 and PP2A, thus providing an excellent cell-permeable probe for examining the role of protein phosphorylation, and PP1 and PP2A in particular, in any physiological or pathological process. In the present work, we review the use of okadaic acid to identify specific phosphoepitopes mainly in proteins relevant for neurodegeneration. We will specifically highlight those cases of highly dynamic phosphorylation-dephosphorylation events and the ability of OA to block the high turnover phosphorylation, thus allowing the detection of modified residues that could be otherwise difficult to identify. Finally, its effect on tau hyperhosphorylation and its relevance in neurodegenerative pathologies such as Alzheimer’s disease and related dementia will be discussed.

  15. Okadaic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Severinsen, Mai C K

    2014-01-01

    are the hallmark of phospholipidosis, a pathological condition characterized by lysosomal phospholipid accumulation. Phospholipidosis is observed in acquired lysosomal storage diseases and is induced by a large number of cationic amphiphilic drugs. Unlike the latter, however, OA does not act by accumulating...... in acidic organelles, implying a different toxic mechanism of action. We propose that rapid induction of LBs, an indicator of phospholipidosis, should be included in the future toxicity profile of OA....... hyper protein phosphorylation, but no detectable loss of cell polarity or cytoskeletal integrity of the enterocytes. Using a fluorescent membrane marker, FM dye, endocytosis from the brush border was affected by the toxin. Although constitutive uptake into subapical terminal web-localized early...

  16. Okadaic acid for radiation dose estimation using drug-induced premature chromosome condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chunyan; Zhang Wei; Su Xu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To establish simple biological method for high irradiation dose estimation using drug-induced prematurely condensed chromosomes (PCC) aberrations. Methods: Peripheral blood was taken from healthy adults and irradiated by 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 Gy 60 Co γ-rays. Then the blood samples were cultured for 48 hrs. One hr before the end of culture , okadaic acid was added into culture medium to induce PCC rings, which were counted for each dose point. Results: The yield of PCC rings was increased with the dose of radiation until 20 Gy. Within the range of 1 to 20 Gy, there was a good dose-response relationship between the yield of PCC rings and radiation dose. Conclusion: Compared with the analysis of frequency of dicentrics, the yield of PCC rings could be a good biodosimetry indicator for estimation of high dose irradiation. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of the glycemic indices of three commonly eaten mixed meals in Okada, Edo State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omage, Kingsley; Omage, Sylvia O

    2018-01-01

    People do not generally eat single or individual meals; rather they eat mixed meals, consisting of two or more individual meals. These mixed meals usually have glycemic indices which differ from that of the individual food type. This study was aimed at evaluating the glycemic indices of three commonly consumed mixed meals eaten in Okada; rice and beans (test food 1), rice and plantain (test food 2), beans and plantain (test food 3). Two hundred and forty healthy subjects aged between 18 and 30 participated in this study. They were randomized into three groups of eighty persons each, and fed with the standard food (50 g glucose) on day one and one of the test foods on day two, after an overnight fast. Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the food had been eaten. The results showed that the Glycemic Index (GI) values for the test foods were high: 86.60 (test food 1), 89.74 (test food 2), 86.93(test food 3). The incremental increase in blood glucose was monitored and calculated for each food and when compared with that of the standard food (glucose), there was significant differences ( p   .05). The results from this study indicated that the GI of the mixed meals was affected by the constituent nutrient and the response is also affected by the proportion of each nutrient. Our findings show that the selected test foods (mixed meals) consumed in Okada have high GI values.

  18. Identification of okadaic acid binding protein 2 in reconstituted sponge cell clusters from Halichondria okadai and its contribution to the detoxification of okadaic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoki, Keiichi; Okada, Kayo; Kohama, Mami; Matsuura, Hiroki; Saito, Kaori; Cho, Yuko; Nishitani, Goh; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Fukuzawa, Seketsu; Tachibana, Kazuo; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

    2015-12-15

    Okadaic acid (OA) and OA binding protein 2 (OABP2) were previously isolated from the marine sponge Halichondria okadai. Because the amino acid sequence of OABP2 is completely different from that of protein phosphatase 2A, a well-known target of OA, we have been investigating the production and function of OABP2. In the present study, we hypothesized that OABP2 plays a role in the detoxification of OA in H. okadai and that the OA concentrations are in proportional to the OABP2 concentrations in the sponge specimens. Based on the OA concentrations and the OABP2 concentrations in the sponge specimens collected in various places and in different seasons, however, we could not determine a positive correlation between OA and OABP2. We then attempted to determine distribution of OA and OABP2 in the sponge specimen. When the mixture of dissociated sponge cells and symbiotic species were separated with various pore-sized nylon meshes, most of the OA and OABP2 was detected from the same 0-10 μm fraction. Next, when sponge cell clusters were prepared from a mixture of dissociated sponge cells and symbiotic species in the presence of penicillin and streptomycin, we identified the 18S rDNA of H. okadai and the gene of OABP2 in the analysis of genomic DNA but could not detect OA by LC-MS/MS. We thus concluded that the sponge cells express OABP2, and that OA was not apparently present in the sponge cells but could be colocalized with OABP2 in the sponge cells at a concentration less than the limit of detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The structures of three metabolites of the algal hepatotoxin okadaic acid produced by oxidation with human cytochrome P450

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Guoa, Fujiang; Crain, Sheila; Quilliam, Michael A.; Wang, Xiaotang; Rein, Kathleen S.

    2012-01-01

    Four metabolites of okadaic acid were generated by incubation with human recombinant cytochrome P450 3A4. The structures of two of the four metabolites have been determined by MS/MS experiments and 1D and 2D NMR methods using 94 and 133 μg of each metabolite. The structure of a third metabolite was determined by oxidation to a metabolite of known structure. Like okadaic acid, the metabolites are inhibitors of protein phosphatase PP2A. Although one of the metabolites does have an α,β unsaturated carbonyl with the potential to form adducts with an active site cysteine, all of the metabolites are reversible inhibitors of PP2A. PMID:22608922

  20. Application of functionalized lanthanide-based nanoparticles for the detection of okadaic acid-specific immunoglobulin G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipić, Filip; Pletikapić, Galja; Jakšić, Željko; Frkanec, Leo; Zgrablić, Goran; Burić, Petra; Lyons, Daniel M

    2015-01-29

    Marine biotoxins are widespread in the environment and impact human health via contaminated shellfish, causing diarrhetic, amnesic, paralytic, or neurotoxic poisoning. In spite of this, methods for determining if poisoning has occurred are limited. We show the development of a simple and sensitive luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET)-based concept which allows the detection of anti-okadaic acid rabbit polyclonal IgG (mouse monoclonal IgG1) using functionalized lanthanide-based nanoparticles. Upon UV excitation, the functionalized nanoparticles were shown to undergo LRET with fluorophore-labeled anti-okadaic acid antibodies which had been captured and bound by okadaic acid-decorated nanoparticles. The linear dependence of fluorescence emission intensity with antigen-antibody binding events was recorded in the nanomolar to micromolar range, while essentially no LRET signal was detected in the absence of antibody. These results may find applications in new, cheap, and robust sensors for detecting not only immune responses to biotoxins but also a wide range of biomolecules based on antigen-antibody recognition systems. Further, as the system is based on solution chemistry it may be sufficiently simple and versatile to be applied at point-of-care.

  1. SPATIAL MEMORY IMPAIRMENT AND HIPPOCAMPAL CELL LOSS INDUCED BY OKADAIC ACID (EXPERIMENTAL STUDY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chighladze, M; Dashniani, M; Beselia, G; Kruashvili, L; Naneishvili, T

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated and compared effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) and intrahippocampal bilateral microinjection of okadaic acid (OA) on spatial memory function assessed in one day water maze paradigm and hippocampal structure in rats. Rats were divided in following groups: Control(icv) - rats injected with ICV and aCSF; Control(hipp) - rats injected intrahippocampally with aCSF; OAicv - rats injected with ICV and OA; OAhipp - rats injected intrahippocampally with OA. Nissl staining of hippocampal sections showed that the pyramidal cell loss in OAhipp group is significantly higher than that in the OAicv. The results of behavioral experiments showed that ICV or intrahippocampal bilateral microinjection of OA did not affect learning process and short-term spatial memory but induced impairment in spatial long-term memory assessed in probe test performance 24 h after training. OA-induced spatial memory impairment may be attributed to the hippocampal cell death. Based on these results OA induced memory deficit and hippocampal cell loss in rat may be considered as a potential animal model for preclinical evaluation of antidementic drug activity.

  2. Intracerebroventricular administration of okadaic acid induces hippocampal glucose uptake dysfunction and tau phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broetto, Núbia; Hansen, Fernanda; Brolese, Giovana; Batassini, Cristiane; Lirio, Franciane; Galland, Fabiana; Dos Santos, João Paulo Almeida; Dutra, Márcio Ferreira; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Intraneuronal aggregates of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), together with beta-amyloid plaques and astrogliosis, are histological markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The underlying mechanism of sporadic AD remains poorly understood, but abnormal hyperphosphorylation of tau protein is suggested to have a role in NFTs genesis, which leads to neuronal dysfunction and death. Okadaic acid (OKA), a strong inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A, has been used to induce dementia similar to AD in rats. We herein investigated the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of OKA (100 and 200ng) on hippocampal tau phosphorylation at Ser396, which is considered an important fibrillogenic tau protein site, and on glucose uptake, which is reduced early in AD. ICV infusion of OKA (at 200ng) induced a spatial cognitive deficit, hippocampal astrogliosis (based on GFAP increment) and increase in tau phosphorylation at site 396 in this model. Moreover, we observed a decreased glucose uptake in the hippocampal slices of OKA-treated rats. In vitro exposure of hippocampal slices to OKA altered tau phosphorylation at site 396, without any associated change in glucose uptake activity. Taken together, these findings further our understanding of OKA neurotoxicity, in vivo and vitro, particularly with regard to the role of tau phosphorylation, and reinforce the importance of the OKA dementia model for studying the neurochemical alterations that may occur in AD, such as NFTs and glucose hypometabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Does the phycotoxin Okadaic acid cause oxidative stress damages and histological alterations to seabream (Sparus aurata)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souid, Ghada; Souayed, Nouha; Haouas, Zohra; Maaroufi, Khira

    2018-03-15

    Okadaic Acid (OA) is a marine toxin responsible for DSP (Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning) in humans produced by dinoflagellate. The genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of OA have been well reported in mammalian experimental animals and in vitro cultured cells. However, there are no available investigations regarding the involvement of the oxidative stress pathways in OA toxicity, especially on aquatic animals such as fish. In this context, we aimed in the present work to demonstrate whether OA (7.5 μg/ml) induces oxidative stress and histopathological damages in the fish species Sparus aurata under short term exposure (2 h, 4 h and 24 h). To this end, we have assessed lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidative stress response in liver tissue, and finally ultrastructural changes were investigated in hepatic and gills tissues. Our results clearly showed that OA induced significant enhancement in all tested parameters in a time dependent manner and seems to be a strong inducer of oxidative stress in aquatic animals. The data of the present study indicate also that histology is a successful tool to reveal OA impact on liver and gill tissues of Sparus aurata since the animal showed vascular dilation and hepatocellular membrane disintegration in liver and hypertrophy in secondary lamellae and necrotic aspect in the primary lamellae in gill tissue. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Identification of okadaic acid-induced phosphorylation events by a mass spectrometry approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Jennifer J.; Callaghan, Deborah A.; Ding Wen; Kelly, John F.; Chakravarthy, Balu R.

    2006-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) is a widely used small-molecule phosphatase inhibitor that is thought to selectively inhibit protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). Multiple studies have demonstrated that PP2A activity is compromised in Brains of Alzheimer's disease patients. Thus, we set out to determine changes in phosphorylation that occur upon OA treatment of neuronal cells. Utilizing isotope-coded affinity tags and mass spectrometry analysis, we determined the relative abundance of proteins in a phosphoprotein enriched fraction from control and OA-treated primary cortical neurons. We identified many proteins whose phosphorylation state is regulated by OA, including glycogen synthase kinase 3β, collapsin-response mediator proteins (DRP-2, DPYSL-5, and CRMP-4), and the B subunit of PP2A itself. Most interestingly, we have found that complexin 2, an important regulator of neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity, is phosphorylated at serine 93 upon OA treatment of neurons. This is First report of a phosphorylation site on complexin 2

  5. Recent advances in the study of epigenetic effects induced by the phycotoxin okadaic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creppy, Edmond Ekue; Traore, Adama; Baudrimont, Isabelle; Cascante, Marta; Carratu, Maria-Rosaria

    2002-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) is a phycotoxin produced by dinoflagellates. It accumulates in the digestive tracts of shellfish causing diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in consumers. OA is a tumour promoter, and an inhibitor of both protein phosphatases and protein synthesis. OA induces DNA adducts, suggesting it may be carcinogenic. Since the Ames test without S 9 was negative, but a mutagenesis test was positive in mammalian cells, the question as to whether its molecular mechanism is genotoxic or epigenetic became unavoidable. Therefore, experiments were performed to search for epigenetic effects, since evidence for DNA-adduct formation using the γ- 32 P-ATP post-labelling method was not obtained. We found that OA is a potent inducer of lipid peroxidation in human intestinal cells (Caco-2) at low concentrations (0.75-7.5 ng/ml versus IC50 of 15 ng/ml) with increased rates of 8-OH-dG and m 5 dC formation causing CG to AT transversion mutations and gene deregulation, respectively. The transcription and translation of connexin 43-specific mRNA were inhibited, and 3 H-uridine incorporation in RNA was concomitantly increased. Consequently gap junction intracellular communication (GJIC) was inhibited, making possible cellular anarchic proliferation. Higher OA concentrations also disorganized the cellular cytoskeleton, since both actin and tubulin formations were impaired. Our results suggest that OA may induce tumours via an epigenetic mechanism

  6. Cost-effectiveness of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in a poor resource setting: The Okada, Nigeria experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Kenneth C; Irekpita, E; Salami, T A

    2016-01-01

    The first extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) used in Nigeria was at Igbinedion Hospital and Medical Research Centre (IHMRC), Okada in 1992 and it functioned for 6 consecutive years. The objectives of this study were to analyze the cost-effectiveness of the procedure and highlight the associated factors that led to its failure. A retrospective study of medical records and publications associated with the use of ESWL at IHMRC, Okada, for the period of 1992 to 1998. The study was conducted between January 2003 and November 2008. Unclassified authentic information relating to the use of ESWL and treatment of upper urinary tract stones was obtained from the IHMRC Okada and some government hospitals on hospital bills. Relevant documents in public domains related to the national and international wages and emoluments of medical workers and socioeconomic development of Nigeria within the time the ESWL functioned were studied. A total of 32 patients were treated with 51 treatment sessions which is an average of nine patients per year and an average of two treatment sessions per patient were involved. The reasons for the low patronage were the extremely low stone formation rate of Nigerians, poverty, and out-of-pocket payment system. In addition, each treatment session of ESWL at Okada cost an average of $681.8 compared to $227.3 for open nephrolithotomy in a nearby high profile teaching hospital. The IHMRC, Okada, paid an average annual salary of ₦180,000 ($8,181.8) for each medical consultant compared to ₦120,000 ($5,454.5) paid by federal teaching hospitals in Nigeria within the period. Expatriate consultant doctors from Europe and USA who initially manned the lithotriptor at IHMRC, Okada, were paid much higher salaries. Average annual income of $5,909 for each of the 6 years amounting to a total of $34,771.7 for the six years was realized which could not maintain staff salaries in the hospital leading to staff emigration, decline of the hospital services

  7. Generation of Internal-Image Functional Aptamers of Okadaic Acid via Magnetic-Bead SELEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Okadaic acid (OA is produced by Dinophysis and Prorocentrum dinoflagellates and primarily accumulates in bivalves, and this toxin has harmful effects on consumers and operators. In this work, we first report the use of aptamers as novel non-toxic probes capable of binding to a monoclonal antibody against OA (OA-mAb. Aptamers that mimic the OA toxin with high affinity and selectivity were generated by the magnetic bead-assisted systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX strategy. After 12 selection rounds, cloning, sequencing and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA analysis, four candidate aptamers (O24, O31, O39, O40 were selected that showed high affinity and specificity for OA-mAb. The affinity constants of O24, O31, O39 and O40 were 8.3 × 108 M−1, 1.47 × 109 M−1, 1.23 × 109 M−1 and 1.05 × 109 M−1, respectively. Indirect competitive ELISA was employed to determine the internal-image function of the aptamers. The results reveal that O31 has a similar competitive function as free OA toxin, whereas the other three aptamers did not bear the necessary internal-image function. Based on the derivation of the curvilinear equation for OA/O31, the equation that defined the relationship between the OA toxin content and O31 was Y = 2.185X − 1.78. The IC50 of O31 was 3.39 ng·mL−1, which was close to the value predicted by the OA ELISA (IC50 = 4.4 ng·mL−1; the IC10 was 0.33 ng·mL−1. The above data provides strong evidence that internal-image functional aptamers could be applicable as novel probes in a non-toxic assay.

  8. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin on okadaic acid induced memory impairment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekar, N; Dwivedi, Subhash; Tota, Santosh Kumar; Kamat, Pradeep Kumar; Hanif, Kashif; Nath, Chandishwar; Shukla, Rakesh

    2013-09-05

    Okadaic acid (OKA) has been observed to cause memory impairment in human subjects having seafood contaminated with dinoflagellate (Helicondria okadai). OKA induces tau hyperphosphorylation and oxidative stress leading to memory impairment as our previous study has shown. Curcumin a natural antioxidant has demonstrated neuroprotection in various models of neurodegeneration. However, the effect of curcumin has not been explored in OKA induced memory impairment. Therefore, present study evaluated the effect of curcumin on OKA (100ng, intracerebrally) induced memory impairment in male Swiss albino mice as evaluated in Morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance tests (PAT). OKA administration resulted in memory impairment with a decreased cerebral blood flow (CBF) (measured by laser doppler flowmetry), ATP level and increased mitochondrial (Ca(2+))i, neuroinflammation (increased TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2 and GFAP), oxidative-nitrosative stress, increased Caspase-9 and cholinergic dysfunction (decreased AChE activity/expression and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expression) in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of mice brain. Oral administration of curcumin (50mg/kg) for 13 days significantly improved memory function in both MWM and PAT along with brain energy metabolism, CBF and cholinergic function. It decreased mitochondrial (Ca(2+))i, and ameliorated neuroinflammation and oxidative-nitrostative stress in different brain regions of OKA treated mice. Curcumin also inhibited astrocyte activation as evidenced by decreased GFAP expression. This neuroprotective effect of curcumin is due to its potent anti-oxidant action thus confirming previous studies. Therefore, use of curcumin should be encouraged in people consuming sea food (contaminated with dinoflagellates) to prevent cognitive impairment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiple signal transduction pathways in okadaic acid induced apoptosis in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraj, R.; Gupta, Nimesh; Rao, P.V. Lakshmana

    2009-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) is the major component of diarrhetic shell fish poisoning toxins and a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 and 2A. We investigated the signal transduction pathways involved in OA induced cell death in HeLa cells. OA induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis at IC50 of 100 nM. OA treatment resulted in time dependent increase in reactive oxygen species and depleted intracellular glutathione levels. Loss of mitochondrial membrane permeability led to translocation of bax, cytochrome-c and AIF from mitochondria to cytosol. The cells under fluorescence microscope showed typical apoptotic morphology with condensed chromatin, and nuclear fragmentation. We investigated the mitochondrial-mediated caspase cascade. The time dependent activation and cleavage of of bax, caspases-8, 10, 9, 3 and 7 was observed in Western blot analysis. In addition to caspase-dependent pathway AIF mediated caspase-independent pathway was involved in OA mediated cell death. OA also caused time dependent inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A activity and phosphorylation of p38 and p42/44 MAP kinases. Inhibitor studies with Ac-DEVO-CHO and Z-VAD-FMK could not prevent the phosphorylation of p38 and p42/44 MAP kinases. Our experiments with caspase inhibitors Ac-DEVD-CHO, Z-IETD-FMK and Z-VAD-FMK inhibited capsase-3, 8 cleavages but did not prevent OA-induced apoptosis and DNA fragmentation. Similarly, pretreatment with cyclosporin-A and N-acetylcysteine could not prevent the DNA fragmentation. In summary, the results of our study show that OA induces multiple signal transduction pathways acting either independently or simultaneously leading to apoptosis

  10. Assessment of okadaic acid effects on cytotoxicity, DNA damage and DNA repair in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiglesias, Vanessa; Méndez, Josefina; Pásaro, Eduardo; Cemeli, Eduardo; Anderson, Diana; Laffon, Blanca

    2010-07-07

    Okadaic acid (OA) is a phycotoxin produced by several types of dinoflagellates causing diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in humans. Symptoms induced by DSP toxins are mainly gastrointestinal, but the intoxication does not appear to be fatal. Despite this, this toxin presents a potential threat to human health even at concentrations too low to induce acute toxicity, since previous animal studies have shown that OA has very potent tumour promoting activity. However, its concrete action mechanism has not been described yet and the results reported with regard to OA cytotoxicity and genotoxicity are often contradictory. In the present study, the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of OA on three different types of human cells (peripheral blood leukocytes, HepG2 hepatoma cells, and SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cells) were evaluated. Cells were treated with a range of OA concentrations in the presence and absence of S9 fraction, and MTT test and Comet assay were performed in order to evaluate cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, respectively. The possible effects of OA on DNA repair were also studied by means of the DNA repair competence assay, using bleomycin as DNA damage inductor. Treatment with OA in absence of S9 fraction induced not statistically significant decrease in cell viability and significant increase in DNA damage in all cell types at the highest concentrations investigated. However, only SHSY5Y cells showed OA induced genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in presence of S9 fraction. Furthermore, we found that OA can induce modulations in DNA repair processes when exposure was performed prior to BLM treatment, in co-exposure, or during the subsequent DNA repair process. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Antibody-based donor-acceptor spatial reconfiguration in decorated lanthanide-doped nanoparticle colloids for the quantification of okadaic acid biotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipić, Filip; Burić, Petra; Jakšić, Željko; Pletikapić, Galja; Dutour Sikirić, Maja; Zgrablić, Goran; Frkanec, Leo; Lyons, Daniel M

    2015-11-01

    With the increasing movement away from the mouse bioassay for the detection of toxins in commercially harvested shellfish, there is a growing demand for the development of new and potentially field-deployable tests in its place. In this direction we report the development of a simple and sensitive nanoparticle-based luminescence technique for the detection of the marine biotoxin okadaic acid. Photoluminescent lanthanide nanoparticles were conjugated with fluorophore-labelled anti-okadaic acid antibodies which, upon binding to okadaic acid, gave rise to luminescence resonance energy transfer from the nanoparticle to the organic fluorophore dye deriving from a reduction in distance between the two. The intensity ratio of the fluorophore: nanoparticle emission peaks was found to correlate with okadaic acid concentration, and the sensor showed a linear response in the 0.37-3.97 μM okadaic acid range with a limit of detection of 0.25 μM. This work may have important implications for the development of new, cheap, and versatile biosensors for a range of biomolecules and that are sufficiently simple to be applied in the field or at point-of-care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. New Invertebrate Vectors of Okadaic Acid from the North Atlantic Waters—Portugal (Azores and Madeira) and Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marisa; Rodriguez, Inés; Barreiro, Aldo; Kaufmann, Manfred; Neto, Ana Isabel; Hassouani, Meryem; Sabour, Brahim; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M.; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    Okadaic acid and its analogues are potent phosphatase inhibitors that cause Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) through the ingestion of contaminated shellfish by humans. This group of toxins is transmitted worldwide but the number of poisoning incidents has declined over the last 20 years due to legislation and monitoring programs that were implemented for bivalves. In the summer of 2012 and 2013, we collected a total of 101 samples of 22 different species that were made up of benthic and subtidal organisms such echinoderms, crustaceans, bivalves and gastropods from Madeira, São Miguel Island (Azores archipelago) and the northwestern coast of Morocco. The samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Our main objective was to detect new vectors for these biotoxins. We can report nine new vectors for these toxins in the North Atlantic: Astropecten aranciacus, Arbacia lixula, Echinaster sepositus, Holothuria sanctori, Ophidiaster ophidianus, Onchidella celtica, Aplysia depilans, Patella spp., and Stramonita haemostoma. Differences in toxin contents among the species were found. Even though low concentrations were detected, the levels of toxins that were present, especially in edible species, indicate the importance of these types of studies. Routine monitoring should be extended to comprise a wider number of vectors other than for bivalves of okadaic acid and its analogues. PMID:26670254

  13. New Invertebrate Vectors of Okadaic Acid from the North Atlantic Waters--Portugal (Azores and Madeira) and Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marisa; Rodriguez, Inés; Barreiro, Aldo; Kaufmann, Manfred; Isabel Neto, Ana; Hassouani, Meryem; Sabour, Brahim; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-12-08

    Okadaic acid and its analogues are potent phosphatase inhibitors that cause Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) through the ingestion of contaminated shellfish by humans. This group of toxins is transmitted worldwide but the number of poisoning incidents has declined over the last 20 years due to legislation and monitoring programs that were implemented for bivalves. In the summer of 2012 and 2013, we collected a total of 101 samples of 22 different species that were made up of benthic and subtidal organisms such echinoderms, crustaceans, bivalves and gastropods from Madeira, São Miguel Island (Azores archipelago) and the northwestern coast of Morocco. The samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. Our main objective was to detect new vectors for these biotoxins. We can report nine new vectors for these toxins in the North Atlantic: Astropecten aranciacus, Arbacia lixula, Echinaster sepositus, Holothuria sanctori, Ophidiaster ophidianus, Onchidella celtica, Aplysia depilans, Patella spp., and Stramonita haemostoma. Differences in toxin contents among the species were found. Even though low concentrations were detected, the levels of toxins that were present, especially in edible species, indicate the importance of these types of studies. Routine monitoring should be extended to comprise a wider number of vectors other than for bivalves of okadaic acid and its analogues.

  14. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING OF HUMAN LIVER CARCINOMA (HepG2) CELLS EXPOSED TO THE MARINE TOXIN OKADAIC ACID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieber, Lynne A.; Greer, Justin B.; Guo, Fujiang; Crawford, Douglas C.; Rein, Kathleen S.

    2012-01-01

    The marine toxin, okadaic acid (OA) is produced by dinoflagellates of the genera Prorocentrum and Dinophysis and is the causative agent of the syndrome known as diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP). In addition, OA acts as both a tumor promoter, attributed to OA-induced inhibition of protein phosphatases as well as an inducer of apoptosis. To better understand the potentially divergent toxicological profile of OA, the concentration dependent cytotoxicity and alterations in gene expression on the human liver tumor cell line HepG2 upon OA exposure were determined using RNA microarrays, DNA fragmentation, and cell proliferation assays as well as determinations of cell detachment and cell death in different concentrations of OA. mRNA expression was quantified for approximately 15,000 genes. Cell attachment and proliferation were both negatively correlated with OA concentration. Detached cells displayed necrotic DNA signatures but apoptosis also was broadly observed. Data suggest that OA has a concentration dependent effect on cell cycle, which might explain the divergent effects that at low concentration OA stimulates genes involved in the cell cycle and at high concentrations it stimulates apoptosis. PMID:23172983

  15. MEMANTINE ATTENUATES THE OKADAIC ACID INDUCED SHORT-TERM SPATIAL MEMORY IMPAIRMENT AND HIPPOCAMPAL CELL LOSS IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashniani, M; Chighladze, M; Burjanadze, M; Beselia, G; Kruashvili, L

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, the possible beneficial effect of memantine on the Okadaic Acid (OA) induced spatial short-term memory impairment was examined in spatial alternation task, and the neuroprotective potential of memantine on OA-induced structural changes in the hippocampus was evaluated by Nissl staining. OA was dissolved in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) and injected intracerebroventriculary (ICV) 200 ng in a volume of 10 μl bilaterally. Vehicle control received aCSF ICV bilaterally. Control and OA injected rats were divided into 2 subgroups injected i.p. with saline or memantine (5 mg/kg). Memantine or saline were given daily for 13 days starting from the day of OA injection. Behavioral study showed that bilateral ICV microinjection of OA induced impairment in spatial short-term memory. Nissl staining in the present study showed that the ICV microinjection of OA significantly decreased the number of surviving pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Chronic administration of memantine effectively attenuated OA induced spatial short-term memory impairment and the OA-induced neuropathological changes in the hippocampus. Therefore, ICV injection of OA can be used as an experimental model to study mechanisms of neurodegeneration and define novel therapeutics targets for AD pathology.

  16. Histone Modification Is Involved in Okadaic Acid (OA Induced DNA Damage Response and G2-M Transition Arrest in Maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    Full Text Available Histone modifications are involved in regulation of chromatin structure. To investigate the relationship between chromatin modification and cell cycle regulation during plant cell proliferation, Okadaic acid (OA, a specific inhibitor of serine/threonine protein phosphatase, was applied in this study. The results showed that OA caused the cell cycle arrest at preprophase, leading to seedling growth inhibition. Western blotting assay revealed that the spatial distribution of phosphorylation of Ser10 histone H3 tails (H3S10ph signals was altered under OA treatment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS was found to be at higher levels and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL assay displayed DNA breaks happened at the chromatin after treatment with OA, companied with an increase in the acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 5 (H4K5ac level. From these observations, we speculated that the alteration of the spatial distribution of H3S10ph and the level of H4K5ac was involved in the procedure that OA induced DNA breaks and G2-M arrested by the accumulation of ROS, and that the histone H3S10ph and H4K5ac might facilitate DNA repair by their association with the chromatin decondensation.

  17. Cdk1 and okadaic acid-sensitive phosphatases control assembly of nuclear pore complexes in Drosophila embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onischenko, Evgeny A; Gubanova, Natalia V; Kiseleva, Elena V; Hallberg, Einar

    2005-11-01

    Disassembly and reassembly of the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) is one of the major events during open mitosis in higher eukaryotes. However, how this process is controlled by the mitotic machinery is not clear. To investigate this we developed a novel in vivo model system based on syncytial Drosophila embryos. We microinjected different mitotic effectors into the embryonic cytoplasm and monitored the dynamics of disassembly/reassembly of NPCs in live embryos using fluorescently labeled wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) or in fixed embryos using electron microscopy and immunostaining techniques. We found that in live embryos Cdk1 activity was necessary and sufficient to induce disassembly of NPCs as well as their cytoplasmic mimics: annulate lamellae pore complexes (ALPCs). Cdk1 activity was also required for keeping NPCs and ALPCs disassembled during mitosis. In agreement recombinant Cdk1/cyclin B was able to induce phosphorylation and dissociation of nucleoporins from the NPCs in vitro. Conversely, reassembly of NPCs and ALPCs was dependent on the activity of protein phosphatases, sensitive to okadaic acid (OA). Our findings suggest a model where mitotic disassembly/reassembly of the NPCs is regulated by a dynamic equilibrium of Cdk1 and OA-sensitive phosphatase activities and provide evidence that mitotic phosphorylation mediates disassembly of the NPC.

  18. Identification of differentially expressed genes in SHSY5Y cells exposed to okadaic acid by suppression subtractive hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiglesias Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Okadaic acid (OA, a toxin produced by several dinoflagellate species is responsible for frequent food poisonings associated to shellfish consumption. Although several studies have documented the OA effects on different processes such as cell transformation, apoptosis, DNA repair or embryogenesis, the molecular mechanistic basis for these and other effects is not completely understood and the number of controversial data on OA is increasing in the literature. Results In this study, we used suppression subtractive hybridization in SHSY5Y cells to identify genes that are differentially expressed after OA exposure for different times (3, 24 and 48 h. A total of 247 subtracted clones which shared high homology with known genes were isolated. Among these, 5 specific genes associated with cytoskeleton and neurotransmission processes (NEFM, TUBB, SEPT7, SYT4 and NPY were selected to confirm their expression levels by real-time PCR. Significant down-regulation of these genes was obtained at the short term (3 and 24 h OA exposure, excepting for NEFM, but their expression was similar to the controls at 48 h. Conclusions From all the obtained genes, 114 genes were up-regulated and 133 were down-regulated. Based on the NCBI GenBank and Gene Ontology databases, most of these genes are involved in relevant cell functions such as metabolism, transport, translation, signal transduction and cell cycle. After quantitative PCR analysis, the observed underexpression of the selected genes could underlie the previously reported OA-induced cytoskeleton disruption, neurotransmission alterations and in vivo neurotoxic effects. The basal expression levels obtained at 48 h suggested that surviving cells were able to recover from OA-caused gene expression alterations.

  19. Evaluation of the Impact of Mild Steaming and Heat Treatment on the Concentration of Okadaic Acid, Dinophysistoxin-2 and Dinophysistoxin-3 in Mussels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Rodríguez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the effect of laboratory and industrial steaming on mussels with toxin concentrations above and below the legal limit. We used mild conditions for steaming, 100 °C for 5 min in industrial processing, and up to 20 min in small-scale laboratory steaming. Also, we studied the effect of heat on the toxin concentration of mussels obtained from two different locations and the effect of heat on the levels of dinophysistoxins 3 (DTX3 in both the mussel matrix and in pure form (7-O-palmitoyl okadaic ester and 7-O-palmytoleyl okadaic ester. The results show that the loss of water due to steaming was very small with a maximum of 9.5%, that the toxin content remained unchanged with no concentration effect or increase in toxicity, and that dinophysistoxins 3 was hydrolyzed or degraded to a certain extent under heat treatment. The use of liquid-certified matrix showed a 55% decrease of dinophysistoxins 3 after 10 min steaming, and a 50% reduction in total toxicity after treatment with an autoclave (121 °C for 20 min.

  20. Stereochemistry of Complex Marine Natural Products by Quantum Mechanical Calculations of NMR Chemical Shifts: Solvent and Conformational Effects on Okadaic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto J. Domínguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine organisms are an increasingly important source of novel metabolites, some of which have already inspired or become new drugs. In addition, many of these molecules show a high degree of novelty from a structural and/or pharmacological point of view. Structure determination is generally achieved by the use of a variety of spectroscopic methods, among which NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance plays a major role and determination of the stereochemical relationships within every new molecule is generally the most challenging part in structural determination. In this communication, we have chosen okadaic acid as a model compound to perform a computational chemistry study to predict 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts. The effect of two different solvents and conformation on the ability of DFT (density functional theory calculations to predict the correct stereoisomer has been studied.

  1. Codon 61 mutations in the c-Harvey-ras gene in mouse skin tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene plus okadaic acid class tumor promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, H; Suganuma, M; Yoshizawa, S; Kanazawa, H; Sugimura, T; Manam, S; Kahn, S M; Jiang, W; Hoshina, S; Weinstein, I B

    1989-01-01

    Three okadaic acid class tumor promoters, okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1, and calyculin A, have potent tumor-promoting activity in two-stage carcinogenesis experiments on mouse skin. DNA isolated from tumors induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and each of these tumor promoters revealed the same mutation at the second nucleotide of codon 61 (CAA----CTA) in the c-Ha-ras gene, determined by the polymerase chain reaction procedure and DNA sequencing. Three potent 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-type tumor promoters, TPA, teleocidin, and aplysiatoxin, showed the same effects. These results provide strong evidence that this mutation in the c-Ha-ras gene is due to a direct effect of DMBA rather than a selective effect of specific tumor promoters.

  2. First report of diarrheic shellfish toxins in mollusks from Buenos Aires province (Argentina associated with dinophysis spp.: evidence of okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 and their acylderivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia A Sar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In January 2010, the toxin-producing dinoflagellates Dinophysis acuminata and D. caudata (10³ cells·l-1 were detected in Mar Azul during routine plankton monitoring in Buenos Aires Province coastal waters, Argentina. Wild clams Mesodesma mactroides and Donax hanleyanus from Mar Azul intertidal beach, which are part of the diet for local inhabitants and tourists, tested positive with the offcial lipophilic mouse bioassay. This paper focuses on the detection of Diarrhetic Shellfsh Poison (DSP toxins in these samples using a HPLC-FLD pre column derivatization procedure. The data showed that shellfish were contaminated with complex DSP toxin profiles composed of Okadaic Acid (OA, Dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1, Acyl-Dinophysistoxin-1 (Acyl-DTX-1 and Acyl-Okadaic Acid (Acyl-OA. The DSP toxins found in this study produce diarrhea symptoms consistent with those experienced by patients who had ingested cooked shellfish in January. This is the first report of Acyl-derivatives in South American Atlantic shellfish samples and of OA in Argentinean shellfish samples.Primer reporte de toxinas diarreicas de moluscos en bivalvos de la Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina asociado con Dinophysis spp.: evidencia de Ácido Okadaico, Dinophysistoxina-1 y sus acyl-derivados. En enero de 2010, los dinoflagelados productores de toxinas Dinophysis acuminata y D. caudata (10³ cells·l-1 fueron detectados en Mar Azul durante un monitoreo rutinario de fitoplancton realizado en aguas costeras de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Mesodesma mactroides (almeja amarilla y Donax hanleyanus (berberecho del intermareal de Mar Azul, que son parte de la dieta de los habitantes del lugar y de turistas, dieron resultado positivo para toxinas lipofílicas mediante bioensayo ratón. Este trabajo está focalizado en la detección de Toxinas Diarreicas de Moluscos (DSP en muestras colectadas durante el evento de toxicidad usando un HPLC-FLD con procedimiento de derivatizaci

  3. Quercetin Protects against Okadaic Acid-Induced Injury via MAPK and PI3K/Akt/GSK3β Signaling Pathways in HT22 Hippocampal Neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that oxidative stress and the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein play essential roles in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Quercetin is a major flavonoid that has anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of quercetin to HT22 cells (a cell line from mouse hippocampal neurons. We found that Okadaic acid (OA induced the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein at Ser199, Ser396, Thr205, and Thr231 and produced oxidative stress to the HT22 cells. The oxidative stress suppressed the cell viability and decreased the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, superoxide dismutase (SOD, mitochondria membrane potential (MMP and Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px. It up-regulated malondialdehyde (MDA production and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. In addition, phosphoinositide 3 kinase/protein kinase B/Glycogen synthase kinase3β (PI3K/Akt/GSK3β and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK were also involved in this process. We found that pre-treatment with quercetin can inhibited OA-induced the hyperphosphorylation of tau protein and oxidative stress. Moreover, pre-treatment with quercetin not only inhibited OA-induced apoptosis via the reduction of Bax, and up-regulation of cleaved caspase 3, but also via the inhibition of PI3K/Akt/GSK3β, MAPKs and activation of NF-κB p65. Our findings suggest the therapeutic potential of quercetin to treat AD.

  4. Maintained activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3β despite of its phosphorylation at serine-9 in okadaic acid-induced neurodegenerative model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Yong-Whan; Yoon, Seung-Yong; Choi, Jung-Eun; Kim, Sang-Min; Lee, Hui-Sun; Choe, Han; Lee, Seung-Chul; Kim, Dong-Hou

    2010-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) is recognized as one of major kinases to phosphorylate tau in Alzheimer's disease (AD), thus lots of AD drug discoveries target GSK3β. However, the inactive form of GSK3β which is phosphorylated at serine-9 is increased in AD brains. This is also inconsistent with phosphorylation status of other GSK3β substrates, such as β-catenin and collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2) since their phosphorylation is all increased in AD brains. Thus, we addressed this paradoxical condition of AD in rat neurons treated with okadaic acid (OA) which inhibits protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) and induces tau hyperphosphorylation and cell death. Interestingly, OA also induces phosphorylation of GSK3β at serine-9 and other substrates including tau, β-catenin and CRMP2 like in AD brains. In this context, we observed that GSK3β inhibitors such as lithium chloride and 6-bromoindirubin-3'-monoxime (6-BIO) reversed those phosphorylation events and protected neurons. These data suggest that GSK3β may still have its kinase activity despite increase of its phosphorylation at serine-9 in AD brains at least in PP2A-compromised conditions and that GSK3β inhibitors could be a valuable drug candidate in AD.

  5. The Prevalence of Antibiotic and Toothpaste Sensitivity found in Oral Streptococcal Isolates in Healthy Individuals in the Okada Community of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen U Okwu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to determine the prevalence, antibiotic, and toothpaste sensitivity of oral streptococcal isolates in healthy individuals in the Okada community of Nigeria. Methods: Oral samples were collected from 230 volunteers and were subjected to standard microbiological tests. Antibacterial sensitivity tests were carried out on the streptococcal isolates that were obtained using a disk diffusion technique, and eight kinds of toothpaste (A-H were screened for their antibacterial effects on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans. Results: The prevalence of oral streptococci found in this study was 26.1% and the predominant species was S. salivarius (13.9%. S. salivarius was highly resistant to cloxacillin (100% and Augmentin (96.9%, whilst resistance to gentamicin and erythromycin was low at 21.9% and 3.1% respectively. S. mutans were completely sensitive to gentamicin whilst resistance to erythromycin was 33.3%. The entire Streptococcus species showed the lowest resistance to erythromycin (20.0%, followed by gentamicin (31.7%. At 100 mg/mL all toothpaste samples had antibacterial effects on S. mutans. At 50 mg/mL all samples except toothpastes G and H inhibited the bacterium. Toothpastes A and E had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration of 25 mg/mL. Conclusions: Toothpastes A and E were the most effective toothpastes of the eight assessed in this study.

  6. Algal toxins and reverse osmosis desalination operations: Laboratory bench testing and field monitoring of domoic acid, saxitoxin, brevetoxin and okadaic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Seubert, Erica L.

    2012-12-01

    The occurrence and intensity of harmful algal blooms (HABs) have been increasing globally during the past few decades. The impact of these events on seawater desalination facilities has become an important topic in recent years due to enhanced societal interest and reliance on this technology for augmenting world water supplies. A variety of harmful bloom-forming species of microalgae occur in southern California, as well as many other locations throughout the world, and several of these species are known to produce potent neurotoxins. These algal toxins can cause a myriad of human health issues, including death, when ingested via contaminated seafood. This study was designed to investigate the impact that algal toxin presence may have on both the intake and reverse osmosis (RO) desalination process; most importantly, whether or not the naturally occurring algal toxins can pass through the RO membrane and into the desalination product. Bench-scale RO experiments were conducted to explore the potential of extracellular algal toxins contaminating the RO product. Concentrations exceeding maximal values previously reported during natural blooms were used in the laboratory experiments, with treatments comprised of 50 μg/L of domoic acid (DA), 2 μg/L of saxitoxin (STX) and 20 μg/L of brevetoxin (PbTx). None of the algal toxins used in the bench-scale experiments were detectable in the desalinated product water. Monitoring for intracellular and extracellular concentrations of DA, STX, PbTx and okadaic acid (OA) within the intake and desalinated water from a pilot RO desalination plant in El Segundo, CA, was conducted from 2005 to 2009. During the five-year monitoring period, DA and STX were detected sporadically in the intake waters but never in the desalinated water. PbTx and OA were not detected in either the intake or desalinated water. The results of this study demonstrate the potential for HAB toxins to be inducted into coastal RO intake facilities, and the

  7. Algal toxins and reverse osmosis desalination operations: Laboratory bench testing and field monitoring of domoic acid, saxitoxin, brevetoxin and okadaic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Seubert, Erica L.; Trussell, Shane; Eagleton, John; Schnetzer, Astrid; Cetinić, Ivona; Lauri, Phil; Jones, Burton; Caron, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence and intensity of harmful algal blooms (HABs) have been increasing globally during the past few decades. The impact of these events on seawater desalination facilities has become an important topic in recent years due to enhanced societal interest and reliance on this technology for augmenting world water supplies. A variety of harmful bloom-forming species of microalgae occur in southern California, as well as many other locations throughout the world, and several of these species are known to produce potent neurotoxins. These algal toxins can cause a myriad of human health issues, including death, when ingested via contaminated seafood. This study was designed to investigate the impact that algal toxin presence may have on both the intake and reverse osmosis (RO) desalination process; most importantly, whether or not the naturally occurring algal toxins can pass through the RO membrane and into the desalination product. Bench-scale RO experiments were conducted to explore the potential of extracellular algal toxins contaminating the RO product. Concentrations exceeding maximal values previously reported during natural blooms were used in the laboratory experiments, with treatments comprised of 50 μg/L of domoic acid (DA), 2 μg/L of saxitoxin (STX) and 20 μg/L of brevetoxin (PbTx). None of the algal toxins used in the bench-scale experiments were detectable in the desalinated product water. Monitoring for intracellular and extracellular concentrations of DA, STX, PbTx and okadaic acid (OA) within the intake and desalinated water from a pilot RO desalination plant in El Segundo, CA, was conducted from 2005 to 2009. During the five-year monitoring period, DA and STX were detected sporadically in the intake waters but never in the desalinated water. PbTx and OA were not detected in either the intake or desalinated water. The results of this study demonstrate the potential for HAB toxins to be inducted into coastal RO intake facilities, and the

  8. Instability of expanded simple tandem repeats is induced in cell culture by a variety of agents: N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea, benzo(a)pyrene, etoposide and okadaic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyzos, Aris; Parfett, Craig; Healy, Caroline; Douglas, George R.; Yauk, Carole L.

    2006-01-01

    Expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) sequences have proven useful biomarkers to detect genotoxicity in vivo. Their high sensitivity has been used to assess environmentally relevant doses of mutagens such as ionizing radiation, DNA alkylating agents and airborne particulate pollution, for germline mutations in mouse assays. The mutagenic response involves size alteration of these ESTR loci induced by agents causing a variety of cellular damage. The mechanistic aspects of this induced instability remain unclear and have not been studied in detail. Mechanistic knowledge is important to help understand the relevance of increased ESTR mutation frequencies. In this study, we applied a murine cell culture system to examine induced response to four agents exhibiting different modes of toxic action including: N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (ENU), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), okadaic acid and etoposide at slightly sub-toxic levels. We used single-molecule-polymerase chain reaction (SM-PCR) to assess the relative mutant frequency after 4-week chemical treatments at the Ms6-hm ESTR sequence of cultured C3H/10T1/2 cells (a mouse embryonic cell line). Increased mutation was observed with both 0.64 mM ENU (1.95-fold increase, P < 0.0001), 1 μM benzo(a)pyrene (1.87-fold increase, P = 0.0006) and 3 nM etoposide (1.89-fold increase, P = 0.0003). The putative ESTR mutagen okadaic acid (1.27-fold increase, P = 0.2289), administered at 0.5 nM, did not affect the C3H/10T1/2 Ms6-hm locus. Therefore, agents inducing small and bulky adducts, and indirectly causing strand breaks through inhibition of topoisomerase, caused similar induction of instability at an ESTR locus at matched toxicities. As size spectra for induced mutations were identical, the data indicate that although these chemicals exhibit distinct modes of action, a similar indirect process is influencing ESTR instability. In contrast, a potent tumour promoter that is a kinase inhibitor does not contribute to induced ESTR instability in cell

  9. Instability of expanded simple tandem repeats is induced in cell culture by a variety of agents: N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea, benzo(a)pyrene, etoposide and okadaic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyzos, Aris [Environmental Health Centre, Environmental and occupational Toxicology Division, Health Canada, Tunney' s Pasture, P.L. 0803A, Ottawa, Ont., K1A 0L2 (Canada); Parfett, Craig [Environmental Health Centre, Environmental and occupational Toxicology Division, Health Canada, Tunney' s Pasture, P.L. 0803A, Ottawa, Ont., K1A 0L2 (Canada); Healy, Caroline [Environmental Health Centre, Environmental and occupational Toxicology Division, Health Canada, Tunney' s Pasture, P.L. 0803A, Ottawa, Ont., K1A 0L2 (Canada); Douglas, George R. [Environmental Health Centre, Environmental and occupational Toxicology Division, Health Canada, Tunney' s Pasture, P.L. 0803A, Ottawa, Ont., K1A 0L2 (Canada); Yauk, Carole L. [Environmental Health Centre, Environmental and occupational Toxicology Division, Health Canada, Tunney' s Pasture, P.L. 0803A, Ottawa, Ont., K1A 0L2 (Canada)]. E-mail: Carole_Yauk@hc-sc.gc.ca

    2006-06-25

    Expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) sequences have proven useful biomarkers to detect genotoxicity in vivo. Their high sensitivity has been used to assess environmentally relevant doses of mutagens such as ionizing radiation, DNA alkylating agents and airborne particulate pollution, for germline mutations in mouse assays. The mutagenic response involves size alteration of these ESTR loci induced by agents causing a variety of cellular damage. The mechanistic aspects of this induced instability remain unclear and have not been studied in detail. Mechanistic knowledge is important to help understand the relevance of increased ESTR mutation frequencies. In this study, we applied a murine cell culture system to examine induced response to four agents exhibiting different modes of toxic action including: N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (ENU), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), okadaic acid and etoposide at slightly sub-toxic levels. We used single-molecule-polymerase chain reaction (SM-PCR) to assess the relative mutant frequency after 4-week chemical treatments at the Ms6-hm ESTR sequence of cultured C3H/10T1/2 cells (a mouse embryonic cell line). Increased mutation was observed with both 0.64 mM ENU (1.95-fold increase, P < 0.0001), 1 {mu}M benzo(a)pyrene (1.87-fold increase, P = 0.0006) and 3 nM etoposide (1.89-fold increase, P = 0.0003). The putative ESTR mutagen okadaic acid (1.27-fold increase, P = 0.2289), administered at 0.5 nM, did not affect the C3H/10T1/2 Ms6-hm locus. Therefore, agents inducing small and bulky adducts, and indirectly causing strand breaks through inhibition of topoisomerase, caused similar induction of instability at an ESTR locus at matched toxicities. As size spectra for induced mutations were identical, the data indicate that although these chemicals exhibit distinct modes of action, a similar indirect process is influencing ESTR instability. In contrast, a potent tumour promoter that is a kinase inhibitor does not contribute to induced ESTR instability in

  10. Whole genome mRNA transcriptomics analysis reveals different modes of action of the diarrheic shellfish poisons okadaic acid and dinophysis toxin-1 versus azaspiracid-1 in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodero, Marcia; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; Bovee, Toine F H; Portier, Liza; de Haan, Laura; Peijnenburg, Ad; Hendriksen, Peter J M

    2018-02-01

    A study with DNA microarrays was performed to investigate the effects of two diarrhetic and one azaspiracid shellfish poison, okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1) and azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1) respectively, on the whole-genome mRNA expression of undifferentiated intestinal Caco-2 cells. Previously, the most responding genes were used to develop a dedicated array tube test to screen shellfish samples on the presence of these toxins. In the present study the whole genome mRNA expression was analyzed in order to reveal modes of action and obtain hints on potential biomarkers suitable to be used in alternative bioassays. Effects on key genes in the most affected pathways and processes were confirmed by qPCR. OA and DTX-1 induced almost identical effects on mRNA expression, which strongly indicates that OA and DTX-1induce similar toxic effects. Biological interpretation of the microarray data indicates that both compounds induce hypoxia related pathways/processes, the unfolded protein response (UPR) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The gene expression profile of AZA-1 is different and shows increased mRNA expression of genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and glycolysis, suggesting a different mode of action for this toxin. Future studies should reveal whether identified pathways provide suitable biomarkers for rapid detection of DSPs in shellfish. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Detecção de ácido ocadaico em cultivo de mexilhões Perna perna, Angra dos Reis, RJ Okadaic acid detection in mussel cultivation Perna perna, Angra dos Reis, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisi Ferreira Mariné

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A ficotoxina ácido ocadaico (AO é produzida por um grupo de microalgas conhecidas como dinoflagelados. Os mexilhões, ao se alimentarem dessas microalgas, acumulam a toxina em sua glândula digestiva, desencadeando a Síndrome ou Envenenamento Diarreico por Moluscos (EDM no ser humano. Os sintomas se apresentam em torno de 30 minutos após o consumo do molusco contaminado, variando entre náuseas, dores abdominais, vômitos e diarreia. Quando a ingestão da toxina acontece em quantidades inferiores a 48µg g-1, os sintomas não se desenvolvem, porém seu consumo continuado favorece o surgimento de tumores no trato gastrointestinal em razão do poder carcinogênico do AO. Este estudo pretendeu detectar e quantificar a toxina diarreica AO em mexilhões Perna perna coletados entre os meses de maio e outubro de 2006. A detecção do AO nos mexilhões foi realizada por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência com Detecção Fluorimétrica (CLAE-DF. Os resultados cromatográficos indicaram a presença da toxina AO em baixas concentrações, em todas as amostras de mexilhões obtidas de maio a outubro de 2006. Os resultados indicam a necessidade da elaboração e aplicação efetiva de um programa de controle higiênico-sanitário dos moluscos, assim como o monitoramento do ambiente aquático, objetivando, acima de tudo, a segurança da saúde pública.Okadaic acid (OA is a phycotoxin produced by a group of microalgae known as Dino-flagellates. When mussels feed themselves from this micro seaweed the toxin accumulates in their hepatopancreas, triggering the Syndrome or Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP in the human being. The symptoms appear around 30 minutes after the consumption of contaminated mussels and include abdominal nauseas, pains, vomits and diarrhea. When the toxin ingestion happens in amounts lower than 48µg g-1, the above described symptoms do not develop. However, the continued consumption favors the emergence of tumors in the

  12. Causes of Accidents among Commercial Motorcyclists (Okada) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motor cycle accidents have become the most serious problem threatening the entire Nigerian population. It is against this background that this study attempted to investigate the causes of accidents among commercial motorcyclists in Borno State, Nigeria. The population of the study consisted of all the commercial ...

  13. Preliminary study of the effects of Okadaic Acid in the intestinal tract of mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alberto Fernández

    2014-06-01

    Our results support the little morphological effect of OA on intestinal cells. However, more interdisciplinary research is needed to obtain precise and reliable data to clarify the effects of OA in the intestinal epithelium and its relation with the diarrhea.

  14. Saxitoxins and okadaic acid group: accumulation and distribution in invertebrate marine vectors from Southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carlos; Pérez, Francisco; Contreras, Cristóbal; Figueroa, Diego; Barriga, Andrés; López-Rivera, Américo; Araneda, Oscar F; Contreras, Héctor R

    2015-01-01

    Harmful algae blooms (HABs) are the main source of marine toxins in the aquatic environment surrounding the austral fjords in Chile. Huichas Island (Aysén) has an history of HABs spanning more than 30 years, but there is limited investigation of the bioaccumulation of marine toxins in the bivalves and gastropods from the Region of Aysén. In this study, bivalves (Mytilus chilenses, Choromytilus chorus, Aulacomya ater, Gari solida, Tagelus dombeii and Venus antiqua) and carnivorous gastropods (Argobuccinum ranelliformes and Concholepas concholepas) were collected from 28 sites. Researchers analysed the accumulation of STX-group toxins using a LC with a derivatisation post column (LC-PCOX), while lipophilic toxins (OA-group, azapiracids, pectenotoxins and yessotoxins) were analysed using LC-MS/MS with electrospray ionisation (+/-) in visceral (hepatopancreas) and non-visceral tissues (mantle, adductor muscle, gills and foot). Levels of STX-group and OA-group toxins varied among individuals from the same site. Among all tissue samples, the highest concentrations of STX-group toxins were noted in the hepatopancreas in V. antiqua (95 ± 0.1 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)), T. dombeii (148 ± 1.4 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)) and G. solida (3232 ± 5.2 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1); p concholepas (81 ± 0.7 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)) and T. dombeii (114 ± 1.2 μg STX-eq 100 g(-1)). The highest variability of toxins was detected in G. solida, where high levels of carbamate derivatives were identified (GTXs, neoSTX and STX). In addition to the detected hydrophilic toxins, OA-group toxins were detected (OA and DTX-1) with an average ratio of ≈1:1. The highest levels of OA-group toxins were in the foot of C. concholepas, with levels of 400.3 ± 3.6 μg OA eq kg(-1) (p mantle > adductor muscle for the STX-group toxins and foot > digestive gland for the OA-group toxins. These results gave a better understanding of the variability and compartmentalisation of STX-group and OA-group toxins in different bivalve and gastropod species from the south of Chile, and the analyses determined that tissues could play an important role in the biotransformation of STX-group toxins and the retention of OA-group toxins.

  15. Retinoic acid enhances differentiation of v-myb-transformed monoblasts induced by okadaic acid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, P.; Macečková, V.; Zatloukalová, Jiřina; Kovářová, L.; Šmardová, J.; Šmarda, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 10 (2007), s. 1421-1431 ISSN 0145-2126 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP301/03/D022; GA ČR(CZ) GA301/06/0036 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : v-myb * monoblast * macrophage Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.561, year: 2007

  16. Physico-chemical analysis of fish pond water in Okada and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... Although there is economic advantage to the fish farmers, there is the ... a pH meter (Suntex model Sp- 701), which was first calibrated with buffers 4 and 7 ... Nitrate was determined by measuring 10 ml of the sample into a ...

  17. Cdk1 and Okadaic Acid-sensitive Phosphatases Control Assembly of Nuclear Pore Complexes in Drosophila EmbryosV⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Onischenko, Evgeny A.; Gubanova, Natalia V.; Kiseleva, Elena V.; Hallberg, Einar

    2005-01-01

    Disassembly and reassembly of the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) is one of the major events during open mitosis in higher eukaryotes. However, how this process is controlled by the mitotic machinery is not clear. To investigate this we developed a novel in vivo model system based on syncytial Drosophila embryos. We microinjected different mitotic effectors into the embryonic cytoplasm and monitored the dynamics of disassembly/reassembly of NPCs in live embryos using fluorescently labeled wheat...

  18. Behaviors of sea water studied with chemical transient tracers. Lecture by the member awarded the Okada prize of the Oceanographic Society of Japan for 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Y.W.

    1997-01-01

    Chemical tracers are useful tools for clarifying the behaviors of sea water in the ocean. The present article reviews my works concerning chemical tracers. Based on my chemical tracers data, it was concluded that the turnover time of the Japan Sea deep water and the residence time of water within the Japan Sea were about 100 years and 1000 years, respectively, and that the exchange coefficient of CO 2 in the Japan Sea was smaller than that in the North Pacific. Furthermore, chemical tracers and carbonate species data set in the North Pacific suggested that the production rate of intermediate water in the North Pacific was about 24 Sv and that the North Pacific subpolar region was an important sink of CO 2 released from human activities after the industrial era. (author)

  19. Behaviors of sea water studied with chemical transient tracers. Lecture by the member awarded the Okada prize of the Oceanographic Society of Japan for 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Y.W. [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Chemical tracers are useful tools for clarifying the behaviors of sea water in the ocean. The present article reviews my works concerning chemical tracers. Based on my chemical tracers data, it was concluded that the turnover time of the Japan Sea deep water and the residence time of water within the Japan Sea were about 100 years and 1000 years, respectively, and that the exchange coefficient of CO{sub 2} in the Japan Sea was smaller than that in the North Pacific. Furthermore, chemical tracers and carbonate species data set in the North Pacific suggested that the production rate of intermediate water in the North Pacific was about 24 Sv and that the North Pacific subpolar region was an important sink of CO{sub 2} released from human activities after the industrial era. (author)

  20. Study of the De-Icing Properties of the ASDE-3 Rotodome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    temperature at which freezing began. Accretion of ice did not occur below -17.7*F (00F) because then water hitting a ship would be in the form of small...Survey of the Literature on Shipboard Ice Formation Naval Engineers Journal Dec. 1965. Tabata , Tadashi. Research on Prevention of Ship Icing Defense

  1. High-dispersion spectroscopy of the probable microlensing event TCP J05074264+2447555

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehara, Hiroyuki

    2017-11-01

    We report the spectroscopic observation of TCP J05074264+2447555 which was discovered by Tadashi Kojima at 10.8 mag on 2017-10-31.7340 (http://www.cbat.eps.harvard.edu/unconf/followups/J05074264+2447555.html).

  2. Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE International Symposium on Compound Semiconductors (1997) Held in San Diego, California, on 8-11 September 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    AlGa)As on Si 1990 Yasuhiko Arakawa for pioneering work on low-dimensional semiconductor lasers, showing the superior performance of quantum wire...in Molecular Beam Epitaxy Takeyoshi SUGAYA1, Yasuhiko TANUMA2, Tadashi NAKAGAWA1, Yoshinobu SUGIYAMA1 and Kenji YONEI2 1Electrotechnical

  3. Circulatory Shock. Volume 34. Number 1. May 1991. International Conference on Shock (2nd), Meeting of European Shock Society (5th), Annual Meeting of the Shock Society (USA) (14th), Vienna Shock Form (3rd) Held in Vienna, Austria on 2-6 June 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-06

    OCTADECENOATE, AS A BURN TOXIN Takayuki Ozawa, Mika Hayakawa, Kazuhiro Kosaka, Satoru Sugiyama, Kazuhisa Yokoo, Hisashi Aoyama, and Yohei Izawa Department...shock. 41 CARDIOPULMONARY HEMODYNAMIC AND PERIPHERAL CIRCULATORY RESPONSES IN SHOCK T. Muteki, N. Kaku. T. Fukushige, I. Kohno and T. Hiraki Department...Tadashi, 242 Machleidt, Werner, 213 Ozawa, Takayuki , 11 Kawarada, Yoshifumi, 442 Mackie, D.P., 348 Ozawa, Kazue, 268 Keser, Claudia, 380 Maitra, Subir R

  4. Study of internal wave generation by tide-topography interaction; Lecture by the member awarded the Okada Prize of the Oceanographical Society of Japan for 1989. Choryu niyoru naibuha no hassei kiko ni kansuru kenkyu; 1989 nendo Nippon kaiyo gakkai Okadasho jusho kinen koen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibiya, T. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Earthquake Research Inst.)

    1990-02-25

    With regard to internal waves under strong tidal flows generated in the Amakusanada, Kyushu, the Canadian West Coast Region and the U.S. Eastern Coast Region, this study explains the theory of their generation mechanism showing the examples of its applicayion to the actual maritime regions, then by developing this theory, discusses the role of its vertical shear effect in the generation process of internal waves in case where the stationary two layer alternative flow lies on top of a strong tidal flow like the inside of straits and fjords, etc.. Furthermore, it clarifies the effect of the vertical mixing on the seawater alternating process inside and outside of the fjord taking place on the both sides of the above mixing when such a vertical mixing is caused by breaking waves of the internal tidal flows over a sill in the fjord, as an example of an important role taken by the internal waves with large wave heights thus generated. 28 refs., 12 figs.

  5. Effect of size of fly ash particle on enhancement of mullite content ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    microelectronic packaging, high-temperature protective coatings, microwave dielectrics and infrared-transmitting materials (Okada et al 1991; Somiya and Hirata ... chemical and oxidation resistance (Ohira et al 1991;. Schneider et al 1994).

  6. Ainult kaks küsimust / Evelyn Raudsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudsepp, Evelyn

    2011-01-01

    Rahvusvahelise etenduskunstide festivali POT sotsiaalmeedia juht Evelyn Raudsepp festivali vastukajadest, populaarsematest etendustest, Toshiki Okada lavastusest "Hot Pepper, Air Conditioner, and the Farewell Speech", Kornél Mundruczó lavastusest "Hard To Be A God"

  7. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... monotis , Thecadinium spp. and Amphidinium carterae Toxins implicated: Ciguatoxins; possibly maitotoxin, okadaic acid, palytoxin analogs, and others. ... in approximately 20% of those acutely exposed to ciguatoxins and lasts for several years, which may be ...

  8. A Compendium of Arctic Environmental Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    shoulders if it is facing you. Do not try a shot to the head unless you are absolutely sure of a hit . It is better to hit one of the two recommended areas...pp. 29-49, in Japanese. Sater, J. E. (ed.) (1969). The Arctic Basin. Arctic Inst. of North Am., Washington, D.C. Tabata , T., Y. Nohuguchi, and...T. Saito (1980). Observed Sea Ice Thickness in the Northern Okhotsk Sea. Low Temp. Sci. Ser. A, (Japan), n. 39, pp. 153-158. Tabata , Tadashi (1979

  9. Swift observations of SDSS J141118.31+481257.6 during its first detected outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, L. E. Rivera; Maccarone, T.

    2018-05-01

    We report Swift observations of the AM CVn-type system SDSS J141118.31+481257.6 (RA=14:11:18.31, Dec=+48:12:57.6) during its first ever recorded outburst. The system was detected by Tadashi Kojima on 2018-May-20 with a V magnitude of 12.6 +- 0.2 (http://ooruri.kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp/mailarchive/vsnet-alert/22176), an increase of 7 mags compared to any previous measurement in the same filter.

  10. Electric dipole moments of the fluorescent probes Prodan and Laurdan: experimental and theoretical evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vequi-Suplicy, Cíntia C; Coutinho, Kaline; Lamy, M Teresa

    2014-03-01

    Several experimental and theoretical approaches can be used for a comprehensive understanding of solvent effects on the electronic structure of solutes. In this review, we revisit the influence of solvents on the electronic structure of the fluorescent probes Prodan and Laurdan, focusing on their electric dipole moments. These biologically used probes were synthesized to be sensitive to the environment polarity. However, their solvent-dependent electronic structures are still a matter of discussion in the literature. The absorption and emission spectra of Prodan and Laurdan in different solvents indicate that the two probes have very similar electronic structures in both the ground and excited states. Theoretical calculations confirm that their electronic ground states are very much alike. In this review, we discuss the electric dipole moments of the ground and excited states calculated using the widely applied Lippert-Mataga equation, using both spherical and spheroid prolate cavities for the solute. The dimensions of the cavity were found to be crucial for the calculated dipole moments. These values are compared to those obtained by quantum mechanics calculations, considering Prodan in vacuum, in a polarizable continuum solvent, and using a hybrid quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics methodology. Based on the theoretical approaches it is evident that the Prodan dipole moment can change even in the absence of solute-solvent-specific interactions, which is not taken into consideration with the experimental Lippert-Mataga method. Moreover, in water, for electric dipole moment calculations, it is fundamental to consider hydrogen-bonded molecules.

  11. Optical properties of new 5-(4-phenylethynyl)-substituted-1,10-phenanthroline derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, Juliette; Aronica, Christophe; Boeuf, Gaelle; Chauvin, Jerome; Moreau, Juliette; Lemercier, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis and optical properties of a novel family of 5-substituted-1,10-phenanthroline derivatives are reported herein. One carbon-carbon triple-bond function was introduced using a Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction. The effects on optical properties, of the substitution with electro-withdrawing or -donating substituents in the 5th position of the 1,10-phenanthroline are investigated. Experimental chemical structure-polarisability relationship is analyzed according to the Lippert-Mataga correlation and compared to a theoretical study carried out with DFT calculations. These compounds are promising candidates for a fine-tuning of the internal charge-transfers but also as potential nonlinear chromophores and ligands within multifunctional coordination complexes. - Highlights: → Synthesis and optical properties of new 5-substituted-1,10-phenanthroline derivatives. → Sonogashira reaction was used for the substitution. → Structure-polarisability relationship analyzed according to Lippert-Mataga correlation. → Theoretical study was carried out with DFT calculations. → Fine-tuning of the internal charge-transfers within nonlinear compounds.

  12. Utilizing ‘Omic’ technologies to identify and prioritize novel sources of resistance to the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans in potato germplasm collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Stephanie Marie Van Weymers

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The biggest threat to potato production world-wide is late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. A screen of 126 wild diploid Solanum accessions from the Commonwealth Potato Collection (CPC with P. infestans isolates belonging to the genotype 13-A2 identified resistances in the species S. bulbocastanum, S. capsicibaccatum, S. microdontum, S. mochiquense, S. okadae, S. pinnatisectum, S. polyadenium, S. tarijense and S. verrucosum. Effector-omics, allele mining and diagnostic RenSeq (dRenSeq were utilized to investigate the nature of resistances in S. okadae accessions. dRenSeq in resistant S. okadae accessions 7129, 7625, 3762 and a bulk of 20 resistant progeny confirmed the presence of full-length Rpi-vnt1.1 under stringent mapping conditions and corroborated allele mining results in the accessions 7129 and 7625 as well as Avr-vnt1 recognition in transient expression assays. In contrast, susceptible S. okadae accession 3761 and a bulk of 20 susceptible progeny lacked sequence homology in the 5’ end compared to the functional Rpi-vnt1.1 gene. Further evaluation of S. okadae accessions with late blight isolates that have a broad spectrum of virulence demonstrated that, although S. okadae accessions 7129, 7625 and 7629 contain functional Rpi-vnt1.1, they also carry a novel resistance gene. We provide evidence that existing germplasm collection are important sources of novel resistances and that ‘omic’ technologies such as dRenSeq-based genomics and effector-omics are efficacious tools to rapidly explore the diversity within these collections.

  13. Regulation of 2-5A Dependent RNase at the Level of its Phosphorylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-26

    extract as follows: 25 ul wheat germ extract 10 ul H2O 1 ul RNasin ribonuclease inhibitor (40 u/ml) 7 ul ImM amino acid mixture 1 ul IM...diacylglycerol (DAG) 2. TPA 3. Indolactam Figure 6. Chemical structure of: 1. H-7 (A kinase inhibitor) 2. okadaic acid (A phosphatase inhibitor) Figure 7...elevating agents: Forskolin and Cholera toxin Figure 17. Down-regulation of 2-5A-depRNase by Okadaic 77 acid : A phosphatase inhibitor Figure 18

  14. A case of traumatic intracranial vertebral artery injury presenting with life-threatening symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishi S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Seiji Kishi1, Kenji Kanaji2, Toshio Doi1, Tadashi Matsumura21Department of Nephrology, Tokushima University Hospital, Kuramoto-cho Tokushima, 2Department of General Internal Medicine, Rakuwakai Otowa Hospital, Otowachinji-cho Yamashina-ku Kyoto, JapanAbstract: Traumatic intracranial vertebral artery injury is a relatively rare but potentially fatal disease. We present a case of a 63-year-old man who presented with sudden onset of loss of consciousness after hitting his head. After immediate resuscitation, he showed quadriplegia and absence of spontaneous breathing. Brain and cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging revealed an atlantoaxial subluxation, fractured C2 odontoid process, left vertebral artery occlusion, and bilateral extensive ischemia in the medulla oblongata and high cervical spinal cord. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated left vertebral artery dissection just below the level of vertebral body C2.Keywords: vertebral artery dissection, brainstem infarction, bilateral spinal cord infarction, neck trauma

  15. Psychoactive substance use/abuse among students in Igbinedion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychoactive substance use/abuse among students in Igbinedion University, Okada, Nigeria-new challenges. E Uwadiae ... (NPF), National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) must be sufficiently informed that substances of abuse have gone beyond the conventional substances like alcohol, cannabis, cigarette etc.

  16. Effects of crude ethanolic extract of Garcinia cambogia on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-16

    May 16, 2007 ... 1Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Igbinedion University, Okada. P.M.B 0006, Benin City. Nigeria. 2Department of Anatomy, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, P.M.B. 1515, Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. .... feeding 35 mg/kg of G. cambogia to rabbits for 8 weeks.

  17. Supracondylar and infratubercular processes observed in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-05

    Nov 5, 2007 ... 1Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Igbinedion University, Okada, P.M.B. 0006, Benin City,. Edo State. Nigeria. 2Department ... reliance on computer imaging in diagnostic medicine. (Harry et al., 1997). ... origins, because the proximal epiphyses are absent. The proximal epiphysis ...

  18. Book Review: Wildlife Conservation in Farmed Landscapes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Title: Wildlife Conservation in Farmed Landscapes. Book Authors: David Lindenmayer, Damian Michael, Mason Crane, Sachiko Okada, Daniel Florance, Philip Bartion & Karen Ikin. 2016, CSIRO Publishing, Unipark Building 1 Level 1, 195 Wellington Road, Clayton, VIC 3168, Australia. 232 pages, softcover, ePDF ...

  19. Accumulation, transformation and breakdown of DSP toxins from the toxic dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta in blue mussels, Mytilus edulis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Hansen, Per Juel; Krock, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxins (DTX) and pectenotoxins (PTX) produced by the dinoflagellates Dinophysis spp. can accumulate in shellfish and cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning upon human consumption. Shellfish toxicity is a result of algal abundance and toxicity as well as accumulation and...

  20. Single-nucleotide polymorphism of INS, INSR, IRS1, IRS2, PPAR-G ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-02

    Mar 2, 2017 ... fold increase in mean value was observed in PCOS women. (9.12). However ..... racy of the model was estimated by 10-fold cross-validation. The best ..... Hara K., Okada T. and Tobe K. 2000 The Pro12Ala polymor- phism in ...

  1. laryngectomie totale résultats de l'expérience du service d'orl de sfax

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fistula: incidence, predisposing factors and therapy. Head and Neck Surg. 2005;. 133: 689-694. 5- Gates GA, Hearne EM. Predicting oesopharyngeal speech. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol. 1982; 91: 454-457. 6- Leonhardt FD, Tangerina R, Okada DM et al. Peristomal recurrence after total laryngectomy. Head and Neck Surg.

  2. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunanda Banerjee Rohini M Godbole Sreerup Raychaudhuri Ben Allanach Sunanda Banerjee Satyaki Bhattacharyya Debajyoti Choudhury Siba Prasad Das Anindya Datta Rohini M Godbole Monoranjan Guchait Sabine Kraml Gobinda Majumdar David Miller Margarete Mühlleitner Nobuchika Okada Maxim Perelstein ...

  3. Monoranjan Guchait

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sunanda Banerjee Rohini M Godbole Sreerup Raychaudhuri Ben Allanach Sunanda Banerjee Satyaki Bhattacharyya Debajyoti Choudhury Siba Prasad Das Anindya Datta Rohini M Godbole Monoranjan Guchait Sabine Kraml Gobinda Majumdar David Miller Margarete Mühlleitner Nobuchika Okada Maxim Perelstein ...

  4. Chapter Twelve

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    okada na obere jenareto ai passi mai nebo·. 17 ... Oluchukwu Micro-Finance Bank gbasara aka inyere ndi 10. Mmadu aka n'uzo di .... Nigeria· This in no small measure has been helping unemployed people, graduates ... Even in the transport sector people have been empowered to be self reliant· This could be seen in the ...

  5. Back-pressure Forging Using a Servo Press

    OpenAIRE

    河本, 基一郎; Kawamoto, Kiichiro

    2015-01-01

    博士論文要旨Abstract 以下に掲載:International Journal of Automation Technology 9(2) pp.184-192 2015. Fuji Technology Press Ltd. 共著者:Kiichiro Kawamoto, Takeshi Yoneyama, Masato Okada

  6. on crude water and sodium chloride extracts of Moringa stenopetala

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-12-04

    Dec 4, 2006 ... coordination or complex formation between the metal cations and pH dependent oxygen and nitrogen anionic sites of the ... iron hydroxide, iron chloride, soda ash and synthetic polymers .... o u n d. Zn adsorption by. MSC-SC. Zn adsorption by. MOC-SC .... Okuda T, Baes AU, Nishijima W, Okada M (2001).

  7. Ghana Journal of Development Studies, Volume 7, Number 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UDS-CAPTURED

    Ghana Journal of Development Studies, Volume 7, Number 2 2010. 53 ... The use of motorcycles for urban passenger transport in Nigeria popularly called okada is a source of ..... Gap in Mexico Washington, DC: The World Bank. Becker, S. G. ...

  8. Radiation Protection Practices of Staff during Extra-Corporeal Shock ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: Some members of staff who were present when the extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was used in the hospital at Okada were interviewed between November 2002 and August 2003. Radiology records of the hospital were studied. Literature search involved available publication on the procedure ...

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osadolor, HB. Vol 8, No 3 (2014) - Articles Effect of academic stress on serum cortisol level and CD4 cell count in young male postgraduate students in Okada, Nigeria Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-342X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  10. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oladepo, D K. Vol 12 (2007) - Articles Sero-prevalence of HIV-1 among commercial motorcyclist (okada riders) in Abuja. Abstract PDF · Vol 12 (2007) - Articles Evaluation of the performance of HIV1 & 2 one-step selftest kit for detection of HIV infection in whole human blood, serum or plasma samples. Abstract PDF.

  11. Bond alternation in the infinite polyene: effect of long range Coulomb interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazumdar, S.; Campbell, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    We investigate the effects of long-range Coulomb interactions on bond and site dimerizations in a one-dimensional half-filled band. It is shown that the ground state broken symmetry is determined by two sharp inequalities involving the Coulomb parameters. Broken symmetry with periodicity 2k/sub F/ is guaranteed only if the first inequality (downward convexity of the intersite potential) is obeyed, while the second inequality gives the phase boundary between the bond-dimerized and site-dimerized phases. Application of these inequalities to the Pariser-Parr-Pople model for linear polyenes shows that the infinite polyene has enhanced bond alternation for both Ohno and Mataga-Nishimoto parametrizations of the intersite Coulomb terms. The possible role of distant neighbor interactions in photogeneration experiments is discussed. 26 refs., 3 figs

  12. Solvent influence on the photophysical properties of 4-(2-Oxo-2H-benzo[h]chromen-4-ylmethoxy)-benzaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod, A. G.; Renuka, C. G.; Shivashankar, K.; Boregowda, P.; Nadaf, Y. F.

    2018-05-01

    Steady-state absorption and the fluorescence properties of the synthesized Benzofuran derivatives were studied. Absorption and fluorescence spectra of 4-(2-Oxo-2H-benzo[h]chromen-4-ylm ethoxy)-benzaldehyde (4-OBCM) have been recorded at room temperature in extensive variety of solvents of various polarities. 4-OBCM Fluorescence band maxima of the solvents are small amount spectral shifted to hypsochromic when the solvent polarity will increase, compared to absorption band under the identical circumstance. This suggests an increase in dipole moment of excited state compared to ground state. The ground-state dipole moment of 4-OBCM was found from quantum mechanical methods and the excited state dipole moment of 4-OBCM was evaluated from Lippert-Mataga Bakhshiev's, Kawski-Chamma-Viallet's and Reichardt conditions by methods for solvatochromic shift. Kamlet-Taft coefficients which affect this absorption profiles.

  13. Synthesis and photophysical characterizations of thermal-stable naphthalene benzimidazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erten-Ela, Sule; Ozcelik, Serdar; Eren, Esin

    2011-07-01

    Microwave-assisted synthesis, photophysical and electrochemical properties of thermal-stable naphthalene benzimidazoles and naphthalimides are studied in this paper. Microwave-assisted synthesis of naphthalene benzimidazoles provide higher yields than the conventional thermal synthesis. Comparative photophysical properties of naphthalene benzimidazoles and naphthalimides are revealed that conjugation of electron-donating group onto naphthalimide moiety increases fluorescence quantum yields. Fluorophore-solvent interactions are also investigated using Lippert-Mataga equation for naphthalimides and naphthalene benzimidazoles. Thermal stabilities of naphthalene benzimidazoles are better than naphthalimides due to increased aromaticity. The experimental E(LUMO) levels of naphthalene benzimidazoles are found to be between 3.15 and 3.28 eV. Therefore, naphthalene benzimidazole derivatives consisting of anchoring groups are promising materials in organic dye sensitized solar cells. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  14. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic study of solvatochromic curcumin dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Digambara; Barakat, Christelle

    2011-09-01

    Curcumin, the main yellow bioactive component of turmeric, has recently acquired attention by chemists due its wide range of potential biological applications as an antioxidant, an anti-inflammatory, and an anti-carcinogenic agent. This molecule fluoresces weakly and poorly soluble in water. In this detailed study of curcumin in thirteen different solvents, both the absorption and fluorescence spectra of curcumin was found to be broad, however, a narrower and simple synchronous fluorescence spectrum of curcumin was obtained at Δ λ = 10-20 nm. Lippert-Mataga plot of curcumin in different solvents illustrated two sets of linearity which is consistent with the plot of Stokes' shift vs. the ET30. When Stokes's shift in wavenumber scale was replaced by synchronous fluorescence maximum in nanometer scale, the solvent polarity dependency measured by λSFSmax vs. Lippert-Mataga plot or ET30 values offered similar trends as measured via Stokes' shift for protic and aprotic solvents for curcumin. Better linear correlation of λSFSmax vs. π* scale of solvent polarity was found compared to λabsmax or λemmax or Stokes' shift measurements. In Stokes' shift measurement both absorption/excitation as well as emission (fluorescence) spectra are required to compute the Stokes' shift in wavenumber scale, but measurement could be done in a very fast and simple way by taking a single scan of SFS avoiding calculation and obtain information about polarity of the solvent. Curcumin decay properties in all the solvents could be fitted well to a double-exponential decay function.

  15. Effect of bauxite addition on densification and mullitization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Kloprogge J T, Ruan H D and Frost R L 2002 J. Mater. Sci. 37. 1121. Liu K C and Thomas G 1994 J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77 1545. Liu K C, Thomas G, Caballero A, Moya J S and De Aza S 1991. Ceramics Today – Tomorrow's Ceramics, Material Sci. Monographs A66 177. Nurishi Y and Pask J A 1982 Ceram. Int. 8 57. Okada K ...

  16. Biosynthetic Studies on Water-Soluble Derivative 5c (DTX5c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Fernández

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The dinoflagellate Prorocentrum belizeanum is responsible for the production of several toxins involved in the red tide phenomenon known as Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP. In this paper we report on the biosynthetic origin of an okadaic acid water-soluble ester derivative, DTX5c, on the basis of the spectroscopical analysis of 13C enriched samples obtained by addition of labelled sodium [l-13C], [2-13C] acetate to artificial cultures of this dinoflagellate.

  17. Study on biological dosimetry of premature chromosome condensation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Bo

    2005-01-01

    The premature chromosome condensation technique has been applied for biological dosimetry purpose. Premature chromo-some condensation was induced by incubating unstimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes in the presence of okadaic acid or calyculin A (a phosphatase inhibitor) which eliminated the need for fusion with mitotic cells. It is now possible to examine the early damage induced by radiation. It is simple, exact when it combines with fluorecence in situ hybridization. (authors)

  18. The Colonial and Transnational Production of "Suicide Squad at the Watchtower" and "Love and the Vow"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Watanabe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article places two Japan-Korea collaboration films produced during the Pacific War—"Suicide Squad at the Watchtower" (Bōrō no kesshitai, 1943 and "Love and the Vow" (Ai to chikai, 1945—within the broader colonial and transnational context of filmmaking. Specifically, it focuses on the relationship of these films to the careers of their co-directors, Imai Tadashi (1912–1991 and Ch’oe In-gyu (1911–1950?. At the same time, the article shows how cinematic and cultural conventions such as the bildungsroman and the “Victorian empire film,” which are more commonly associated with cultural production in the modern West, can, with appropriate adjustments, be fruitfully used to understand the power and entertainment value of these films. "Suicide Squad at the Watchtower" portrays a joint Japanese-Korean police squad controlling the border between Manchuria and Korea and its service to the Japanese empire; "Love and the Vow" is a story about a Korean orphan boy who, after interviewing the family of a kamikaze pilot, is inspired to become an imperial soldier himself. These two films were joint projects between Tōhō Film in Japan, where Imai was employed, and the Korean Motion Picture Production Corporation, the only film production company in colonial Korea (and the company into which all Korean film production companies had been absorbed during the war.

  19. COPD is frequent in conditions of comorbidity in patients treated with various diseases in a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yamasaki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Akira Yamasaki, Kiyoshi Hashimoto, Yasuyuki Hasegawa, Ryota Okazaki, Miki Yamamura, Tomoya Harada, Shizuka Ito, Soichiro Ishikawa, Hiroki Takami, Masanari Watanabe, Tadashi Igishi, Yuji Kawasaki, Eiji ShimizuDivision of Medical Oncology and Molecular Respirology, Department of Multidisciplinary Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, JapanBackground: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is one of the leading causes of death and loss of disability-adjusted life-years. However, many COPD patients are not diagnosed because of underrecognition or underdiagnosis of this disease among many patients and physicians. One possible reason is underrecognition of spirometry. In this study, we examined the prevalence of airflow limitation and underlying disease in patients with airflow limitation.Methodology: From April 2006 to March 2008, patients who had spirometry performed were examined. The original disease of patients, pulmonary function tests, smoking status, and respiratory symptoms were surveyed from their medical records.Results: Of all patients who had spirometry performed, 15.8% showed airflow limitation (FEV1/FVC < 0.7. A variety of diseases were observed in patients with airflow limitation. Among all diseases, cardiovascular disease was the highest and gastrointestinal malignant disease had the second highest prevalence in patients with airflow limitation.Conclusion: COPD might be frequent in conditions of comorbidity in patients treated for various diseases. Attention should be paid to the possibility of co-existence of COPD and the influence of COPD on these patients.Keywords: airflow limitation, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, comorbidity, spirometry, prevalence

  20. Use of pharmacist blood pressure telemonitoring systems in diagnosis of nocturnal hypertension in a young healthy male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuno T

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tomohiro Mizuno,1,* Chizuru Matsumoto,1,* Nobuko Nabetani,2 Yoshinari Yasuda,3 Tadashi Nagamatsu,1 Norimasa Umemura2 1Department of Analytical Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Meijo University, Nagoya, Japan; 2Haruka Community Pharmacy, Nagoya, Japan; 3Department of Chronic Kidney Disease Initiatives, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Blood pressure (BP telemonitoring systems and pharmacist management programs were introduced into Haruka Community Pharmacy. A 22-year-old healthy male came to the community pharmacy, although he was not in a diseased state, he had been informed previously that he had a moderately high BP during a routine examination. He continued home BP telemonitoring for 28 days. A pharmacist intervention was conducted at 2 week intervals. His average nighttime systolic BP was higher than the daytime systolic BP. The pharmacist consulted a doctor based on the BP telemonitoring results, and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM was initiated. The doctor detected nocturnal hypertension based on the results of ABPM monitoring. BP telemonitoring systems have been introduced into a small percentage of pharmacies in Japan, and this is the first case report for the usefulness of these systems in a community pharmacy. Keywords: community pharmacy, management, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

  1. A case of cholestatic hepatitis associated with histologic features of acute cholangitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeuchi H

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hajime Takeuchi1, Toru Kaneko1, Toshikazu Otsuka1, Kumiko Tahara1, Tadashi Motoori2, Makoto Ohbu3, Masaya Oda4, Hiroaki Yokomori11Department of Internal Medicine; 2Division of Pathology, Kitasato Medical Center Hospital, Kitasato University, Saitama; 3Department of Pathology, School of Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa; 4Department of Internal Medicine, Saitama Social Insurance Hospital, Saitama; 5Organized Center of Clinical Medicine, International University of Health and Welfare, Sanno Hospital, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: This report describes a case showing histologic features of acute cholangitis with an over-the-counter drug. A 48-year-old woman was diagnosed with general malaise and progressive jaundice. A thorough review of her medical history revealed that the patient had taken an over-the-counter drug, Pabron Gold®, which she had used previously, that may have caused liver injury. Laboratory investigations revealed jaundice and liver dysfunction. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography detected no extrahepatic biliary duct dilatation or stones. Liver biopsy indicated acute cholangitis involving neutrophils and eosinophils. Electron microscopy revealed fragmented nuclei, indicating that the degenerative bile duct-related epithelial cells were in an apoptotic process.Keywords: liver injury, over-the-counter drug, histologic features, acute cholangitis, electron microscopy, Pabron Gold

  2. Impact of Sleeping Altitude on Symptoms of Acute Mountain Sickness on Mt. Fuji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Masahiro; Uno, Tadashi; Endo, Junko; Handa, Yoko; Hasegawa, Tatsuya

    2018-05-09

    Horiuchi, Masahiro, Tadashi Uno, Junko Endo, Yoko Handa, and Tatsuya Hasegawa. Impact of sleeping altitude on symptoms of acute mountain sickness on Mt. Fuji. High Alt Med Biol. 00:000-000, 2018. We sought to investigate the factors influencing acute mountain sickness (AMS) on Mt. Fuji in Japan, in particular, to assess the effects of sleeping altitude, by means of a questionnaire survey. This study involved 1932 participants who climbed Mt. Fuji, and obtained information regarding sex, age, and whether participants stayed at the mountain lodges. The AMS survey excluded the perceived sleep difficulties assessed with the Lake Louise Scoring (LLS) system for all climbers. The overall prevalence of AMS was 31.6% for all participants (LLS score ≥3 with headache, excluding sleep difficulties). A univariate analysis revealed that overnight stay at Mt. Fuji was associated with an increased prevalence of AMS, but that sex and age were not. For overnight lodgers, the mean sleeping altitude in participants with AMS was slightly higher than that in participants without AMS (p lodge, especially one above 2870 m, may be associated with an increased prevalence of AMS on Mt. Fuji.

  3. Exploration of spectroscopic properties of solvated tris(thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)(2,2′-bipyridine)europium(III)red hybrid organic complex for solution processed OLEDs and displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitnis, Dipti [Department of Physics, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur 440033 (India); Thejokalyani, N., E-mail: thejokalyani@rediffmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Laxminarayan Institute of Technology, Nagpur 440033 (India); Dhoble, S.J. [Department of Physics, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur 440033 (India)

    2017-05-15

    In order to explore the spectroscopic properties of a novel europium activated hybrid organic tris(thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)(2,2′-bipyridine)europium(III), Eu(TTA){sub 3}bipy phosphor in various solvents at different pH and molar concentrations, UV–vis optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra were carried out. With a variation in the solvent from basic (chloroform, toluene, tetrahydrofuran) to acidic (acetic acid, formic acid) media, staggering differences in optical absorptions and optical densities were noticed with hypsochromic shift in the absorption peaks. The optical density was found to be maximum for the complex with pH= 7.0 and the intensity as well as optical density gradually decreased when pH is lowered to 6.0 or raised to 8.0 (at an interval of 0.5), proving that the complex is pH sensitive. It's optical energy gap and stokes shift values in various organic solvents were also calculated on the basis of Lippert-Mataga plot. The exploration of spectroscopic properties of solvated Eu(TTA){sub 3}bipy complex demonstrates its prospective for solution processed OLEDs and display devices. - Graphical abstract: Pictorial depiction of photoluminescence in solvated Eu(TTA){sub 3}bipy complex under UV light.

  4. Highly Soluble Monoamino-Substituted Perylene Tetracarboxylic Dianhydrides: Synthesis, Optical and Electrochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kew-Yu Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three dialkylamino-substituted perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydrides with different n-alkyl chain lengths (n = 6, 12 or 18, 1a–1c, were synthesized under mild conditions in high yields and were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and high resolution mass spectroscopy. Their optical and electrochemical properties were measured using UV-Vis and emission spectroscopic techniques, as well as cyclic voltammetry (CV. This is the first time that the structures and the properties of monoamino-substituted perylene tetracarboxylic dianhydrides have been reported. These molecules show a deep green color in both solution and the solid state and are soluble in most organic solvents. They all show a unique charge transfer emission in the near-infrared region, and the associated peaks exhibit solvatochromism. The dipole moments of the compounds have been estimated using the Lippert-Mataga equation, and upon excitation, they show slightly larger dipole moment changes than those of corresponding perylene diimides, 2a–2c. Additionally, Compounds 1a–1c undergo two quasi-reversible one-electron oxidations and two quasi-reversible one-electron reductions in dichloromethane at modest potentials. Complementary density functional theory calculations performed on these chromophores are reported in order to gain more insight into their molecular structures and optical properties.

  5. Photophysical properties of neutral and dissociated forms of rosmarinic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danaf, Nader Al [Department of Chemistry, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Department of Life Sciences and Chemistry, Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen (Germany); Melhem, Racha Abi [Department of Chemistry, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Assaf, Khaleel I.; Nau, Werner M. [Department of Life Sciences and Chemistry, Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen (Germany); Patra, Digambara, E-mail: dp03@aub.edu.lb [Department of Chemistry, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2016-07-15

    Polyphenols are bioactive components that have attracted attention by chemists over many years. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a polyphenol that is widely investigated for its broad range of potential applications as an anti-carcinogenic agent, an anti-inflammatory drug, and antioxidant. The spectroscopic properties of this molecule are addressed in details in this study. The absorption and fluorescence of RA are investigated at different pH values, characterizing the dissociated forms of RA. In a similar manner, RA was characterized in a set of different solvents. The spectral shifts of RA in the different solvents were addressed by using the Lippert–Mataga and the Stokes' shift vs. E{sub T}30 plots, which revealed two sets of linearity for the behavior of RA in polar protic and aprotic solvents. The lifetime decay profile of the dissociated forms of RA and those of RA in different solvents are characterized by bi-exponential lifetime decay functions. A theoretical study on the molecular structure of the different dissociated forms of RA is also reported. The simulated UV–vis spectra of the dissociated forms of RA were studied and compared to the experimental spectra by performing TDDFT calculations. Besides the UV-simulated spectra, the frontier molecular orbitals (FMO) of the different RA dissociated forms were also calculated.

  6. Donor-acceptor-donor thienyl/bithienyl-benzothiadiazole/quinoxaline model oligomers: experimental and theoretical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, João; de Melo, J Seixas; Breusov, D; Scherf, Ullrich

    2013-09-28

    A comprehensive spectral and photophysical investigation of four donor-acceptor-donor (DAD) oligomers consisting of electron-deficient 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole or quinoxaline moieties linked to electron-rich thienyl or bithienyl units has been undertaken. Additionally, a bis(dithienyl) substituted naphthalene was also investigated. The D-A-D nature of these oligomers resulted in the presence of an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state, which was further substantiated by solvatochromism studies (analysis with the Lippert-Mataga formalism). Hereby, significant differences have been obtained for the fluorescence quantum yields of the oligomers in the non-polar solvent methylcyclohexane vs. the polar ethanol. The study was further complemented with the determination of the optimized ground-state molecular geometries for the oligomers together with the prediction of the lowest vertical one-electron excitation energy and the relevant molecular orbital contours using DFT calculations. The electronic transitions show a clear HOMO to LUMO charge-transfer character. In contrast to the thiophene oligomers (the oligothiophenes with n = 1-7), where the intersystem crossing (ISC) yield decreases with n, the studied DAD oligomers were found to show an increase in the ISC efficiency with the number of (donor) thienyl units.

  7. Photophysical characteristics of three novel benzanthrone derivatives: Experimental and theoretical estimation of dipole moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddlingeshwar, B.; Hanagodimath, S.M.; Kirilova, E.M.; Kirilov, Georgii K.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of solvents on absorption and fluorescence spectra and dipole moments of novel benzanthrone derivatives such as 3-N-(N',N'-Dimethylformamidino) benzanthrone (1), 3-N-(N',N'-Diethylacetamidino) benzanthrone (2) and 3-morpholinobenzanthrone (3) have been studied in various solvents. The fluorescence lifetime of the dyes (1-3) in chloroform were also recorded. Bathochromic shift observed in the absorption and fluorescence spectra of these molecules with increasing solvent polarity indicates that the transitions involved are π→π * . Using the theory of solvatochromism, the difference in the excited-state (μ e ) and the ground-state (μ e ) dipole moments was estimated from Lippert-Mataga, Bakhshiev, Kawski-Chamma-Viallet, and McRae equations by using the variation of Stokes shift with the solvent's relative permittivity and refractive index. AM1 and PM6 semiempirical molecular calculations using MOPAC and ab-initio calculations at B3LYP/6-31 G * level of theory using Gaussian 03 software were carried out to estimate the ground-state dipole moments and some other physicochemical properties. Further, the change in dipole moment value (Δμ) was also calculated by using the variation of Stokes shift with the molecular-microscopic empirical solvent polarity parameter (E T N ). The excited-state dipole moments observed are larger than their ground-state counterparts, indicating a substantial redistribution of the π-electron densities in a more polar excited state for all the systems investigated.

  8. Synthesis and optical properties of novel asymmetric perylene bisimides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Hsing-Yang; Chen, Kew-Yu

    2014-01-01

    A novel series of asymmetric perylene bisimides, 1-amino-7-nitroperylene bisimides (1a–1c), was synthesized and fully characterized. These molecules undergo an excited-state intramolecular electron transfer reaction, resulting in a unique charge transfer emission in the near-infrared region, of which the peak wavelength exhibits strong solvatochromism. The dipole moments of these compounds have been estimated using the Lippert–Mataga equation, and upon excitation, the molecules show larger dipole moment changes than those of the symmetric 1,7-diaminoperylene bisimides (2a–2c). Furthermore, these dyes undergo two quasi-reversible one-electron oxidations and two quasi-reversible one-electron reductions in dichloromethane at modest potentials. They display good thermal stability and optical stability that can be used as stable near-infrared fluorescent dyes. Their spectroscopic properties in various conditions and complementary time-dependent density functional theory calculations are reported. - Highlights: • 1-amino-7-nitroperylene bisimide dyes were synthesized. • These molecules undergo an excited-state intramolecular electron transfer reaction. • They can be used as stable near-infrared fluorescent dyes

  9. Photophysical properties of neutral and dissociated forms of rosmarinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danaf, Nader Al; Melhem, Racha Abi; Assaf, Khaleel I.; Nau, Werner M.; Patra, Digambara

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols are bioactive components that have attracted attention by chemists over many years. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a polyphenol that is widely investigated for its broad range of potential applications as an anti-carcinogenic agent, an anti-inflammatory drug, and antioxidant. The spectroscopic properties of this molecule are addressed in details in this study. The absorption and fluorescence of RA are investigated at different pH values, characterizing the dissociated forms of RA. In a similar manner, RA was characterized in a set of different solvents. The spectral shifts of RA in the different solvents were addressed by using the Lippert–Mataga and the Stokes' shift vs. E T 30 plots, which revealed two sets of linearity for the behavior of RA in polar protic and aprotic solvents. The lifetime decay profile of the dissociated forms of RA and those of RA in different solvents are characterized by bi-exponential lifetime decay functions. A theoretical study on the molecular structure of the different dissociated forms of RA is also reported. The simulated UV–vis spectra of the dissociated forms of RA were studied and compared to the experimental spectra by performing TDDFT calculations. Besides the UV-simulated spectra, the frontier molecular orbitals (FMO) of the different RA dissociated forms were also calculated.

  10. Environment effects on the optical properties of some fluorinated poly(oxadiazole ether)s in binary solvent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homocianu, Mihaela; Ipate, Alina Mirela; Hamciuc, Corneliu; Airinei, Anton

    2015-01-01

    The solvatochromic behavior of some fluorinated poly(oxadiazole ether)s was studied using UV–vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy in neat solvents and in their solvent mixtures at several ratios of cosolvents. Quantitative investigations of the spectral changes caused by solvent polarity were discussed using the Lippert‐Mataga, Bakhshiev and Kawski–Chamma–Viallet polarity functions. Repartitioning of cosolvent between local (solvation shell) and bulk phase was investigated by means of a solvatochromic shift method in chloroform–N,N-dimethylformamide (CHCl 3 /DMF) and chloroform–dimethyl sulfoxide (CHCl 3 /DMSO) solvent mixtures. Solvatochromic properties in the binary solvent environments were predominantly influenced by the acidity and basicity of the solvent systems. The fluorescence quenching process by nitrobenzene was characterized by Stern–Volmer plots which display a positive deviation from linearity. This was explained by static and dynamic quenching mechanisms. - Highlights: • Solvatochromic behavior in solvent mixtures was studied. • Stokes shift and local environments in binary mixed solvent were discussed. • Repartitioning of cosolvent between local and bulk phase in solvent mixture has been investigated. • Fluorescence intensity was quenched in presence of nitrobenzene

  11. From pirazoloquinolines to annulated azulene dyes: UV-VIS spectroscopy and quantum chemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasiorski, P.; Danel, K.S.; Matusiewicz, M.; Uchacz, T.; Kityk, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    Paper reports UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescence spectra of 6-R derivatives (R=CH 3 , O-CH 3 , C(C 6 H 5 ) 3 , C 6 H 5 -N-C 10 H 7 ) of 4-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinoline, belonging to pyrazoloquinoline (PQ) family, likewise its regioisomeric products 10-R derivatives of 6-phenyl-6H-5,6,7-triazadibenzo[f,h]naphtho[3,2,1-cd]azulene representing cyclized seven-membered annulated azulene (AA) dyes. Cyclization of PQs into AAs is accompanied by a significant red shift of the first optical absorption band. This finding agrees with the results of quantum-chemical calculations performed by means of the semiempirical method PM3. As the solvent polarity rises all the dyes exhibit a blue shift of the first absorption band and a red shift of the fluorescence band. Such opposite trends in solvatochromic behavior have been reproduced within the semiempirical calculations in combination with the Lippert-Mataga dielectric polarization model. Depending on solvent polarity AA dyes emit light in the green, green-yellow or orange range of the visible spectrum what may be of interest for potential luminescent or electroluminescent applications.

  12. Exploration of spectroscopic properties of solvated tris(thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)(2,2′-bipyridine)europium(III)red hybrid organic complex for solution processed OLEDs and displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitnis, Dipti; Thejokalyani, N.; Dhoble, S.J.

    2017-01-01

    In order to explore the spectroscopic properties of a novel europium activated hybrid organic tris(thenoyltrifluoroacetonate)(2,2′-bipyridine)europium(III), Eu(TTA) 3 bipy phosphor in various solvents at different pH and molar concentrations, UV–vis optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra were carried out. With a variation in the solvent from basic (chloroform, toluene, tetrahydrofuran) to acidic (acetic acid, formic acid) media, staggering differences in optical absorptions and optical densities were noticed with hypsochromic shift in the absorption peaks. The optical density was found to be maximum for the complex with pH= 7.0 and the intensity as well as optical density gradually decreased when pH is lowered to 6.0 or raised to 8.0 (at an interval of 0.5), proving that the complex is pH sensitive. It's optical energy gap and stokes shift values in various organic solvents were also calculated on the basis of Lippert-Mataga plot. The exploration of spectroscopic properties of solvated Eu(TTA) 3 bipy complex demonstrates its prospective for solution processed OLEDs and display devices. - Graphical abstract: Pictorial depiction of photoluminescence in solvated Eu(TTA) 3 bipy complex under UV light.

  13. Analysis of lipophilic marine biotoxins by liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry in seawater from the Catalan Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch-Orea, Cristina; Sanchís, Josep; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damià

    2017-09-01

    Marine biotoxins regularly occur along the coast, with several consequences for the environment as well as the food industry. Monitoring of these compounds in seawater is required to assure the safety of marine resources for human consumption, providing a means for forecasting shellfish contamination events. In this study, an analytical method was developed for the detection of ten lipophilic marine biotoxins in seawater: azaspiracids 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, classified as azaspiracid shellfish poisoning toxins, and pectenotoxin 2, okadaic acid and the related dinophysistoxin 1, yessotoxin and homoyessotoxin, classified as diarrheic shellfish poisoning toxins. The method is based on the application of solid-liquid ultrasound-assisted extraction and solid-phase extraction, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. The limits of detection of this method are in the range of nanograms per litre and picograms per litre for most of the compounds, and recoveries range from 20.5% to 97.2%. To validate the effectiveness of this method, 36 samples of surface water from open coastal areas and marinas located along the Catalan coast on the Mediterranean Sea were collected and analysed. Eighty-eight per cent of these samples exhibited okadaic acid in particulate and aqueous phases in concentrations ranging from 0.11 to 560 μg/g and from 2.1 to 1780 ng/L respectively. Samples from open coastal areas exhibited higher concentrations of okadaic acid in particulate material, whereas in samples collected in sportive ports, the particulate material exhibited lower levels than the aqueous phase. Graphical Abstract Biotoxins investigated in seawater of the Catalan coast.

  14. Factors affecting directional migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to the injured spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Peng; Pan, Su; Cheng, Jieping; Yang, Maoguang; Qi, Zhiping; Hou, Tingting; Yang, Xiaoyu

    2014-01-01

    Microtubule-associated protein 1B plays an important role in axon guidance and neuronal migration. In the present study, we sought to discover the mechanisms underlying microtubule-associated protein 1B mediation of axon guidance and neuronal migration. We exposed bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to okadaic acid or N-acetyl-D-erythro-sphingosine (an inhibitor and stimulator, respectively, of protein phosphatase 2A) for 24 hours. The expression of the phosphorylated form of type I microtubule-associated protein 1B in the cells was greater after exposure to okadaic acid and lower after N-acetyl-D-erythro-sphingosine. We then injected the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells through the ear vein into rabbit models of spinal cord contusion. The migration of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells towards the injured spinal cord was poorer in cells exposed to okadaic acid- and N-acetyl-D-erythro-sphingosine than in non-treated bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Finally, we blocked phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways in rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells using the inhibitors LY294002 and U0126, respectively. LY294002 resulted in an elevated expression of phosphorylated type I microtubule-associated protein 1B, whereas U0126 caused a reduction in expression. The present data indicate that PI3K and ERK1/2 in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells modulate the phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein 1B via a cross-signaling network, and affect the migratory efficiency of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells towards injured spinal cord. PMID:25374590

  15. Fusion genetic analysis of jasmonate-signalling mutants in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Bøgh; Raventos, D.; Mundy, John Williams

    2002-01-01

    as two recessive mutants, designated joe1 and 2, that overexpress the reporter. Genetic analysis indicated that reporter overexpression in the joe mutants requires COI. joe1 responded to MeJA with increased anthocyanin accumulation, while joe2 responded with decreased root growth inhibition. In addition...... activity was also induced by the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine and antagonized by the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid. FLUC bio-imaging, RNA gel-blot analysis and progeny analyses identified three recessive mutants that underexpress the FLUC reporter, designated jue1, 2 and 3, as well...

  16. Stemcell Information: SKIP000519 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... Yohei Okada 岡田 洋平 Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine 慶應義塾大学 医学部 生理学...教室 Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine 慶應義塾大学 医学部 生理学教室 Hideyuki O...kano 岡野 栄之 Information Only Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine 慶應義塾大学 医学部 生理学教室 ...

  17. Studies on the interaction between marine polyether toxins and the voltage sensitive sodium channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Kazuo; Konoki, Keichi; Fukuzawa, Seketsu

    2003-01-01

    An analysis was made on three-dimensional structure of membrane proteins by prolonging the activated state of membrane protein using external factors like natural toxins having a strong affinity to the activated state. In addition, this study aimed to clarify the structural basis for the activation of membrane proteins. First, functional analysis was made for the complex of potential-dependent Na channel and brevetoxin, marine polycyclic toxin. Then, its binding site was determined using photo-affinity labeling. Next, an investigation was made on intracellular target molecule of ritteragine B, a cytotoxic steroidal alkaloid isolated from Retterella tokioka Kott in 1992. This molecule was used to elucidate the mechanism of cell growth. It was suggested that the cytotoxity of ritteragine was not due to non-specific interaction with cell membrane, but due to an inhibition of some physiological activity through interaction with its target molecule. Furthermore, functional mechanism of norzoanthamine, a marine anti-osteoporosis alkaloid isolated from Zoanthus sp. was investigated using ovariectomized mouse as a postomenopausal osteoporosis model. It was demonstrated that the marine alkaloid is strongly inhibitory to lowering of bone weight and strength. To elucidate the physiological effects of zoanthamine in molecular level, construction of in vitro experimental system was made using human epithelial osteoblast, Saos-2, in which production of TGF-β has been demonstrated. When added with norzoanthamine to the model system, stimulative effects on its cell growth and adhesion were observed, indicating the expression of its target molecule. Additionally, functional analysis was made on okadaic acid binding protein, OABP-2. It has been reported that okadaic acid, a marine polyether toxin isolated from Halichondria okadai was strongly cytotoxic because of protein phosphatase activity. Since okadaic acid has been demonstrated to be also toxic to the host, sponge, it has been

  18. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Japan, 4th Intelligent Robots Symposium, Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-16

    Robots 43064062 Tokyo 4TH INTELLIGENT ROBOTS SYMPOSIUM PAPERS in Japanese 13/14 Jun 88 No 106 pp 39-44 [Article by H. Kimura , I. Shimoyama, and H. Miura...pp 237-239. 3. K. Kondo and F. Kimura , "High-Speed Orbit Planning Based on Labyrinthine Method," Ibid., pp 261-262. 4. T. Hasegawa, "Planning of...Satoshi Okada, Kazuhiro Tsumura, Hisashi Hozeki, Katsumi Kubo, and Akira Abe, Toshiba Corporation] [Text] 1. Introduction In recent years, the

  19. Matrix effect and correction by standard addition in quantitative liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shinya; Tsukada, Katsuo

    2002-01-11

    An evaluation of the feasibility of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) with atmospheric pressure ionization was made for quantitation of four diarrhetic shellfish poisoning toxins, okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1, pectenotoxin-6 and yessotoxin in scallops. When LC-MS was applied to the analysis of scallop extracts, large signal suppressions were observed due to coeluting substances from the column. To compensate for these matrix signal suppressions, the standard addition method was applied. First, the sample was analyzed and then the sample involving the addition of calibration standards is analyzed. Although this method requires two LC-MS runs per analysis, effective correction of quantitative errors was found.

  20. Stemcell Information: SKIP000515 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... Yohei Okada 岡田 洋平 Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine 慶應義塾大学 医学...部 生理学教室 Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine 慶應義塾大学 医学部 生理学教室 Hideyuki Okan...o 岡野 栄之 Information Only Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine 慶應義塾大学 医学部 生理学教室 ...

  1. Stemcell Information: SKIP000516 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... Yohei Okada 岡田 洋平 Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine 慶應義塾大学 医学...部 生理学教室 Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine 慶應義塾大学 医学部 生理学教室 Hideyuki Oka...no 岡野 栄之 Information Only Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine 慶應義塾大学 医学部 生理学教室 ...

  2. Stemcell Information: SKIP000520 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... Yohei Okada 岡田 洋平 Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine 慶應義塾大学 医学...部 生理学教室 Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine 慶應義塾大学 医学部 生理学教室 Hideyuki O...kano 岡野 栄之 Information Only Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine 慶應義塾大学 医学部 生理学教室 ...

  3. Stemcell Information: SKIP000517 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... Yohei Okada 岡田 洋平 Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine 慶應義塾大学 医学...部 生理学教室 Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine 慶應義塾大学 医学部 生理学教室 Hideyuki Okan...o 岡野 栄之 Information Only Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine 慶應義塾大学 医学部 生理学教室 ...

  4. Smartphone Cognitive Behavioral Therapy as an Adjunct to Pharmacotherapy for Refractory Depression: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantani, Akio; Kato, Tadashi; Furukawa, Toshi A; Horikoshi, Masaru; Imai, Hissei; Hiroe, Takahiro; Chino, Bun; Funayama, Tadashi; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Zhou, Qi; Kawanishi, Nao

    2017-11-03

    (95% CI 0.25-3.18, P=.02) lower on PHQ-9, 3.2 points (95% CI -0.01 to 6.3, P=.05) lower on BDI-II, and 0.75 points (95% CI 0.03-1.47, P=.04) lower on FIBSER than the control (n=57). The treatment benefits were maintained up to week 17. This is the first study to demonstrate the effectiveness of a smartphone CBT in the treatment of clinically diagnosed depression. Given the merits of the mobile mental health intervention, including accessibility, affordability, quality control, and effectiveness, it is clinically worthwhile to consider adjunctive use of a smartphone CBT app when treating patients with antidepressant-resistant depression. Research into its effectiveness in wider clinical contexts is warranted. Japanese Clinical Trials Registry UMIN CTR 000013693; https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr_e/ ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000015984 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6u6pxVwik). ©Akio Mantani, Tadashi Kato, Toshi A Furukawa, Masaru Horikoshi, Hissei Imai, Takahiro Hiroe, Bun Chino, Tadashi Funayama, Naohiro Yonemoto, Qi Zhou, Nao Kawanishi. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 03.11.2017.

  5. TIME SERIES CHARACTERISTIC ANALYSIS OF RAINFALL, LAND USE AND FLOOD DISCHARGE BASED ON ARIMA BOX-JENKINS MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abror Abror

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia located in tropic area consists of wet season and dry season. However, in last few years, in river discharge in dry season is very little, but in contrary, in wet season, frequency of flood increases with sharp peak and increasingly great water elevation. The increased flood discharge may occur due to change in land use or change in rainfall characteristic. Both matters should get clarity. Therefore, a research should be done to analyze rainfall characteristic, land use and flood discharge in some watershed area (DAS quantitatively from time series data. The research was conducted in DAS Gintung in Parakankidang, DAS Gung in Danawarih, DAS Rambut in Cipero, DAS Kemiri in Sidapurna and DAS Comal in Nambo, located in Tegal Regency and Pemalang Regency in Central Java Province. This research activity consisted of three main steps: input, DAS system and output. Input is DAS determination and selection and searching secondary data. DAS system is early secondary data processing consisting of rainfall analysis, HSS GAMA I parameter, land type analysis and DAS land use. Output is final processing step that consisting of calculation of Tadashi Tanimoto, USSCS effective rainfall, flood discharge, ARIMA analysis, result analysis and conclusion. Analytical calculation of ARIMA Box-Jenkins time series used software Number Cruncher Statistical Systems and Power Analysis Sample Size (NCSS-PASS version 2000, which result in time series characteristic in form of time series pattern, mean square errors (MSE, root mean square ( RMS, autocorrelation of residual and trend. Result of this research indicates that composite CN and flood discharge is proportional that means when composite CN trend increase then flood discharge trend also increase and vice versa. Meanwhile, decrease of rainfall trend is not always followed with decrease in flood discharge trend. The main cause of flood discharge characteristic is DAS management characteristic, not change in

  6. Significance of downregulation of renal organic cation transporter (SLC47A1 in cisplatin-induced proximal tubular injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuno T

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomohiro Mizuno,1–3 Waichi Sato,2,3 Kazuhiro Ishikawa,4 Yuki Terao,1 Kazuo Takahashi,2 Yukihiro Noda,5 Yukio Yuzawa,2 Tadashi Nagamatsu1 1Department of Analytical Pharmacology, Meijo University Faculty of Pharmacy, Nagoya, 2Department of Nephrology, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, 3Department of Nephrology, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Nagoya, 4Department of Neuropsychopharmacology and Hospital Pharmacy, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya, 5Division of Clinical Sciences and Neuropsychopharmacology, Meijo University Faculty of Pharmacy, Nagoya, Japan Background/aim: To elucidate the mechanism responsible for developing acute kidney injury in patients with diabetes mellitus, we also evaluated the issue of whether advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs influence the expressions of multi antimicrobial extrusion protein (MATE1/SLC47A1 in tubular cells. Materials and methods: To detect changing expression of MATE1/SLC47A1 in dose- and time-dependent manners, human proximal tubular epithelial cells were incubated with AGE-aggregated-human serum albumin. As a function assay for MATE1/SLC47A1, human proximal tubular epithelial cells were incubated with cisplatin or carboplatin. Results: On incubation with AGEs, the expressions of MATE1/SLC47A1 were decreased in tubular cells. In addition, the toxicities of cisplatin were increased in tubular cells that had been pretreated with AGEs. However, the toxicities of carboplatin were smaller than that of cisplatin in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Conclusion: The expression of the MATE1/SLC47A1 is decreased by AGEs, which increases the risk for proximal tubular injury. Keywords: advanced glycation endproducts, cisplatin, SLC47A1, diabetes mellitus, acute kidney injury

  7. Tipepidine in adolescent patients with depression: a 4 week, open-label, preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki T

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tsuyoshi Sasaki,1,2 Kenji Hashimoto,3 Masumi Tachibana,1 Tsutomu Kurata,1 Hiroshi Kimura,2 Hideki Komatsu,2 Masatomo Ishikawa,2 Tadashi Hasegawa,2 Akihiro Shiina,1 Tasuku Hashimoto,2 Nobuhisa Kanahara,4 Tetsuya Shiraishi,2 Masaomi Iyo1–41Department of Child Psychiatry, Chiba University Hospital, 2Department of Psychiatry, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 3Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, 4Division of Medical Treatment and Rehabilitation, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Inohana, Chiba, JapanDepression in children and adolescents is a common, recurrent, and debilitating condition associated with increased psychosocial, and medical morbidity and mortality.1The global prevalence of depression in children and adolescents is 1%–2% and 3%–8%, respectively.2 Depressive symptoms are also associated with significant functional impairment in school and the work place (often requiring legal interventions,1–5 and an increased risk for substance abuse and suicide.6–9 Clinical guidelines suggest the use of two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI, namely fluoxetine and escitalopram, both of which are effective with generally acceptable safety profiles in the treatment of adolescent depression.10 Additionally, combination treatment with an SSRI and psychotherapy, typically cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT, has shown benefit in this cohort.10 However, caution is warranted since antidepressants therapy in children and adolescents is associated with increased rates of suicidal ideation11–13 and adverse effects, characterized by excessive emotional arousal or behavioral activation.14 These results highlight the need for new therapies in adolescent patients with depression, particularly therapies with fewer side effects.View original paper by Brent and Maalouf.

  8. KCl stimulation increases norepinephrine transporter function in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandela, Prashant; Ordway, Gregory A

    2006-09-01

    The norepinephrine transporter (NET) plays a pivotal role in terminating noradrenergic signaling and conserving norepinephrine (NE) through the process of re-uptake. Recent evidence suggests a close association between NE release and regulation of NET function. The present study evaluated the relationship between release and uptake, and the cellular mechanisms that govern these processes. KCl stimulation of PC12 cells robustly increased [3H]NE uptake via the NET and simultaneously increased [3H]NE release. KCl-stimulated increases in uptake and release were dependent on Ca2+. Treatment of cells with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) or okadaic acid decreased [3H]NE uptake but did not block KCl-stimulated increases in [3H]NE uptake. In contrast, PMA increased [3H]NE release and augmented KCl-stimulated release, while okadaic acid had no effects on release. Inhibition of Ca2+-activated signaling cascades with KN93 (a Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent kinase inhibitor), or ML7 and ML9 (myosin light chain kinase inhibitors), reduced [3H]NE uptake and blocked KCl-stimulated increases in uptake. In contrast, KN93, ML7 and ML9 had no effect on KCl-stimulated [3H]NE release. KCl-stimulated increases in [3H]NE uptake were independent of transporter trafficking to the plasma membrane. While increases in both NE release and uptake mediated by KCl stimulation require Ca2+, different intracellular mechanisms mediate these two events.

  9. Circumvention of camptothecin-induced resistance during the adaptive cellular stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiligada, Ekaterini; Papamichael, Konstantinos; Vovou, Ioanna; Delitheos, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Camptothecin-11 (CPT-11) induces the adaptive stress response in yeast, conferring resistance via not fully characterized mechanisms. This study aimed at exploring, pharmacologically, the mechanisms underlying the CPT-11-induced resistance in yeast. Post-logarithmic yeast cultures were submitted to heat shock following preconditioning with suramin and with CPT-11, either alone or in combination with suramin, cycloheximide, sodium molybdate, okadaic acid, or verapamil. The stress response was evaluated by determining cell viability after heat shock. Preconditioning with CPT-11 or suramin conferred thermotolerance to yeast cells. Co-administration of CPT-11 with suramin, cycloheximide or okadaic acid reversed the CPT-11-induced thermotolerant phenotype, while sodium molybdate and verapamil had no effect on CPT-11-induced resistance. The antagonistic effect of the thermotolerance-inducers and the possible contribution of topoisomerase II activity and post-translational modifications mediated by the phosphatases PP1/2A in CPT-11-induced resistance may have important implications on the acquisition of resistance to stress in eukaryotic cells.

  10. Dinophysis Toxins: Causative Organisms, Distribution and Fate in Shellfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguera, Beatriz; Riobó, Pilar; Rodríguez, Francisco; Díaz, Patricio A.; Pizarro, Gemita; Paz, Beatriz; Franco, José M.; Blanco, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Several Dinophysis species produce diarrhoetic toxins (okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins) and pectenotoxins, and cause gastointestinal illness, Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP), even at low cell densities (Chile, and Europe. Toxicity and toxin profiles are very variable, more between strains than species. The distribution of DSP events mirrors that of shellfish production areas that have implemented toxin regulations, otherwise misinterpreted as bacterial or viral contamination. Field observations and laboratory experiments have shown that most of the toxins produced by Dinophysis are released into the medium, raising questions about the ecological role of extracelular toxins and their potential uptake by shellfish. Shellfish contamination results from a complex balance between food selection, adsorption, species-specific enzymatic transformations, and allometric processes. Highest risk areas are those combining Dinophysis strains with high cell content of okadaates, aquaculture with predominance of mytilids (good accumulators of toxins), and consumers who frequently include mussels in their diet. Regions including pectenotoxins in their regulated phycotoxins will suffer from much longer harvesting bans and from disloyal competition with production areas where these toxins have been deregulated. PMID:24447996

  11. Identification of pectenotoxins in plankton, filter feeders, and isolated cells of a Dinophysis acuminata with an atypical toxin profile, from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Juan; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Uribe, Eduardo

    2007-04-01

    A bloom of Dinophysis acuminata produced, in autumn of 2005, a closure of the scallop harvesting in Bahía Inglesa, in the Chilean III region. Isolated cells of this Dinophysis species were shown to contain 180 pg cell(-1) of pectenotoxin 2 but neither okadaic acid nor any of its analogs or derivatives (at least at a detectable level). Examination of plankton and filter-feeder samples covering an area of ca. 350 km, from the location where the toxicity was recorded to Bahía Tongoy, showed that the unique toxin profile found in the first bloom was widespread over that part of Chile and persisted for months. The analysis were carried out by HPLC-ESI-MS using positive ionization mode, with a detection limit below 2 ng of OA mL(-1) of methanolic extract. This is the first report of the presence of pectenotoxins in the plankton of the Pacific coast of America and in the studied filter feeders. This is also the first report of a Dinophysis species containing pectenotoxins and not any toxin of the okadaic acid group.

  12. Sp1 transcriptional activity is up-regulated by phosphatase 2A in dividing T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Isabelle; Lipcey, Carol; Imbert, Jean; Kahn-Perlès, Brigitte

    2002-03-15

    We have followed Sp1 expression in primary human T lymphocytes induced, via CD2 plus CD28 costimulation, to sustained proliferation and subsequent return to quiescence. Binding of Sp1 to wheat germ agglutinin lectin was not modified following activation, indicating that the overall glycosylation of the protein was unchanged. Sp1 underwent, instead, a major dephosphorylation that correlated with cyclin A expression and, thus, with cell cycle progression. A similar change was observed in T cells that re-entered cell cycle following secondary interleukin-2 stimulation, as well as in serum-induced proliferating NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) appears involved because 1) treatment of dividing cells with okadaic acid or cantharidin inhibited Sp1 dephosphorylation and 2) PP2A dephosphorylated Sp1 in vitro and strongly interacted with Sp1 in vivo. Sp1 dephosphorylation is likely to increase its transcriptional activity because PP2A overexpression potentiated Sp1 site-driven chloramphenicol acetyltransferase expression in dividing Kit225 T cells and okadaic acid reversed this effect. This increase might be mediated by a stronger affinity of dephosphorylated Sp1 for DNA, as illustrated by the reduced DNA occupancy by hyperphosphorylated Sp factors from cantharidin- or nocodazole-treated cells. Finally, Sp1 dephosphorylation appears to occur throughout cell cycle except for mitosis, a likely common feature to all cycling cells.

  13. Reactions of tobacco genotypes with different antioxidant capacities to powdery mildew and Tobacco mosaic virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullner, Gábor; Juhász, Csilla; Németh, Adél; Barna, Balázs

    2017-10-01

    The interactions of powdery mildew (Golovinomyces orontii) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) with tobacco lines having down or upregulated antioxidants were investigated. Xanthi-nc, its salicylic acid-deficient NahG mutant, a paraquat-sensitive Samsun (PS) and its paraquat tolerant (PT) mutant were used. Cell membrane damage caused by H 2 O 2 was significantly higher in NahG than Xanthi, whereas it was lower in PT than in PS. Leakage of ions from PT was reduced by the powdery mildew infection. On the other hand TMV inoculation led to a 6-fold and 2-fold elevation of ion leakage from hypersensitive resistant NahG and Xanthi leaves, respectively, whereas ion leakage increased slightly from susceptible PS leaves. G. orontii infection induced ribonuclease (RNase) enzyme activity in extracts from Xanthi and NahG (about 200-250% increase) and weakly (about 20-30% increase) from PS and PT lines. Pre-treatment with protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine or protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid very strongly inhibited mildew development on tobacco lines. Our experiments suggest that protein kinases inhibited by staurosporine seem to be important factors, while protein phosphatases inhibited by okadaic acid play less significant role in TMV-induced lesion development. Both powdery mildew and TMV infections up-regulated the expression of PR-1b, PR-1c and WRKY12 genes in all tobacco lines to various extents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk associated with toxic blooms of marine phytoplankton functional groups on Artemia franciscana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana D’ors

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study mortality of copepod Artemia franciscana against the occurrence of harmful marine algae and possible toxicological changes exhibited by binary and tertiary combinations of these harmful algae toxins. Methods: Tweenty four hours acute toxicity assays were performed with selected concentrations of Alexandrium minutum, Prorocentrum lima and Nitzschia N1c1 living cells. Additionally, the results were analyzed using the median-effect/combination index (CI-isobologram equation to assess possible changes in the toxic effect induced by phytoplankton functional groups. Results: Biotoxin equivalent values obtained by immunodetection were (2.12±0.10, (8.60±1.30 and (4.32±1.67 pg/cell for saxitoxin, okadaic acid and domoic acid, respectively. The 24-h LC50 values estimated to saxitoxin and okadaic acid equivalents were 4.06 and 6.27 µg/L, significantly below the value obtained for Nitzschia N1c1, which was established at 467.33 µg/L. CI analysis applied on phytoplankton assemblages showed that both ternary mixture as the binary combinations exhibited antagonic action on toxic effects in Artemia nauplii, which were significantly lower than the toxic effect exhibited by each species studied. Conclusions: These results show that, although these harmful algae represent a serious risk to estuarine zooplankton community, the presence of phytoplankton functional groups within the same bloom can reduce the potential risk compared to the expected risk when each of the phytoplankton groups are evaluated individually.

  15. RESISTENCIA AL TIZÓN TARDÍO (Phytophthora infestans EN CLONES PROMISORIOS DE PAPA EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Barquero

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la resistencia al tizón tardío presente en 83 genotipos de papa, provenientes de diferentes cruces y fusión de protoplastos de líneas de mejoramiento con las especies silves- tres Solanum bulbocastanum, S. circaeifolium, S. okadae, S. laxissimum, S. berthaultii, S. pinnatisectum y S. commersonii. Los materiales fueron evaluados en el campo, y en el labora- torio se realizó pruebas de foliolos separados, utilizando como inóculo una raza compleja (1- 11 de P. infestans. Los genotipos provenientes de las hibridaciones somáticas o cruces con las especies silvestres S. bulbocastanum, S. circaei-folium y S. okadae fueron los que presentaron los valores más bajos del área bajo la curva de desarrollo de la enfermedad: 60, 80 y 79, res- pectivamente. Las variedades Alpha, Waych'a,Pimpernell y Granola, utilizadas como testigos, presentaron los valores más altos del área bajo la curva 477, 474, 466 y 427, respectivamente.

  16. Dinophysis Toxins: Causative Organisms, Distribution and Fate in Shellfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Reguera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Dinophysis species produce diarrhoetic toxins (okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins and pectenotoxins, and cause gastointestinal illness, Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP, even at low cell densities (<103 cells·L−1. They are the main threat, in terms of days of harvesting bans, to aquaculture in Northern Japan, Chile, and Europe. Toxicity and toxin profiles are very variable, more between strains than species. The distribution of DSP events mirrors that of shellfish production areas that have implemented toxin regulations, otherwise misinterpreted as bacterial or viral contamination. Field observations and laboratory experiments have shown that most of the toxins produced by Dinophysis are released into the medium, raising questions about the ecological role of extracelular toxins and their potential uptake by shellfish. Shellfish contamination results from a complex balance between food selection, adsorption, species-specific enzymatic transformations, and allometric processes. Highest risk areas are those combining Dinophysis strains with high cell content of okadaates, aquaculture with predominance of mytilids (good accumulators of toxins, and consumers who frequently include mussels in their diet. Regions including pectenotoxins in their regulated phycotoxins will suffer from much longer harvesting bans and from disloyal competition with production areas where these toxins have been deregulated.

  17. Influence of fault asymmetric dislocation on the gravity changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Hurong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement along the fractures as a result of earth movement. Large faults within the Earth’s crust result from the action of plate tectonic forces, with the largest forming the boundaries between the plates, energy release associated with rapid movement on active faults is the cause of most earthquakes. The relationship between unevenness dislocation and gravity changes was studied on the theoretical thought of differential fault. Simulated observation values were adopted to deduce the gravity changes with the model of asymmetric fault and the model of Okada, respectively. The characteristic of unevennes fault momentum distribution is from two end points to middle by 0 according to a certain continuous functional increase. However, the fault momentum distribution in the fault length range is a constant when the Okada model is adopted. Numerical simulation experiments for the activities of the strike-slip fault, dip-slip fault and extension fault were carried out, respectively, to find that both the gravity contours and the gravity variation values are consistent when either of the two models is adopted. The apparent difference lies in that the values at the end points are 17. 97% for the strike-slip fault, 25. 58% for the dip-slip fault, and 24. 73% for the extension fault.

  18. O problema de caminho mínimo com incertezas e restrições de tempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Hernandes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O problema de caminho mínimo em grafos com parâmetros incertos é um importante problema da programação matemática, visto que possui aplicações nas mais diversas áreas da Computação e da Engenharia, como: redes de computadores, telecomunicações, transportes, manufaturas, dentre outros. Porém, devido à sua alta complexidade computacional, poucos são os algoritmos existentes na literatura. Neste trabalho é proposto um algoritmo, baseado no algoritmo de Okada & Soper, que utiliza dois parâmetros incertos nos arcos, custo e tempo, com restrições de tempo nos nós. As incertezas são abordadas utilizando a teoria dos conjuntos fuzzy.The shortest path problem in graphs with uncertainties in the parameters is an important problem in the mathematical programming, since it has a wide range of applications in different areas of Computation and Engineering, such as: computer networks, telecommunications, transportation, manufacturing, etc. However, due to its high computational complexity, there are few algorithms in the literature. In this paper is proposed an algorithm, based on Okada and Soper algorithm, which uses two uncertainty parameters, cost and time, with time restrictions in the nodes. The uncertainties are discussed using the fuzzy set theory.

  19. Calibration curves for biological dosimetry by drug-induced prematurely condensed chromosomes in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, C. M.; Chung, H. C.; Cho, C. K.

    2002-01-01

    To develop the cytogenetic tool to detect chromosome damages after high dose exposure with 60 Coγ- rays, dose-response curves were measured for induction of prematurely condensed chromosomes (PCC) in peripheral lymphocytes. Blood was obtained from 10 different healthy donors, and given okadaic acid (OA) 500nM in cultured lymphocytes 1h after radiation exposure. Cells were analyzed by the frequencies of OA-induced PCC rings because it is difficult to obtain mitotic chromosomes using a conventional chromosome aberration (CA). PCC-rings were scored in cells exposed in the dose range of 0.2-16Gy. The frequency of the cells with PCC and the dose-response relationship for the yield of PCC rings were examined in the irradiated lymphocytes. The yield of PCC-rings increased with dose dependent-manner up to 16Gy. The observed dose-effect relationship for the percentage of cells with PCC-rings was calculated by linear-quadratic model. This technique can be applied to biological dosimetry of radiation exposures involving whole body irradiation to allow damaged chromosomes to be detected with great sensitivity. Detection of okadaic acid-induced PCC rings is a useful method up to 16Gy or more doses in estimating the absorbed doses of victims after high dose exposure. Calibration curves described in this paper will be used in our laboratory for biological dosimetry by PCC-ring after a high dose exposure

  20. The spectral properties of (--epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCG fluorescence in different solvents: dependence on solvent polarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Snitsarev

    Full Text Available (--Epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCG a molecule found in green tea and known for a plethora of bioactive properties is an inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90, a protein of interest as a target for cancer and neuroprotection. Determination of the spectral properties of EGCG fluorescence in environments similar to those of binding sites found in proteins provides an important tool to directly study protein-EGCG interactions. The goal of this study is to examine the spectral properties of EGCG fluorescence in an aqueous buffer (AB at pH=7.0, acetonitrile (AN (a polar aprotic solvent, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO (a polar aprotic solvent, and ethanol (EtOH (a polar protic solvent. We demonstrate that EGCG is a highly fluorescent molecule when excited at approximately 275 nm with emission maxima between 350 and 400 nm depending on solvent. Another smaller excitation peak was found when EGCG is excited at approximately 235 nm with maximum emission between 340 and 400 nm. We found that the fluorescence intensity (FI of EGCG in AB at pH=7.0 is significantly quenched, and that it is about 85 times higher in an aprotic solvent DMSO. The Stokes shifts of EGCG fluorescence were determined by solvent polarity. In addition, while the emission maxima of EGCG fluorescence in AB, DMSO, and EtOH follow the Lippert-Mataga equation, its fluorescence in AN points to non-specific solvent effects on EGCG fluorescence. We conclude that significant solvent-dependent changes in both fluorescence intensity and fluorescence emission shifts can be effectively used to distinguish EGCG in aqueous solutions from EGCG in environments of different polarity, and, thus, can be used to study specific EGCG binding to protein binding sites where the environment is often different from aqueous in terms of polarity.

  1. Phenazine containing indeno-furan based colorimetric and “on–off” fluorescent sensor for the detection of Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, Komal; Khurana, Jitender M., E-mail: jmkhurana1@yahoo.co.in

    2015-11-15

    A new fluorescent sensor 10a,15a-dihydroxy-10aH-benzo[a]indeno[2′,1′:4,5]furo[2,3-c]phenazin-15 (15aH)-one (1) based on the combination of phenazine and indenofuran moieties was designed and synthesized. Structure of the synthesized sensor has been confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Absorption and emission spectra of 1 has been studied in solvents of different polarity. The solvent effect on the spectral properties of 1 has been investigated by using the Lippert–Mataga and Reichardt–Dimroth methods. It exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity towards Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} ions over other metal ions by fluorescence quenching. Sensor 1 exhibited a visible color change from light orange to pink, and yellow in the presence of Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}, respectively. The fluorescence of the 1-Cu{sup 2+}/Pb{sup 2+} complexes can be reversibly restored to that of the uncomplexed ligand by using EDTA. Binding stoichiometry and mechanism of Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} ions detection have been investigated. The linear range for the synthesized sensor was found to be 1×10{sup −6}–6.31×10{sup −5} M with detection limit of 1.3×10{sup −6} M. Theoretical calculations were employed to understand the sensing mechanism of the sensors towards Cu{sup 2+}. - Highlights: • A new indeno-furan based “on–off” sensor for detection of Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} has been synthesized. • 1 shows naked-eye visible color changes upon interaction with Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}. • The complex formation of 1 with Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} could be reversed by addition of EDTA.

  2. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the molecular, electronic structure and solvatochromism of phenyl salicylate: External electric field effect on the electronic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sıdır, İsa; Sıdır, Yadigar Gülseven

    2017-11-01

    The UV-vis absorption and steady state fluorescence spectra of phenyl salicylate (abbreviated as PS) have been recorded in a series of non-polar, polar protic and polar aprotic solvents at room temperature and the obtained spectral data are used to determine the solvatochromic behavior and the ground and excited state dipole moments. Basis set sensitive molecular structure along with X-ray crystal data are evaluated. The ground state and excited state dipole moments are determined by using Lippert-Mataga, Bakhshiev, Bilot-Kawski and Reichardt solvatochromic shift methods as a function of dielectric constant (ε) and refractive index (n) of the solvents. The larger excited state dipole moment value indicates the more polar PS in the excited state. The rate of μe/μg is found as 2.4239. Solvatochromic behavior of PS is enlightened by using Kamlet-Taft and Catalan models. Kamlet-Taft solvatochromic model indicates that non-specific solute solvent interactions are controlled by solvent dispersion-induction forces and specific interactions are directed by hydrogen-bond donor capacity of solvent. Catalan solvatochromic model designates that solute-solvent interactions are governed by solvent polarizability. Ground and excited state dipole moments are found theoretically by using DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d, p) and TDDFT/B3LYP/6-31++G(d, p) methods. External electric field effect on LUMO-HOMO band gap and dipole moment have been investigated by using B3LYP/6-311++G(d, p) method.

  3. Synthesis and spectroscopic exploration of carboxylic acid derivatives of 6-hydroxy-1-keto-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazole: Hydrogen bond sensitive fluorescent probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Mitra, Amrit; Ghosh, Sujay; Chakraborty, Suchandra; Basu, Samita; Saha, Chandan

    2013-01-01

    Two new fluorescent carboxylic acid derivatives having 6-hydroxy-1-keto-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrocarbazole moiety, 2-(1-oxo-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazol-6-yloxy)acetic acid [OTHCA] and 2-(7-methoxy-1-oxo-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-carbazol-6-yloxy)acetic acid [MOTHCA] were synthesized by Japp–Klingemann reaction followed by Fischer indole cyclization. Extensive spectroscopic investigation has been carried out on the compounds in sixteen different aprotic and protic solvents as well as in binary solvent mixtures using absorption, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. Fluorescence maxima of the compounds have shifted consistently to longer wavelength in mediums of higher polarity and hydrogen bonding ability. Dipole moment change of the molecules upon photoexcitation has been calculated using Lippert–Mataga theory of solvatochromic shifts. Kamlet–Taft solvatochromic comparison method has been used to determine the dependence of spectral shifts upon empirical solvent parameters. Formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonding of both OTHCA and MOTHCA with protic solvents has been proved by comparing their spectral responses in toluene–acetonitrile and toluene–methanol solvent mixtures. -- Highlights: • The compounds have similar electronic distribution in ground and excited state. • Emission maxima shift towards red with increase in the E T (30) value of the solvents. • Dipole moment change in the excited state is different in protic and aprotic solvents. • OTHCA and MOTHCA form intermolecular hydrogen bond with protic solvents. • Fluorescence lifetime decays are bi-exponential in long chain alcoholic solvents

  4. Phenazine containing indeno-furan based colorimetric and “on–off” fluorescent sensor for the detection of Cu2+ and Pb2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, Komal; Khurana, Jitender M.

    2015-01-01

    A new fluorescent sensor 10a,15a-dihydroxy-10aH-benzo[a]indeno[2′,1′:4,5]furo[2,3-c]phenazin-15 (15aH)-one (1) based on the combination of phenazine and indenofuran moieties was designed and synthesized. Structure of the synthesized sensor has been confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis. Absorption and emission spectra of 1 has been studied in solvents of different polarity. The solvent effect on the spectral properties of 1 has been investigated by using the Lippert–Mataga and Reichardt–Dimroth methods. It exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity towards Cu 2+ and Pb 2+ ions over other metal ions by fluorescence quenching. Sensor 1 exhibited a visible color change from light orange to pink, and yellow in the presence of Cu 2+ and Pb 2+ , respectively. The fluorescence of the 1-Cu 2+ /Pb 2+ complexes can be reversibly restored to that of the uncomplexed ligand by using EDTA. Binding stoichiometry and mechanism of Cu 2+ and Pb 2+ ions detection have been investigated. The linear range for the synthesized sensor was found to be 1×10 −6 –6.31×10 −5 M with detection limit of 1.3×10 −6 M. Theoretical calculations were employed to understand the sensing mechanism of the sensors towards Cu 2+ . - Highlights: • A new indeno-furan based “on–off” sensor for detection of Cu 2+ and Pb 2+ has been synthesized. • 1 shows naked-eye visible color changes upon interaction with Cu 2+ and Pb 2+ . • The complex formation of 1 with Cu 2+ and Pb 2+ could be reversed by addition of EDTA

  5. Synthesis, crystal structure and photophysical properties of (E)-4-(4-(2-hydroxybenzylideneamino)benzyl)oxazolidin-2-one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumari, Rekha; Varghese, Anitha; George, Louis

    2016-01-01

    A new Schiff base, (4-(benzylideneamino)benzyl)oxazolidin-2-one has been synthesised from 4-(4-aminobenzyl)oxazolidin-2-one and salicylaldehyde by a simple condensation reaction. Single-crystal X-ray analysis of (E)-4-(4-(2-hydroxybenzylideneamino) benzyl)oxazolidin-2-one (HBOA) revealed that there is a 1-D, slipped, face-to-face motif with off-set, head-to-tail stacked columns. Detailed studies on photophysical properties of the synthesised compound in solutions indicate their potential applications in the field of organic light emitting devices and nonlinear optical materials. Absorption and fluorescence study of HBOA has been conducted in a series of solvents with increasing polarity at room temperature. Ground and excited state dipole moments have been determined experimentally by using Lippert–Mataga polarity function, Bakhshiev solvent polarity parameter, Kawskii–Chamma–Viallet solvent polarity parameter and RichardtГ—Віs microscopic solvent polarity parameter. Due to the considerable π-electron density redistribution, the excited state dipole moment was found to be larger than that of the ground state. The ground state dipole moment value was determined by quantum chemical method which was used to estimate excited state dipole moment through solvatochromic correlations. Kamlet–Taft and Catalan methods were used to get the information of both non-specific solute–solvent interactions and hydrogen bonding interactions. TD-DFT (B3LYP/6-311G(d,p)) has been used for the determination of HOMO–LUMO energies. Mulliken charges and Molecular electrostatic potential were also evaluated from DFT calculations.

  6. Evidence for excited state intramolecular charge transfer in benzazole-based pseudo-stilbenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fabiano da Silveira; Descalzo, Rodrigo Roceti; Gonçalves, Paulo Fernando Bruno; Benvenutti, Edilson Valmir; Rodembusch, Fabiano Severo

    2012-08-21

    Two azo compounds were obtained through the diazotization reaction of aminobenzazole derivatives and N,N-dimethylaniline using clay montmorillonite KSF as catalyst. The synthesized dyes were characterized using elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and (13)C and (1)H NMR spectroscopy in solution. Their photophysical behavior was studied using UV-vis and steady-state fluorescence in solution. These dyes present intense absorption in the blue region. The spectral features of the azo compounds can be related to the pseudo-stilbene type as well as the E isomer of the dyes. Excitation at the absorption maxima does not produce emissive species in the excited state. However, excitation around 350 nm allowed dual emission of fluorescence, from both a locally excited (LE, short wavelength) and an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT, long wavelength) state, which was corroborated by a linear relation of the fluorescence maximum (ν(max)) versus the solvent polarity function (Δf) from the Lippert-Mataga correlation. Evidence of TICT in these dyes was discussed from the viscosity dependence of the fluorescence intensity in the ICT emission band. Theoretical calculations were also performed in order to study the geometry and charge distribution of the dyes in their ground and excited electronic states. Using DFT methods at the theoretical levels BLYP/Aug-cc-pVDZ, for geometry optimizations and frequency calculations, and B3LYP/6-311+G(2d), for single-point energy evaluations, the calculations revealed that the least energetic and most intense photon absorption leads to a very polar excited state that relaxes non-radioactively, which can be associated with photochemical isomerization.

  7. [Effect of inhibitors serine/threonine protein kinases and protein phosphatases on mitosis progression of synchronized tobacco by-2 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheremet, Ia A; Emets, A I; Azmi, A; Vissenberg, K; Verbelen, J-P; Blium, Ia B

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of various serine/ threonine protein kinases and protein phosphatases in the regulation of mitosis progression in plant cells the influence of cyclin-dependent (olomoucine) and Ca2+ -calmodulin-dependent (W7) protein kinases inhibitors, as well as protein kinase C inhibitors (H7 and staurosporine) and protein phosphatases inhibitor (okadaic acid) on mitosis progression in synchronized tobacco BY-2 cells has been studied. It was found that BY-2 culture treatment with inhibitors of cyclin dependent protein kinases and protein kinase C causes prophase delay, reduces the mitotic index and displaces of mitotic peak as compare with control cells. Inhibition of Ca2+ -calmodulin dependent protein kinases enhances the cell entry into prophase and delays their exit from mitosis. Meanwhile inhibition of serine/threonine protein phosphatases insignificantly enhances of synchronized BY-2 cells entering into all phases of mitosis.

  8. Short term memory bowing effect is consistent with presentation rate dependent decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnow, Eugen

    2010-12-01

    I reanalyze the free recall data of Murdock, J Exp Psychol 64(5):482-488 (1962) and Murdock and Okada, J Verbal Learn and Verbal Behav 86:263-267 (1970) which show the famous bowing effect in which initial and recent items are recalled better than intermediate items (primacy and recency effects). Recent item recall probabilities follow a logarithmic decay with time of recall consistent with the tagging/retagging theory. The slope of the decay increases with increasing presentation rate. The initial items, with an effectively low presentation rate, decay with the slowest logarithmic slope, explaining the primacy effect. The finding that presentation rate limits the duration of short term memory suggests a basis for memory loss in busy adults, for the importance of slow music practice, for long term memory deficiencies for people with attention deficits who may be artificially increasing the presentation rates of their surroundings. A well-defined, quantitative measure of the primacy effect is introduced.

  9. Rapamycin causes activation of protein phosphatase-2A1 and nuclear translocation of PCNA in CD4+ T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, Peter W.; Tung, H.Y. Lim; Hemmings, Hugh C.

    2004-01-01

    Rapamycin is a powerful immunosuppressant that causes cell cycle arrest in T cells and several other cell types. Despite its important clinical role, the mechanism of action of rapamycin is not fully understood. Here, we show that rapamycin causes the activation of protein phosphatase-2A 1 which forms a complex with proliferation cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in a CD 4+ T cell line. Rapamycin also induces PCNA translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, an effect which is antagonized by okadaic acid, an inhibitor of type 2A protein phosphatases. These findings provide evidence for the existence of a signal transduction pathway that links a rapamycin-activated type 2A protein phosphatase to the control of DNA synthesis, DNA repair, cell cycle, and cell death via PCNA

  10. Surveillance guidelines for toxic algal species of Italian sea and lake waters; Indicazioni per il controllo delle specie algali tossiche delle acque marine e lacustri italiane: Studio delle coste e di un lago del Lazio: 1994-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Milena; Congestri, Roberta; Buzzelli, Elena [Istituot Superiore di Sanita` , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale

    1997-09-01

    The health conditions of the coasts of the Rome district and of a large lake in the northern area of the Latium Region were examined to evaluate the toxic algal species, during a 14-month study carried on in cooperation with the Region and the local prevention units of the Region. The study shows the existence of a mesotrophic state in the coastal waters of the lake Bolsena, and a trophic level increased in last years, along the sea coasts of the Rome district. alga populations of genus Dinophysis, harmless to bathing activities, but able to contaminate the edible molluscs with toxins of the okadaic acid group, have been found. The technical occurrences of this study points out the operators`need of a taxonomic atlas, collecting all the toxic algal species known in the Mediterranean basin. This report includes a number of drawings of all the signaled species, each one followed by a fried schedule with the main taxonomic characteristics.

  11. Demixing and effective volatility of molten alkali carbonate melts in MCFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenscheidt, T.; Wendt, H. [Institut fuer Chemische Technologie, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Since the early investigation of A. Klemm, the demixing of the cations of molten binary salt mixtures with a common anion due to the different mobilities of two different cations had been investigated in numerous experiments and the respective results interpreted in terms of structural features of the melts. 1-1 electrolytes had been preferentially investigated. Okada also reported investigations on lithium carbonate/potassium carbonate mixtures in the temperature range from 980 to 1070 K. From this investigation it is known that the heavier potassium cation is faster than lithium in mixtures which are more concentrated in potassium than x{sub K2CO3} = 0,32 (Chemla effect) whereas below this isotachic concentration lithium is faster. This paper investigates demixing in molten carbonate fuel cells.

  12. The law for the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fule Development Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Corporation is designated to engage in the independent development of fast breeder and advanced thermal reactors, the production, reprocessing and holding of nuclear fuel materials, and the exploration, mining and ore dressing of nuclear source materials to promoting the development and utilization of atomic energy. These activities are based on the Atomic Energy Basic Law, and limited to the peaceful uses. The basic concepts of a fast breeder reactor and an advanced thermal reactor are defined. A chapter is dedicated to the number, constitution, duties, competence, appointment and dismissal of the officers. The score of business is specified, beginning from the development and research of the reactors and ending with the import, export, purchase and selling of nuclear fuel materials and nuclear source materials. (Okada, K.)

  13. Use of Biosensors as Alternatives to Current Regulatory Methods for Marine Biotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis M. Botana

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine toxins are currently monitored by means of a bioassay that requires the use of many mice, which poses a technical and ethical problem in many countries. With the exception of domoic acid, there is a legal requirement for the presence of other toxins (yessotoxin, saxitoxin and analogs, okadaic acid and analogs, pectenotoxins and azaspiracids in seafood to be controlled by bioassay, but other toxins, such as palytoxin, cyclic imines, ciguatera and tetrodotoxin are potentially present in European food and there are no legal requirements or technical approaches available to identify their presence. The need for alternative methods to the bioassay is clearly important, and biosensors have become in recent years a feasible alternative to animal sacrifice. This review will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using biosensors as alternatives to animal assays for marine toxins, with particular focus on surface plasmon resonance (SPR technology.

  14. Investigating the Importance of 3D Structure & Topography in Seismic Deformation Modeling: Case Study of the April 2015 Nepal Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, L.; Gharti, H. N.; Tromp, J.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, observations of deformation at plate boundaries have been greatly improved by the development of techniques in space geodesy. However, models of seismic deformation remain limited and are unable to account for realistic 3D structure in topography and material properties. We demonstrate the importance of 3D structure using a spectral-element method that incorporates fault geometry, topography, and heterogeneous material properties in a (non)linear viscoelastic domain. Our method is benchmarked against Okada's analytical technique and the PyLith software package. The April 2015 Nepal earthquake is used as a case study to examine whether 3D structure can affect the predictions of seismic deformation models. We find that the inclusion of topography has a significant effect on our results.

  15. Relaxation incisions of venomous snake "Japanese mamushi" bites to the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugamata A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Akira Sugamata, Naoki Yoshizawa, Takahiro OkadaDepartment of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Tokyo Medical University Hachioji Medical Center, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Gloydius blomhoffii, commonly known as Japanese mamushi, is a venomous viper species found widely in Japan. The most frequently bitten regions are the fingers and toes, and severe swelling causes compression of peripheral arteries and/or compartment syndrome of the extremities. We experienced four cases of mamushi bites to the hand, and undertook relaxation incision in the hands of three of these patients. As a result, the patients who underwent relaxation incision did not show any skin necrosis or permanent sensory disturbance in the affected fingers. Relaxation incision can be useful to not only decompress subcutaneous and compartment pressure of the hand, but also to wash out the venom from the bitten region by improving venous and lymphatic drainage.Keywords: mamushi, snakebite, viper, relaxation incision

  16. Nodal domains on isospectral quantum graphs: the resolution of isospectrality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band, Ram; Shapira, Talia; Smilansky, Uzy

    2006-01-01

    We present and discuss isospectral quantum graphs which are not isometric. These graphs are the analogues of the isospectral domains in R 2 which were introduced recently in Gordon et al (1992 Bull. Am. Math. Soc. 27 134-8), Chapman (1995 Am. Math. Mon. 102 124), Buser et al (1994 Int. Math. Res. Not. 9 391-400), Okada and Shudo (2001 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 34 5911-22), Jakobson et al (2006 J. Comput. Appl. Math. 194 141-55) and Levitin et al (2006 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 2073-82)) all based on Sunada's construction of isospectral domains (Sunada T 1985 Ann. Math. 121 196-86). After presenting some of the properties of these graphs, we discuss a few examples which support the conjecture that by counting the nodal domains of the corresponding eigenfunctions one can resolve the isospectral ambiguity

  17. Mechanisms involved in growth inhibition induced by clofibrate in hepatoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzio, Giuliana; Maggiora, Marina; Trombetta, Antonella; Martinasso, Germana; Reffo, Patrizia; Colombatto, Sebastiano; Canuto, Rosa Angela

    2003-01-01

    Low concentrations of some peroxisome proliferators have been found to decrease apoptosis in rat liver cells, whereas higher but pharmacological concentrations have been found to inhibit cell proliferation or to induce apoptosis in human and rat hepatoma cells. The highly deviated JM2 rat hepatoma cell line was used to examine the mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect on cell proliferation. Clofibrate chiefly inhibited cell proliferation in these cells. Parallel to the decrease in cell proliferation there was an increase of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) gamma and of protein phosphatase 2A, whose importance was confirmed, respectively, by using antisense oliginucleotides (AS-ODN) or okadaic acid. The increase of protein phosphatase 2A induced by PPARgamma caused a decrease of MAPK, an intracellular signaling transduction pathway, as shown by evaluation of Erk1,2 and c-myc. In light of these results, clofibrate, like conventional synthetic ligands of PPARgamma, may be regarded as a possible prototype anti-tumour drug

  18. Experimental R-curve behavior in partially stabilized zirconia using moiracute e interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, K.E.; Okada, H.; Atluri, S.N.

    1993-01-01

    Moiracute e interferometry is employed to study toughening in partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ). Energy to fracture as a function of crack growth curves (R-curves) is derived from mode I compliance calculations and from near tip fitting of the moiracute e fringes. The effect of the tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation in the zirconia is found by comparing the bulk compliance R-curves to the locally derived moiracute e R-curve. Localized strain field plots are produced from the moiracute e data for the PSZ zirconia. The observed transformation zone height compares favorably with that predicted by Okada et al. in a companion paper, as does the qualitative nature of the R-curve with predictions by Stump and Budiansky

  19. Stemcell Information: SKIP000797 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pe II (ACG2) ... 200610 ... Fetus Female ... Yes No ACG II(GM07892)-specific iPS cells 軟骨無発症患者線維芽細胞(GM07892)由来iPS細胞...PS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University 京都大学iPS細胞研究所 ... Information Only Center for iPS Cell Res...earch and Application,Kyoto University 京都大学iPS細胞研究所 CiRA https://www.cira.kyoto-u.ac.jp/e/index.html ... 251...irected conversion and induced pluripotent stem cells. Okada M, Ikegawa S, Morioka M, Yamashita A, Saito A,

  20. Stemcell Information: SKIP000801 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available type II (ACG2) ... 200610 ... 0-9 Male ... Yes No ACG II(S2011-46)-specific iPS cells. Ⅱ型コラーゲン異常症患者線維芽細胞(S2011-46)由来iPS細胞... for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University 京都大学iPS細胞研究所 ... Information Only Center for iPS Ce...ll Research and Application,Kyoto University 京都大学iPS細胞研究所 CiRA https://www.cira.kyoto-u.ac.jp/e/index.html ... ...a by directed conversion and induced pluripotent stem cells. Okada M, Ikegawa S, Morioka M, Yamashita A, Sai

  1. Stemcell Information: SKIP001099 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available line derived from a neonate.(789013 KURABO)| 新生児皮膚繊維芽細胞(789013 KURABO)由来iPS細胞 human ES-like Res...ication, Kyoto University 京都大学iPS細胞研究所 ... Information Only Center for iPS Cell Research and Application,Kyoto University 京都大学iPS細胞... SKIP001099 ... Normal WT-2-#32 WT-2-#32 ... 0-9 Male ... -- No Nomal human iPS cell... Modeling type II collagenopathy skeletal dysplasia by directed conversion and in...duced pluripotent stem cells. Okada M, Ikegawa S, Morioka M, Yamashita A, Saito A, Sawai H, Murotsuki J, Oha

  2. Comparative analysis of purified Pacific and Caribbean ciguatoxin congeners and related marine toxins using a modified ELISA technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campora, Cara E; Hokama, Y; Ebesu, Joanne S M

    2006-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody to ciguatoxin (CTX) produced from a hybridoma cell line was assayed for the detection of four congeners of CTX: Pacific ciguatoxin-1 (P-CTX-1), Pacific ciguatoxin-2 (P-CTX-2), Pacific ciguatoxin-3 (P-CTX-3), and Caribbean ciguatoxin-1 (C-CTX-1) and related marine toxins, including domoic acid, palytoxin, and okadaic acid, using a modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Lower detection limits were assessed and linearity was statistically established (P<0.05) for P-CTX-1, P-CTX-2, and P-CTX-3 and C-CTX-1 at concentrations ranging from 0 to 5.00 ng, while the other marine toxins showed statistically insignificant cross-reactivities at similar concentrations. Thus, the monoclonal antibody to CTX is able to specifically detect various CTX congeners at levels comparable to those naturally occurring in ciguatoxic fish. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Production of monoclonal antibodies for sandwich immunoassay detection of ciguatoxin 51-hydroxyCTX3C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumuraya, Takeshi; Fujii, Ikuo; Inoue, Masayuki; Tatami, Atsushi; Miyazaki, Keisuke; Hirama, Masahiro

    2006-09-01

    Every year, more than 50,000 people in subtropical and tropical regions suffer from ciguatera seafood poisoning. The extremely low level of the causative neurotoxins (ciguatoxins) in fish has hampered the preparation of antibodies for detection of the toxins. In this study, we produced a monoclonal antibody (8H4) against the right end of ciguatoxin CTX1B (1) and 51-hydroxyCTX3C (3) by immunizing mice with the keyhole limpet hemocyanin-conjugate of the synthetic HIJKLM ring fragment (10). We used 8H4 and another previously reported monoclonal antibody (10C9) that recognizes the left end of 3 to develop a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect 3. The assay could detect 3 down to the ppb level and lacked cross-reactivity with other related marine toxins, including brevetoxin A, brevetoxin B, okadaic acid, and maitotoxin.

  4. Synthesis-based approach toward direct sandwich immunoassay for ciguatoxin CTX3C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguri, Hiroki; Hirama, Masahiro; Tsumuraya, Takeshi; Fujii, Ikuo; Maruyama, Megumi; Uehara, Hisatoshi; Nagumo, Yoko

    2003-06-25

    Ciguatoxins are the major causative toxins of ciguatera seafood poisoning. Limited availability of ciguatoxins has hampered the development of a reliable and specific immunoassay for detecting these toxins in contaminated fish. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific against both ends of ciguatoxin CTX3C were prepared by immunization of mice with protein conjugates of rationally designed synthetic haptens, 3 and 4, in place of the natural toxin. Haptenic groups that possess a surface area larger than 400 A(2) were required to produce mAbs that can bind strongly to CTX3C itself. A direct sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using these mAbs was established to detect CTX3C at the ppb level with no cross-reactivity against other related marine toxins, including brevetoxin A, brevetoxin B, okadaic acid, or maitotoxin.

  5. Evaluation of buckling characteristics with respect to slenderness ratio for thin cylinderical structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D. H.; Ko, K. H.; Lee, J. H.

    2002-01-01

    This work was done as one of the pre-research of buckling behavior for LMR reactor vessel. For the reduced scale buckling test, the three types of test specimen(slenderness ratio 1.0, 2.0, 4.8) was selected. Using the buckling formulae by Okada and the elastic-plastic finite element method, the buckling characteristics are investigated. From the results of buckling load evaluations, as the slenderness ratio decreases, the buckling load increases and a deflection shape approaches shear buckling mode. As the slenderness increases, the deflection approaches bending buckling mode. In comparison of buckling loads, the calculated buckling loads by the elastic-plastic finite element method are in good agreement with those of the evaluation formulae considering with plastic effect

  6. Stemcell Information: SKIP000804 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 610 ... 0-9 Male ... Yes No Hypochondrogenesis(S2011-43)-specific iPS cells. Ⅱ型コラーゲン異常症(軟骨低発生症)患者線維芽細胞(S2011-43)由来iPS細胞...r for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University 京都大学iPS細胞研究所 ... Information Only Center for iPS C...ell Research and Application,Kyoto University 京都大学iPS細胞研究所 CiRA https://www.cira.kyoto-u.ac.jp/e/index.html ...ia by directed conversion and induced pluripotent stem cells. Okada M, Ikegawa S, Morioka M, Yamashita A, Sa

  7. Stemcell Information: SKIP000805 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 610 ... 0-9 Male ... Yes No Hypochondrogenesis(S2011-43)-specific iPS cells. Ⅱ型コラーゲン異常症(軟骨低発生症)患者線維芽細胞(S2011-43)由来iPS細胞...r for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University 京都大学iPS細胞研究所 ... Information Only Center for iPS C...ell Research and Application,Kyoto University 京都大学iPS細胞研究所 CiRA https://www.cira.kyoto-u.ac.jp/e/index.html ...ia by directed conversion and induced pluripotent stem cells. Okada M, Ikegawa S, Morioka M, Yamashita A, Sa

  8. Stemcell Information: SKIP000798 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available II (ACG2) ... 200610 ... Fetus Female ... Yes No ACG II(GM07892)-specific iPS cells 軟骨無発生症患者線維芽細胞(GM07892)由来iPS細胞...S Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University 京都大学iPS細胞研究所 ... Information Only Center for iPS Cell Rese...arch and Application,Kyoto University 京都大学iPS細胞研究所 CiRA https://www.cira.kyoto-u.ac.jp/e/index.html ... 2518...rected conversion and induced pluripotent stem cells. Okada M, Ikegawa S, Morioka M, Yamashita A, Saito A, S

  9. Stemcell Information: SKIP001098 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available line derived from a neonate.(789013 KURABO)| 新生児皮膚繊維芽細胞(789013 KURABO)由来iPS細胞 human ES-like Res...ication, Kyoto University 京都大学iPS細胞研究所 ... Information Only Center for iPS Cell Research and Application,Kyoto University 京都大学iPS細胞... SKIP001098 ... Normal WT-2-#31 WT-2-#31 ... 0-9 Male ... -- No Nomal human iPS cell... Modeling type II collagenopathy skeletal dysplasia by directed conversion and in...duced pluripotent stem cells. Okada M, Ikegawa S, Morioka M, Yamashita A, Saito A, Sawai H, Murotsuki J, Oha

  10. Stemcell Information: SKIP000802 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pe II (ACG2) ... 200610 ... 0-9 Male ... Yes No ACG II(S2011-46)-specific iPS cells. Ⅱ型コラーゲン異常症患者線維芽細胞(S2011-46)由来iPS細胞...or iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University 京都大学iPS細胞研究所 ... Information Only Center for iPS Cell... Research and Application,Kyoto University 京都大学iPS細胞研究所 CiRA https://www.cira.kyoto-u.ac.jp/e/index.html ... ...by directed conversion and induced pluripotent stem cells. Okada M, Ikegawa S, Morioka M, Yamashita A, Saito

  11. Stemcell Information: SKIP000803 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 610 ... 0-9 Male ... Yes No Hypochondrogenesis(S2011-43)-specific iPS cells. Ⅱ型コラーゲン異常症(軟骨低発生症)患者線維芽細胞(S2011-43)由来iPS細胞...r for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University 京都大学iPS細胞研究所 ... Information Only Center for iPS C...ell Research and Application,Kyoto University 京都大学iPS細胞研究所 CiRA https://www.cira.kyoto-u.ac.jp/e/index.html ...ia by directed conversion and induced pluripotent stem cells. Okada M, Ikegawa S, Morioka M, Yamashita A, Sa

  12. Stemcell Information: SKIP000800 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available type II (ACG2) ... 200610 ... 0-9 Male ... Yes No ACG II(S2011-46)-specific iPS cells. Ⅱ型コラーゲン異常症患者線維芽細胞(S2011-46)由来iPS細胞...r for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University 京都大学iPS細胞研究所 ... Information Only Center for iPS C...ell Research and Application,Kyoto University 京都大学iPS細胞研究所 CiRA https://www.cira.kyoto-u.ac.jp/e/index.html ...ia by directed conversion and induced pluripotent stem cells. Okada M, Ikegawa S, Morioka M, Yamashita A, Sa

  13. Toxin production in Dinophysis and the fate of these toxins in marine mussels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor

    Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) poses a considerable threat to food safety and to the economy of shellfish fishers and farmers in many parts of the world. Thousands of DSP intoxications have been reported, and bivalve harvesting can sometimes be closed down several months in a row. The toxins....... acuta. I grew the two species in laboratory cultures at different irradiances (7-130 μmol photons m-2 s-1) and with different food availability. The results showed that irradiance had no effects on toxin profiles, and only limited effects of the cellular toxin contents. Rather, toxin production rates...... are primarily produced by the marine mixotrophic dinoflagellates Dinophysis spp., known to occur in most parts of the world. Dinophysis can, along with other planktonic organisms, be consumed by filter-feeding bivalves, and thus the toxins can accumulate. Dinophysis can produce the three toxin groups, okadaic...

  14. [Plants as a source of natural harmful substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwiecki, Ludwik

    2005-01-01

    In this review the several data concerning phytotoxins as natural harmful substances of plants and phycotoxins--toxicants of algae were described. For example plants are source of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, glycoalkaloids, glucosinolates as well as glycosides, saponine and psolarens. Possible adverse effects of phytoestrogens as endocrine disruptors versus beneficial influence these substances on human organism were mentioned. About lectins as possible factors of some diseases was reported, as well as some proteins as allergens of soy and peanuts was mentioned. Accumulated by shellfish and fish the most important phycotoxins such as saxitoxin, okadaic acid, brevetoxins and ciguatoxins were described. Phycotoxins produced several poisoning symptoms. Microcystins and nodularin--cyanobacterial phycotoxins of freshwater, was mentioned. In conclusion, the need of limitation of permissible levels of some plant toxicants, development of analytical methods as well as knowledge of influence of some technological processes on toxic plant substances was highlighted. The importance of balanced diet as a tool of defense against plant toxicants was concluded.

  15. Stemcell Information: SKIP001100 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available line derived from a neonate.(789013 KURABO)| 新生児皮膚繊維芽細胞(789013 KURABO)由来iPS細胞 human ES-like Res...ication, Kyoto University 京都大学iPS細胞研究所 ... Information Only Center for iPS Cell Research and Application,Kyoto University 京都大学iPS細胞... SKIP001100 ... Normal WT-2-#33 WT-2-#33 ... 0-9 Male ... -- No Nomal human iPS cell... Modeling type II collagenopathy skeletal dysplasia by directed conversion and in...duced pluripotent stem cells. Okada M, Ikegawa S, Morioka M, Yamashita A, Saito A, Sawai H, Murotsuki J, Oha

  16. Effect of nalidixic acid on repair of single-strand breaks in DNA induced by ionizing irradiation in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francia, I [Debreceni Orvostudomanyi Egyetem (Hungary); Okos, A; Hernadi, F J [Institute of Pharmacology, Debrecen (Hungary)

    1978-09-30

    The incidence of DNA single-strand breaks induced by /sup 60/Co irradiation and their repair in E.coli K12 (AB 1157) rec/sup +/ cells were studied by the alkaline sucrose gradient sedimentation method described by McGrath and Williams. For the quantitative analysis of sedimentation profiles we used the s 1/2 values described by Veatch and Okada. The s 1/2 value of non-irradiated controls was 22.4, and after 20 krads irradiation it was found to be 11.7. A postirradiation incubation at 37 /sup 0/C for 60 min increasedthe s 1/2 value from 11.7 to 22.1. Nalidixic acid at low concentration (20-50 ..mu..g/ml) did not block, but at 100 ..mu..g/ml extensively inhibited the above repair process, exhibiting an s 1/2 value of 14.4.

  17. Malaria and Anemia among Children in a Low Resource Setting In Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Onifade

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed at determining the prevalence of malaria and anemia among child­ren in rural community of Okada, Edo State Nigeria, as well as to assess the level of use of Insecti­cide treated bed nets and its impact on prevalence of malaria and anemia among study population. Methods: Thick blood films from 226 children with signs and symptoms of malaria in Okada commu­nity were stained and examined for presence of malaria parasites. Hemoglobin concentra­tion of all children was also determined using standard method. Result: A total of 185 (81.9% children were infected with malaria parasite. Malaria parasitaemia was significantly affected by age (P =0.003. A significantly higher number of positive cases of malaria and anemia was observed in rainy season as compared to dry season (P<0.05. The prevalence of anemia in children was 47.3%. Malaria was a risk factor for development of anemia in children (OR=2.551; 95% CI=1.227, 5.305; P=0.015. Use of insecticide treated bed nets was recorded in 11(4.9% of children studied, and did not significantly reduce the prevalence of malaria and anemia. However among malaria parasite infected children, its use significantly reduced the prevalence of anemia (OR=0.126; 95%CI = 0.015, 1.047; P= 0.031. Conclusion: Malaria and anemia among children was high malaria intervention progammes by rele­vant agencies is strongly advocated.

  18. Cyclic Equibiaxial Tensile Strain Alters Gene Expression of Chondrocytes via Histone Deacetylase 4 Shuttling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongwei Chen

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate whether equibiaxial tensile strain alters chondrocyte gene expression via controlling subcellular localization of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4.Murine chondrocytes transfected with GFP-HDAC4 were subjected to 3 h cyclic equibiaxial tensile strain (CTS, 6% strain at 0.25 Hz by a Flexcell® FX-5000™ Tension System. Fluorescence microscope and western blot were used to observe subcellular location of HDAC4. The gene expression was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The concentration of Glycosaminoglycans in culture medium was quantified by bimethylmethylene blue dye; Collagen II protein was evaluated by western blot. Cells phenotype was identified by immunohistochemistry. Cell viability was evaluated by live-dead cell detect kit. Okadaic acid, an inhibitor of HDAC4 nuclear relocation, was used to further validate whether HDAC4 nuclear relocation plays a role in gene expression in response to tension stimulation.87.5% of HDAC4 was located in the cytoplasm in chondrocytes under no loading condition, but it was relocated to the nucleus after CTS. RT-PCR analysis showed that levels of mRNA for aggrecan, collagen II, LK1 and SOX9 were all increased in chondrocytes subjected to CTS as compared to no loading control chondrocytes; in contrast, the levels of type X collagen, MMP-13, IHH and Runx2 gene expression were decreased in the chondrocytes subjected to CTS as compared to control chondrocytes. Meanwhile, CTS contributed to elevation of glycosaminoglycans and collagen II protein, but did not change collagen I production. When Okadaic acid blocked HDAC4 relocation from the cytoplasm to nucleus, the changes of the chondrocytes induced by CTS were abrogated. There was no chondrocyte dead detected in this study in response to CTS.CTS is able to induce HDAC4 relocation from cytoplasm to nucleus. Thus, CTS alters chondrocytes gene expression in association with the relocation of HDAC4 induced by CTS.

  19. Effect of human granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor on differentiation and apoptosis of the human osteosarcoma cell line SaOS-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Postiglione

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of human granulocyte macrophage- colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF on the relation between differentiation and apoptosis in SaOS-2 cells, an osteoblast-like cell line. To determine the relationship between these cellular processes, SaOS-2 cells were treated in vitro for 1, 7 and 14 days with 200 ng/mL GM-CSF and compared with untreated cells. Five nM insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I and 30 nM okadaic acid were used as negative and positive controls of apoptosis, respectively. Effects on cell differentiation were determined by ECM (extracellular matrix mineralization, morphology of some typical mature osteoblast differentiation markers, such as osteopontin and sialoprotein II (BSP-II, and production of bone ECM components such as collagen I. The results showed that treatment with GM-CSF caused cell differentiation accompanied by increased production of osteopontin and BSP-II, together with increased ECM deposition and mineralization. Flow cytometric analysis of annexin V and propidium iodide incorporation showed that GM-CSF up-regulated apoptotic cell death of SaOS-2 cells after 14 days of culture in contrast to okadaic acid, which stimulated SaOS-2 apoptosis only during the early period of culture. Endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA, detected by “laddering analysis”, confirmed these data. The results suggest that GM-CSF induces osteoblastic differentiation and long-term apoptotic cell death of the SaOS-2 human osteosarcoma cell line, which in turn suggests a possible in vivo physiological role for GM-CSF on human osteoblast cells.

  20. Insect peptide CopA3-induced protein degradation of p27Kip1 stimulates proliferation and protects neuronal cells from apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Seung Taek; Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Min Bum; Nam, Hyo Jung; Kang, Jin Ku; Park, Mi Jung; Lee, Ik Hwan; Seok, Heon; Lee, Dong Gun; Hwang, Jae Sam; Kim, Ho

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •CopA3 peptide isolated from the Korean dung beetle has antimicrobial activity. •Our study reported that CopA3 has anticancer and immunosuppressive effects. •We here demonstrated that CopA3 has neurotropic and neuroprotective effects. •CopA3 degrades p27Kip1 protein and this mediates effects of CopA3 on neuronal cells. -- Abstract: We recently demonstrated that the antibacterial peptide, CopA3 (a D-type disulfide dimer peptide, LLCIALRKK), inhibits LPS-induced macrophage activation and also has anticancer activity in leukemia cells. Here, we examined whether CopA3 could affect neuronal cell proliferation. We found that CopA3 time-dependently increased cell proliferation by up to 31 ± 2% in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, and up to 29 ± 2% in neural stem cells isolated from neonatal mouse brains. In both cell types, CopA3 also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and viability losses caused by 6-hydroxy dopamine (a Parkinson disease-mimicking agent) and okadaic acid (an Alzheimer’s disease-mimicking agent). Immunoblotting revealed that the p27Kip1 protein (a negative regulator of cell cycle progression) was markedly degraded in CopA3-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Conversely, an adenovirus expressing p27Kip1 significantly inhibited the antiapoptotic effects of CopA3 against 6-hydroxy dopamine- and okadaic acid-induced apoptosis, and decreased the neurotropic effects of CopA3. These results collectively suggest that CopA3-mediated protein degradation of p27Kip1 may be the main mechanism through which CopA3 exerts neuroprotective and neurotropic effects

  1. Cytokinins and auxins control the expression of a gene in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia cells by feedback regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominov, J A; Stenzler, L; Lee, S; Schwarz, J J; Leisner, S; Howell, S H

    1992-01-01

    Both cytokinin (N6-benzyladenine [BA]) and auxin (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid [2,4-D]) stimulate the accumulation of an mRNA, represented by the cDNA pLS216, in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia suspension culture cells. The kinetics of RNA accumulation were different for the two hormones; however, the response to both was transient, and the magnitude of the response was dose dependent. Runoff transcription experiments demonstrated that the transient appearance of the RNA could be accounted for by feedback regulation of transcription and not by the induction of an RNA degradation system. The feedback mechanism appeared to desensitize the cells to further exposure of the hormone. In particular, cells became refractory to the subsequent addition of 2,4-D after the initial RNA accumulation response subsided. A very different response was observed when the second hormone was added to cells that had been desensitized to the first hormone. Under such conditions, BA produced a heightened response in cells desensitized to 2,4-D and vice versa. These findings support a model in which cytokinin further enhances the auxin response or prevents its feedback inhibition. The hormone-induced RNA accumulation was blocked by the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporin. On the other hand, the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid stimulated expression, and, in particular, okadaic acid was able to stimulate RNA accumulation in cells desensitized to auxin. This suggests that hormone activation involves phosphorylation of critical proteins on the hormone signaling pathway, whereas feedback inhibition may involve dephosphorylation of these proteins. The sequence of pLS216 is similar to genes in other plants that are stimulated by multiple agonists such as auxins, elicitors, and heavy metals, and to the gene encoding the stringent starvation protein in Escherichia coli. It is proposed that this gene family in various plants be called multiple stimulus response (msr) genes. PMID:1498603

  2. Insect peptide CopA3-induced protein degradation of p27Kip1 stimulates proliferation and protects neuronal cells from apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Seung Taek; Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Min Bum; Nam, Hyo Jung; Kang, Jin Ku; Park, Mi Jung; Lee, Ik Hwan [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Daejin University, Pocheon, Gyeonggido 487-711 (Korea, Republic of); Seok, Heon [Department of Biomedical Science, Jungwon University, Goesan, Chungcheongbukdo 367-700 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Gun [School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae Sam [Department of Agricultural Biology, National Academy of Agricultural Science, RDA, Suwon 441-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho, E-mail: hokim@daejin.ac.kr [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Daejin University, Pocheon, Gyeonggido 487-711 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •CopA3 peptide isolated from the Korean dung beetle has antimicrobial activity. •Our study reported that CopA3 has anticancer and immunosuppressive effects. •We here demonstrated that CopA3 has neurotropic and neuroprotective effects. •CopA3 degrades p27Kip1 protein and this mediates effects of CopA3 on neuronal cells. -- Abstract: We recently demonstrated that the antibacterial peptide, CopA3 (a D-type disulfide dimer peptide, LLCIALRKK), inhibits LPS-induced macrophage activation and also has anticancer activity in leukemia cells. Here, we examined whether CopA3 could affect neuronal cell proliferation. We found that CopA3 time-dependently increased cell proliferation by up to 31 ± 2% in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, and up to 29 ± 2% in neural stem cells isolated from neonatal mouse brains. In both cell types, CopA3 also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and viability losses caused by 6-hydroxy dopamine (a Parkinson disease-mimicking agent) and okadaic acid (an Alzheimer’s disease-mimicking agent). Immunoblotting revealed that the p27Kip1 protein (a negative regulator of cell cycle progression) was markedly degraded in CopA3-treated SH-SY5Y cells. Conversely, an adenovirus expressing p27Kip1 significantly inhibited the antiapoptotic effects of CopA3 against 6-hydroxy dopamine- and okadaic acid-induced apoptosis, and decreased the neurotropic effects of CopA3. These results collectively suggest that CopA3-mediated protein degradation of p27Kip1 may be the main mechanism through which CopA3 exerts neuroprotective and neurotropic effects.

  3. A mollusk VDR/PXR/CAR-like (NR1J) nuclear receptor provides insight into ancient detoxification mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruzeiro, Catarina, E-mail: catarinarcruzeiro@hotmail.com [ICBAS - Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U. Porto - University of Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Lopes-Marques, Mónica, E-mail: monicaslm@hotmail.com [ICBAS - Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U. Porto - University of Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Ruivo, Raquel, E-mail: ruivo.raquel@gmail.com [CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Rodrigues-Oliveira, Nádia, E-mail: nadia.oliveira@ciimar.up.pt [CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Santos, Miguel M., E-mail: santos@ciimar.up.pt [CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); FCUP - Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, U. Porto (Portugal); Rocha, Maria João, E-mail: mjsrocha@netcabo.pt [ICBAS - Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U. Porto - University of Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Rocha, Eduardo, E-mail: erocha@icbas.up.pt [ICBAS - Institute of Biomedical Sciences Abel Salazar, U. Porto - University of Porto (Portugal); CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); Castro, L. Filipe C., E-mail: filipe.castro@ciimar.up.pt [CIIMAR/CIMAR - Interdisciplinary Center of Marine and Environmental Research, U. Porto (Portugal); FCUP - Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, U. Porto (Portugal)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A nuclear receptor orthologue of the NR1J group is isolated from a mollusc. • The molluscan NR1J transactivates gene expression upon exposure to okadaic acid but not a pesticide, esfenvarelate and triclosan. • Lineage specific gene duplications and gene loss have occurred in the NR1J of protostomes with likely impacts on detoxification mechanisms. - Abstract: The origin and diversification of the metazoan endocrine systems represents a fundamental research issue in biology. Nuclear receptors are critical components of these systems. A particular group named VDR/PXR/CAR (NR1I/J) is central in the mediation of detoxification responses. While orthologues have been thoroughly characterized in vertebrates, a sparse representation is currently available for invertebrates. Here, we provide the first isolation and characterization of a lophotrochozoan protostome VDR/PXR/CAR nuclear receptor (NR1J), in the estuarine bivalve the peppery furrow shell (Scrobicularia plana). Using a reporter gene assay, we evaluated the xenobiotic receptor plasticity comparing the human PXR with the S. plana NR1Jβ. Our results show that the molluscan receptor responds to a natural toxin (okadaic acid) in a similar fashion to that reported for other invertebrates. In contrast, the pesticide esfenvalerate displayed a unique response, since it down regulated transactivation at higher concentrations, while for triclosan no response was observed. Additionally, we uncovered lineage specific gene duplications and gene loss in the gene group encoding NRs in protostomes with likely impacts on the complexity of detoxification mechanisms across different phyla. Our findings pave the way for the development of multi-specific sensor tools to screen xenobiotic compounds acting via the NR1I/J group.

  4. A mollusk VDR/PXR/CAR-like (NR1J) nuclear receptor provides insight into ancient detoxification mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruzeiro, Catarina; Lopes-Marques, Mónica; Ruivo, Raquel; Rodrigues-Oliveira, Nádia; Santos, Miguel M.; Rocha, Maria João; Rocha, Eduardo; Castro, L. Filipe C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A nuclear receptor orthologue of the NR1J group is isolated from a mollusc. • The molluscan NR1J transactivates gene expression upon exposure to okadaic acid but not a pesticide, esfenvarelate and triclosan. • Lineage specific gene duplications and gene loss have occurred in the NR1J of protostomes with likely impacts on detoxification mechanisms. - Abstract: The origin and diversification of the metazoan endocrine systems represents a fundamental research issue in biology. Nuclear receptors are critical components of these systems. A particular group named VDR/PXR/CAR (NR1I/J) is central in the mediation of detoxification responses. While orthologues have been thoroughly characterized in vertebrates, a sparse representation is currently available for invertebrates. Here, we provide the first isolation and characterization of a lophotrochozoan protostome VDR/PXR/CAR nuclear receptor (NR1J), in the estuarine bivalve the peppery furrow shell (Scrobicularia plana). Using a reporter gene assay, we evaluated the xenobiotic receptor plasticity comparing the human PXR with the S. plana NR1Jβ. Our results show that the molluscan receptor responds to a natural toxin (okadaic acid) in a similar fashion to that reported for other invertebrates. In contrast, the pesticide esfenvalerate displayed a unique response, since it down regulated transactivation at higher concentrations, while for triclosan no response was observed. Additionally, we uncovered lineage specific gene duplications and gene loss in the gene group encoding NRs in protostomes with likely impacts on the complexity of detoxification mechanisms across different phyla. Our findings pave the way for the development of multi-specific sensor tools to screen xenobiotic compounds acting via the NR1I/J group.

  5. Occupational safety among dental health-care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Shimoji

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Shigehiro Shimoji1, Kohji Ishihama1,2, Hidefumi Yamada1, Masaki Okayama1, Kouichi Yasuda1,3, Tohru Shibutani3,4, Tadashi Ogasawara2,5, Hiroo Miyazawa2,3, Kiyofumi Furusawa11Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, Japan; 2Infection Control Team, 3Risk Management Working Team, Matsumoto Dental University Hospital, Shiojiri, Japan; 4Department of Dental Anesthesiology, 5Department of Special Care Dentistry, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, JapanAbstract: Compared to other health-care workers, dental health-care workers come in close contact with patients and use a variety of sharp and high-speed rotating instruments. It is important to understand the characteristics of the occupational accidents that occur. We reviewed incident reports from April 1, 2005, to March 31, 2010, at Matsumoto Dental University Hospital. In addition, questionnaires dealing with identification of occupational safety issues, especially splash exposures, were conducted for dentists, dental hygienists, and nurses. Thirty-two occupational injuries were reported during the study period, including 23 sharp instrument injuries (71.9%, 6 splash exposures (18.8%, and 3 others. Of the six splash exposures, only two cases involved potential contamination with blood or other potentially infectious patient material. Of the 66 workers who experienced sharps injuries, 20 workers (30.3%, 20/66 reported them to the hospital work safety team. The questionnaire revealed high incident of splash exposures and conjunctiva exposures: 87.9% (51/58 and 60.3% (35/58 in dentists and 88.6% (39/44 and 61.4% (27/44 in dental hygienists. The compliance rate for routine use of protective eyewear was 60.3% (35/58 for dentists and 34.1% (15/44 for hygienists. Of the presented informational items included in the questionnaire, those that strongly persuaded respondents to use protective eyewear were ‘splatters from the patient’s mouth contain blood

  6. Efficacy and safety of febuxostat in elderly female patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuno T

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tomohiro Mizuno,1,2 Takahiro Hayashi,3 Sayo Hikosaka,1 Yuka Shimabukuro,1 Maho Murase,1 Kazuo Takahashi,2 Hiroki Hayashi,2 Yukio Yuzawa,2 Tadashi Nagamatsu,1 Shigeki Yamada3 1Department of Analytical Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmacy, Meijo University, Nagoya, Japan; 2Department of Nephrology, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Japan; 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Medicine, Fujita Health University, Toyoake, Japan Background: Maintenance of low serum urate levels is important for the management of gout. Achieving the recommended serum urate levels of less than 6.0 mg/dL is difficult in elderly (65 years of age or older patients with renal impairment. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors allopurinol and febuxostat are used for this purpose. Although febuxostat had been shown to be efficacious in elderly patients, its safety and efficacy in elderly female patients with hyper­uricemia remain unclear.Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of febuxostat in elderly female patients.Methods: We studied a retrospective cohort study. The study included elderly Japanese patients (65 years of age or older who were treated with febuxostat at Fujita Health University Hospital from January 2012 to December 2013. The treatment goal was defined as achievement of serum urate levels of 6.0 mg/dL or lower within 16 weeks; this was the primary endpoint in the present study. Adverse events of febuxostat were defined as more than twofold increases in Common Terminology Criteria for adverse events scores from baseline. Results: We evaluated 82 patients treated with febuxostat during the observation period and classified them into male (n=53 and female (n=29 groups. The mean time to achievement of the treatment goal was significantly shorter in the female group (53 days than in the male group (71 days. There were no significant differences in adverse events between the 2 groups.Conclusion: Our

  7. Inhibitory effect of the Kampo medicinal formula Yokukansan on acute stress-induced defecation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanada Y

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Yasuaki Kanada, Ayami Katayama, Hideshi Ikemoto, Kana Takahashi, Mana Tsukada, Akio Nakamura, Shogo Ishino, Tadashi Hisamitsu, Masataka Sunagawa Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Showa University, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo, Japan Objectives: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional gastrointestinal disorder with symptoms of abnormal defecation and abdominal discomfort. Psychological factors are well known to be involved in onset and exacerbation of IBS. A few studies have reported effectiveness of traditional herbal (Kampo medicines in IBS treatment. Yokukansan (YKS has been shown to have anti-stress and anxiolytic effects. We investigated the effect of YKS on defecation induced by stress and involvement of oxytocin (OT, a peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus, in order to elucidate the mechanism of YKS action. Methods and results: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups; control, YKS (300 mg/kg PO-treated non-stress (YKS, acute stress (Stress, and YKS (300 mg/kg PO-treated acute stress (Stress+YKS groups. Rats in the Stress and Stress+YKS groups were exposed to a 15-min psychological stress procedure involving novel environmental stress. Levels of plasma OT in the YKS group were significantly higher compared with those in the Control group (P < 0.05, and OT levels in the Stress+YKS group were remarkably higher than those in the other groups (P < 0.01. Next, rats were divided into four groups; Stress, Stress+YKS, Atosiban (OT receptor antagonist; 1 mg/kg IP-treated Stress+YKS (Stress+YKS+B, and OT (0.04 mg/kg IP-treated acute stress (Stress+OT groups. Rats were exposed to acute stress as in the previous experiment, and defecation during the stress load was measured. Administration of YKS or OT significantly inhibited defecation; however, administration of Atosiban partially abolished the inhibitory effect of YKS. Finally, direct action of YKS on motility of isolated colon was assessed. YKS (1 mg/mL, 5 mg/mL did not

  8. An angle encoder for super-high resolution and super-high accuracy using SelfA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tsukasa; Kon, Masahito; Nabeshima, Nobuo; Taniguchi, Kayoko

    2014-06-01

    Angular measurement technology at high resolution for applications such as in hard disk drive manufacturing machines, precision measurement equipment and aspherical process machines requires a rotary encoder with high accuracy, high resolution and high response speed. However, a rotary encoder has angular deviation factors during operation due to scale error or installation error. It has been assumed to be impossible to achieve accuracy below 0.1″ in angular measurement or control after the installation onto the rotating axis. Self-calibration (Lu and Trumper 2007 CIRP Ann. 56 499; Kim et al 2011 Proc. MacroScale; Probst 2008 Meas. Sci. Technol. 19 015101; Probst et al Meas. Sci. Technol. 9 1059; Tadashi and Makoto 1993 J. Robot. Mechatronics 5 448; Ralf et al 2006 Meas. Sci. Technol. 17 2811) and cross-calibration (Probst et al 1998 Meas. Sci. Technol. 9 1059; Just et al 2009 Precis. Eng. 33 530; Burnashev 2013 Quantum Electron. 43 130) technologies for a rotary encoder have been actively discussed on the basis of the principle of circular closure. This discussion prompted the development of rotary tables which achieve reliable and high accuracy angular verification. We apply these technologies for the development of a rotary encoder not only to meet the requirement of super-high accuracy but also to meet that of super-high resolution. This paper presents the development of an encoder with 221 = 2097 152 resolutions per rotation (360°), that is, corresponding to a 0.62″ signal period, achieved by the combination of a laser rotary encoder supplied by Magnescale Co., Ltd and a self-calibratable encoder (SelfA) supplied by The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science & Technology (AIST). In addition, this paper introduces the development of a rotary encoder to guarantee ±0.03″ accuracy at any point of the interpolated signal, with respect to the encoder at the minimum resolution of 233, that is, corresponding to a 0.0015″ signal period after

  9. Tipepidine in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a 4-week, open-label, preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsuyoshi Sasaki,1,2 Kenji Hashimoto,3 Masumi Tachibana,1 Tsutomu Kurata,1 Keiko Okawada,1 Maki Ishikawa,1 Hiroshi Kimura,2 Hideki Komatsu,2 Masatomo Ishikawa,2 Tadashi Hasegawa,2 Akihiro Shiina,1 Tasuku Hashimoto,2 Nobuhisa Kanahara,3 Tetsuya Shiraishi,2 Masaomi Iyo1–31Department of Child Psychiatry, Chiba University Hospital, 2Department of Psychiatry, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 3Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, JapanBackground: Tipepidine (3-[di-2-thienylmethylene]-1-methylpiperidine has been used solely as a nonnarcotic antitussive in Japan since 1959. The safety of tipepidine in children and adults has already been established. It is reported that tipepidine inhibits G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK-channel currents. The inhibition of GIRK channels by tipepidine is expected to modulate the level of monoamines in the brain. We put forward the hypothesis that tipepidine can improve attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms by modulating monoaminergic neurotransmission through the inhibition of GIRK channels. The purpose of this open-label trial was to confirm whether treatment with tipepidine can improve symptoms in pediatric patients with ADHD.Subjects and methods: This was a 4-week, open-label, proof-of-efficacy pilot study for pediatric subjects with ADHD. Ten pediatric ADHD subjects (70% male; mean age, 9.9 years; combined [inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive] subtype, n=7; inattentive subtype, n=3; hyperimpulsive subtype, n=0 received tipepidine hibenzate taken orally at 30 mg/day for 4 weeks. All subjects were assessed using the ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS, Japanese version, and the Das–Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (DN-CAS, Japanese version.Results: A comparison of baseline scores and 4-week end-point scores showed that all the ADHD-RS scores (total scores, hyperimpulsive subscores, and inattentive subscores

  10. Utilization of healthcare services in postpartum women in the Philippines who delivered at home and the effects on their health: a cross-sectional analytical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamashita T

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tadashi Yamashita,1 Maria Teresa Reyes Tuliao,2 Magdalena Concel Meana,2 Sherri Ann Suplido,3 Cecilia L Llave,4 Yuko Tanaka,5 Hiroya Matsuo6 1Kobe City College of Nursing, Kobe, Japan; 2Health Department of Muntinlupa, Muntinlupa, Philippines; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Philippine General Hospital, Manila, Philippines; 4College of Medicine (CM, University of the Philippine (UP, Manila, Philippines; 5Department of School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Tokushima University Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan; 6Department of International Health, Kobe University Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kobe, Japan Background: A low ratio of utilization of healthcare services in postpartum women may contribute to maternal deaths during the postpartum period. The maternal mortality ratio is high in the Philippines. The aim of this study was to examine the current utilization of healthcare services and the effects on the health of women in the Philippines who delivered at home. Methods: This was a cross-sectional analytical study, based on a self-administrated questionnaire, conducted from March 2015 to February 2016 in Muntinlupa, Philippines. Sixty-three postpartum women who delivered at home or at a facility were enrolled for this study. A questionnaire containing questions regarding characteristics, utilization of healthcare services, and abnormal symptoms during postpartum period was administered. To analyze the questionnaire data, the sample was divided into delivery at home and delivery at a facility. Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, and Mann–Whitney U test were used. Results: There were significant differences in the type of birth attendant, area of residence, monthly income, and maternal and child health book usage between women who delivered at home and those who delivered at a facility (P<0.01. There was significant difference in the utilization of antenatal checkup (P<0.01 during pregnancy, whilst there was no

  11. Travoprost with sofZia® preservative system lowered intraocular pressure of Japanese normal tension glaucoma with minimal side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizoue S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Shiro Mizoue,1 Tadashi Nakano,2 Nobuo Fuse,3 Aiko Iwase,4 Shun Matsumoto,5 Keiji Yoshikawa6 On behalf of the IOP CHANGE Study Group7 1Department of Ophthalmology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Integrative Genomics, Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization, Miyagi, Japan; 4Tajimi Iwase Eye Clinic, Gifu, Japan; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Teishin Hospital, 6Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 7IOP CHecked and Assessed in Normal tension Glaucoma by Exceptional Glaucomatologists Study Group, Japan Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of travoprost with sofZia® preservative system for lowering the intraocular pressure (IOP of Japanese normal tension glaucoma (NTG patients. Methods: In this prospective, multicenter, open-label study, Japanese NTG patients with baseline IOPs <20 mmHg were enrolled after three consecutive time measurements taken at screening and baseline visits. Travoprost with sofZia® was instilled once daily. Lowering effect on IOP, conjunctival hyperemia, superficial punctate keratopathy, and adverse events were examined at week 4, 8, and 12 after drug instillation. Results: One-hundred and three of the 107 enrolled patients (baseline IOP =15.2±2.0 mmHg [mean ± standard deviation] completed the study. The mean IOP value as well as percent reduction was significantly reduced at each visit after travoprost with sofZia® initiation (P<0.0001. The conjunctival hyperemia score was 1 or less throughout the study, though it increased significantly over time. No significant change was observed in superficial punctate keratopathy. The cumulative incidence of side effects such as eyelash changes, eyelid pigmentation, and deepening of the upper lid was 47.6%, 27.2%, and 16.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Travoprost preserved with sofZia® effectively lowered the IOP of Japanese NTG patients. It was

  12. An angle encoder for super-high resolution and super-high accuracy using SelfA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tsukasa; Kon, Masahito; Nabeshima, Nobuo; Taniguchi, Kayoko

    2014-01-01

    Angular measurement technology at high resolution for applications such as in hard disk drive manufacturing machines, precision measurement equipment and aspherical process machines requires a rotary encoder with high accuracy, high resolution and high response speed. However, a rotary encoder has angular deviation factors during operation due to scale error or installation error. It has been assumed to be impossible to achieve accuracy below 0.1″ in angular measurement or control after the installation onto the rotating axis. Self-calibration (Lu and Trumper 2007 CIRP Ann. 56 499; Kim et al 2011 Proc. MacroScale; Probst 2008 Meas. Sci. Technol. 19 015101; Probst et al Meas. Sci. Technol. 9 1059; Tadashi and Makoto 1993 J. Robot. Mechatronics 5 448; Ralf et al 2006 Meas. Sci. Technol. 17 2811) and cross-calibration (Probst et al 1998 Meas. Sci. Technol. 9 1059; Just et al 2009 Precis. Eng. 33 530; Burnashev 2013 Quantum Electron. 43 130) technologies for a rotary encoder have been actively discussed on the basis of the principle of circular closure. This discussion prompted the development of rotary tables which achieve reliable and high accuracy angular verification. We apply these technologies for the development of a rotary encoder not only to meet the requirement of super-high accuracy but also to meet that of super-high resolution. This paper presents the development of an encoder with 2 21 = 2097 152 resolutions per rotation (360°), that is, corresponding to a 0.62″ signal period, achieved by the combination of a laser rotary encoder supplied by Magnescale Co., Ltd and a self-calibratable encoder (SelfA) supplied by The National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). In addition, this paper introduces the development of a rotary encoder to guarantee ±0.03″ accuracy at any point of the interpolated signal, with respect to the encoder at the minimum resolution of 2 33 , that is, corresponding to a 0.0015″ signal period

  13. Solvatochromism and linear solvation energy relationship of the kinase inhibitor SKF86002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Muhammad; Van Dongen, Madeline; Wang, Feng; Clayton, Andrew H. A.

    2017-01-01

    We studied the spectroscopic characteristics of SKF86002, an anti-inflammatory and tyrosine kinase inhibitor drug candidate. Two conformers SKF86002A and SKF86002B are separated by energy barriers of 19.68 kJ·mol- 1 and 6.65 kJ·mol- 1 due to H-bonds, and produce the three major UV-Vis absorption bands at 325 nm, 260 nm and 210 nm in cyclohexane solutions. This environment-sensitive fluorophore exhibited emission in the 400-500 nm range with a marked response to changes in environment polarity. By using twenty-two solvents for the solvatochromism study, it was noticed that solvent polarity, represented by dielectric constant, was well correlated with the emission wavelength maxima of SKF86002. Thus, the SKF86002 fluorescence peak red shifted in aprotic solvents from 397.5 nm in cyclohexane to 436 nm in DMSO. While the emission maximum in hydrogen donating solvents ranged from 420 nm in t-butanol to 446 nm in N-methylformamide. Employing Lippert-Mataga, Bakhshiev and Kawski models, we found that one linear correlation provided a satisfactory description of polarity effect of 18 solvents on the spectral changes of SKF86002 with R2 values 0.78, 0.80 and 0.80, respectively. Additionally, the multicomponent linear regression analysis of Kamlet-Taft (R2 = 0.94) revealed that solvent acidity, basicity and polarity accounted for 31%, 24% and 45% of solvent effects on SKF86002 emission, respectively. While Catalán correlation (R2 = 0.92) revealed that solvatochromic change of SKF86002 emission was attributed to changes in solvent dipolarity (71%), solvent polarity (12%), solvent acidity (11%) and solvent basicity (6%). Plot of Reichardt transition energies and emission energies of SKF86002 in 18 solvents showed also a linear correlation with R2 = 0.90. The dipole moment difference between excited and ground state was calculated to be 3.4-3.5 debye.

  14. Solvatochromism and linear solvation energy relationship of the kinase inhibitor SKF86002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Muhammad; Van Dongen, Madeline; Wang, Feng; Clayton, Andrew H A

    2017-01-05

    We studied the spectroscopic characteristics of SKF86002, an anti-inflammatory and tyrosine kinase inhibitor drug candidate. Two conformers SKF86002A and SKF86002B are separated by energy barriers of 19.68kJ·mol(-1) and 6.65kJ·mol(-1) due to H-bonds, and produce the three major UV-Vis absorption bands at 325nm, 260nm and 210nm in cyclohexane solutions. This environment-sensitive fluorophore exhibited emission in the 400-500nm range with a marked response to changes in environment polarity. By using twenty-two solvents for the solvatochromism study, it was noticed that solvent polarity, represented by dielectric constant, was well correlated with the emission wavelength maxima of SKF86002. Thus, the SKF86002 fluorescence peak red shifted in aprotic solvents from 397.5nm in cyclohexane to 436nm in DMSO. While the emission maximum in hydrogen donating solvents ranged from 420nm in t-butanol to 446nm in N-methylformamide. Employing Lippert-Mataga, Bakhshiev and Kawski models, we found that one linear correlation provided a satisfactory description of polarity effect of 18 solvents on the spectral changes of SKF86002 with R(2) values 0.78, 0.80 and 0.80, respectively. Additionally, the multicomponent linear regression analysis of Kamlet-Taft (R(2)=0.94) revealed that solvent acidity, basicity and polarity accounted for 31%, 24% and 45% of solvent effects on SKF86002 emission, respectively. While Catalán correlation (R(2)=0.92) revealed that solvatochromic change of SKF86002 emission was attributed to changes in solvent dipolarity (71%), solvent polarity (12%), solvent acidity (11%) and solvent basicity (6%). Plot of Reichardt transition energies and emission energies of SKF86002 in 18 solvents showed also a linear correlation with R(2)=0.90. The dipole moment difference between excited and ground state was calculated to be 3.4-3.5debye. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Determination of the variability of both hydrophilic and lipophilic toxins in endemic wild bivalves and carnivorous gastropods from the southern part of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, Ruben; Marín, Michelle; Cabrera, Fabiola; Figueroa, Diego; Contreras, Cristóbal; Barriga, Andrés; Lagos, Néstor; García, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse and determine the composition of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins and lipophilic toxins in the Region of Aysén, Chile, in wild endemic mussels (Mytilus chilensis, Venus antiqua, Aulacomya ater, Choromytilus chorus, Tagelus dombeii and Gari solida) and in two endemic carnivorous molluscs species (Concholepas concholepas and Argobuccinum ranelliforme). PSP-toxin contents were determined by using HPLC with fluorescence detection, while lipophilic toxins were determined by using LC-MS/MS. Mean concentrations for the total of PSP toxins were in the range 55-2505 μg saxitoxin-equivalent/100 g. The two most contaminated samples for PSP toxicity were bivalve Gari solida and carnivorous Argobuccinum ranelliforme with 2505 ± 101 and 1850 ± 137 μg saxitoxin-equivalent/100 g, respectively (p < 0.05). The lipophilic toxins identified were okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX-1), azaspiracid-1 (AZA-1), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and yessotoxins (YTX). All analysed molluscs contained lipophilic toxins at levels ranging from 56 ± 4.8 to 156.1 ± 8.2 μg of okadaic acid-equivalent/kg shellfish together with YTX at levels ranging from 1.0 ± 0.1 to 18 ± 0.9 μg of YTX-equivalent/kg shellfish and AZA at levels ranging from 3.6 ± 0.2 to 31 ± 2.1 μg of AZA-equivalent/kg shellfish. Furthermore, different bivalves and gastropods differ in their capacity of retention of lipophilic toxins, as shown by the determination of their respective lipophilic toxins levels. In all the evaluated species, the presence of lipophilic toxins associated with biotransformation in molluscs and carnivorous gastropods was not identified, in contrast to the identification of PSP toxins, where the profiles identified in the different species are directly related to biotransformation processes. Thus, this study provides evidence that the concentration of toxins in the food intake of the evaluated species (Bivalvia and Gastropoda class) determines the degree of

  16. Monitoring of DSP toxins in small-sized plankton fraction of seawater collected in Mutsu Bay, Japan, by ELISA method: relation with toxin contamination of scallop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Ichiro; Sugioka, Hikaru; Nishitani, Goh; Mitsuya, Tadashi; Hamano, Yonekazu

    2003-01-01

    Monitorings were conducted on DSP toxins in mid-gut gland of scallop (mouse assay), cell numbers of toxic dinoflagellate species of Dinophysis, and diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins in small-sized (0.7-5 microm) plankton fraction of seawater collected from surface (0 m) and 20 m depth at a station in Mutsu Bay, Aomori Prefecture, Japan, in 2000. A specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was employed for the analysis of DSP toxins in small-sized plankton fraction using a mouse monoclonal anti-okadaic acid antibody which recognizes okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-1, and dinophysistoxin-3. DSP toxins were detected twice in the mid-gut gland of scallops at 1.1-2.3 MU (mouse units) g(-1) on 26 June and at 0.6-1.2 MU g(-1) on 3 July, respectively. Relatively high cell densities of D. fortii were observed on 26 June and 11 September, and may only contribute to the bivalve toxicity during late June to early July. D. acuminata did not appear to be responsible for the toxicity of scallops in Mutsu Bay in 2000. ELISA monitoring of small-sized plankton fraction in seawater could detect DSP toxins two weeks before the detection of the toxin in scallops, and could do so two weeks after the loss of the bivalve toxicity by mouse assay. On 17 July, toxic D. fortii was detected at only small number, <10 cells l(-1), but DSP toxins were detected by the ELISA assay, suggesting a presence of other toxic small-sized plankton in seawater. For the purpose of reducing negative impacts of DSP occurrences, monitorings have been carried out hitherto on DSP toxins of bivalve tissues by mouse assay and on cell densities of "toxic" species of Dinophysis. Here we propose a usefulness of ELISA monitoring of plankton toxicity, especially in small-sized fraction, which are possible foods of mixotrophic Dinophysis, as a practical tool for detecting and predicting DSPs in coastal areas of fisheries grounds of bivalve aquaculture.

  17. Efficacy and safety of febuxostat in the treatment of hyperuricemia in stable kidney transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofue T

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tadashi Sofue,1 Masashi Inui,2 Taiga Hara,1 Yoko Nishijima,1 Kumiko Moriwaki,1 Yushi Hayashida,3 Nobufumi Ueda,3 Akira Nishiyama,4 Yoshiyuki Kakehi,3 Masakazu Kohno1 1Division of Nephrology and Dialysis, Department of Cardiorenal and Cerebrovascular Medicine, Kagawa University, Kagawa, 2Department of Urology, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, 3Department of Urology, 4Department of Pharmacology, Kagawa University, Kagawa, Japan Background: Post-transplant hyperuricemia (PTHU, defined as serum uric acid concentration ≥7.0 mg/dL or need for treatment with allopurinol or benzbromarone, reduces long-term allograft survival in kidney transplant recipients. Febuxostat, a new nonpurine selective xanthine oxidase inhibitor, is well tolerated in patients with moderate renal impairment. However, its efficacy and safety in kidney recipients with PTHU is unclear. We therefore assessed the efficacy and safety of febuxostat in stable kidney transplant recipients with PTHU. Methods: Of 93 stable adult kidney transplant recipients, 51 were diagnosed with PTHU (PTHU group and 42 were not (NPTHU group. Of the 51 patients with PTHU, 26 were treated with febuxostat (FX group and 25 were not (NFX group, at the discretion of each attending physician. One-year changes in serum uric acid concentrations, rates of achievement of target uric acid (<6.0 mg/dL, estimated glomerular filtration rates in allografts, and adverse events were retrospectively analyzed in the FX, NFX, and NPTHU groups. Results: The FX group showed significantly greater decreases in serum uric acid (-2.0±1.1 mg/dL versus 0.0±0.8 mg/dL per year, P<0.01 and tended to show a higher rate of achieving target uric acid levels (50% versus 24%; odds ratio 3.17 [95% confidence interval 0.96–10.5], P=0.08 than the NFX group. Although baseline allograft estimated glomerular filtration rates tended to be lower in the FX group than in the NFX group (40±14 mL/min/1.73 m2 versus 47±19 mL/min/1.73 m2

  18. Bayesian inference of earthquake parameters from buoy data using a polynomial chaos-based surrogate

    KAUST Repository

    Giraldi, Loic

    2017-04-07

    This work addresses the estimation of the parameters of an earthquake model by the consequent tsunami, with an application to the Chile 2010 event. We are particularly interested in the Bayesian inference of the location, the orientation, and the slip of an Okada-based model of the earthquake ocean floor displacement. The tsunami numerical model is based on the GeoClaw software while the observational data is provided by a single DARTⓇ buoy. We propose in this paper a methodology based on polynomial chaos expansion to construct a surrogate model of the wave height at the buoy location. A correlated noise model is first proposed in order to represent the discrepancy between the computational model and the data. This step is necessary, as a classical independent Gaussian noise is shown to be unsuitable for modeling the error, and to prevent convergence of the Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampler. Second, the polynomial chaos model is subsequently improved to handle the variability of the arrival time of the wave, using a preconditioned non-intrusive spectral method. Finally, the construction of a reduced model dedicated to Bayesian inference is proposed. Numerical results are presented and discussed.

  19. Notification determining technical standards concerning prevention of radiation injuries by electron capture detectors for gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law on the prevention of radiation injuries by radioisotopes, the ordinance and the regulation for the execution of the law. This rule is applied to electron capture detectors for gas chromatography under the law. Basic terms are defined, such as detector radiation source, detector container and carrier gas. The detectors shall consist of detector radiation sources and containers, and the containers must be such that the radiation sources can not be easily taken away and never cause the danger to fall off. The induction and discharge mouths of the detector containers shall be shut tightly with caps, etc. The main structures and radiation sources of detectors shall be made of materials, which are difficult to corrode, and do not melt and easily cause chemical change below 800 deg. C. Detector radiation sources shall be made of metals plated with nickel 63 less than 20 milli-curie. The radiation dose rate on the surface of a detector shall be shielded to less than 0.06 milli-rem an hour. The temperature of detectors and carrier gas shall not exceed 350 deg. C. Corrosive gas shall not be used as carrier gas. The period of effective indication is 5 years. The method of washing, and the conditions of leak, heat-resistance and shock-resistance examinations are defined, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  20. Ordinance of the Prime Minister's Office concerning reports on transport of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law on the prevention of radiation injuries by radioisotopes and the enforcement ordinance for this law, and to execute the law. Radioisotopes or the goods contaminated by radioisotopes which require reports are the same as those defined in the enforcement regulation for the law. Persons who intend to report on the transport of radioisotopes under the law shall submit two copies of reports in the form specified in this rule to the public safety commissions of prefectures which exercise jurisdiction over the dispatching places of these radioisotopes. The indication matters defined in this rule include speed of the vehicles loaded with radioisotopes, the disposition of escort cars, the formation of these vehicles, cars and other vehicles which accompany to transport, parking areas, the places of loading and unloading, etc. When the transport reported is related to the areas which are under the jurisdiction of other public safety commissions, those commissions which have received the reports shall inform without delay to the commissions concerned the date of transport, course, the kinds and quantities of radioisotopes and other necessary matters. The examinations of transport are made according to the contents of the reports submitted as to whether the transport was made as notified. Reports may be collected on the circumstances of transport outside works or enterprises and the personal injuries by the transport concerned, etc. (Okada, K.)

  1. LibHalfSpace: A C++ object-oriented library to study deformation and stress in elastic half-spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Claudio; Bonafede, Maurizio; Belardinelli, Maria Elina

    2016-11-01

    The study of deformation processes in elastic half-spaces is widely employed for many purposes (e.g. didactic, scientific investigation of real processes, inversion of geodetic data, etc.). We present a coherent programming interface containing a set of tools designed to make easier and faster the study of processes in an elastic half-space. LibHalfSpace is presented in the form of an object-oriented library. A set of well known and frequently used source models (Mogi source, penny shaped horizontal crack, inflating spheroid, Okada rectangular dislocation, etc.) are implemented to describe the potential usage and the versatility of the library. The common interface given to library tools enables us to switch easily among the effects produced by different deformation sources that can be monitored at the free surface. Furthermore, the library also offers an interface which simplifies the creation of new source models exploiting the features of object-oriented programming (OOP). These source models can be built as distributions of rectangular boundary elements. In order to better explain how new models can be deployed some examples are included in the library.

  2. The order for enforcing the law on indemnity agreement for compensation of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The cabinet ordinance is established under the provisions of the law concerning atomic energy damage indemnification contract. The damage indemnifications in this law cover the occasions when there is not the cause for atomic energy damages due to the violation of the specified provisions of the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors, the failures of operation facilities for reactors and natural calamity or the deed of a third party. The rate of indemnification fees is stipulated at 5/10,000. An enterpriser of atomic energy business shall inform the following matters to the government concerning the indemnification contracts. The objects of operation of reactors; the types, thermal output and number of reactors; the names and addresses of works or places of business where reactors are set up; the locations, structures and equipments of reactor facilities; beginning dates and expected ending dates of the operation on reactors; the kinds and estimated quantities of use in a year of nuclear fuel materials employed for reactors; the methods of disposal of spent fuels and the matters concerning liability insurance contracts. The matters to be reported to the government are specified respectively for the indemnification contracts for the processing, reprocessing, use, transport and disposal of nuclear fuel materials. The payment of indemnification fees and indemnities, the cancellation of indemnification contracts and the fines for default are particularly defined. (Okada, K.)

  3. The regulation for enforcing the law concerning indemnification of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The regulation is set up under the provisions of the law concerning the indemnification for atomic energy damages, to enforce them. An atomic energy business enterpriser who intends to get the approval of indemnification measures specified under the law shall file an application to the General Director of the Science Technology Agency, attaching particular documents and writing the following matters: his name and address; the kinds of operation of reactors; the names and addresses of works or places of business where reactors are operated; the thermal output of reactors; the kinds and quantities of nuclear fuel materials processed or employed; the kinds and quantities of nuclear fuel materials or contaminated materials to be transported; the kinds and quantities of nuclear fuel materials or contaminated materials to be disposed; beginning dates and expected ending dates of the operation of reactors; and other items stipulated concerning liability insurance and indemnification contracts. The negotiable securities qualified to be trusted include government bonds; municipal bonds; bonds issued by particular legal persons; bonds issued by banks, Central Cooperative Bank for Agriculture and Forestry, or Bank for Commerce and Industrial Cooperatives, and secured debentures under the secured debenture trust law. The recovering of trusted securities and identification cards are defined, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  4. The rule on granting subsidies for survey of hot drainage influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The regulation is established under the provisions of the law concerning the proper execution of subsidy budgets and the ordinance for enforcing the law, to execute these provisions. The subsidies under the ordinance for enforcing the law concerning the special account for the measures of promoting power source development are delivered according to the provisions of the regulation as well as the law concerning the proper execution of subsidy budgets and the ordinance for enforcing the law. Basic terms are defined, such as nuclear power generating facilities; business for arranging the survey facilities for hot drainage influences; business for the prior-survey of hot drainage; business for the survey of hot drainage influences; place of business; expected date of beginning the operation. The Minister of International Trade Industry delivers subsidies to a prefecture where nuclear power generating facilities are set up or expected to be set up, or its neighboring prefectures to cover all or a part of expenses necessary for the businesses for arranging the survey facilities for hot drainage influences, the prior-survey of hot drainage and the survey of hot drainage influences. Subsidies are paid during the specified periods ranging from 2 to 7 years. The subsidy delivered to a prefecture in each fiscal year is limited to from 5 to 14 million yen. An application for the subsidies shall be filed by an applicant prefecture to the Minister of International Trade Industry, attached with the specified summary reports of a subsidized business and nuclear power generating facilities. (Okada, K.)

  5. The law for the establishment of Science and Technology Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The law defines the scope and competence of business under the jurisdiction of the agency to establish the organization possible to carry out effectively the administrative work in charge. The agency is set up as an outside department of the Prime Minister's Office under the provisions of the law for the organization of state administration. Main tasks of the agency shall be to execute the administration of science and technology as a whole to develop them and help the progress of the national economy. Competences of the agency are provided for, such as: to make appropriations necessary for the business in charge in the extent of the budget; to collect incomes and pay expenses necessary for the business; to establish and control offices and other facilities directly necessary for the business; to appoint and remove the staff, etc. The agency is consisted of the secretariat and five bureaus of planning, research coordination, promotion, atomic energy and atomic energy safety. The functions of each department are prescribed in detail respectively. A science counselor is appointed, who assists the Director General in deciding important policies. The agency has its annexed organizations, including national aerospace laboratory, national research institutes for metals and radiological science, national research center for disaster prevention and others. (Okada, K.)

  6. The regulations for delivery of subsidies to radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are defined under the law concerning subsidies and the provisions of the order for execution of the law. Basic terms are explained, such as: nuclear power generating facilities; arrangement business of radiation monitoring facilities; pre-research business of radiation monitoring; radiation monitoring business; place of enterprise; and expected time of beginning of the use. The Director General of Science and Technology Agency delivers subsidies to those prefectures where nuclear power generating facilities are or are expected to be established, or their neighboring prefectures. Subsidies are paid for each place of enterprise to support all or a part of expenses necessary for arrangement, pre-research or radiation monitoring business. Limits of subsidies for a place of enterprise in a prefecture are 155.6 million yen for a term for arrangement business, 16 million yen for each fiscal year for pre-research and 16 million yen for each fiscal year for radiation monitoring. An application for subsidies shall be filed by a prefecture to the Director General with the business program and gists of nuclear power generating facilities according to the forms attached. Receiving the application, the Director General shall examine it and notify without delay to the applicant the decision of delivery and its conditions in writing, when such settlement is made. Terms and conditions of delivery and reports, etc. are prescribed respectively. (Okada, K.)

  7. The regulations concerning the reprocessing business of spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The office ordinance is established under the provisions related to reprocessing businesses of the law concerning regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors, to enforce the provisions. The basic terms are defined, such as exposure radiation dose; accumulated dose; controlled area; maintenance area; surrounding watch area; employee; radioactive waste; the facilities for discharge to sea. An application for the designation of reprocessing businesses shall be filed, listing the following matters: the maximum daily and yearly reprocessing capacities for each kind of spent fuel; the location and general structure of reprocessing facilities; the structures of buildings; the structure and equipments of main reprocessing facilities, the storage facilities for products and the disposal facilities for radioactive wastes; the equipments of measuring and control system facilities and radiation control facilities, etc. Records shall be made on the inspection of reprocessing facilities, radiation control, operation, maintenance, the accidents of reprocessing facilities and weather, and kept for the period from one to ten years, respectively. Any person engaging in reprocessing businesses shall set up control, maintenance and surrounding watch areas, and take specified measures to restrict the entrance of persons. The measures to be taken against exposure radiation dose, the inspection, regular independent examination and operation of reprocessing facilities and other related matters are stipulated in detail. (Okada, K.)

  8. The regulation for delivery of subsidies for measures of promoting power source location for nuclear power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulation is defined under the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities and the law concerning subsidies and others. Limits of the subsidies are stipulated respectively for establishment of a unit and simultaneous construction of more than 2 units of power generating facilities in the area of self-governing bodies concerned. Limits of the subsidies for an arrangement business out of the area of self-governing bodies where the facilities are set up shall be equal to those of the subsidies for such bodies. The Director General of Science and Technology Agency and the Minister of International Trade and Industry may make the amounts otherwise determined the limits of the subsidies, when considered necessary successfully to build the facilities. The term of delivery is from a fiscal year in which a later one of either the day of beginning of the construction concerned or the day of acknowledgment of the arrangement program of the business is included, through a fiscal year when the work finishes. An application for subsidies shall be filed to the head of the authorities concerned with gists of the business according to the forms attached. Receiving the application, the head of the authorities shall examine it and notify to the applicant without delay in writing the decision of delivery and its conditions, when such settlement is made. (Okada, K.)

  9. The rule on granting subsidies for survey of hot drainage influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The rule is defined under the law concerning subsidies and the provisions of the order for execution of the law. Basic terms are explained, such as: nuclear power generating facilities; arrangement business of research equipment for hot drainage influences; pre-research business of hot drainage; research business of hot drainage influences; place of enterprise; and expected time of beginning of the use. The Minister of International Trade and Industry grants subsidies to those prefectures where nuclear power generating facilities are or are expected to be established, or their neighboring prefectures to support all or a part of expenses of arrangement of research equipment, pre-research and research of hot drainage influences. Limits of subsidies are for a place of enterprise in a prefecture 14 million yen for a fiscal year for arrangement of research equipment, 5 million yen for pre-research and research respectively. Prefectures shall file an application for subsidies to the Minister of International Trade and Industry with gists of business and outlines of nuclear power generating facilities according to the forms attached. Receiving the application, the minister shall examine it and notify without delay the decision of delivery and its conditions to the applicant in writing, when such settlement is made. Receivers of subsidies shall present to the minister for each quarter reports of subsidized business. Terms and conditions of delivery and others are prescribed particularly. (Okada, K.)

  10. The regulations concerning refining business of nuclear source material and nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are provided for under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and provisions concerning refining business in the enforcement order for the law. The basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: exposure dose, accumulative dose; controlled area; inspected surrounding area and employee. Refining facilities listed in the application for designation shall be classified into clushing and leaching, thickning, refining facilities, storage facilities of nuclear source materials and nuclear fuel materials, disposal facilities of contaminated substances and building for refining, etc. Business program attached to the application shall include expected time of beginning of refining, estimated production amount of nuclear source materials or nuclear fuel materials for the first three years and funds necessary for construction, etc. Records shall be made and kept for particular periods on delivery and storage of nuclear source materials and nuclear fuel materials, control of radiation, maintenance and accidents of refining facilities. Safety securing, application of internationally regulated substances and measures in dangerous situations are stipulated respectively. Exposure dose of employees and other specified matters shall be reported by the refiner yearly to the Director General of Science and Technology Agency and the Minister of International Trade and Industry. (Okada, K.)

  11. The regulations concerning refining business of nuclear source material and nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions concerning refining business in the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors and the ordinance for the execution of this law, and to enforce them. Basic terms are defined, such as: exposure radiation dose, cumulative dose, control area, surrounding monitoring area and worker. The application for the designation for refining business under the law shall be classified into the facilities for crushing and leaching-filtration, thikening, and refining, the storage facilities for nuclear raw materials and nuclear fuel materials, and the disposal facilities for radioactive wastes, etc. To the application, shall be attached business plans, the explanations concerning the technical abilities of applicants and the prevention of hazards by nuclear raw materials and nuclear fuel materials regarding refining facilities, etc. Records shall be made on the accept, delivery and stock of each kind of nuclear raw materials and nuclear fuel materials, radiation control, the maintenance of and accidents in refining facilities, and kept for specified periods, respectively. Security regulations shall be enacted for each works or enterprise on the functions and organizations of persons engaged in the control of refining facilities, the operation of the apparatuses which must be controlled for the prevention of accidents, and the establishment of control area and surrounding monitoring area, etc. The report on the usage of internationally regulated goods and the measures taken at the time of danger are defined particularly. (Okada, K.)

  12. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The law intends under the principles of the atomic energy act to regulate the refining, processing and reprocessing businesses of nuclear raw and fuel metarials and the installation and operation of reactors for the peaceful and systematic utilization of such materials and reactors and for securing public safety by preventing disasters, as well as to control internationally regulated things for effecting the international agreements on the research, development and utilization of atomic energy. Basic terms are defined, such as atomic energy; nuclear fuel material; nuclear raw material; nuclear reactor; refining; processing; reprocessing; internationally regulated thing. Any person who is going to engage in refining businesses other than the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation shall get the special designation by the Prime Minister and the Minister of International Trade Industry. Any person who is going to engage in processing businesses shall get the particular admission of the Prime Minister. Any person who is going to establish reactors shall get the particular admission of the Prime Minister, The Minister of International Trade and Industry or the Minister of Transportation according to the kinds of specified reactors, respectively. Any person who is going to engage in reprocessing businesses other than the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute shall get the special designation by the Prime Minister. The employment of nuclear fuel materials and internationally regulated things is defined in detail. (Okada, K.)

  13. Regulation for delivery of subsidies for urgent safety measures for atomic power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law for the proper enforcement of subsidy budgets and the ordinance for the execution of this law and to practice these provisions. It is applied to the delivery of subsidies for the expenses of the measures taken beforehand for the security of inhabitants in the surrounding areas of atomic power generating facilities in the emergency time of hazard or the danger of the occurrence of hazard by such facilities. Basic terms are defined, such as atomic power generating facilities and others, prefecture concerned, cities, towns and villages concerned, emergency communication network arrangement business, emergency medical facility arrangement business, business of holding hazard prevention course and expected date of beginning operation. Directors of ministries and agencies concerned deliver, if necessary, to prefectures concerned subsidies for all or a part of the expenses needed for the businesses of emergency communication network arrangement, emergency medical facility arrangement and holding hazard prevention course. The terms of delivery and the amounts of subsidies vary according to the kinds of businesses. Prefectures which intend to apply for the delivery of subsidies shall file to the director of the ministry or agency concerned the specified application attaching the operation plans of businesses and the general explanation of atomic power generating facilities, etc. The decision and conditions of delivery, reports on the situations and results of businesses and other related matters are defined, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  14. Order for execution of the law concerning regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The order is enacted under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors. Any person who engages in refining business shall get designation for each works or place of enterprise. The application shall be filed through the director of International Trade and Industry Office in charge of the location of the works or the enterprise with a business program and other specified documents attached. Any person who undertakes processing business shall get permission for each works or place of enterprise. The application shall be submitted with a business program and other documents defined by the Ordinance of the Prime Minister's Office. Any person who sets up reactor shall get permission for each works or place of enterprise. The application shall be presented with a financial project and other documents stipulated by the ordinance. Fast breeding reactor, heavy-water moderated boiling water reactor and light-water moderated pressurized water reactor are designated as reactor in the phase of research and development. Each foreign nuclear ship equipped with reactor which enters into Japanese waters shall get permission of the Minister of Transport. The application shall be presented with the papers explaining safety of reactor facilities and other documents provided by the ordinance of the ministry concerned. (Okada, K.)

  15. Regulations on the prevention of ionizing radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are defined under the labor safety and health law and the provisions of the order for enforcing the law. The enterpriser shall try to reduce to the minimum doses of ionizing radiation received by workers. Ionizing radiation hereunder includes such rays as deutron, proton, beta, electron, neutron, gamma and X-ray. The enterpriser engaged in radiation business shall indicate by marks the area whose radiation dose may exceed 30 mili-rem per week by exterior radiation or radioactive materials in the air. Doses of the workers regularly engaged in radiation business in the controlled area shall not surpass the accumulative dose calculated by the formula D = 5(N-18), when D means limit of accumulative dose (unit rem) and N number of the age of the worker concerned. Doses of the workers entering into the controlled area on business shall not go over 1.5 rem for a year. The maximum permissible dose is 12 rem for the urgent work. Measures for prevention from exterior radiation are designated, including irradiation tubes, filter plates, signals, shelters and alarms, etc. Independent regular inspection, record, measurement and others are particularly essential. Prevention of contamination, emergent measures, appointment of the head of X or gamma rays business, measurement of working environment, health examination and others are stipulated respectively. (Okada, K.)

  16. The order for enforcing the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law on the prevention of radiation injuries by radioisotopes, and the former ordinance No. 14, 1958, is hereby totally amended. Radioisotopes under the law are the isotopes which emit radiation, and of which the concentration exceeds the levels defined by the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency, their compounds or the substances containing these compounds, excluding those defined in the atomic energy act and other particular laws. The apparatuses fitted with radioisotopes under the law are electron capture detectors for gas chromatography. The radiation emitting installations under the law are cyclotron, synchrotron, synchro-cyclotron, linear accelerator, betatron, Van de Graaff accelerator, Cockcroft-Walton's accelerator, etc. The permission of usage under the law shall be obtained for each works or enterprise. Persons who intend to get the permission shall file the application for them attaching the documents describing expected period of usage and other papers specified by the Director General. The total quantity of radioisotopes sealed tightly for each works or enterprise under the law shall be 100 milli-curie. The design of apparatus for the prevention of radiation injuries, the capacities of storage facilities regularly inspected, the period of regular inspection, the confirmation of transport and disposal and fees to be paid, etc. are defined, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  17. The regulations for enforcing the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are wholly revised under the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes and the provisions of the order for enforcing the law. Basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: employee engaged in radiation work; person regularly entering into the controlled area; the maximum permissible exposure dose; accumulative dose; the maximum permissible accumulative dose; the maximum permissible concentration in the air; the maximum permissible concentration under water; the maximum permissible surface density. The application for permission of the uses shall be made according to the form attached and include as appendix following documents: copy of register of the applicant legal person; plane drawings of the works or the enterprise and their surroundings in reduced scales and with directions, centering on facilities in use, of storage and disposal, etc. The report of the uses shall list name and address of the user, object and method of the uses, and include as annex copy of register of the user legal person and papers explaining the expected date of beginning and the period of the uses, etc. Standards of the uses, refilling, storage, transport and disposal are in detail stipulated. Specified measures shall be taken for measurement, prevention of radiation hazards, finding out of persons injured by radiation and others. (Okada, K.)

  18. Effect of the industrial canning on the toxicity of mussels contaminated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Juan; Arévalo, Fabiola; Correa, Jorge; Porro, M Corina; Cabado, Ana G; Vieites, Juan M; Moroño, Angeles

    2016-03-15

    The effect of canning in pickled sauce and autoclaving on weight, toxin content, toxin concentration and toxicity of steamed mussels was studied. Weight decreased by 25.5%. Okadaic acid (OA) and DTX2 content of mussel meat decreased by 24.1 and 42.5%, respectively. The estimated toxicity of the mussel remained nearly unchanged (increased by 2.9%). A part of the toxins lost by the mussels was leached to the sauce but the remaining part should have been thermally degraded. DTX2 underwent more degradation than OA and, in both toxins, free forms more than conjugated ones. This process, therefore, cannot be responsible for the large increments of toxicity of processed mussels -relative to the raw ones-sometimes detected by food processing companies. The final product could be monitored in several ways, but analysing the whole can content or the mussel meat once rehydrated seems to be the most equivalents to the raw mussel controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of the toxic variability of lipophilic biotoxins in marine bivalve and gastropod tissues treated with an industrial canning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Carlos; Oyaneder-Terrazas, Javiera; Contreras, Cristóbal; Del Campo, Miguel; Torres, Rafael; Contreras, Héctor R

    2016-11-01

    Contamination of shellfish with lipophilic marine biotoxins (LMB), pectenotoxins (PTXs), yessotoxins (YTXs) and okadaic acid (OA) toxin groups in southern Chile is a constant challenge for the development of miticulture considering the high incidence of toxic episodes that tend to occur. This research is focused on using methodologies for assessing the decrease in toxins of natural resources in Chile with high value, without altering the organoleptic properties of the shellfish. The species were processed through steaming (1 min at 121°C) and subsequent canning (5 min at 121°C). Changes in the profiles of toxins and total toxicity levels of LMB in endemic bivalves and gastropods were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The total reduction of toxicity (≈ 15%) was not related to the destruction of the toxin, but rather to the loss of LMB on removing the shells and packing media of canned products (***p < 0.001). Industrial processing of shellfish reduces LMB contents by up to 15% of the total initial contents, concomitant only with the interconversion of PTX-group toxins into PTX-2sa. In soft bottom-dwelling species with toxicities beyond the standard for safe human consumption (≥ 160 μg OA-eq kg - 1 ), toxicity can be reduced to safe levels through industrial preparation procedures.

  20. Notification determing the technical detail concerning disposal of nuyclear fuels materials outside the works or the enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the regulation on the disposal of nuclear fuel materials outside works or enterprises. Terms are used in this notification in the same meanings as in the regulation. The solidification method specified by the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency is the solidification into metal containers with hydraulic cement or the mixture of hydraulic cement, aggregate and additives. Cement shall have the strength and stability of cement specified under the Japan Industrial Standard JIS R 5210 or JIS R 5211 or exceeding those standards. Metal containers shall have the strength and air tightness of metal containers defined under the Japan Industrial Standard JIS Z 1600 or surpassing those standards. Radiation density is limited by the Director General to 1 curie, 0.1 curie, 100 curie and one million curie per ton for alpha-emitting substance, polonium 210, and radioactive materials with half-life longer or shorter than six months, respectively. The radiation dose rate on the surface of disposed wastes is defined to 50 milli-rem an hour by the Director General. Permissible cumulative dose is the value (unit rem) calculated by the following formula: D=5(N-18), in which D is permissible cumulative dose, and N is the number of age. Permissible exposure dose is 3 rem in three months for workers and 1.5 rem a year for persons other than workers. (Okada, K.)

  1. The regulations concerning the uses of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are defined under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and provisions concerning the uses of nuclear fuel materials in the order for execution of the law. Basic concepts and terms are explained, such as: exposure dose; accumulative dose; controlled area; inspected surrounding area and employee. The application for permission shall state the expected period and amount of the uses for each kind of nuclear fuel materials. Persons to whom spent fuels shall be sold, lent or returned and the method of disposal of such fuels shall be also indicated. Records shall be made and kept for particular periods for each works and enterprise on inspection of facilities, control of dose, maintenance and accident of facilities in use. The application for permission of the safeguard regulations shall report rules for each works and enterprise on the faculty and organization of controllers of facilities in use, safeguard education of employees, operation of apparatus which needs special control for prevention of disaster, establishment of controlled and inspected surrounding areas, entrance limitation, inspection of exposure dose, etc. Technical standards of the uses of nuclear fuel materials, disposal and transportation in the works and the enterprise and storage are stipulated in detail. Reports on exposure dose of employees and other specified matters shall be submitted every year to the Director General of Science and Technology Agency according to the forms attached. (Okada, K.)

  2. The regulations concerning the uses of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Regulations are established on the basis of ''The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors'' and the ''Provisions concerning the usage of nuclear fuel materials'' in the Enforcement Ordinance of the Law, to enforce such provisions. Terms are explained, such as exposure radiation dose, cumulative dose, control area, surrounding inspection area, persons engaging in works, area for incoming and outgoing of materials, batch, real stocks, effective value and main measuring points. In the applications for the permission to use nuclear fuel materials, the expected period and quantity of usage of each kind of such materials and the other party and the method of selling, lending and returning spent fuel or the process of disposal of such fuel must be written. Explanations concerning the technical ability required for the usage of nuclear fuel materials shall be attached to the applications. Applications shall be filed for the inspection of facilities for use, in which the name and the address of the applicant, the name and the address of the factory or the establishment, the range of the facilities for use, the maximum quantity of nuclear fuel materials to be used or stocked, and the date, the place and the kind of the expected inspection are written. Prescriptions cover the records to be held, safety regulations, the technical standards for usage, the disposal, transport and storage of nuclear fuel materials and the reports to be filed. (Okada, K.)

  3. Legal problems of waste treatment in German atomic energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffelhuber, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The execution of the strategies of waste treatment and disposal calls for the laws and regulations on the obligations of the owners of equipments and facilities and of the state for securing safety and the final elimination of radioactive wastes, which are defined mainly in Article 9 of Atomgesetz and Section 2 (Article 44 - 48) of the order on protection from radiation. The owners of equipments and facilities of atomic energy technology shall limit the emission of radiation to about 6% of internationally permissible values, avoid uncontrolled emission without fail, inspect emission and submit reports yearly to government offices. The owners have attention obligations to utilize harmlessly produced radioactive residues and the expanded or dismantled parts of radioactive equipments or to eliminate orderly such things as radioactive wastes, only when such utilization is unable technically or economically, or not adequate under the protection aims of Atomgesetz. The possessors of radioactive wastes shall deliver the wastes to the accumulation places of provinces for intermediate storage, to the facilities of the Federal Republic for securing safety or final storage, or the facilities authorized by government offices for the elimination of radioactive wastes. Provinces shall install the accumulation places for the intermediate storage of radioactive wastes produced in their territories, and the Federal Republic shall set up the facilities for securing safety and the final elimination of radioactive wastes (Article 9, Atomgesetz). (Okada, K.)

  4. The regulations concerning the reprocessing business of spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is stipulated under the provisions of reprocessing business in the law concerning regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors and to execute them. Basic terms are defined, such as exposure radiation dose, cumulative dose, control area, security area, surrounding monitoring area, worker, radioactive waste and facility for discharging into the sea. The application for the designation for reprocessing business under the law shall include the maximum reprocessing capacities per day and per year of each kind of spent fuel, to be reprocessed and the location, structure and equipment of reprocessing facilities as specified in the regulation. Records shall be made in each works or enterprise on the inspection, operation and maintenance of reprocessing facilities, radiation control, accidents and weather, and kept for particular periods respectively. Reprocessing enterprisers shall set up control area, security area and surrounding monitoring area to restrict entrance, etc. Specified measures shall be taken by these enterprisers concerning the exposure radiation doses of workers. Reprocessing facilities shall be inspected and examined more than once a day. The regular self-inspection and operation of reprocessing facilities, the transport and storage of nuclear fuel materials, the disposal of radioactive wastes in works or enterprises where reprocessing facilities are located, and security rules are defined in detail, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  5. Order for execution of the law concerning regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This ordinance is stipulated under the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors. The designation for refining and processing businesses under the law shall be obtained for each works or enterprise where these operations are to be practiced. Persons who intend to accept the designation shall file applications attaching business plans and the other documents specified by the ordinances of the Prime Minister's Office and other ministry orders. The permission for the installation of nuclear reactors under the law shall be received for each works or enterprise where reactors are to be set up. Persons who intend to get the permission shall file applications attaching the financing plans required for the installation of reactors and the other documents designated by the orders of the competent ministry. The permission concerning the reactors installed on foreign ships shall be obtained for each ship which is going to enter into the Japanese waters. Persons who ask for the permission shall file applications attaching the documents which explain the safety of reactor facilities and the other documents defined by the orders of the Ministry of Transportation. The designation for reprocessing business and the application for it are provided for, respectively. The usage of nuclear fuel materials, nuclear raw materials and internationally regulated goods is ruled in detail.(Okada, K.)

  6. The regulations concerning the uses of international controlled material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are defined under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and provisions concerning the uses of international controlled material in the order for execution of the law. Basic concepts and terms are explained, such as: area of material delivery; fluctuation of stock; batch; real stock, effective value; fuel assembly and main measuring point. The application for permission of the uses of international controlled material shall be filed to the Director General of Science and Technology Agency by the processor, the establisher of reactor, the reprocessor or the user for each works or enterprise, listing name and address of the person, name and location of the works or the enterprise where such material is used, kind and quantity of the material and expected period of the uses. Records shall be made and kept for particular periods for each works or enterprise on specified matters, including especially delivery, stock and fluctuation of stock of nuclear source or fuel material, etc. Provisions on control of measurement, method of analysis and information processing business are stipulated. Reports shall be submitted to the Director in the forms attached on delivery, control and fluctuation of stock of nuclear source or fuel material, etc. (Okada, K.)

  7. Regulations concerning the fabricating business of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Regulation is revised on the basis of ''The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors'' and the ''Provisions concerning the enterprises processing nuclear fuel materials'' in the Enforcement Ordinance for the Law, to enforce such provisions. This is the complete revision of the regulation of the same name in 1957. Terms are explained, such as exposure radiation dose, cumulative dose, control area, surrounding inspection area, persons engaged in works, radioactive wastes, area for incoming and outgoing of materials, fluctuation of stocks, batch, real stocks, effective value and main measuring points. For the applications for the permission of the enterprises processing nuclear fuel materials, the location of an enterprise, the construction of buildings and the construction of and the equipments for facilities of chemical processing, forming, coating, assembling, storage of nuclear fuel materials, disposal of radioactive wastes and radiation control must be written. Records shall be made and maintained for the periods specified on the inspection of processing facilities, nuclear fuel materials, radiation control, operation, maintainance, accidents of processing facilities and weather. Limit to entrance into the control area, measures for exposure radiation dose, patrol and inspection, operation of processing facilities, transport of materials, disposal of radioactive wastes, safety regulations are provided for. Reports to be filed by the persons engaging in the enterprises processing nuclear fuel materials are prescribed. (Okada, K.)

  8. The regulations concerning the reprocessing business of spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are defined under provisions concerning the reprocessing business in the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors. The basic concepts and terms are explained, such as: exposure dose; accumulative dose; controlled area; safeguarded area; inspected surrounding area; employee; radioactive waste and marine discharging facilities. Any person who gets permission for design of reprocessing facilities and method of the construction shall file an application, listing name and address of the person and the works or the place of enterprise where reprocessing facilities are to be set up, design of such facilities and method of the construction, in and out-put chart of nuclear fuel materials in reprocessing course, etc. Records shall be made and kept for particularly periods in each works or enterprise on inspection of reprocessing facilities, control of dose, operation, maintenance, accident of reprocessing facilities and weather. Detailed prescriptions are settled on entrance limitation to controlled area, exposure dose, inspection and check, regular independent examination and operation of reprocessing facilities, transportation in the works or the enterprise, storage, disposal, safeguard and measures in dangerous situations, etc. Reports shall be filed on exposure dose of employees and other specified matters in the forms attached and in the case otherwise defined. (Okada, K.)

  9. The rule on granting subsidies for survey of hot drainage influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The rule is based on the prescriptions of the Law Concerning Proper Budget Enforcement on Subsidies and its Enforcement Order. These rules apply to the granting subsidies provided for by the Enforcement Order for the Special Account Law for Measures Promoting Power Source Development. Terms are defined, such as nuclear power generating facilities; arrangement work for equipments for surveying hot drainage influences; work of preliminary survey of hot drainage; work of surveying hot drainage influences; establishments, etc. The Minister of International Trade and Industry delivers the subsidies for all or a part of the expenses necessary for arrangement work of equipments for surveying hot drainage influences, work of preliminary survey of hot drainage and work of surveying hot drainage influences to the prefectures where nuclear power generating facilities have been or are to be set up, or their neighboring prefectures. Terms of delivery concerning an establishment vary from two years to four years according to the kinds of such subsidies. Limits of the subsidies concerning an establishment range from 10 million yen to 2.5 million yen. The applicant prefecture files the application to the Minister of International Trade and Industry. The Minister examines such applications, and notifies his decision to the applicants. Conditions on delivery, reports submitted by receivers of the subsidies and other matters related are specified. (Okada, K.)

  10. Temperature and base requirements for the alkaline hydrolysis of okadaite's esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Susana M; Vale, Paulo

    2009-06-01

    Portuguese bivalves are recurrently contaminated with okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2), found mainly in esterified forms. Throughout the years different conditions have been reported in the literature for releasing the parent toxins through an alkaline hydrolysis step, in order to simplify their detection by HPLC-FLD or LC-MS. In order to clearly understand toxin stability and reaction end-point the binominous temperature/time course and base concentration were studied using naturally contaminated bivalve samples. The results showed a strong temperature dependence of the reaction. At 60 degrees C and 70 degrees C the hydrolysis was fast, and 40min were sufficient for maximal recovery of OA and DTX2, while at 40 degrees C and 50 degrees C it was only complete after 100min and 60min, respectively. At room temperature the reaction was slow and incomplete even after 2h. Stability of OA and DTX2 in semi-purified bivalve matrix at 70 degrees C for 2h was demonstrated. Concentrations of sodium hydroxide lower than 2.5M, corresponding to a final incubation concentration of 0.23M, resulted in incomplete release of parent toxins, demonstrating that high concentrations are needed when taking into account the dilution in the supernatant extract.

  11. The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The law aims to perform regulations on enterprises of refining, processing and reprocessing of nuclear source and fuel materials and on establishment and operation of reactors to realize the peaceful and deliberate utilization of atomic energy according to the principle of the atomic energy basic law. Regulations of use of internationally regulated substances are also envisaged to observe international agreements. Basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: atomic energy; nuclear fuel material; nuclear source material; reactor; refining; processing; reprocessing and internationally regulated substance. Any person besides the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Material Developing Corporation who undertakes refining shall be designated by the Prime Minister and the Minister of International Trade and Industry. An application shall be filed to the ministers concerned, listing name and address of the person, name and location of the refining works, equipment and method of refining, etc. The permission of the Prime Minister is necessary for any person who engages in processing. An application shall be filed to the Prime Minister, listing name and address of the person, name and location of the processing works and equipment and method of processing, etc. Permission of the Prime Minister, the Minister of International Trade and Industry or the Minister of Transport is necessary for any person who sets up reactors. An application shall be filed to the minister concerned, listing name and address of the person, purpose of operation, style, thermal output of reactor and number of units, etc. (Okada, K.)

  12. The law on indemnity agreement for compensation of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Basic terms are defined, such as: operation of reactors; nuclear damage; nuclear enterpriser; nuclear ship; measure for compensation; amount of compensation and liability insurance contract. The government may conclude with nuclear enterprisers indemnity agreements, in which in the case of reparation responsibilities of the enterprisers coming into being, the government agrees to make for losses of the enterprisers not possible to be compensated by liability insurance contracts, etc., and the enterprisers comply to pay indemnity charges. Losses indemnified by the government with the said agreements (indemnity agreement) shall be losses of the enterprisers (indemnity loss) which occur from reparation of nuclear damages due to earthquakes or eruptions, or regular operation of reactors or damages to be compensated by the insurance contracts, which are not demanded by the sufferers for 10 years from the day of events, and others. The term of indemnity agreements is from the time of the conclusion to the date of suspension of the operation of reactors. Indemnity charges, amount of indemnity, limit of conclusion of indemnity agreements, notice, prescription and others are prescribed respectively. The government may dissolute indemnity agreements in specified particular cases, including violation of the provisions of the law concerning indemnification of nuclear damage by the enterprisers, etc. (Okada, K.)

  13. The law concerning indemnification of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The law defines the basic system of indemnification of nuclear damage by the operation of reactors to protect sufferers and help the sound development of atomic energy business. The operation of reactors means hereunder the operation of reactors, processing, reprocessing and the uses of nuclear fuel materials as well as transport, storage and disposal of nuclear fuel materials or things contaminated by them, which accompany with those procedures. The nuclear damage signifies injuries due to functions of fission of nuclear fuel materials or radiation or poisonous functions of things contaminated by them. When nuclear damage happens by the operation of reactors, the atomic energy enterpriser concerned shall indemnify the damage. Atomic energy undertakers shall not operate reactors without taking measures for compensation. The measures shall be the conclusion of nuclear damage compensation insurance contracts and indemnification contracts or the deposit. The amount of less than yen 10 milliards specified by the order and acknowledged by the Director General of Science and Technology Agency shall be allotted to the compensation by these measures for each works, enterprise or nuclear ship. The government shall assist atomic energy enterprisers to indemnify, when such compensation surpasses the amount assigned and the support is considered necessary. (Okada, K.)

  14. Occurrence of Coccolithophorids in the Northeastern and Central South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien-Nan Yang

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Coccolithophorids in the northeastern and central South China Sea (SCS were surveyed in March and October 1996. The cell density of coccolithophorids ranged from 25 x 103 cells L-1 to 31 x 103 cells L-1 in sea-surface water (0–25 m in depth, and from 12 x 103 cells L-1 to 62 x 103 cells L-1 in subsurface water (150 m in depth. The lowest cell number was recorded in the subsurface (150 m in depth in the central gyral area, while the highest one was at the same depth in the northeastern realm. A total of thirty-one species were identified. The species richness in the northeastern SCS is higher than in the central area. Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann Hay et Mohler, Gephyrocapsa oceanica Kamptner, Umbellosphaera Paasche spp. And Syracosphaera Lohmann spp. Dominated the surface assemblages, whereas Florisphaera profunda Okada et Honjo, Gladiolithus flabellatus (Halldal et Markali Jordan et Chamberlain predominated in the subsurface layer. In contrast, Palusphaera vandeli Lecal emend. R. E. Norris presented in both surface and subsurface assemblages.

  15. Role and activities of courts in procedures of atomic energy laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiono, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    The most typical dispute on atomic energy processes takes place in Japan around seeking the annulment of permission of the installation of reactors, and nine cases on the atomic energy facilities for power generation are now in discussion. Nullification proceedings are stipulated in the law of administrative issue legal procedure. Under the law, the abolition of administrative activities can be sought only by the persons who have legal interests, which mean legally protected interests according to Japanese court decisions. The expected damage due to hot water discharge from reactors was not examined in the Ikata judgement, because hot water discharge would be discussed in the examination of permission under the Electricity Enterprises Act, according to the court. In other respects, court judgements cover all dangers of atomic energy and harmful effects of radiation. The most important point of discussion is emergency core cooling system, and Japanese special circumstances are found in that the counter measures against earthquakes are the major problem. In the Ikata case, the court held that waste treatment should be examined, and that the judgement of the government office to some degree on the method of reprocessing would suffice. The Ikata decision maintained that the standard of safety examination should depend upon the present level of science. The attitude of the court in the Ikata case was not clear as to whether the discretion of the government office may be permitted in safety judgement. (Okada, K.)

  16. The order for enforcing the law concerning indemnification of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The cabinet ordinance is established under the law concerning the indemnification for atomic energy damages. The matters stipulated by the ordinance in the law include the following matters: the operation of reactors; the processing of nuclear fuel materials, such as uranium 235, specified uranium and its compounds, plutonium and its compounds, etc.; reprocessing; the employment of such nuclear fuel materials; the transportation, storage and disposal of such materials, particular spent fuels and the things contaminated by nuclear fuel materials, which occur according to the operation of reactors and other practices above mentioned. The amounts of indemnification are respectively 10 billion yen for the operation of reactors whose thermal outputs are more than 10,000 kilowatts and reprocessing, 2 billion yen for the operation of reactors whose thermal outputs are more than 100 kilowatts and less than 10,000 kilowatts and the transportation of spent fuel accompanying the operation of reactors or reprocessing, 200 million yen for the operation of reactors whose thermal outputs are less than 100 kilowatts, and the processing and employment of nuclear fuel materials, the transportation of nuclear fuel materials accompanying the operation of reactors, and the processing, reprocessing and employment of nuclear fuel materials. The payment of casualty indemnification includes that according to the provisions of the government official casualty indemnification law and that due to official causes under the provisions of the seamen insurance law. (Okada, K.)

  17. Is Yessotoxin the Main Phycotoxin in Croatian Waters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živana Ninčević Gladan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of investigating whether yessotoxin (YTX is responsible for diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP events in Croatian waters, three different methods were combined: a modified mouse bioassay (MBA that discriminates YTX from other DSP toxins, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method (ELISA and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Among 453 samples of mussels and seawater analyzed in 2007, 10 samples were DSP positive. Results obtained by the modified MBA method revealed that most of the samples were positive for YTX, with the exception of samples from Lim Bay (LB 1 The ELISA method also identified the presence of YTX in these samples. DSP toxin profiles showed the presence of okadaic acid (OA in three, and YTX in four out of nine samples that were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The phytoplankton community structure pattern revealed Lingulodinium polyedrum (Stein Dodge, which was present in the water prior to and/or during toxicity events at low concentrations (80 to 1440 cells L-1, as a potential YTX producing species. It is proposed that L. polyedrum cells accumulated in mussels and the subsequently observed toxicity may be related to metabolism after ingestion, resulting in carboxy YTX as the major analog in the mussel.

  18. Role of protein kinase C in regulation of Na+- and K +-dependent ATPase activity and pump function in corneal endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatou, Shin; Yamada, Masakazu; Mochizuki, Hiroshi; Nishida, Teruo

    2009-05-01

    Na+- and K+-dependent ATPase (Na,K-ATPase) plays an important role in the pump function of the corneal endothelium. We investigated the possible role of protein kinase C (PKC) in regulation of Na,K-ATPase activity and pump function in corneal endothelial cells. Confluent monolayers of mouse corneal endothelial cells were exposed to phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) to induce activation of PKC. ATPase activity of the cells was evaluated by using ammonium molybdate in spectrophotometric measurement of phosphate released from ATP, with Na,K-ATPase activity being defined as the portion of total ATPase activity sensitive to ouabain. Pump function of the cells was measured with a Ussing chamber, with the pump function attributable to Na,K-ATPase activity being defined as the portion of the total short-circuit current sensitive to ouabain. PDBu (10(-7) M) increased the Na,K-ATPase activity and pump function of the cultured cells. These effects of PDBu were potentiated by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin and the cytochrome P(450) inhibitor resorufin and were blocked by okadaic acid, an inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A. Our results suggest that PKC bidirectionally regulates Na,K-ATPase activity in mouse corneal endothelial cells: it inhibits Na,K-ATPase activity in a cyclooxygenase- and cytochrome P(450)-dependent manner, whereas it stimulates such activity by activating protein phosphatases 1 or 2A.

  19. Procedures for permission of installation of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Yoriaki

    1980-01-01

    The locations of atomic power stations are first selected by electric power enterprises in consultation with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry or under the guidance of authorities concerned. The surveys of the climate, topography, water and plants in the planned sites and the influences of nuclear power generation to the surrounding areas are made by the enterprisers under the administrative guidance of the MITI. Secondly, the basic project shall be submitted to and decided by the Power Resource Development Council headed by the Prime Minister (Article 10, the Power Resource Development Law). The Council shall, if necessary, call for the attendance of the governors of prefectures concerned and hear their opinions (Article 11, the Law). As the third and most complicated phase, various procedures include; (a) permission of the changes of electrical facilities under the Electricity Enterprises Act; (b) authorization of the installation of reactors under the Nuclear Reactor Regulation Law; (c) permission or authorization under other regulations including the Agricultural Land Act, etc.; (d) additional procedures related to the indemnification to fishery and so forth. Finally the reactors are to be operated after receiving the certificates of the Minister of ITI on the inspections of construction works, nuclear fuel materials used for the reactors and welding processes of reactor containment vessels, boilers, turbines, etc. (Okada, K.)

  20. The law for radiation and x-ray technicians engaging in medical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Law aims to define the qulifications of radiation and x-ray technicians engaging in medical treatment and to regulate so that the works are carried out properly for helping popularization and improvement of medicine and public hygiene. Persons who wish to be radiation or x-ray technicians engaging in medical treatment are required to pass the examinations for such technicians and obtain the licenes of the Minister of Health and Welfare for the former technicians and the license of a prefectural governor for the latter technicians. Mentally disordered, deaf, dumb or blind persons are excluded from licensees. Registration of such technicians, delivery of the license certificates and other related matters are provided for. The examinations are held concerning the knowledges and skills necessary for such technicians and carried out by the Minister of Health and Welfare. Persons except doctors, dentists and such technicians are prohibited to engage in the practices to apply radiation to human bodies. Restrictions on the intensity of radiation applied and the places of work are defined concerning such practices. Penal servitude of less than a year and fines less than yen 10,000 or yen 5,000 are imposed upon the violation of such prohibitions or restrictions. (Okada, K.)

  1. Characterizing Volumetric Strain at Brady Hot Springs, Nevada, USA Using Geodetic Data, Numerical Models, and Prior Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, E. C.; Feigl, K. L.; Cardiff, M. A.; Morency, C.; Kreemer, C.; Akerley, J.

    2017-12-01

    Time-dependent deformation has been observed at Brady Hot Springs using data from the Global Positioning System (GPS) and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) [e.g., Ali et al. 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geothermics.2016.01.008]. We seek to determine the geophysical process governing the observed subsidence. As two end-member hypotheses, we consider thermal contraction and a decrease in pore fluid pressure. A decrease in temperature would cause contraction in the subsurface and subsidence at the surface. A decrease in pore fluid pressure would allow the volume of pores to shrink and also produce subsidence. To simulate these processes, we use a dislocation model that assumes uniform elastic properties in a half space [Okada, 1985]. The parameterization consists of many cubic volume elements (voxels), each of which contracts by closing its three mutually orthogonal bisecting square surfaces. Then we use linear inversion to solve for volumetric strain in each voxel given a measurement of range change. To differentiate between the two possible hypotheses, we use a Bayesian framework with geostatistical prior information. We perform inversion using each prior to decide if one leads to a more geophysically reasonable interpretation than the other. This work is part of a project entitled "Poroelastic Tomography by Adjoint Inverse Modeling of Data from Seismology, Geodesy, and Hydrology" and is supported by the Geothermal Technology Office of the U.S. Department of Energy [DE-EE0006760].

  2. Determination of detailed standards for transportation of radioactive materials by ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The notification is defined under the regulations concerning marine transport and storage of dangerous things. Radioactive materials include hereunder uranium 233 and 235, plutonium 238, 239 and 241, their compounds and those materials which contain one or more than two of such materials. Materials whose quantities or quantities of components are less than 15 grams, and natural or depleted uranium are excluded. Permissible surface concentrations are 1/100,000 micro-curie per centi-meter 2 for radioactive materials emitting alpha rays, and 1/10,000 micro-curie per centi-meter 2 for radioactive materials not emitting alpha rays. Radioactive materials to be transported as L loads shall be not dispersing solid substances or those tightly enclosed in capsules, one of whose exterior sides at least is more than 0.5 centi-meter, having other several specified features. Other kinds of liquid and gas L loads are stipulated. Limits of radioactivity of L and A loads are provided for with tables attached. Transport conditions of A, BM and BU loads are fixed with bylaws. Leakages of BM and BU loads are also prescribed. Radioactive loads shall be marked by particular signals. Measures shall be taken to control exposures, which involve measurement of doses and exposure doses on board and appointment of exposure controllers. (Okada, K.)

  3. Regulations concerning marine transport and storage of dangerous things (abridged)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    When the dangerous things of different classes or items are loaded on a same ship, they shall be separated mutually according to the specified standards. Containers shall be cleaned well before loading dangerous things. When there is the danger of heating, gasification, corrosion and other critical physical or chemical processes by the mutual action of the dangerous things of different items or dangerous things and other goods, they must not be loaded in a same container. Basic terms are defined, such as radioactive transported goods, fissile transported goods and exclusive loading. Radioactive transported goods are classified into types of L, A, BM and BU, and fissile transported goods into 3 kinds. Each type of these goods is defined in size and radioactivity. When the makers of radioactive transported goods pack radioactive materials into the transported goods of type BM or BU, they shall get before shipment the confirmation of the Minister of Transport concerning the standard to which these goods conform. The maximum radiation dose rate must not exceed 200 milli-rem an hour on the surface and 10 milli-rem an hour at the distance of 1 meter from the surfaces of containers loaded with radioactive transported goods. Signs, the limit of shipment and other related matters are prescribed in detail. (Okada, K.)

  4. The regulation concerning transportation of radioactive materials by vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Regulation is established on the basis of The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors'' and the ''Law for the prevention of radiation injuries due to radioisotopes.'' The prescriptions cover the transport of radioactive materials by railway, street rail way, ropeway, trolley buses, motorcars and light vehicles. Terms are explained, such as nuclear fuel materials, radioisotopes, radioactive substances, transported radioactive things, transported fissile things, vehicles, containers, exclusive loading, surrounding inspection area. Four types of transported radioactive things are specified, L and A types being less dangerous and BM and BU being more dangerous. Transported fissile things are classified to three kinds according to the safety to criticality of such things. Transported radioactive things except those of L type and containers with transported fissile things shall not be loaded or unloaded at the places where persons other than those concerned come in usually. Loading and unloading of such things shall be carried out so that the safety of such things is not injured. The maximum dose rate of radiation of the containers with transported radioactive things shall not be more than 200 millirem per hour on the surface and 10 millirem per hour at the distance of 1 meter. Specified transported radioactive things shall be particularly marked by the letter of ''radioactive'' or other signs indicating as such. (Okada, K.)

  5. Determination of detailed regulations concerning transportation of radioactive materials by vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of the ''Regulations concerning transportation of radioactive materials by vehicles''. The terms used hereinafter are according to those used in the Regulations. Radioactive materials include uranium 233, uranium 235, plutonium 238, plutonium 239, plutonium 241, the compounds of such materials and the substances containing one or two and more of such materials, excluding the radioactive materials with not more than 15 grams of such uranium and plutonium. The permissible surface density is 1/100,000 microcurie per cm 2 for radioactive materials emitting alpha-ray and 1/10,000 microcurie per cm 2 for such materials which does not emit alpha-ray. For the radioactive materials which can be transported as L type loads, their kinds and quantities are specified in the forms of solid, liquid and gas, respectively. Transporting conditions including the quantity and leakage in A, BM and BU type loads are provided for, respectively, in the lists attached and in the particular sections. (Okada, K.)

  6. Regulations concerning marine transport and storage of dangerous things (abridged)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Basic terms are explained, such as: radioactive load; fissionable load; exclusive loading; and container. Radioactive loads are classified into four types - L, A, BM and BU, and fissionable loads into three kinds - the 1st, 2nd and 3rd. Maximum radiation dose of radioactive loads in containers shall not exceed 200 mili-rem for an hour at the surface of containers and 10 mili-rem for an hour at a distance of 1 meter from the surface. Specified signals or indications shall be attached to radioactive loads or containers with them. Letters of exclusive loading or ''FULL LOAD'' shall be marked on the signals in exclusive loading. Captains shall file to the Minister of Transportation before shipment a transport program to transfer BM or BU loads or fissionable loads of the 3rd kind, and get confirmation of safety by the minister. Captains shall restrict entrance of persons other than the staff concerned to the place where radioactive materials are laid by setting up off-limits. Maximum doses shall not go over 0.18 mili-rem for an hour on board in living areas or places regularly used. Mutual separation, method of enclosing and loading of dangerous things, transport index, limit of loading and others are stipulated in detail. (Okada, K.)

  7. Regulations concerning the transport of nuclear fuel materials outside the works or the enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors and the ordinance for its execution, and to enforce the law. Basic terms are defined, such as vehicle transport, simplified transport, nuclear fuel transport goods, exclusive loading, worker, cumulative dose and exposure radiation dose. Nuclear fuel transport goods are classified into types of L, A, BM and BU according to their radioactivities. Radiation dose rate shall not exceed 0.5 milli-rem an hour on the surface of the type L, and 200 milli-rem an hour on the surface of the type A. For the type BM, the rate shall not surpass 1,000 milli-rem an hour at the distance of 1 meter from the surface in the special test conditions. The transport goods of fissile materials must not reach criticality on the way, but also shall conform to the stipulated technical standards. The particular things contaminated by nuclear fuel materials can be transported without specifying as nuclear fuel transport goods, and their radiation dose rate shall not go beyond 0.5 milli-rem an hour on the surface. The transport by special measures, the technical standards of simplified transport and measures to be taken in danger in transit are defined, respectively.(Okada, K.)

  8. Determination of detailed standards for transportation of radioactive materials by ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of the ''Regulations on the transport and storage of dangerous things by ships''. The terms used hereinafter are according to those used in the Regulations. Radioactive materials, etc., include uranium 233, uranium 235, plutonium 238, plutonium 239, plutonium 241, the compounds of such materials and the substances containing one or two and more of such materials, excluding such materials of not more than 15 grams. The permissible surface density of radioactive materials is 1/100,000 of one microcurie per cm 2 for the radioactive materials emitting alpha-ray and 1/10,000 of one microcurie per cm 2 for the radioactive materials not emitting alpha-ray. For the radioactive materials which can be transported as L type cargo, their quantity of radioactivity is defined in their solid, liquid and gaseous forms. The limit of quantity of such cargo is described in detail in the lists attached. Transporting conditions of A, BM and BU type cargos are specified respectively in the particular sections. (Okada, K.)

  9. Determination of the details of technical standard concerning the transport of nuclear fuel materials outside the works or the enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The determination is defined under the regulations concerning the transport of nuclear fuel materials outside the works or the enterprise. The least dangerous nuclear fuel materials designated by the Director General of Science and Technology Agency include, besides such materials listed and corresponding to the particular terms, natural or depleted uranium, natural thorium and their compounds whose surface is covered by corrosion resistance metal. The permissible density of surface stipulated by the Director is 1/100,000 micro-curie per centi-meter 2 for radioactive substances not emitting alpha rays and 1/10,000 micro-curie per centi-meter 2 for radioactive substances emitting alpha rays. General test conditions of A, BM and BU type of loads are in detail provided for. The nuclear fuel materials defined by the Director not as fission materials are uranium 233 and 235, plutonium 238 or 241, whose quantity or combined quantity of such substances do not exceed 15 grams and natural or depleted uranium. The permissible accumulative dose specified for employees is the figure (unit rem) calculated by the formula D=5 (N-18), when D means the permissible accumulative dose and N number of the age. The permissible exposure dose shall be 3 rem for 3 months for employees and 1.5 rem for a year for persons other than employees. (Okada, K.)

  10. Notification determining details of technical standards concerning transport of radioisotopes or goods contaminated by radioisotopes outside works or enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the regulation for the execution of the law on the prevention of radiation injuries by radioisotopes. Terms are used in this rule for the same meanings as in the regulation. The concentration of radioisotopes to which the technical standards for transport outside enterprises are not applied is 0.002 micro-curie per gram. The radioisotopes which can be transported as L type transported goods are defined in detail, excluding explosive or spontaneously igniting radioisotopes. The quantity limit of radioisotopes which can be transported as A type transported goods is the values A 1 and A 2 defined in this rule. The permissible surface density defined by the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency are 1/100,000 micro-curie per cm 2 for the radioisotopes emitting alpha-ray, and 1/10,000 micro-curie per cm 2 for the radioisotopes which do not emit alpha-ray. The leak quantity of radioisotopes specified by the Director General is 1/1,000,000 of A 2 value for BM type transported goods and 1/1,000 of A 2 value for BU type goods. The test conditions for each type of transported goods, dangerous goods, the limit of the number of transported goods and signs are stipulated, respectively. Permissible exposure dose is 1.5 rem a year for persons other than radiation workers. (Okada, K.)

  11. Determination of details of regulations concerning transportation of radioisotopes by vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The determination is defined under the regulation concerning transportation of radioactive materials by vehicles. Permissible surface density shall be 1/100,000 micro-curie per centi-meter 2 for radioisotopes emitting alpha rays and 1/10,000 micro-curie per centi-meter 2 for radioisotopes not emitting alpha rays. Radioisotope loads are classified to types of L, A, BM and BU. Quantity of radioactivity or radioisotope is stipulated for each type of loads respectively with tables attached. Radioactivity quantity of solid L load is 1/1,000 of Al value in the appendix table. For tritium water of fluid L load radioactivity quantity is 1,000 curie, 100 curie and 1 curie respectively according to the water radioactivity per litre of less than 0.1 curie, less than 1 curie and more than 0.1 curie, and more than 1 curie. Conditions concerning A, BM and BU loads are provided for in detail in the bylaw annexed. Quantity of leaking specified for BM load is 1/1,000,000 of A2 value and in other particular cases A2 value, etc. Leaking quantity for BU load is 1/1,000 of A2 value. Radioactive concentration of radioisotopes to be transferred not as radioactive goods is 1/10,000 of A2 value per gram. (Okada, K.)

  12. The enforcement regulation for the law for radiation and x-ray technicians engaging in medical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of and to enforce the ''Law for radiation and X-ray technicians engaging in medical treatment''. Applications for the license of radiation and X-ray technicians engaging in medical treatment shall be filed, attached with a copy or an abstract of the census register of the applicant and a medical certificate by a doctor of whether the applicant is an insane, a deaf, a dumb or a blind person or a person caught by an infectious disease or not. In the register of such technicians, the number and the date of registration, the names of the prefectures where the technicians are legally domiciled, their names and the date of birth, the year and month of passing the examination, the matters concerning withdrawal of the license or suspension of the practice must be written. The date and the place of the examination for such technicians shall be published beforehand on the official gazette. The examinations for such radiation and X-ray technicians are made on the subjects, such as physics, electrical engineering, chemistry, elementary medical science, radiology, photographing technique, medical treatment technique and control technique. (Okada, K.)

  13. Determination of technical details concerning measures for transportation of nuclear fuel materials in the works or the enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The determination is defined under the regulation for installation and operation of reactors for power generation. The limit of radioactive concentration of things contaminated by nuclear fuel materials which need not be sealed in a vessel is designated by the Minister of International Trade and Industry as 1/10,000 of A2 value per gram provided by another notification on transport of nuclear fuel materials outside the works. Measures for prevention of hazards shall be taken to stop flying out or leaking of radioactive substances by solidifying them with concrete or other hardening materials, not to let rain water penetrate into or to make each exterior side of transferred cubic things more than 10 centi-meters. The application for permission of things highly difficult to be enclosed in a vessel shall list name and address of the applicant, kind, quantity, form and nature of conveyed things contaminated by nuclear fuel materials, data and route of transfer and measures for prevention of hazards in transport. Radioactive doses specified by the minister are for an hour 200 mili-rem on the surface and 10 mili-rem at the distance of 1 meter from the surface of load, vehicle and container. Radioactive doses for the special loads shall be for an hour 1,000 mili-rem on the surface and 10 mili-rem at the distance of 2 meters from the surface of transferred things. (Okada, K.)

  14. Determination of permissible doses under the provisions of the regulations on installation and operation of reactors for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The determination is defined under the regulations on installation and operation of reactors for power generation. In the controlled area exterior radiation dose shall be 30 mili-rem for a week by the Minister of International Trade and Industry. The concentrations of radioactive materials in the air or under the water shall be permissible concentrations specified for the employees multiplied by 0.75 in average for a week. The densities of radioactive materials on the surface of the things contaminated by such materials shall be 1/10 of permissible surface densities stipulated in the table attached. Permissible exposure dose outside the inspected surrounding area is 0.5 rem for a year. Permissible surface densities are included in the table attached. Permissible accumulative dose for the employees is the figure (unit rem) calculated by the formula D = 5(N-18), when D means permissible accumulative dose and N number of the age. Permissible exposure dose is 3 rem for 3 months for the employees, 1.5 rem for a year for persons other than the employees and 12 rem for the urgent work. Permissible concentrations are defined in detail for the employees and outside the inspected surrounding area. Calculation of exposure dose in the case of interior exposure is particularly provided for. (Okada, K.)

  15. New record of Japanese snake blenny Xiphasia matsubarai (Perciformes: Blenniidae) from South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Murong; Zhao, Chunxu; Su, Xin; Tao, Yajin; Yan, Yunrong

    2017-11-01

    Specimens belonging to the family Blenniidae were collected in a fishery resource investigation from the coastal waters of Xisha Islands and Hainan Island, South China Sea in 2016. Combining morphological results with sequence analysis, we identified one specimen as Xiphasia matsubarai Okada & Suzuki, 1952. This represents a new record in the South China Sea. In morphology, the specimen has the following traits: body elongated, eel-like or ribbon-like in shape; flanks medium flat; the head small bluntly rounded anteriorly and without a moustache; eyes is slightly smaller, on upper lateral position of head, which is about equal to 1/5 of the length of the head; body without scales, lateral line has been degraded; both sides of the upper and lower jaws with a canine; gill is opening at the top of the pectoral fin base, approximately equal to the length of eye diameter. Dorsal fin XI, 96; pectoral fin 10; anal fin II, 95. Head and body grey-brown, including 26 dark grey-brown bands; abdomen and lower operculum yellowish grey and colour lighter; and dorsal base long with dark grey. Origin of dorsal is located over the anterior margin of pupil; black blotch on dorsal fin between 8th and 10th dorsal spine; anal and caudal fins dark grey, pectoral and ventral fins pale yellow. Sequence analysis of cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) strongly supports the identity of the specimen as X. matsubarai.

  16. Determination of technical details concerning measures for transportation of nuclear fuel materials in the works or the enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The determination is defined under the regulations concerning the fabricating business of nuclear fuel materials, the regulation concerning installation and operation of test reactor, the regulations concerning the reprocessing business of spent fuel and the regulations concerning the uses of nuclear source materials. The notification determining technical details concerning measures for transportation of nuclear fuel materials is abolished. Measures for prevention of hazard designated by the Director General of Science and Technology Agency include such ones not to let radioactive materials easily fly about or leak in regular transport, not to let rain water easily penetrate or make each exterior side of a cubic load more than 10 centi-meters. The application for permission shall be filed for transportation of things highly difficult to be sealed in a vessel, listing name and address of the applicant, kind, quantity, form and nature of the load contaminated by nuclear fuel materials, date and route of transfer and measures taken for prevention of hazard in transport. Radiation doses of load and transporting apparatus are stipulated by the Director for an hour as 200 mili-rem on the surface of load, 10 mili-rem at the distance of 1 meter from the surface of load, and 200 mili-rem on the surface of the vehicle, etc. Dangerous things, signals and radiation dose of particular loads are specified respectively. (Okada, K.)

  17. Regulations concerning the fabricating business of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are entirely revised under the law for the regulations of nuclear materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and provisions concerning the fabricating business in the order for execution of the law. Basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: exposure dose; accumulative dose; controlled area; inspected surrounding area; employee and radioactive waste. The application for permission of the fabricating business shall include: location of processing facilities; structure of building structure and equipment of chemical processing facilities; molding facilities; structure and equipment of covering and assembling facilities, storage facilities of nuclear fuel materials and disposal facilities of radioactive waste, etc. Records shall be made and kept for particular periods in each works and place of enterprise on inspection of processing facilities, control of dose, operation, maintenance, accident of processing facilities and weather. Specified measures shall be taken in controlled area and inspected surrounding area to restrict entrance. Measures shall be made not to exceed permissible exposure dose for employees defined by the Director General of Science and Technology Agency. Inspection and check up of processing facilities shall be carried on by employees more than once a day. Operation of processing facilities, transportation in the works and enterprise, storage, disposal, safety securing, report and measures in dangerous situations, etc. are in detail prescribed. (Okada, K.)

  18. Phospho-specific binding of 14-3-3 proteins to phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase III beta protects from dephosphorylation and stabilizes lipid kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausser, Angelika; Link, Gisela; Hoene, Miriam; Russo, Chiara; Selchow, Olaf; Pfizenmaier, Klaus

    2006-09-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase-IIIbeta (PI4KIIIbeta) is activated at the Golgi compartment by PKD-mediated phosphorylation. Subsequent mechanisms responsible for continuous PtdIns(4)P production at Golgi membranes and potential interaction partners of activated PI4KIIIbeta are unknown. Here we identify phosphoserine/-threonine binding 14-3-3 proteins as novel regulators of PI4KIIIbeta activity downstream of this phosphorylation. The PI4KIIIbeta-14-3-3 interaction, evident from GST pulldowns, co-immunoprecipitations and bimolecular fluorescence complementation, was augmented by phosphatase inhibition with okadaic acid. Binding of 14-3-3 proteins to PI4KIIIbeta involved the PKD phosphorylation site Ser294, evident from reduced 14-3-3 binding to a S294A PI4KIIIbeta mutant. Expression of dominant negative 14-3-3 proteins resulted in decreased PI4KIIIbeta Ser294 phosphorylation, whereas wildtype 14-3-3 proteins increased phospho-PI4KIIIbeta levels. This was because of protection of PI4KIIIbeta Ser294 phosphorylation from phosphatase-mediated dephosphorylation. The functional significance of the PI4KIIIbeta-14-3-3 interaction was evident from a reduction of PI4KIIIbeta activity upon dominant negative 14-3-3 protein expression. We propose that 14-3-3 proteins function as positive regulators of PI4KIIIbeta activity by protecting the lipid kinase from active site dephosphorylation, thereby ensuring a continuous supply of PtdIns(4)P at the Golgi compartment.

  19. The law for the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The institute is established under the atomic energy basic law to make effectively research of development of atomic energy in general and help to promote investigation, development and utilization of it. The institute is a legal person and has its main office in Tokyo. Its capital is the amount of yen 2,500 million plus contributions by persons other than the government. The government invests the said yen 2,500 million at the time of its establishment. The articles of the institute shall prescribe matters, such as: capital, contributions and assets; officer and meeting; business and its execution; accounting, etc. The officers are consisted of a chief director, a deputy chief director and less than 7 directors and less than 2 auditors. The chief director is appointed by the Prime Minister with the consent of the atomic energy commission. The term of the chief director, the deputy chief director and directors is 4 years and that of auditors is 2 years. Functions of the institute include basic and application research of atomic energy, planning, building and operation of reactors, training of researchers and engineers of atomic energy, etc. The budget, the business program and the financial project shall be prepared each business year and authorized by the Prime Minister. The institute is subject to the supervision of the Prime Minister. (Okada, K.)

  20. The regulations concerning the uses of international controlled material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of and to enforce ''The law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors'' and the ''Prescriptions on the usage of internationally regulated goods'' in the Enforcement Ordinance of the Law. Terms are explained, such as area for incoming and outgoing of goods, main measuring point, batch and real stocks. Applications for the permission of the use of internationally regulated goods shall be filed, in which the kinds of such goods for the materials and equipments in each partner country, with which international agreement was concluded, and the quantity and expected period of use of each regulated material must be written. The users of such regulated materials shall keep the records on the usage of such materials in each factory or establishment. Such records include the quantities of receiving and delivering and stocks of nuclear raw material of each kind, radiation control reports and the records of accidents in the facilities for using nuclear raw materials. Applications for the approval of the stipulation on the management of measurement shall be filed, in which the functions and organizations of the persons engaging in the measurement and control of internationally regulated goods, the establishment of the areas for receiving and delivering the goods and the marks to be put on such areas, etc. Applications for the designation as the persons engaging in information processing works are specified. (Okada, K.)

  1. Regulation for installation and operation of marine reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulation is defined under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and the provisions of the order for execution of the law. The regulation is applied to marine reactors and reactors installed in foreign nuclear ships. Basic concepts and terms are explained, such as: radioactive waste; fuel assembly; exposure dose; accumulative dose; controlled area; safeguarded area; inspected surrounding area and employee. The application for permission of installation of reactors shall list maximum continuous thermal power, location and general structure of reactor facilities, structure and equipment of reactors and treatment and storage facilities of nuclear fuel materials, etc. The application for permission of reactors installed in foreign ships shall describe specified matters according to the provisions for domestic reactors. The operation program of reactors for three years shall be filed to the Minister of Transportation for each reactor every fiscal year from that year when the operation is expected to start. Records shall be made for each reactor and kept for particular periods on inspection of reactor facilities, operation, fuel assembly, control of radiation, maintenance and others. Exposure doses, inspection and check up of reactor facilities, operation of reactors, transport and storage of nuclear fuel materials, etc. are designated in detail. (Okada, K.)

  2. Regulation for installation and operation of experimental-research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The ordinance is stipulated under the Law for regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and the provisions for installation and operation of reactor in the order for execution of the law. Basic concepts and terms are defined, such as, radioactive waste; fuel assembly; exposure dose; accumulative dose; controlled area; preserved area; inspected surrounding area and employee. An application for permission of installation of reactor shall list such matters as: the maximum continuous thermal output of reactor; location and general construction of reactor facilities; construction and equipment of the main reactor and other facilities for nuclear fuel materials; cooling and controlling system and radioactive waste, etc. An operation plan of reactor for three years shall be filed till January 31 of the fiscal year preceding that one the operation begins. Records shall be made and kept for specified periods respectively on inspection of reactor facilities, operation, fuel assembly, radiation control, maintenance, accidents of reactor equipment and weather. Detailed rules are settled for entrance limitation to controlled area, exposure dose, inspection, check up and regular independent examination of reactor facilities, operation of reactor, transportation of substances contaminated by nuclear fuel materials within the works and storage, etc. (Okada, K.)

  3. The Atomic energy basic law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The law aims to secure future energy resources, push forward progress of science and advancement of industry for welfare of the mankind and higher standard of national life by helping research, development and utilization of atomic power. Research, development and utilization of atomic power shall be limited to the peaceful purpose with emphasis laid on safety and carried on independently under democratic administration. Basic concepts and terms are defined, such as: atomic power; nuclear fuel material; nuclear raw material; reactor and radiation. The Atomic Energy Commission and the Atomic Energy Safety Commission shall be set up at the Prime Minister's Office deliberately to realize national policy of research, development and utilization of atomic power and manage democratic administration for atomic energy. The Atomic Energy Commission shall plan, consider and decide matters concerning research, development and utilization of atomic energy. The Atomic Energy Safety Commission shall plan, consider and decide issues particularly concerning safety securing among such matters. The Atomic Energy Research Institute shall be founded under the governmental supervision to perform research, experiment and other necessary affairs for development of atomic energy. The Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation shall be established likewise to develop fast breeding reactor, advanced thermal reactor and nuclear fuel materials. Development of radioactive minerals, control of nuclear fuel materials and reactors and measures for patent and invention concerning atomic energy, etc. are stipulated respectively. (Okada, K.)

  4. Retrieving Precise Three-Dimensional Deformation on the 2014 M6.0 South Napa Earthquake by Joint Inversion of Multi-Sensor SAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Min-Jeong; Jung, Hyung-Sup; Yun, Sang-Ho

    2017-07-14

    We reconstructed the three-dimensional (3D) surface displacement field of the 24 August 2014 M6.0 South Napa earthquake using SAR data from the Italian Space Agency's COSMO-SkyMed and the European Space Agency's Sentinel-1A satellites. Along-track and cross-track displacements produced with conventional SAR interferometry (InSAR) and multiple-aperture SAR interferometry (MAI) techniques were integrated to retrieve the east, north, and up components of surface deformation. The resulting 3D displacement maps clearly delineated the right-lateral shear motion of the fault rupture with a maximum surface displacement of approximately 45 cm along the fault's strike, showing the east and north components of the trace particularly clearly. These maps also suggested a better-constrained model for the South Napa earthquake. We determined a strike of approximately 338° and dip of 85° by applying the Okada dislocation model considering a single patch with a homogeneous slip motion. Using the distributed slip model obtained by a linear solution, we estimated that a peak slip of approximately 1.7 m occurred around 4 km depth from the surface. 3D modelling using the retrieved 3D maps helps clarify the fault's nature and thus characterize its behaviour.

  5. On determination of limit of effective dose for living bodies concerning control areas of nuclear law material mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Notification is based on the prescriptions of the Safety Regulation of Metal Mines. The permissible levels of effective dose for living bodies and others concerning control areas are defined as follows: the effective dose of external radiation for living bodies should be less than 30 millirems in a consecutive week; the concentrations of radioactive substances in the air or in the water possibly drunk by men are specified respectively for Rn 220, Rn 222, Th and U; the densities of such substances on the surfaces of things contaminated by such elements in refineries should be less than 10 micro-micro-curies per centi-meter 2 , etc. Such permissible levels in residential quarters are defined as follows: the effective dose of external radiation for living bodies should be less than 10 millirems in a consecutive week; the concentrations of radioactive substances in the air or in the water possibly drunk by men are specified respectively for Rn 220, Rn 222, Th and U, etc. The permissible exposure dose for miners working regularly in control areas should be less than 3 rems in three consecutive months. The permissible limit of accumulated dose should be less than the figure, in the unit of rem, which is obtained by multiplying the figure of age of the miner concerned minus 18 by 5. (Okada, K.)

  6. The rule on granting subsidies for public relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of and to enforce the ''Law for the proper execution of the budget concerning subsidies'' and the Enforcement Ordinance for the ''Law for the proper execution of the budget concerning subsidies''. The Regulation covers the subsidies for the expenses for spreading the knowledge concerning nuclear power generation to the inhabitants in the surrounding areas of such nuclear power generating facilities, for the expenses for establishing the facilities for such popularization, and the office expenses for preparing the improvement plans on the surrounding areas of power generating facilities. Terms are explained, such as nuclear power generating facilities, the facilities related to nuclear power generation, nuclear power generating facilities, etc. and establishments. The subsidies for public relations are delivered to the prefectures where nuclear power generating facilities, etc. have been installed or are planned to be set up, and the subsidies for preparing the improvement plans are granted to the prefectures where the prescribed surrounding areas are involved. The subsidy for public relations delivered to one establishment is limited to 10 million yen in each fiscal year. Applications for the delivery of subsidies shall be filed to the directors of competent authorities-the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency or the Minister of International Trade and Industry. (Okada, K.)

  7. Microvascular dysfunction with increased vascular leakage response in mice systemically exposed to arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Shin-Yin; Lu, Chi-Yu; Hsu, Ya-Hung; Wang, Dean-Chuan

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disease induced by arsenic exposure are not completely understood. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether arsenic-fed mice have an increased vascular leakage response to vasoactive agents and whether enhanced type-2 protein phosphatase (PP2A) activity is involved in mustard oil-induced leakage. ICR mice were fed water or sodium arsenite (20 mg/kg) for 4 or 8 weeks. The leakage response to vasoactive agents was quantified using the Evans blue (EB) technique or vascular labeling with carbon particles. Increased EB leakage and high density of carbon-labeled microvessels were detected in arsenic-fed mice treated with mustard oil. Histamine induced significantly higher vascular leakage in arsenic-fed mice than in water-fed mice. Pretreatment with the PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid or the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R) blocker RP67580 significantly reduced mustard oil-induced vascular leakage in arsenic-fed mice. The protein levels of PP2Ac and NK1R were similar in both groups. PP2A activity was significantly higher in the arsenic-fed mice compared with the control group. These findings indicate that microvessels generally respond to vasoactive agents, and that the increased PP2A activity is involved in mustard oil-induced vascular leakage in arsenic-fed mice. Arsenic may initiate endothelial dysfunction, resulting in vascular leakage in response to vasoactive agents.

  8. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of the Calcineurin Subunit A from Plutella xylostella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi'en Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcineurin (or PP2B has been reported to be involved in an array of physiological process in insects, and the calcineurin subunit A (CNA plays a central role in calcineurin activity. We cloned the CNA gene from Plutella xylostella (PxCNA. This gene contains an ORF of 1488 bp that encodes a 495 amino acid protein, showing 98%, and 80% identities to the CNA of Bombyx mori, and humans respectively. The full-length of PxCNA and its catalytic domain (CNA1–341, defined as PxCNα were both expressed in Escherichia coli. Purified recombinant PxCNA displayed no phosphatase activity, whereas recombinant PxCNα showed high phosphatase activity with a Km of 4.6 mM and a kcat of 0.66 S−1 against pNPP. It could be activated at different degrees by Mn2+, Ni2+, Mg2+, and Ca2+. The optimum reaction pH was about 7.5 and the optimum reaction temperature was around 45 °C. An in vitro inhibition assay showed that okadaic acid (OA and cantharidin (CTD competitively inhibited recombinant PxCNα activity with the IC50 values of 8.95 μM and 77.64 μM, respectively. However, unlike previous reports, pyrethroid insecticides were unable to inhibit recombinant PxCNα, indicating that the P. xylostella calcineurin appears not to be sensitive to class II pyrethroid insecticides.

  9. Characterization of protein phosphatase 5 from three lepidopteran insects: Helicoverpa armigera, Mythimna separata and Plutella xylostella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi'en Chen

    Full Text Available Protein phosphatase 5 (PP5, a unique member of serine/threonine phosphatases, regulates a variety of biological processes. We obtained full-length PP5 cDNAs from three lepidopteran insects, Helicoverpa armigera, Mythimna separata and Plutella xylostella, encoding predicted proteins of 490 (55.98 kDa, 490 (55.82 kDa and 491 (56.07 kDa amino acids, respectively. These sequences shared a high identity with other insect PP5s and contained the TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat domains at N-terminal regions and highly conserved C-terminal catalytic domains. Tissue- and stage-specific expression pattern analyses revealed these three PP5 genes were constitutively expressed in all stages and in tested tissues with predominant transcription occurring at the egg and adult stages. Activities of Escherichia coli-produced recombinant PP5 proteins could be enhanced by almost 2-fold by a known PP5 activator: arachidonic acid. Kinetic parameters of three recombinant proteins against substrate pNPP were similar both in the absence or presence of arachidonic acid. Protein phosphatases inhibitors, okadaic acid, cantharidin, and endothall strongly impeded the activities of the three recombinant PP5 proteins, as well as exerted an inhibitory effect on crude protein phosphatases extractions from these three insects. In summary, lepidopteran PP5s share similar characteristics and are all sensitive to the protein phosphatases inhibitors. Our results also imply protein phosphatase inhibitors might be used in the management of lepidopteran pests.

  10. Stemcell Information: SKIP001103 [SKIP Stemcell Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SKIP001103 ... induced chondrogenic (iChon) cells ダイレクトリプログラミングで作製した軟骨細胞 ... Diseased ...s have elevated ER stress and undergo apoptosis. 軟骨無発症患者線維芽細胞(GM07892)をダイレクトリプログラミングにより軟骨細胞...へと誘導(iChon細胞)。|小胞体ストレスが生じ、過度のアポトーシスが引き起こされていた。 Other Research Grade Retrovirus c-MYC, KLF4... ... Minoru Okada 岡田 稔 Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University 京都大学iPS細胞研究所... ... Information Only Center for iPS Cell Research and Application,Kyoto University 京都大学iPS細胞研究所 CiRA https:

  11. Model for conductometric detection of carbohydrates and alcohols as complexes with boric acid and borate ion in high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, G.L.; Armstrong, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    In recent articles, Okada has demonstrated the utility of indirect conductometric detection of electrically neutral sugars and alcohols through their complexes in boric acid solution. The use of a boric acid eluent provides a highly sensitive means of detection for monosaccharides, lactose, and sugar alcohols but not for polysaccharides (other than lactose) and simple alcohols. Addition of sorbitol, mannitol, or fructose to the boric acid eluent allows detection of the polysaccharides and simple alcohols, as well as lactose, glucose, fructose, and presumably other monosaccharides and sugar alcohols. These results were interpreted in terms of the ability of an analyte to form either dissociated or undissociated complexes with boric acid. This interpretation was quantified with a mathematical description of the complexation equilibria and the conductivity due to ionic species. Unfortunately, the mathematical model contains some incorrect assumptions that severely limit the utility of the derived equations and may prevent optimization of this potentially important technique. We present here a more general mathematical model that does not suffer from these limitations

  12. Plant Defense Response to Fungal Pathogens (Activation of Host-Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase by Elicitor-Induced Enzyme Dephosphorylation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Estrella, R.; Barkla, B. J.; Higgins, V. J.; Blumwald, E.

    1994-01-01

    Elicitor preparations containing the avr5 gene products from race 4 of Cladosporium fulvum and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cells near isogenic for the resistance gene Cf5 were used to investigate events following the treatment of host plasma membranes with elicitor. A 4-fold increase in H+-ATPase activity, coincident with the acidification of the extracellular medium, was detected immediately after elicitor treatment. The elicitor-induced stimulation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase was inhibited by okadaic acid but not by staurosporine, suggesting that protein dephosphorylation was required for increased H+-ATPase activity. This observation was confirmed by [gamma]-32P labeling and immunodetection of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase. Effects of guanidine nucleotide analogs and mastoparan on the ATPase activity suggested the role of GTP-binding proteins in mediating the putative elicitor-receptor binding, resulting in activation of a phosphatase(s), which in turn stimulates the plasma membrane H+-ATPase by dephosphorylation. PMID:12232073

  13. Production of monoclonal antibodies for sandwich immunoassay detection of Pacific ciguatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumuraya, Takeshi; Fujii, Ikuo; Hirama, Masahiro

    2010-10-01

    Ciguatoxins are the major causative toxins of ciguatera seafood poisoning. Limited availability of ciguatoxins has hampered the development of a reliable and specific immunoassay for detecting these toxins in contaminated fish. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific against both ends of Pacific ciguatoxins CTX3C and 51-hydroxyCTX3C were prepared by immunization of mice with the protein conjugates of rationally designed synthetic haptens in place of the natural toxin. Haptenic groups that possess a surface area larger than 400 A(2) were required to produce mAbs that can bind strongly to CTX3C or 51-hydroxyCTX3C. A direct sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using these mAbs was established to detect CTX3C and 51-hydroxyCTX3C at the ppb level with no cross-reactivity against the other marine toxins, including brevetoxin A, brevetoxin B, okadaic acid, or maitotoxin. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preparation of anti-ciguatoxin monoclonal antibodies using synthetic haptens: sandwich ELISA detection of ciguatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumuraya, Takeshi; Fujii, Ikuo; Hirama, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a form of food poisoning caused by the consumption of fish that have accumulated a type of sodium channel activator toxin called ciguatoxins (CTXs), which are produced by dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus through the food chain. CFP affects more than 50000 people each year. The extremely low level of CTXs in tainted fish has hampered the development of antibodies for the detection of these toxins. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific against major congeners of CTX3C, 51-hydroxyCTX3C, CTX1B, and 54-deoxyCTX1B were prepared by immunization of mice with protein conjugates of rationally designed synthetic haptens in place of the natural toxins. We found that haptenic groups possessing a surface area larger than 400 angstroms2 were required to produce mAbs that can bind strongly to CTXs. Direct sandwich ELISA utilizing two different monoclonal antibodies that bind specifically to one of the two wings of a CTX were established to detect CTXs. No cross-reactivity was observed against the other marine toxins tested, including brevetoxin A, brevetoxin B, okadaic acid, and maitotoxin.

  15. Effects of internal structure on equilibrium of field-reversed configuration plasma sustained by rotating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Inomoto, Michiaki; Okada, Shigefumi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Asai, Tomohiko

    2008-01-01

    The effects of an internal structure on the equilibrium of a field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma sustained by rotating magnetic field is investigated by using detailed electrostatic probe measurements in the FRC Injection Experiment apparatus [S. Okada, et al., Nucl. Fusion. 45, 1094 (2005)]. An internal structure installed axially on the geometrical axis, which simulates Ohmic transformer or external toroidal field coils on the FRC device, brings about substantial changes in plasma density profile. The internal structure generates steep density-gradients not only on the inner side but on the outer side of the torus. The radial electric field is observed to sustain the ion thermal pressure-gradient in the FRC without the internal structure; however, the radial electric field is not sufficient to sustain the increased ion thermal pressure-gradient in the FRC with the internal structure. Spontaneously driven azimuthal ion flow will be accountable for the imbalance of the radial pressure which is modified by the internal structure.

  16. Biodegradation of polyether algal toxins–Isolation of potential marine bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHETTY, KATEEL G.; HUNTZICKER, JACQUELINE V.; REIN, KATHLEEN S.; JAYACHANDRAN, KRISH

    2012-01-01

    Marine algal toxins such as brevetoxins, okadaic acid, yessotoxin, and ciguatoxin are polyether compounds. The fate of polyether toxins in the aqueous phase, particularly bacterial biotransformation of the toxins, is poorly understood. An inexpensive and easily available polyether structural analog salinomycin was used for enrichment and isolation of potential polyether toxin degrading aquatic marine bacteria from Florida bay area, and from red tide endemic sites in the South Florida Gulf coast. Bacterial growth on salinomycin was observed in most of the enrichment cultures from both regions with colony forming units ranging from 0 to 6 × 107 per mL. The salinomycin biodegradation efficiency of bacterial isolates determined using LC-MS ranged from 22% to 94%. Selected bacterial isolates were grown in media with brevetoxin as the sole carbon source to screen for brevetoxin biodegradation capability using ELISA. Out of the two efficient salinomycin biodegrading isolates MB-2 and MB-4, maximum brevetoxin biodegradation efficiency of 45% was observed with MB-4, while MB-2 was unable to biodegrade brevetoxin. Based on 16S rRNA sequence similarity MB-4 was found have a match with Chromohalobacter sp. PMID:20954040

  17. Yessotoxins, a Group of Marine Polyether Toxins: an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Fernández

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Yessotoxin (YTX is a marine polyether toxin that was first isolated in 1986 from the scallop Patinopecten yessoensis. Subsequently, it was reported that YTX is produced by the dinoflagellates Protoceratium reticulatum, Lingulodinium polyedrum and Gonyaulax spinifera. YTXs have been associated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP because they are often simultaneously extracted with DSP toxins, and give positive results when tested in the conventional mouse bioassay for DSP toxins. However, recent evidence suggests that YTXs should be excluded from the DSP toxins group, because unlike okadaic acid (OA and dinophyisistoxin-1 (DTX-1, YTXs do not cause either diarrhea or inhibition of protein phosphatases . In spite of the increasing number of molecular studies focused on the toxicity of YTX, the precise mechanism of action is currently unknown. Since the discovery of YTX, almost forty new analogues isolated from both mussels and dinoflagellates have been characterized by NMR or LC-MS/MS techniques. These studies indicate a wide variability in the profile and the relative abundance of YTXs in both, bivalves and dinoflagellates. This review covers current knowledge on the origin, producer organisms and vectors, chemical structures, metabolism, biosynthetic origin, toxicological properties, potential risks to human health and advances in detection methods of YTXs.

  18. Biodegradation of polyether algal toxins--isolation of potential marine bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Kateel G; Huntzicker, Jacqueline V; Rein, Kathleen S; Jayachandran, Krish

    2010-12-01

    Marine algal toxins such as brevetoxins, okadaic acid, yessotoxin, and ciguatoxin are polyether compounds. The fate of polyether toxins in the aqueous phase, particularly bacterial biotransformation of the toxins, is poorly understood. An inexpensive and easily available polyether structural analog salinomycin was used for enrichment and isolation of potential polyether toxin degrading aquatic marine bacteria from Florida bay area, and from red tide endemic sites in the South Florida Gulf coast. Bacterial growth on salinomycin was observed in most of the enrichment cultures from both regions with colony forming units ranging from 0 to 6×10(7) per mL. The salinomycin biodegradation efficiency of bacterial isolates determined using LC-MS ranged from 22% to 94%. Selected bacterial isolates were grown in media with brevetoxin as the sole carbon source to screen for brevetoxin biodegradation capability using ELISA. Out of the two efficient salinomycin biodegrading isolates MB-2 and MB-4, maximum brevetoxin biodegradation efficiency of 45% was observed with MB-4, while MB-2 was unable to biodegrade brevetoxin. Based on 16S rRNA sequence similarity MB-4 was found have a match with Chromohalobacter sp.

  19. Ultrafast superresolution fluorescence imaging with spinning disk confocal microscope optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shinichi; Okada, Yasushi

    2015-05-01

    Most current superresolution (SR) microscope techniques surpass the diffraction limit at the expense of temporal resolution, compromising their applications to live-cell imaging. Here we describe a new SR fluorescence microscope based on confocal microscope optics, which we name the spinning disk superresolution microscope (SDSRM). Theoretically, the SDSRM is equivalent to a structured illumination microscope (SIM) and achieves a spatial resolution of 120 nm, double that of the diffraction limit of wide-field fluorescence microscopy. However, the SDSRM is 10 times faster than a conventional SIM because SR signals are recovered by optical demodulation through the stripe pattern of the disk. Therefore a single SR image requires only a single averaged image through the rotating disk. On the basis of this theory, we modified a commercial spinning disk confocal microscope. The improved resolution around 120 nm was confirmed with biological samples. The rapid dynamics of micro-tubules, mitochondria, lysosomes, and endosomes were observed with temporal resolutions of 30-100 frames/s. Because our method requires only small optical modifications, it will enable an easy upgrade from an existing spinning disk confocal to a SR microscope for live-cell imaging. © 2015 Hayashi and Okada. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  20. A dose-effect curve of premature condensation chromosome ring in lymphocytes of human peripheral blood exposed to high dose of 60Co γ-rays in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Bo; Li Yufang; Liu Guangxian; Huang Shan; Jiang Benrong; Ai Huisheng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To establish a dose-effect curve of premature condensation chromosome ring (PCC-R) in lymphocytes of human peripheral blood after exposed to high doses of γ-rays. Methods: Peripheral blood samples was drawn from three healthy individuals, and exposed to 60 Co γ-rays with doses between 0 and 30 Gy. The frequencies of PCC-R in premature condensation chromosome (PCC) cells obtained by Okadaic acid (OA) induction were calculated, and a dose-effect curve was fitted. Results: PCC index tapered with dose. Frequencies of PCC-R per cell increased until 20 Gy, and then saturation was observed. The results were fitted to a lineal model up to 20 Gy: y=-0.020 + 0.052D, where y was the frequencies of PCC-R per cell, D was the radiation dose(Gy). Conclusions: The highest dose could be estimated is 20 Gy by the dose-effect curve established with PCC-R method. Its utility and validity will be verified in the future application of radiation accident. (authors)

  1. Sugar-mediated semidian oscillation of gene expression in the cassava storage root regulates starch synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Christer; Baguma, Yona; Sun, Chuanxin; Boren, Mats; Olsson, Helena; Rosenqvist, Sara; Mutisya, Joel; Rubaihayo, Patrick R.; Jansson, Christer

    2008-01-15

    Starch branching enzyme (SBE) activity in the cassava storage root exhibited a diurnal fluctuation, dictated by a transcriptional oscillation of the corresponding SBE genes. The peak of SBE activity coincided with the onset of sucrose accumulation in the storage, and we conclude that the oscillatory mechanism keeps the starch synthetic apparatus in the storage root sink in tune with the flux of sucrose from the photosynthetic source. When storage roots were uncoupled from the source, SBE expression could be effectively induced by exogenous sucrose. Turanose, a sucrose isomer that cannot be metabolized by plants, mimicked the effect of sucrose, demonstrating that downstream metabolism of sucrose was not necessary for signal transmission. Also glucose and glucose-1-P induced SBE expression. Interestingly, induction by sucrose, turanose and glucose but not glucose-1-P sustained an overt semidian (12-h) oscillation in SBE expression and was sensitive to the hexokinase (HXK) inhibitor glucosamine. These results suggest a pivotal regulatory role for HXK during starch synthesis. Abscisic acid (ABA) was another potent inducer of SBE expression. Induction by ABA was similar to that of glucose-1-P in that it bypassed the semidian oscillator. Both the sugar and ABA signaling cascades were disrupted by okadaic acid, a protein phosphatase inhibitor. Based on these findings, we propose a model for sugar signaling in regulation of starch synthesis in the cassava storage root.

  2. The pathways for intelligible speech: multivariate and univariate perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, S; Kyong, J S; Rosen, S; Golestani, N; Warren, J E; McGettigan, C; Mourão-Miranda, J; Wise, R J S; Scott, S K

    2014-09-01

    An anterior pathway, concerned with extracting meaning from sound, has been identified in nonhuman primates. An analogous pathway has been suggested in humans, but controversy exists concerning the degree of lateralization and the precise location where responses to intelligible speech emerge. We have demonstrated that the left anterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) responds preferentially to intelligible speech (Scott SK, Blank CC, Rosen S, Wise RJS. 2000. Identification of a pathway for intelligible speech in the left temporal lobe. Brain. 123:2400-2406.). A functional magnetic resonance imaging study in Cerebral Cortex used equivalent stimuli and univariate and multivariate analyses to argue for the greater importance of bilateral posterior when compared with the left anterior STS in responding to intelligible speech (Okada K, Rong F, Venezia J, Matchin W, Hsieh IH, Saberi K, Serences JT,Hickok G. 2010. Hierarchical organization of human auditory cortex: evidence from acoustic invariance in the response to intelligible speech. 20: 2486-2495.). Here, we also replicate our original study, demonstrating that the left anterior STS exhibits the strongest univariate response and, in decoding using the bilateral temporal cortex, contains the most informative voxels showing an increased response to intelligible speech. In contrast, in classifications using local "searchlights" and a whole brain analysis, we find greater classification accuracy in posterior rather than anterior temporal regions. Thus, we show that the precise nature of the multivariate analysis used will emphasize different response profiles associated with complex sound to speech processing. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Panel discussion on health effects of low-dose ionizing radiation. Scientific findings and non-threshold hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This is a record of a panel discussion in the IAEA Interregional Training Course. In current radiation work, protection measures are taken on the assumption that any amount of radiation, however small, entails a risk of deleterious effects. This so-called non-threshold assumption of radiation effects, on the one hand, creates public distrust of radiation use. However, because the health effects of low-dose ionizing radiation are difficult to verify, wide views ranging from the non-threshold hypothesis to one which sees small amounts of radiation as rather useful and necessary are presented. In this panel discussion, how the health effects of low-dose ionizing radiation should be considered from the standpoint of radiation protection was discussed. Panelists included such eminent scientists as Dr. Sugahara and Dr. Okada, who are deeply interested in this field and are playing leading parts in radiobiology research in Japan, and Dr. Stather, deputy Director of NRPB, UK, who, in UNSCEAR and ICRP, is actively participating in the international review of radiation effects and the preparation of reports on radiation protection recommendations. They agreed with each other that although it is reasonable, under the current scientific understanding, to follow the recommendation of ICRP, research in this area should be strongly promoted hereafter, for basing radiation protection on firm scientific grounds. Many participants actively asked about and discussed problems in their own field. (author)

  4. Failure to recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laming, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical analysis shows that if the pattern of rehearsal in free-recall experiments (of necessity, the pattern observed when participants rehearse aloud) be continued without any further interruption by stimuli (as happens during recall), it terminates with the retrieval of the same 1 word over and over again. Such a terminal state is commonly reached before some of the words in the list have been retrieved even once; those words are not recalled. The 1 minute frequently allowed for recall in free-recall experiments is ample time for retrieval to seize up in this way. The author proposes a model that represents the essential features of the pattern of rehearsal; validates that model by reference to the overt rehearsal data from B. B. Murdock, Jr., and J. Metcalfe (1978) and the recall data from B. B. Murdock, Jr., and R. Okada (1970); demonstrates the long-term properties of continued sequences of retrievals and, also, a fundamental relation linking recall to the total time of presentation; and, finally, compares failure to recall in free-recall experiments with forgetting in general.

  5. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law for the redevelopment of the surrounding areas of power generating facilities. Persons who install power generating facilities under the law include general electric power enterprises and wholesale electric power enterprises defined under the electric enterprises act and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The scale of these facilities defined under the law is 350,000 kilo-watts output for atomic and thermal power generating facilities, 10,000 kilo-watts output for the facilities utilizing geothermal energy, 100,000 kilo-watts output for facilities whose main fuel is coal, and 1,000 kilo-watts output for hydraulic power generating facilities, etc. The facilities closely related to atomic power generation include the reprocessing and examination facilities of fuel materials spent in atomic power reactors, the reactors installed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for studying on the safety of atomic power reactors, the experimental fast reactors and the uranium enrichment facilities established by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The public facilities in this rule are those for communication, sport and recreation, environment hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting, etc. Governors of prefectures who intend to get approval under the law shall file redevelopment plans to the competent minister through the Minister of the International Trade and Industry. (Okada, K.)

  6. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Order is based on the prescriptions of the Law for the Arrangement of Surrounding Areas of Power Generating Facilities. Those establishing power generating facilities are general and wholesale electric enterprisers provided for by the Electricity Enterprises Act as well as the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The generating capacity is specified as 350,000 kilowatts for nuclear and steam power generating facilities, 150,000 kilowatts for those set up by the Corporation, 100,000 kilowatts for those using coal as main fuel, and 10,000 kilowatts for water power generation and geothermal plants. The facilities closely connected to nuclear power generation include the reprocessing facilities and test and examination facilities for nuclear fuel materials used for power-generating nuclear reactors, reactors used for the research on the safety of power generating reactors, and experimental reactors for fast breeder reactors. The public facilities consist of communication facilities, and the facilities for sports and recreations, environmental hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting, etc. Prefectural governors ought to file the arrangement plans to the competent minister through the Minister of International Trade and Industry to get the permission prescribed by the Law. The subsidy is not granted to the expenses of the enterprises undertaken by the nation or those enterprises, a part of the expenses of which is borne or subsidized by the nation. (Okada, K.)

  7. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The order is defined under the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities. Establishers of power generating facilities shall be hereunder general electric enterprisers, wholesale electric enterprisers and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The scale of power generating facilities provided by the order is 350,000 kilo-watts for atomic and steam power generation and 5,000 kilo-watts for hydroelectric power. Equipment closely related to atomic power generation shall include facilities for reprocessing and examination of nuclear fuel materials spent for power generating reactors, reactors used for research of the safety of power generating reactors, experimental fast breeding reactors and experimental uranium enrichment facilities. Requisites for the extent of industrial accumulation are that the area belongs to those self-governing bodies whose industrial accumulation is more than the 8th degree. Public facilities specified are those for communication, sports or recreation, environmental hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting and heat supplying, etc. Governors of the prefectures shall file arrangement programs to the Minister in charge through the Minister of International Trade and Industry to get the permission stipulated by the law. Subsidies shall not be paid to those enterprises which are executed by the government or a part of the expenses is born or supported by it. (Okada, K.)

  8. Nuclear fuel cycle and legal regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoyama, Shunji; Kaneko, Koji.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle is regulated as a whole in Japan by the law concerning regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors (hereafter referred to as ''the law concerning regulation of reactors''), which was published in 1957, and has been amended 13 times. The law seeks to limit the use of atomic energy to peaceful objects, and nuclear fuel materials are controlled centering on the regulation of enterprises which employ nuclear fuel materials, namely regulating each enterprise. While the permission and report of uses are necessary for the employment of nuclear materials under Article 52 and 61 of the law concerning regulation of reactors, the permission provisions are not applied to three kinds of enterprises of refining, processing and reprocessing and the persons who install reactors as the exceptions in Article 52, when nuclear materials are used for the objects of the enterprises themselves. The enterprises of refining, processing and reprocessing and the persons who install reactors are stipulated respectively in the law. Accordingly the nuclear material regulations are applied only to the users of small quantity of such materials, namely universities, research institutes and hospitals. The nuclear fuel materials used in Japan which are imported under international contracts including the nuclear energy agreements between two countries are mostly covered by the security measures of IAEA as internationally controlled substances. (Okada, K.)

  9. Cyanotoxin bioaccumulation in freshwater fish, Washington State, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, F Joan; Johnson, Art; Hamel, Kathy; Preece, Ellen

    2015-11-01

    Until recently, exposure pathways of concern for cyanotoxins have focused on recreational exposure, drinking water, and dermal contact. Exposure to cyanotoxins through fish consumption is a relatively new area of investigation. To address this concern, microcystins and other cyanotoxins were analyzed in fish collected from nine Washington lakes with recurrent toxic blooms using two types of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Microcystins or microcystin-like compounds were elevated in fish liver relative to muscle and other tissues (liver>gut>muscle). Microcystin concentrations in fish fillet samples using anti-Adda ELISA (range 6.3-11 μg/kg wet weight) were consistently higher in all fish species than concentrations using anti-microcystin (MC)-leucine-arginine (LR) ELISA (range 0.25-2.4 μg/kg wet weight). MC-leucine-alanine (LA) was the only variant detected in fish (2.5-12 μg/kg in four livers) among the nine variants analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Fish fillets showed no accumulation of the MCs targeted by LC-MS/MS. Other cyanotoxins analyzed (anatoxin-a, saxitoxin, domoic acid, and okadaic acid) were not detected in fish. Based on this and evidence from other studies, we believe that people can safely consume two 8-oz fish fillet meals per week from lakes with blooms producing MCs (clean the fish and discard viscera).

  10. The regulations for enforcing the law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of and to enforce the ''Law for the prevention of radiation hazards due to radioisotopes'' and the Enforcement Order for the ''Law concerning the prevention of radiation hazards due to radioisotopes''. The Regulation includes the definitions of terms, applications for the permission of the use of radioisotopes, standards on usage, obligation of measurement, persons in charge of radiation, etc. Terms are explained, such as persons engaging in radiation works, persons who enter at any time the control areas, radiation facilities, maximum permissible exposure dose, cumulative dose, maximum permissible cumulative dose, maximum permissible concentration in the air, maximum permissible concentration in water and maximum permissible surface density. The applications for permission in written forms are required for the use, sale and abandonment of radioisotopes. Radioisotopes or the apparatuses for generating radiation shall be used in the using facilities. The measurement of radiation dose rate, particle flux density and contamination due to radioisotopes shall be made with radiation-measuring instruments. At least one person shall be chosen as the chief radiation-handling person in each factory, establishment, selling office or abandoning establishment by a user, a trademan or a person engaged in abandonment of radioisotopes. The forms for the application for permission, etc. are attached. (Okada, K.)

  11. Procedures for permission under atomic energy laws in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhnt, D.

    1980-01-01

    The selection of proper locations by the enterprisers responsible for projects is usually accompanied in recent years by the active location policy of the state. The application for the permission of locations and projects shall be filed to one or more ministries of the province where the facilities are to be installed. The papers describing the projects, especially safety reports and summaries shall be attached to the applications. The applications shall be published on a bulletin of the government office or daily newspapers, and every person has access to the applications, the safety reports and the summaries for two months. When objections are lodged within the period, closed hearings are held to examine the protests with attendance of the objector, the enterpriser of the project and the government office which has joined the decision. Following the phase of public participation and after the confirmation of facts highly important to the decision, fact examination is carried out with cooperation of specialists by the government office authorized for permission. As a special feature of the procedures under Atomgesetz, the government office is not necessarily obliged to give permission considering the safety policy, even when the pre-requisites of permission are all fulfilled. In other respects, permission may be offered for each partial installation of the facilities and various stages of operation by particular administrative measures (partial permission). The experiences of past 20 years indicate the virtual defects of the laws applied, and the amendment is urgently required. (Okada, K.)

  12. Regulations concerning the transport of nuclear fuel materials outside the works or the enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The regulations are defined under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and the order for execution of the law. Basic concepts and terms are explained, such as: vehicle transport; easy transport; nuclear fuel material load, exclusive loading, employee, accumulative dose and exposure dose. Technical standards of vehicle transport are specified in detail on nucler fuel materials as nuclear fuel load, L,A, EM and BU type of load, nuclear fuel load of fission substances, the second and third type of fission load and materials contaminated by nuclear fuel substances to be carried not as nuclear fuel loads. Special exceptional measures to such transport and technical standards of easy transport are also designated. The application for confirmation of the transport shall be filed to the Director General of Science and Technology Agency according to the form attached with documents explaining nuclear fuel materials to be transferred, the vessel of such materials and construction, material and method of production of such a vessel, safety of nuclear materials contained, etc. Measures in dangerous situations shall be taken to fight a fire or prohibit the entrance of persons other than the staff concerned. Reports shall be presented in 10 days to the Director, when theft, loss or irregular leaking of nuclear fuel materials or personal troubles occur on the way. (Okada, K.)

  13. Ordinance concerning the filing of transport of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The ordinance is defined under the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors and the order for execution of the law. Any person who reports the transport of nuclear fuel materials shall file four copies of a notification according to the form attached to the public safety commission of the prefecture in charge of the dispatching place. When the transportation extends over the area in charge of another public safety commission, the commission which has received the notice shall report without delay date and route of the transport, kind and quantity of nuclear fuel materials and other necessary matters to the commission concerned and hear from the latter opinions on the items informed. The designation by the ordinance includes speed of the vehicle loaded with nuclear fuel materials, disposition of an accompanying car, arrangement of the line of the loaded vehicle and accompanying and other escorting cars, location of the parking, place of unloading and temporary storage, etc. Reports concerning troubles and measures taken shall be filed in ten days to the public safety commission which has received the notification, when accidents occur on the way, such as: theft or loss of nuclear fuel materials; traffic accident; irregular leaking of nuclear fuel materials and personal trouble by the transport. (Okada, K.)

  14. The regulations concerning the uses of international controlled materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors and the ordinance for the execution of this law and to enforce them. Basic terms are defined, such as material delivery and receipt area, stock fluctuation, batch, real inventory, effective value, fuel assembly and main measuring point. The application for the permission of using internationally regulated goods shall list the kinds of the goods classifying into materials and facilities for each partner country of international agreements concerning these goods. When such goods are utilized by fabricators, persons who install reactors, reprocessors or users, they shall file application to the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency for each works or enterprise where these goods are employed. The application shall include names and addresses, the names and places of works or enterprises where the goods are used, the kinds and quantities of the goods and expected period of usage etc. Records shall be made on the items specified for refiners, fabricators, persons who install reactors and users, respectively, and kept for particular periods. Measurement control, analysis method and business rules are defined. Reports shall be submitted to the Director General on the receipt and delivery, control, and stock fluctuation of nuclear raw materials and fuel materials, etc. (Okada, K.)

  15. Notification determining details of technical standards concerning transport of radioisotopes or goods contaminated by radioisotopes in works or enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the regulation for the execution of the law on the prevention of radiation injuries by radioisotopes. Terms are used in this rule for the same meanings as in the regulation. The limit of the concentration of radioisotopes in the goods contaminated by these isotopes which are not required to be sealed in containers defined by the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency is 1/10,000 of the value A 2 under the notification determining the details of technical standards concerning the transport of radioisotopes or the goods contaminated by radioisotopes outside works or enterprises. The application for the permission of transporting the goods which are highly difficult to be sealed in containers shall list names and addresses, the kinds, quantities, shapes and properties of the transported goods contaminated by radioisotopes, etc. The radiation dose rate of transported goods and vehicles under the regulation is 200 milli-rem an hour on the surfaces of these goods, vehicles and containers, and 10 milli-rem an hour at the distance of 1 meter from their surfaces. The permissible exposure dose of the persons engaging in transport is 1.5 rem a year. Dangerous goods, signs, and the application for the approval of special measures are specified, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  16. Comparison of frailty of primary neurons, embryonic, and aging mouse cortical layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugistier, Patrick; Vallet, Philippe G; Leuba, Geneviève; Piotton, Françoise; Marin, Pascale; Bouras, Constantin; Savioz, Armand

    2014-02-01

    Superficial layers I to III of the human cerebral cortex are more vulnerable toward Aβ peptides than deep layers V to VI in aging. Three models of layers were used to investigate this pattern of frailty. First, primary neurons from E14 and E17 embryonic murine cortices, corresponding respectively to future deep and superficial layers, were treated either with Aβ(1-42), okadaic acid, or kainic acid. Second, whole E14 and E17 embryonic cortices, and third, in vitro separated deep and superficial layers of young and old C57BL/6J mice, were treated identically. We observed that E14 and E17 neurons in culture were prone to death after the Aβ and particularly the kainic acid treatment. This was also the case for the superficial layers of the aged cortex, but not for the embryonic, the young cortex, and the deep layers of the aged cortex. Thus, the aged superficial layers appeared to be preferentially vulnerable against Aβ and kainic acid. This pattern of vulnerability corresponds to enhanced accumulation of senile plaques in the superficial cortical layers with aging and Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of a model for evaluating mechanical effects of crustal movements on the disposal system in Japan (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Hirokazu; Takeda, Seiji; Kimura, Hideo

    2010-08-01

    In the safety assessment of geological disposal for high level radioactive wastes, it is important to develop the modelling for evaluating mechanical effects of crustal movements on the disposal system in Japan. In this study, the model on crustal movements is represented by accumulating two components of velocity magnitude of the crust to horizontal direction, caused by transient movements associated with fault and/or volcanic activities and ordinary movements with the other continuous factors. We have quantified the ordinary movements with the statistical analysis of data included in the GEONET (GPS Earth Observation Network System) of GSI (Geographical Survey Institute). Okada Model is applied for evaluating the transient movements, which can handle three-dimensional movements of earthquake and volcanic activities theologically and comprehensively. In this report, we provide the specification of the model on crustal movement and analyze the horizontal velocity in Tohoku region using the model. The result indicates that the ordinary movements are classified with magnitude of the longitudinal velocities. The cluster of longitudinal velocities has been distributed along the plate boundary. Because the velocities of the ordinary movements are grater than one of transient movements, the spatial distribution of longitudinal velocities in Tohoku region is similar to that of the ordinary movements. (author)

  18. Regulation for delivery of subsidies for public relations and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law for the proper enforcement of subsidy budgets and the ordinance for the execution of this law, and to practice these provisions. It is applied to subsidies for the expenses of popularizing the knowledge of atomic power generation to inhabitants in the surrounding areas of atomic power generating facilities, investigation on the security of inhabitants in these areas, communication and coordination concerning the safety of such facilities during and after their installation and other expenses of establishing the facilities for public relations to inhabitants in the surrounding areas of these facilities. Basic terms are defined, such as atomic power generating facility, facility related to atomic power generation, and place of business. Subsidies are delivered to prefectures, cities, towns and villages where atomic power generating facilities are or are expected to be set up, prefectures including cities, towns and villages adjacent to those where such facilities are or are expected to be established, and prefectures which include the surrounding areas of those facilities. The limits of subsidies are stipulated in the lists attached. The terms of delivery vary according to the kinds of atomic power generating facilities and related facilities. Prefectures or cities, towns and villages which intend to apply for the delivery of subsidies shall file specified applications attached with the explanation of subsidy business outlines to the director of the ministry or agency concerned. Decision and conditions of delivery, reports on the situations and results of business and other concerned matters are defined, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  19. The regulation for enforcing the law concerning indemnification of nuclear damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of and to enforce the ''Law concerning the indemnification of nuclear damage''. Atomic energy enterprises who want to get the approval in connection with the Law shall file the applications to the Director General of Science and Technology Agency, in which the name and the address of the applicant, kinds of the operation of nuclear reactors, the name and the address of the factory or the establishment concerning the operation of nuclear reactors, the thermal output of the reactors, the kinds and quantities of nuclear fuel materials or the things contaminated by such materials to be transported, and the time of starting and the expected time of ending the operation of the reactors, etc. To such applications, shall be attached actually surveyed maps indicating the area of the factory or the establishment concerning the operation of the reactors and the documents certifying the conclusion of obligatory insurances and indemnification contracts, etc. The securities which can be deposited and recovering of such securities are prescribed. (Okada, K.)

  20. The enforcement regulation for the law for radiation and x-ray technicians engaging in medical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The ordinance is set up under the provisions of the law concerning radiation and X-ray technicians engaging in medical treatment, to enforce it. An application for the license of such a technician shall be filed according to the form prescribed, attached with a copy or an abstract of the census register of the applicant and a medical certificate of a doctor concerning whether the applicant is an insane, deaf or blind person, or a case of epidemic. The membership registration of such a technician shall include the number and date of the registration, the prefecture of his legal domicile, name, birth date and sex distinction, the year and month of his success in the examination for such technicains, the items concerning the cancellation of the license or the suspension of the business, etc. The subjects of the examination for such technicians are physics, radiological physics, electrical engineering, chemistry, general basic medical science, radiological biology, photographing technology, treatment technics and others. An application for the examination for such technicians shall be filed to the Minister of Health and Welfare, attached with a personal history, a study certificate or a diploma of graduation, a photograph of the applicant and other specified documents. (Okada, K.)

  1. The rule on granting subsidies for public relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The rule is defined under the law concerning subsidies and the provisions of the order for execution of the law. Basic terms are explained, such as: nuclear power generating facilities; related facilities of nuclear power generation; nuclear power generating facilities, etc.; and place of enterprise. Subsidies are granted by the head of the authorities concerned (the Director General of Science and Technology Agency or the Minister of International Trade and Industry) to popularize knowledge of nuclear power generation to inhabitants in surrounding areas of the facilities, or to support expenses of the preparation of arrangement programs, etc. Subsidies for public relations are delivered to those prefectures where nuclear power generating facilities, etc. are or are expected to be established, and subsidies for arrangement programs to those where the surrounding areas are included. Limits of the subsidies to a prefecture range from 6 million yen to 18 million yen for each fiscal year according to specified terms of the facilities concerned. Limits of subsidies for arrangement programs to place of enterprise extend from 500,000 yen to 1 million yen. Prefectures shall file an application for subsidies to the head of the authorities concerned with gists of business according to the forms attached. Receiving the application, the head shall examine it and notify to the applicant the decision of delivery and its conditions without delay in writing, when such settlement is made. Terms and conditions of delivery, payment of subsidies and others are stipulated respectively. (Okada, K.)

  2. Relaxing action of adrenergic β2-agonists on guinea-pig skinned tracheal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayo Nemoto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Although adrenergic β2-agonist-induced smooth muscle relaxation has been attributed to increased intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP, a relaxation response has been observed at low β2-agonist concentrations that do not cause increased cAMP To elucidate the mechanism of tracheal muscle relaxation induced by low concentrations of β2-agonists, we used a guinea-pig skinned tracheal smooth muscle preparation to examine the effects on the contractile protein system. The isotonic contraction of β-escin-treated skinned tracheal muscle from guinea-pig was measured. When the intracellular Ca2+ concentration was maintained at 1 μmol/L in the presence of guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP; 100 μmol/L, neither isoproterenol (10nmol/L nor salbutamol (60 nmol/L affected Ca2+ sensitivity, but a significant decrease in Ca2+ sensitivity was observed in the presence of okadaic acid (1 μmol/L. The decrease in Ca2+ sensitivity was a slow response and was blocked by pretreatment with propranolol (1 μmol/L. Forskolin (1 μmol/L did not affect Ca2+ sensitivity. These results suggest that adrenergic b 2-agonists may activate protein phosphatase through an unknown pathway involving the β2-receptor, which enhances dephosphorylation of the myosin light chain and/or thin filament proteins, resulting in relaxation of the tracheal smooth muscle.

  3. Determination of permissible exposure doses under the provisions of the regulations on installation and operation of marine reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The Ministry of Transportation defines on radioactive doses in the controlled area that exterior radioactive dose shall be 30 mili-rem for a week; concentrations of radioactive materials in the air or under the water shall be permissible concentrations otherwise specified for the employees multiplied by 0.75 in average for a week and that densities of radioactive materials on the surface of the things contaminated by such materials shall be 1/10 of permissible surface densities provided in a table attached. Permissible exposure dose outside the inspected surrounding area is 0.5 rem for a year. Permissible surface densities are included in a list attached. Permissible accumulative dose for the employees is the figure (unit rem) calculated by the formula D = 5(N-18), when D means permissible accumulative dose and N number of the age. Permissible exposure dose is 3 rem for 3 months for the employees, 1.5 rem for a year for persons other than the employees and 12 rem for the urgent work. Permissible densities for the employees, calculation of doses by interior exposure and permissible densities outside the inspected surrounding area are stipulated in detail with attached lists. (Okada, K.)

  4. Detection, occurrence and monthly variations of typical lipophilic marine toxins associated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning in the coastal seawater of Qingdao City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Li, Zhaoyong; Chen, Junhui; Shi, Qian; Zhang, Rutan; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Xiaoru

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, related research has mainly examined lipophilic marine toxins (LMTs) in contaminated bivalves or toxic algae, whereas the levels of LMTs in seawater remain largely unexplored. Okadaic acid (OA), yessotoxin (YTX), and pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) are three typical LMTs produced by certain marine algae that are closely linked to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. In this study, a new method of solid phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography - electrospray ionization ion trap tandem mass spectrometry was developed to determine the presence of OA, YTX, and PTX2 in seawater simultaneously. Satisfactory sensitivity, repeatability (RSDseawater. OA and PTX2 were detected in all the seawater samples collected from eight locations along the coastline of Qingdao City, China on October 23, 2012, with concentration ranges of OA 4.24-9.64ngL(-1) and PTX2 0.42-0.74ngL(-1). Monthly concentrations of OA and PTX2 in the seawater of four locations were determined over the course of a year, with concentration ranges of OA 1.41-89.52ngL(-1) and PTX2 below detectable limit to 1.70ngL(-1). The peak values of OA and PTX2 in coastal seawater were observed in August and July, respectively. Our results suggest that follow-up research on the fate modeling and risk assessment of LMTs in coastal seawater should be implemented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of seawater salinity on pore-size distribution on a poly(styrene)-based HP20 resin and its adsorption of diarrhetic shellfish toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lin; Sun, Geng; Qiu, Jiangbing; Ma, Qimin; Hess, Philipp; Li, Aifeng

    2014-12-19

    In the present study, okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) were spiked into artificial seawater at low, medium and high estuarine salinities (9‰, 13.5‰ and 27‰). Passive samplers (HP20 resin) used for solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) technology were exposed in these seawaters for 12-h periods. Adsorption curves well fitted a pseudo-secondary kinetics model. The highest initial sorption rates of both toxins occurred in the seawater of medium salinity, followed by seawater of low and high estuarine salinity. Pore volumes of micropores (seawater at high and low salinity but not in seawater at medium salinity, which demonstrated that the toxin molecules entered into micropores and mesopores (below 10nm in size) in seawaters of high and low salinity. More toxin or other matrix agglomerates were displayed on the surface of resin deployed in the seawater of medium salinity. Taking into consideration the pore-size distribution and surface images, it appears that intra-particle diffusion governs toxin adsorption in seawater at high salinity while film diffusion mainly controls the adsorption process in seawater at medium salinity. This is the first study to confirm that molecules of OA and DTX1 are able to enter into micropores (seawater with high salinity (∼27‰). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of internationally controlled materials according to provisions of the law for the regulations of nuclear source materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and reactors, and the former notification No. 26, 1961, is hereby abolished. Internationally regulated goods under the law are as follows: nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and moderator materials transferred by sale or other means from the governments of the U.S., U.K., Canada, Australia and France or the persons under their jurisdictions according to the agreements concluded between the governments of Japan and these countries, respectively, the nuclear fuel materials recovered from these materials or produced by their usage, nuclear reactors, the facilities and heavy water transferred by sale or other means from these governments or the persons under their jurisdictions, the nuclear fuel materials produced by the usage of such reactors, facilities and heavy water, the nuclear fuel materials sold by the International Atomic Energy Agency under the contract between the Japanese government and the IAEA, the nuclear fuel materials recovered from these materials or produced by their usage, the heavy water produced by the facilities themselves transferred from the Canadian government, Canadian governmental enterprises or the persons under the jurisdiction of the Canadian government or produced by the usage of these facilities, etc. (Okada, K.)

  7. Lysosomes and radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    Changes in activities of lysosomal enzymes following whole-body treatment with ionizing radiation have long been recognized (e.g., Douglass and Day 1955, Okada et al., 1957). Attempts to explain nuclear damage by cytoplasmic enzyme attack, concentrated most of the earlier work on DNASE II and acid RNASE. Lysosomal enzymes have subsequently been studied in many tissues following whole-body irradiation. The observations coupled with in vitro results from isolated lysosomes, and u.v. and visible light studies on cells in culture, have led to the presentation of tentative mechanisms of action. General methods of detecting lysosomal damage have utilized the consequent activation or leakage of acid hydrolases. As this is of a temporal nature following irradiation, direct damage to the lysosomal membrane has not as yet been measured and the primary lesion either in the membrane itself or at the hypothetical site of acid hydrolase-membrane attachment has still to be discovered. Despite the accumulating evidence of lysosome disruption subsequent to treatment with radiation of various qualities, the role (if any) of these organelles in cell killing remains obscure. In the following pages a review of the many aspects of radiation damage will be presented and an attempt will be made to correlate the results and to draw general conclusions where possible. A final short section will deal with thecontribution that lysosomal damage may make in cell death and tissue injury and possible implications in radiotherapy

  8. The limit of irrigation adaption due to the inter-crop conflict of water use under changing climate and landuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, M.; Iizumi, T.; Sakamoto, T.; Kotoku, M.; Sakurai, G.; Nishimori, M.

    2017-12-01

    Replacing rainfed cropping system by irrigated one is assumed to be an effective measure for climate change adaptation in agriculture. However, in many agricultural impact assessments, future irrigation scenarios are externally given and do not consider variations in the availability of irrigation water under changing climate and land use. Therefore, we assess the potential effects of adaption measure expanding irrigated area under climate change by using a large-scale crop-river coupled model, CROVER [Okada et al. 2015, JAMES]. The CROVER model simulates the large-scale terrestrial hydrological cycle and crop growth depending on climate, soil properties, landuse, crop cultivation management, socio-economic water demand, and reservoir operation management. The bias-corrected GCMs outputs under the RCP 8.5 scenario were used. The future expansion of irrigation area was estimated by using the extrapolation method based on the historical change in irrigated and rainfed areas. As the results, the irrigation adaptation has only a limited effect on the rice production in East Asia due to the conflict of water use for irrigation with the other crops, whose farmlands require unsustainable water extraction with the excessively expanding irrigated area. In contrast, the irrigation adaptation benefits maize production in Europe due to the little conflict of water use for irrigation. Our findings suggest the importance of simulating the river water availability and crop production in a single model for the more realistic assessment in the irrigation adaptation potential effects of crop production under changing climate and land use.

  9. Loss of the Greatwall Kinase Weakens the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kasim Diril

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Greatwall kinase/Mastl is an essential gene that indirectly inhibits the phosphatase activity toward mitotic Cdk1 substrates. Here we show that although Mastl knockout (MastlNULL MEFs enter mitosis, they progress through mitosis without completing cytokinesis despite the presence of misaligned chromosomes, which causes chromosome segregation defects. Furthermore, we uncover the requirement of Mastl for robust spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC maintenance since the duration of mitotic arrest caused by microtubule poisons in MastlNULL MEFs is shortened, which correlates with premature disappearance of the essential SAC protein Mad1 at the kinetochores. Notably, MastlNULL MEFs display reduced phosphorylation of a number of proteins in mitosis, which include the essential SAC kinase MPS1. We further demonstrate that Mastl is required for multi-site phosphorylation of MPS1 as well as robust MPS1 kinase activity in mitosis. In contrast, treatment of MastlNULL cells with the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid (OKA rescues the defects in MPS1 kinase activity, mislocalization of phospho-MPS1 as well as Mad1 at the kinetochore, and premature SAC silencing. Moreover, using in vitro dephosphorylation assays, we demonstrate that Mastl promotes persistent MPS1 phosphorylation by inhibiting PP2A/B55-mediated MPS1 dephosphorylation rather than affecting Cdk1 kinase activity. Our findings establish a key regulatory function of the Greatwall kinase/Mastl->PP2A/B55 pathway in preventing premature SAC silencing.

  10. Loss of the Greatwall Kinase Weakens the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diril, M Kasim; Bisteau, Xavier; Kitagawa, Mayumi; Caldez, Matias J; Wee, Sheena; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kaldis, Philipp

    2016-09-01

    The Greatwall kinase/Mastl is an essential gene that indirectly inhibits the phosphatase activity toward mitotic Cdk1 substrates. Here we show that although Mastl knockout (MastlNULL) MEFs enter mitosis, they progress through mitosis without completing cytokinesis despite the presence of misaligned chromosomes, which causes chromosome segregation defects. Furthermore, we uncover the requirement of Mastl for robust spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) maintenance since the duration of mitotic arrest caused by microtubule poisons in MastlNULL MEFs is shortened, which correlates with premature disappearance of the essential SAC protein Mad1 at the kinetochores. Notably, MastlNULL MEFs display reduced phosphorylation of a number of proteins in mitosis, which include the essential SAC kinase MPS1. We further demonstrate that Mastl is required for multi-site phosphorylation of MPS1 as well as robust MPS1 kinase activity in mitosis. In contrast, treatment of MastlNULL cells with the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid (OKA) rescues the defects in MPS1 kinase activity, mislocalization of phospho-MPS1 as well as Mad1 at the kinetochore, and premature SAC silencing. Moreover, using in vitro dephosphorylation assays, we demonstrate that Mastl promotes persistent MPS1 phosphorylation by inhibiting PP2A/B55-mediated MPS1 dephosphorylation rather than affecting Cdk1 kinase activity. Our findings establish a key regulatory function of the Greatwall kinase/Mastl->PP2A/B55 pathway in preventing premature SAC silencing.

  11. Tumor-promoting phorbol ester transiently down-modulates the p53 level and blocks the cell cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouv, J.; Jensen, P O; Forchhammer, J

    1994-01-01

    Activation of the protein kinase C signaling pathway by tumor-promoting phorbol esters, such as 4 beta-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), induced a decrease in the level of p53 mRNA in several serum-starved human cell lines. Also, the tumor-promoting phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid induced...... a decrease in the p53 mRNA level in the cell lines. Normal diploid as well as various tumor cell lines were tested. Two tumor cell lines, HeLa and A549, both containing the wild-type p53 gene, but very different levels of p53 protein, were studied in detail. In both cell lines, the level of p53 m......RNA was minimal after 9 h of exposure to PMA. After approximately 120 h, the p53 mRNA level was similar to the pretreatment level. PMA induced a similar transient decrease in the level of p53 protein in the A549 cell line. The decrease in the p53 mRNA level could not be explained by changes in the transcriptional...

  12. Dinophysis caudata generated lipophilic shellfish toxins in bivalves from the Nanji Islands, East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Xu, Yixiao; Li, Yang; Qi, Yuzao; Jiang, Tianjiu; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Fan

    2014-01-01

    A 12-month program of monitoring potentially toxic microalgae (that produce lipophilic shellfish toxins; LSTs) and their toxins in bivalves was conducted from April 2006 to March 2007 in the Nanji Islands, East China Sea. Two Dinophysis species, D. caudata and D. acuminata, were identified, and D. caudata was found to be the dominant species. D. caudata was detected in water samples between April and June 2006, and between February and March 2007. It reached its highest abundances in May, with a mean abundance of 1.38×102 cells/L in surface water and 1.25×102 cells/L in bottom water (cultured bivalves sampled between April and June were contaminated with LSTs, with an average toxicity of 85 μg okadaic acid (OA) eq./100 g meat, which was four times higher than the Chinese regulatory limit (20 μg OA eq./100 g meat). Ten out of fifteen wild samples (66.7%) collected during the same period were positive for LSTs, and contained an average LST toxicity of 45 μg OA eq./100 g meat (more than twice the regulatory value). Cultured Patinopecten yessoensis collected on 15 May 2006 had the highest toxicity, 320 μg OA eq./100 g meat, and relatively high toxicities (80 to 160 μg OA eq./100 g meat) were found in bivalves until the end of July.

  13. The rule on granting subsidies for public relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The rule is based on the prescriptions of the Law for Proper Budget Enforcement Concerning Subsidies and its Enforcement Order. These rules apply to the subsidies for the expenses to popularize the knowledge concerning nuclear power generation to the inhabitants in the surrounding areas of such generating facilities, the office expenses to prepare the arrangement plan for the surrounding areas of such facilities, and the office expenses necessary for the delivery of the subsidies. Meanings of terms are defined, such as nuclear power generating facilities, the facilities related to nuclear power generation, establishment, etc. The chief of the competent ministry (the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency and the Minister of International Trade and Industry) gives the subsidies for public relations to the prefectures where nuclear power generating facilities and others have been or are to be set up, the preparation of the arrangement plan is made, or the delivery business is made. When two or more establishments of power generating facilities are closely located, they are regarded as one establishment. The limit of the subsidies for public relations to an establishment is 10 million yen in a fiscal year. The limit of the subsidies for the preparation of the arrangement plan concerning an establishment varies from 1 million yen to 0.2 million yen. The term of delivery, filing of applications, reports submitted by the receivers of the subsidies and other related matters are specified. (Okada, K.)

  14. The law for Japan Nuclear Ship Development Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Agency aims at developing nuclear-ships according to the priciples of the Atomic Energy Basic Law to promote the uses of atomic energy and help the progress of shipbuilding and marine transportation. The capital is 100 million yen plus the funds invested by the persons other than the government. The investment certificates are issued for the funds invested. The officers consist of the chief director, the representative director, not more than three directors and one auditor. The chief director and the auditor are appointed by the competent minister (the Prime Minister and the Minister of Transport) consulting with the Atomic Energy Commission. The representative director and directors are nominated by the chief director with approval of the competent minister. The scope of business includes the undertakings concerning nuclear ships, such as; the planning, building and operation; the training of the crew; the research and study; popularization of the results of such operations, etc. These activities are to be made in accordance with the basic program of nuclear-ship development determined by the competent minister. A chapter is dedicated to the finance and accounting, which includes provisions on the business year, authorization of the business program and others, the disposition of the business program and others, the disposition of profits and losses, and loans, etc. The Agency is supervised by the competent minister. (Okada, K.)

  15. The regulations concerning the uses of nuclear source materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law concerning the regulation of nuclear raw materials, nuclear fuel materials and nuclear reactors and the ordinance for the execution of this law, and to enforce them. Basic terms are defined, such as exposure radiation dose, cumulative dose, control area, surrounding monitoring area, worker and radioactive waste. Nuclear raw materials shall be used at the facilities for using them, and control areas and surrounding monitoring areas shall be set up. Cumulative dose and exposure radiation dose of workers shall not exceed the permissible quantities defined by the General Director of the Science and Technology Agency. Records shall be made in each works or enterprise on the accept, delivery and stock of each kind of nuclear raw materials, radiation control and the accidents in the facilities of using nuclear raw materials, and kept for specified periods, respectively. The users of nuclear raw materials shall present reports in each works or enterprise on the stock of these materials on July 30 and December 31, every year. They shall submit reports immediately to the Director General on the particular accidents concerning nuclear raw materials and their facilities and on the circumstances and the measures taken against such accidents within ten days. These reports shall be presented on internationally regulated raw materials too. (Okada, K.)

  16. Purification and characterization of protein phosphatase 2A from petals of the tulip Tulipa gesnerina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Sawa, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shibata, Hitoshi

    2006-11-30

    The holoenzyme of protein phosphatase (PP) from tulip petals was purified by using hydrophobic interaction, anion exchange and microcystin affinity chromatography to analyze activity towards p-nitrophenyl phosphate (p-NPP). The catalytic subunit of PP was released from its endogenous regulatory subunits by ethanol precipitation and further purified. Both preparations were characterized by immunological and biochemical approaches to be PP2A. On SDS-PAGE, the final purified holoenzyme preparation showed three protein bands estimated at 38, 65, and 75 kDa while the free catalytic subunit preparation showed only the 38 kDa protein. In both preparations, the 38 kDa protein was identified immunologically as the catalytic subunit of PP2A by using a monoclonal antibody against the PP2A catalytic subunit. The final 623- and 748- fold purified holoenzyme and the free catalytic preparations, respectively, exhibited high sensitivity to inhibition by 1 nM okadaic acid when activity was measured with p-NPP. The holoenzyme displayed higher stimulation in the presence of ammonium sulfate than the free catalytic subunit did by protamine, thereby suggesting different enzymatic behaviors.

  17. The regulation for delivery of subsidies for measures of promoting power source location for nuclear power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Regulation is based on the prescriptions of the Enforcement Order for the Law for Arrangement of Surrounding Areas of Power Generating Facilities, the Law for Proper Budget Enforcement Concerning Subsidies and its Enforcement Order. These rules apply to the subsidies concerning nuclear power generating facilities, reprocessing facilities and test and examination facilities for nuclear fuel materials used for power generating reactors, reactors used for research on the safety of power generating reactors, and experimental reactors for fast breeder reactors. The limits of subsidies are specified respectively for the cases that a unit of power generating facility or two and more units of such facilities are set up in a local municipality. The subsidies are delivered for the expenses occurred in the period, beginning from the fiscal year when construction of the generating facility concerned starts or the arrangement plan of the concerned project is approved, and ending in the fiscal year when such construction comes to an end. The subsidies are given as evenly as possible in each fiscal year. The applicants of the subsidies file the applications attached with the explanations of the projects to the chief of the competent ministry (Director General of the Science and Technology Agency or the Minister of International Trade and Industry). Terms of delivery, reports submitted by the receivers of the subsidies and other related matters are specified. (Okada, K.)

  18. The rule on granting subsidies for public relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The regulation is set up under the provisions of the law concerning the proper execution of subsidy budgets and the ordinance for enforcing the law, to carry these provisions into effect. The subsidies for public relations under the ordinance for enforcing the law concerning the special account for the measures of promoting power source development are delivered according to the provisions of the regulation as well as the law concerning the proper execution of subsidy budgets and the ordinance for enforcing the law. Basic terms are defined, such as nuclear power generating facilities; facilities related to nuclear power generation; place of business, etc. The ministers and directors of departments concerned deliver the subsidies for public relations to a prefecture where nuclear power generating facilities and related facilities are established or expected to be established, to cover all or a part of expenses necessary for the popularization of knowledges on nuclear power generation. The amounts of subsidies for public relations paid to a prefecture in each fiscal year are from 6 to 18 million yen. An application for such subsidies shall be filed by an applicant prefecture to the ministers or directors of departments concerned according to the form prescribed. The terms, conditions and decision of the delivery of subsidies are stipulated, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  19. PDGF activates K-Cl cotransport through phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein phosphatase-1 in primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Lauf, Peter K; Adragna, Norma C

    2005-07-15

    K-Cl cotransport (K-Cl COT, KCC) is an electroneutrally coupled movement of K and Cl present in most cells. In this work, we studied the pathways of regulation of K-Cl COT by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in primary cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Wortmannin and LY 294002 blocked the PDGF-induced K-Cl COT activation, indicating that the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-K) pathway is involved. However, PD 98059 had no effect on K-Cl COT activation by PDGF, suggesting that the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway is not involved under the experimental conditions tested. Involvement of phosphatases was also examined. Sodium orthovanadate, cyclosporin A and okadaic acid had no effect on PDGF-stimulated K-Cl COT. Calyculin A blocked the PDGF-stimulated K-Cl COT by 60%, suggesting that protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1) is a mediator in the PDGF signaling pathway/s. In conclusion, our results indicate that the PDGF-mediated pathways of K-Cl COT regulation involve the signaling molecules PI 3-K and PP-1.

  20. Continuum model of non-equilibrium solvation and solvent effect on ultra-fast processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiangyuan; Fu Kexiang; Zhu Quan

    2006-01-01

    In the past 50 years, non-equilibrium solvation theory for ultra-fast processes such as electron transfer and light absorption/emission has attracted particular interest. A great deal of research efforts was made in this area and various models which give reasonable qualitative descriptions for such as solvent reorganization energy in electron transfer and spectral shift in solution, were developed within the framework of continuous medium theory. In a series of publications by the authors, we clarified that the expression of the non-equilibrium electrostatic free energy that is at the dominant position of non-equilibrium solvation and serves as the basis of various models, however, was incorrectly formulated. In this work, the authors argue that reversible charging work integration was inappropriately applied in the past to an irreversible path linking the equilibrium or the non-equilibrium state. Because the step from the equilibrium state to the nonequilibrium state is factually thermodynamically irreversible, the conventional expression for non-equilibrium free energy that was deduced in different ways is unreasonable. Here the authors derive the non-equilibrium free energy to a quite different form according to Jackson integral formula. Such a difference throws doubts to the models including the famous Marcus two-sphere model for solvent reorganization energy of electron transfer and the Lippert-Mataga equation for spectral shift. By introducing the concept of 'spring energy' arising from medium polarizations, the energy constitution of the non-equilibrium state is highlighted. For a solute-solvent system, the authors separate the total electrostatic energy into different components: the self-energies of solute charge and polarized charge, the interaction energy between them and the 'spring energy' of the solvent polarization. With detailed reasoning and derivation, our formula for non-equilibrium free energy can be reached through different ways. Based on the

  1. Optical Materials with a Genome: Nanophotonics with DNA-Stabilized Silver Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Stacy M.

    and relative positions of nanoparticles, selected almost solely by the sequence of DNA. AgN-DNA are promising chemical and biochemical sensors due to the sensitivity of their fluorescence to local environment. However, the mechanisms behind many sensing schemes are not understood, and the nature of the excited state of the silver cluster itself remains unknown. To probe the fluorescence mechanisms of AgN-DNA, we investigate the behavior of purified solutions of these clusters in various solvents. We find that standard models for fluorophore solvatochromism, including the Lippert-Mataga model, do not describe AgN-DNA fluorescence because such models neglect specific interactions between the cluster and surrounding solvent molecules. Fluorescence colors are well-modeled by Mie-Gans theory, suggesting that the local dielectric environment of the cluster does play a role in fluorescence, although additional specific solvent interactions and cluster shape changes may also determine fluorescence color and intensity. These results suggest that AgN-DNA may be sensitive to changes in local dielectric environment on nanometer length scales and may also act as sensors for small molecules with affinity for DNA.

  2. Seleccion de híbridos de especies de papa por resistencia a Phytophthora infestans (Mont de Bary, fertilidad masculina y potencial productivo Hybrid selection of potatoe species for resistance to Phytophthora infestans (Mont de Bary, male fertility and productive potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ñustez L. Carlos Eduardo

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available En la Universidad Nacional de Colombia en Mosquera durante los años 1988 y 1989 se realizó una investigación, donde se evaluó bajo condiciones de invernadero la resistencia a P. infestans de las progenies de 51 cruzamientos (F1 y avanzados. que inclu ían en su pedigree especies silvestres,
    primitivas y/o cultivadas de papa. Luego de un primer ciclo de selección los genotipos escogidos se evaluaron en campo por
    resistencia a la enfermedad, fertilidad masculina y potencial productivo (kg/planta. En invernadero se encontró buena resistencia a razas no específicas de P. infestans en las progenies de los cruzamientos simples con phureja, que incluían las especies silvestres polyadenium, stoloniferum, iopetslum, . avilesii y okadae y susceptibilidad en los que
    tenían las silvestres -dodsii, abancayense, embosinum, canasense, gandarillasii, pampasense, marinasense yalandiae. Al final del segundo ciclo de evaluación
    en campo se seleccionaron 27 genotipos: 5 de cruzamientos simples, 9 de cruzamientos triples y 2 de cruzamientos múltiples que incluyen especies silvestres en su pedigree
    (avilesii, brachycarpum, stotontterum, iopetalum, hougasii, eceule y los 11 restantes incluyen genotipos primitivos y/o avanzados. Un excelente potencial productivo se encontró
    en genotipos del cruzamiento interéspecífico avílesíi x phureja, y en genotipos de cruzamientos triples que incluyen las especies hougasii o acaule. La fertilidad masculina
    de los genotipo evaluados osciló desde esterilidad hasta alta fertilidad.An experiment was carriet out in one of the greenhouses of the Natíonal University of Colombia located in Bogotá, between 1988 and 1989. The objetive was to evaluate. the resistance to P. infestans of the progenies of 51 crosses (F1 and advanced that included in their pedigree wild, primitive specias and/or cultivated potatoes. Then after a first cycle of selection the chosen genotypes were evaluated in

  3. The 2011 Tohoku-oki Earthquake related to a large velocity gradient within the Pacific plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Makoto; Obara, Kazushige

    2015-04-01

    We conduct seismic tomography using arrival time data picked by the high sensitivity seismograph network (Hi-net) operated by National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). We used earthquakes off the coast outside the seismic network around the source region of the 2011 Tohoku-oki Earthquake with the centroid depth estimated from moment tensor inversion by NIED F-net (broadband seismograph network) as well as earthquakes within the seismic network determined by Hi-net. The target region, 20-48N and 120-148E, covers the Japanese Islands from Hokkaido to Okinawa. A total of manually picked 4,622,346 P-wave and 3,062,846 S-wave arrival times for 100,733 earthquakes recorded at 1,212 stations from October 2000 to August 2009 is available for use in the tomographic method. In the final iteration, we estimate the P-wave slowness at 458,234 nodes and the S-wave slowness at 347,037 nodes. The inversion reduces the root mean square of the P-wave traveltime residual from 0.455 s to 0.187 s and that of the S-wave data from 0.692 s to 0.228 s after eight iterations (Matsubara and Obara, 2011). Centroid depths are determined using a Green's function approach (Okada et al., 2004) such as in NIED F-net. For the events distant from the seismic network, the centroid depth is more reliable than that determined by NIED Hi-net, since there are no stations above the hypocenter. We determine the upper boundary of the Pacific plate based on the velocity structure and earthquake hypocentral distribution. The upper boundary of the low-velocity (low-V) oceanic crust corresponds to the plate boundary where thrust earthquakes are expected to occur. Where we do not observe low-V oceanic crust, we determine the upper boundary of the upper layer of the double seismic zone within high-V Pacific plate. We assume the depth at the Japan Trench as 7 km. We can investigate the velocity structure within the Pacific plate such as 10 km beneath the plate boundary since the

  4. Effect of complete protein 4.1R deficiency on ion transport properties of murine erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Alicia; De Franceschi, Lucia; Peters, Luanne L.; Gascard, Philippe; Mohandas, Narla; Brugnara, Carlo

    2006-01-01

    control mice), with an abnormal dependence on osmolarity, (K0.5=417 +- 42 in 4.1 -/- vs. 460 +- 35 mOsm in control mice) suggestive of an up-regulated functional state. While the affinity for internal protons was not altered (K0.5= 489.7 +- 0.7 vs. 537.0 +-0.56 nM in control mice), the Vmax of the H-induced Na/H exchange activity was markedly elevated in 4.1-/- erythrocytes (Vmax 91.47+-7.2 compared to 46.52+-5.4 mmol/1013 cell x h in control mice). Na/H exchange activation by okadaic acid was absent in 4.1-/- erythrocytes. Altogether, these results suggest that erythroid protein 4.1 plays a major role in volume regulation and physiologically down-regulates Na/H exchange in mouse erythrocytes. Up-regulation of the Na/H exchange is an important contributor to the elevated cell Na content of 4.1 -/- erythrocytes.-7.2 compared to 46.52+-5.4 mmol/1013 cell x h in control mice. Na/H exchange activation by okadaic acid was absent in 4.1-/- erythrocytes. Altogether, these results suggest that erythroid protein 4.1 plays a major role in volume regulation and physiologically down-regulates Na/H exchange in mouse erythrocytes. Up-regulation of the Na/H exchange is an important contributor to the elevated cell Na content of 4.1 -/-erythrocytes

  5. Multi Hazard Assessment: The Azores Archipelagos (PT) case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aifantopoulou, Dorothea; Boni, Giorgio; Cenci, Luca; Kaskara, Maria; Kontoes, Haris; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Paralikidis, Sideris; Psichogyiou, Christina; Solomos, Stavros; Squicciarino, Giuseppe; Tsouni, Alexia; Xerekakis, Themos

    2016-04-01

    ) and earthquake (475 years return period) was used. Topography, lithology, soil moisture and LU/LC were also accounted for. Soil erosion risk was assessed through the empirical model RUSLE (Renard et al. 1991b). Rainfall erosivity, topography and vegetation cover are the main parameters which were used for predicting the proneness to soil loss. Expected, maximum tsunami wave heights were estimated for a specific earthquake scenario at designated forecast points along the coasts. Deformation at the source was calculated by utilizing the Okada code (Okada, 1985). Tsunami waves' generation and propagation is based on the SWAN model (JRC/IPSC modification). To estimate the wave height (forecast points) the Green's Law function was used (JRC Tsunami Analysis Tool). Storm tracks' historical data indicate a return period of 17 /41 years for H1 /H2 hurricane categories respectively. NOAA WAVEWATCH III model hindcast reanalysis was used to estimate the maximum significant wave height (wind and swell) along the coastline during two major storms. The associated storm-surge risk assessment accounted also for the coastline morphology. Seven empirical (independent) indicators were used to express the erosion susceptibility of the coasts. Each indicator is evaluated according to a semi?quantitative score that represents low, medium and high level of erosion risk or impact. The estimation of the coastal erosion hazard was derived through aggregating the indicators in a grid scale.

  6. Ecology of the ciguatera causing dinoflagellates from the Northern Great Barrier Reef: changes in community distribution and coastal eutrophication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Mark P; Lewis, Richard J; Morton, Steve

    2013-12-15

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is known to be caused by the ciguatoxins from the dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus, however, there is the potential for other toxins such as okadaic acid and dinophysistoxins from the genus Prorocentrum, and palytoxin from the genus Ostreopsis, to contaminate seafood. These genera may also be indicators of ecosystem health and potentially impact on coral reef ecosystems and the role they may play in the succession of coral to macroalgae dominated reefs has not been researched. Sixteen GBR field sites spanning inshore, mid-lagoon and outer lagoon (offshore) regions were studied. Samples were collected from September 2006 to December 2007 and abundance of benthic dinoflagellates on different host macroalgae and concentration of nutrients present in the water column were determined. The maximum abundance of Prorocentrum, Ostreopsis and Gambierdiscus found was 112, 793 and 50 cells per gram wet weight of host macroalgae, respectively. The average level of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen (DIN) in the water column across all sites (0.03 mg/L) was found to be more than double the threshold critical value (0.013 mg/L) for healthy coral reefs. Compared to a previous study 1984, there is evidence of a major shift in the distribution and abundance of these dinoflagellates. Inshore reefs have either of Prorocentrum (as at Green Island) or Ostreopsis (as at Magnetic Island) dominating the macroalgal surface niche which was once dominated by Gambierdiscus, whilst at offshore regions Gambierdiscus is still dominant. This succession may be linked to the ongoing eutrophication of the GBR lagoon and have consequences for the sources of toxins for ongoing cases of ciguatera. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Morphotaxonomy and seasonal distribution of planktonic and benthic Prorocentrales in Karachi waters, Pakistan Northern Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munir, Sonia; Burhan, Zaib-un-nisa; Naz, Tahira; Siddiqui, P. J. A.; Morton, Steve L.

    2013-03-01

    Morphotaxonomy and seasonal abundance of dinoflagellates of the genera Prorocentrum and Mesoporos (Prorocentrales) were studied from nutrient-rich waters, Karachi Harbor and the mouth of the Manora Channel, Pakistan during May 2002-July 2003. Using both light and scanning electron microscopy, 13 species of Prorocentrales were identified according to cell shape, size, ornamentation of thecal plates, and architecture of apical platelets, apical pore area, marginal pores, and intercalary bands. P. sigmoides, P. arcuatum, P. scutellum, P. donghaiense, P. balticum, P. minimum, P. emarginatum, P. lima, P. faustiae, and Mesoporos perforatus constitute new records for sindh coast of Pakistan. The most abundant species were P. minimum/P. balticum (4.5×103 cells/L), P. micans (1.1×103 cells/L), P. gracile / P. sigmoides (2.5×10 2 cells/L) and P. donghaiense (6.6×103 cells/L) at temperatures of 29-31°C and salinities of 35-40. Maximum abundance was observed in winter and lower abundance in summer. There was no significant change in the distribution of species between stations except for the benthic species which occurred close to Karachi Harbor waters. Significant positive correlations were observed between Prorocentrum spp. and temperature ( R 2 =0.27) and negative correlations with salinity ( R 2 =-0.32) except for P. minimum and P. emarginatum which has negative correlation with temperature ( R 2 =-0.24) and positive with salinity ( R 2 =0.08, 0.19). The finding of potential okadaic-acid producing species of benthic Prorocentrum call for monitoring for possible human health problems in this region.

  8. The regulations for delivery of subsidies to radiation monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law for the proper execution of budgets of subsidies and the enforcement ordinance for this law, and to carry out these provisions. This rule is applied to the grant of subsidies for the expenses of installing and operating radiation monitoring equipment in the surrounding areas of atomic power generating facilities. Basic terms are defined, such as atomic power generating facilities, redevelopment works for radiation monitoring facilities, preliminary survey works for radiation monitoring, radiation monitoring works, place of business and expected date of beginning operation, etc. The Director General of the Science and Technology Agency delivers subsidies to appropriate for all or a part of expenses required for the redevelopment works for radiation monitoring facilities, preliminary survey works for radiation monitoring and radiation monitoring works. Subsidies are given to those prefectures, where atomic power generating facilities are established or expected to be established, or the prefectures in their neighborhood, and to each place of business as a unit. The term of grant is stipulated for each of these places of business. The amount of subsidies for one place of business ranges from 224.4 million yen for the whole period to 20 million yen for each fiscal year according to the kinds of business. Prefectures which intend to request the grant of subsidies shall file to the Director General specified application attaching operation plans and the general explanation of atomic power generating facilities. The decision and the conditions of delivery, the reports on operation and business results, etc. are defined, respectively. (Okada, K.)

  9. A longitudinal, event-related potential pilot study of adult obsessive-compulsive disorder with 1-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamuro K

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Kazuhiko Yamamuro,1 Koji Okada,2 Naoko Kishimoto,1 Toyosaku Ota,1 Junzo Iida,3 Toshifumi Kishimoto1 1Department of Psychiatry, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry, Jingumaecocorono-Clinic, 3Faculty of Nursing, Nara Medical University School of Medicine, Kashihara, Japan Aim: Earlier brain imaging research studies have suggested that brain abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD normalize as clinical symptoms improve. However, although many studies have investigated event-related potentials (ERPs in patients with OCD compared with healthy control subjects, it is currently unknown whether ERP changes reflect pharmacological and psychotherapeutic effects. As such, the current study examined the neurocognitive components of OCD to elucidate the pathophysiological abnormalities involved in the disorder, including the frontal-subcortical circuits.Methods: The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale was used to evaluate 14 adult patients with OCD. The present study also included ten age-, sex-, and IQ-matched controls. The P300 and mismatch negativity (MMN components during an auditory oddball task at baseline for both groups and after 1 year of treatment for patients with OCD were measured.Results: Compared with controls, P300 amplitude was attenuated in the OCD group at Cz and C4 at baseline. Pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy treatment for 1 year reduced OCD symptomology. P300 amplitude after 1 year of treatment was significantly increased, indicating normalization compared with baseline at Fz, Cz, C3, and C4. We found no differences in P300 latency, MMN amplitude, or MMN latency between baseline and after one year of treatment.Conclusion: ERPs may be a useful tool for evaluating pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy in adult patients with OCD. Keywords: obsessive-compulsive disorder, event-related potentials, P300, mismatch negativity, improvement

  10. Extracellular signal regulated kinase 5 mediates signals triggered by the novel tumor promoter palytoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlson, Aaron T.; Zeliadt, Nicholette A.; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.

    2009-01-01

    Palytoxin is classified as a non-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-type skin tumor because it does not bind to or activate protein kinase C. Palytoxin is thus a novel tool for investigating alternative signaling pathways that may affect carcinogenesis. We previously showed that palytoxin activates three major members of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, extracellular signal regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38. Here we report that palytoxin also activates another MAPK family member, called ERK5, in HeLa cells and in keratinocytes derived from initiated mouse skin (308 cells). By contrast, TPA does not activate ERK5 in these cell lines. The major cell surface receptor for palytoxin is the Na+,K+-ATPase. Accordingly, ouabain blocked the ability of palytoxin to activate ERK5. Ouabain alone did not activate ERK5. ERK5 thus represents a divergence in the signaling pathways activated by these two agents that bind to the Na+,K+-ATPase. Cycloheximide, okadaic acid, and sodium orthovanadate did not mimic the effect of palytoxin on ERK5. These results indicate that the stimulation of ERK5 by palytoxin is not simply due to inhibition of protein synthesis or inhibition of serine/threonine or tyrosine phosphatases. Therefore, the mechanism by which palytoxin activates ERK5 differs from that by which it activates ERK1/2, JNK, and p38. Finally, studies that used pharmacological inhibitors and shRNA to block ERK5 action indicate that ERK5 contributes to palytoxin-stimulated c-Fos gene expression. These results suggest that ERK5 can act as an alternative mediator for transmitting diverse tumor promoter-stimulated signals.

  11. Jupiter Trojan's Shallow Subsurface: Direct Observation By Radar Sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herique, A.; Plettemeier, D.; Beck, P.; Michel, P.; Kumamoto, A.; Kofman, W. W.

    2017-12-01

    Most of the Jupiter's Trojan are classified as spectral type P or D from visible and near-IR observations. Still, major question remain regarding theire origin and geological evolution: What ices are present in their interior, and in what amount? What is the abundance and the nature of the organic fraction? Did they experience some level of differentiation powered by 26Al? Answering theses question is the goal of the Solar-Power Sail JAXA mission [1, 2]. This mission plans to study the surface by remote sensing in the optical in IR domain. This probe will carry a large-sized lander with a drill to sample the constitutive material at meter depth in order to complement physical and chemical properties measured by on-board instruments. The sample return is an option under study.Radar sounding of the shallow subsurface would be envisaged in complement to this payload. Sounding radar could provide the structure of the first tens of meters of the Trojan surface. It will allow identifying layering, ice lens, and embedded block. It also will enable to reconnect the surface with the deep interior in order to identify exogenous / pristine material. For the surface package, the drilling and the sample return, radar sounding is a unique opportunity to support the selection of the landing site and to provide the greater geological context of the samples that will be returned to Earth.In this paper, we will detail the objective of this instrument and then we will outline the proposed instrument, which is inheriting from the radar developed for the AIDA/AIM mission.[1] Mori, O. et al., Science experiments on a Jupiter Trojan Asteroid in the solar powerd sail mission. LPSC 2016 - 1822.[2] Okada, T. et al., Science and Exploration of a Jupiter Trojan Asteroid in the solar-power sail mission. LPSC 2017 - 1828.

  12. Dental pulp stem cells promote regeneration of damaged neuron cells on the cellular model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feixiang; Jia, Yali; Liu, Jiajing; Zhai, Jinglei; Cao, Ning; Yue, Wen; He, Huixia; Pei, Xuetao

    2017-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease and many types of stem cells have been used in AD therapy with some favorable effects. In this study, we investigated the potential therapeutical effects of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) on AD cellular model which established by okadaic acid (OA)-induced damage to human neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y, in vitro for 24 h. After confirmed the AD cellular model, the cells were co-culture with hDPSCs by transwell co-culture system till 24 h for treatment. Then the cytomorphology of the hDPSCs-treated cells were found to restore gradually with re-elongation of retracted dendrites. Meanwhile, Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and Hoechst 33258 staining showed that hDPSCs caused significant increase in the viability and decrease in apoptosis of the model cells, respectively. Observation of DiI labeling also exhibited the prolongation dendrites in hDPSCs-treated cells which were obviously different from the retraction dendrites in AD model cells. Furthermore, specific staining of α-tubulin and F-actin demonstrated that the hDPSCs-treated cells had the morphology of restored neurons, with elongated dendrites, densely arranged microfilaments, and thickened microtubular fibrils. In addition, results from western blotting revealed that phosphorylation at Ser 396 of Tau protein was significantly suppressed by adding of hDPSCs. These results indicate that hDPSCs may promote regeneration of damaged neuron cells in vitro model of AD and may serve as a useful cell source for treatment of AD. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  13. Tight regulation between cell survival and programmed cell death in GBM stem-like cells by EGFR/GSK3b/PP2A signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürsel, Demirkan B; Banu, Matei A; Berry, Nicholas; Marongiu, Roberta; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Kobylarz, Keith; Kaplitt, Michael G; Rafii, Shahin; Boockvar, John A

    2015-01-01

    Malignant gliomas represent one of the most aggressive forms of cancer, displaying high mortality rates and limited treatment options. Specific subpopulations of cells residing in the tumor niche with stem-like characteristics have been postulated to initiate and maintain neoplasticity while resisting conventional therapies. The study presented here aims to define the role of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3b) in patient-derived glioblastoma (GBM) stem-like cell (GSC) proliferation, apoptosis and invasion. To evaluate the potential role of GSK3b in GBM, protein profiles from 68 GBM patients and 20 normal brain samples were analyzed for EGFR-mediated PI3kinase/Akt and GSK3b signaling molecules including protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). To better understand the function of GSK3b in GBM, GSCs were isolated from GBM patient samples. Blocking GSK3b phosphorylation at Serine 9 attenuated cell proliferation while concomitantly stimulating apoptosis through activation of Caspase-3 in patient-derived GSCs. Increasing GSK3b protein content resulted in the inhibition of cell proliferation, colony formation and stimulated programmed cell death. Depleting GSK3b in GSCs down regulated PP2A. Furthermore, knocking down PP2A or blocking its activity by okadaic acid inactivated GSK3b by increasing GSK3b phosphorylation at Serine 9. Our data suggests that GSK3b may function as a regulator of apoptosis and tumorigenesis in GSCs. Therapeutic approaches targeting GSK3b in glioblastoma stem-like cells may be a useful addition to our current therapeutic armamentarium.

  14. GABAA receptor endocytosis in the basolateral amygdala is critical to the reinstatement of fear memory measured by fear-potentiated startle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Ching; Tseng, Yu-Chou; Mao, Sheng-Chun; Chen, Po-See; Gean, Po-Wu

    2011-06-15

    Reinstatement represents a phenomenon that may be used to model the effects of retraumatization observed in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this study, we found intraperitoneal injection of the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol (10 mg/kg) 1 h before reinstatement training attenuated reinstatement of fear memory in rats. Conversely, reinstatement was facilitated by intra-amygdalar administration of β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (Iso; 2 μg per side) 30 min before reinstatement training. The frequency and amplitude of the miniature IPSC (mIPSC) and the surface expression of the β3 and γ2 subunits of the GABA(A) receptor (GABA(A)R) were significantly lower in reinstated than in extinction rats, whereas the AMPA/NMDA ratio and the surface expression of GluR1 and GluR2 in the amygdala did not differ between groups. In amygdala slices, Iso-induced decrease in the surface β3 subunit of GABA(A) receptor was blocked by a Tat-conjugated dynamin function-blocking peptide (Tat-P4) pretreatment (10 μm for 30 min). By contrast, Tat-scramble peptide had no effect. Intravenous injection (3 μmol/kg) or intra-amygdalar infusion (30 pmol per side) of Tat-P4 interfered with reinstatement. Reinstatement increased the association between protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and the β3 subunit of the GABA(A)R, which was abolished by PP1/PP2A inhibitors okadaic acid and calyculin A. These results suggest the involvement of β-adrenergic receptor activation and GABA(A) receptor endocytosis in the amygdala for the reinstatement in fear memory.

  15. Rover exploration on the lunar surface; a science proposal for SELENE-B mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, S.; Kubota, T.; Akiyama, H.; Hirata, N.; Kunii, Y.; Matsumoto, K.; Okada, T.; Otake, M.; Saiki, K.; Sugihara, T.

    LUNARSURFACE:ASCIENCES. Sasaki (1), T. Kubota (2) , H. Akiyama (1) , N. Hirata (3), Y. Kunii (4), K. Matsumoto (5), T. Okada (2), M. Otake (3), K. Saiki (6), T. Sugihara (3) (1) Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Univ. Tokyo, (2) Institute of Space and Astronautical Sciences, (3) National Space Development Agency of Japan, (4) Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Chuo Univ., (5) National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan, (6) Research Institute of Materials and Resources, Akita Univ. sho@eps.s.u -tokyo.ac.jp/Fax:+81-3-5841-4569 A new lunar landing mission (SELENE-B) is now in consideration in Japan. Scientific investigation plans using a rover are proposed. To clarify the origin and evolution of the moon, the early crustal formation and later mare volcanic processes are still unveiled. We proposed two geological investigation plans: exploration of a crater central peak to discover subsurface materials and exploration of dome-cone structures on young mare region. We propose multi-band macro/micro camera using AOTF, X-ray spectrometer/diffractometer and gamma ray spectrometer. Since observation of rock fragments in brecciaed rocks is necessary, the rover should have cutting or scraping mechanism of rocks. In our current scenario, landing should be performed about 500m from the main target (foot of a crater central peak or a cone/dome). After the spectral survey by multi-band camera on the lander, the rover should be deployed for geological investigation. The rover should make a short (a few tens meter) round trip at first, then it should perform traverse observation toward the main target. Some technological investigations on SELENE-B project will be also presented.

  16. Phosphatase control of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation state is central for glycolytic regulation of retinal protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Thomas W; Abcouwer, Steven F; Losiewicz, Mandy K; Fort, Patrice E

    2015-09-15

    Control of protein synthesis in insulin-responsive tissues has been well characterized, but relatively little is known about how this process is regulated in nervous tissues. The retina exhibits a relatively high protein synthesis rate, coinciding with high basal Akt and metabolic activities, with the majority of retinal ATP being derived from aerobic glycolysis. We examined the dependency of retinal protein synthesis on the Akt-mTOR signaling and glycolysis using ex vivo rat retinas. Akt inhibitors significantly reduced retinal protein synthesis but did not affect glycolytic lactate production. Surprisingly, the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) markedly inhibited Akt1 and Akt3 activities, as well as protein synthesis. The effects of 2-DG, and 2-fluorodeoxyglucose (2-FDG) on retinal protein synthesis correlated with inhibition of lactate production and diminished ATP content, with all these effects reversed by provision of d-mannose. 2-DG treatment was not associated with increased AMPK, eEF2, or eIF2α phosphorylation; instead, it caused rapid dephosphorylation of 4E-BP1. 2-DG reduced total mTOR activity by 25%, but surprisingly, it did not reduce mTORC1 activity, as indicated by unaltered raptor-associated mTOR autophosphorylation and ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation. Dephosphorylation of 4E-BP1 was largely prevented by inhibition of PP1/PP2A phosphatases with okadaic acid and calyculin A, and inhibition of PPM1 phosphatases with cadmium. Thus, inhibition of retinal glycolysis diminished Akt and protein synthesis coinciding with accelerated dephosphorylation of 4E-BP1 independently of mTORC1. These results demonstrate a novel mechanism regulating protein synthesis in the retina involving an mTORC1-independent and phosphatase-dependent regulation of 4E-BP1. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci Isolated from Food Producing Animals: A Public Health Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etinosa O. Igbinosa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in food animals is a potential public health concern. Staphylococci are a significant opportunistic pathogen both in humans and dairy cattle. In the present study, the genotypic characterization of methicillin-resistant staphylococcal strains recovered from dairy cattle in a rural community (Okada, Edo State, Nigeria was investigated. A total of 283 samples from cattle (137 milk samples and 146 nasal swabs were assessed between February and April 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay was employed for the detection of 16S rRNA, mecA and Panton-Valentine Leucocidinis (PVL genes. The staphylococcal strains were identified through partial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acids (rRNA nucleotide sequencing, and Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST analysis of the gene sequence showed that the staphylococcal strains have 96%–100% similarity to Staphylococcus aureus (30, S. epidermidis (17, S. haemolyticus (15, S. saprophyticus (13, S. chromogenes (8, S. simulans (7, S. pseudintermedius (6 and S. xylosus (4. Resistance of 100% was observed in all Staphylococcus spp. against MET, PEN, CLN, CHL and SXT. Multi-drug resistant (MDR bacteria from nasal cavities and raw milk reveals 13 isolates were MDR against METR, PENR, AMXR, CLNR, CHLR, SXTR CLXR, KANR, ERYR, and VANR. Of all isolates, 100% harboured the mecA gene, while 30% of the isolates possess the PVL gene. All S. aureus harboured the PVL gene while other Staphylococcus spp. were negative for the PVL gene. The presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus spp. isolates in dairy cattle is a potential public health risk and thus findings in this study can be used as a baseline for further surveillance.

  18. A novel tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR containing PP5 serine/threonine protein phosphatase in the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adams Brian

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum (Pf, is responsible for nearly 2 million deaths worldwide. However, the mechanisms of cellular signaling in the parasite remain largely unknown. Recent discovery of a few protein kinases and phosphatases point to a thriving reversible phosphorylation system in the parasite, although their function and regulation need to be determined. Results We provide biochemical and sequence evidence for a protein serine/threonine phosphatase type PP5 in Plasmodium falciparum, and named it PfPP5. The 594-amino acid polypeptide was encoded by a 1785 nucleotide long intronless gene in the parasite. The recombinant protein, expressed in bacteria, was indistinguishable from native PfPP5. Sequencing comparison indicated that the extra-long N-terminus of PfPP5 outside the catalytic core contained four tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs, compared to three such repeats in other PP5 phosphatases. The PfPP5 N-terminus was required for stimulation of the phosphatase activity by polyunsaturated fatty acids. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated an interaction between native PfPP5 and Pf heat shock protein 90 (hsp90. PfPP5 was expressed in all the asexual erythrocytic stages of the parasite, and was moderately sensitive to okadaic acid. Conclusions This is the first example of a TPR-domain protein in the Apicomplexa family of parasites. Since TPR domains play important roles in protein-protein interaction, especially relevant to the regulation of PP5 phosphatases, PfPP5 is destined to have a definitive role in parasitic growth and signaling pathways. This is exemplified by the interaction between PfPP5 and the cognate chaperone hsp90.

  19. Atomic energy indemnification system in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Eiichi

    1980-01-01

    The Japanese legislation on the indemnification by atomic energy enterprisers for atomic energy damages, published in 1961 and enforced in 1962, includes the law concerning indemnification for atomic energy damages and the law concerning atomic energy damage indemnification contracts (hereafter referred to as ''the law concerning indemnification contracts''). While the Japanese laws are same as the foreign legislation in the provisions of the responsibility of atomic energy damages without the error of atomic energy enterprisers, exemption reasons are more important in this respect. When damages are due to exceptionally grave natural disasters or social disturbances, atomic energy enterprisers are exempted from the responsibility. Indemnification amounts are determined, but the Japanese laws do not limit then, different from the foreign regulations. The periods for demanding indemnification are not defined particularly in the law concerning indemnification contracts, and the general basic rules of the civil law are applied. As a result, the demand right terminates in 3 years after the injured persons find damage and offenders, and in 20 years since the unlawful act (Article 724, Civil law). The indemnification liability for atomic energy damages is focused on atomic energy enterprisers concerned in the same way as the foreign laws. The measures for assuring the execution of indemnification responsibility consist in principle of the firm conbination of the liability insurance contracts with private insurance companies and the indemnification contracts for atomic energy damages with the state. The damages of employes suffered in works are excluded from indemnification, which has been the main issue of discussion since the enactment of atomic energy laws. (Okada, K.)

  20. Angiotensin II type 2 receptor stimulation increases the rate of NG108-15 cell migration via actin depolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, Peter; Campbell, Shirley; Bilodeau, Lyne; Guimond, Marie-Odile; Roberge, Claude; Gallo-Payet, Nicole; Payet, Marcel Daniel

    2008-06-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) has been reported to induce migration in neuronal cell types. Using time-lapse microscopy, we show here that Ang II induces acceleration in NG108-15 cell migration. This effect was antagonized by PD123319, a selective AT2 receptor antagonist, but not by DUP753, a selective AT1 receptor antagonist, and was mimicked by the specific AT2 receptor agonist CGP42112. This Ang II-induced acceleration was not sensitive to the inhibition of previously described signaling pathways of the AT2 receptor, guanylyl cyclase/cyclic GMP or p42/p44 mapk cascades, but was abolished by pertussis toxin treatment and involved PP2A activation. Immunofluorescence studies indicate that Ang II or CGP42112 decreased the amount of filamentous actin at the leading edge of the cells. This decrease was accompanied by a concomitant increase in globular actin levels. Regulation of actin turnover in actin-based motile systems is known to be mainly under the control of the actin depolymerizing factor and cofilin. Basal migration speed decreased by 77.2% in cofilin-1 small interfering RNA-transfected NG108-15 cells, along with suppression of the effect of Ang II. In addition, the Ang II-induced increase in cell velocity was abrogated in serum-free medium as well as by genistein or okadaic acid treatment in a serum-containing medium. Such results indicate that the AT2 receptor increases the migration speed of NG108-15 cells and involves a tyrosine kinase activity, followed by phosphatase activation, which may be of the PP2A type. Therefore, the present study identifies actin depolymerization and cofilin as new targets of AT2 receptor action, in the context of cellular migration.

  1. Protein phosphatase 2A regulates central sensitization in the spinal cord of rats following intradermal injection of capsaicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intradermal injection of capsaicin into the hind paw of rats induces spinal cord central sensititzation, a process in which the responsiveness of central nociceptive neurons is amplified. In central sensitization, many signal transduction pathways composed of several cascades of intracellular enzymes are involved. As the phosphorylation state of neuronal proteins is strictly controlled and balanced by the opposing activities of protein kinases and phosphatases, the involvement of phosphatases in these events needs to be investigated. This study is designed to determine the influence of serine/threonine protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A on the central nociceptive amplification process, which is induced by intradermal injection of capsaicin in rats. Results In experiment 1, the expression of PP2A protein in rat spinal cord at different time points following capsaicin or vehicle injection was examined using the Western blot method. In experiment 2, an inhibitor of PP2A (okadaic acid, 20 nM or fostriecin, 30 nM was injected into the subarachnoid space of the spinal cord, and the spontaneous exploratory activity of the rats before and after capsaicin injection was recorded with an automated photobeam activity system. The results showed that PP2A protein expression in the spinal cord was significantly upregulated following intradermal injection of capsaicin in rats. Capsaicin injection caused a significant decrease in exploratory activity of the rats. Thirty minutes after the injection, this decrease in activity had partly recovered. Infusion of a phosphatase inhibitor into the spinal cord intrathecal space enhanced the central sensitization induced by capsaicin by making the decrease in movement last longer. Conclusion These findings indicate that PP2A plays an important role in the cellular mechanisms of spinal cord central sensitization induced by intradermal injection of capsaicin in rats, which may have implications in

  2. A role for protein phosphatase-2A in p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated regulation of the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase pathway in human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdi, Natalie J; Malcolm, Kenneth C; Nick, Jerry A; Worthen, G Scott

    2002-10-25

    Human neutrophil accumulation in inflammatory foci is essential for the effective control of microbial infections. Although exposure of neutrophils to cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha), generated at sites of inflammation, leads to activation of MAPK pathways, mechanisms responsible for the fine regulation of specific MAPK modules remain unknown. We have previously demonstrated activation of a TNFalpha-mediated JNK pathway module, leading to apoptosis in adherent human neutrophils (Avdi, N. J., Nick, J. A., Whitlock, B. B., Billstrom, M. A., Henson, P. M., Johnson, G. L., and Worthen, G. S. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 2189-2199). Herein, evidence is presented linking regulation of the JNK pathway to p38 MAPK and the Ser/Thr protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A). Inhibition of p38 MAPK by SB 203580 and M 39 resulted in significant augmentation of TNFalpha-induced JNK and MKK4 (but not MKK7 or MEKK1) activation, whereas prior exposure to a p38-activating agent (platelet-activating factor) diminished the TNFalpha-induced JNK response. TNFalpha-induced apoptosis was also greatly enhanced upon p38 inhibition. Studies with a reconstituted cell-free system indicated the absence of a direct inhibitory effect of p38 MAPK on the JNK module. Neutrophil exposure to the Ser/Thr phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid and calyculin A induced JNK activation. Increased phosphatase activity following TNFalpha stimulation was shown to be PP2A-associated and p38-dependent. Furthermore, PP2A-induced dephosphorylation of MKK4 resulted in its inactivation. Thus, in neutrophils, p38 MAPK, through a PP2A-mediated mechanism, regulates the JNK pathway, thus determining the extent and nature of subsequent responses such as apoptosis.

  3. Regulations for the protection of ships-crew from ionizing radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of the ''Law on seamen''. The Regulation covers matters, such as general rule, control area, limit of exposure dose, measurement of exposure dose, prevention of exposure to external radiation, prevention of contamination due to radioactive materials, measures to accidents, health control and matters to be observed by seamen. Ionizing radiation includes particle beam or electromagnetic waves, such as alpharay, deuteron beam, proton beam, betaray, electron beam, neutron beam, gamma ray and X-ray. The owners of ships on which radiation works are carried out shall indicate with marks the areas where the dose due to external radiation or radioactive materials in the air may exceed 30 millirem a week. Such owners shall measure the dose rate of external radiation in the control areas and the concentration of radioactive materials in the air with measuring instruments once a month, and keep the records of such measurements for five years. The limit of exposure dose for the persons engaging in radiation works is a value calculated by the formula D = 5 (N-18), in which D means the limit of cumulative dose, and N the age of the seaman concerned. The exposure doses of the persons engaging in radiation works the persons having access to the control area at any time and the seamen engaging in the urgent works shall be limited to the specified values. Seamen shall take refuge immediately from the areas which may be subjected to remarkable radiation or contaminated by radioactive materials in case of the accidents specified. (Okada, K.)

  4. Determination of standards for transportation of radioactive material by aircrafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of the Enforcement Regulation for the Law on Aviation. Terms are explained, such as exclusive loading and containers. Spontaneously ignitable liquid radioactive materials and the radioactive substances required to be contained in special vessels and others particularly operated during the transport, are excluded from the radioactive materials permissible for transport. The radioactive substances required to be transported as radioactive loadings don't include empty vessels used to contain radioactive materials and other things contaminated by such materials, when they conform to the prescriptions. The technical standards on radioactive loadings are defined, such as maximum radiation dose rate of 0.5 millirem per hour on the surface of L type loadings, 200 millirem per hour for A, and 1000 millirem per hour at the distance of 1 m for BM and BU types, respectively. Confirmation of the safeness of radioactive loadings may be made through the written documents prepared by the competent persons acknowledged by the Minister of Transport. The requisite of fissile loadings is that such loadings shall not reach critical state during the transport in the specified cases. Radioactive loadings or the containers with such loadings shall be loaded so that the safeness of such loadings is not injured by movement, overturn and fall during the transport. The maximum radiation dose rate of the containers with radioactive loadings shall not be more than 200 millirem per hour on the surface. The written documents describing the handling method and other matters for attention and the measures to be taken on accidents shall be carried with for the transport of radioactive loadings. (Okada, K.)

  5. OS EFEITOS DO TREINO DE TIRO COM ZARABATANA NA CAPACIDADE RESPIRATÓRIA DE PESSOAS COM TRISSOMIA 21 APÓS UM ANO DE DESTREINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Leitão

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Em 2011 estimava-se que houvesse entre 12 a 15 mil crianças com Trissomia 21 (Martinho, 2011. A capacidade respiratória está relacionada com a permuta do ar atmosférico com o ar existente no interior dos pulmões (McArdle, Katch & Katch, 2001, sendo que este processo apresenta-se mais dificultado em sujeitos com Trissomia 21 pois exibem valores de pressão expiratória máxima abaixo dos 50% e de pressão inspiratória máxima abaixo dos 60% previstos para a população sedentária saudável (Castoldi, Périco & Grave, 2012. O treino de tiro com zarabatana tem influência no aumento da pressão expiratória máxima e tem um efeito sobre a função respiratória, semelhante ao treino muscular de músculos expiratório em adultos (Nagasaki, Okada, Kai, & Takahashi, 2010. Segundo (Mariñas & Higuchi, 2010 a zarabatana trata-se de um tubo comprido, através do qual são expelidos pequenos projéteis, através do sopro com objetivo de atingir um alvo. A introdução da atividade de tiro com zarabatana surge de modo a minimizar os problemas respiratórios desta população, porque envolve todo o ciclo respiratório e por ser uma atividade lúdica. Objetivo: Comparar os efeitos do treino de tiro com zarabatana na capacidade respiratória de pessoas com trissomia 21 após um ano de destreino.

  6. Episodic inflation and complex surface deformation of Akutan volcano, Alaska revealed from GPS time-series

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGrandpre, Kimberly; Wang, Teng; Lu, Zhong; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

    2017-11-01

    Akutan is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian island arc. Studies involving seismic, GPS, and InSAR data have observed activity and deformation on the island since 1996. In this study we inverted measurements of volcanic deformation, observed using three components of motions at 12 continuous GPS sites to define magma source parameters using Mogi point source, Okada dislocation, and Yang spheroid and ellipsoid models. In order to analyze the evolution of this magma source we split the GPS data into five consecutive time periods, and one period that incorporates all available data. These time periods were designed around two inflation events in 2008 and 2014, when a sudden and significant increase in vertical velocity was observed. Inversion of these time periods independently allowed us to create a magma volume time-series that is related to the physical migration of magma defined by the estimated source parameters. The best fit model parameters resulting from these inversions describes magma storage in the form of an oblate spheroid centered on the northeastern rim of the caldera of Akutan volcano, extending from a depth of 7 km to 8 km, with a length of 3.5 km, a strike of N165°E, and a dip of 63° from the horizontal to the southwest. Our model results were compared with seismic studies and found to support previous interpretations of episodic inflation beneath Akutan volcano with complicated magma storage at intermediate depths. The inflation event observed in 2008 was estimated to be the result of an injection of magma of 0.08 km3 that was followed in 2014 by an additional increase in volume of 0.06 km3. No periods of deflation were observed in the GPS data after these events, and we believe the total volume of magma accumulated in this region, 0.2 km3, remains in a shallow storage system beneath Akutan Volcano.

  7. I had a dream… Continuous InSAR measurement and transparent earth, the beauty of analogue modeling to assess direct model uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taisne, B.; Pansino, S.; Manta, F.; Tay Wen Jing, C.

    2017-12-01

    Have you ever dreamed about continuous, high resolution InSAR data? Have you ever dreamed about a transparent earth allowing you to see what is actually going on under a volcano? Well, you likely dreamed about an analogue facility that allows you to scale down the natural system to fit into a room, with a controlled environment and complex visualisation system. Analogue modeling has been widely used to understand magmatic processes and thanks to a transparent analogue for the elastic Earth's crust, we can see, as it evolves with time, the migration of a dyke, the volume change of a chamber or the rise of a bubble in a conduit. All those phenomena are modeled theoretically or numerically, with their own simplifications. Therefore, how well are we really constraining the physical parameters describing the evolution of a dyke or a chamber? Getting access to those parameters, in real time and with high level of confidence is of paramount importance while dealing with unrest at volcanoes. The aim of this research is to estimate the uncertainties of the widely used Okada and Mogi models. To do so, we design a set of analogue experiments allowing us to explore different elastic properties of the medium, the characteristic of the fluid injected into the medium as well as the depth, size and volume change of a reservoir. The associated surface deformation is extracted using an array of synchronised cameras and using digital image correlation and structure from motion for horizontal and vertical deformation respectively. The surface deformation are then inverted to retrieve the controlling parameters (e.g. location and volume change of a chamber, or orientation, position, length, breadth and opening of a dyke). By comparing those results with the known parameters, that we can see and measure independently, we estimate the uncertainties of the models themself, and the associated level of confidence for each of the inverted parameters.

  8. A novel bicistronic sensor vector for detecting caspase-3 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagner, Tatyana; Mouravlev, Alexandre; Young, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Apoptosis is involved in pathological cell death of a wide range of human diseases. One of the most important biochemical markers of apoptosis is activation of caspase-3. Ability to detect caspase-3 activation early in the pathological process is important for determining the timing for interfering with apoptosis initiation and prevention of cell damage. Techniques allowing detection of caspase-3 activity at a single cell level show increased sensitivity, compared to biochemical assays; therefore, we developed a novel bicistronic caspase-3 sensor vector enabling detection of caspase-3 activity in individual cells. We employed green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter for caspase-3 activation in our constructs and assessed the functionality of the generated constructs in transiently transfected Neuro2A and HEK293 cells under basal conditions and following application of okadaic acid (OA) or staurosporine (STS) to induce apoptosis. To ensure responsiveness of the new sensor vector to active caspase-3, we co-transfected the sensor with plasmid(s) overexpressing active caspase-3 and quantified GFP fluorescence using a plate reader. We observed an increase in GFP expression in cells transfected with the new bicistronic caspase-3 sensor in response to both OA and STS. We also showed a significant increase in GFP fluorescence intensity in cells co-expressing the sensor with the plasmid(s) encoding active caspase-3. We generated a novel bicistronic caspase-3 sensor vector which relies on a transcription factor/response element system. The obtained sensor combines high sensitivity of the single cell level detection with the possibility of automated quantification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Update on the diagnosis and management of Behçet’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokutanda R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ryo Rokutanda, Mitsumasa Kishimoto, Masato Okada Immuno-Rheumatology Center, St Luke’s International Hospital, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Behçet’s disease is a multi-organ disorder that is more common in countries around the Silk Road, and manifests as mucosal ulcers and skin lesions, and with ocular involvement. As a systemic disease, it can also involve gastrointestinal organs and the central nervous or cardiovascular systems. Although the etiology of Behçet's disease is not clearly identified, the pathogenesis of the disease is most commonly hypothesized as a profound inflammatory response triggered by an infectious agent in a genetically susceptible host. As there are no single specific manifestations or specific diagnostic tests, various diagnostic criteria have been proposed around the world, and, among them, the International Study Group criteria have been most commonly used. As the clinical expression of Behçet's disease is heterogeneous, the treatment should be individualized based on involved organs, severity of the disease, and patient's background. The choice of therapeutic agents is limited by lack of clinical trials and is based largely on case reports, case series, and several open-label clinical trials. Corticosteroids, colchicine, and traditional immunosuppressive agents, including azathioprine and cyclosporine, have been used for the treatment of Behçet’s disease. Recently, tumor necrosis factor (TNF inhibitors have become available for several rheumatic diseases, and considerable published data suggest that TNF inhibitors represent an important therapeutic advance for patients with severe and resistant disease, as well as for those with contraindications or intolerance to these treatments. Keywords: Behçet’s disease, therapeutic agents, etiology, diagnosis

  10. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1)/GPR30 increases ERK1/2 activity through PDZ motif-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez de Valdivia, Ernesto; Broselid, Stefan; Kahn, Robin; Olde, Björn; Leeb-Lundberg, L M Fredrik

    2017-06-16

    G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), also called G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1), is thought to play important roles in breast cancer and cardiometabolic regulation, but many questions remain about ligand activation, effector coupling, and subcellular localization. We showed recently that GPR30 interacts through the C-terminal type I PDZ motif with SAP97 and protein kinase A (PKA)-anchoring protein (AKAP) 5, which anchor the receptor in the plasma membrane and mediate an apparently constitutive decrease in cAMP production independently of G i/o Here, we show that GPR30 also constitutively increases ERK1/2 activity. Removing the receptor PDZ motif or knocking down specifically AKAP5 inhibited the increase, showing that this increase also requires the PDZ interaction. However, the increase was inhibited by pertussis toxin as well as by wortmannin but not by AG1478, indicating that G i/o and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) mediate the increase independently of epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation. FK506 and okadaic acid also inhibited the increase, implying that a protein phosphatase is involved. The proposed GPR30 agonist G-1 also increased ERK1/2 activity, but this increase was only observed at a level of receptor expression below that required for the constitutive increase. Furthermore, deleting the PDZ motif did not inhibit the G-1-stimulated increase. Based on these results, we propose that GPR30 increases ERK1/2 activity via two G i/o -mediated mechanisms, a PDZ-dependent, apparently constitutive mechanism and a PDZ-independent G-1-stimulated mechanism. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Sp1 is a transcription repressor to stanniocalcin-1 expression in TSA-treated human colon cancer cells, HT29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Alice Y S; Yeung, B H Y; Ching, L Y; Wong, Chris K C

    2011-08-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that, stanniocalcin-1 (STC1) was a target of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors and was involved in trichostatin A (TSA) induced apoptosis in the human colon cancer cells, HT29. In this study, we reported that the transcriptional factor, specificity protein 1 (Sp1) in association with retinoblastoma (Rb) repressed STC1 gene transcription in TSA-treated HT29 cells. Our data demonstrated that, a co-treatment of the cells with TSA and Sp1 inhibitor, mithramycin A (MTM) led to a marked synergistic induction of STC1 transcript levels, STC1 promoter (1 kb)-driven luciferase activity and an increase of apoptotic cell population. The knockdown of Sp1 gene expression in TSA treated cells, revealed the repressor role of Sp1 in STC1 transcription. Using a protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid (OKA), an increase of Sp1 hyperphosphorylation and so a reduction of its transcriptional activity, led to a significant induction of STC1 gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay revealed that Sp1 binding on STC1 proximal promoter in TSA treated cells. The binding of Sp1 to STC1 promoter was abolished by the co-treatment of MTM or OKA in TSA-treated cells. Re-ChIP assay illustrated that Sp1-mediated inhibition of STC1 transcription was associated with the recruitment of another repressor molecule, Rb. Collectively our findings identify STC1 is a downstream target of Sp1. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Disruption of a Guard Cell–Expressed Protein Phosphatase 2A Regulatory Subunit, RCN1, Confers Abscisic Acid Insensitivity in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, June M.; Moon, Ji-Hye; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Leonhardt, Nathalie; DeLong, Alison; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2002-01-01

    Pharmacological studies have led to a model in which the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) may be positively transduced via protein phosphatases of the type 1 (PP1) or type 2A (PP2A) families. However, pharmacological evidence also exists that PP1s or PP2As may function as negative regulators of ABA signaling. Furthermore, recessive disruption mutants in protein phosphatases that function in ABA signal transduction have not yet been identified. A guard cell–expressed PP2A gene, RCN1, which had been characterized previously as a molecular component affecting auxin transport and gravity response, was isolated. A T-DNA disruption mutation in RCN1 confers recessive ABA insensitivity to Arabidopsis. The rcn1 mutation impairs ABA-induced stomatal closing and ABA activation of slow anion channels. Calcium imaging analyses show a reduced sensitivity of ABA-induced cytosolic calcium increases in rcn1, whereas mechanisms downstream of cytosolic calcium increases show wild-type responses, suggesting that RCN1 functions in ABA signal transduction upstream of cytosolic Ca2+ increases. Furthermore, rcn1 shows ABA insensitivity in ABA inhibition of seed germination and ABA-induced gene expression. The PP1 and PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid phenocopies the rcn1 phenotype in wild-type plants both in ABA-induced cytosolic calcium increases and in seed germination, and the wild-type RCN1 genomic DNA complements rcn1 phenotypes. These data show that RCN1 functions as a general positive transducer of early ABA signaling. PMID:12417706

  13. Changes in visual function and thickness of macula after photodynamic therapy for age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Okada

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Kyoko Okada, Mariko Kubota-Taniai, Masayasu Kitahashi, Takayuki Baba, Yoshinori Mitamura, Shuichi YamamotoDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba, JapanPurpose: To determine the correlation between the changes in the central retinal sensitivity and the changes in the foveal thickness (FT after photodynamic therapy (PDT for age-related macular degeneration (AMD.Methods: Nineteen eyes of 19 patients with choroidal neovasularizations (CNVs secondary to AMD were studied. The pretreatment values of the central retinal sensitivity determined by Micro Perimeter 1 (MP1; Nidek Technologies, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, and optical coherence tomography (OCT-determined FT were compared to the postoperative values at three and six months after PDT.Results: At six months, the retinal sensitivity within the central 10° was significantly improved (P = 0.02 and the FT was significantly thinner (P = 0.016. The BCVA, however, did not change significantly (P = 0.80. The changes in the retinal sensitivities were significantly correlated with the changes in the decrease in the FT (r = -0.59, P = 0.012 within the central 10° at six months after PDT.Conclusion: Significant improvements in retinal sensitivities within the central 10° and a decrease in FT were observed even though the BCVA was not significantly improved. The measurement of retinal sensitivity by MP1 may be a better method to assess central visual function than the conventional visual acuity after PDT.Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, fundus-related microperimetry, optical coherence tomography, photodynamic therapy

  14. [Can solar/geomagnetic activity restrict the occurrence of some shellfish poisoning outbreaks? The example of PSP caused by Gymnodinium catenatum at the Atlantic Portuguese coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, P

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic outbreaks of accumulation of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in mussels attributed to Gymnodinium catenatum blooms displayed several of the highest inter-annual maxima coincidental with minima of the 11-year solar sunspot number (SSN) cycle. The monthly distribution of PSP was associated with low levels of the solar radio flux, a more quantitative approach than SSN for fluctuations in solar activity. A comparison between monthly distribution of PSP and other common biotoxins (okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2) and amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxins) demonstrated that only PSP was significantly associated with low levels of radio flux (p < 0.01). PSP occurrence suggests a prior decline in solar activity could be required to act as a trigger, in a similar manner to a photoperiodic signal. The seasonal frequency increased towards autumn during the study period, which might be related to the progressive atmospheric cut-off of deleterious radiation associated with the seasonal change in solar declination, and might play an additional role in seasonal signal-triggering. PSP distribution was also associated with low levels of the geomagnetic index Aa. A comparison between monthly distribution of PSP and other common biotoxins, also demonstrated that only PSP was significantly associated with low levels of the Aa index (p < 0.01). In some years of SSN minima no significant PSP-outbreaks in mussels were detected. This was attributed to a steady rise in geomagnetic activity that could disrupt the triggering signal. Global distribution patterns show that hotspots for G. catenatum blooms are regions with deficient crustal magnetic anomalies. In addition to the variable magnetic field mostly of solar origin, static fields related to magnetized rocks in the crust and upper mantle might play a role in restricting worldwide geographic distribution.

  15. Protein phosphatases decrease their activity during capacitation: a new requirement for this event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janetti R Signorelli

    Full Text Available There are few reports on the role of protein phosphatases during capacitation. Here, we report on the role of PP2B, PP1, and PP2A during human sperm capacitation. Motile sperm were resuspended in non-capacitating medium (NCM, Tyrode's medium, albumin- and bicarbonate-free or in reconstituted medium (RCM, NCM plus 2.6% albumin/25 mM bicarbonate. The presence of the phosphatases was evaluated by western blotting and the subcellular localization by indirect immunofluorescence. The function of these phosphatases was analyzed by incubating the sperm with specific inhibitors: okadaic acid, I2, endothall, and deltamethrin. Different aliquots were incubated in the following media: 1 NCM; 2 NCM plus inhibitors; 3 RCM; and 4 RCM plus inhibitors. The percent capacitated sperm and phosphatase activities were evaluated using the chlortetracycline assay and a phosphatase assay kit, respectively. The results confirm the presence of PP2B and PP1 in human sperm. We also report the presence of PP2A, specifically, the catalytic subunit and the regulatory subunits PR65 and B. PP2B and PP2A were present in the tail, neck, and postacrosomal region, and PP1 was present in the postacrosomal region, neck, middle, and principal piece of human sperm. Treatment with phosphatase inhibitors rapidly (≤1 min increased the percent of sperm depicting the pattern B, reaching a maximum of ∼40% that was maintained throughout incubation; after 3 h, the percent of capacitated sperm was similar to that of the control. The enzymatic activity of the phosphatases decreased during capacitation without changes in their expression. The pattern of phosphorylation on threonine residues showed a sharp increase upon treatment with the inhibitors. In conclusion, human sperm express PP1, PP2B, and PP2A, and the activity of these phosphatases decreases during capacitation. This decline in phosphatase activities and the subsequent increase in threonine phosphorylation may be an important

  16. Stratigraphy and geologic age of the Neogene Shimajiri Group in Kumejima Island, Ryukyu Islands, southwestern Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yodai; Asahara, Yoshihiro; Ozawa, Tomowo; Kameo, Koji

    1999-01-01

    The Neogene Shimajiri Group is distributed sporadically in the Ryukyu islands. This study focuses on the Shimajiri Group in Kumejima Island, central Ryukyu, and clarifies its stratigraphy and geologic age on the basis of 1) lithostratigraphy, 2) calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy, and 3) strontium isotope stratigraphy. The Shimajiri Group in Kumejima Island unconformably overlies the middle Miocene Aradake Formation, and is overlain by the Pleistocene Ryukyu Group. The group is divided into three formations, namely the Maja, the Aka and the Uegusukudake Formations in ascending order, and the first two are redefined in this paper based on the new geologic evidence. The Maja Formation consists mainly of fine-grained sandstone, sandy siltstone and alternating beds of them. The Aka Formation is mainly composed of cross-stratified sandstone, pumiceous sandstone and tuffaceous siltstone, and unconformably overlies the Maja Formation. The Uegusukudake Formation, conformably overlying the Aka Formation, consists of basaltic lava, tuff breccia and andesite. On the basis of calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy, the Maja and Aka Formations can be assigned to Zone CN9 and Zone CN12b of Okada and Bukry (1980) respectively. Strontium isotope ages of the molluscan fossil specimens obtained from the Maja and Aka Formations revealed that the Maja Formation is assigned to the late Miocene (ca. 7.8-7.2 Ma) and the Aka Formation is assigned to the late Pliocene (ca. 3.2-3.1 Ma). These ages are concordant with the nannofossil biostratigraphy. The upper Miocene Maja Formation yields many molluscan fossils in which the characteristic species of the Kakegawa Fauna, such as Amussiopecten praesignis and Mimachlamys satoi are contained. The molluscan fauna of the Maja Formation is significant in understanding the origin of the Kakegawa Fauna, as the characteristic species of the Plio-Pleistocene Kakegawa Fauna already appeared in the Ryukyu Islands in the late Miocene. (author)

  17. Responsibility for atomic energy damages and indemnification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelzer, N.M.

    1980-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany, the overall regulations on civil responsibility for the damages by nuclear fission or the effect of radiation of radioactive materials were established for the first time in the law concerning peaceful use and protection from danger of atomic energy (hereafter referred to as Atomgesetz) in 1959. Responsibility without error was adopted by German legislators. The liability of the owners of atomic energy facilities (Article 25) was distinguished from that of the possessors of radioactive materials (Article 26) under the law. Facility responsibility (Anlagenhaftung) was limited to 500 million German marks at the maximum. Facility owners had the obligation to offer monetary security of 80 million German marks at the maximum by insurances, etc. When disasters exceeded the amount, the owners were exempted by the state up to the maximum 500 million German marks. The Federal Republic adopted the Paris Agreement in 1975 by a law, and the domestic adjustment of Atomgesetz to the European treaty on atomic energy responsibility was made through the third revision of the Gesetz. According to Article 25-1 of Atomgesetz, the regulations of Paris Agreement are first applied to the owners of atomic energy facilities (operators), and as supplement, Articles 25 to 40 of Atomgesetz are applied. The maximum liability amount is 1,000 million German marks. The demand right of indemnification expires in 3 years after demanders find or are bound to find damages and offenders, and terminates in 30 years regardless of whether the former finds the latter or not. Brussels nuclear ship agreement is applied to nuclear ship owners in Germany (Article 25a, Atomgesetz). (Okada, K.)

  18. PP2A contributes to endothelial death in high glucose: inhibition by benfotiamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Y; Kowluru, A; Kern, T S

    2010-12-01

    Endothelial death is critical in diabetic vascular diseases, but regulating factors have been only partially elucidated. Phosphatases play important regulatory roles in cell metabolism, but have not previously been implicated in hyperglycemia-induced cell death. We investigated the role of the phosphatase, type 2A protein phosphatase (PP2A), in hyperglycemia-induced changes in signaling and death in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). We explored also the influence of benfotiamine on this phosphatase. Activation of PP2A was assessed in BAEC by the extent of methylation and measurement of activity, and the enzyme was inhibited using selective pharmacological (okadaic acid, sodium fostriecin) and molecular (small interfering RNA) approaches. BAECs cultured in 30 mM glucose significantly increased PP2A methylation and activity, and PP2A inhibitors blocked these abnormalities. PP2A activity was increased also in aorta and retina from diabetic rats. NF-κB activity and cell death in BAEC were significantly increased in 30 mM glucose and inhibited by PP2A inhibition. NF-κB played a role in the hyperglycemia-induced death of BAEC, since blocking its translocation with SN50 also inhibited cell death. Inhibition of PP2A blocked the hyperglycemia-induced dephosphorylation of NF-κB and Bad, thus favoring cell survival. Incubation of benfotiamine with BAEC inhibited the high glucose-induced activation of PP2A and NF-κB and cell death, as well as several other metabolic defects, which likewise were inhibited by inhibitors of PP2A. Activation of PP2A contributes to endothelial cell death in high glucose, and beneficial actions of benfotiamine are due, at least in part, to inhibition of PP2A activation.

  19. Atomic energy laws in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukes, R.H.P.

    1980-01-01

    The regulations of German atomic energy laws are based in large on the fundamental law of the Federal Republic of Germany-the constitution. Atomgesetz of 1959, as amended on October 31, 1976, constitutes the core of atomic energy laws (Atomrecht), and is supplemented by orders (Verordnungen). The Federal Republic has the right to legislate Atomrecht, and the enforcement of such laws and orders is entrusted to each province. The peaceful uses of radioactive materials are stipulated by Atomgesetz and orders. Atomgesetz seeks two objects, first it is to enable the handling of radioactive substances for the acquisition of energy, medical treatment, food treatment and the harmless examination of things by radioactive materials, and secondly to ensure the protection from danger in the handling of such materials. The control of radioactive materials by the state including imports and exports, storage and possession, disposal and processing, etc., is established by the law to secure the protection from danger of atomic energy. The particular indemnification responsibility for the harm due to radiation is defined in Atomgesetz, and only the owners (Inhaber) of atomic energy facilities are liable for damage. The violation of the regulations on the transaction of radioactive materials is punished by fines up to 100,000 German marks of imprisonment of less than five years. Orders are established on roentgen ray, the protection from radiation, the treatment of foods by electron beam, gamma ray, roentgen ray or ultraviolet ray and the permission of medicines. The regulations of the EURATOM treaty have legality as Atomrecht. (Okada, K.)

  20. Uncoupled defense gene expression and antimicrobial alkaloid accumulation in elicited opium poppy cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, P J; Johnson, A G; Poupart, J; de Luca, V

    1996-01-01

    Treatment of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) cell cultures with autoclaved mycelial homogenates of Botrytis sp. resulted in the accumulation of sanguinarine. Elicitor treatment also caused a rapid and transient induction in the activity of tyrosine/dopa decarboxylase (TYDC, EC 4.1.1.25), which catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine and L-dopa to tyramine and dopamine, respectively, the first steps in sanguinarine biosynthesis. TYDC genes were differentially expressed in response to elicitor treatment. TYDC1-like mRNA levels were induced rapidly but declined to near baseline levels within 5 h. In contrast, TYDC2-like transcript levels increased more slowly but were sustained for an extended period. Induction of TYDC mRNAs preceded that of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) mRNAs. An elicitor preparation from Pythium aphanidermatum was less effective in the induction of TYDC mRNA levels and alkaloid accumulation; however, both elicitors equally induced accumulation of PAL transcripts. In contrast, treatment with methyl jasmonate resulted in an induction of TYDC but not PAL mRNAs. The calmodulin antagonist N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide and the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine partially blocked the fungal elicitor-induced accumulation of sanguinarine. However, only staurosporine and okadaic acid, an inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, blocked the induction of TYDC1-like transcript levels, but they did not block the induction of TYDC2-like or PAL transcript levels. These data suggest that activation mechanisms for PAL, TYDC, and some later sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes are uncoupled. PMID:8754678

  1. The Nrf1 CNC-bZIP protein is regulated by the proteasome and activated by hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepelev, Nikolai L; Bennitz, Joshua D; Huang, Ting; McBride, Skye; Willmore, William G

    2011-01-01

    Nrf1 (nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45 subunit-related factor 1) is a transcription factor mediating cellular responses to xenobiotic and pro-oxidant stress. Nrf1 regulates the transcription of many stress-related genes through the electrophile response elements (EpREs) located in their promoter regions. Despite its potential importance in human health, the mechanisms controlling Nrf1 have not been addressed fully. We found that proteasomal inhibitors MG-132 and clasto-lactacystin-β-lactone stabilized the protein expression of full-length Nrf1 in both COS7 and WFF2002 cells. Concomitantly, proteasomal inhibition decreased the expression of a smaller, N-terminal Nrf1 fragment, with an approximate molecular weight of 23 kDa. The EpRE-luciferase reporter assays revealed that proteasomal inhibition markedly inhibited the Nrf1 transactivational activity. These results support earlier hypotheses that the 26 S proteasome processes Nrf1 into its active form by removing its inhibitory N-terminal domain anchoring Nrf1 to the endoplasmic reticulum. Immunoprecipitation demonstrated that Nrf1 is ubiquitinated and that proteasomal inhibition increased the degree of Nrf1 ubiquitination. Furthermore, Nrf1 protein had a half-life of approximately 5 hours in COS7 cells. In contrast, hypoxia (1% O(2)) significantly increased the luciferase reporter activity of exogenous Nrf1 protein, while decreasing the protein expression of p65, a shorter form of Nrf1, known to act as a repressor of EpRE-controlled gene expression. Finally, the protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid activated Nrf1 reporter activity, while the latter was repressed by the PKC inhibitor staurosporine. Collectively, our data suggests that Nrf1 is controlled by several post-translational mechanisms, including ubiquitination, proteolytic processing and proteasomal-mediated degradation as well as by its phosphorylation status. © 2011 Chepelev et al.

  2. Stevioside improves pancreatic beta-cell function during glucotoxicity via regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianguo; Jeppesen, Per Bendix; Nordentoft, Iver; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2007-06-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia is detrimental to pancreatic beta-cells, causing impaired insulin secretion and beta-cell turnover. The characteristic secretory defects are increased basal insulin secretion (BIS) and a selective loss of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Several recent studies support the view that the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) plays a pivotal role for GSIS. We have shown that stevioside (SVS) enhances insulin secretion and ACC gene expression. Whether glucotoxicity influences ACC and whether this action can be counteracted by SVS are not known. To investigate this, we exposed isolated mouse islets as well as clonal INS-1E beta-cells for 48 h to 27 or 16.7 mM glucose, respectively. We found that 48-h exposure to high glucose impairs GSIS from mouse islets and INS-1E cells, an effect that is partly counteracted by SVS. The ACC dephosphorylation inhibitor okadaic acid (OKA, 10(-8) M), and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR, 10(-4) M), an activator of 5'-AMP protein kinase that phosphorylates ACC, eliminated the beneficial effect of SVS. 5-Tetrade-cyloxy-2-furancarboxylic acid (TOFA), the specific ACC inhibitor, blocked the effect of SVS as well. During glucotoxity, ACC gene expression, ACC protein, and phosphorylated ACC protein were increased in INS-1E beta-cells. SVS pretreatment further increased ACC gene expression with strikingly elevated ACC activity and increased glucose uptake accompanied by enhanced GSIS. Our studies show that glucose is a potent stimulator of ACC and that SVS to some extent counteracts glucotoxicity via increased ACC activity. SVS possesses the potential to alleviate negative effects of glucotoxicity in beta-cells via a unique mechanism of action.

  3. Human cancer stem cells are a target for cancer prevention using (-)-epigallocatechin gallate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiki, Hirota; Sueoka, Eisaburo; Rawangkan, Anchalee; Suganuma, Masami

    2017-12-01

    Our previous experiments show that the main constituent of green-tea catechins, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), completely prevents tumor promotion on mouse skin initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene followed by okadaic acid and that EGCG and green tea extract prevent cancer development in a wide range of target organs in rodents. Therefore, we focused our attention on human cancer stem cells (CSCs) as targets of cancer prevention and treatment with EGCG. The numerous reports concerning anticancer activity of EGCG against human CSCs enriched from cancer cell lines were gathered from a search of PubMed, and we hope our review of the literatures will provide a broad selection for the effects of EGCG on various human CSCs. Based on our theoretical study, we discuss the findings as follows: (1) Compared with the parental cells, human CSCs express increased levels of the stemness markers Nanog, Oct4, Sox2, CD44, CD133, as well as the EMT markers, Twist, Snail, vimentin, and also aldehyde dehydrogenase. They showed decreased levels of E-cadherin and cyclin D1. (2) EGCG inhibits the transcription and translation of genes encoding stemness markers, indicating that EGCG generally inhibits the self-renewal of CSCs. (3) EGCG inhibits the expression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotypes of human CSCs. (4) The inhibition of EGCG of the stemness of CSCs was weaker compared with parental cells. (5) The weak inhibitory activity of EGCG increased synergistically in combination with anticancer drugs. Green tea prevents human cancer, and the combination of EGCG and anticancer drugs confers cancer treatment with tissue-agnostic efficacy.

  4. Notification determining technical details concerning measures for transportation of nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    These provisions are established on the basis of and to enforce ''The regulation for installation and operation of reactor'', ''The regulation concerning the fabricating business of nuclear fuel'' and ''The regulations concerning the reprocessing business of spent fuel''. The terms used hereinafter are according to those used in such regulations. The limit of radioactivity concentration of things contaminated by the nuclear fuel materials which are not required to be enclosed in vessels is defined in the lists attached. In the applications for the approval of the measures concerning the transport of things remarkably difficult to be enclosed in vessels, the name and the address of the applicant, the kind, quantity, form and constitution of the thing contaminated by the nuclear fuel materials to be transported, the date and route of the transport and the measures for the prevention of injuries during the transport must be written. The limit of quantity of nuclear fuel materials classifying the performance of vessels is defined respectively in the lists attached. The radiation dose rates provided for by the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency concerning transported things and transporting apparatuses are 200 millirem per hour on the surfaces of such things and containers. The nuclear fission materials specified, for which the measures for the prevention of criticality are especially required, include uranium 233, uranium 235, plutonium 238, plutonium 239, plutonium 241, and the chemical compounds of such substances, and the nuclear fuel materials containing one or two and more of such substances, excluding the nuclear fuel materials with less than 15 grams of such uranium and plutonium. (Okada, K.)

  5. EVI and MDS/EVI are required for adult intestinal stem cell formation during postembryonic vertebrate development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Morihiro; Shi, Yun-Bo

    2018-01-01

    The gene ectopic viral integration site 1 (EVI) and its variant myelodysplastic syndrome 1 (MDS)/EVI encode zinc-finger proteins that have been recognized as important oncogenes in various types of cancer. In contrast to the established role of EVI and MDS/EVI in cancer development, their potential function during vertebrate postembryonic development, especially in organ-specific adult stem cells, is unclear. Amphibian metamorphosis is strikingly similar to postembryonic development around birth in mammals, with both processes taking place when plasma thyroid hormone (T3) levels are high. Using the T3-dependent metamorphosis in Xenopus tropicalis as a model, we show here that high levels of EVI and MDS/EVI are expressed in the intestine at the climax of metamorphosis and are induced by T3. By using the transcription activator-like effector nuclease gene editing technology, we have knocked out both EVI and MDS/EVI and have shown that EVI and MDS/EVI are not essential for embryogenesis and premetamorphosis in X. tropicalis On the other hand, knocking out EVI and MDS/EVI causes severe retardation in the growth and development of the tadpoles during metamorphosis and leads to tadpole lethality at the climax of metamorphosis. Furthermore, the homozygous-knockout animals have reduced adult intestinal epithelial stem cell proliferation at the end of metamorphosis (for the few that survive through metamorphosis) or during T3-induced metamorphosis. These findings reveal a novel role of EVI and/or MDS/EVI in regulating the formation and/or proliferation of adult intestinal adult stem cells during postembryonic development in vertebrates.-Okada, M., Shi, Y.-B. EVI and MDS/EVI are required for adult intestinal stem cell formation during postembryonic vertebrate development. © FASEB.

  6. Development of a new code to solve hydro-mechanical coupling, shear failure and tensile failure due to hydraulic fracturing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Gómez Castro, Berta; De Simone, Silvia; Carrera, Jesús

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, there are still some unsolved relevant questions which must be faced if we want to proceed to the hydraulic fracturing in a safe way. How much will the fracture propagate? This is one of the most important questions that have to be solved in order to avoid the formation of pathways leading to aquifer targets and atmospheric release. Will the fracture failure provoke a microseismic event? Probably this is the biggest fear that people have in fracking. The aim of this work (developed as a part of the EU - FracRisk project) is to understand the hydro-mechanical coupling that controls the shear of existing fractures and their propagation during a hydraulic fracturing operation, in order to identify the key parameters that dominate these processes and answer the mentioned questions. This investigation focuses on the development of a new C++ code which simulates hydro-mechanical coupling, shear movement and propagation of a fracture. The framework employed, called Kratos, uses the Finite Element Method and the fractures are represented with an interface element which is zero thickness. This means that both sides of the element lie together in the initial configuration (it seems a 1D element in a 2D domain, and a 2D element in a 3D domain) and separate as the adjacent matrix elements deform. Since we are working in hard, fragile rocks, we can assume an elastic matrix and impose irreversible displacements in fractures when rock failure occurs. The formulation used to simulate shear and tensile failures is based on the analytical solution proposed by Okada, 1992 and it is part of an iterative process. In conclusion, the objective of this work is to employ the new code developed to analyze the main uncertainties related with the hydro-mechanical behavior of fractures derived from the hydraulic fracturing operations.

  7. Profiling of Extracellular Toxins Associated with Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison in Prorocentrum lima Culture Medium by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lei; Chen, Junhui; Shen, Huihui; He, Xiuping; Li, Guangjiu; Song, Xincheng; Zhou, Deshan; Sun, Chengjun

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular toxins released by marine toxigenic algae into the marine environment have attracted increasing attention in recent years. In this study, profiling, characterization and quantification of extracellular toxin compounds associated with diarrhetic shellfish poison (DSP) in the culture medium of toxin-producing dinoflagellates were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry for the first time. Results showed that solid-phase extraction can effectively enrich and clean the DSP compounds in the culture medium of Prorocentrum lima (P. lima), and the proposed method achieved satisfactory recoveries (94.80%–100.58%) and repeatability (relative standard deviation ≤9.27%). Commercial software associated with the accurate mass information of known DSP toxins and their derivatives was used to screen and identify DSP compounds. Nine extracellular DSP compounds were identified, of which seven toxins (including OA-D7b, OA-D9b, OA-D10a/b, and so on) were found in the culture medium of P. lima for the first time. The results of quantitative analysis showed that the contents of extracellular DSP compounds in P. lima culture medium were relatively high, and the types and contents of intracellular and extracellular toxins apparently varied in the different growth stages of P. lima. The concentrations of extracellular okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-1 were within 19.9–34.0 and 15.2–27.9 μg/L, respectively. The total concentration of the DSP compounds was within the range of 57.70–79.63 μg/L. The results showed that the proposed method is an effective tool for profiling the extracellular DSP compounds in the culture medium of marine toxigenic algae. PMID:28974018

  8. Long-term atomic energy research, development and utilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This is the revised version of the last long-range program (June, 1972), and covers the measures and plans for promoting the research, development and utilization of nuclear power in some in some ten years ahead. The basic policy lines include the assurance of peaceful use of atomic energy, safety assurence and public support, independence and international cooperation and the planned implementation of nuclear research and development projects. The target scale of nuclear power development is estimated at 33 million kilowatts by fiscal 1985 and 60 million kilowatts by fiscal 1990, respectively. The improvement and standardization of light water reactors are to be further carried on till fiscal 1980 and after. Sodium-cooled reactors, which use the oxide fuel based on the mixture of plutonium and uranium, will be developed. A prototype reactor of about 300,000 kilowatt electric capacity will reach criticality in the second half of 1980's. The research and development of the advanced thermal reactors, for which plutonium and depleted uranium are used, will be encouraged. Multipurpose high-temperature gas-cooled reactors are also to be developed. The measures for establishing the nuclear fuel cycle including the procurement of natural and enriched uranium, the reprocessing of spent fuel, the use of plutonium and the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes are described. Nuclear fusion, nuclear ships, the use of radiation, safety studies, fundamental studies and the training of scientists and technicians are stipulated, respectively. The promotion of nuclear research and development projects is explained in detail. (Okada, K.)

  9. Tau-Induced Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase-IV Activation Aggravates Nuclear Tau Hyperphosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Ping; Ye, Jin-Wang; Wang, Xiong; Zhu, Li-Ping; Hu, Qing-Hua; Wang, Qun; Ke, Dan; Tian, Qing; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2018-04-01

    Hyperphosphorylated tau is the major protein component of neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism underlying tau hyperphosphorylation is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that exogenously expressed wild-type human tau40 was detectable in the phosphorylated form at multiple AD-associated sites in cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions from HEK293 cells. Among these sites, tau phosphorylated at Thr205 and Ser214 was almost exclusively found in the nuclear fraction at the conditions used in the present study. With the intracellular tau accumulation, the Ca 2+ concentration was significantly increased in both cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions. Further studies using site-specific mutagenesis and pharmacological treatment demonstrated that phosphorylation of tau at Thr205 increased nuclear Ca 2+ concentration with a simultaneous increase in the phosphorylation of Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV) at Ser196. On the other hand, phosphorylation of tau at Ser214 did not significantly change the nuclear Ca 2+ /CaMKIV signaling. Finally, expressing calmodulin-binding protein-4 that disrupts formation of the Ca 2+ /calmodulin complex abolished the okadaic acid-induced tau hyperphosphorylation in the nuclear fraction. We conclude that the intracellular accumulation of phosphorylated tau, as detected in the brains of AD patients, can trigger nuclear Ca 2+ /CaMKIV signaling, which in turn aggravates tau hyperphosphorylation. Our findings provide new insights for tauopathies: hyperphosphorylation of intracellular tau and an increased Ca 2+ concentration may induce a self-perpetuating harmful loop to promote neurodegeneration.

  10. The law for Japan Nuclear Ship Research and Development Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The agency intends to develop and research nuclear ships according to the principles of the atomic energy act and contribute to advance the utilization of atomic energy and the development of ship building and marine transportation. It shall be a juridical person, and its main office shall be in Tokyo Metropolis. Its capital shall be the sum of 100 million yen paid in by the government and the amounts invested by persons other than the government at the time of establishment. The agency may increase, if necessary, its capital with the approval of the competent minister. It shall define the following matters by its articles: object, name, the place of the office, the matters concerning capital, investments and assets, executives, advisers and meeting, business and its execution, finance and accounting, public announcement and the change of the articles. Its executives consist of a chief director, a representative director, directors not more than 3 and an auditor. The chief director and the auditor are appointed by the competent minister after hearing opinions of the Atomic Energy Commission. The representative and other directors are determined by the chief director with approval of the competent minister. The term of office is four years for the chief director, the representative director and other directors, and two years for the auditor. The agency performs business, such as study and research necessary for the development of nuclear ships, design, building and operation of these ships and the training of crew for these nuclear ships, etc. It is under the superintendence of the competent minister. (Okada, K.)

  11. Thermal Responses of Growth and Toxin Production in Four Prorocentrum Species from the Central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Aynousah, Arwa

    2017-06-01

    Harmful algae studies, in particular toxic dinoflagellates, and their response to global warming in the Red Sea are still limited. This study was aimed to be the first to characterize the identity, thermal responses and toxin production of four Prorocentrum strains isolated from the Central Red Sea, Saudi Arabia. Morphological and molecular phylogenetic analysis identified the strains as P. elegans, P. rhathymum and P. emarginatum. However, the identity of strain P. sp.6 is currently unresolved, albeit sharing close affinity with P. leve. Growth experiments showed that all species could grow at 24-32°C, but only P. sp.6 survived the 34°C treatment. The optimum temperatures (Topt) estimated from the Gaussian model corresponded to 27.17, 29.33, 26.87, and 27.64°C for P. sp.6, P. elegans, P. rhathymum and P. emarginatum, respectively. However, some discrepancy with the Topt derived from the growth performance were observed for P. elegans and P. emarginatum, as thermal responses differed from the typical Gaussian fit. The Prorocentrum species examined showed a sharp decrease after the optimum temperature resulting in very high activation energies for the fall slope, especially for P. elegans and P. emarginatum. The minimum critical temperature limit for growth was not detected within the range of temperatures examined. Subsequently, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis revealed all species as non okadaic acid (OA, common toxin of the Prorocentrum genus) producers at any temperature treatment. However, other forms of toxin (i.e. fast acting toxins) not examined here could be produced. Therefore, further investigations are required. The results of this study provided significant contribution to our knowledge regarding the presence, thermal response and toxin production of four Prorocentrum species from the Central Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.

  12. PREFACE: Fourth International Symposium on Atomic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Shigefumi

    2010-04-01

    The International Symposium on Atomic Technology (ISAT) is held every year. The 4th Symposium (ISAT-4) was held on November 18-19, 2009 at the Seaside Hotel MAIKO VILLA KOBE, Kobe City, Japan presided by the "Atomic Technology Project". The ISAT-4 symposium was intended to offer a forum for the discussion on the latest progress in the atomic technologies. The symposium was attended by 107 delegates. There were 10 invited and 6 oral presentations. The number of poster presentations was 69. From all the contributions, 22 papers selected through review process are contained in this volume. The "Atomic Technology Project" was started in 2006 as a joint project of three institutions; (1) the Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University (CAMT), (2) the Tsukuba Research Center for Interdisciplinary Materials Science, Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba (TIMS) and (3) the Polyscale Technology Research Center, Research Institute for Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science (PTRC), each of which were independently pursuing nano-technologies and was developing atomic scale operation and diagnostics, functional materials, micro processing and device. The project is funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. The goal of the project is to contribute to the development of atomic-scale science and technologies such as functional molecules, biomaterials, and quantum functions of atomic-scale structures. Shigefumi Okada Conference Chair Center for Atomic and Molecular Technologies, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita-city, Osaka 565-0871, Japan. Conference photograph Kobe photograph

  13. Adrenergic receptors inhibit TRPV1 activity in the dorsal root ganglion neurons of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Yumi; Manabe, Miki; Kitamura, Naoki; Shibuya, Izumi

    2018-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is a polymodal receptor channel that responds to multiple types of stimuli, such as heat, acid, mechanical pressure and some vanilloids. Capsaicin is the most commonly used vanilloid to stimulate TRPV1. TRPV1 channels are expressed in dorsal root ganglion neurons that extend to Aδ- and C-fibers and have a role in the transduction of noxious inputs to the skin into the electrical signals of the sensory nerve. Although noradrenergic nervous systems, including the descending antinociceptive system and the sympathetic nervous system, are known to modulate pain sensation, the functional association between TRPV1 and noradrenaline in primary sensory neurons has rarely been examined. In the present study, we examined the effects of noradrenaline on capsaicin-evoked currents in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons of the rat by the whole-cell voltage clamp method. Noradrenaline at concentrations higher than 0.1 pM significantly reduced the amplitudes of the inward capsaicin currents recorded at -60 mV holding potential. This inhibitory action was reversed by either yohimbine (an α2 antagonist, 10 nM) or propranolol (a β antagonist, 10 nM). The α2 agonists, clonidine (1 pM) and dexmedetomidine (1 pM) inhibited capsaicin currents, and yohimbine (1 nM) reversed the effects of clonidine. The inhibitory action of noradrenaline was not seen in the neurons pretreated with pertussis toxin (100 μg/ml for 24 h) and the neurons dialyzed intracellularly with guanosine 5'- [β-thio] diphosphate (GDPβS, 200 μM), the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (250 U/ml) or okadaic acid (1 μM). These results suggest that noradrenaline directly acts on dorsal root ganglion neurons to inhibit the activity of TRPV1 depending on the activation of α2-adrenoceptors followed by the inhibition of the adenylate cyclase/cAMP/protein kinase A pathway.

  14. Effects of active and inactive phospholipase D2 on signal transduction, adhesion, migration, invasion, and metastasis in EL4 lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoepp, Stewart M; Chahal, Manpreet S; Xie, Yuhuan; Zhang, Zhihong; Brauner, Daniel J; Hallman, Mark A; Robinson, Stephanie A; Han, Shujie; Imai, Masaki; Tomlinson, Stephen; Meier, Kathryn E

    2008-09-01

    The phosphatidylcholine-using phospholipase D (PLD) isoform PLD2 is widely expressed in mammalian cells and is activated in response to a variety of promitogenic agonists. In this study, active and inactive hemagglutinin-tagged human PLD2 (HA-PLD2) constructs were stably expressed in an EL4 cell line lacking detectable endogenous PLD1 or PLD2. The overall goal of the study was to examine the roles of PLD2 in cellular signal transduction and cell phenotype. HA-PLD2 confers PLD activity that is activated by phorbol ester, ionomycin, and okadaic acid. Proliferation and Erk activation are unchanged in cells transfected with active PLD2; proliferation rate is decreased in cells expressing inactive PLD2. Basal tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is increased in cells expressing active PLD2, as is phosphorylation of Akt; inactive PLD2 has no effect. Expression of active PLD2 is associated with increased spreading and elongation of cells on tissue culture plastic, whereas inactive PLD2 inhibits cell spreading. Inactive PLD2 also inhibits cell adhesion, migration, and serum-induced invasion. Cells expressing active PLD2 form metastases in syngeneic mice, as do the parental cells; cells expressing inactive PLD2 form fewer metastases than parental cells. In summary, active PLD2 enhances FAK phosphorylation, Akt activation, and cell invasion in EL4 lymphoma cells, whereas inactive PLD2 exerts inhibitory effects on adhesion, migration, invasion, and tumor formation. Overall, expression of active PLD2 enhances processes favorable to lymphoma cell metastasis, whereas expression of inactive PLD2 inhibits metastasis.

  15. Effects of phorbol ester on mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase activity in wild-type and phorbol ester-resistant EL4 thymoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gause, K C; Homma, M K; Licciardi, K A; Seger, R; Ahn, N G; Peterson, M J; Krebs, E G; Meier, K E

    1993-08-05

    Phorbol ester-sensitive and -resistant EL4 thymoma cell lines differ in their ability to activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in response to phorbol ester. Treatment of wild-type EL4 cells with phorbol ester results in the rapid activations of MAPK and pp90rsk kinase, a substrate for MAPK, while neither kinase is activated in response to phorbol ester in variant EL4 cells. This study examines the activation of MAPK kinase (MAPKK), an activator of MAPK, in wild-type and variant EL4 cells. Phosphorylation of a 40-kDa substrate, identified as MAPK, was observed following in vitro phosphorylation reactions using cytosolic extracts or Mono Q column fractions prepared from phorbol ester-treated wild-type EL4 cells. MAPKK activity coeluted with a portion of the inactive MAPK upon Mono Q anion-exchange chromatography, permitting detection of the MAPKK activity in fractions containing both kinases. This MAPKK activity was present in phorbol ester-treated wild-type cells, but not in phorbol ester-treated variant cells or in untreated wild-type or variant cells. The MAPKK from wild-type cells was able to activate MAPK prepared from either wild-type or variant cells. MAPKK activity could be stimulated in both wildtype and variant EL4 cells in response to treatment of cells with okadaic acid. These results indicate that the failure of variant EL4 cells to activate MAP kinase in response to phorbol ester is due to a failure to activate MAPKK. Therefore, the step that confers phorbol ester resistance to variant EL4 cells lies between the activation of protein kinase C and the activation of MAPKK.

  16. Modulation of IL-33/ST2-TIR and TLR signalling pathway by fingolimod and analogues in immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüger, K; Ottenlinger, F; Schröder, M; Zivković, A; Stark, H; Pfeilschifter, J M; Radeke, H H

    2014-12-01

    For the immune modulatory drug fingolimod (FTY720), lymphocyte sequestration has been extensively studied and accepted as mode of action. Further, direct effects on immune cell signalling are incompletely understood. Herein, we used the parent drug and newly synthesized analogues to investigate their effects on dendritic cell (DC) calcium signalling and on Th1, Th2 and Th17 responses. DC calcium signalling was determined with a single cell-based confocal assay and IL-33/ST2-TIR Th2-like response with ST2-transduced EL4-6.1 thymoma cells. The Th1/Th17 responses were examined with a LPS/TLR-enhanced antigen presentation assay with OVA-TCRtg CD4 and CD8 spleen cells. Our results revealed a comparable influence of fingolimod and S1P on intracellular calcium level in DC, while an oxy-derivative of fingolimod exhibited an EC50 of 3.3 nm, being 14 times more potent than FTY720-P. The IL-33/ST2-TIR Th2-like response in ST2-EL4 cells was inhibited by fingolimod and analogues at varying degrees. Using the OVA-TCRtg LPS/TLR-enhanced spleen cell assay, we found that fingolimod inhibited both IL-17 and IFN-γ production. In contrast, fingolimod phosphate failed to decrease Th1 cytokines. Interestingly, the effects of the parent compound fingolimod were modulated by the PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid, thus suggesting PP2A as relevant intracellular target. These studies describe detailed immune-modulating properties of fingolimod, including interference with a prototypical Th2 response via IL-33/ST2-TIR. Moreover, differential effects of fingolimod versus its phosphorylated derivative on TLR-activated and antigen-dependent Th1 activation suggest PP2A as an additional target of fingolimod immune therapy. Together with the analogues tested, these data may guide the development of more specific fingolimod derivatives. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Profiling of Extracellular Toxins Associated with Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison in Prorocentrum lima Culture Medium by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Pan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular toxins released by marine toxigenic algae into the marine environment have attracted increasing attention in recent years. In this study, profiling, characterization and quantification of extracellular toxin compounds associated with diarrhetic shellfish poison (DSP in the culture medium of toxin-producing dinoflagellates were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry for the first time. Results showed that solid-phase extraction can effectively enrich and clean the DSP compounds in the culture medium of Prorocentrum lima (P. lima, and the proposed method achieved satisfactory recoveries (94.80%–100.58% and repeatability (relative standard deviation ≤9.27%. Commercial software associated with the accurate mass information of known DSP toxins and their derivatives was used to screen and identify DSP compounds. Nine extracellular DSP compounds were identified, of which seven toxins (including OA-D7b, OA-D9b, OA-D10a/b, and so on were found in the culture medium of P. lima for the first time. The results of quantitative analysis showed that the contents of extracellular DSP compounds in P. lima culture medium were relatively high, and the types and contents of intracellular and extracellular toxins apparently varied in the different growth stages of P. lima. The concentrations of extracellular okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-1 were within 19.9–34.0 and 15.2–27.9 μg/L, respectively. The total concentration of the DSP compounds was within the range of 57.70–79.63 μg/L. The results showed that the proposed method is an effective tool for profiling the extracellular DSP compounds in the culture medium of marine toxigenic algae.

  18. Profiling of Extracellular Toxins Associated with Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison in Prorocentrum lima Culture Medium by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lei; Chen, Junhui; Shen, Huihui; He, Xiuping; Li, Guangjiu; Song, Xincheng; Zhou, Deshan; Sun, Chengjun

    2017-09-30

    Extracellular toxins released by marine toxigenic algae into the marine environment have attracted increasing attention in recent years. In this study, profiling, characterization and quantification of extracellular toxin compounds associated with diarrhetic shellfish poison (DSP) in the culture medium of toxin-producing dinoflagellates were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry for the first time. Results showed that solid-phase extraction can effectively enrich and clean the DSP compounds in the culture medium of Prorocentrum lima ( P. lima ), and the proposed method achieved satisfactory recoveries (94.80%-100.58%) and repeatability (relative standard deviation ≤9.27%). Commercial software associated with the accurate mass information of known DSP toxins and their derivatives was used to screen and identify DSP compounds. Nine extracellular DSP compounds were identified, of which seven toxins (including OA-D7b, OA-D9b, OA-D10a/b, and so on) were found in the culture medium of P. lima for the first time. The results of quantitative analysis showed that the contents of extracellular DSP compounds in P. lima culture medium were relatively high, and the types and contents of intracellular and extracellular toxins apparently varied in the different growth stages of P. lima . The concentrations of extracellular okadaic acid and dinophysistoxin-1 were within 19.9-34.0 and 15.2-27.9 μg/L, respectively. The total concentration of the DSP compounds was within the range of 57.70-79.63 μg/L. The results showed that the proposed method is an effective tool for profiling the extracellular DSP compounds in the culture medium of marine toxigenic algae.

  19. Mechanisms of hyposmotic volume regulation in isolated nematocytes of the anthozoan Aiptasia diaphana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Angela; Morabito, Rossana; La Spada, Giuseppina; Adragna, Norma C; Lauf, Peter K

    2010-01-01

    The nature and role of potassium (K) and water transport mediating hyposmotically-induced regulatory volume decrease (RVD) were studied in nematocytes dissociated with 605 mM thiocyanate from acontia of the Anthozoan Aiptasia diaphana. Cell volume and hence RVD were calculated from the inverse ratios of the cross sectional areas of nematocytes (A/A(o)) measured before (A(o)) and after (A) challenge with 65% artificial sea water (ASW). To distinguish between K channels and K-Cl cotransport (KCC), external sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) were replaced by K and nitrate (NO(3)), respectively. Inhibitors were added to identify K channels (barium, Ba), and putative kinase (N-ethylmaleimide, NEM) and phosphatase (okadaic acid, OA) regulation of KCC. In 65% NaCl ASW, nematocytes displayed a biphasic change in A/A(o), peaking within 4 min due to osmotic water entry and thereafter declining within 6 min due to RVD. Changing NaCl to KCl or NaNO(3) ASW did not affect the osmotic phase but attenuated RVD, consistent with K channel and KCC mechanisms. Ba (3 mM) inhibited RVD. NEM and OA, applied separately, inhibited the osmotic phase and muted RVD suggesting primary action on water transport (aquaporins). NEM and OA together reduced the peak A/A(o) ratio during the osmotic phase whereas RVD was inhibited when OA preceded NEM. Thus, both K channels and KCC partake in the nematocyte RVD, the extent of which is determined by functional thiols and dephosphorylation of putative aquaporins facilitating the preceding osmotic water shifts. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Continuous Fine-Fault Estimation with Real-Time GNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norford, B. B.; Melbourne, T. I.; Szeliga, W. M.; Santillan, V. M.; Scrivner, C.; Senko, J.; Larsen, D.

    2017-12-01

    Thousands of real-time telemetered GNSS stations operate throughout the circum-Pacific that may be used for rapid earthquake characterization and estimation of local tsunami excitation. We report on the development of a GNSS-based finite-fault inversion system that continuously estimates slip using real-time GNSS position streams from the Cascadia subduction zone and which is being expanded throughout the circum-Pacific. The system uses 1 Hz precise point position streams computed in the ITRF14 reference frame using clock and satellite orbit corrections from the IGS. The software is implemented as seven independent modules that filter time series using Kalman filters, trigger and estimate coseismic offsets, invert for slip using a non-negative least squares method developed by Lawson and Hanson (1974) and elastic half-space Green's Functions developed by Okada (1985), smooth the results temporally and spatially, and write the resulting streams of time-dependent slip to a RabbitMQ messaging server for use by downstream modules such as tsunami excitation modules. Additional fault models can be easily added to the system for other circum-Pacific subduction zones as additional real-time GNSS data become available. The system is currently being tested using data from well-recorded earthquakes including the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, the 2010 Maule earthquake, the 2015 Illapel earthquake, the 2003 Tokachi-oki earthquake, the 2014 Iquique earthquake, the 2010 Mentawai earthquake, the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake, the 2016 Ecuador earthquake, the 2015 Gorkha earthquake, and others. Test data will be fed to the system and the resultant earthquake characterizations will be compared with published earthquake parameters. Seismic events will be assumed to occur on major faults, so, for example, only the San Andreas fault will be considered in Southern California, while the hundreds of other faults in the region will be ignored. Rake will be constrained along each subfault to be

  1. Infrared spectra of interstellar deuteronated PAHs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buragohain, Mridusmita; Pathak, Amit; Sarre, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have emerged as a potential constituent of the ISM that emit strong features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.2 and 12.7 μm with weaker and blended features in the 3-20μm region. These features are proposed to arise from the vibrational relaxation of PAH molecules on absorption of background UV photons (Tielens 2008). These IR features have been observed towards almost all types of astronomical objects; say H II regions, photodissociation regions, reflection nebulae, planetary nebulae, young star forming regions, external galaxies, etc. A recent observation has proposed that interstellar PAHs are major reservoir for interstellar deuterium (D) (Peeters et al. 2004). According to the `deuterium depletion model' as suggested by Draine (2006), some of the Ds formed in the big bang are depleted in PAHs, which can account for the present value of D/H in the ISM. Hence, study of deuterated PAHs (PADs) is essential in order to measure D/H in the ISM.In this work, we consider another probable category of the large PAH family, i.e. Deuteronated PAHs (DPAH+). Onaka et al. have proposed a D/H ratio which is an order of magnitude smaller than the proposed value of D/H by Draine suggesting that if Ds are depleted in PAHs, they might be accommodated in large PAHs (Onaka et al. 2014). This work reports a `Density Functional Theory' calculation of large deuteronated PAHs (coronene, ovalene, circumcoronene and circumcircumcoronene) to determine the expected region of emission features and to find a D/H ratio that is comparable to the observational results. We present a detailed analysis of the IR spectra of these molecules and discuss the possible astrophysical implications.ReferencesDraine B. T. 2006, in ASP Conf. Ser. 348, Proc. Astrophysics in the Far Ultraviolet: Five Years of Discovery with FUSE, ed. G. Sonneborn, H. Moos, B-G Andersson (San Francisco, CA:ASP) 58Onaka T., Mori T. I., Sakon I., Ohsawa R., Kaneda H., Okada Y., Tanaka M

  2. Occurrence of marine algal toxins in oyster and phytoplankton samples in Daya Bay, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Liu, Lei; Li, Yang; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Zhijun; Wu, Haiyan; Jiang, Tianjiu; Lu, Songhui

    2017-09-01

    The occurrence and seasonal variations of marine algal toxins in phytoplankton and oyster samples in Daya Bay (DYB), South China Sea were investigated. Two Dinophysis species, namely, D. caudata and D. acuminata complex, were identified as Okadaic acid (OA)/pectenotoxin (PTX) related species. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis demonstrated that 2.04-14.47 pg PTX2 per cell was the predominant toxin in single-cell isolates of D. caudata. D. acuminata was not subjected to toxin analysis. The occurrence of OAs in phytoplankton concentrates of net-haul sample coincided with the presence of D. accuminata complex, suggesting that this species is most likely an OA producer in this sea area. OA, dinophysistoxins-1 (DTX1), PTX2, PTX2sa, gymnodimine (GYM), homoyessotoxin (homoYTX), and domoic acid (DA) demonstrated positive results in net haul samples. To our best knowledge, this paper is the first to report the detection of GYM, DA, and homoYTX in phytoplankton samples in Chinese coastal waters. Among the algal toxins, GYM demonstrated the highest frequency of positive detections in phytoplankton concentrates (13/17). Five compounds of algal toxins, including OA, DTX1, PTX2, PTX2sa, and GYM, were detected in oyster samples. DA and homoYTX were not detected in oysters despite of positive detections for both in the phytoplankton concentrates. However, neither the presence nor absence of DA in oysters can be determined because extraction conditions with 100% methanol used to isolate toxins from oysters (recommended by the EU-Harmonised Standard Operating Procedure, 2015) would likely be unsuitable for this water-soluble toxin. In addition, transformation of DA during the digestion process of oysters may also be involved in the negative detections of this toxin. GYM exhibited the highest frequency of positive results in oysters (14/17). OAs were only detected in the hydrolyzed oyster samples. The detection rates of PTX and PTX2sa in

  3. Using the Vertical Component of the Surface Velocity Field to Map the Locked Zone at Cascadia Subduction Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulas, E.; Brandon, M. T.; Podladchikov, Y.; Bennett, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    At present, our understanding of the locked zone at Cascadia subduction zone is based on thermal modeling and elastic modeling of horizontal GPS velocities. The thermal model by Hyndman and Wang (1995) provided a first-order assessment of where the subduction thrust might be cold enough for stick-slip behavior. The alternative approach by McCaffrey et al. (2007) is to use a Green's function that relates horizontal surface velocities, as recorded by GPS, to interseismic elastic deformation. The thermal modeling approach is limited by a lack of information about the amount of frictional heating occurring on the thrust (Molnar and England, 1990). The GPS approach is limited in that the horizontal velocity component is fairly insensitive to the structure of the locked zone. The vertical velocity component is much more useful for this purpose. We are fortunate in that vertical velocities can now be measured by GPS to a precision of about 0.2 mm/a. The dislocation model predicts that vertical velocities should range up to about 20 percent of the subduction velocity, which means maximum values of ~7 mm/a. The locked zone is generally entirely offshore at Cascadia, except for the Olympic Peninsula region, where the underlying Juan De Fuca plate has an anomalously low dip. Previous thermal and GPS modeling, as well as tide gauge data and episodic tremors indicate the locked zone there extends about 50 to 75 km onland. This situation provides an opportunity to directly study the locked zone. With that objective in mind, we have constructed a full 3D geodynamic model of the Cascadia subduction zone. At present, the model provides a full representation of the interseismic elastic deformation due to variations of slip on the subduction thrust. The model has been benchmarked against the Savage (2D) and Okada (3D) analytical solutions. This model has an important advantage over traditional dislocation modeling in that we include temperature-sensitive viscosity for the upper and

  4. Effect of analgesia on the changes in respiratory parameters in blunt chest injury with multiple rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpe, Eyo Effiong; Eyo, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Blunt chest injury with multiple rib fractures can result in such complications as pneumonia, atelectasis, bronchiectasis, empyema thoracis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and prolonged Intensive Care Unit and hospital stay, with its concomitant mortality. These may be prevented or reduced by good analgesic therapy which is the subject of this study. This was a prospective study of effects of analgesia on changes in pulmonary functions of patients with traumatic multiple rib fractures resulting from blunt chest injury. There were 64 adult patients who were studied with multiple rib fractures caused by blunt chest trauma. Of these patients, 54 (84.4%) were male and 10 (15.6%) were female. Motorcycle (popularly known as "okada") and tricycle (popularly known as keke napep) accidents significantly accounted for the majority of the multiple rib fractures, that is, in 50 (78.1%) of the patients. Before analgesic administration, no patient had a normal respiratory rate, but at 1 h following the administration of analgesic, 21 (32.8%) of patients recorded normal respiratory rates and there was a significant reduction in the number (10.9% vs. 39.1%) of patients with respiratory rates> 30 breaths/min. Before commencement of analgesic, no patient recorded up to 99% of oxygen saturation (SpO2) as measured by pulse oximeter, while 43.8% recorded SpO2of 96%. This improved after 1 h of administration of analgesics to SpO2of 100% in 18.8% of patients and 99% in 31.3% of patients and none recording SpO2of 100% of predicted while only 9 (14.1%) patients were able to achieve a PEFR value in the range of 91%-100% of predicted value. One hour after analgesia, a total of 6 (9.4%) patients were able to achieve PEFR values> 100% predicted, while 35 (54.7%) patients achieved PEFR values in the range of 91%-100% predicted. Adequate analgesia is capable of reversing the negative effects of chest pain of traumatic multiple rib fractures on pulmonary function parameters through

  5. 4-D Visualization of Seismic and Geodetic Data of the Big Island of Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstein, J. A.; Smith-Konter, B. R.; Aryal, A.

    2017-12-01

    For decades Hawai'i has served as a natural laboratory for studying complex interactions between magmatic and seismic processes. Investigating characteristics of these processes, as well as the crustal response to major Hawaiian earthquakes, requires a synthesis of seismic and geodetic data and models. Here, we present a 4-D visualization of the Big Island of Hawai'i that investigates geospatial and temporal relationships of seismicity, seismic velocity structure, and GPS crustal motions to known volcanic and seismically active features. Using the QPS Fledermaus visualization package, we compile 90 m resolution topographic data from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and 50 m resolution bathymetric data from the Hawaiian Mapping Research Group (HMRG) with a high-precision earthquake catalog of more than 130,000 events from 1992-2009 [Matoza et al., 2013] and a 3-D seismic velocity model of Hawai'i [Lin et al., 2014] based on seismic data from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO). Long-term crustal motion vectors are integrated into the visualization from HVO GPS time-series data. These interactive data sets reveal well-defined seismic structure near the summit areas of Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes, where high Vp and high Vp/Vs anomalies at 5-12 km depth, as well as clusters of low magnitude (M data are also used to help identify seismic clusters associated with the steady crustal detachment of the south flank of Kilauea's East Rift Zone. We also investigate the fault geometry of the 2006 M6.7 Kiholo Bay earthquake event by analyzing elastic dislocation deformation modeling results [Okada, 1985] and HVO GPS and seismic data of this event. We demonstrate the 3-D fault mechanisms of the Kiholo Bay main shock as a combination of strike-slip and dip-slip components (net slip 0.55 m) delineating a 30 km east-west striking, southward-dipping fault plane, occurring at 39 km depth. This visualization serves as a resource for advancing scientific analyses of

  6. Empirical Relationships Among Magnitude and Surface Rupture Characteristics of Strike-Slip Faults: Effect of Fault (System) Geometry and Observation Location, Dervided From Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielke, O.; Arrowsmith, J.

    2007-12-01

    In order to determine the magnitude of pre-historic earthquakes, surface rupture length, average and maximum surface displacement are utilized, assuming that an earthquake of a specific size will cause surface features of correlated size. The well known Wells and Coppersmith (1994) paper and other studies defined empirical relationships between these and other parameters, based on historic events with independently known magnitude and rupture characteristics. However, these relationships show relatively large standard deviations and they are based only on a small number of events. To improve these first-order empirical relationships, the observation location relative to the rupture extent within the regional tectonic framework should be accounted for. This however cannot be done based on natural seismicity because of the limited size of datasets on large earthquakes. We have developed the numerical model FIMozFric, based on derivations by Okada (1992) to create synthetic seismic records for a given fault or fault system under the influence of either slip- or stress boundary conditions. Our model features A) the introduction of an upper and lower aseismic zone, B) a simple Coulomb friction law, C) bulk parameters simulating fault heterogeneity, and D) a fault interaction algorithm handling the large number of fault patches (typically 5,000-10,000). The joint implementation of these features produces well behaved synthetic seismic catalogs and realistic relationships among magnitude and surface rupture characteristics which are well within the error of the results by Wells and Coppersmith (1994). Furthermore, we use the synthetic seismic records to show that the relationships between magntiude and rupture characteristics are a function of the observation location within the regional tectonic framework. The model presented here can to provide paleoseismologists with a tool to improve magnitude estimates from surface rupture characteristics, by incorporating the

  7. Toxin profiles of five geographical isolates of Dinophysis spp. from North and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fux, Elie; Smith, Juliette L; Tong, Mengmeng; Guzmán, Leonardo; Anderson, Donald M

    2011-02-01

    Marine dinoflagellates of the genus Dinophysis can produce toxins of the okadaic acid (OA) and pectenotoxin (PTX) groups. These lipophilic toxins accumulate in filter-feeding shellfish and cause an illness in consumers called diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). In 2008, a bloom of Dinophysis led to the closure of shellfish harvesting areas along the Texas coast, one of the first DSP-related closures in the U.S. This event resulted in a broad study of toxin production in isolates of Dinophysis spp. from U.S. waters. In the present study, we compared toxin profiles in geographical isolates of Dinophysis collected in the U.S. (Eel Pond, Woods Hole MA; Martha's Vineyard, MA; and Port Aransas Bay, Texas), and in those from Canada (Blacks Harbour, Bay of Fundy) and Chile (Reloncavi Estuary), when cultured in the laboratory under the same conditions. For each isolate, the mitochondrial cox1 gene was sequenced to assist in species identification. Strains from the northeastern U.S. and Canada were all assigned to Dinophysis acuminata, while those from Chile and Texas were most likely within the D. acuminata complex whereas precise species designation could not be made with this marker. Toxins were detected in all Dinophysis isolates and each isolate had a different profile. Toxin profiles of isolates from Eel Pond, Martha's Vineyard, and Bay of Fundy were most similar, in that they all contained OA, DTX1, and PTX2. The Eel Pond isolate also contained OA-D8 and DTX1-D7, and low levels (unconfirmed structurally) of DTX1-D8 and DTX1-D9. D. acuminata from Martha's Vineyard produced DTX1-D7, along with OA, DTX1, and PTX2, as identified in both the cells and the culture medium. D. acuminata from the Bay of Fundy produced DTX1 and PTX2, as found in both cells and culture medium, while only trace amounts of OA were detected in the medium. The Dinophysis strain from Texas only produced OA, and the one from Chile only PTX2, as confirmed in both cells and culture medium. Published

  8. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials on curative and health enhancement effects of forest therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamioka H

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hiroharu Kamioka,1 Kiichiro Tsutani,2 Yoshiteru Mutoh,3 Takuya Honda,4 Nobuyoshi Shiozawa,5 Shinpei Okada,6 Sang-Jun Park,6 Jun Kitayuguchi,7 Masamitsu Kamada,8 Hiroyasu Okuizumi,9 Shuichi Handa91Faculty of Regional Environment Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo, 2Department of Drug Policy and Management, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 3Todai Policy Alternatives Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 4Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, 5Food Labeling Division, Consumer Affairs Agency, Cabinet Office, Government of Japan, Tokyo, 6Physical Education and Medicine Research Foundation, Nagano, 7Physical Education and Medicine Research Center Unnan, Shimane, 8Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Shimane University School of Medicine, Shimane, 9Mimaki Onsen (Spa Clinic, Tomi City, Nagano, JapanObjective: To summarize the evidence for curative and health enhancement effects through forest therapy and to assess the quality of studies based on a review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs.Study design: A systematic review based on RCTs.Methods: Studies were eligible if they were RCTs. Studies included one treatment group in which forest therapy was applied. The following databases – from 1990 to November 9, 2010 – were searched: MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Ichushi-Web. All Cochrane databases and Campbell Systematic Reviews were also searched up to November 9, 2010.Results: Two trials met all inclusion criteria. No specific diseases were evaluated, and both studies reported significant effectiveness in one or more outcomes for health enhancement. However, the results of evaluations with the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials 2010 and CLEAR NPT (A Checklist to Evaluate a Report of a Nonpharmacological Trial checklists generally showed a remarkable lack of description in the studies. Furthermore, there was a

  9. BicPAMS: software for biological data analysis with pattern-based biclustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Rui; Ferreira, Francisco L; Madeira, Sara C

    2017-02-02

    Biclustering has been largely applied for the unsupervised analysis of biological data, being recognised today as a key technique to discover putative modules in both expression data (subsets of genes correlated in subsets of conditions) and network data (groups of coherently interconnected biological entities). However, given its computational complexity, only recent breakthroughs on pattern-based biclustering enabled efficient searches without the restrictions that state-of-the-art biclustering algorithms place on the structure and homogeneity of biclusters. As a result, pattern-based biclustering provides the unprecedented opportunity to discover non-trivial yet meaningful biological modules with putative functions, whose coherency and tolerance to noise can be tuned and made problem-specific. To enable the effective use of pattern-based biclustering by the scientific community, we developed BicPAMS (Biclustering based on PAttern Mining Software), a software that: 1) makes available state-of-the-art pattern-based biclustering algorithms (BicPAM (Henriques and Madeira, Alg Mol Biol 9:27, 2014), BicNET (Henriques and Madeira, Alg Mol Biol 11:23, 2016), BicSPAM (Henriques and Madeira, BMC Bioinforma 15:130, 2014), BiC2PAM (Henriques and Madeira, Alg Mol Biol 11:1-30, 2016), BiP (Henriques and Madeira, IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinforma, 2015), DeBi (Serin and Vingron, AMB 6:1-12, 2011) and BiModule (Okada et al., IPSJ Trans Bioinf 48(SIG5):39-48, 2007)); 2) consistently integrates their dispersed contributions; 3) further explores additional accuracy and efficiency gains; and 4) makes available graphical and application programming interfaces. Results on both synthetic and real data confirm the relevance of BicPAMS for biological data analysis, highlighting its essential role for the discovery of putative modules with non-trivial yet biologically significant functions from expression and network data. BicPAMS is the first biclustering tool offering the

  10. IT-26IDENTIFICATION OF PSEUDO-PROGRESSION IN NEW DIAGNOSED GLIOBLASTOMA (GBM) IN A RANDOMIZED PHASE 2 OF ICT-107: MRI AND PATHOLOGY CORRELATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuphanich, Surasak; Yu, John; Bannykh, Serguei; Zhu, Jay-Jiguang

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previously reports of pseudo-progression in patients with brain tumor after therapeutic vaccines in pediatric and adult glioma (Pollack, JCO online on June 2, 2014 and Okada, JCO Jan 20, 2011; 29: 330-336) demonstrated that RANO criteria for tumor progression may not be adequate for immunotherapy trials. Similar observations were also seen in other checkpoint inhibitor in melanoma and NSLSC. METHODS: We identified 2 patients, who developed tumor progression by RANO criteria, underwent surgery following enrollment in a phase 2 randomized ICT-107 (an autologous vaccine consisting of patient dendritic cells pulsed with peptides from AIM-2, TRP-2, HER2/neu, IL-13Ra2, gp100, MAGE1) after radiation and Temozolomide (TMZ). RESULTS: The first case is a 69 years old Chinese male, who underwent 1st surgery of gross total resection right occipital GBM on 10/26/2011. Subsequently he received 19 cycles of TMZ and 9 vaccines/placebo. MRI from 7/2/2013 showed enhancement surrounding surgical cavity. After 2nd surgery, pathology showed only rare residual tumor cells with macrophages and positive CD 8 cells. He continued on this vaccine program and MRI showed more progression with finger-like extension into parietal lobe 4 months later. The 3rd surgery also showed extensive reactive changes with no active tumor cells. For 2nd case, a 62 years old male, who underwent first surgery on 7/11/2011 of right temporal lobe, developed 2 areas of enhancement after 6 cycles of TMZ and 7 vaccines/placebo on 4/18/2012. With 2nd surgery, pathology showed reactive gliosis without active tumor. The subject continued in this trial. CONCLUSION: Pseudo-progression was confirmed by pathology in these 2 patients at 20 and 9 months which were delayed comparing to pseudo-progression observed in patients treated with concurrent XRT/TMZ (3-6 months). Future iRANO criteria development is essential for immunotherapy trials. Accurately identifying and managing such patients is necessary to avoid

  11. The modulation of the phosphorylation status of NKCC1 in organ cultured bovine lenses: Implications for the regulation of fiber cell and overall lens volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorontsova, Irene; Donaldson, Paul J; Kong, Zhiying; Wickremesinghe, Chiharu; Lam, Leo; Lim, Julie C

    2017-12-01

    In previous work, we have shown the Sodium/Potassium/2 Chloride Cotransporter (NKCC1) to be a key effector of lens fiber cell volume regulation. Since others have shown that the activity of NKCC1 is regulated via its phosphorylation status, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether NKCC1 phosphorylation can be modulated in organ cultured bovine lenses, and to see how this relates to changes in lens wet weight. Western blotting was first used to confirm the expression of NKCC1, phosphorylated NKCC1 (NKCC1-P) and the regulatory kinases WNK/SPAK and phosphatases PP1/PP2A in bovine lenses at the protein level. Changes to NKCC1-P status were then assessed by organ culturing bovine lenses in either isotonic, hypertonic or hypotonic solutions in the presence or absence of the NKCC inhibitor, bumetanide, or phosphatase inhibitors okadaic acid and calyculin A. After 1-22 h of culturing, lenses were weighed, assessed for transparency and the cortical protein fractions analyzed by western blot using antibodies to detect total NKCC1 and NKCC1-P. NKCC1, NKCC1-P, SPAK, PP1 and PP2A were all detected in the membrane fraction of bovine lenses. Under hypertonic conditions, NKCC1 is phosphorylated and activated to mediate a regulatory volume increase. Finally, NKCC1-P signal increased in the presence of phosphatase inhibitors indicating that PP1/PP2A can dephosphorylate NKCC1. These results show that the phosphorylation status and hence activity of NKCC1 is dynamically regulated and that in response to hypertonic stress, NKCC1 activity is increased to effect a regulatory volume increase that limits cell shrinkage. These findings support the view that the lens dynamically regulates ion fluxes to maintain steady state lens volume, and suggest that dysfunction of this regulation maybe an initiating factor in the localized fiber cell swelling that is a characteristic of diabetic lens cataract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Finite Element Analysis Of Structural And Magmatic Interactions At Mono Basin (California)

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marra, D.; Manconi, A.; Battaglia, M.

    2010-12-01

    Mono Basin is a northward trending graben situated east of the Sierra Nevada and west of Cowtrack Mountains, extending from the northern edge of Long Valley Caldera towards the Bodie Hills. From a hydrographic perspective, the Mono Basin is defined by all streams that drain into Mono Lake. The Mono-Inyo Craters forms a prominent 25-km-long volcanic complex from the NW corner of Long Valley caldera to the southern edge of Mono Lake. The late Quaternary Hartley Springs fault occurs along the Sierran range front between June Lake and the northern border of Long Valley Caldera. Recently it has been proposed that the manifestation of the volcanic and of the tectonic activity in this area is likely interrelated. According to Bursik et al (2003), stratigraphic data suggest that during the North Mono-Inyo eruption sequence of ~1350 A.D., a series of strong earthquakes occurred across the end of the North Mono explosive phase and the beginning of the Inyo explosive phase. Moreover, geological and geomorphic features of the Hartley Springs fault are consistent with rupture of the fault during the eruption sequence. We use the Finite Element Method (FEM) to simulate a three-dimensional model and investigate the feedback mechanism between dike intrusion and slip along the Hartley Springs fault. We first validate our numerical model against the Okada (1985) analytical solution for a homogeneous and elastic flat half-space. Subsequently, we evaluate the distribution of local stress changes to study the influence of the Inyo Dike intrusion in ~1350 A.D. on Hartley Springs fault, and how the fault slip may encourage the propagation of dikes towards the surface. To this end, we considered the standard Coulomb stress change as failure criterion. Finally, we analyze the effects of the topography and of vertical and lateral heterogeneities of the crust on the distribution of local and regional stress changes. In this presentation, we highlight the preliminary results of our analysis

  13. LRRK2 Kinase Activity and Biology are Not Uniformly Predicted by its Autophosphorylation and Cellular Phosphorylation Site Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April eReynolds

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Missense mutations in the Leucine Rich Repeat protein Kinase 2 (LRRK2 gene are the most common genetic predisposition to develop Parkinson’s disease (PD LRRK2 is a large multi-domain phosphoprotein with a GTPase domain and a serine/threonine protein kinase domain whose activity is implicated in neuronal toxicity; however the precise mechanism is unknown. LRRK2 autophosphorylates on several serine/threonine residues across the enzyme and is found constitutively phosphorylated on Ser910, Ser935, Ser955 and Ser973, which are proposed to be regulated by upstream kinases. Here we investigate the phosphoregulation at these sites by analyzing the effects of disease-associated mutations Arg1441Cys, Arg1441Gly, Ala1442Pro, Tyr1699Cys, Ile2012Thr, Gly2019Ser, and Ile2020Thr. We also studied alanine substitutions of phosphosite serines 910, 935, 955 and 973 and specific LRRK2 inhibition on autophosphorylation of LRRK2 Ser1292, Thr1491, Thr2483 and phosphorylation at the cellular sites. We found that mutants in the Roc-COR domains, including Arg1441Cys, Arg1441His, Ala1442Pro and Tyr1699Cys, can positively enhance LRRK2 kinase activity while concomitantly inducing the dephosphorylation of the cellular sites. Mutation of the cellular sites individually did not affect LRRK2 intrinsic kinase activity; however, Ser910/935/955/973Ala mutations trended toward increased kinase activity of LRRK2. Increased cAMP levels did not lead to increased LRRK2 cellular site phosphorylation, 14-3-3 binding or kinase activity. In cells, inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity leads to dephosphorylation of Ser1292 by Calyculin A and okadaic acid sensitive phosphatases, while the cellular sites are dephosphorylated by Calyculin A sensitive phosphatases. These findings indicate that comparative analysis of both Ser1292 and Ser910/935/955/973 phosphorylation sites will provide important and distinct measures of LRRK2 kinase and biological activity in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Complementary Ruptures of Surface Ruptures and Deep Asperity during the 2014 Northern Nagano, Japan, Earthquake (MW 6.3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, K.; Iwata, T.; Kubo, H.

    2015-12-01

    A thrust earthquake of MW 6.3 occurred along the northern part of the Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL) in the northern Nagano prefecture, central Japan, on November 22, 2014. This event was reported to be related to an active fault, the Kamishiro fault belonging to the ISTL (e.g., HERP, 2014). The surface rupture is observed along the Kamishiro fault (e.g., Lin et al., 2015; Okada et al., 2015). We estimated the kinematic source rupture process of this earthquake through the multiple time-window linear waveform inversion method (Hartzell and Heaton, 1983). We used velocity waveforms in 0.05-1 Hz from 12 strong motion stations of K-NET, KiK-net (NIED), JMA, and Nagano prefecture (SK-net, ERI). In order to enhance the reliability in Green's functions, we assumed one-dimensional velocity structure models different for the different stations, which were extracted from the nation-wide three-dimensional velocity structure model, Japan Integrated Velocity Structure Model (JIVSM, Koketsu et al., 2012). Considering the spatial distribution of aftershocks (Sakai et al., 2015) and surface ruptures, the assumed fault model consisted of two dip-bending fault segments with different dip angles between the northern and southern segments. The total length and width of the fault plane is 20 km and 13 km, relatively, and the fault model is divided into 260 subfaults of 1 km × 1 km in space and six smoothed ramp functions in time. An asperity or large slip area with a peak slip of 1.9 m was estimated in the lower plane of the northern segment in the approximate depth range of 4 to 8 km. The depth extent of this asperity is consistent with the seismogenic zone revealed by past studies (e.g., Panayotopoulos et al., 2014). In contrast, the slip in the southern segment is relatively concentrated in the shallow portion of the segment where the surface ruptures were found along the Kamishiro fault. The overall spatial rupture pattern of the source fault, in which the deep asperity

  15. Role of the nuclear xenobiotic receptors CAR and PXR in induction of cytochromes P450 by non-dioxinlike polychlorinated biphenyls in cultured rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gährs, Maike; Roos, Robert; Andersson, Patrik L.; Schrenk, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most ubiquitously detectable ‘persistent organic pollutants’. In contrast to ‘dioxinlike’ (DL) PCBs, less is known about the molecular mode of action of the larger group of the ‘non-dioxinlike’ (NDL) PCBs. Owing to the life-long exposure of the human population, a carcinogenic, i.e., tumor-promoting potency of NDL-PCBs has to be considered in human risk assessment. A major problem in risk assessment of NDL-PCBs is dioxin-like impurities that can occur in commercially available NDL-PCB standards. In the present study, we analyzed the induction of CYP2B1 and CYP3A1 in primary rat hepatocytes using a number of highly purified NDL-PCBs with various degrees of chlorination and substitution patterns. Induction of these enzymes is mediated by the nuclear xenobiotic receptors CAR (Constitutive androstane receptor) and PXR (Pregnane X receptor). For CYP2B1 induction, concentration–response analysis revealed a very narrow window of EC 50 estimates, being in the range of 1–4 μM for PCBs 28 and 52, and between 0.4 and 1 μM for PCBs 101, 138, 153 and 180. CYP3A1 induction was less sensitive to NDL-PCBs, the most pronounced induction being achieved at 100 μM with the higher chlorinated congeners. Using okadaic acid and small interfering RNAs targeting CAR and PXR, we could demonstrate that CAR plays a major role and PXR a minor role in NDL-PCB-driven induction of CYPs, both effects showing no stringent structure–activity relationship. As the only obvious relevant determinant, the degree of chlorination was found to be positively correlated with the inducing potency of the congeners. - Highlights: • We analyzed six highly purified NDL-PCBs for CYP2B1 and CYP3A1 expression. • CAR plays a major, PXR a minor role in NDL-PCB-driven induction of CYPs. • The degree of chlorination seems to be the major parameter for the inducing potency. • There exists a competition between CAR and PXR. • Activated PXR may

  16. Sigma-1 receptor concentration in plasma of patients with late-life depression: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu H

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hideyuki Shimizu,1 Minoru Takebayashi,2 Masayuki Tani,1 Hiroaki Tanaka,1 Bun Yamagata,1 Kenzo Kurosawa,1 Hiroki Yamada,1 Mitsugu Hachisu,3 Kazue Hisaoka-Nakashima,2 Mami Okada-Tsuchioka,2 Masaru Mimura,4 Akira Iwanami11Department of Neuropsychiatry, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry and Institute for Clinical Research, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center, Kure, Japan; 3Department of Clinical Psychopharmacy, Pharmacy School, Showa University, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Recently, the sigma-1 receptor has been shown to play a significant role in the neural transmission of mood by regulating N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Additionally, the sigma-1 receptor has been reported to influence cognitive functions including learning and memory. In this study, we measured plasma sigma-1 receptor concentrations before and after antidepressant treatment in patients with late-life major depressive disorder (MDD and explored whether changes in depressive status are related to sigma-1 receptor concentrations.Methods: The study participants were 12 subjects with late-life MDD diagnosed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. All of the participants were over 60 years old. Immediately prior to and 8 weeks after the start of treatment, sigma-1 receptor concentration and mental status, including depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; HAM-D, were measured. Treatment for depression was performed according to a developed algorithm based on the choice of treatments. We examined the association between changes in sigma-1 receptor concentration and HAM-D scores during antidepressant treatment. For the measurement of plasma sigma-1 receptor concentration, blood plasma samples were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Western

  17. Observation of Individual Particle Morphology, Mineralogy in tandem with Columnar Spectral Aerosol Optics: A Summertime Study over North western India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S.; Saha, N.; Singh, S.; Agnihotri, R.; Sharma, C.; Prasad, M. V. S. N.; Arya, B. C.; Naaraayanan, T.; Gautam, S.; Rathore, J. S.; Soni, V. K.; Tawale, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Limitation over region specific data on dust morphology (particle shape, size) and mineralogy gives rise to uncertainty in estimation of optical and radiative properties of mineral dust (Mishra and Tripathi, 2008; Mishra et al., 2008). To address this issue over Indian arid zone (local source of mineral dust), a short field campaign was organized in Jodhpur, located in Rajasthan, a north western state of India, over seven sites (four in city and three far from city) with varying altitudes in June 2013. Jodhpur lies in vicinity of the Thar Desert of Rajasthan. Particles were collected on pure Tin substrates for individual particle morphological and elemental composition analysis using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). The morphological parameters (e.g. Aspect ratio; AR, Circulatory parameter; CIR.) were retrieved following Okada et al. (2001) using Image J software. Columnar spectral aerosol optical thickness has been measured by Microtops-II sun photometer for a set of five wavelengths (380 to 1020 nm) over all the sites in tandem with regional aerosol collection. SEM analysis reveals that the particles close to spherical shape (AR range 1.0-1.2) were found to be ~ 18% whereas particles with AR range 1.2-1.4 were found to be abundant (25%) followed with that of AR range 1.4-1.6 and 1.6-1.8 (each ~ 17%) and 1.8-2.0 (~ 14%) while the particles with AR >2 (highly non-spherical) were found to be ~ 8%. Here, it is noteworthy to mention that AR=1 for spherical particle while increasing AR (>1) exhibit increasing non-sphericity of particles. The EDS analysis reveals that 43% particles were observed with low hematite (H ≤ 1%; volume percentage), 24% (H 1-2 %), 14% (H 2-3%), 5% (H 3-4%) and 14% (H >4%). The aforementioned proportions will be extremely useful for simulating the optical and radiative properties of regional aerosols. From the Microtops-II observations, Ångström exponent for spectral interval of 380 to

  18. Two-year outcomes of pro re nata ranibizumab monotherapy for exudative age-related macular degeneration in Japanese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Akiko Yamamoto,1 Annabelle A Okada,1 Atsuhiko Sugitani,1,2 Daisuke Kunita,1 Tosho Rii,1 Reiji Yokota1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Kugayama Hospital, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: To describe outcomes of intravitreal ranibizumab using a pro re nata regimen for treatment-naive exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD, in Japanese patients over the first 2 years. Methods: Clinical records were retrospectively reviewed of 48 eyes of 48 patients with treatment-naive exudative AMD who underwent intravitreal ranibizumab therapy. After three monthly injections (induction, patients were examined monthly, and subsequent injections were performed as needed (pro re nata for any residual activity, by fundus biomicroscopy and imaging studies, regardless of severity. Results: Twenty-nine (60% of the patients were men, and 19 (40% were women; the mean age was 76.1 years. Of the 48 eyes evaluated, 17 (35% had findings consistent with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, and five (10% with retinal angiomatous proliferation. A mean of 6.0 ranibizumab injections were given in the first year, 3.5 in the second year, and 9.5 over the 2-year period. The best-corrected visual acuity (logarithm of minimum angle of resolution improved significantly, from 0.35 at baseline to 0.21 at 12 months (P < 0.01, and remained stable at 0.21 at 24 months (P < 0.01. The mean central macular thickness decreased significantly, from 355.4 µm at baseline to 237.9 µm at 12 months (P < 0.01 and 247.7 µm at 24 months (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Improved visual acuity and decreased central macular thickness were observed and maintained over a 2-year period, in a Japanese population receiving 3 monthly induction injections followed by a pro re nata regimen of ranibizumab for exudative AMD. Keywords: optical coherence tomography, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, retinal angiomatous proliferation

  19. Development and application of the PCC biodosimetry method in emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stricklin, D. (Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI (Sweden)); Lindholm, C. (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, STUK (Finland)); Jaworska, A. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, NRPA (Norway))

    2008-07-15

    A method for biological assessment of radiation dose for specific application in emergency preparedness was developed. Premature chromosome condensation (PCC) was investigated to provide a potentially faster means of analysis and the ability to assess higher doses than with the dicentric assay which is routinely applied in biodosimetry today. A review of existing methods was made, followed by experiments determine optimal assay conditions, and evaluations to determination of optimal conditions and the most appropriate endpoints for analyses. Twelve different experimental conditions were examined with four different evaluation approaches. Aspects during optimization such as practicality, speed, and reliability were considered. The conclusion from these studies was a PCC protocol utilizing okadaic acid for induction of PCC cells in stimulated lymphocytes but without the use of colcemid for metaphase arrest with the subsequent evaluation of ring chromosomes. Well-defined criteria were established for evaluation of PCC cells and ring chromosome aberrations. An inter-calibration was made by comparing assessment of ring chromosomes between all three laboratories. Agreement was made to count only rings with observable open spaces or large, obvious rings without open spaces. Finally a dose response curve for the PCC method was prepared and a comparison of the PCC method to the traditional dicentric assay in triage mode was made. The triage method requires a minimal number of evaluations so that categorization of high, medium and low doses may be made in an emergency situation where large numbers of people should be evaluated. The comparison of the PCC method with the dicentric assay triage method indicated that the PCC assay performed superior to the dicentric assay for evaluation of samples at higher doses, however, the dicentric assay appeared to provide more accurate dose assessment at lower doses. This project suggests a PCC assay method for biological dose estimates

  20. Ex vivo modulation of the Foxo1 phosphorylation state does not lead to dysfunction of T regulatory cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Kelley Penberthy

    Full Text Available Peripheral regulatory CD4+ T cells (Treg cells prevent maladaptive inflammatory responses to innocuous foreign antigens. Treg cell dysfunction has been linked to many inflammatory diseases, including allergic airway inflammation. Glucocorticoids that are used to treat allergic airway inflammation and asthma are thought to work in part by promoting Treg cell differentiation; patients who are refractory to these drugs have defective induction of anti-inflammatory Treg cells. Previous observations suggest that Treg cells deficient in the transcription factor FoxO1 are pro-inflammatory, and that FoxO1 activity is regulated by its phosphorylation status and nuclear localization. Here, we asked whether altering the phosphorylation state of FoxO1 through modulation of a regulatory phosphatase might affect Treg cell function. In a mouse model of house dust mite-induced allergic airway inflammation, we observed robust recruitment of Treg cells to the lungs and lymph nodes of diseased mice, without an apparent increase in the Treg cytokine interleukin-10 in the airways. Intriguingly, expression of PP2A, a serine/threonine phosphatase linked to the regulation of FoxO1 phosphorylation, was decreased in the mediastinal lymph nodes of HDM-treated mice, mirroring the decreased PP2A expression seen in peripheral blood monocytes of glucocorticoid-resistant asthmatic patients. When we asked whether modulation of PP2A activity alters Treg cell function via treatment with the PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid, we observed increased phosphorylation of FoxO1 and decreased nuclear localization. However, dysregulation of FoxO1 did not impair Treg cell differentiation ex vivo or cause Treg cells to adopt a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Moreover, inhibition of PP2A activity did not affect the suppressive function of Treg cells ex vivo. Collectively, these data suggest that modulation of the phosphorylation state of FoxO1 via PP2A inhibition does not modify Treg cell function ex

  1. A systematic review of nonrandomized controlled trials on the curative effects of aquatic exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamioka H

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hiroharu Kamioka1, Kiichiro Tsutani2, Yoshiteru Mutoh3, Hiroyasu Okuizum4, Miho Ohta5, Shuichi Handa4, Shinpei Okada6, Jun Kitayuguchi7, Masamitsu Kamada7, Nobuyoshi Shiozawa8, Sang-Jun Park4, Takuya Honda4, Shoko Moriyama41Faculty of Regional Environment Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Drug Policy and Management, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3Department of Physical and Health Education, Graduate School of Education, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 4Mimaki Onsen (Spa Clinic, Tomi City, Japan; 5Laboratory of Aqua, Health, and Sports Medicine, 6Physical Education and Medicine Research Foundation, Nagano, Japan; 7Physical Education and Medicine Research Center Unnan, Unnan City, Japan; 8Department of Longevity and Social Medicine, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, JapanBackground: The objectives of this review were to integrate the evidence of curative effects through aquatic exercise and assess the quality of studies based on a review of nonrandomized controlled trials (nRCTs.Methods: Study design was a systematic review of nonrandomized controlled trials. Trials were eligible if they were nonrandomized clinical trials. Studies included one treatment group in which aquatic exercise was applied. We searched the following databases from 2000 up to July 20, 2009: MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL, and Ichushi-Web.Results: Twenty-one trials met all inclusion criteria. Languages included were English (N = 9, Japanese (N = 11, and Korean (N = 1. Target diseases were knee and/or hip osteoarthritis, poliomyelitis, chronic kidney disease, discomforts of pregnancy, cardiovascular diseases, and rotator cuff tears. Many studies on nonspecific disease (healthy participants were included. All studies reported significant effectiveness in at least one or more outcomes. However results of evaluations with the TREND and CLEAR-NPT checklists generally

  2. Role of the nuclear xenobiotic receptors CAR and PXR in induction of cytochromes P450 by non-dioxinlike polychlorinated biphenyls in cultured rat hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gährs, Maike; Roos, Robert [University of Kaiserslautern, Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Erwin-Schroedinger-Str. 52, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Andersson, Patrik L. [Umeå University, Department of Chemistry, Linnaeus väg 6, SE-901 87 Umeå (Sweden); Schrenk, Dieter, E-mail: schrenk@rhrk.uni-kl.de [University of Kaiserslautern, Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Erwin-Schroedinger-Str. 52, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are among the most ubiquitously detectable ‘persistent organic pollutants’. In contrast to ‘dioxinlike’ (DL) PCBs, less is known about the molecular mode of action of the larger group of the ‘non-dioxinlike’ (NDL) PCBs. Owing to the life-long exposure of the human population, a carcinogenic, i.e., tumor-promoting potency of NDL-PCBs has to be considered in human risk assessment. A major problem in risk assessment of NDL-PCBs is dioxin-like impurities that can occur in commercially available NDL-PCB standards. In the present study, we analyzed the induction of CYP2B1 and CYP3A1 in primary rat hepatocytes using a number of highly purified NDL-PCBs with various degrees of chlorination and substitution patterns. Induction of these enzymes is mediated by the nuclear xenobiotic receptors CAR (Constitutive androstane receptor) and PXR (Pregnane X receptor). For CYP2B1 induction, concentration–response analysis revealed a very narrow window of EC{sub 50} estimates, being in the range of 1–4 μM for PCBs 28 and 52, and between 0.4 and 1 μM for PCBs 101, 138, 153 and 180. CYP3A1 induction was less sensitive to NDL-PCBs, the most pronounced induction being achieved at 100 μM with the higher chlorinated congeners. Using okadaic acid and small interfering RNAs targeting CAR and PXR, we could demonstrate that CAR plays a major role and PXR a minor role in NDL-PCB-driven induction of CYPs, both effects showing no stringent structure–activity relationship. As the only obvious relevant determinant, the degree of chlorination was found to be positively correlated with the inducing potency of the congeners. - Highlights: • We analyzed six highly purified NDL-PCBs for CYP2B1 and CYP3A1 expression. • CAR plays a major, PXR a minor role in NDL-PCB-driven induction of CYPs. • The degree of chlorination seems to be the major parameter for the inducing potency. • There exists a competition between CAR and PXR. • Activated PXR

  3. Ground Deformation and Sources geometry of the 2016 Central Italy Earthquake Sequence Investigated through Analytical and Numerical Modeling of DInSAR Measurements and Structural-Geological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solaro, G.; Bonano, M.; Boncio, P.; Brozzetti, F.; Castaldo, R.; Casu, F.; Cirillo, D.; Cheloni, D.; De Luca, C.; De Nardis, R.; De Novellis, V.; Ferrarini, F.; Lanari, R.; Lavecchia, G.; Manunta, M.; Manzo, M.; Pepe, A.; Pepe, S.; Tizzani, P.; Zinno, I.

    2017-12-01

    The 2016 Central Italy seismic sequence started on 24th August with a MW 6.1 event, where the intra-Apennine WSW-dipping Vettore-Gorzano extensional fault system released a destructive earthquake, causing 300 casualties and extensive damage to the town of Amatrice and surroundings. We generated several interferograms by using ALOS and Sentinel 1-A and B constellation data acquired on both ascending and descending orbits to show that most displacement is characterized by two main subsiding lobes of about 20 cm on the fault hanging-wall. By inverting the generated interferograms, following the Okada analytical approach, the modelling results account for two sources related to main shock and more energetic aftershock. Through Finite Element numerical modelling that jointly exploits DInSAR deformation measurements and structural-geological data, we reconstruct the 3D source of the Amatrice 2016 normal fault earthquake which well fit the main shock. The inversion shows that the co-seismic displacement area was partitioned on two distinct en echelon fault planes, which at the main event hypocentral depth (8 km) merge in one single WSW-dipping surface. Slip peaks were higher along the southern half of the Vettore fault, lower along the northern half of Gorzano fault and null in the relay zone between the two faults; field evidence of co-seismic surface rupture are coherent with the reconstructed scenario. The following seismic sequence was characterized by numerous aftershocks located southeast and northwest of the epicenter which decreased in frequency and magnitude until the end of October, when a MW 5.9 event occurred on 26th October about 25 km to the NW of the previous mainshock. Then, on 30th October, a third large event of magnitude MW 6.5 nucleated below the town of Norcia, striking the area between the two preceding events and filling the gap between the previous ruptures. Also in this case, we exploit a large dataset of DInSAR and GPS measurements to investigate

  4. Lipid rafts regulate PCB153-induced disruption of occludin and brain endothelial barrier function through protein phosphatase 2A and matrix metalloproteinase-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eum, Sung Yong, E-mail: seum@miami.edu; Jaraki, Dima; András, Ibolya E.; Toborek, Michal

    2015-09-15

    Occludin is an essential integral transmembrane protein regulating tight junction (TJ) integrity in brain endothelial cells. Phosphorylation of occludin is associated with its localization to TJ sites and incorporation into intact TJ assembly. The present study is focused on the role of lipid rafts in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-induced disruption of occludin and endothelial barrier function. Exposure of human brain endothelial cells to 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153) induced dephosphorylation of threonine residues of occludin and displacement of occludin from detergent-resistant membrane (DRM)/lipid raft fractions within 1 h. Moreover, lipid rafts modulated the reduction of occludin level through activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) after 24 h PCB153 treatment. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity by okadaic acid or fostriecin markedly protected against PCB153-induced displacement of occludin and increased permeability of endothelial cells. The implication of lipid rafts and PP2A signaling in these processes was further defined by co-immunoprecipitation of occludin with PP2A and caveolin-1, a marker protein of lipid rafts. Indeed, a significant MMP-2 activity was observed in lipid rafts and was increased by exposure to PCB153. The pretreatment of MMP-2 inhibitors protected against PCB153-induced loss of occludin and disruption of lipid raft structure prevented the increase of endothelial permeability. Overall, these results indicate that lipid raft-associated processes, such as PP2A and MMP-2 activation, participate in PCB153-induced disruption of occludin function in brain endothelial barrier. This study contributes to a better understanding of the mechanisms leading to brain endothelial barrier dysfunction in response to exposure to environmental pollutants, such as ortho-substituted PCBs. - Highlights: • PCB153 disturbed human brain endothelial barrier through disruption of occludin. • Lipid raft-associated PP

  5. Functional human sperm capacitation requires both bicarbonate-dependent PKA activation and down-regulation of Ser/Thr phosphatases by Src family kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistone, M A; Da Ros, V G; Salicioni, A M; Navarrete, F A; Krapf, D; Visconti, P E; Cuasnicú, P S

    2013-09-01

    In all mammalian species studied so far, sperm capacitation correlates with an increase in protein tyrosine (Tyr) phosphorylation mediated by a bicarbonate-dependent cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway. Recent studies in mice revealed, however, that a Src family kinase (SFK)-induced inactivation of serine/threonine (Ser/Thr) phosphatases is also involved in the signaling pathways leading to Tyr phosphorylation. In view of these observations and with the aim of getting a better understanding of the signaling pathways involved in human sperm capacitation, in the present work we investigated the involvement of both the cAMP/PKA and SFK/phosphatase pathways in relation to the capacitation state of the cells. For this purpose, different signaling events and sperm functional parameters were analyzed as a function of capacitation time. Results revealed a very early bicarbonate-dependent activation of PKA indicated by the rapid (1 min) increase in both phospho-PKA substrates and cAMP levels (P < 0.05). However, a complete pattern of Tyr phosphorylation was detected only after 6-h incubation at which time sperm exhibited the ability to undergo the acrosome reaction (AR) and to penetrate zona-free hamster oocytes. Sperm capacitated in the presence of the SFK inhibitor SKI606 showed a decrease in both PKA substrate and Tyr phosphorylation levels, which was overcome by exposure of sperm to the Ser/Thr phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid (OA). However, OA was unable to induce phosphorylation when sperm were incubated under PKA-inhibitory conditions (i.e. in the absence of bicarbonate or in the presence of PKA inhibitor). Moreover, the increase in PKA activity by exposure to a cAMP analog and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor did not overcome the inhibition produced by SKI606. Whereas the presence of SKI606 during capacitation produced a negative effect (P < 0.05) on sperm motility, progesterone-induced AR and fertilizing ability, none of these inhibitions were observed when sperm

  6. Mechanical loading stimulates chondrogenesis via the PKA/CREB-Sox9 and PP2A pathways in chicken micromass cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Tamás; Matta, Csaba; Somogyi, Csilla; Katona, Éva; Takács, Roland; Soha, Rudolf Ferenc; Szabó, István A; Cserháti, Csaba; Sződy, Róbert; Karácsonyi, Zoltán; Bakó, Eva; Gergely, Pál; Zákány, Róza

    2014-03-01

    Biomechanical stimuli play important roles in the formation of articular cartilage during early foetal life, and optimal mechanical load is a crucial regulatory factor of adult chondrocyte metabolism and function. In this study, we undertook to analyse mechanotransduction pathways during in vitro chondrogenesis. Chondroprogenitor cells isolated from limb buds of 4-day-old chicken embryos were cultivated as high density cell cultures for 6 days. Mechanical stimulation was carried out by a self-designed bioreactor that exerted uniaxial intermittent cyclic load transmitted by the culture medium as hydrostatic pressure and fluid shear to differentiating cells. The loading scheme (0.05 Hz, 600 Pa; for 30 min) was applied on culturing days 2 and 3, when final commitment and differentiation of chondroprogenitor cells occurred in this model. The applied mechanical load significantly augmented cartilage matrix production and elevated mRNA expression of several cartilage matrix constituents, including collagen type II and aggrecan core protein, as well as matrix-producing hyaluronan synthases through enhanced expression, phosphorylation and nuclear signals of the main chondrogenic transcription factor Sox9. Along with increased cAMP levels, a significantly enhanced protein kinase A (PKA) activity was also detected and CREB, the archetypal downstream transcription factor of PKA signalling, exhibited elevated phosphorylation levels and stronger nuclear signals in response to mechanical stimuli. All the above effects were diminished by the PKA-inhibitor H89. Inhibition of the PKA-independent cAMP-mediators Epac1 and Epac2 with HJC0197 resulted in enhanced cartilage formation, which was additive to that of the mechanical stimulation, implying that the chondrogenesis-promoting effect of mechanical load was independent of Epac. At the same time, PP2A activity was reduced following mechanical load and treatments with the PP2A-inhibitor okadaic acid were able to mimic the effects of

  7. Compiling Data from Geological, Mineralogical and Geophysical (IP/RS Studies on Mahour Deposit, Northwest of Deh-salm, Lut Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Gorabjeiri Puor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Mahour exploration area is a polymetallic system containing copper, zinc and silver. The mineralization can be seen in two forms of veins and disseminations. This area is structurally within the Lut block, west of Deh-salm Village. Recent exploration work and studies carried out by geologists on this volcanic-plutonic area of Lut demonstate its importance indicating new reserves of copper, gold, and lead and zinc. Several articles have been published on the Mahour deposit in recent years, including work on fluid inclusions (Mirzaei et al., 2012a; Mirzaei et al., 2012b. The present report aims at completion of previous studies on Mahour. During the course of this research, the IP/RS geophysical methods were used to locate the extent and depth of sulfide veins in order to locate drill sites. The IP/RS method has been used extensively worldwide in locating sulfide mineralization at deposits such as Olympic Dam in Australia (Esdale et al., 1987, Hishikari epithermal gold deposit in Kagoshima, Japan (Okada, 1995 and Cadia-Ridgeway copper and gold deposit in New South Wales, Australia (Rutley et al., 2001. Materials and Methods 1. Determination of mineralogy of ore and alteration by examination of 70 thin sections and 45 polished sections. 2. Compilation of geological and mineralization maps of the studied area at a scale of 1:1000. 3. Geological, alteration, mineralization and trace element geochemical studies of 6 drill holes. 4. IP/RS measurements for 2585 points on a rectangular grid with profile intervals of 50 meters and electrode intervals of 20 meters. 5. Interpretation of IP/RS results. Discussion The Mahour area is covered by a volcanic sequence of basalt, andesite, dacite, rhyolite and pyro-clastics. During the Late Eocene through Early Oligocene this volcanic complex was intruded by several diorite and quartz-diorite bodies, which were responsible for mineralization of the area. Mineralized veins hosted by dacite show NNE

  8. PREFACE: The 16th International Symposium on Boron, Borides and Related Materials (ISBB 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takaho

    2009-07-01

    supported by Tokyo University of Science, Suwa and foundations including, the Kajima Foundation, Foundation for Promotion of Material Science and Technology of Japan and Nippon Sheet Glass Foundation for Materials Science and Engineering, as well as companies including JFE Steel Corporation, Shincron Co, Ltd, Toyo Kohan Co, Ltd, Fukuda Metal Foil and Powder Co, Ltd, Japan New Metals Co, Ltd, H C Starck Ltd and Fritsch Japan Co, Ltd. Editors Chair Takaho Tanaka (National Institute for Materials Science, Japan) Vice chairs Koun Shirai (Osaka University, Japan) Kaoru Kimura (The University of Tokyo, Japan) Ken-ichi Takagi (Tokyo City University, Japan) Touetsu Shishido (Tohoku University, Japan) Shigeru Okada (Kokushikan University) Hideaki Itoh (Nagoya University,Japan) Katsumitsu Nakamura (Nihon University, Japan) Organizing committee of ISBB 2008 K Takagi Chairman (Tokyo City University) T Tanaka Program Committee Chairman (National Institute for Materials Science) K Kimura Secretary (The University of Tokyo) J Akimitsu (Aoyama University)K Shirai (Osaka University) H Itoh (Nagoya University)T Shishido (Tohoku University) K Nakamura (Nihon University)K Soga (Tokyo University of Science) K Nishiyama (Tokyo University of Science, Suwa)M Takeda (Nagaoka University of Technology) S Okada (Kokushikan University)Y Yamazaki (Toyo Kohan Co, Ltd) International Scientific Committee 0f ISBB (2008-2011) K Takagi Chairman (Japan) B Albert (Germany) J-F Halet (France) M Takeda (Japan) M Antadze (Georgia) H Hillebrecht (Germany) T Tanaka (Japan) J Bauer (France) W Jung (Germany) R Telle (Germany) I Boustani (Germany) K Kimura (Japan) M Trenary (USA) D Emin (USA) T Mori (Japan) O Tsagareishvili (Georgia) M Engler (Germany) P D Ownby (USA) H Werheit (Germany) N Frage (Israel) P Rogl (Austria) G Will (Germany) Yu Grin (Germany) S Shalamberidze (Georgia) O Yucel (Turkey) V N Gurin (Russia) N Shitsevalova (Ukraine) G Zhang (China)

  9. A Trial for Earthquake Prediction by Precise Monitoring of Deep Ground Water Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasuhara, Y.; Otsuki, K.; Yamauchi, T.

    2006-12-01

    ca. 0.0005 deg. C is superposed on the cyclic fluctuation due to the earth tide. Using the earth tide as a reference, the resolution of our observation system is estimated to be higher than 10^-8 strain (0.5kPa). How small earthquakes off Miyagi Pref. can we detect by our observation system? Using a computer simulation code MICAP-G released by Okada (1992) and Naito & Yoshikawa (1999), we calculated the change in crustal strain at our observation site for assumed earthquakes off Miyagi Pref. with various sizes. These simulation results estimated that our system can detect earthquakes larger than about M6. Actually, we detected successfully the preseismic and coseismic temperature signals for the earthquake off Miyagi Pref. on Dec. 2, 2005 (M6.6) which is largest one since our observation started. The temperature began to decrease about 2.5 hours before the main shock, it was minimum (0.003 deg) one hour before the main, and abruptly increased by 0.002 deg. C 10 minutes after the main shock.

  10. Necessity of using heterogeneous ellipsoidal Earth model with terrain to calculate co-seismic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huihong; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Huai; Huang, Luyuan; Qu, Wulin; Shi, Yaolin

    2016-04-01

    Co-seismic deformation and stress changes, which reflect the elasticity of the earth, are very important in the earthquake dynamics, and also to other issues, such as the evaluation of the seismic risk, fracture process and triggering of earthquake. Lots of scholars have researched the dislocation theory and co-seismic deformation and obtained the half-space homogeneous model, half-space stratified model, spherical stratified model, and so on. Especially, models of Okada (1992) and Wang (2003, 2006) are widely applied in the research of calculating co-seismic and post-seismic effects. However, since both semi-infinite space model and layered model do not take the role of the earth curvature or heterogeneity or topography into consideration, there are large errors in calculating the co-seismic displacement of a great earthquake in its impacted area. Meanwhile, the computational methods of calculating the co-seismic strain and stress are different between spherical model and plane model. Here, we adopted the finite element method which could well deal with the complex characteristics (such as anisotropy, discontinuities) of rock and different conditions. We use the mash adaptive technique to automatically encrypt the mesh at the fault and adopt the equivalent volume force replace the dislocation source, which can avoid the difficulty in handling discontinuity surface with conventional (Zhang et al., 2015). We constructed an earth model that included earth's layered structure and curvature, the upper boundary was set as a free surface and the core-mantle boundary was set under buoyancy forces. Firstly, based on the precision requirement, we take a testing model - - a strike-slip fault (the length of fault is 500km and the width is 50km, and the slippage is 10m) for example. Because of the curvature of the Earth, some errors certainly occur in plane coordinates just as previous studies (Dong et al., 2014; Sun et al., 2012). However, we also found that: 1) the co

  11. Generation of deterministic tsunami hazard maps in the Bay of Cadiz, south-west Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Otero, L.; Olabarrieta, M.; González, M.; Carreño, E.; Baptista, M. A.; Miranda, J. M.; Medina, R.; Lima, V.

    2009-04-01

    free surface elevation, maximum water depth, maximum current speed, maximum Froude number and maximum impact forces (hydrostatic and dynamic forces). The fault rupture and sea bottom displacement has been computed by means of the Okada equations. As result, a set of more than 100 deterministic thematic maps have been created in a GIS environment incorporating geographical data and high resolution orthorectified satellite images. These thematic maps form an atlas of inundation maps that will be distributed to different government authorities and civil protection and emergency agencies. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by the EU under the frame of the European Project TRANSFER (Tsunami Risk And Strategies For the European Region), 6th Framework Programme.

  12. Recent Trends in Marine Phycotoxins from  Australian Coastal Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajani, Penelope; Harwood, D Tim; Murray, Shauna A

    2017-02-09

    Phycotoxins, which are produced by harmful microalgae and bioaccumulate in the  marine food web, are of growing concern for Australia. These harmful algae pose a threat to  ecosystem and human health, as well as constraining the progress of aquaculture, one of the fastest  growing food sectors in the world. With better monitoring, advanced analytical skills and an  increase in microalgal expertise, many phycotoxins have been identified in Australian coastal  waters in recent years. The most concerning of these toxins are ciguatoxin, paralytic shellfish  toxins, okadaic acid and domoic acid, with palytoxin and karlotoxin increasing in significance. The  potential for tetrodotoxin, maitotoxin and palytoxin to contaminate seafood is also of concern,  warranting future investigation. The largest and most significant toxic bloom in Tasmania in 2012  resulted in an estimated total economic loss of~AUD$23M, indicating that there is an imperative to  improve  toxin  and  organism  detection  methods,  clarify  the  toxin  profiles  of  species  of  phytoplankton and carry out both intra- and inter-species toxicity comparisons. Future work also  includes the application of rapid, real-time molecular assays for the detection of harmful species  and toxin genes. This information, in conjunction with a better understanding of the life histories  and  ecology  of  harmful  bloom  species,  may  lead  to  more  appropriate  management  of  environmental, health and economic resources.

  13. LC-MS-MS aboard ship: tandem mass spectrometry in the search for phycotoxins and novel toxigenic plankton from the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krock, Bernd; Tillmann, Urban; John, Uwe; Cembella, Allan

    2008-11-01

    Phycotoxins produced by various species of toxigenic microalgae occurring in the plankton are a global threat to the security of seafood resources and the health of humans and coastal marine ecosystems. This has necessitated the development and application of advanced methods in liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for monitoring of these compounds, particularly in plankton and shellfish. Most such chemical analyses are conducted in land-based laboratories on stored samples, and thus much information on the near real-time biogeographical distribution and dynamics of phycotoxins in the plankton is unavailable. To resolve this problem, we conducted ship-board analysis of a broad spectrum of phycotoxins collected directly from the water column on an oceanographic cruise along the North Sea coast of Scotland, Norway, and Denmark. We equipped the ship with a triple-quadrupole linear ion-trap hybrid LC-MS-MS system for detection and quantitative analysis of toxins, such as domoic acid, gymnodimine, spirolides, dinophysistoxins, okadaic acid, pectenotoxins, yessotoxins, and azaspiracids (AZAs). We focused particular attention on the detection of AZAs, a group of potent nitrogenous polyether toxins, because the culprit species associated with the occurrence of these toxins in shellfish has been controversial. Marine toxins were analyzed directly from size-fractionated plankton net tows (20 microm mesh size) and Niskin bottle samples from discrete depths, after rapid methanolic extraction but without any further clean-up. Almost all expected phycotoxins were detected in North Sea plankton samples, with domoic acid and 20-methylspirolide G being most abundant. Although AZA was the least abundant of these toxins, the high sensitivity of the LC-MS-MS enabled detailed quantification, indicating that the highest amounts of AZA-1 were present in the southern Skagerrak in the 3-20 microm size-fraction. The direct on-board toxin measurements enabled isolation

  14. Recent Trends in Marine Phycotoxins from  Australian Coastal Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Ajani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Phycotoxins, which are produced by harmful microalgae and bioaccumulate in the  marine food web, are of growing concern for Australia. These harmful algae pose a threat to  ecosystem and human health, as well as constraining the progress of aquaculture, one of the fastest  growing food sectors in the world. With better monitoring, advanced analytical skills and an  increase in microalgal expertise, many phycotoxins have been identified in Australian coastal  waters in recent years. The most concerning of these toxins are ciguatoxin, paralytic shellfish  toxins, okadaic acid and domoic acid, with palytoxin and karlotoxin increasing in significance. The  potential for tetrodotoxin, maitotoxin and palytoxin to contaminate seafood is also of concern,  warranting future investigation. The largest and most significant toxic bloom in Tasmania in 2012  resulted in an estimated total economic loss of~AUD$23M, indicating that there is an imperative to  improve  toxin  and  organism  detection  methods,  clarify  the  toxin  profiles  of  species  of  phytoplankton and carry out both intra‐ and inter‐species toxicity comparisons. Future work also  includes the application of rapid, real‐time molecular assays for the detection of harmful species  and toxin genes. This information, in conjunction with a better understanding of the life histories  and  ecology  of  harmful  bloom  species,  may  lead  to  more  appropriate  management  of  environmental, health and economic resources.

  15. Regional variation of carbonaceous aerosols from space and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Sonoyo; Sano, Itaru; Nakata, Makiko; Kokhanovsky, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    effect on carbonaceous aerosols. And then the selected data observed by ADEOS-2/GLI and POLDER in 2003 are treated by using Vector form Method of Successive Order of Scattering (VMSOS) for radiative transfer simulations in the semi-infinite atmosphere [2]. Finally the obtained optical properties of the carbonaceous aerosols are investigated in comparison with the numerical model simulations of SPRINTARS. In spite of the limited case studies, it has been pointed out that NUV-channel data are effective for retrieval of the carbonaceous aerosol properties. Therefore we have to treat with this issue for not only detection of biomass burning plume but also retrieval itself. If that happens, synthetic analysis based on multi-channel and/or polarization measurements become practical, and the proposed procedure and results are available for a feasibility study of coming space missions. [1] Sano, I., Y. Okada, M. Mukai and S. Mukai, "Retrieval algorithm based on combined use of POLDER and GLI data for biomass aerosols," J. RSSJ, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 54-59, doi:10.11440/rssj.29.54, 2009. [2] Mukai, S., M. Nakata, M. Yasumoto, I. Sano and A. Kokhanovsky, "A study of aerosol pollution episode due to agriculture biomass burning in the east-central China using satellite data," Front. Environ. Sci., vol. 3:57, doi: 10.3389/fenvs.2015.00057, 2015.

  16. PREFACE AND CONFERENCE INFORMATION: Eighth International Conference on Laser Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Wayne P.; Herman, Peter R.; Bäuerle, Dieter; Koinuma, Hideomi

    2007-04-01

    enjoy the collection of papers in this proceeding. Also, please join us for COLA 2007, to be held in the Canary Islands, Spain (http://www.io.csic.es/cola07/index.php). Conference on Laser Ablation (COLA'05) September 11-16, 2005 Banff, Canada Supported by University of Toronto, Canada (UT) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Sponsors Sponsorship from the following companies is gratefully acknowledged and appreciated AMBP Tech Corporation GSI Lumonics Amplitude Systèmes IMRA America, Inc. Andor Technologies Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics North Canadian Institute for Photonic Innovations LUMERA LASER GmbH Clark-MXR, Inc. Pascal Coherent, Lamdbda Physik, TuiLaser PVD Products, Inc. Continuum Staib Instruments, Inc. Cyber Laser Inc. Surface GAM LASER, Inc. International Steering Committee C. Afonso (Spain)W. Husinsky (Austria) D. Bäuerle (Austria)W. Kautek (Germany) I.W. Boyd (UK) H. Koinuma (Japan) E.B. Campbell (Sweden) H.U. Krebs (Germany) J.T. Dickinson (USA) D.H. Lowndes (USA) M. Dinescu (Romania) J.G. Lunney (Ireland) J.J. Dubowski (Canada) W. Marine (France) E. Fogarassy (France) K. Murakami (Japan) C. Fotakis (Greece) T. Okada (Japan) D. Geohegan (USA) R.E. Russo (USA) M. Gower (UK) J. Schou (Denmark) R.H. Haglund Jr. (USA) M. Stuke (Germany) R.R. Herman (Canada) K. Sugioka (Japan) W.P. Hess (USA) F. Traeger (Germany) J.S Horwitz (USA) A. Yabe (Japan) Local Organizing Committee Nikki Avery Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Ken Beck Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Jan J. Dubowski University of Alberta Robert Fedosejevs Université de Sherbrooke Alan Joly Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Michel Meunier École Polytechnique de Montréal Suwas Nikumb National Research Council Canada Ying Tsui University of Alberta Conference photograph.

  17. Effectiveness of music therapy: a summary of systematic reviews based on randomized controlled trials of music interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamioka H

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hiroharu Kamioka,1 Kiichiro Tsutani,2 Minoru Yamada,3 Hyuntae Park,4 Hiroyasu Okuizumi,5 Koki Tsuruoka,6 Takuya Honda,7 Shinpei Okada,8 Sang-Jun Park,8 Jun Kitayuguchi,9 Takafumi Abe,9 Shuichi Handa,5 Takuya Oshio,10 Yoshiteru Mutoh111Faculty of Regional Environment Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Drug Policy and Management, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 3Kyoto University Graduate School Research, Kyoto, Japan; 4Department of Functioning Activation, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, Japan; 5Mimaki Onsen (Spa Clinic, Tomi, Nagano, Japan; 6Graduate School of Social Services, Japan College of Social Work, Tokyo, Japan; 7Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan; 8Physical Education and Medicine Research Foundation, Tomi, Nagano, Japan; 9Physical Education and Medicine Research Center Unnan, Shimane, Japan; 10Social Welfare Service Corporation CARE-PORT MIMAKI, Tomi, Nagano, Japan; 11The Research Institute of Nippon Sport Science University, Tokyo, JapanObjective: The objective of this review was to summarize evidence for the effectiveness of music therapy (MT and to assess the quality of systematic reviews (SRs based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs.Study design: An SR of SRs based on RCTs.Methods: Studies were eligible if they were RCTs. Studies included were those with at least one treatment group in which MT was applied. We searched the following databases from 1995 to October 1, 2012: MEDLINE via PubMed, CINAHL (Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, Global Health Library, and Ichushi-Web. We also searched all Cochrane Database and Campbell Systematic Reviews up to October 1, 2012. Based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, we identified a disease targeted for each article.Results: Twenty-one studies met all inclusion criteria. This study included 16

  18. Magnetic property based characterization of rust on weathering steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoguchi, T.; Ishii, Y.; Okada, T.; Kimura, M.; Kihira, H.

    2005-01-01

    The characterization of rusts on weathering steels is important in understanding the origin of their corrosion resistance. Rust consists of several phases, e.g. α-, β- and γ-FeOOH, which are anti-ferromagnetic with different Neel temperatures. Rust on so-called advanced weathering steel containing 3 wt.% Ni [H. Kihira, A. Usami, K. Tanabe, M. Ito, G. Shigesato, Y. Tomita, T. Kusunoki, T. Tsuzuki, S. Ito, T. Murata, in: Proc. Symp. on Corrosion and Corrosion Control in Saltwater Environments, Honolulu, 1999, The Electrochemical Soc., pp. 127-136] contains in addition a ferrimagnetic spinel phase [M. Kimura, H. Kihira, Y. Ishii, T. Mizoguchi, in: Proc. 13th Asian-Pacific Corrosion Control Conference, Osaka, 2003; M. Kimura, H. Kihira, N. Ohta, M. Hashimoto, T. Senuma, Corros. Sci., this volume; M. Kimura, N. Ohta, H. Kihira, Mater. Trans. JIM, in press]. The nanostructure of real rust cannot be elucidated satisfactorily only with conventional analytical methods such as X-ray diffraction, because of the complex mixture of phases with fine and imperfect crystallites. Because of the short range of the super-exchange coupling between Fe ions in a solid, the magnetic properties can give information on local configurations even in the absence of perfect crystalline coherence. Therefore, the magnetic properties of rust samples were investigated in detail using a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometer and Moessbauer spectroscopy. SQUID magnetometry is effective to determine the quantity of the ferrimagnetic phase. The temperature dependence of the Moessbauer spectrum gives information about not only the fractions of the phases but also the distribution of grain volume, V, in each phase according to the super-paramagnetic relaxation effect. This approach has been applied to rust of conventional [T. Okada, Y. Ishii, T. Mizoguchi, I. Tamura, Y. Kobayashi, Y. Takagi, S. Suzuki, H. Kihira, M. Ito, A. Usami, K. Tanabe, K. Masuda, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39

  19. 2000年《照明工程学报》总目次

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Chromaticity- Discrimination Ellipses Huan Hui et al.(3-24) Influence of Colour Temperature and Colour Rendering of Lamp on Interior Light Environment Jin Hai et al.(3-27) Colour Standard and Image Display Cui Xianming et al.(3-30) Discussion on the Microwave Leakage of the Sulfur Lamp Chen Yuming et al.(3-33) The Influence of Illuminant/observe Condition on Color Measurement Che Xiaju Ma Yu Zhu Yin(4-4) Research on Power Supply and Light Source of Green Lighting Ma Weishan Zhou Wenjin Yang Shiguang(4-9) The Analyses for the Current Situation of Traffic Light in China Ning Chuwen Zhou Lijiao(4-15) Technical Present State and Prospects on Railway Color Signal Light of Our Country Sun Lifan(4-19) Energy Efficiency Standard, Labeling, Certification and Efficient Lighting Products Gao Fei Liu Hong(4-24) The Application of B-spline in the Design of Automobile Headlamp Zhou Jun Zhou Taiming(4-31) On Large Power Phosphor Electronic Ballast for Linear Fluorescent Lamps Deng Shuxing(4-36) Lighting Design and Application Lighting Landscape Features of Tiananmen Square Li Tienan Xiao Huiqian et al.(1-32) A Discussion of Urban Landscape Lighting in Chongqing He Ying Deng Shenjun et al.(1-36) A New Lighting Planning Method for Small Shop Interiors ——Merchandise Siting Method(Ⅰ) Cai Hongyi(1-41) A New Lighting Planning Method for Small Shop Interiors-Merchandise Siting Method(Ⅱ) Cai Hongyi(2-32) Light Environment in Housing Zhang Yaogen Zhang Shaogang Zheng Jianping(2-39) The Applications of Downlights in Interior Lighting Gu Yiyan Yu Lihua(2-45) Landscape Lighting Planning of Shengnan Avenue Li Tienan Zhu Ningtao(2-49) Lighting of Sports Hall and Auditorium Tadashi Nishimura(2-55) Prelude of New Century Illuminating Realum (2-60) Computer Simulation for the Daylighting Environments of Residential Buildings in Beijing Li Defu et al.(3-38) Primary Research of Classic Building Landscape Lighting Gao Guitai et al.(3-44) A Study on Glare Control in Gumnasium Lighting Luo Hong et al.(3

  20. Vlasov simulations of electron hole dynamics in inhomogeneous magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzichev, Ilya; Vasko, Ivan; Agapitov, Oleksiy; Mozer, Forrest; Artemyev, Anton

    2017-04-01

    particular, our simulations suggest that slow EHs (which generation is usually attributed to the Buneman instability) can arise due to slowing down of fast EH generated by electron-beam instability. The estimate of the potential drop along EHs allow to estimate the parallel potential drop provided by EHs in a particular plasma system. 1. Matsumoto, H., H. Kojima, T. Miyatake, Y. Omura, M. Okada, I. Nagano, and M. Tsutsui, Electrotastic Solitary Waves (ESW) in the magnetotail: BEN wave forms observed by GEOTAIL, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 2915-2918, doi:10.1029/94GL01284, 1994. 2. Norgren, C., M. Andŕe, A. Vaivads, and Y. V. Khotyaintsev, Slow electron phase space holes: Magnetotail observations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 42, 1654-1661, doi:10.1002/2015GL063218, 2015. 3. Malaspina, D. M., J. R. Wygant, R. E. Ergun, G. D. Reeves, R. M. Skoug, and B. A. Larsen, Electric field structures and waves at plasma boundaries in the inner magnetosphere, Journal of Geophysical Research (Space Physics), 120, 4246-4263, doi:10.1002/2015JA021137, 2015. 4. Franz, J. R., P. M. Kintner, J. S. Pickett, and L.-J. Chen, Properties of small-amplitude electron phase-space holes observed by Polar, Journal of Geophysical Research (Space Physics), 110, A09212, doi:10.1029/2005JA011095, 2005. 5. Cattell, C., C. Neiman, J. Dombeck, J. Crumley, J. Wygant, C. A. Kletzing, W. K. Peterson, F. S. Mozer, and M. André (2003), Large amplitude solitary waves in and near the Earth's magnetosphere, magnetopause and bow shock: Polar and Cluster observations, Nonlinear Processes Geophys., 10, 13-26. 6. Mandrake, L., P. L. Pritchett, and F. V. Coroniti, Electron beam generated solitary structures in a nonuniform plasma system, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 2869-2872, doi:10.1029/2000GL003785, 2000. The work of I.K. was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research 16-32-00721 mol_a. The work of I.V., O.A. and F.M. was supported by JHU/APL contract 922613 (RBSPEFW).

  1. EDITORIAL: Non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors Non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung; Kneissl, Michael

    2012-02-01

    topics including growth and heteroepitaxy, bulk GaN substrates, theory and modelling, optical properties, laser diodes and LEDs as well as transport properties and electronics. Farrell et al review materials and growth issues for high-performance non- and semipolar light-emitting devices, and Scholz provides an overview of heteroepitaxial growth of semipolar GaN. Okada et al review growth mechanisms of non- and semipolar GaN layers on patterned sapphire substrates, and Vennéguès discusses defect reduction methods for heteroepitaxially grown non- and semipolar III-nitride films. Leung et al explain how kinetic Wulff plots can be used to design and control non-polar and semipolar GaN heteroepitaxy, and a contribution by Sawaki et al explores the impurity incorporation in (1-101) GaN grown on Si substrates. In the area of bulk crystal growth Kucharski et al review non- and semipolar GaN substrates by ammonothermal growth, and Chichibu et al discuss the challenges for epitaxial growth of InGaN on free-standing m-plane GaN substrates. Calculation of semipolar orientations for wurtzitic semiconductor heterostructures and their application to nitrides and oxides are reviewed by Bigenwald et al, and Ito et al present an ab initio approach to reconstruction, adsorption, and incorporation on GaN surfaces. Finally, the theoretical description of non-polar and semipolar nitride semiconductor quantum-well structures is presented by Ahn et al. In a discussion of the optical properties, Kisin et al discuss the effect of the quantum well population on the optical characteristics of polar, semipolar and non-polar III-nitride light emitters, and Jönen et al investigate the indium incorporation and optical properties of non- and semipolar GaInN QW structures. Wernicke et al explore the emission wavelength of polar, non-polar, and semipolar InGaN quantum wells and the incorporation of indium. In a contribution by Melo et al, the gain in polar and non-polar/semipolar gallium

  2. EDITORIAL: Focus on Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    planes to stable loops caused by annealing M Endo, B J Lee, Y A Kim, Y J Kim, H Muramatsu, T Yanagisawa, T Hayashi, M Terrones and M S Dresselhaus Energetics and electronic structure of C70-peapods and one-dimensional chains of C70 Susumu Okada, Minoru Otani and Atsushi Oshiyama Theoretical characterization of several models of nanoporous carbon F Valencia, A H Romero, E Hernández, M Terrones and H Terrones First-principles molecular dynamics study of the stretching frequencies of hydrogen molecules in carbon nanotubes Gabriel Canto, Pablo Ordejón, Cheng Hansong, Alan C Cooper and Guido P Pez The geometry and the radial breathing mode of carbon nanotubes: beyond the ideal behaviour Jeno Kürti, Viktor Zólyomi, Miklos Kertesz and Sun Guangyu Curved nanostructured materials Humberto Terrones and Mauricio Terrones A one-dimensional Ising model for C70 molecular ordering in C70-peapods Yutaka Maniwa, Hiromichi Kataura, Kazuyuki Matsuda and Yutaka Okabe Nanoengineering of carbon nanotubes for nanotools Yoshikazu Nakayama and Seiji Akita Narrow diameter double-wall carbon nanotubes: synthesis, electron microscopy and inelastic light scattering R R Bacsa, E Flahaut, Ch Laurent, A Peigney, S Aloni, P Puech and W S Bacsa Sensitivity of single multiwalled carbon nanotubes to the environment M Krüger, I Widmer, T Nussbaumer, M Buitelaar and C Schönenberger Characterizing carbon nanotube samples with resonance Raman scattering A Jorio, M A Pimenta, A G Souza Filho, R Saito, G Dresselhaus and M S Dresselhaus FTIR-luminescence mapping of dispersed single-walled carbon nanotubes Sergei Lebedkin, Katharina Arnold, Frank Hennrich, Ralph Krupke, Burkhard Renker and Manfred M Kappes Structural properties of Haeckelite nanotubes Ph Lambin and L P Biró Structural changes in single-walled carbon nanotubes under non-hydrostatic pressures: x-ray and Raman studies Sukanta Karmakar, Surinder M Sharma, P V Teredesai, D V S Muthu, A Govindaraj, S K Sikka and A K Sood Novel properties of 0

  3. The evidences of progressive pressurization of volcanic conduit as driving forces of unrest phenomena analyzed via modelling of multiplatform geodetic measurements: Fernandina (GALAPAGOS) and Maunaloa (HAWAII) case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Susi; Castaldo, Raffaele; Casu, Francesco; D'Auria, Luca; De Luca, Claudio; De Novellis, Vincenzo; Solaro, Giuseppe; Tizzani, Pietro

    2017-04-01

    -12940. Okada, Y. Surface deformation due to shear and tensile faults in a half-space. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 75, 1135-1154 (1985). Sansosti, E., Berardino, P., Bonano, M., Calò, F., Castaldo, R., Casu, F., Manunta, M., Manzo, M., Pepe, A., Pepe, S., Solaro, G., Tizzani, P., Zeni, G., Lanari, R. (2014). How second generation SAR systems are impacting the analysis of ground deformation. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 28, doi:10.1016/j.jag.2013.10.007. Tizzani, P., Battaglia, M., Zeni, G., Atzori, S., Berardino, P., Lanari, R. (2009). Uplift and magma intrusion at Long Valley caldera from InSAR and gravity measurements, Geology, January 2009 37; no.1; p. 63-66; doi:10.1130/G25318A.1 Tizzani, P., Battaglia, M., Castaldo, R., Pepe, A., Zeni, G., Lanari, R. (2015). Magma and fluid migration at Yellowstone Caldera in the last three decades inferred from InSAR, leveling, and gravity measurements. J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 120, 2627-2647. doi: 10.1002/2014JB011502. Yang, X. M., Davis, P. M., and Dieterich, J. H. (1988), Deformation from inflation of a dipping finite prolate spheroid in an elastic half-space as a model for volcanic stressing. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth (1978-2012), 93(B5), 4249-4257.

  4. 25 years of pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Michael; Ramachandra Rao, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    -of-experiment schemes to shorten the optimization effort for new materials is presented at the end of this methodical section. Further, the issue contains original papers on other prominent PLD activities, such as dielectric SrTiO3 films, magnetic and spintronic La1-x Srx MnO3, and multiferroic BiFeO3. The role of cationic and anionic point defects and their control during PLD is discussed based on the examples of the simple perovskite SrMoO3 and the double perovskite Sr2CrWO6. The final paper in this thin-film-related section provides a good account of in situ high-temperature surface smoothing of Ba2TiSi2O8 fresnoite films and growth from glassy fresnoite targets with 100% theoretical density. The flexibility of the PLD technique has resulted in several schemes to grow nanostructures, which is unique in the nature of PLD. Okada's group succeeded in controlling the growth density of ZnO nanowires by varying the thickness of the ZnO buffer layer, and nanowalls could be patterned by interference phenomenon using laser irradiation. PLD-based methods are further used to grow metal nanoparticle plasmonic films with packing densities up to 1011 particles cm-2, and ZnO nanowires from screw dislocation driven two-dimensional hexagonal stacking on diamond substrates. Overall, this special issue provides an up-to-date overview on the current status, potential and the extraordinary success and development of PLD from a simple laboratory growth method to a viable industrial technique for fabrication of advanced oxide thin films. We thank all the authors and reviewers for their contributions to this special issue. We would like to place on record our gratitude for the timely help extended by the editorial team, Dr Olivia Roche, Dean Williams and Colin Adcock. References [1] Dijkkamp D, Venkatesan T, Wu X D, Shaheen S A, Jisrawi N, Min-Lee Y-H, McLean W L and Croft M 1987 Preparation of YBaCu oxide superconductor thin films using pulsed laser evaporation from high T c bulk material Appl. Phys. Lett

  5. Extra-anatomic transplantations in autologous adult cell therapies aiding anatomical regeneration and physiological recovery – An insight and categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial

    2015-12-01

    ;9(2:40-7. Ebisawa K, Kato R, Okada M, Kamei Y, Mazlyzam AL, Narita Y, Kagami H, Ueda M. Cell therapy for facial anti-aging. Med J Malaysia. 2008;63 Suppl A:41. The editorial team would like to acknowledge with gratitude the inputs from Dr. David W Green (Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong & Department of Oral Biology, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea and Prof. J. Amalorpavanathan (Convenor, Transplant Authority of Tamil Nadu, India & Reader in Vascular Surgery, Madras Medical College, Chennai, India.