Massive lepton pair production in massive quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raychaudhuri, P.
1976-01-01
The pp → l + +l - +x inclusive interaction has been studied at high energies in terms of the massive quantum electrodynamics. The differential cross-section (dsigma/dQ 2 ) is derived and proves to be proportional to Q -4 , where Q-mass of the lepton pair. Basic features of the cross-section are demonstrated to be consistent with the Drell-Yan model
Mixed fermion-photon condensate in strongly coupled quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gusynin, V.P.; Kushnir, V.A.
1989-01-01
The existence of a new mixed fermion-photon condensate breaking chiral symmetry in strongly coupled phase of quantum electrodynamics is shown. An analytical expression for the renormalized condensate is obtained. 20 refs.; 2 figs
Run-away electrons in relativistic spin (1) /(2) quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Low, F.E.
1998-01-01
The existence of run-away solutions in classical and non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics is reviewed. It is shown that the less singular high energy behavior of relativistic spin (1) /(2) quantum electrodynamics precludes an analogous behavior in that theory. However, a Landau-like anomalous pole in the photon propagation function or in the electron-massive photon forward scattering amplitude would generate a new run-away, characterized by an energy scale ω∼m e thinspexp(1/α). This contrasts with the energy scale ω∼m e /α associated with the classical and non-relativistic quantum run-aways. copyright 1998 Academic Press, Inc
Spin Pumping in Electrodynamically Coupled Magnon-Photon Systems.
Bai, Lihui; Harder, M; Chen, Y P; Fan, X; Xiao, J Q; Hu, C-M
2015-06-05
We use electrical detection, in combination with microwave transmission, to investigate both resonant and nonresonant magnon-photon coupling at room temperature. Spin pumping in a dynamically coupled magnon-photon system is found to be distinctly different from previous experiments. Characteristic coupling features such as modes anticrossing, linewidth evolution, peculiar line shape, and resonance broadening are systematically measured and consistently analyzed by a theoretical model set on the foundation of classical electrodynamic coupling. Our experimental and theoretical approach paves the way for pursuing microwave coherent manipulation of pure spin current via the combination of spin pumping and magnon-photon coupling.
Logarithmic of mass singularities theorem in non massive quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mares G, R.; Luna, H.
1997-01-01
We give an explicit example of the use of dimensional regularization to calculate in a unified approach, all the ultraviolet, infrared and mass singularities, by considering the LMS (logarithms of mass singularities) theorem in the frame of massless QED (Quantum electrodynamics). In the calculation of the divergent part of the cross section, all singularities are found to cancel provided soft and hard photon emission are both taken into account. (Author)
Axiomatic field theory and quantum electrodynamics: the massive case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steinmann, O.
1975-01-01
Massive quantum electrodynamics of the electron is formulated as an LSZ theory of the electromagnetic field F(μν) and the electron-positron fields PSI. The interaction is introduced with the help of mathematically well defined subsidiary conditions. These are: 1) gauge invariance of the first kind, assumed to be generated by a conserved current j(μ); 2) the homogeneous Maxwell equations and a massive version of the inhomogeneous Maxwell equations; 3) a minimality condition concerning the high momentum behaviour of the theory. The inhomogeneous Maxwell equation is a linear differential equation connecting Fsub(μν) with the current Jsub(μ). No Lagrangian, no non-linear field equations, and no explicit expression of Jsub(μ) in terms of PSI, anti-PSI are needed. It is shown in perturbation theory that the proposed conditions fix the physically relevant (i.e. observable) quantities of the theory uniquely
Bound states in the two-dimension massive quantum electrodynamics (Qed2)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alves, V.S.; Gomes, M.
1994-01-01
This work studies the fermion-antifermion bound states in the (1+1)D two-dimension massive quantum electrodynamic in the 1/N expansion. The scattering matrices in the non-relativistic approximation have been calculated through TQC, and compared with the cross section in the Born approximation, and therefore the potential responsible by the interactions in the scattering processes have been obtained. Using Schroedinger equation, the existence of possible bound states have been investigated
On a gauge invariant subtraction scheme for massive quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdalla, E.; Gomes, M.; Koeberle, R.
A momentum-space subtraction scheme for massive quantum electrodynamics is proposed which respects gauge invariance, in contrast to ordinary normal product techniques. As a consequence the dependence of Green functions on the ghost mass becomes very simple and formally gauge invariant normal products of degree up to four, when subtracted according to the proposed scheme, are automatically gauge invariant. As an aplication we discuss the proof of the Adler-Bardeen theorem. Zero mass limits can be taken for Green function after the integration over intermediate states has been carried out [pt
Mode expansions in the quantum electrodynamics of photonic media with disorder
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger
2012-01-01
We address two issues in the quantum electrodynamical description of photonic media with some disorder, neglecting material dispersion. When choosing a gauge in which the static potential vanishes, the normal modes of the medium with disorder satisfy another transversality condition than the modes......, we find the gauge transformation that makes the static potential zero, thereby generalizing work by Glauber and Lewenstein [Phys. Rev. A 43, 467 (1991)]. Our results are relevant for the quantum optics of disordered photonic crystals....
Stopping single photons in one-dimensional circuit quantum electrodynamics systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen, J.-T.; Povinelli, M. L.; Sandhu, Sunil; Fan Shanhui
2007-01-01
We propose a mechanism to stop and time reverse single photons in one-dimensional circuit quantum electrodynamics systems. As a concrete example, we exploit the large tunability of the superconducting charge quantum bit (charge qubit) to predict one-photon transport properties in multiple-qubit systems with dynamically controlled transition frequencies. In particular, two qubits coupled to a waveguide give rise to a single-photon transmission line shape that is analogous to electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic systems. Furthermore, by cascading double-qubit structures to form an array and dynamically controlling the qubit transition frequencies, a single photon can be stopped, stored, and time reversed. With a properly designed array, two photons can be stopped and stored in the system at the same time. Moreover, the unit cell of the array can be designed to be of deep subwavelength scale, miniaturizing the circuit
Advances in FDTD computational electrodynamics photonics and nanotechnology
Oskooi, Ardavan; Johnson, Steven G
2013-01-01
Advances in photonics and nanotechnology have the potential to revolutionize humanity s ability to communicate and compute. To pursue these advances, it is mandatory to understand and properly model interactions of light with materials such as silicon and gold at the nanoscale, i.e., the span of a few tens of atoms laid side by side. These interactions are governed by the fundamental Maxwell s equations of classical electrodynamics, supplemented by quantum electrodynamics. This book presents the current state-of-the-art in formulating and implementing computational models of these interactions. Maxwell s equations are solved using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique, pioneered by the senior editor, whose prior Artech books in this area are among the top ten most-cited in the history of engineering. You discover the most important advances in all areas of FDTD and PSTD computational modeling of electromagnetic wave interactions. This cutting-edge resource helps you understand the latest develo...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasseur, G.
1996-03-01
Is the photon mass strictly null as it is told in quantum electrodynamics. In fact, a coherent theory can be build with a massive photon. Experiences have been regularly led to try to make obvious an eventual non null photon mass. Superior limits more and more strict have been found. Here is given a general survey of the consequences of a non null photon mass, different methods to measure it and the achieved limits. (author). 30 refs., 1 fig
Photon emission from massive projectile impacts on solids.
Fernandez-Lima, F A; Pinnick, V T; Della-Negra, S; Schweikert, E A
2011-01-01
First evidence of photon emission from individual impacts of massive gold projectiles on solids for a number of projectile-target combinations is reported. Photon emission from individual impacts of massive Au(n) (+q) (1 ≤ n ≤ 400; q = 1-4) projectiles with impact energies in the range of 28-136 keV occurs in less than 10 ns after the projectile impact. Experimental observations show an increase in the photon yield from individual impacts with the projectile size and velocity. Concurrently with the photon emission, electron emission from the impact area has been observed below the kinetic emission threshold and under unlikely conditions for potential electron emission. We interpret the puzzling electron emission and correlated luminescence observation as evidence of the electronic excitation resulting from the high-energy density deposited by massive cluster projectiles during the impact.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorskij, A.S.; Ioffe, B.L.; Khodzhamiryan, A.Yu.
1989-01-01
It is shown that in massless electrodynamics (when the electron mass is strictly zero) the cross section of longitudinal photon interaction on mass shell is nonvanishing. The reasons of appearance of this effects and its possible consequences as well as analogous effects in other quantum field theories (especially non-Abelian gauge theories) are discussed. 7 refs.; 2 figs
Infra-red finiteness in quantum electro-dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawai, Takahiro
1984-01-01
The authors report some mathematical aspects of a recent solution of the infra-red catastrophe in quantum electro-dynamics. A principal result is that the coordinate space Feynman function can be separated into two factors the first of which is a unitary operator in photon space representing the classical electro-magnetic contribution to the amplitude, and the second of which is a residual factor representing the quantum fluctuation about the classical contribution. The main objectives were to verify: (i) the residual factor is free of infra-red divergences, and (ii) the dominant part of the singularity of the residual factor on the positive-α Landau surface has the same analytic form as it would have if the photons were massive. (Auth.)
δ expansion applied to quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bender, C.M.; Boettcher, S.; Milton, K.A.
1992-01-01
A recently proposed technique known as the δ expansion provides a nonperturbative treatment of a quantum field theory. The δ-expansion approach can be applied to electrodynamics in such a way that local gauge invariance is preserved. In this paper it is shown that for electrodynamic processes involving only external photon lines and no external electron lines the δ expansion is equivalent to a fermion loop expansion. That is, the coefficient of δ n in the δ expansion is precisely the sum of all n-electron-loop Feynman diagrams in a conventional weak-coupling approximation. This equivalence does not extend to processes having external electron lines. When external electron lines are present, the δ expansion is truly nonperturbative and does not have a simple interpretation as a resummation of conventional Feynman diagrams. To illustrate the nonperturbative character of the δ expansion we perform a speculative calculation of the fermion condensate in the massive Schwinger model in the limit of large coupling constant
Quantum Electrodynamics in Photonic Crystal Waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup
In this thesis we have performed quantum electrodynamics (QED) experiments in photonic crystal (PhC) waveguides and cavity QED in the Anderson localized regime in disordered PhC waveguides. Decay rate measurements of quantum dots embedded in PhC waveguides has been used to map out the variations...... in the local density of states (LDOS) in PhC waveguides. From decay rate measurements on quantum dot lines temperature tuned in the vicinity of the waveguide band edge, a β-factor for a single quantum dot of more then 85% has been extracted. Finite difference time domain simulations (FDTD) for disordered Ph...... is shown to increase from 3 − 7 um for no intentional disorder to 25 um for 6% disorder. A distribution of losses is seen to be necessary to explain the measured Q-factor distributions. Finally we have performed a cavity QED experiment between single quantum dots and an Anderson localized mode, where a β...
Radiative corrections in bumblebee electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R.V. Maluf
2015-10-01
Full Text Available We investigate some quantum features of the bumblebee electrodynamics in flat spacetimes. The bumblebee field is a vector field that leads to a spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking. For a smooth quadratic potential, the massless excitation (Nambu–Goldstone boson can be identified as the photon, transversal to the vacuum expectation value of the bumblebee field. Besides, there is a massive excitation associated with the longitudinal mode and whose presence leads to instability in the spectrum of the theory. By using the principal-value prescription, we show that no one-loop radiative corrections to the mass term is generated. Moreover, the bumblebee self-energy is not transverse, showing that the propagation of the longitudinal mode cannot be excluded from the effective theory.
Non-Schwinger solution of the two-dimensional massless spinor electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhov, S.G.
1981-01-01
In the present paper a regularization procedure is formulated for the current in the two-dimensional massless spinor electrodynamics that is both gauge and γ 5 -gauge invariant. This gives rise to an operator solution of the model that does not involve a massive photon. The latter solution is studied in some detail, and it is shown that although a charge operator exists, it does not define the electric charge of the spinor field. This can be a manifestation of the charge screening mechanism that is present in the Schwinger model [ru
Charge-field formulation of quantum electrodynamics (QEMED)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leiter, D.
1980-01-01
By expressing classical electron theory in terms of 'charge-field' functional structures, it is shown that a finite formulation of the classical electrodynamics of point charges emerges in a simple and elegant fashion. This is used to construct a 'charge-field' quantum electrodynamic theory. It is found that interacting photon states are generated as a secondary manifestation of electron-positron quantization, and do not require the usual 'free' canonical quantization scheme. The possibility is discussed that this approach may lead to a better formulation of quantum electrodynamics in the Heisenberg picture and suggests a crucial experimental test to distinguish this new 'charge-field' quantum electrodynamics 'QEMED' from the standard QED formulation. Specifically QEMED predicts that the 'Einstein principle of separability' should be found to be valid for correlated photon polarization measurements, in which the polarizers are changed more rapidly than a characteristic photon travel time. Such an experiment (Aspect 1976) can distinguish between QEMED and QED in a complete and clear-cut fashion. (U.K.)
Magnetic monopole and finite photon mass: are they compatible?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ignatiev, A.Y.; Joshi, G.C.
1994-01-01
The role played by the gauge invariance for the existence of Dirac monopole is analysed. It is shown that the derivation of the Dirac quantization condition based on the angular momentum algebra cannot be generalized to the case of massive electrodynamics. The work revealed a new and important relation between the two fundamental facts: the masslessness (massiveness?) of the photons and the non-existence (existence?) of the magnetic monopole. Possible implications of this result are briefly discussed. 12 refs
Ultrafast terahertz electrodynamics of photonic and electronic nanostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Liang [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2015-01-01
This thesis summarizes my work on using ultrafast laser pulses to study Terahertz (THz) electrodynamics of photonic and electronic nanostructures and microstructures. Ultrafast timeresolved (optical, NIR, MIR, THz) pump-probe spectroscopy setup has been successfully built, which enables me to perform a series of relevant experiments. Firstly, a novel high e ciency and compact THz wave emitter based on split-ring-resonators has been developed and characterized. The emitter can be pumped at any wavelength by tailoring the magnetic resonance and could generate gapless THz waves covering the entire THz band. Secondly, two kinds of new photonic structures for THz wave manipulation have been successfully designed and characterized. One is based on the 1D and 2D photo-imprinted di ractive elements. The other is based on the photoexcited double-split-ring-resonator metamaterials. Both structures are exible and can modulate THz waves with large tunability. Thirdly, the dark excitons in semiconducting singlewalled carbon nanotubes are studied by optical pump and THz probe spectroscopy, which provides the rst insights into the THz responses of nonequilibrium excitonic correlations and dynamics from the dark ground states in carbon nanotubes. Next, several on-going projects are brie y presented such as the study of ultrafast THz dynamics of Dirac fermions in topological insulator Bi_{2}Se_{3} with Mid-infrared excitation. Finally, the thesis ends with a summary of the completed experiments and an outlook of the future plan.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steinmann, O [Bielefeld Univ. (F.R. Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik
1975-01-01
Massive quantum electrodynamics of the electron is formulated as an LSZ theory of the electromagnetic field F(..mu nu..) and the electron-positron fields PSI. The interaction is introduced with the help of mathematically well defined subsidiary conditions. These are: 1) gauge invariance of the first kind, assumed to be generated by a conserved current j(..mu..); 2) the homogeneous Maxwell equations and a massive version of the inhomogeneous Maxwell equations; 3) a minimality condition concerning the high momentum behaviour of the theory. The inhomogeneous Maxwell equation is a linear differential equation connecting Fsub(..mu nu..) with the current Jsub(..mu..). No Lagrangian, no non-linear field equations, and no explicit expression of Jsub(..mu..) in terms of PSI, anti-PSI are needed. It is shown in perturbation theory that the proposed conditions fix the physically relevant (i.e. observable) quantities of the theory uniquely.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasnikov, N.V.
1991-01-01
Study of the ultraviolet behavior of asymptotically nonfree theories is one of the most important problems of quantum field theory. Unfortunately, not too much is known about the ultraviolet properties in asymptotically nonfree theories; the main obstacle is the growth of the effective coupling constant in the ultraviolet region, which renders perturbation theory inapplicable. It is shown that in quantum electrodynamics in n = 4 + 2 var-epsilon space-time (var-epsilon > 0) the photon propagator has the ultraviolet asymptotic behavior D(k 2 ) ∼ (k 2 ) -1-var-epsilon . In the case var-epsilon R ≤ -3π var-epsilon + O(var-epsilon 2 )
Massive lepton pairs as a prompt photon surrogate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berger L, Edmond; Gordon E, Lionel; Klasen, Michael
1998-01-01
The authors discuss the transverse momentum distribution for the production of massive lepton-pairs in hadron reactions at fixed target and collider energies within the context of next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics. For values of the transverse momentum Q T greater than the pair mass Q, Q T > Q, they show that the differential cross section is dominated by subprocesses initiated by incident gluons. Massive lepton-pair differential cross sections are an advantageous source of constraints on the gluon density, free from the experimental and theoretical complications of photon isolation that beset studies of prompt photon production. They compare calculations with data and provide predictions for the differential cross section as a function of Q T in proton-antiproton reactions at center-of-mass energies of 1.8 TeV, and in proton-nucleon reactions at fixed target and LHC energies
Greiner, Walter
2009-01-01
This textbook on Quantum Electrodynamics is a thorough introductory text providing all necessary mathematical tools together with many examples and worked problems. In their presentation of the subject the authors adopt a heuristic approach based on the propagator formalism. The latter is introduced in the first two chapters in both its nonrelativistic and relativistic versions. Subsequently, a large number of scattering and radiation processes involving electrons, positrons, and photons are introduced and their theoretical treatment is presented in great detail. Higher order processes and renormalization are also included. The book concludes with a discussion of two-particle states and the interaction of spinless bosons. This completely revised and corrected new edition provides several additions to enable deeper insight in formalism and application of quantum electrodynamics.
Limits of electrodynamics: paraphotons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okun, L.B.
1982-01-01
The paper discusses the accuracy with which electromagnetic interaction is studied at large distances. Possible deviations from standard electrodynamics are investigated. The consideration is carried out the framework of a model which contains two (para) photons, the mass of one of them being non-negligible
Solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics using quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerard, J.M.; Gayral, B.; Moreau, E.; Robert, I.; Abram, I.
2001-01-01
We review the recent development of solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics using single self-assembled InAs quantum dots and three-dimensional semiconductor microcavities. We discuss first prospects for observing a strong coupling regime for single quantum dots. We then demonstrate that the strong Purcell effect observed for single quantum dots in the weak coupling regime allows us to prepare emitted photons in a given state (the same spatial mode, the same polarization). We present finally the first single-mode solid-state source of single photons, based on an isolated quantum dot in a pillar microcavity. This optoelectronic device, the first ever to rely on a cavity quantum electrodynamics effect, exploits both Coulomb interaction between trapped carriers in a single quantum dot and single mode photon tunneling in the microcavity. (author)
On the Emergence of the Coulomb Forces in Quantum Electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan Naudts
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A simple transformation of field variables eliminates Coulomb forces from the theory of quantum electrodynamics. This suggests that Coulomb forces may be an emergent phenomenon rather than being fundamental. This possibility is investigated in the context of reducible quantum electrodynamics. It is shown that states exist which bind free photon and free electron fields. The binding energy peaks in the long-wavelength limit. This makes it plausible that Coulomb forces result from the interaction of the electron/positron field with long-wavelength transversely polarized photons.
Bogolyubov axiomatic method in quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bazhanov, V.V.; Pron'ko, G.P.; Solov'ev, L.D.
1979-01-01
A number of problems of quantum electrodynamics are reviewed which permit an exact solution for both strong and electromagnetic interactions. The solutions have been obtained in the framework of the S-matrix method based on the Bogolyubov axiomatic approach supplemented with some axioms which make it possible to extended the field of application of the Bogolyubov approach for quantum electrodynamics. Infrared ''renormalization'' of axioms and fundamental equations of the S-matrix electrodynamics is discussed. Low-energy theorems for matrix elements of radiative operators have been obtained as solutions of fundamental equations. The low-energy theorems are used for describing the electrodynamic phenomena of soft photons. The bremsstrahlung amplitude is found. A generalized threshold theorem is formulated for the Compton scattering amplitude. The results of examining the infrared asymptotics of the charged particle Green functions, the small-angle scattering of charged particles and electromagnetic effects on heavy narrow resonance production are presented. The problems discussed show that the consequences of general principles of the relativistic quantum theory supplemented with requirements on gauge invariance are essentially nontrivial
Optical-lattice Hamiltonians for relativistic quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kapit, Eliot; Mueller, Erich
2011-01-01
We show how interpenetrating optical lattices containing Bose-Fermi mixtures can be constructed to emulate the thermodynamics of quantum electrodynamics (QED). We present models of neutral atoms on lattices in 1+1, 2+1, and 3+1 dimensions whose low-energy effective action reduces to that of photons coupled to Dirac fermions of the corresponding dimensionality. We give special attention to (2+1)-dimensional quantum electrodynamics (QED3) and discuss how two of its most interesting features, chiral symmetry breaking and Chern-Simons physics, could be observed experimentally.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Keller, Ole
2002-01-01
train quantum electrodynamics. A brief description of particle (photon) position operators is given, and it is shown that photons usually are only algebraically confined in an emission process. Finally, it is demonstrated that the profile of the birth domain of a radio-frequency photon emitted...
Generalized noise terms for the quantized fluctuational electrodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Partanen, Mikko; Hayrynen, Teppo; Tulkki, Jukka
2017-01-01
position-dependent quantum models for the photon number in resonant structures have only been formulated very recently and only for dielectric media. Here we present a general position-dependent quantized fluctuational electrodynamics (QFED) formalism that extends the consistent field quantization...
Problems of quantum electrodynamics with external field creating pairs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fradkin, E.S.; Gitman, D.M.
1979-11-01
This paper is a preliminary version of a review of the results obtained by the authors and their collaborators which mainly concern problems of quantum electrodynamics with the pair-creating external field. In this paper the Furry picture is constructed for quantum electrodynamics with the pair-creating external field. It is shown, that various Green functions in the external field arise in the theory in a natural way. Special features of usage of the unitarity conditions for calculating the total probabilities of transitions are discussed. Perturbation theory for determining the mean electromagnetic field is constructed. Effective Lagrangians for pair-creating fields are built. One of the possible ways to introduce external field in quantum electrodynamics is considered. All the Green functions arising in the theory suggested are calculated for a constant field and a plane wave field. For the case of the electric field the total probability of creation of pairs from the vacuum accompanied by the photon irradiation and the total probability of transition from a single-electron state accompanied by the photon irradiation and creation of pairs are obtained by using the formulated rules for calculating the total probabilities of transitions. (author)
Quantized fluctuational electrodynamics for three-dimensional plasmonic structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Partanen, Mikko; Häyrynen, Teppo; Tulkki, Jukka
2017-01-01
We recently introduced a quantized fluctuational electrodynamics (QFED) formalism that provides a physically insightful definition of an effective position-dependent photon-number operator and the associated ladder operators. However, this far the formalism has been applicable only for the normal...... formalism, we apply it to study the local steady-state photon numbers and field temperatures in a light-emitting near-surface InGaN quantum-well structure with a metallic coating supporting surface plasmons....
Minimal resonator loss for circuit quantum electrodynamics
Barends, R.; Vercruyssen, N.; Endo, A.; De Visser, P.J.; Zijlstra, T.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Diener, P.; Yates, S.J.C.; Baselmans, J.J.A.
2010-01-01
We report quality factors of up to 500x10³ in superconducting resonators at the single photon levels needed for circuit quantum electrodynamics. This result is achieved by using NbTiN and removing the dielectric from regions with high electric fields. As demonstrated by a comparison with Ta, the
Gauge equivalence of the electrodynamics of charged bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sohn, R.; Haller, K.
1977-01-01
The quantum electrodynamics of charged scalar and vector bosons is formulated in the Lorentz gauge, and the effect of the charged particle--photon interaction on the subsidiary condition is explicitly taken into account. The results are extensions of earlier work on spinor quantum electrodynamics, but the presence of seagull vertices and anomalous current commutators in the case of the charged bosons make the extensions nontrivial. An operator gauge transformation that encompasses equations of motion as well as the commutator algebra of the field operators is developed; it is used to transform the theory from the Lorentz gauge to the Coulomb gauge
On the equivalence of massive qed with renormalizable and in unitary gauge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdalla, E.
1978-03-01
In the framework of BPHZ renormalization procedure, we discuss the equivalence between 4-dimensional renormalizable massive quantum electrodynamics (Stueckelberg lagrangian), and massive QED in the unitary gauge
Andrews, David L
2015-01-01
This book covers modern photonics accessibly and discusses the basic physical principles underlying all the applications and technology of photonicsThis volume covers the basic physical principles underlying the technology and all applications of photonics from statistical optics to quantum optics. The topics discussed in this volume are: Photons in perspective; Coherence and Statistical Optics; Complex Light and Singular Optics; Electrodynamics of Dielectric Media; Fast and slow Light; Holography; Multiphoton Processes; Optical Angular Momentum; Optical Forces, Trapping and Manipulation; Pol
Quantum electrodynamics with compensating current
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bechler, A [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Instytut Fizyki Teoretycznej
1974-01-01
A formulation of quantum electrodynamics is proposed in which all the propagators and field operators are gauge invariant. It is based on an old idea of Heisenberg and Euler which consists in the introduction of the linear integrals of potentials as arguments of the exponential functions. This method is generalized by an introduction of the so-called ''compensating currents'', which ensure local, i.e. in every point of space-time, charge conservation. The linear integral method is a particular case of that proposed in this paper. As the starting point we use quantum electrodynamics with a non-zero, small photon mass (Proca theory). It is shown that, due to the presence of the compensating current, the theory is fully renormalizable in Hilbert space with positive definite scalar product. The problem of the definition of the current operator is also briefly discussed.
Quantum electrodynamics with 1D arti cial atoms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Javadi, Alisa
A 1D atom, a single quantum emitter coupled to a single optical mode, exhibits rich quantum electrodynamic (QED) e_ects and is thought to be the key ingredient for many applications in quantuminformation processing. Single quantum dots (QD) in photonic-crystal waveguides (PCW) constitute a robust...... as expected from the theory. The value of g(2)(0) is around 1.08. The results con_rm the observation of an on-chip giant optical nonlinearity and the 1D atom behavior. Another direction in this thesis has been to investigate the e_ect of Anderson localization on the electrodynamics of QDs in PCWs. A large...
Causal approach to (2+1)-dimensional Quantum Electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scharf, G.; Wreszinski, W.F.; Pimentel, B.M.; Tomazelli, J.L.
1993-05-01
It is shown that the causal approach to (2+1)-dimensional quantum electrodynamics yields a well-defined perturbative theory. In particular, and in contrast to renormalized perturbative quantum field theory, it is free of any ambiguities and ascribes a nonzero value to the dynamically generated, nonperturbative photon mass. (author). 12 refs
Free-space quantum electrodynamics with a single Rydberg superatom
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paris-Mandoki, Asaf; Braun, Christoph; Kumlin, Jan
2017-01-01
The interaction of a single photon with an individual two-level system is the textbook example of quantum electrodynamics. Achieving strong coupling in this system has so far required confinement of the light field inside resonators or waveguides. Here, we demonstrate strong coherent coupling...
Cavity quantum electrodynamics with Anderson-localized modes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sapienza, Luca; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Stobbe, Søren
2010-01-01
by a factor of 15 on resonance with the Anderson-localized mode, and 94% of the emitted single photons coupled to the mode. Disordered photonic media thus provide an efficient platform for quantum electrodynamics, offering an approach to inherently disorder-robust quantum information devices.......A major challenge in quantum optics and quantum information technology is to enhance the interaction between single photons and single quantum emitters. This requires highly engineered optical cavities that are inherently sensitive to fabrication imperfections. We have demonstrated a fundamentally...... different approach in which disorder is used as a resource rather than a nuisance. We generated strongly confined Anderson-localized cavity modes by deliberately adding disorder to photonic crystal waveguides. The emission rate of a semiconductor quantum dot embedded in the waveguide was enhanced...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zalialiutdinov, T; Baukina, Yu; Solovyev, D; Labzowsky, L
2014-01-01
The theory of multiphoton cascade transitions with two-photon links is considered within two different approaches: quantum electrodynamical (QED) and phenomenological quantum mechanical (QM). A problem of regularization of the cascade contributions is investigated in detail. It is argued that the correct regularization should include both initial and intermediate level widths in the singular energy denominators. This result follows both from the QED and from the QM approach. Particular transitions nl → 1s + 2γ with nl = 3s, 4s, 3d, 4d and nl → 1s + 3γ with nl = 3p, 4p are considered as examples. The importance of the proper cascade regularization is also demonstrated. (paper)
Dyson-Schwinger equations in quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slim, H.A.
1981-01-01
A quantum field theory is completely determined by the knowledge of its Green functions and this thesis is concerned with the Salam and Delbourgo approximation method for the determination of the Green functions. In chapter 2 a Lorentz covariant, canonical formulation for quantum electrodynamics is described. In chapter 3 the definition of the Green functions in quantum electrodynamics is given with a derivation of the Dyson-Schwinger equations. The Ward-Takahashi identities, which are a consequence of current conservation, are derived and finally renormalization is briefly mentioned and the equations for the renormalized quantities are given. The gauge transformations, changing the gauge-parameter, a, discussed in Chapter 2 for the field operators, also have implications for the Green functions, and these are worked out in Chapter 4 for the electron propagator, which is not gauge-invariant. Before developing the main approximation, a simple, non-relativistic model is studied in Chapter 5. It has the feature of being exactly solvable in a way which closely resembles the approximation method of Chapter 6 for relativistic quantum electrodynamics. There the Dyson-Schwinger equations for the electron and photon propagator are studied. In chapter 7, the Johnson-Baker-Willey program of finite quantum electrodynamics is considered, in connection with the Ansatz of Salam and Delbourgo, and the question of a possible fixed point of the coupling constant is considered. In the last chapter, some remarks are made about how the results of the approximation scheme can be improved. (Auth.)
Investigation on regulators in quantum electrodynamics
Stora, Raymond Félix
We present in this work three models which are able to suppress the divergences of approximate versions of Quantum Electrodynamics.It is indeed argued that, in view of the smallness of the fine structure constant, not only the first terms of a perturbation expansion, or of an expansion according to the number of particles involved in intermediate states, gives a fair approximattonbut furthermore, that it is in these terms that a breakdown of electrodynamics should be sought. Our goal is to connect the high energy behaviour of relevant physical processes with the suppression of the divergences. Our goal is to connect the high energy behaviour of relevant physical processes with the suppression of the divergences. The first model assumes the existence of a photon cut off, whose observable consequences are clearly stated, and of a fermion out off which, although unable to give a satisfactory ...
Dimensional regularization and infrared divergences in quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marculescu, S.
1979-01-01
Dimensional continuation was devised as a powerful regularization method for ultraviolet divergences in quantum field theories. Recently it was clear, at least for quantum electrodynamics, that such a method could be employed for factorizing out infrared divergences from the on-shell S-matrix elements. This provides a renormalization scheme on the electron mass-shell without using a gauge violating ''photon mass''. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sapienza, Luca; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Stobbe, Søren
2011-01-01
of the spontaneous emission decay rate by up to a factor 15 and an efficiency of channeling single photons into Anderson-localized modes reaching values as high as 94%. These results prove that disordered photonic media provide an efficient platform for quantum electrodynamics, offering a novel route to quantum......We demonstrate that the spontaneous emission decay rate of semiconductor quantum dots can be strongly modified by the coupling to disorder-induced Anderson-localized photonic modes. We experimentally measure, by means of time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, the enhancement...
Fundamental tests in Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics
CERN. Geneva
2010-01-01
At the dawn of quantum physics, Einstein and Bohr had the dream to confine a photon in a box and to use this contraption in order to illustrate the strange laws of the quantum world. Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics has now made this dream real, allowing us to actually achieve in the laboratory variants of the thought experiments of the founding fathers of quantum theory. In our work at Ecole Normale Supérieure, we use a beam of Rydberg atoms to manipulate and probe non-destructively microwave photons trapped in a very high Q superconducting cavity. We realize ideal quantum non-demolition (QND) measurements of photon numbers, observe the radiation quantum jumps due to cavity relaxation and prepare non-classical fields such as Fock and Schrödinger cat states. Combining QND photon counting with a homodyne mixing method, we reconstruct the Wigner functions of these non-classical states and, by taking snapshots of these functions at increasing times, obtain movies of the decoherence process. These experiments ope...
Nonlinear electrodynamics and CMB polarization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cuesta, Herman J. Mosquera [Departmento de Física Universidade Estadual Vale do Acaraú, Avenida da Universidade 850, Campus da Betânia, CEP 62.040-370, Sobral, Ceará (Brazil); Lambiase, G., E-mail: herman@icra.it, E-mail: lambiase@sa.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E.R. Caianiello' ' , Università di Salerno, 84081 Baronissi (Italy)
2011-03-01
Recently WMAP and BOOMERanG experiments have set stringent constraints on the polarization angle of photons propagating in an expanding universe: Δα = (−2.4±1.9)°. The polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation (CMB) is reviewed in the context of nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED). We compute the polarization angle of photons propagating in a cosmological background with planar symmetry. For this purpose, we use the Pagels-Tomboulis (PT) Lagrangian density describing NLED, which has the form L ∼ (X/Λ{sup 4}){sup δ−1} X, where X = ¼F{sub αβ}F{sup αβ}, and δ the parameter featuring the non-Maxwellian character of the PT nonlinear description of the electromagnetic interaction. After looking at the polarization components in the plane orthogonal to the (x)-direction of propagation of the CMB photons, the polarization angle is defined in terms of the eccentricity of the universe, a geometrical property whose evolution on cosmic time (from the last scattering surface to the present) is constrained by the strength of magnetic fields over extragalactic distances.
Indefinite metric and regularization of electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaudin, M.
1984-06-01
The invariant regularization of Pauli and Villars in quantum electrodynamics can be considered as deriving from a local and causal lagrangian theory for spin 1/2 bosons, by introducing an indefinite metric and a condition on the allowed states similar to the Lorentz condition. The consequences are the asymptotic freedom of the photon's propagator. We present a calcultion of the effective charge to the fourth order in the coupling as a function of the auxiliary masses, the theory avoiding all mass divergencies to this order [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akhiezer, A.I.
1983-01-01
Basic ideas of quantum electrodynamics history of its origination and its importance are outlined. It is shown low the notion of the field for each kind of particles and the notion of vacuum for such field had originated and been affirmed how a new language of the Feynman diagrams had appeared without which it is quite impossible to described complex processes of particle scattering and mutual transformation. The main problem of the quantum electrodynamics is to find a scattering matrix, which solution comes to the determination of the Green electrodynamic functions. A review is given of papers on clarifying the asymptotic behaviour of the Green electrodynamic functions in the range of high pulses, on studying the Compton effect, bremsstrahlung irradiation Raman light scattering elastic scattering during channeling of charged particles in a crystal
Particle-like representation for the field of a moving point charge in nonlinear electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gitman, D M; Shabad, A E; Shishmarev, A A
2017-01-01
In a simple nonlinear model stemming from quantum electrodynamics wherein the pointlike charge has finite field-self-energy, we demonstrate that the latter can be presented as a soliton with its energy–momentum vector satisfying the standard mechanical relation characteristic of a free moving massive relativistic particle. (paper)
Cavity quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walther, Herbert; Varcoe, Benjamin T H; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Becker, Thomas
2006-01-01
This paper reviews the work on cavity quantum electrodynamics of free atoms. In recent years, cavity experiments have also been conducted on a variety of solid-state systems resulting in many interesting applications, of which microlasers, photon bandgap structures and quantum dot structures in cavities are outstanding examples. Although these phenomena and systems are very interesting, discussion is limited here to free atoms and mostly single atoms because these systems exhibit clean quantum phenomena and are not disturbed by a variety of other effects. At the centre of our review is the work on the one-atom maser, but we also give a survey of the entire field, using free atoms in order to show the large variety of problems dealt with. The cavity interaction can be separated into two main regimes: the weak coupling in cavity or cavity-like structures with low quality factors Q and the strong coupling when high-Q cavities are involved. The weak coupling leads to modification of spontaneous transitions and level shifts, whereas the strong coupling enables one to observe a periodic exchange of photons between atoms and the radiation field. In this case, atoms and photons are entangled, this being the basis for a variety of phenomena observed, some of them leading to interesting applications in quantum information processing. The cavity experiments with free atoms reached a new domain with the advent of experiments in the visible spectral region. A review on recent achievements in this area is also given
The positronium and the dipositronium in a Hartree-Fock approximation of quantum electrodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sok, Jérémy Vithya
2016-01-01
The Bogoliubov-Dirac-Fock (BDF) model is a no-photon approximation of quantum electrodynamics. It allows to study relativistic electrons in interaction with the Dirac sea. A state is fully characterized by its one-body density matrix, an infinite rank non-negative projector. We prove the existence...
Search for massive photon pair production at the CERN intersecting storage rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kourkoumelis, C.; Resvanis, L.K.; Filippas, T.A.; Fokitis, E.; Palmer, R.B.; Rahm, D.C.; Rehak, P.; Stumer, I.; Fabjan, C.W.; Fields, T.
1982-01-01
A search for massive photon pair production at √s=63 GeV has been carried out on the data sample previously employed for the electron pair production study. Positive evidence is reported for msub(γ)sub(γ)>6 GeV, with a production cross-section similar to Drell-Yan electron pairs. The ratio γγ/π 0 π 0 was measured to be approx. equal to10 -3 for a psub(T) of each γ or π 0 above 3 GeV/c. (orig.)
Validity of the equivalent-photon approximation for the production of massive spin-1 particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jayaraman, T.
1986-01-01
It is pointed out that the equivalent-photon approximation (EPA) for processes with massive spin-1 particles in the final state would have validity in a more restricted kinematic domain than for processes where it is commonly applied, viz., those with spin-1/2 or spin-0 particles in the final state. The criterion for the validity of EPA for the two-photon production of a pair of charged, massive, point-like spin-1 particles V ± , each of mass M and with a standard magnetic moment (k=1) is obtained. In a process in which one of the photons is real and the other virtual with four-momentum q, the condition for the validity of EPA is absolute value of q 2 2 , in addition to the usual condition absolute value of q 2 2 , W being the V + V - invariant mass. In a process in which both photons are virtual (with four-momenta q and q'), the condition is absolute value of q 2 absolute value of q' 2 W 4 8 , in addition to absolute value of q 2 2 , absolute value of q' 2 2 and absolute value of q 2 2 , absolute value of q' 2 2 . Even when these extra conditions permitting the use of EPA are not fulfilled, convenient approximate expressions may still be obtained assuming merely absolute value of q 2 2 and absolute value of q' 2 2 . It is also discussed how the extra conditions are altered when the vector bosons are incorporated in a spontaneously broken gauge theory. Examples of W boson production in Weinberg-Salam model are considered for which the condition absolute value of q 2 absolute value of q' 2 W 4 8 is shown to be removed. (author)
Classical electrodynamics from image charges to the photon mass and magnetic monopoles
Lacava, Francesco
2016-01-01
This book proposes intriguing arguments that will enable students to achieve a deeper understanding of electromagnetism, while also presenting a number of classical methods for solving difficult problems. Two chapters are devoted to relativistic electrodynamics, covering all aspects needed for a full comprehension of the nature of electric and magnetic fields and, subsequently, electrodynamics. Each of the two final chapters examines a selected experimental issue, introducing students to the work involved in actually proving a law or theory. Classical books on electricity and magnetism are mentioned in many references, helping to familiarize students with books that they will encounter in their further studies. Various problems are presented, together with their worked-out solutions. The book is based on notes from special lectures delivered by the author to students during the second year of a BSc course in Physics, but the subject matter may also be of interest to senior physicists, as many of the themes co...
Nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamic approach to photoemission theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujikawa, Takashi; Arai, Hiroko
2005-01-01
A new nonrelativistic many-body theory to analyze X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra has been developed on the basis of quantum electrodynamic (QED) Keldysh Green's function approach. To obtain XPS current density we calculate electron Green's function g which partly includes electron-photon interactions. We first separate longitudinal and transverse parts of these Green's functions in the Coulomb gauge. The transverse electron selfenergy describes the electron-photon interaction, whereas the longitudinal electron selfenergy describes the electron-electron interaction. We derive the QED Hedin's equation from which we obtain systematic skeleton expansion in the power series of the screened Coulomb interaction W and the photon Green's function D kl . We show the present theory provides a sound theoretical tool to study complicated many-body processes such as the electron propagation damping, intrinsic, extrinsic losses and their interference, and furthermore, resonant photoemission processes. We have also found the importance of the mixed photon Green's functions D 0k and D k0 which have been supposed to be unimportant for the XPS analyses. They, however, directly describe the radiation field screening. In this work, photon field screening effects are discussed in one-step theory, where the electron-photon interaction operator Δ is proved to be replaced by ε -1 Δ beyond linear approximation. Beyond free photon Green's function approximation, photon scatterings from the electron density are incorporated within the present QED theory. These photon field effects can directly describe the microscopic photon field spatial variation specific to near the surface region and nanoparticle systems
Cavity quantum electrodynamics with three-dimensional photonic bandgap crystals
Vos, Willem L.; Woldering, L.A.; Ghulinyan, M.; Pavesi, L.
2015-01-01
This paper is Chapter 8 of the book "Light Localisation and Lasing: Random and Pseudorandom Photonic Structures", edited by Mher Ghulinyan and Lorenzo Pavesi (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2015). It provides an overview of much recent work on 3D photonic crystals with a complete photonic
Parametric resonance in quantum electrodynamics vacuum birefringence
Arza, Ariel; Elias, Ricardo Gabriel
2018-05-01
Vacuum magnetic birefringence is one of the most interesting nonlinear phenomena in quantum electrodynamics because it is a pure photon-photon result of the theory and it directly signalizes the violation of the classical superposition principle of electromagnetic fields in the full quantum theory. We perform analytical and numerical calculations when an electromagnetic wave interacts with an oscillating external magnetic field. We find that in an ideal cavity, when the external field frequency is around the electromagnetic wave frequency, the normal and parallel components of the wave suffer parametric resonance at different rates, producing a vacuum birefringence effect growing in time. We also study the case where there is no cavity and the oscillating magnetic field is spatially localized in a region of length L . In both cases we find also a rotation of the elliptical axis.
Kumar, Vinay
2016-01-01
The present book entitled Concepts of Electrodynamics meets the demand of students of all engineering, graduate, honours and postgraduate courses in a single volume. This book covers all the topics on electrodynamics as per the new syllabus prescribed by UGC and AICTE and we do hope that this book will revive interest in the study of various topics on electrodynamics which will carries the reader to a high level of understanding. The text is enriched with a large number of solved examples apart from appropriate illustrations and examples in each chapter.
Methods for accurate calculations in high-energy quantum electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ericsson, K. E. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Uppsala (Sweden)
1963-01-15
In this paper ''quantum electrodynamics'' (QED) will be used in the sense of a closed theory of point-like photons and electrons. Muons could then easily be included. We make the usual assumption that the perturbation expansion of renormalized QED gives at least an asymptotic expression of the exact theory, i.e. that the sum over a few terms in the beginning of the perturbation series is a good approximation of the exact theory. We expect QED in this sense to break down at small distances, i. e. at large momentum transfers, because of structure effects resulting from other kinds of interaction, primarily the interactions of the electromagnetic field with the current of strongly interacting particles. This will first show up as vacuum polarization through mesons. On the other hand we have no reason to believe that the fundamental theory of electrodynamics, i.e. the theory of a massless vector field interacting with a.conserved current, will break down.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhukovskii, K.V.; Eminov, P.A.
1995-01-01
The one-loop approximation is used to calculate the effects of finite temperature and nonzero chemical potential on the electron energy shift in a (2 + 1)-quantum electrodynamic system containing a Churn-Simon term. The induced electron mass is derived with a massless (2 + 1)-quantum electrodynamic system together with the exchange correction to the thermodynamic potential for a completely degenerate electron gas. It is shown that in the last case, incorporating the Churn-Simon term leads to loss of the gap in the direction law
On the operator Schwinger term in zero mass photon QED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bordes, G.
1977-01-01
The matrix element of the e.m. current commutator between the vacuum and a two-photon state is computed directly without introducing a mass for the photon. The result is zero and then seems confirm the absence of an operator Schwinger term in quantum electrodynamics
Impact of quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.
1975-12-01
A review is given of recent developments in quantum electrodynamics, particularly those involving tests of muon dynamics as well as quantum electrodynamics tests. A new limit on possible muon composite structure is also given. The impact of quantum electrodynamics and its generalizations, the gauge theories, to other areas of physics, including the weak and strong interactions and the atomic spectrum of new particles. The consequences of scale invariance in hadron, atomic, and nuclear physics are reviewed. 119 references
Highly efficient photonic nanowire single-photon sources for quantum information applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gregersen, Niels; Claudon, J.; Munsch, M.
2013-01-01
to a collection efficiency of only 1-2 %, and efficient light extraction thus poses a major challenge in SPS engineering. Initial efforts to improve the efficiency have exploited cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) to efficiently couple the emitted photons to the optical cavity mode. An alternative approach......Within the emerging field of optical quantum information processing, the current challenge is to construct the basic building blocks for the quantum computing and communication systems. A key component is the singlephoton source (SPS) capable of emitting single photons on demand. Ideally, the SPS...... must feature near-unity efficiency, where the efficiency is defined as the number of detected photons per trigger, the probability g(2)(τ=0) of multi-photon emission events should be 0 and the emitted photons are required to be indistinguishable. An optically or electrically triggered quantum light...
Introduction to Electrodynamics
Griffiths, David J.
2017-06-01
1. Vector analysis; 2. Electrostatics; 3. Potentials; 4. Electric fields in matter; 5. Magnetostatics; 6. Magnetic fields in matter; 7. Electrodynamics; 8. Conservation laws; 9. Electromagnetic waves; 10. Potentials and fields; 11. Radiation; 12. Electrodynamics and relativity; Appendix A. Vector calculus in curvilinear coordinates; Appendix B. The Helmholtz theorem; Appendix C. Units; Index.
Quantum electrodynamics with the spear magnetic detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zipse, J.E.
1975-09-01
One makes a study of quantum electrodynamic processes which are present at the SPEAR colliding beam magnetic detector. We begin by describing the experiment performed by the SLAC-LBL collaboration and the results concerning the strong interaction. Then the interactions e + e - → e + e - and e + e - → μ + μ - are considered along with their third-order radiative corrections. These events, previously used to determine new limits for cutoff parameters in QED breakdown models, are further studied to show that the full distribution in coplanarity angle fits the theoretical prediction well. The major focus is on the fourth order two-photon process, e + e - → e + e - A + A - , which only recently has been realized to be significant in such experiments. Cross sections are derived and calculated exactly for this process and the results compared to a Weizacker-Williams equivalent photon calculation. The two-photon data are then isolated and fit to the calculation. A special experiment was done where the small-angle scattered electron or positron is ''tagged'' along with particles in the main detector. Cross sections and coplanarity distributions are measured and compared to calculation. Through these studies, one feels confident that one understand the nature of the two-photon process in the detector. One further explores the hadronic physics of the two-photon process, e + e - → e + e - hadrons, measuring pion cross sections, searching for resonances, and discussing future experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyer, T.H.
1975-01-01
The theory of classical electrodynamics with classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation is outlined here under the title random electrodynamics. The work represents a reanalysis of the bounds of validity of classical electron theory which should sharpen the understanding of the connections and distinctions between classical and quantum theories. The new theory of random electrodynamics is a classical electron theory involving Newton's equations for particle motion due to the Lorentz force, and Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic fields with point particles as sources. However, the theory departs from the classical electron theory of Lorentz in that it adopts a new boundary condition on Maxwell's equations. It is assumed that the homogeneous boundary condition involves random classical electromagnetic radiation with a Lorentz-invariant spectrum, classical electromagnetic zero-point radiation. The implications of random electrodynamics for atomic structure, atomic spectra, and particle-interference effects are discussed on an order-of-magnitude or heuristic level. Some detailed mathematical connections and some merely heuristic connections are noted between random electrodynamics and quantum theory. (U.S.)
Highly efficient sources of single indistinguishable photons
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gregersen, Niels
2013-01-01
be electrically driven. Several design strategies addressing these requirements have been proposed. In the cavity-based source, light emission is controlled using resonant cavity quantum electrodynamics effects, whereas in the waveguide-based source, broadband electric field screening effects are employed......Solid-state sources capable of emitting single photons on demand are of great interest in quantum information applications. Ideally, such a source should emit exactly one photon into the collection optics per trigger, the emitted photons should be indistinguishable and the source should...
The Relation between Classical and Quantum Electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mario Bacelar Valente
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum electrodynamics presents intrinsic limitations in the description of physical processes that make it impossible to recover from it the type of description we have in classical electrodynamics. Hence one cannot consider classical electrodynamics as reducing to quantum electrodynamics and being recovered from it by some sort of limiting procedure. Quantum electrodynamics has to be seen not as an more fundamental theory, but as an upgrade of classical electrodynamics, which permits an extension of classical theory to the description of phenomena that, while being related to the conceptual framework of the classical theory, cannot be addressed from the classical theory.
Propagator of stochastic electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cavalleri, G.
1981-01-01
The ''elementary propagator'' for the position of a free charged particle subject to the zero-point electromagnetic field with Lorentz-invariant spectral density proportionalω 3 is obtained. The nonstationary process for the position is solved by the stationary process for the acceleration. The dispersion of the position elementary propagator is compared with that of quantum electrodynamics. Finally, the evolution of the probability density is obtained starting from an initial distribution confined in a small volume and with a Gaussian distribution in the velocities. The resulting probability density for the position turns out to be equal, to within radiative corrections, to psipsi* where psi is the Kennard wave packet. If the radiative corrections are retained, the present result is new since the corresponding expression in quantum electrodynamics has not yet been found. Besides preceding quantum electrodynamics for this problem, no renormalization is required in stochastic electrodynamics
A Process Algebra Approach to Quantum Electrodynamics
Sulis, William
2017-12-01
The process algebra program is directed towards developing a realist model of quantum mechanics free of paradoxes, divergences and conceptual confusions. From this perspective, fundamental phenomena are viewed as emerging from primitive informational elements generated by processes. The process algebra has been shown to successfully reproduce scalar non-relativistic quantum mechanics (NRQM) without the usual paradoxes and dualities. NRQM appears as an effective theory which emerges under specific asymptotic limits. Space-time, scalar particle wave functions and the Born rule are all emergent in this framework. In this paper, the process algebra model is reviewed, extended to the relativistic setting, and then applied to the problem of electrodynamics. A semiclassical version is presented in which a Minkowski-like space-time emerges as well as a vector potential that is discrete and photon-like at small scales and near-continuous and wave-like at large scales. QED is viewed as an effective theory at small scales while Maxwell theory becomes an effective theory at large scales. The process algebra version of quantum electrodynamics is intuitive and realist, free from divergences and eliminates the distinction between particle, field and wave. Computations are carried out using the configuration space process covering map, although the connection to second quantization has not been fully explored.
Massive hidden photons as lukewarm dark matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Redondo, Javier; Postma, Marieke
2008-11-01
We study the possibility that a keV-MeV mass hidden photon (HP), i.e. a hidden sector U(1) gauge boson, accounts for the observed amount of dark matter. We focus on the case where the HP interacts with the standard model sector only through kinetic mixing with the photon. The relic abundance is computed including all relevant plasma effects into the photon's self-energy, which leads to a resonant yield almost independent of the HP mass. The HP can decay into three photons. Moreover, if light enough it can be copiously produced in stars. Including bounds from cosmic photon backgrounds and stellar evolution, we find that the hidden photon can only give a subdominant contribution to the dark matter. This negative conclusion may be avoided if another production mechanism besides kinetic mixing is operative. (orig.)
Massive hidden photons as lukewarm dark matter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Postma, Marieke [Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands)
2008-11-15
We study the possibility that a keV-MeV mass hidden photon (HP), i.e. a hidden sector U(1) gauge boson, accounts for the observed amount of dark matter. We focus on the case where the HP interacts with the standard model sector only through kinetic mixing with the photon. The relic abundance is computed including all relevant plasma effects into the photon's self-energy, which leads to a resonant yield almost independent of the HP mass. The HP can decay into three photons. Moreover, if light enough it can be copiously produced in stars. Including bounds from cosmic photon backgrounds and stellar evolution, we find that the hidden photon can only give a subdominant contribution to the dark matter. This negative conclusion may be avoided if another production mechanism besides kinetic mixing is operative. (orig.)
Nonlocal hyperconcentration on entangled photons using photonic module system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cao, Cong; Wang, Tie-Jun; Mi, Si-Chen [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Zhang, Ru [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); School of Ethnic Minority Education, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Wang, Chuan, E-mail: wangchuan@bupt.edu.cn [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)
2016-06-15
Entanglement distribution will inevitably be affected by the channel and environment noise. Thus distillation of maximal entanglement nonlocally becomes a crucial goal in quantum information. Here we illustrate that maximal hyperentanglement on nonlocal photons could be distilled using the photonic module and cavity quantum electrodynamics, where the photons are simultaneously entangled in polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom. The construction of the photonic module in a photonic band-gap structure is presented, and the operation of the module is utilized to implement the photonic nondestructive parity checks on the two degrees of freedom. We first propose a hyperconcentration protocol using two identical partially hyperentangled initial states with unknown coefficients to distill a maximally hyperentangled state probabilistically, and further propose a protocol by the assistance of an ancillary single photon prepared according to the known coefficients of the initial state. In the two protocols, the total success probability can be improved greatly by introducing the iteration mechanism, and only one of the remote parties is required to perform the parity checks in each round of iteration. Estimates on the system requirements and recent experimental results indicate that our proposal is realizable with existing or near-further technologies.
Nonlocal hyperconcentration on entangled photons using photonic module system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao, Cong; Wang, Tie-Jun; Mi, Si-Chen; Zhang, Ru; Wang, Chuan
2016-01-01
Entanglement distribution will inevitably be affected by the channel and environment noise. Thus distillation of maximal entanglement nonlocally becomes a crucial goal in quantum information. Here we illustrate that maximal hyperentanglement on nonlocal photons could be distilled using the photonic module and cavity quantum electrodynamics, where the photons are simultaneously entangled in polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom. The construction of the photonic module in a photonic band-gap structure is presented, and the operation of the module is utilized to implement the photonic nondestructive parity checks on the two degrees of freedom. We first propose a hyperconcentration protocol using two identical partially hyperentangled initial states with unknown coefficients to distill a maximally hyperentangled state probabilistically, and further propose a protocol by the assistance of an ancillary single photon prepared according to the known coefficients of the initial state. In the two protocols, the total success probability can be improved greatly by introducing the iteration mechanism, and only one of the remote parties is required to perform the parity checks in each round of iteration. Estimates on the system requirements and recent experimental results indicate that our proposal is realizable with existing or near-further technologies.
Efficient numerical methods for fluid- and electrodynamics on massively parallel systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zudrop, Jens
2016-07-01
In the last decade, computer technology has evolved rapidly. Modern high performance computing systems offer a tremendous amount of computing power in the range of a few peta floating point operations per second. In contrast, numerical software development is much slower and most existing simulation codes cannot exploit the full computing power of these systems. Partially, this is due to the numerical methods themselves and partially it is related to bottlenecks within the parallelization concept and its data structures. The goal of the thesis is the development of numerical algorithms and corresponding data structures to remedy both kinds of parallelization bottlenecks. The approach is based on a co-design of the numerical schemes (including numerical analysis) and their realizations in algorithms and software. Various kinds of applications, from multicomponent flows (Lattice Boltzmann Method) to electrodynamics (Discontinuous Galerkin Method) to embedded geometries (Octree), are considered and efficiency of the developed approaches is demonstrated for large scale simulations.
Toshmatov, Bobir; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Schee, Jan; Ahmedov, Bobomurat
2018-04-01
The electromagnetic (EM) perturbations of the black hole solutions in general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics (NED) are studied for both electrically and magnetically charged black holes, assuming that the EM perturbations do not alter the spacetime geometry. It is shown that the effective potentials of the electrically and magnetically charged black holes related to test perturbative NED EM fields are related to the effective metric governing the photon motion, contrary to the effective potential of the linear electrodynamic (Maxwell) field that is related to the spacetime metric. Consequently, corresponding quasinormal (QN) frequencies differ as well. As a special case, we study new family of the NED black hole solutions which tend in the weak field limit to the Maxwell field, giving the Reissner-Nordström (RN) black hole solution. We compare the NED Maxwellian black hole QN spectra with the RN black hole QN spectra.
Microwave-Controlled Generation of Shaped Single Photons in Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Pechal
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Large-scale quantum information processors or quantum communication networks will require reliable exchange of information between spatially separated nodes. The links connecting these nodes can be established using traveling photons that need to be absorbed at the receiving node with high efficiency. This is achievable by shaping the temporal profile of the photons and absorbing them at the receiver by time reversing the emission process. Here, we demonstrate a scheme for creating shaped microwave photons using a superconducting transmon-type three-level system coupled to a transmission line resonator. In a second-order process induced by a modulated microwave drive, we controllably transfer a single excitation from the third level of the transmon to the resonator and shape the emitted photon. We reconstruct the density matrices of the created single-photon states and show that the photons are antibunched. We also create multipeaked photons with a controlled amplitude and phase. In contrast to similar existing schemes, the one we present here is based solely on microwave drives, enabling operation with fixed frequency transmons.
Two-dimensional 'photon fluid': effective photon-photon interaction and physical realizations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiao, R Y; Hansson, T H; Leinaas, J M; Viefers, S
2004-01-01
We describe a recently developed effective theory for atom-mediated photon-photon interactions in a two-dimensional 'photon fluid' confined to a Fabry-Perot resonator. The photons in the lowest longitudinal cavity mode will appear as massive bosons interacting via a renormalized delta-function potential with a strength determined by physical parameters such as the density of atoms and the detuning of the photons relative to the resonance frequency of the atoms. We discuss novel quantum phenomena for photons, such as Bose-Einstein condensation and bound state formation, as well as possible experimental scenarios based on Rydberg atoms in a microwave cavity, or alkali atoms in an optical cavity
A highly efficient single-photon source based on a quantum dot in a photonic nanowire
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Claudon, Julien; Bleuse, Joel; Malik, Nitin Singh
2010-01-01
–4 or a semiconductor quantum dot5–7. Achieving a high extraction efficiency has long been recognized as a major issue, and both classical solutions8 and cavity quantum electrodynamics effects have been applied1,9–12. We adopt a different approach, based on an InAs quantum dot embedded in a GaAs photonic nanowire......The development of efficient solid-state sources of single photons is a major challenge in the context of quantum communication,optical quantum information processing and metrology1. Such a source must enable the implementation of a stable, single-photon emitter, like a colour centre in diamond2...
Coherent perfect absorption in a quantum nonlinear regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics
Wei, Yang-hua; Gu, Wen-ju; Yang, Guoqing; Zhu, Yifu; Li, Gao-xiang
2018-05-01
Coherent perfect absorption (CPA) is investigated in the quantum nonlinear regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED), in which a single two-level atom couples to a single-mode cavity weakly driven by two identical laser fields. In the strong-coupling regime and due to the photon blockade effect, the weakly driven CQED system can be described as a quantum system with three polariton states. CPA is achieved at a critical input field strength when the frequency of the input fields matches the polariton transition frequency. In the quantum nonlinear regime, the incoherent dissipation processes such as atomic and photon decays place a lower bound for the purity of the intracavity quantum field. Our results show that under the CPA condition, the intracavity field always exhibits the quadrature squeezing property manifested by the quantum nonlinearity, and the outgoing photon flux displays the super-Poissonian distribution.
Yu, Leiming; Nina-Paravecino, Fanny; Kaeli, David; Fang, Qianqian
2018-01-01
We present a highly scalable Monte Carlo (MC) three-dimensional photon transport simulation platform designed for heterogeneous computing systems. Through the development of a massively parallel MC algorithm using the Open Computing Language framework, this research extends our existing graphics processing unit (GPU)-accelerated MC technique to a highly scalable vendor-independent heterogeneous computing environment, achieving significantly improved performance and software portability. A number of parallel computing techniques are investigated to achieve portable performance over a wide range of computing hardware. Furthermore, multiple thread-level and device-level load-balancing strategies are developed to obtain efficient simulations using multiple central processing units and GPUs. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
Modeling and Design of High-Efficiency Single-Photon Sources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gregersen, Niels; Nielsen, Per Kær; Mørk, Jesper
2013-01-01
be electrically driven. Several design strategies addressing these requirements have been proposed. In the cavity-based source, light emission is controlled using resonant cavity quantum electrodynamics effects, whereas in the waveguide-based source, broadband electric field screening effects are employed......Solid-state sources capable of emitting single photons on demand are of great interest in quantum information applications. Ideally, such a source should emit exactly one photon into the collection optics per trigger, the emitted photons should be indistinguishable, and the source should...
Electrodynamic thermogravimetric analyzer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spjut, R.E.; Bar-Ziv, E.; Sarofim, A.F.; Longwell, J.P.
1986-01-01
The design and operation of a new device for studying single-aerosol-particle kinetics at elevated temperatures, the electrodynamic thermogravimetric analyzer (EDTGA), was examined theoretically and experimentally. The completed device consists of an electrodynamic balance modified to permit particle heating by a CO 2 laser, temperature measurement by a three-color infrared-pyrometry system, and continuous weighing by a position-control system. In this paper, the position-control, particle-weight-measurement, heating, and temperature-measurement systems are described and their limitations examined
The role of virtual photons in nanoscale photonics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrews, David L.; Bradshaw, David S. [School of Chemistry, University of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)
2014-04-15
The fundamental theory of processes and properties associated with nanoscale photonics should properly account for the quantum nature of both the matter and the radiation field. A familiar example is the Casimir force, whose significant role in nanoelectromechanical systems is widely recognised; the correct representation invokes the creation of short-lived virtual photons from the vacuum. In fact, there is an extensive range of nanophotonic interactions in which virtual photon exchange plays a vital role, mediating the coupling between particles. This review surveys recent theory and applications, also exhibiting novel insights into key electrodynamic mechanisms. Examples are numerous and include: laser-induced inter-particle forces known as optical binding; non-parametric frequency-conversion processes especially in rare-earth doped materials; light-harvesting polymer materials that involve electronic energy transfer between their constituent chromophores. An assessment of these and the latest prospective applications concludes with a view on future directions of research. (copyright 2014 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Molecular quantum electrodynamics
Craig, D P
1998-01-01
This systematic introduction to quantum electrodynamics focuses on the interaction of radiation with outer electrons and nuclei of atoms and molecules, answering the long-standing need of chemists and physicists for a comprehensive text on this highly specialized subject.Geared toward postgraduate students in the chemical sciences who require an understanding of quantum electrodynamics as applied to the interpretation of optical experiments on atoms and molecules, the text offers a detailed explanation of the quantum theory of electromagnetic radiation and its interaction with matter. It feat
The propagator of stochastic electrodynamics
Cavalleri, G.
1981-01-01
The "elementary propagator" for the position of a free charged particle subject to the zero-point electromagnetic field with Lorentz-invariant spectral density ~ω3 is obtained. The nonstationary process for the position is solved by the stationary process for the acceleration. The dispersion of the position elementary propagator is compared with that of quantum electrodynamics. Finally, the evolution of the probability density is obtained starting from an initial distribution confined in a small volume and with a Gaussian distribution in the velocities. The resulting probability density for the position turns out to be equal, to within radiative corrections, to ψψ* where ψ is the Kennard wave packet. If the radiative corrections are retained, the present result is new since the corresponding expression in quantum electrodynamics has not yet been found. Besides preceding quantum electrodynamics for this problem, no renormalization is required in stochastic electrodynamics.
Massive mu pair production in a vector field theory model
Halliday, I G
1976-01-01
Massive electrodynamics is treated as a model for the production of massive mu pairs in high-energy hadronic collisions. The dominant diagrams in perturbation theory are identified and analyzed. These graphs have an eikonal structure which leads to enormous cancellations in the two-particle inclusive cross section but not in the n-particle production cross sections. Under the assumption that these cancellations are complete, a Drell-Yan structure appears in the inclusive cross section but the particles accompanying the mu pairs have a very different structure compared to the parton model. The pionization region is no longer empty of particles as in single parton models. (10 refs).
Photon statistics, antibunching and squeezed states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leuchs, G.
1986-01-01
This paper attempts to describe the status and addresses future prospects of experiments regarding photon antibunching, and squeezed states. Light correlation is presented in the framework of classical electrodynamics. The extension to quantized radiation fields is discussed and an introduction to the basic principles related to photon statistics, antibunching and squeezed states are presented. The effect of linear attenuation (beam splitters, neutral density filters, and detector quantum efficiency) on the detected signal is discussed. Experiments on the change of photon statistics by the nonlinear interaction of radiation fields with matter are described and some experimental observations of antibunching and sub-Poissonian photon statistics in resonance fluorescence and with possible schemes for the generation and detection of squeezed states are examined
Potentialities of Revised Quantum Electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lehnert B.
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The potentialities of a revised quantum electrodynamic theory (RQED earlier established by the author are reconsidered, also in respect to other fundamental theories such as those by Dirac and Higgs. The RQED theory is characterized by intrinsic linear symmetry breaking due to a nonzero divergence of the electric field strength in the vacuum state, as supported by the Zero Point Energy and the experimentally confirmed Casimir force. It includes the results of electron spin and antimatter by Dirac, as well as the rest mass of elementary particles predicted by Higgs in terms of spontaneous nonlinear symmetry breaking. It will here be put into doubt whether the approach by Higgs is the only theory which becomes necessary for explaining the particle rest masses. In addition, RQED theory leads to new results beyond those being available from the theories by Dirac, Higgs and the Standard Model, such as in applications to leptons and the photon.
Photon momentum and optical forces in cavities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Partanen, Mikko; Häyrynen, Teppo; Oksanen, Jani
2016-01-01
During the past century, the electromagnetic field momentum in material media has been under debate in the Abraham-Minkowski controversy as convincing arguments have been advanced in favor of both the Abraham and Minkowski forms of photon momentum. Here we study the photon momentum and optical....... When describing the steady-state nonequilibrium field distributions we use the recently developed quantized fluctuational electrodynamics (QFED) formalism. While allowing detailed studies of light propagation and quantum field fluctuations in interfering structures, our methods also provide practical...
Massive photon properties in 3D photonic crystals, filled by dielectrics or metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorelik, V S
2009-01-01
The optical properties of 3D photonic crystals-artificial opals, consisting of monosized silica globules-have been investigated. The volume between globules was filled by various dielectrics or metals. The dispersion law of electromagnetic waves of this type of crystal has been obtained. It was shown that the sign of photonic mass in globular photonic crystals may be positive or negative for different points on dispersion curves. The value of the effective mass of photons depends on the refractive index of the substance infiltrated into the globular photonic crystal.
A Way to Revised Quantum Electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lehnert B.
2012-04-01
Full Text Available In conventional theoretical physics and its Standard Model the guiding principle is that the equations are symmetrical. This limitation leads to a number of difficulties, because it does not permit masses for leptons and quarks, the electron tends to “explode” un- der the action of its self-charge, a corresponding photon model has no spin, and such a model cannot account for the “needle radiation” proposed by Einstein and observed in the photoelectric e ff ect and in two-slit experiments. This paper summarizes a revised Lorentz and gauge invariant quantum electrodynamic theory based on a nonzero electric field divergence in the vacuum and characterized by linear intrinsic broken symmetry. It thus provides an alternative to the Higgs concept of nonlinear spontaneous broken sym- metry, for solving the difficulties of the Standard Model. New results are obtained, such as nonzero and finite lepton rest masses, a point-charge-like behavior of the electron due to a revised renormalization procedure, a magnetic volume force which counteracts the electrostatic eigen-force of the electron, a nonzero spin of the photon and of light beams, needle radiation, and an improved understanding of the photoelectric effect, two-slit ex- periments, electron-positron pair formation, and cork-screw-shaped light beams.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, K.R.
1975-01-01
The Schwinger model is considered in the Landau-gauge formalism of quantum electrodynamics. This model can be solved exactly on the assumption of no radiative corrections to the anomaly. It is found that the photon obtains a non-zero mass through the Higgs mechanism. In this case, the would-be Nambu-Goldstone boson is an associated boson which is constructed from a pair of two-component massless fermions. This would-be Nambu-Goldstone boson appears as a result of the spontaneous breaking of the gauge invariance of the first kind, and it becomes unphysical through the Higgs mechanism. However, as all the fermions themselves decouple from photons, they cannot appear as real particles in our world. (author)
Unified field theory with Einsteinian photons and heavy bosons as field quants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Treder, H J
1975-08-01
After discussing previously the classical electrodynamics which corresponds to the quantum electrodynamics with two sorts of photons (photons with zero rest mass and nonvanishing rest mass), the general field theory of a vector field A/sup v/ with two sorts if field quanta is given. It is shown that the postulate for the ''unity of the four-current'' determining the physical contents of this theory makes it possible to regard it as a classical ansatz of a unified theory of the electromagnetic and the weak interactions. From the ''unity of the currents'' results that the electrons are delta-like point-particles with a finite self-potential and finite field masses M = epsilon/sup 2//2 kc/sup -2/. The Compton wave-length of the heavy photons k/sup -1/ = h/mc has the meaning of an ''elementary length'' of the electromagnetic interactions and the rest mass m = khc/sup -1/ of these bosons is of the order of a baryon mass. (auth)
The PROPEL Electrodynamic Tether Demonstration Mission
Bilen, Sven G.; Johnson, C. Les; Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Alexander, Leslie; Gilchrist, Brian E.; Hoyt, Robert P.; Elder, Craig H.; Fuhrhop, Keith P.; Scadera, Michael
2012-01-01
The PROPEL ("Propulsion using Electrodynamics") mission will demonstrate the operation of an electrodynamic tether propulsion system in low Earth orbit and advance its technology readiness level for multiple applications. The PROPEL mission has two primary objectives: first, to demonstrate the capability of electrodynamic tether technology to provide robust and safe, near-propellantless propulsion for orbit-raising, de-orbit, plane change, and station keeping, as well as to perform orbital power harvesting and formation flight; and, second, to fully characterize and validate the performance of an integrated electrodynamic tether propulsion system, qualifying it for infusion into future multiple satellite platforms and missions with minimal modification. This paper provides an overview of the PROPEL system and design reference missions; mission goals and required measurements; and ongoing PROPEL mission design efforts.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Serva, M.
1986-01-01
In this paper we give probabilistic solutions to the equations describing non-relativistic quantum electrodynamical systems. These solutions involve, besides the usual diffusion processes, also birth and death processes corresponding to the 'photons number' variables. We state some inequalities and in particular we establish bounds to the ground state energy of systems composed by a non relativistic particle interacting with a field. The result is general and it is applied as an example to the polaron problem. (orig.)
Notes on Born-Infeld-type electrodynamics
Kruglov, S. I.
2017-11-01
We propose a new model of nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED) with three parameters. Born-Infeld (BI) electrodynamics and exponential electrodynamics are particular cases of this model. The phenomenon of vacuum birefringence in the external magnetic field is studied. We show that there is no singularity of the electric field at the origin of point-like charged particles. The corrections to Coulomb’s law at r →∞ are obtained. We calculate the total electrostatic energy of charges, for different parameters of the model, which is finite.
Remarks on Heisenberg-Euler-type electrodynamics
Kruglov, S. I.
2017-05-01
We consider Heisenberg-Euler-type model of nonlinear electrodynamics with two parameters. Heisenberg-Euler electrodynamics is a particular case of this model. Corrections to Coulomb’s law at r →∞ are obtained and energy conditions are studied. The total electrostatic energy of charged particles is finite. The charged black hole solution in the framework of nonlinear electrodynamics is investigated. We find the asymptotic of the metric and mass functions at r →∞. Corrections to the Reissner-Nordström solution are obtained.
Scalar formalism for quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hostler, L.C.
1985-01-01
A set of Feynman rules, similar to the rules of scalar electrodynamics, is derived for a full quantum electrodynamics based on the relativistic Klein--Gordon--type wave equation ]Pi/sub μ/Pi/sub μ/+m 2 +ie sigma x (E +iB)]phi = 0, Pi/sub μ/ equivalent-i partial/sub μ/-eA/sub μ/, for spin- 1/2 particles [J. Math. Phys. 23, 1179 (1982); J. Math. Phys. 24, 2366 (1983)]. In this equation, phi is a 2 x 1 Pauli spinor and sigma/sub a/, a = 1,2,3, are the usual 2 x 2 Pauli spin matrices. The irreducible self-energy parts are compared to those of conventional quantum electrodynamics
Possible nonvanishing mass of photon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakazato, Hiromichi; Namiki, Mikio; Yamanaka, Yoshiya; Yokoyama, Kan-ichi.
1985-05-01
From phenomenological and field-theoretical considerations on photon mass, we first show that photon is not limitted to being massless at the present stage. Next we illustrate a possibility of formulating a local field theory for massive photons coupled with nonconserved currents, while we cannot do for massless photons. (author)
Soft photons from off-shell particles in a hot plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henning, P.A.; Quack, E.
1995-05-01
Considering the propagation of off-shell particles in the framework of thermal field theory, we present the general formalism for the calculation of the production rate of soft photons and dileptons from a hot plasma. This approach is illustrated with an electrodynamic plasma. The photon production rate from strongly interacting quarks in the quark-gluon plasma, which might be formed in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions, is calculated in the previously unaccessible regime of photon energies of the order of the plasma temperature within an effective field theory incorporating dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. (orig.)
Ionization of atoms by high energy photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amusia, M.Y.; Ioffe, A.F.
1994-01-01
Photoionization of atoms by high energy photons is considered. It is emphasized that in this frequency region the cross section and other characteristics of the process are strongly effected by electron shell polarization and rearrangement effects, including that due to inner vacancy Auger decay. In the effects of nuclear structure could be important and noticeable, i.e. of virtual or real excitation of the nucleus degrees of freedom and of the Quantum Electrodynamics vacuum. Ionization accompanied by secondary photon emission (Compton ionization) is analyzed in the considered domain of energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakanishi, N [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Mathematical Sciences
1974-12-01
The Lehmann--Symanzik--Zimmermann formalism is presented for manifestly covariant quantum electrodynamics involving a gauge parameter ..cap alpha... Contrary to Kaellen's assertion, it is shown that one can consistently formulate the asymptotic condition for the electromagnetic field and construct the Fock space of asymptotic states. Except for the case of Feynman gauge (..cap alpha..=1), the formalism is somewhat complicated because of the presence of dipole ghosts, but emphasis is laid on the very existence of a consistent formalism. The completeness relation for the asymptotic states is presented so that the generalized unitarity relation can be written down. Indefinite-metric theory of a massive vector field is briefly discussed.
Dynamically controlling the emission of single excitons in photonic crystal cavities
Pagliano, F.; Cho, Y.; Xia, T.; Otten, van F.W.M.; Johne, R.; Fiore, A.
2014-01-01
Single excitons in semiconductor microcavities represent a solid state and scalable platform for cavity quantum electrodynamics, potentially enabling an interface between flying (photon) and static (exciton) quantum bits in future quantum networks. While both singlephoton emission and the strong
Quantum Dots in Photonic Crystal Waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sollner, Immo Nathanael
This Thesis is focused on the study of quantum electrodynamics in photonic crystal waveguides. We investigate the interplay between a single quantum dot and the fundamental mode of the photonic crystal waveguide. We demonstrate experimental coupling eciencies for the spontaneous emission...... into the mode exceeding 98% for emitters spectrally close to the band-edge of the waveguide mode. In addition we illustrate the broadband nature of the underlying eects, by obtaining coupling eciencies above 90% for quantum dots detuned from the band edge by as far as 20nm. These values are in good agreement...... with numerical simulations. Such a high coupling eciency implies that the system can be considered an articial 1D-atom, and we theoretically show that this system can generate strong photon-photon interaction, which is an essential functionality for deterministic optical quantum information processing. We...
The new topological sectors associated with quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marino, E.C.
1994-01-01
A formulation of Quantum Electrodynamics in terms of an antisymmetric-tensor gauge field is presented. In this formulation the topological current of this field appears as a source for the electromagnetic field and the topological charge therefore acts physically as an electric charge. These nontrivial, electrically charged, sectors contain massless states orthogonal to the vacuum which are created by a gauge invariant operator can be interpreted as coherent states of photons. The new states do interact with the charged states of QCD in the usual way. It is argued that if these new sectors are in fact realized in nature then a very intense background electromagnetic field is necessary for the experimental observation of them. The order of magnitude of the intensity threshold is presented. (author). 2 refs
Near-field photon wave mechanics in the Lorenz gauge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keller, Ole
2007-01-01
Optical near-field interactions are studied theoretically in the perspective of photon wave mechanics paying particular attention to the dynamics in the wave-vector time domain. A unitary transformation is used to replace the scalar and longitudinal photon variables by so-called near-field and gauge photon variables. Dynamical equations are established for these types of photon variables, and it is shown that these equations are invariant against gauge transformations within the Lorenz gauge. The near-field photon is absent in the free-field limit, and the gauge photon can be eliminated by a suitable gauge transformation. Implicit solutions for the near-field, gauge, and transverse photon variables are obtained and discussed. The general theory is applied to an investigation of transverse photon propagation in a uniform solid-state plasma dominated by the diamagnetic field-matter interaction. It is found that the diamagnetic response can be incorporated in a quantum mechanical wave equation for a massive transverse photon. The Compton wave number of the massive photon equals the plasma wave number of the electron system. A dynamical equation describing the emission of a massive transverse photon from a mesoscopic source embedded in the plasma is finally established
Self-Similar Nanocavity Design with Ultrasmall Mode Volume for Single-Photon Nonlinearities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Choi, Hyeongrak; Heuck, Mikkel; Englund, Dirk R.
2017-01-01
We propose a photonic crystal nanocavity design with self-similar electromagnetic boundary conditions, achieving ultrasmall mode volume (V-eff). The electric energy density of a cavity mode can be maximized in the air or dielectric region, depending on the choice of boundary conditions. We illust...... at the single-photon level. These features open new directions in cavity quantum electrodynamics, spectroscopy, and quantum nonlinear optics....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ito, K R [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Mathematical Sciences
1975-03-01
The Schwinger model is considered in the Landau-gauge formalism of quantum electrodynamics. This model can be solved exactly on the assumption of no radiative corrections to the anomaly. It is found that the photon obtains a non-zero mass through the Higgs mechanism. In this case, the would-be Nambu-Goldstone boson is an associated boson which is constructed from a pair of two-component massless fermions. This would-be Nambu-Goldstone boson appears as a result of the spontaneous breaking of the gauge invariance of the first kind, and it becomes unphysical through the Higgs mechanism. However, as all the fermions themselves decouple from photons, they cannot appear as real particles in our world.
Zangwill, Andrew
2013-01-01
An engaging writing style and a strong focus on the physics make this comprehensive, graduate-level textbook unique among existing classical electromagnetism textbooks. Charged particles in vacuum and the electrodynamics of continuous media are given equal attention in discussions of electrostatics, magnetostatics, quasistatics, conservation laws, wave propagation, radiation, scattering, special relativity and field theory. Extensive use of qualitative arguments similar to those used by working physicists makes Modern Electrodynamics a must-have for every student of this subject. In 24 chapters, the textbook covers many more topics than can be presented in a typical two-semester course, making it easy for instructors to tailor courses to their specific needs. Close to 120 worked examples and 80 applications boxes help the reader build physical intuition and develop technical skill. Nearly 600 end-of-chapter homework problems encourage students to engage actively with the material. A solutions manual is availa...
Hydrodynamic view of electrodynamics: energy rays and electromagnetic effective stress
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chou, Chia-Chun; Wyatt, Robert E
2011-01-01
Energy rays ('photon trajectories') based upon the hydrodynamic formulation of electrodynamics are presented for time-dependent electromagnetic wave propagation. We derive Cauchy's equation of motion for the electromagnetic effective force governing the dynamics of energy rays. The effective force generated by the electromagnetic effective stress provides a surface force acting on the energy fluid element. For the head-on collision of two electromagnetic Gaussian pulses, the electromagnetic effective force, analogous to the role played by the quantum force in Bohmian mechanics, guides these non-crossing energy rays. For an electromagnetic pulse traveling from free space to a dielectric medium, the energy rays guided by the electromagnetic effective stress display reflection and refraction at the interface.
Higgs-Like Particle due to Revised Quantum Electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lehnert B.
2013-07-01
Full Text Available A Higgs-like particle having zero net electric charge, zero spin, and a nonzero rest mass can be deduced from an earlier elaborated revised quantum electrodynamical theory which is based on linear symmetry breaking through a nonzero electric ﬁeld divergence in the vacuum state. This special particle is obtained from a composite longitudinal solution based on a zero magnetic ﬁeld strength and on a nonzero divergence but a vanishing curl of the electric ﬁeld strength. The present theory further diﬀers from that of the nonlinear spontaneously broken symmetry by Higgs, in which elementary particles obtain their masses through an interaction with the Higgs ﬁeld. An experimental proof of the basic features of a Higgs-like particle thus supports the present theory, but does not for certain conﬁrm the process which would generate massive particles through a Higgs ﬁeld
Renormalizable Electrodynamics of Scalar and Vector Mesons. Part II
Salam, Abdus; Delbourgo, Robert
1964-01-01
The "gauge" technique" for solving theories introduced in an earlier paper is applied to scalar and vector electrodynamics. It is shown that for scalar electrodynamics, there is no {lambda}φ*2φ2 infinity in the theory, while with conventional subtractions vector electrodynamics is completely finite. The essential ideas of the gauge technique are explained in section 3, and a preliminary set of rules for finite computation in vector electrodynamics is set out in Eqs. (7.28) - (7.34).
Advanced action in classical electrodynamics
Boozer, A. D.
2008-01-01
The time evolution of a charged point particle is governed by a second-order integro-differential equation that exhibits advanced effects, in which the particle responds to an external force before the force is applied. In this paper we give a simple physical argument that clarifies the origin and physical meaning of these advanced effects, and we compare ordinary electrodynamics with a toy model of electrodynamics in which advanced effects do not occur.
Foundations of electrodynamics
Moon, Parry
2013-01-01
Advanced undergraduate text presupposes some knowledge of electricity and magnetism, making substantial use of vector analysis. A serious development of electrodynamics on a postulational basis that clearly defines each concept. 1960 edition.
BRST Quantisation of Histories Electrodynamics
Noltingk, D.
2001-01-01
This paper is a continuation of earlier work where a classical history theory of pure electrodynamics was developed in which the the history fields have \\emph{five} components. The extra component is associated with an extra constraint, thus enlarging the gauge group of histories electrodynamics. In this paper we quantise the classical theory developed previously by two methods. Firstly we quantise the reduced classical history space, to obtain a reduced quantum history theory. Secondly we qu...
Ampere-Neumann electrodynamics of metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graneau, P.
1985-01-01
Maxwell described Ampere's force law as the cardinal formula of electrodynamics. This law predicts longitudinal mechanical forces along current streamlines in metallic conductors. The Ampere forces set up tension in wires and busbars and compression in liquid metal. At normal current densities they are negligible but, increasing with the square of current, they become dominant in pulse power circuits. Ampere tension and compression have been revealed by exploding wire experiments, in liquid metal jets at solid - liquid interfaces, and with an electrodynamic pendulum. Ampere stresses are already playing an important role in the development of railguns, fuses, current limiters, opening switches, pulse magnets, and a host of other pulse-power devices. This book outlines the electrodynamic action-at-a-distance theory developed by Ampere, Neumann, Weber and, to some extent, by Maxwell. One chapter describes the 20th century extensions of the theory by Graneau and others
Measuring the effective phonon density of states of a quantum dot in cavity quantum electrodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Nielsen, Per Kær; Kreiner-Møller, Asger
2013-01-01
We employ detuning-dependent decay-rate measurements of a quantum dot in a photonic-crystal cavity to study the influence of phonon dephasing in a solid-state quantum-electrodynamics experiment. The experimental data agree with a microscopic non-Markovian model accounting for dephasing from...... longitudinal acoustic phonons, and the analysis explains the difference between nonresonant cavity feeding in different nanocavities. From the comparison between experiment and theory we extract the effective phonon density of states experienced by the quantum dot in the nanocavity. This quantity determines...
Reider, Georg A
2016-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive introduction into photonics, from the electrodynamic and quantum mechanic fundamentals to the level of photonic components and building blocks such as lasers, amplifiers, modulators, waveguides, and detectors. The book will serve both as textbook and as a reference work for the advanced student or scientist. Theoretical results are derived from basic principles with convenient, yet state-of-the-art mathematical tools, providing not only deeper understanding but also familiarization with formalisms used in the relevant technical literature and research articles. Among the subject matters treated are polarization optics, pulse and beam propagation, waveguides, light–matter interaction, stationary and transient behavior of lasers, semiconductor optics and lasers (including low-dimensional systems such as quantum wells), detector technology, photometry, and colorimetry. Nonlinear optics are elaborated comprehensively. The book is intended for both students of physics and elect...
The nature of light what is a photon?
Roychoudhuri, Chandra; Creath, Kathy
2008-01-01
Focusing on the unresolved debate between Newton and Huygens from 300 years ago, The Nature of Light: What is a Photon? discusses the reality behind enigmatic photons. It explores the fundamental issues pertaining to light that still exist today. Gathering contributions from globally recognized specialists in electrodynamics and quantum optics, the book begins by clearly presenting the mainstream view of the nature of light and photons. It then provides a new and challenging scientific epistemology that explains how to overcome the prevailing paradoxes and confusions arising from the accepted definition of a photon as a monochromatic Fourier mode of the vacuum. The book concludes with an array of experiments that demonstrate the innovative thinking needed to examine the wave-particle duality of photons. Looking at photons from both mainstream and out-of-box viewpoints, this volume is sure to inspire the next generation of quantum optics scientists and engineers to go beyond the Copenhagen interpretat...
Resonator quantum electrodynamics on a microtrap chip
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steinmetz, Tilo
2008-01-01
In the present dissertation experiments on resonator quantum electrodynamics on a microtrap chip are described. Thereby for the first time single atoms catched in a chip trap could be detected. For this in the framework of this thesis a novel optical microresonator was developed, which can because of its miniaturization be combined with the microtrap technique introduced in our working group for the manipulation of ultracold atoms. For this resonator glass-fiber ends are used as mirror substrates, between which a standing light wave is formed. With such a fiber Fabry-Perot resonator we obtain a finess of up to ∼37,000. Because of the small mode volumina in spite of moderate resonator quality the coherent interaction between an atom and a photon can be made so large that the regime of the strong atom-resonator coupling is reached. For the one-atom-one-photon coupling rate and the one-atom-one-photon cooperativity thereby record values of g 0 =2π.300 MHz respectively C 0 =210 are reached. Just so for the first time the strong coupling regime between a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and the field of a high-quality resonator could be reached. The BEC was thereby by means of the magnetic microtrap potentials deterministically brought to a position within the resonator and totally transformed in a well defined antinode of an additionally optical standing-wave trap. The spectrum of the coupled atom-resonator system was measured for different atomic numbers and atom-resonator detunings, whereby a collective vacuum Rabi splitting of more than 20 GHz could be reached. [de
Hyperfine splitting in positronium to O(α7me). One-photon annihilation contribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, M.; Penin, A.A.; Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie; Piclum, J.; RWTH Aachen; Steinhauser, M.
2014-02-01
We present the complete result for the O(α 7 m e ) one-photon annihilation contribution to the hyperfine splitting of the ground state energy levels in positronium. Numerically it increases the prediction of quantum electrodynamics by 217±1 kHz.
Gupta-Bleuler Photon Quantization in the SME
Colladay, Don; Potting, Robertus
2014-01-01
Photon quantization is implemented in the standard model extension (SME) using the Gupta-Bleuler method and BRST concepts. The quantization prescription applies to both the birefringent and non-birefringent CPT-even couplings. A curious incompatibility is found between the presence of the Lorentz-violating terms and the existence of a nontrivial conjugate momentum $\\Pi^0$ yielding problems with covariant quantization procedure. Introduction of a mass regulator term can avoid the vanishing of $\\Pi^0$ and allows for the implementation of a covariant quantization procedure. Field-theoretic calculations involving the SME photons can then be performed using the mass regulator, similar to the conventional procedure used in electrodynamics for infrared-divergence regulation.
Massive stars in colliding wind systems: the GLAST perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reimer, Anita; Reimer, Olaf
2007-01-01
Colliding winds of massive stars in binary systems arc considered as candidate sites of high-energy non-thermal photon emission. They are already among the suggested counterparts for a few individual unidentified EGRET sources, but may constitute a detectable source population for the GLAST observatory.The present work investigates such population study of massive colliding wind systems at high-energy gamma-rays. Based on the recent detailed model (Reimer et al. 2006) for non-thermal photon production in prime candidate systems, we unveil the expected characteristics of this source class in the observables accessible at LAT energies. Combining the broadband emission model with the presently cataloged distribution of such systems and their individual parameters allows us to conclude on the expected maximum number of LAT-detections among massive stars in colliding wind binary systems
Energy flow in photonic crystal waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Søndergaard, Thomas; Dridi, Kim
2000-01-01
Theoretical and numerical investigations of energy flow in photonic crystal waveguides made of line defects and branching points are presented. It is shown that vortices of energy flow may occur, and the net energy flow along: the line defect is described via the effective propagation velocity....... Single-mode and multimode operations are studied, and dispersion relations are computed for different waveguide widths. Both strong positive, strong negative, and zero dispersion an possible. It is shown that geometric parameters such as the nature of the lattice, the line defect orientation, the defect...... width, and the branching-point geometry have a significant influence on the electrodynamics. These are important issues for the fabrication of photonic crystal structures....
Quantum mechanics and electrodynamics
Zamastil, Jaroslav
2017-01-01
This book highlights the power and elegance of algebraic methods of solving problems in quantum mechanics. It shows that symmetries not only provide elegant solutions to problems that can be solved exactly, but also substantially simplify problems that must be solved approximately. Furthermore, the book provides an elementary exposition of quantum electrodynamics and its application to low-energy physics, along with a thorough analysis of the role of relativistic, magnetic, and quantum electrodynamic effects in atomic spectroscopy. Included are essential derivations made clear through detailed, transparent calculations. The book’s commitment to deriving advanced results with elementary techniques, as well as its inclusion of exercises will enamor it to advanced undergraduate and graduate students.
Quantum entanglement and phase transition in a two-dimensional photon-photon pair model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Jianjun; Yuan Jianhui; Zhang Junpei; Cheng Ze
2013-01-01
We propose a two-dimensional model consisting of photons and photon pairs. In the model, the mixed gas of photons and photon pairs is formally equivalent to a two-dimensional system of massive bosons with non-vanishing chemical potential, which implies the existence of two possible condensate phases. Using the variational method, we discuss the quantum phase transition of the mixed gas and obtain the critical coupling line analytically. Moreover, we also find that the phase transition of the photon gas can be interpreted as enhanced second harmonic generation. We then discuss the entanglement between photons and photon pairs. Additionally, we also illustrate how the entanglement between photons and photon pairs can be associated with the phase transition of the system.
Multi-photon creation and single-photon annihilation of electron-positron pairs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Huayu
2011-04-27
In this thesis we study multi-photon e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production in a trident process, and singlephoton e{sup +}e{sup -} pair annihilation in a triple interaction. The pair production is considered in the collision of a relativistic electron with a strong laser beam, and calculated within the theory of laser-dressed quantum electrodynamics. A regularization method is developed systematically for the resonance problem arising in the multi-photon process. Total production rates, positron spectra, and relative contributions of different reaction channels are obtained in various interaction regimes. Our calculation shows good agreement with existing experimental data from SLAC, and adds further insights into the experimental findings. Besides, we study the process in a manifestly nonperturbative domain, whose accessibility to future all-optical experiments based on laser acceleration is shown. In the single-photon e{sup +}e{sup -} pair annihilation, the recoil momentum is absorbed by a spectator particle. Various kinematic configurations of the three incoming particles are examined. Under certain conditions, the emitted photon exhibits distinct angular and polarization distributions which could facilitate the detection of the process. Considering an equilibrium relativistic e{sup +}e{sup -} plasma, it is found that the single-photon process becomes the dominant annihilation channel for plasma temperatures above 3 MeV. Multi-particle correlation effects are therefore essential for the e{sup +}e{sup -} dynamics at very high density. (orig.)
Multi-photon creation and single-photon annihilation of electron-positron pairs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu, Huayu
2011-01-01
In this thesis we study multi-photon e + e - pair production in a trident process, and singlephoton e + e - pair annihilation in a triple interaction. The pair production is considered in the collision of a relativistic electron with a strong laser beam, and calculated within the theory of laser-dressed quantum electrodynamics. A regularization method is developed systematically for the resonance problem arising in the multi-photon process. Total production rates, positron spectra, and relative contributions of different reaction channels are obtained in various interaction regimes. Our calculation shows good agreement with existing experimental data from SLAC, and adds further insights into the experimental findings. Besides, we study the process in a manifestly nonperturbative domain, whose accessibility to future all-optical experiments based on laser acceleration is shown. In the single-photon e + e - pair annihilation, the recoil momentum is absorbed by a spectator particle. Various kinematic configurations of the three incoming particles are examined. Under certain conditions, the emitted photon exhibits distinct angular and polarization distributions which could facilitate the detection of the process. Considering an equilibrium relativistic e + e - plasma, it is found that the single-photon process becomes the dominant annihilation channel for plasma temperatures above 3 MeV. Multi-particle correlation effects are therefore essential for the e + e - dynamics at very high density. (orig.)
Electrodynamics as a theory of interacting complex charges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akeyo Omolo, Joseph
2003-04-01
In this paper, we formulate a general theory of electrodynamics which incorporates both electric and magnetic charges. The mathematical origin of a second vector potential and magnetic charge is established. Electrodynamics is then reformulated in complex form as a theory of complex charges moving in a complex force field. This provides the framework for complex charged particle interactions as a generalization of Schwinger's theory of dyon-dyon interactions. The concept of duality transformation relating electric and magnetic charge spaces is developed within the general framework of electrodynamics in complex form. (author)
Optical properties of photonic crystals
Sakoda, Kazuaki
2001-01-01
The interaction between the radiation field and matter is the most fundamen tal source of dynamics in nature. It brings about the absorption and emission of photons, elastic and inelastic light scattering, the radiative lifetime of elec tronic excited states, and so on. The huge amount of energy carried from the sun by photons is the source of all activities of creatures on the earth. The absorption of photons by chlorophylls and the successive electronic excita tion initiate a series of chemical reactions that are known as photosynthesis, which support all life on the earth. Radiative energy is also the main source of all meteorological phenomena. The fundamentals of the radiation field and its interaction with matter were clarified by classical electromagnetism and quantum electrodynamics. These theories, we believe, explain all electromagnetic phenomena. They not only provide a firm basis for contemporary physics but also generate a vast range of technological applications. These include television, ...
Nonlinear quantum electrodynamic and electroweak processes in strong laser fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meuren, Sebastian
2015-06-24
Various nonlinear electrodynamic and electroweak processes in strong plane-wave laser fields are considered with an emphasis on short-pulse effects. In particular, the momentum distribution of photoproduced electron-positron pairs is calculated numerically and a semiclassical interpretation of its characteristic features is established. By proving the optical theorem, compact double-integral expressions for the total pair-creation probability are obtained and numerically evaluated. The exponential decay of the photon wave function in a plane wave is included by solving the Schwinger-Dyson equations to leading-order in the quasistatic approximation. In this respect, the polarization operator in a plane wave is investigated and its Ward-Takahashi identity verified. A classical analysis indicates that a photoproduced electron-positron pair recollides for certain initial conditions. The contributions of such recollision processes to the polarization operator are identified and calculated both analytically and numerically. Furthermore, the existence of nontrivial electron-spin dynamics induced by quantum fluctuations is verified for ultra-short laser pulses. Finally, the exchange of weak gauge bosons is considered, which is essential for neutrino-photon interactions. In particular, the axial-vector-vector coupling tensor is calculated and the so-called Adler-Bell-Jackiw (ABJ) anomaly investigated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volland, H.
1984-01-01
The book Atmospheric Electrodynamics, by Hans Voland is reviewed. The book describes a wide variety of electrical phenomena occurring in the upper and lower atmosphere and develops the mathematical models which simulate these processes. The reviewer finds that the book is of interest to researchers with a background in electromagnetic theory but is of only limited use as a reference work
Sirtori, Carlo
2017-02-01
Superradiance is one of the many fascinating phenomena predicted by quantum electrodynamics that have first been experimentally demonstrated in atomic systems and more recently in condensed matter systems like quantum dots, superconducting q-bits, cyclotron transitions and plasma oscillations in quantum wells (QWs). It occurs when a dense collection of N identical two-level emitters are phased via the exchange of photons, giving rise to enhanced light-matter interaction, hence to a faster emission rate. Of great interest is the regime where the ensemble interacts with one photon only and therefore all of the atoms, but one, are in the ground state. In this case the quantum superposition of all possible configurations produces a symmetric state that decays radiatively with a rate N times larger than that of the individual oscillators. This phenomenon, called single photon superradiance, results from the exchange of real photons among the N emitters. Yet, to single photon superradiance is also associated another collective effect that renormalizes the emission frequency, known as cooperative Lamb shift. In this work, we show that single photon superradiance and cooperative Lamb shift can be engineered in a semiconductor device by coupling spatially separated plasma resonances arising from the collective motion of confined electrons in QWs. These resonances hold a giant dipole along the growth direction z and have no mutual Coulomb coupling. They thus behave as a collection of macro-atoms on different positions along the z axis. Our device is therefore a test bench to simulate the low excitation regime of quantum electrodynamics.
Does quantum electrodynamics have an arrow of time?
Atkinson, David
Quantum electrodynamics is a time-symmetric theory that is part of the electroweak interaction, which is invariant under a generalized form of this symmetry, the PCT transformation. The thesis is defended that the arrow of time in electrodynamics is a consequence of the assumption of an initial
Photon and graviton mass limits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nieto, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goldhaber Scharff, Alfred [SUNY
2008-01-01
We review past and current studies of possible long-distance, low-frequency deviations from Maxwell electrodynamics and Einstein gravity. Both have passed through three phases: (1) Testing the inverse-square laws of Newton and Coulomb, (2) Seeking a nonzero value for the rest mass of photon or graviton, and (3) Considering more degrees of freedom, allowing mass while preserving gauge or general-coordinate invariance. For electrodynamics there continues to be no sign of any deviation. Since our previous review the lower limit on the photon Compton wavelength (associated with weakening of electromagnetic fields in vacuum over large distance scale) has improved by four orders of magnitude, to about one astronomical unit. Rapid current progress in astronomical observations makes it likely that there will be further advances. These ultimately could yield a bound exceeding galactic dimensions, as has long been contemplated. Meanwhile, for gravity there have been strong arguments about even the concept of a graviton rest mass. At the same time there are striking observations, commonly labeled 'dark matter' and 'dark energy' that some argue imply modified gravity. This makes the questions for gravity much more interesting. For dark matter, which involves increased attraction at large distances, any explanation by modified gravity would be qualitatively different from graviton mass. Because dark energy is associated with reduced attraction at large distances, it might be explained by a graviton-mass-like effect.
Constraining Born-Infeld-like nonlinear electrodynamics using hydrogen's ionization energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akmansoy, P.N. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, Natal (Brazil); Medeiros, L.G. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Escola de Ciencia e Tecnologia, Natal, RN (Brazil)
2018-02-15
In this work, the hydrogen's ionization energy was used to constrain the free parameter b of three Born-Infeld-like electrodynamics namely Born-Infeld itself, Logarithmic electrodynamics and Exponential electrodynamics. An analytical methodology capable of calculating the hydrogen ground state energy level correction for a generic nonlinear electrodynamics was developed. Using the experimental uncertainty in the ground state energy of the hydrogen atom, the bound b > 5.37 x 10{sup 20}K(V)/(m), where K = 2, 4√(2)/3 and √(π) for the Born-Infeld, Logarithmic and Exponential electrodynamics respectively, was established. In the particular case of Born-Infeld electrodynamics, the constraint found for b was compared with other constraints present in the literature. (orig.)
Accelerator and Electrodynamics Capability Review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, Kevin W.
2010-01-01
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses capability reviews to assess the science, technology and engineering (STE) quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). Laboratory Management will use this report for STE assessment and planning. LANL has defined fifteen STE capabilities. Electrodynamics and Accelerators is one of the seven STE capabilities that LANL Management (Director, PADSTE, technical Associate Directors) has identified for review in Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. Accelerators and electrodynamics at LANL comprise a blend of large-scale facilities and innovative small-scale research with a growing focus on national security applications. This review is organized into five topical areas: (1) Free Electron Lasers; (2) Linear Accelerator Science and Technology; (3) Advanced Electromagnetics; (4) Next Generation Accelerator Concepts; and (5) National Security Accelerator Applications. The focus is on innovative technology with an emphasis on applications relevant to Laboratory mission. The role of Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) in support of accelerators/electrodynamics will be discussed. The review provides an opportunity for interaction with early career staff. Program sponsors and customers will provide their input on the value of the accelerator and electrodynamics capability to the Laboratory mission.
Accelerator and electrodynamics capability review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jones, Kevin W [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2010-01-01
Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses capability reviews to assess the science, technology and engineering (STE) quality and institutional integration and to advise Laboratory Management on the current and future health of the STE. Capability reviews address the STE integration that LANL uses to meet mission requirements. The Capability Review Committees serve a dual role of providing assessment of the Laboratory's technical contributions and integration towards its missions and providing advice to Laboratory Management. The assessments and advice are documented in reports prepared by the Capability Review Committees that are delivered to the Director and to the Principal Associate Director for Science, Technology and Engineering (PADSTE). Laboratory Management will use this report for STE assessment and planning. LANL has defined fifteen STE capabilities. Electrodynamics and Accelerators is one of the seven STE capabilities that LANL Management (Director, PADSTE, technical Associate Directors) has identified for review in Fiscal Year (FY) 2010. Accelerators and electrodynamics at LANL comprise a blend of large-scale facilities and innovative small-scale research with a growing focus on national security applications. This review is organized into five topical areas: (1) Free Electron Lasers; (2) Linear Accelerator Science and Technology; (3) Advanced Electromagnetics; (4) Next Generation Accelerator Concepts; and (5) National Security Accelerator Applications. The focus is on innovative technology with an emphasis on applications relevant to Laboratory mission. The role of Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) in support of accelerators/electrodynamics will be discussed. The review provides an opportunity for interaction with early career staff. Program sponsors and customers will provide their input on the value of the accelerator and electrodynamics capability to the Laboratory mission.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Unsleber, Sebastian; McCutcheon, Dara; Dambach, Michael
2015-01-01
We demonstrate the emission of highly indistinguishable photons from a quasi-resonantly pumped coupledquantum dot–microcavity system operating in the regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics. Changing thesample temperature allows us to vary the quantum dot–cavity detuning and, on spectral resonance...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Unsleber, S.; McCutcheon, Dara; Dambach, M.
We demonstrate the emission of highly indistinguishable photons from a quasiresonantly pumped coupled quantum dot–microcavity system operating in the regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics. Changing the sample temperature allows us to vary the quantum dot–cavity detuning, and on spectral...
Nonperturbative quantum electrodynamics in a photon-condensate background field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kikuchi, Y.; Ng, Y.J.
1988-01-01
Analyses of the Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equation for the fermion self-energy have revealed the existence of a QED ultraviolet nonperturbative fixed point which separates a strong-coupling regime from a weak-coupling regime. Here we study the SD equation in the presence of a weak constant photon-condensate background field. This background field does not seem to affect the fixed point. Better approximations or some more realistic background fields may change the result. The investigation is partly motivated by recent heavy-ion experiments
Born-Infeld Nonlinear Electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bialynicki-Birula, I.
1999-01-01
This is only a summary of a lecture delivered at the Infeld Centennial Meeting. In the lecture the history of the Born-Infeld nonlinear electrodynamics was presented and some general features of the theory were discussed. (author)
Quantum classical correspondence in nonrelativistic electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ritchie, B.; Weatherford, C.A.
1999-01-01
A form of classical electrodynamic field exists which gives exact agreement with the operator field of quantum electrodynamics (QED) for the Lamb shift of a harmonically bound point electron. Here it is pointed out that this form of classical theory, with its physically acceptable interpretation, is the result of an unconventional resolution of a mathematically ambiguous term in classical field theory. Finally, a quantum classical correspondence principle is shown to exist in the sense that the classical field and expectation value of the QED operator field are identical, if retardation is neglected in the latter
One Photon Can Simultaneously Excite Two or More Atoms.
Garziano, Luigi; Macrì, Vincenzo; Stassi, Roberto; Di Stefano, Omar; Nori, Franco; Savasta, Salvatore
2016-07-22
We consider two separate atoms interacting with a single-mode optical or microwave resonator. When the frequency of the resonator field is twice the atomic transition frequency, we show that there exists a resonant coupling between one photon and two atoms, via intermediate virtual states connected by counterrotating processes. If the resonator is prepared in its one-photon state, the photon can be jointly absorbed by the two atoms in their ground state which will both reach their excited state with a probability close to one. Like ordinary quantum Rabi oscillations, this process is coherent and reversible, so that two atoms in their excited state will undergo a downward transition jointly emitting a single cavity photon. This joint absorption and emission process can also occur with three atoms. The parameters used to investigate this process correspond to experimentally demonstrated values in circuit quantum electrodynamics systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiao, Y-F; Gao, J; McMillan, J F; Yang, X; Wong, C W; Zou, X-B; Chen, Y-L; Han, Z-F; Guo, G-C
2008-01-01
In this paper, a scalable photonic crystal cavity array, in which single embedded quantum dots (QDs) are coherently interacting, is studied theoretically. Firstly, we examine the spectral character and optical delay brought about by the coupled cavities interacting with single QDs, in an optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency. Secondly, we then examine the usability of this coupled QD-cavity system for quantum phase gate operation and our numerical examples suggest that a two-qubit system with fidelity above 0.99 and photon loss below 0.04 is possible.
Relativistic electrodynamics of dissipative elastic media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kranys, M.
1980-01-01
A phenomenological general relativistic electrodynamics is proposed for a dissipative elastic solid which is polarizable and magnetizable and whose governing equations form a hyperbolic system. Non-stationary transport equations are proposed for dissipative fluxes (and constitutive equations of electrodynamics) containing new cross-effect terms, as required for compatibility with an entropy principle expressed by a new balance equation (including a new Gibbs equation). The dynamic equations are deduced from the unified Minkowski-Abraham-Eckart energy-momentum tensor. The theory, formed by a set of 29 (reducible to 23) partial differential equations (in special relativity) governing the material behaviour of the system characterized by generalizing the constitutive equations of quasineutral media, together with Maxwell's equations, may be referred to as the electrodynamics of dissipative elastic media (or fluid). The proposed transport laws for polarization and magnetization generalize the well-known Debye law for relaxation and show the influence of shear and bulk viscosity on polarization and magentization. Besides the form of the entropy function, the free energy function in the non-stationary regime is also formulated. (auth)
Scale magnetic effect in quantum electrodynamics and the Wigner-Weyl formalism
Chernodub, M. N.; Zubkov, M. A.
2017-09-01
The scale magnetic effect (SME) is the generation of electric current due to a conformal anomaly in an external magnetic field in curved spacetime. The effect appears in a vacuum with electrically charged massless particles. Similarly to the Hall effect, the direction of the induced anomalous current is perpendicular to the direction of the external magnetic field B and to the gradient of the conformal factor τ , while the strength of the current is proportional to the beta function of the theory. In massive electrodynamics the SME remains valid, but the value of the induced current differs from the current generated in the system of massless fermions. In the present paper we use the Wigner-Weyl formalism to demonstrate that in accordance with the decoupling property of heavy fermions the corresponding anomalous conductivity vanishes in the large-mass limit with m2≫|e B | and m ≫|∇τ | .
Anomalies and Hawking fluxes from the black holes of topologically massive gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Porfyriadis, Achilleas P. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)], E-mail: apporfyr@mit.edu
2009-05-11
The anomaly cancellation method proposed by Wilczek et al. is applied to the black holes of topologically massive gravity (TMG) and topologically massive gravito-electrodynamics (TMGE). Thus the Hawking temperature and fluxes of the ACL and ACGL black holes are found. The Hawking temperatures obtained agree with the surface gravity formula. Both black holes are rotating and this gives rise to appropriate terms in the effective U(1) gauge field of the reduced (1+1)-dimensional theory. It is found that the terms in this U(1) gauge field correspond exactly to the correct angular velocities on the horizon of both black holes as well as the correct electrostatic potential of the ACGL black hole. So the results for the Hawking fluxes derived here from the anomaly cancellation method, are in complete agreement with the ones obtained from integrating the Planck distribution.
Electrodynamics in Arbitrary Reference Frames and in Arbitrary Material Media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horzela, A.; Kapuscik, E.; Widomski, M.
1999-01-01
Full text: The investigation of electromagnetic phenomena in material media still belongs to the most difficult tasks of electrodynamics. Complexity and variability of material media practically exclude effective applications of methods and computational techniques elaborated in the framework of standard microscopic electrodynamics with classical vacuum as a ground state. In order to obtain satisfactorily exact descriptions of electromagnetic properties of complex material media one is enforced to use methods and approximations which are difficult to control. Moreover, they usually break covariance properties and the results obtained are valid in one reference frame which choice remains subjective and model dependent. Some time ago we have proposed a reformulation of Maxwell electrodynamics which opens new ways in study of electromagnetic processes in material media. The formalism gets rid of assumptions characteristic for vacuum electrodynamics only and it avoids the usage of constitutive relations as primary relations put on quantities needed for a complete description of an electromagnetic system. Fundamental properties of all electromagnetic quantities are their uniquely defined transformation rules and their analysis allows to determine the possible relations between them. Within such a scheme it is possible to introduce constitutive relations which do not have analogies in macroscopic classical electrodynamics. They may be used in description of microscopic electromagnetic processes in a different way than it is done in the framework of quantum electrodynamics. (author)
Problems of hadron electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rekalo, M.P.
1989-01-01
Certain directions of hadron electrodynamics referring to testing symmetry properties relatively to C-, P- and T-transformations; determination of fundamental electromagnetic characteristics of hadrons as well as to clarifying the dynamics of electromagnetic processes in which hadrons participate are analyzed briefly. 52 refs
Theoretical physics 3 electrodynamics
Nolting, Wolfgang
2016-01-01
This textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to electrodynamics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series. The first part of the book describes the interaction of electric charges and magnetic moments by introducing electro- and magnetostatics. The second part of the book establishes deeper understanding of electrodynamics with the Maxwell equations, quasistationary fields and electromagnetic fields. All sections are accompanied by a detailed introduction to the math needed. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in classical and analytical mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful Germa...
Wei, Hai-Rui; Deng, Fu-Guo
2013-07-29
We investigate the possibility of achieving scalable photonic quantum computing by the giant optical circular birefringence induced by a quantum-dot spin in a double-sided optical microcavity as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. We construct a deterministic controlled-not gate on two photonic qubits by two single-photon input-output processes and the readout on an electron-medium spin confined in an optical resonant microcavity. This idea could be applied to multi-qubit gates on photonic qubits and we give the quantum circuit for a three-photon Toffoli gate. High fidelities and high efficiencies could be achieved when the side leakage to the cavity loss rate is low. It is worth pointing out that our devices work in both the strong and the weak coupling regimes.
Massless and massive quanta resulting from a mediumlike metric tensor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soln, J.
1985-01-01
A simple model of the ''primordial'' scalar field theory is presented in which the metric tensor is a generalization of the metric tensor from electrodynamics in a medium. The radiation signal corresponding to the scalar field propagates with a velocity that is generally less than c. This signal can be associated simultaneously with imaginary and real effective (momentum-dependent) masses. The requirement that the imaginary effective mass vanishes, which we take to be the prerequisite for the vacuumlike signal propagation, leads to the ''spontaneous'' splitting of the metric tensor into two distinct metric tensors: one metric tensor gives rise to masslesslike radiation and the other to a massive particle. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lalanne, D.
1970-01-01
The experiment we have performed on the ACO (Orsay Collider Ring) is one of the most accurate tests of quantum electrodynamics over very short interaction distances (10 -14 cm). We have studied the electron-positron elastic scattering at very wide angle. This work is divided into 4 parts. The first part reviews recent tests of quantum electrodynamics and presents the electron-positron elastic scattering. The second part describes the measurement of brightness: the experimental device, data analysis and accuracy. The measurement of brightness has been performed by detecting the photons emitted in the double Bremsstrahlung reaction: e + e - → e + e - γγ. The third part deals with the measurement of the number of Bhabha events. The last part compares the experimental value of the Bhabha scattering with the theoretically expected value. We have got the following results: the number of Bhabha events: 757 events, the experimental value for Bhabha scattering cross-section: [1.97 ± 0.09 (stat.) ± 0.10 (syst.)]*10 -31 cm 2 . The comparison of this experimental value with the expected value has allowed us to set the lower limit of the cutting parameter Λ: Λ > 2 GeV
High-field electron-photon interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartemann, F V.
1999-01-01
Recent advances in novel technologies (including chirped-pulse amplification, femtosecond laser systems operating in the TW-PW range, high-gradient rf photoinjectors, and synchronized relativistic electron bunches with subpicosecond durations and THz bandwidths) allow experimentalists to study the interaction of relativistic electrons with ultrahigh-intensity photon fields. Ponderomotive scattering can accelerate these electrons with extremely high gradients in a three-dimensional vacuum laser focus. The nonlinear Doppler shift induced by relativistic radiation pressure in Compton backscattering is shown to yield complex nonlinear spectra which can be modified by using temporal laser pulse shaping techniques. Colliding laser pulses, where ponderomotive acceleration and Compton backscattering are combined, could also yield extremely short wavelength photons. Finally, one expects strong radiative corrections when the Doppler-upshifted laser wavelength approaches the Compton scale. These are discussed within the context of high-field classical electrodynamics, a new discipline borne out of the aforementioned innovations
No drama quantum electrodynamics?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akhmeteli, Andrey
2013-01-01
This article builds on recent work (Akhmeteli in Int. J. Quantum Inf. 9(Supp01):17, 2011; J. Math. Phys. 52:082303, 2011), providing a theory that is based on spinor electrodynamics, is described by a system of partial differential equations in 3+1 dimensions, but reproduces unitary evolution of a quantum field theory in the Fock space. To this end, after introduction of a complex four-potential of electromagnetic field, which generates the same electromagnetic fields as the initial real four-potential, the spinor field is algebraically eliminated from the equations of spinor electrodynamics. It is proven that the resulting equations for electromagnetic field describe independent evolution of the latter and can be embedded into a quantum field theory using a generalized Carleman linearization procedure. The theory provides a simple and at least reasonably realistic model, valuable for interpretation of quantum theory. The issues related to the Bell theorem are discussed. (orig.)
Electrodynamics an intensive course
Chaichian, Masud; Radu, Daniel; Tureanu, Anca
2016-01-01
This book is devoted to the fundamentals of classical electrodynamics, one of the most beautiful and productive theories in physics. A general survey on the applicability of physical theories shows that only few theories can be compared to electrodynamics. Essentially, all electric and electronic devices used around the world are based on the theory of electromagnetism. It was Maxwell who created, for the first time, a unified description of the electric and magnetic phenomena in his electromagnetic field theory. Remarkably, Maxwell’s theory contained in itself also the relativistic invariance of the special relativity, a fact which was discovered only a few decades later. The present book is an outcome of the authors’ teaching experience over many years in different countries and for different students studying diverse fields of physics. The book is intended for students at the level of undergraduate and graduate studies in physics, astronomy, engineering, applied mathematics and for researchers working ...
Quantum electrodynamics with arbitrary charge on a noncommutative space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Wanping; Long Zhengwen; Cai Shaohong
2009-01-01
Using the Seiberg-Witten map, we obtain a quantum electrodynamics on a noncommutative space, which has arbitrary charge and keep the gauge invariance to at the leading order in theta. The one-loop divergence and Compton scattering are reinvestigated. The noncommutative effects are larger than those in ordinary noncommutative quantum electrodynamics. (authors)
Electrodynamics on extrasolar giant planets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koskinen, T. T.; Yelle, R. V. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 East University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Lavvas, P. [Groupe de Spectroscopie Moléculaire et Atmosphérique UMR CNRS 7331, Université Reims Champagne-Ardenne, F-51687 Reims (France); Cho, J. Y-K., E-mail: tommi@lpl.arizona.edu [Astronomy Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)
2014-11-20
Strong ionization on close-in extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) suggests that their atmospheres may be affected by ion drag and resistive heating arising from wind-driven electrodynamics. Recent models of ion drag on these planets, however, are based on thermal ionization only and do not include the upper atmosphere above the 1 mbar level. These models are also based on simplified equations of resistive magnetohydrodynamics that are not always valid in extrasolar planet atmospheres. We show that photoionization dominates over thermal ionization over much of the dayside atmosphere above the 100 mbar level, creating an upper ionosphere dominated by ionization of H and He and a lower ionosphere dominated by ionization of metals such as Na, K, and Mg. The resulting dayside electron densities on close-in exoplanets are higher than those encountered in any planetary ionosphere of the solar system, and the conductivities are comparable to the chromosphere of the Sun. Based on these results and assumed magnetic fields, we constrain the conductivity regimes on close-in EGPs and use a generalized Ohm's law to study the basic effects of electrodynamics in their atmospheres. We find that ion drag is important above the 10 mbar level where it can also significantly alter the energy balance through resistive heating. Due to frequent collisions of the electrons and ions with the neutral atmosphere, however, ion drag is largely negligible in the lower atmosphere below the 10 mbar level for a reasonable range of planetary magnetic moments. We find that the atmospheric conductivity decreases by several orders of magnitude in the night side of tidally locked planets, leading to a potentially interesting large-scale dichotomy in electrodynamics between the day and night sides. A combined approach that relies on UV observations of the upper atmosphere, phase curve and Doppler measurements of global dynamics, and visual transit observations to probe the alkali metals can potentially
Advanced quantum mechanics materials and photons
Dick, Rainer
2012-01-01
Advanced Quantum Mechanics: Materials and Photons is a textbook which emphasizes the importance of advanced quantum mechanics for materials science and all experimental techniques which employ photon absorption, emission, or scattering. Important aspects of introductory quantum mechanics are covered in the first seven chapters to make the subject self-contained and accessible for a wide audience. The textbook can therefore be used for advanced undergraduate courses and introductory graduate courses which are targeted towards students with diverse academic backgrounds from the Natural Sciences or Engineering. To enhance this inclusive aspect of making the subject as accessible as possible, Appendices A and B also provide introductions to Lagrangian mechanics and the covariant formulation of electrodynamics. Other special features include an introduction to Lagrangian field theory and an integrated discussion of transition amplitudes with discrete or continuous initial or final states. Once students have acquir...
Experimental status of quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drell, S.D.
1978-10-01
This review of the experimental status of quantum electrodynamics covers the fine structure constant, the muon g-2 value, the Lamb shift in hydrogen, the finite proton radius, progress in muonium, and positronium. 37 references
Three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics as an effective interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdalla, E.; Carvalho Filho, F.M. de
1995-10-01
We obtain a Quantum Electrodynamics in 2 + 1 dimensions by applying a Kaluza-Klein type method of dimensional reduction to Quantum Electrodynamics in 3 + 1 dimensions rendering the model more realistic to application in solid-state systems, invariant under translations in one direction. We show that the model obtained leads to an effective action exhibiting an interesting phase structure and that the generated Chern-Simons term survives only in the broken phase. (author). 20 refs
Cavity quantum electrodynamics in application to plasmonics and metamaterials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pavel Ginzburg
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Frontier quantum engineering tasks require reliable control over light-matter interaction dynamics, which could be obtained by introducing electromagnetic structuring. Initiated by the Purcell's discovery of spontaneous emission acceleration in a cavity, the concept of electromagnetic modes' design have gained a considerable amount of attention due to development of photonic crystals, micro-resonators, plasmonic nanostructures and metamaterials. Those approaches, however, offer qualitatively different strategies for tailoring light-matter interactions and are based on either high quality factor modes shaping, near field control, or both. Remarkably, rigorous quantum mechanical description might address those processes in a different fashion. While traditional cavity quantum electrodynamics tools are commonly based on mode decomposition approach, few challenges rise once dispersive and lossy nanostructures, such as noble metals (plasmonic antennas or metamaterials, are involved. The primary objective of this review is to introduce key methods and techniques while aiming to obtain comprehensive quantum mechanical description of spontaneous, stimulated and higher order emission and interaction processes, tailored by nanostructured material environment. The main challenge and the complexity here are set by the level of rigorousity, up to which materials should be treated. While relatively big nanostructured features (10nm and larger could be addressed by applying fluctuation–dissipation theorem and corresponding Green functions' analysis, smaller objects will require individual approach. Effects of material granularity, spatial dispersion, tunneling over small gaps, material memory and others will be reviewed. Quantum phenomena, inspired and tailored by nanostructured environment, plays a key role in development of quantum information devices and related technologies. Rigorous analysis is required for both examination of experimental observations
1990-01-01
Quantum electrodynamics is an essential building block and an integral part of the gauge theory of unified electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, the so-called standard model. Its failure or breakdown at some level would have a most profound impact on the theoretical foundations of elementary particle physics as a whole. Thus the validity of QED has been the subject of intense experimental tests over more than 40 years of its history. This volume presents an up-to-date review of high precision experimental tests of QED together with comprehensive discussion of required theoretical wor
The problem of infinite self-energy in electrodynamics and gravitation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sinha, K P; Sivaram, C [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore. Div. of Physics and Mathematical Sciences
1975-02-01
The appearance of infinities in the self-energies of point particles in both classical and quantum electrodynamics has been a persistent problem for the last several decades. This problem is discussed at length in relation to the Newtonian theory of gravitation and the modern (relativity) theory on gravitation. Gravitational contraction and the mass and radius of the electron are treated in detail. The spacetime properties around the Schwarzchild radius of the electron are modified to explain the divergences. The quantum gravitational mass and the quantum gravitational length are mentioned. It is pointed out that the out-off at the Schwarzchild radius applies not only to photon but also to the virtual quanta of all fields with which the particle interacts. Arguments are extended to explain the gravitational interactions of the proton. The interactions of the hadrons through f-gravity are explained. Recent work on renormalisibility (i.e. removal of divergences) of quantum gravitation are mentioned.
Bose-Einstein condensation of photons in a 'white-wall' photon box
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klaers, Jan; Schmitt, Julian; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin
2011-01-01
Bose-Einstein condensation, the macroscopic ground state occupation of a system of bosonic particles below a critical temperature, has been observed in cold atomic gases and solid-state physics quasiparticles. In contrast, photons do not show this phase transition usually, because in Planck's blackbody radiation the particle number is not conserved and at low temperature the photons disappear in the walls of the system. Here we report on the realization of a photon Bose-Einstein condensate in a dye-filled optical microcavity, which acts as a 'white-wall' photon box. The cavity mirrors provide a trapping potential and a non-vanishing effective photon mass, making the system formally equivalent to a two-dimensional gas of trapped massive bosons. Thermalization of the photon gas is reached in a number conserving way by multiple scattering off the dye molecules. Signatures for a BEC upon increased photon density are: a spectral distribution that shows Bose-Einstein distributed photon energies with a macroscopically populated peak on top of a broad thermal wing, the observed threshold of the phase transition showing the predicted absolute value and scaling with resonator geometry, and condensation appearing at the trap centre even for a spatially displaced pump spot.
Bose-Einstein condensation of photons in a 'white-wall' photon box
Klärs, Jan; Schmitt, Julian; Vewinger, Frank; Weitz, Martin
2011-01-01
Bose-Einstein condensation, the macroscopic ground state occupation of a system of bosonic particles below a critical temperature, has been observed in cold atomic gases and solid-state physics quasiparticles. In contrast, photons do not show this phase transition usually, because in Planck's blackbody radiation the particle number is not conserved and at low temperature the photons disappear in the walls of the system. Here we report on the realization of a photon Bose-Einstein condensate in a dye-filled optical microcavity, which acts as a "white-wall" photon box. The cavity mirrors provide a trapping potential and a non-vanishing effective photon mass, making the system formally equivalent to a two-dimensional gas of trapped massive bosons. Thermalization of the photon gas is reached in a number conserving way by multiple scattering off the dye molecules. Signatures for a BEC upon increased photon density are: a spectral distribution that shows Bose-Einstein distributed photon energies with a macroscopically populated peak on top of a broad thermal wing, the observed threshold of the phase transition showing the predicted absolute value and scaling with resonator geometry, and condensation appearing at the trap centre even for a spatially displaced pump spot.
Two mechanisms of disorder-induced localization in photonic-crystal waveguides
García, P. D.; KiršanskÄ--, G.; Javadi, A.; Stobbe, S.; Lodahl, P.
2017-10-01
Unintentional but unavoidable fabrication imperfections in state-of-the-art photonic-crystal waveguides lead to the spontaneous formation of Anderson-localized modes thereby limiting slow-light propagation and its potential applications. On the other hand, disorder-induced cavities offer an approach to cavity-quantum electrodynamics and random lasing at the nanoscale. The key statistical parameter governing the disorder effects is the localization length, which together with the waveguide length determines the statistical transport of light through the waveguide. In a disordered photonic-crystal waveguide, the localization length is highly dispersive, and therefore, by controlling the underlying lattice parameters, it is possible to tune the localization of the mode. In the present work, we study the localization length in a disordered photonic-crystal waveguide using numerical simulations. We demonstrate two different localization regimes in the dispersion diagram where the localization length is linked to the density of states and the photon effective mass, respectively. The two different localization regimes are identified in experiments by recording the photoluminescence from quantum dots embedded in photonic-crystal waveguides.
Unified time analysis of photon and particle tunnelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olkhovsky, V.S.; Recami, Erasmo; Jakiel, Jacek
2004-01-01
A unified time analysis of photon and nonrelativistic particle tunnellings is presented, in which time is regarded as a quantum observable, canonically conjugated to energy. Within this approach, one can introduce self-consistent definitions of the tunnelling times, on the basis of conventional quantum mechanics (or one-dimensional quantum electrodynamics) only. The validity of the Hartman effect [which states the tunnelling duration to be independent of the (opaque) barrier width, with superluminal group velocities of the tunnelling packet as a consequence] is verified for all the known expressions of the mean tunnelling time. However, some noticeable generalizations of (and deviations from) the Hartman effect are, as well, briefly investigated. Moreover, the analogy between particle and photon tunnelling is suitably exploited; on the basis of such an analogy, an explanation of some recent interesting microwave and optical experimental results on tunnelling times is proposed. Attention is devoted, at last, to some aspects of the causality problem for particle and photon tunnelling
Electrodynamics of a Cosmic Dark Fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander B. Balakin
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Cosmic Dark Fluid is considered as a non-stationary medium, in which electromagnetic waves propagate, and magneto-electric field structures emerge and evolve. A medium-type representation of the Dark Fluid allows us to involve in its analysis the concepts and mathematical formalism elaborated in the framework of classical covariant electrodynamics of continua, and to distinguish dark analogs of well-known medium-effects, such as optical activity, pyro-electricity, piezo-magnetism, electro- and magneto-striction and dynamo-optical activity. The Dark Fluid is assumed to be formed by a duet of a Dark Matter (a pseudoscalar axionic constituent and Dark Energy (a scalar element; respectively, we distinguish electrodynamic effects induced by these two constituents of the Dark Fluid. The review contains discussions of 10 models, which describe electrodynamic effects induced by Dark Matter and/or Dark Energy. The models are accompanied by examples of exact solutions to the master equations, correspondingly extended; applications are considered for cosmology and space-times with spherical and pp-wave symmetries. In these applications we focused the attention on three main electromagnetic phenomena induced by the Dark Fluid: first, emergence of Longitudinal Magneto-Electric Clusters; second, generation of anomalous electromagnetic responses; third, formation of Dark Epochs in the Universe history.
Topological vortices in generalized Born-Infeld-Higgs electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Casana, R.; Hora, E. da; Rubiera-Garcia, D.; Santos, C. dos
2015-01-01
A consistent BPS formalism to study the existence of topological axially symmetric vortices in generalized versions of the Born-Infeld-Higgs electrodynamics is implemented. Such a generalization modifies the field dynamics via the introduction of three nonnegative functions depending only in the Higgs field, namely,G(vertical stroke φ vertical stroke), w(vertical stroke φ vertical stroke), and V (vertical stroke φ vertical stroke). A set of first-order differential equations is attained when these functions satisfy a constraint related to the Ampere law. Such a constraint allows one to minimize the system's energy in such way that it becomes proportional to the magnetic flux. Our results provides an enhancement of the role of topological vortex solutions in Born-Infeld-Higgs electrodynamics. Finally, we analyze a set of models entailing the recovery of a generalized version of Maxwell-Higgs electrodynamics in a certain limit of the theory. (orig.)
Global Infrared–Radio Spectral Energy Distributions of Galactic Massive Star-Forming Regions
Povich, Matthew Samuel; Binder, Breanna Arlene
2018-01-01
We present a multiwavelength study of 30 Galactic massive star-forming regions. We fit multicomponent dust, blackbody, and power-law continuum models to 3.6 µm through 10 mm spectral energy distributions obtained from Spitzer, MSX, IRAS, Herschel, and Planck archival survey data. Averaged across our sample, ~20% of Lyman continuum photons emitted by massive stars are absorbed by dust before contributing to the ionization of H II regions, while ~50% of the stellar bolometric luminosity is absorbed and reprocessed by dust in the H II regions and surrounding photodissociation regions. The most luminous, infrared-bright regions that fully sample the upper stellar initial mass function (ionizing photon rates NC ≥ 1050 s–1 and total infrared luminosity LTIR ≥ 106.8 L⊙) have higher percentages of absorbed Lyman continuum photons (~40%) and dust-reprocessed starlight (~80%). The monochromatic 70-µm luminosity L70 is linearly correlated with LTIR, and on average L70/LTIR = 50%, in good agreement with extragalactic studies. Calibrated against the known massive stellar content in our sampled H II regions, we find that star formation rates based on L70 are in reasonably good agreement with extragalactic calibrations, when corrected for the smaller physical sizes of the Galactic regions. We caution that absorption of Lyman continuum photons prior to contributing to the observed ionizing photon rate may reduce the attenuation-corrected Hα emission, systematically biasing extragalactic calibrations toward lower star formation rates when applied to spatially-resolved studies of obscured star formation.This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under award CAREER-1454333.
Relativistic quantum dynamics in strong fields: Photon emission from heavy, few-electron ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fritzsche, S.; Stoehlker, T.
2005-03-01
Recent progress in the study of the photon emission from highly-charged heavy ions is reviewed. These investigations show that high-Z ions provide a unique tool for improving the understanding of the electron-electron and electron-photon interaction in the presence of strong fields. Apart from the bound-state transitions, which are accurately described in the framework of quantum electrodynamics, much information has been obtained also from the radiative capture of (quasi-) free electrons by high-Z ions. Many features in the observed spectra hereby confirm the inherently relativistic behavior of even the simplest compound quantum systems in nature. (orig.)
On Wess-Zumino terms in odd-dimensional gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kogan, Ya.I.; Morozov, A.Yu.
1984-01-01
A detailed description of 2+1 quantum electrodynamics with Wess-Zumino term is given. This theory has a massive photon which possesses a single degree of freedom, and at the same time an instant Coulomb-like interaction of external sources exists. Secondly, d=11 Einstein supergravity is considered. Renorminvariance of the Wess-Zumino term together with the assumption of the local supersymmetry to be unbroken implies that the Planck mass is nonrenormalized
Advanced quantum mechanics materials and photons
Dick, Rainer
2016-01-01
In this updated and expanded second edition of a well-received and invaluable textbook, Prof. Dick emphasizes the importance of advanced quantum mechanics for materials science and all experimental techniques which employ photon absorption, emission, or scattering. Important aspects of introductory quantum mechanics are covered in the first seven chapters to make the subject self-contained and accessible for a wide audience. Advanced Quantum Mechanics, Materials and Photons can therefore be used for advanced undergraduate courses and introductory graduate courses which are targeted towards students with diverse academic backgrounds from the Natural Sciences or Engineering. To enhance this inclusive aspect of making the subject as accessible as possible Appendices A and B also provide introductions to Lagrangian mechanics and the covariant formulation of electrodynamics. This second edition includes an additional 62 new problems as well as expanded sections on relativistic quantum fields and applications of�...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, G.A.; Sorensen, L.B.
1997-01-01
Quantum electrodynamics (QED) is used to derive the differential cross sections measured in the three new experimental internal source ensemble x-ray holographies: bremsstrahlung (BXH), fluorescence (XFH), and multiple-energy (MEXH) x-ray holography. The polarization dependence of the BXH cross section is also obtained. For BXH, we study analytically and numerically the possible effects of the virtual photons and electrons which enter QED calculations in summing over the intermediate states. For the low photon and electron energies used in the current experiments, we show that the virtual intermediate states produce only very small effects. This is because the uncertainty principle limits the distance that the virtual particles can propagate to be much shorter than the separation between the regions of high electron density in the adjacent atoms. We also find that using the asymptotic form of the scattering wave function causes about a 5 10% error for near forward scattering. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Electron Emitter for small-size Electrodynamic Space Tether using MEMS Technology
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fleron, René A. W.; Blanke, Mogens
2004-01-01
Adjustment of the orbit of a spacecraft using the forces created by an electro-dynamic space-tether has been shown as a theoretic possibility in recent literature. Practical implementation is being pursued for larger scale missions where a hot filament device controls electron emission...... and the current flowing in the electrodynamic space tether. Applications to small spacecraft, or space debris in the 1–10 kg range, possess difficulties with electron emission technology, as low power emitting devices are needed. This paper addresses the system concepts of a small spacecraft electrodynamic tether...... system with focus on electron emitter design and manufacture using micro-electro-mechanical- system (MEMS) technology. The paper addresses the system concepts of a small size electrodynamic tether mission and shows a novel electron emitter for the 1-2 mA range where altitude can be effectively affected...
Entanglement concentration and purification of two-mode squeezed microwave photons in circuit QED
Zhang, Hao; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Hayat, Tasawar; Deng, Fu-Guo
2018-04-01
We present a theoretical proposal for a physical implementation of entanglement concentration and purification protocols for two-mode squeezed microwave photons in circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED). First, we give the description of the cross-Kerr effect induced between two resonators in circuit QED. Then we use the cross-Kerr media to design the effective quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement on microwave-photon number. By using the QND measurement, the parties in quantum communication can accomplish the entanglement concentration and purification of nonlocal two-mode squeezed microwave photons. We discuss the feasibility of our schemes by giving the detailed parameters which can be realized with current experimental technology. Our work can improve some practical applications in continuous-variable microwave-based quantum information processing.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Per Kær; Lodahl, Peter; Jauho, Antti-Pekka
2013-01-01
We study the fundamental limit on single-photon indistinguishability imposed by decoherence due to phonon interactions in semiconductor quantum dot-cavity quantum electrodynamics systems. Employing an exact diagonalization approach we find large differences compared to standard methods...
Causality in Classical Electrodynamics
Savage, Craig
2012-01-01
Causality in electrodynamics is a subject of some confusion, especially regarding the application of Faraday's law and the Ampere-Maxwell law. This has led to the suggestion that we should not teach students that electric and magnetic fields can cause each other, but rather focus on charges and currents as the causal agents. In this paper I argue…
Two-photon exchange force in scalar quantum electrodynamics: The asymptotic story
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sucher, J.
1994-01-01
The dependence of the potential V 2γ arising from two-photon exchange between charged spinless systems on the one-photon exchange potential V 1γ is examined. It is found that, unlike the case when at least one of the two systems is neutral, the form of V 1γ can play a key role in determining the large-r behavior of V 2γ . It is shown that if V 1γ is defined in a way inspired by the use of the Coulomb gauge rather than the Feynman gauge, V 2γ falls off as r -3 , rather than as r -2 . This result, which removes an apparent cognitive dissonance with the related work of Spruch, does not mean that the effective potential is inherently gauge dependent. Instead it highlights the fact that in this case the concept of the asymptotic behavior of V 2γ is not as sharp as one might have thought. The relation of this result to an analogous one expected to hold for spinor QED and to the nonrelativistic form of the orbit-orbit interaction is also discussed
Triumphs and failures of quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bialynicki-Birula, I.
1996-01-01
Quantum electrodynamics, after more than sixty years since its discovery, still presents challenges and offers rewards to inquiring minds. This presentation describes some theoretical intricacies of this beautiful theory. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Schlehahn
2016-04-01
Full Text Available We report on an electrically driven efficient source of indistinguishable photons operated at pulse-repetition rates f up to 1.2 GHz. The quantum light source is based on a p-i-n-doped micropillar cavity with integrated self-organized quantum dots, which exploits cavity quantum electrodynamics effects in the weak coupling regime to enhance the emission of a single quantum emitter coupled to the cavity mode. We achieve an overall single-photon extraction efficiency of (61 ± 11 % for a device triggered electrically at f = 625 MHz. Analyzing the suppression of multi-photon emission events as a function of excitation repetition rate, we observe single-photon emission associated with g(2HBT(0 values between 0.076 and 0.227 for f ranging from 373 MHz to 1.2 GHz. Hong-Ou-Mandel-type two-photon interference experiments under pulsed current injection at 487 MHz reveal a photon-indistinguishability of (41.1 ± 9.5 % at a single-photon emission rate of (92 ± 23 MHz.
Electrodynamics and Spacetime Geometry: Foundations
Cabral, Francisco; Lobo, Francisco S. N.
2017-02-01
We explore the intimate connection between spacetime geometry and electrodynamics. This link is already implicit in the constitutive relations between the field strengths and excitations, which are an essential part of the axiomatic structure of electromagnetism, clearly formulated via integration theory and differential forms. We review the foundations of classical electromagnetism based on charge and magnetic flux conservation, the Lorentz force and the constitutive relations. These relations introduce the conformal part of the metric and allow the study of electrodynamics for specific spacetime geometries. At the foundational level, we discuss the possibility of generalizing the vacuum constitutive relations, by relaxing the fixed conditions of homogeneity and isotropy, and by assuming that the symmetry properties of the electro-vacuum follow the spacetime isometries. The implications of this extension are briefly discussed in the context of the intimate connection between electromagnetism and the geometry (and causal structure) of spacetime.
Electrodynamics of the event horizon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Punsly, B.; Coroniti, F.V.
1989-01-01
This paper is an investigation of the electrodynamics of the event horizon of a Kerr black hole. It is demonstrated that the event horizon behaves quite generally as an asymptotic vacuum infinity for axisymmetric, charge-neutral, accreting electromagnetic sources. This is in contrast with the general notion that the event horizon can be treated as an imperfect conductive membrane with a surface impedance of 4π/c. The conductive-membrane model has been incorporated into the more sophisticated membrane paradigm of Thorne, Price, and Macdonald by supplementing the model with the full equations of general relativity. In certain situations (in particular those of astrophysical interest), the conductive-membrane interpretation forms the appropriate set of pictures and images in the membrane paradigm. In this paper we reevaluate the specific gedanken experiments that were originally used to motivate the paradigm. We find that great care must be exercised if the detailed interaction of a black hole's external gravitational field with a magnetized plasma is modeled by the electrodynamics of the conductive horizon membrane. For ingoing flows of plasma or electromagnetic waves (when the hole is passively accepting information), the interpretation of the horizon as a vacuum infinity is equivalent to an imperfect conductor with a surface impedance of 4π/c (the impedance of the vacuum). In situations when an imperfect conductor should radiate information (such as a Faraday wheel) the event horizon cannot, since it is an infinity. The event horizon does not behave quite generally as an imperfect conductor, but has electrodynamic properties unique to itself
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mainland, G.B.
1988-01-01
Zero four-momentum, helicity eigenstates of the Bethe--Salpeter equation are found for a composite system consisting of a charged, spin-0 constituent and a charged, spin- 1/2 constituent bound by minimal electrodynamics. The form of the Bethe--Salpeter equation used to describe the bound state includes the contributions from both single photon exchange (ladder approximation) and the ''seagull'' diagram. Attention is restricted to zero orbital angular momentum states since these appear to be the most interesting physically
Massive three-loop form factor in the planar limit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henn, Johannes [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Johannes Gutenberg University,Staudingerweg 9, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Smirnov, Alexander V. [Research Computing Center, Moscow State University,119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Smirnov, Vladimir A. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Moscow State University,119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT),Wolfgang-Gaede Straße 1, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Steinhauser, Matthias [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT),Wolfgang-Gaede Straße 1, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2017-01-17
We compute the three-loop QCD corrections to the massive quark-anti-quark-photon form factors F{sub 1} and F{sub 2} in the large-N{sub c} limit. The analytic results are expressed in terms of Goncharov polylogarithms. This allows for a straightforward numerical evaluation. We also derive series expansions, including power suppressed terms, for three kinematic regions corresponding to small and large invariant masses of the photon momentum, and small velocities of the heavy quarks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Englert, T.J.
1983-01-01
An experimental investigation of the generation of second harmonic photons through the interaction of free electrons with an intense laser beam has been performed. Second harmonic photons with a wavelength of 530nm generated from the interaction of free electrons with 1060nm photons from a neodymium-glass laser are implied by observing Doppler shifted photons with wavelengths of 490nm and 507nm. The observed photon wavelengths results from a Doppler shift of the laser photon wavelengths as viewed in the rest frame of the electrons combined with a Doppler shift of the second harmonic photons emitted from 1600eV and 500eV electrons. Comparison of experimental results with those predicted by cross sections, derived using classical and quantum electrodynamics, shows reasonable agreement with both theories. Although second harmonic photons are created, the dynamics of second harmonic photon generation (accelerated electron motion due to the electromagnetic field or actual two-photon interaction with the electron) cannot be resolved without further experiment
Time-dependent Kohn-Sham approach to quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruggenthaler, M.; Mackenroth, F.; Bauer, D.
2011-01-01
We prove a generalization of the van Leeuwen theorem toward quantum electrodynamics, providing the formal foundations of a time-dependent Kohn-Sham construction for coupled quantized matter and electromagnetic fields. We circumvent the symmetry-causality problems associated with the action-functional approach to Kohn-Sham systems. We show that the effective external four-potential and four-current of the Kohn-Sham system are uniquely defined and that the effective four-current takes a very simple form. Further we rederive the Runge-Gross theorem for quantum electrodynamics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shu Chang-Gan; Xin Xia; Liu Yu-Min; Yu Zhong-Yuan; Yao Wen-Jie; Wang Dong-Lin; Cao Gui
2012-01-01
We investigate theoretically two photon entanglement processes in a photonic-crystal cavity embedding a quantum dot in the strong-coupling regime. The model proposed by Johne et al. (Johne R, Gippius N A, Pavlovic G, Solnyshkov D D, Shelykh I A and Malpuech G 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 240404), and by Robert et al. (Robert J, Gippius N A and Malpuech G 2009 Phys. Rev. B 79 155317) is modified by considering irreversible dissipation and incoherent continuous pumping for the quantum dot, which is necessary to connect the realistic experiment. The dynamics of the system is analysed by employing the Born—Markov master equation, through which the spectra for the system are computed as a function of various parameters. By means of this analysis the photon-reabsorption process in the strong-coupling regime is first observed and analysed from the perspective of radiation spectrum and the optimal parameters for observing energy-entangled photon pairs are identified. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Probing a quantum field in a photon box
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raimond, J M; Meunier, T; Bertet, P; Gleyzes, S; Maioli, P; Auffeves, A; Nogues, G; Brune, M; Haroche, S
2005-01-01
Einstein often performed thought experiments with 'photon boxes', storing fields for unlimited times. This is yet but a dream. We can nevertheless store quantum microwave fields in superconducting cavities for billions of periods. Using circular Rydberg atoms, it is possible to probe in a very detailed way the quantum state of these trapped fields. Cavity quantum electrodynamics tools can be used for a direct determination of the Husimi Q and Wigner quasi-probability distributions. They provide a very direct insight into the classical or non-classical nature of the field
Hu, Zhongwei; Chulhai, Dhabih V; Jensen, Lasse
2016-12-13
Surface-enhanced hyper-Raman scattering (SEHRS) is the two-photon analogue of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), which has proven to be a powerful tool to study molecular structures and surface enhancements. However, few theoretical approaches to SEHRS exist and most neglect the atomistic descriptions of the metal surface and molecular resonance effects. In this work, we present two atomistic electrodynamics-quantum mechanical models to simulate SEHRS. The first is the discrete interaction model/quantum mechanical (DIM/QM) model, which combines an atomistic electrodynamics model of the nanoparticle with a time-dependent density functional theory description of the molecule. The second model is a dressed-tensors method that describes the molecule as a point-dipole and point-quadrupole object interacting with the enhanced local field and field-gradients (FG) from the nanoparticle. In both of these models, the resonance effects are treated efficiently by means of damped quadratic response theory. Using these methods, we simulate SEHRS spectra for benzene and pyridine. Our results show that the FG effects in SEHRS play an important role in determining both the surface selection rules and the enhancements. We find that FG effects are more important in SEHRS than in SERS. We also show that the spectral features of small molecules can be accurately described by accounting for the interactions between the molecule and the local field and FG of the nanoparticle. However, at short distances between the metal and molecule, we find significant differences in the SEHRS enhancements predicted using the DIM/QM and the dressed-tensors methods.
Electrodynamic energy harvester for electrical transformer's ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Electrical transformer; electrodynamic; energy harvester; self-powered ...... Kennedy S P and Gordner T 2013 Hot spot studies for sheet wound transformer wind- ... and Lambert F 2011 Powering low-cost utility sensors using energy harvesting.
On generalized Born-Infeld electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kruglov, S I
2010-01-01
The generalized Born-Infeld electrodynamics with two parameters is investigated. In this model the propagation of a linearly polarized laser beam in the external transverse magnetic field is considered. It was shown that there is the effect of vacuum birefringence, and we evaluate induced ellipticity. The upper bounds on the combination of parameters introduced from the experimental data of BRST and PVLAS Collaborations were obtained. When two parameters are equal to each other, we arrive at Born-Infeld electrodynamics and the effect of vacuum birefringence vanishes. We find the canonical and symmetrical Belinfante energy-momentum tensors. The trace of the energy-momentum tensor is not zero and the dilatation symmetry is broken. The four-divergence of the dilatation current is equal to the trace of the Belinfante energy-momentum tensor and is proportional to the parameter (with the dimension of the field strength) of the model. The dual symmetry is also broken in the model considered.
Passivity-Based Control of a Rigid Electrodynamic Tether
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Martin Birkelund; Blanke, Mogens
2011-01-01
Electrodynamic tethers provide actuation for performing orbit correction of spacecrafts. When an electrodynamic tether system is orbiting the Earth in an inclined orbit, periodic changes in the magnetic field result in a family of unstable periodic solutions in the attitude motion. This paper shows...... how these periodic solutions can be stabilized by controlling only the current through the tether. A port-controlled Hamiltonian formulation is employed to describe the tethered satellite system and a passive input-output connection is utilized in the control design. The control law consists of two...
Wilson Fermions and Axion Electrodynamics in Optical Lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bermudez, A.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.; Mazza, L.; Rizzi, M.; Goldman, N.; Lewenstein, M.
2010-01-01
We show that ultracold Fermi gases in optical superlattices can be used as quantum simulators of relativistic lattice fermions in 3+1 dimensions. By exploiting laser-assisted tunneling, we find an analogue of the so-called naive Dirac fermions, and thus provide a realization of the fermion doubling problem. Moreover, we show how to implement Wilson fermions, and discuss how their mass can be inverted by tuning the laser intensities. In this regime, our atomic gas corresponds to a phase of matter where Maxwell electrodynamics is replaced by axion electrodynamics: a 3D topological insulator.
Problem of summing up ladder diagrams in quantum electrodynamics. [Cross sections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gadzhiev, S A; Livashvili, A I [Azerbajdzhanskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., Baku (USSR)
1975-03-01
A class of ladder diagrams in an asymptotic mode is considered, and a series of the perturbation theory for the given class of diagrams reduces to an integral equation obtained without approximations whatsoever. As applications of the method proposed, two electrodynamic processes are considered: the two-photon annihilation of an e/sup +/e/sup -/-pair and scattering of electons in Coulomb field. Matrix elements are provided. To derive the equations, Dirac equations and commutation relations are used. A conclusion is drawn that for the process, the log-log asymptotics and polar approximation lead to the fact that as the energy grows the cross-section of the process drops and the solution obtained indicates that such a drop occurs up to an energy of 10/sup 5/ GeV. For the second process, the region of large pulses transmitted by an electron to the external field does not lead to an increase in amplitude and cross-section.
On the low-energy limit of one-loop photon-graviton amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bastianelli, F.; Corradini, O.; Dávila, J.M.; Schubert, C.
2012-01-01
We present first results of a systematic study of the structure of the low-energy limit of the one-loop photon-graviton amplitudes induced by massive scalars and spinors. Our main objective is the search of KLT-type relations where effectively two photons merge into a graviton. We find such a relation at the graviton-photon-photon level. We also derive the diffeomorphism Ward identity for the 1PI one-graviton-N-photon amplitudes.
Relativization of phases in quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lesche, B.
1981-01-01
The idea of relativism is applied to gauge theories in order to eliminate nonphysical degrees of freedom. Spinor electrodynamics is taken as an example to show how this program might be put into practice. (author)
Towards an alternative unification of massless and massive vector bosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doria, R.M.; Helayel Neto, J.A.; Pugnetti, S.; Smith, A.W.
1984-01-01
A possible extension of the gauge principle is presented where two distinct gauge potentials are introduced in association with a single U(1) gauge group, each of them being taken to interact with a different kind of matter field. In such a picture, a massive vector boson naturally shows up in the physical spectrum. A massive photon without Higgs can be introduced. Renormalizability is seen to be a feature of the model. Possible supersymmetrizations are also contemplated. (Author) [pt
Four-dimensional black holes with scalar hair in nonlinear electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrientos, Jose; Gonzalez, P.A.; Vasquez, Yerko
2016-01-01
We consider a gravitating system consisting of a scalar field minimally coupled to gravity with a self-interacting potential and a U(1) nonlinear electromagnetic field. Solving analytically and numerically the coupled system for both power-law and Born-Infeld type electrodynamics, we find charged hairy black hole solutions. Then we study the thermodynamics of these solutions and we find that at a low temperature the topological charged black hole with scalar hair is thermodynamically preferred, whereas the topological charged black hole without scalar hair is thermodynamically preferred at a high temperature for power-law electrodynamics. Interestingly enough, these phase transitions occur at a fixed critical temperature and do not depend on the exponent p of the nonlinear electrodynamics. (orig.)
Four-dimensional black holes with scalar hair in nonlinear electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barrientos, Jose [Universidad de Concepcion, Departamento de Fisica, Concepcion (Chile); Universidad Catolica del Norte, Departamento de Ensenanza de las Ciencias Basicas, Coquimbo (Chile); Gonzalez, P.A. [Universidad Diego Portales, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile); Vasquez, Yerko [Universidad de La Serena, Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Facultad de Ciencias, La Serena (Chile)
2016-12-15
We consider a gravitating system consisting of a scalar field minimally coupled to gravity with a self-interacting potential and a U(1) nonlinear electromagnetic field. Solving analytically and numerically the coupled system for both power-law and Born-Infeld type electrodynamics, we find charged hairy black hole solutions. Then we study the thermodynamics of these solutions and we find that at a low temperature the topological charged black hole with scalar hair is thermodynamically preferred, whereas the topological charged black hole without scalar hair is thermodynamically preferred at a high temperature for power-law electrodynamics. Interestingly enough, these phase transitions occur at a fixed critical temperature and do not depend on the exponent p of the nonlinear electrodynamics. (orig.)
The positronium and the dipositronium in a Hartree-Fock approximation of quantum electrodynamics
Sok, Jérémy
2016-02-01
The Bogoliubov-Dirac-Fock (BDF) model is a no-photon approximation of quantum electrodynamics. It allows to study relativistic electrons in interaction with the Dirac sea. A state is fully characterized by its one-body density matrix, an infinite rank non-negative projector. We prove the existence of the para-positronium, the bound state of an electron and a positron with antiparallel spins, in the BDF model represented by a critical point of the energy functional in the absence of an external field. We also prove the existence of the dipositronium, a molecule made of two electrons and two positrons that also appears as a critical point. More generally, for any half integer j ∈ 1/2 + Z + , we prove the existence of a critical point of the energy functional made of 2j + 1 electrons and 2j + 1 positrons.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elliot Leader
2018-04-01
Full Text Available The expression for the total angular momentum carried by a laser optical vortex beam, splits, in the paraxial approximation, into two terms which seem to represent orbital and spin angular momentum respectively. There are, however, two very different competing versions of the formula for the spin angular momentum, one based on the use of the Poynting vector, as in classical electrodynamics, the other related to the canonical expression for the angular momentum which occurs in Quantum Electrodynamics. I analyze the possibility that a sufficiently sensitive optical measurement could decide which of these corresponds to the actual physical angular momentum carried by the beam. Keywords: Photon, Angular momentum, Laser optics, Particle physics
Photon-Mediated Quantum Gate between Two Neutral Atoms in an Optical Cavity
Welte, Stephan; Hacker, Bastian; Daiss, Severin; Ritter, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard
2018-02-01
Quantum logic gates are fundamental building blocks of quantum computers. Their integration into quantum networks requires strong qubit coupling to network channels, as can be realized with neutral atoms and optical photons in cavity quantum electrodynamics. Here we demonstrate that the long-range interaction mediated by a flying photon performs a gate between two stationary atoms inside an optical cavity from which the photon is reflected. This single step executes the gate in 2 μ s . We show an entangling operation between the two atoms by generating a Bell state with 76(2)% fidelity. The gate also operates as a cnot. We demonstrate 74.1(1.6)% overlap between the observed and the ideal gate output, limited by the state preparation fidelity of 80.2(0.8)%. As the atoms are efficiently connected to a photonic channel, our gate paves the way towards quantum networking with multiqubit nodes and the distribution of entanglement in repeater-based long-distance quantum networks.
Photon-Mediated Quantum Gate between Two Neutral Atoms in an Optical Cavity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephan Welte
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Quantum logic gates are fundamental building blocks of quantum computers. Their integration into quantum networks requires strong qubit coupling to network channels, as can be realized with neutral atoms and optical photons in cavity quantum electrodynamics. Here we demonstrate that the long-range interaction mediated by a flying photon performs a gate between two stationary atoms inside an optical cavity from which the photon is reflected. This single step executes the gate in 2 μs. We show an entangling operation between the two atoms by generating a Bell state with 76(2% fidelity. The gate also operates as a cnot. We demonstrate 74.1(1.6% overlap between the observed and the ideal gate output, limited by the state preparation fidelity of 80.2(0.8%. As the atoms are efficiently connected to a photonic channel, our gate paves the way towards quantum networking with multiqubit nodes and the distribution of entanglement in repeater-based long-distance quantum networks.
Non-US electrodynamic launchers research and development
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parker, J.V.; Batteh, J.H.; Greig, J.R.; Keefer, D.; McNab, I.R.; Zabar, Z.
1994-11-01
Electrodynamic launcher research and development work of scientists outside the United States is analyzed and assessed by six internationally recognized US experts in the field of electromagnetic and electrothermal launchers. The assessment covers five broad technology areas: (1) Experimental railguns; (2) Railgun theory and design; (3) Induction launchers; (4) Electrothermal guns; (5) Energy storage and power supplies. The overall conclusion is that non-US work on electrodynamic launchers is maturing rapidly after a relatively late start in many countries. No foreign program challenges the US efforts in scope, but it is evident that the United States may be surpassed in some technologies within the next few years. Until recently, published Russian work focused on hypervelocity for research purposes. Within the last two years, large facilities have been described where military-oriented development has been underway since the mid-1980s. Financial support for these large facilities appears to have collapsed, leaving no effective effort to develop practical launchers for military or civilian applications. Electrodynamic launcher research in Europe is making rapid progress by focusing on a single application, tactical launchers for the military. Four major laboratories, in Britain, France, Germany, and the Netherlands, are working on this problem. Though narrower in scope than the US effort, the European work enjoys a continuity of support that has accelerated its progress. The next decade will see the deployment of electrodynamic launcher technology, probably in the form of an electrothermal-chemical upgrade for an existing gun system. The time scale for deployment of electromagnetic launchers is entirely dependent on the level of research-and-development effort. If resources remain limited, the advantage will lie with cooperative efforts that have reasonably stable funding such as the present French-German program.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Du, Fang-Fang; Li, Tao; Long, Gui-Lu, E-mail: gllong@tsinghua.edu.cn
2016-12-15
Hyperentanglement, defined as the entanglement in multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs) of a photonic quantum system, has attracted much attention recently as it can improve the channel capacity of quantum communication largely. Here we present a refined hyperentanglement purification protocol (hyper-EPP) for two-photon systems in mixed hyperentangled states in both the spatial-mode and polarization DOFs, assisted by cavity quantum electrodynamics. By means of the spatial (polarization) quantum state transfer process, the quantum states that are discarded in the previous hyper-EPPs can be preserved. That is, the spatial (polarization) state of a four-photon system with high fidelity can be transformed into another four-photon system with low fidelity, not disturbing its polarization (spatial) state, which makes this hyper-EPP take the advantage of possessing a higher efficiency.
Conceptual assessment tool for advanced undergraduate electrodynamics
Baily, Charles; Ryan, Qing X.; Astolfi, Cecilia; Pollock, Steven J.
2017-12-01
As part of ongoing investigations into student learning in advanced undergraduate courses, we have developed a conceptual assessment tool for upper-division electrodynamics (E&M II): the Colorado UppeR-division ElectrodyNamics Test (CURrENT). This is a free response, postinstruction diagnostic with 6 multipart questions, an optional 3-question preinstruction test, and accompanying grading rubrics. The instrument's development was guided by faculty-consensus learning goals and research into common student difficulties. It can be used to gauge the effectiveness of transformed pedagogy, and to gain insights into student thinking in the covered topic areas. We present baseline data representing 500 students across 9 institutions, along with validity, reliability, and discrimination measures of the instrument and scoring rubric.
Cosmological effects of nonlinear electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novello, M; Goulart, E; Salim, J M; Bergliaffa, S E Perez
2007-01-01
It will be shown that a given realization of nonlinear electrodynamics, used as a source of Einstein's equations, generates a cosmological model with interesting features, namely a phase of current cosmic acceleration, and the absence of an initial singularity, thus pointing to a way of solving two important problems in cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horton-Smith, G.A.
1998-07-01
An experiment is described which studied quantum electrodynamic interactions under conditions of extremely high fields, along with a review of the relevant theory. The high fields were created by an intense, tightly-focused pulse of laser light at green or infrared wavelengths, into which was sent an ultra-relativistic electron beam of 46.6-GeV energy. The relevant theory is that of an electron in an electromagnetic wave so intense that the electron's mass is effectively shifted by the transverse momentum imparted to it by the wave, and the electron encounters field strengths comparable to the Schwinger critical field strength of 511 kV per Compton wavelength. An electron in the intense wave may radiate a photon and balance 4-momentum by absorbing multiple photons from the laser, which can lead to real photons with energies above the kinematic limit for conventional Compton scattering. All particles have significant probability of scattering multiple times while in the focus of the laser, including the photons radiated by the electrons, which may convert into electron-positron pairs, again with absorption of multiple photons from the laser. This experiment was able to measure the rates and spectra of positrons, electrons, and photons emerging from the interaction region. Results from both experiment and theoretical simulations are presented and compared. The results from the electron and positron measurements are compatible with the accepted theory, within experimental uncertainties due mainly to the laser intensity measurement. The photon spectrum shows the correct shape, but the ratio of rates in the linear and two-absorbed-photon portions of the spectrum does not vary as expected with the laser intensity, suggesting a disagreement with the accepted theory, with a significance of roughly two standard deviations. A follow-up experiment would be in order
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horton-Smith, G.A.
1998-07-01
An experiment is described which studied quantum electrodynamic interactions under conditions of extremely high fields, along with a review of the relevant theory. The high fields were created by an intense, tightly-focused pulse of laser light at green or infrared wavelengths, into which was sent an ultra-relativistic electron beam of 46.6-GeV energy. The relevant theory is that of an electron in an electromagnetic wave so intense that the electron's mass is effectively shifted by the transverse momentum imparted to it by the wave, and the electron encounters field strengths comparable to the Schwinger critical field strength of 511 kV per Compton wavelength. An electron in the intense wave may radiate a photon and balance 4-momentum by absorbing multiple photons from the laser, which can lead to real photons with energies above the kinematic limit for conventional Compton scattering. All particles have significant probability of scattering multiple times while in the focus of the laser, including the photons radiated by the electrons, which may convert into electron-positron pairs, again with absorption of multiple photons from the laser. This experiment was able to measure the rates and spectra of positrons, electrons, and photons emerging from the interaction region. Results from both experiment and theoretical simulations are presented and compared. The results from the electron and positron measurements are compatible with the accepted theory, within experimental uncertainties due mainly to the laser intensity measurement. The photon spectrum shows the correct shape, but the ratio of rates in the linear and two-absorbed-photon portions of the spectrum does not vary as expected with the laser intensity, suggesting a disagreement with the accepted theory, with a significance of roughly two standard deviations. A follow-up experiment would be in order.
Foundations of classical and quantum electrodynamics
Toptygin, Igor N
2014-01-01
This advanced textbook covers many fundamental, traditional and new branches of electrodynamics, as well as the related fields of special relativity, quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics. The book introduces the material at different levels, oriented towards 3rd–4th year bachelor, master, and PhD students. This is so as to describe the whole complexity of physical phenomena. The required mathematical background is collated in Chapter 1, while the necessary physical background is included in the main text of the corresponding chapters and also given in appendices. It contains approximately 800 examples and problems, many of which are described in detail. Some of these problems are designed for students to work on their own with only the answers and descriptions of results, and may be solved selectively. Equally suitable as a reference for researchers specialized in science and engineering.
Electrodynamic forces and plasma conductivity inside the current sheet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogdanov, S.Yu.; Frank, A.G.; Markov, V.S.
1985-01-01
The process of accumulation and explosive release of magnetic energy was studied in a current sheet of plasma of a high-current linear discharge. The distribution of current density and of electrodynamic forces were measured and the time evolution of these quantities was determined. The evolution of the plasma conductivity was also obtained. The measured and calculated electrodynamic forces may explain the plasma acceleration up to the velocities about 3x10 4 m/s only near the sheet edges. (D.Gy.)
Evidence of Light-by-Light Scattering with Real Photons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boege, J.
2003-12-19
In a new experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, heretofore untested aspects of high field strength Quantum Electrodynamics were probed. Bunches of 46.6 GeV electrons available in the Final Focus Test Beam line were brought into collision with terawatt pulses of either 1.17 eV or 2.34 eV photons from a Nd:Glass laser system. Several physical process were investigated. This thesis describes the production of electron-positron pairs in photon-photon collisions. This is particularly interesting since it represents the generation of massive particles from massless particles. The bunch/pulse trajectories are approximately antiparallel. Due to the head-on nature of the collisions, the electrons see, in their rest frame, a transformed laser pulse electric field amplitude {bar {var_epsilon}}{sub 0} = 2{gamma}{var_epsilon}{sub 0}, and so a lab frame field {var_epsilon} {approx} 1.0 x 10{sup 11} V/cm corresponds to a 46.6 GeV electron rest frame field {bar {var_epsilon}}{sub 0} {approx} 1.8 x 10{sup 16} V/cm. For electric field amplitudes of this magnitude, perturbative QED is of limited validity. Multiphoton processes dominate collision results. The geometry of the experiments was such that any pairs produced came into existence in the midst of the electron/photon collision region. The electron from a produced pair was indistinguishable from the recoil electrons generated via other processes in collisions. Detecting the positron, then, was the only way to observe pair production. In data accumulated during the September 1994 Final Focus Test Beam run, positrons in excess of background were detected. Positron signals were extracted from an ensemble of data collected during electron bunch/laser pulse collisions. Calorimeter readings were used to measure the energy, and reconstruct the transverse displacement of positrons propagating downstream from the bunch/pulse collision region. Field maps of permanent magnets located downstream of the collision region but
Nonlinear electrodynamics and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Breton, Nora
2010-01-01
Nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED) generalizes Maxwell's theory for strong fields. When coupled to general relativity NLED presents interesting features like the non-vanishing of the trace of the energy-momentum tensor that leads to the possibility of violation of some energy conditions and of acting as a repulsive contribution in the Raychaudhuri equation. This theory is worth to study in cosmological and astrophysical situations characterized by strong electromagnetic and gravitational fields.
Composed particle model in stochastic electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunini, S.A.
1985-01-01
We analyse the statistical properties of the non-relativistic motion of a particle that has two constituents having finite nasses and charges. The main interaction is in contact with thermal and zero point radiation of Stochastic Electrodynamics. (M.W.O.) [pt
Electrodynamics of the semiconductor band edge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stahl, A.; Balslev, I.
1987-01-01
The book is a presentation of an approach to electrodynamics in semiconductors. It describes in detail the coherence phenomena appearing when the electromagnetic wavelength, the electron-hole coherence length and the single-particle wavelength are of the same order of magnitude
The potential in general linear electrodynamics. Causal structure, propagators and quantization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siemssen, Daniel [Department of Mathematical Methods in Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw (Poland); Pfeifer, Christian [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover (Germany); Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM), Universitaet Bremen (Germany)
2016-07-01
From an axiomatic point of view, the fundamental input for a theory of electrodynamics are Maxwell's equations dF=0 (or F=dA) and dH=J, and a constitutive law H=F, which relates the field strength 2-form F and the excitation 2-form H. In this talk we consider general linear electrodynamics, the theory of electrodynamics defined by a linear constitutive law. The best known application of this theory is the effective description of electrodynamics inside (linear) media (e.g. birefringence). We analyze the classical theory of the electromagnetic potential A before we use methods familiar from mathematical quantum field theory in curved spacetimes to quantize it. Our analysis of the classical theory contains the derivation of retarded and advanced propagators, the analysis of the causal structure on the basis of the constitutive law (instead of a metric) and a discussion of the classical phase space. This classical analysis sets the stage for the construction of the quantum field algebra and quantum states, including a (generalized) microlocal spectrum condition.
The scalar-photon 3-point vertex in massless quenched scalar QED
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Concha-Sánchez, Y; Gutiérrez-Guerrero, L X; Fernández-Rangel, L A
2016-01-01
Non perturbative studies of Schwinger-Dyson equations (SDEs) require their infinite, coupled tower to be truncated in order to reduce them to a practically solvable set. In this connection, a physically acceptable ansatz for the three point vertex is the most favorite choice. Scalar quantum electrodynamics (sQED) provides a simple and neat platform to address this problem. The most general form of the scalar-photon three point vertex can be expressed in terms of only two independent form factors, longitudinal and transverse. Ball and Chiu have demonstrated that the longitudinal vertex is fixed by requiring the Ward-Fradkin-Green- Takahashi identity (WFGTI), while the transverse vertex remains undetermined. In massless quenched sQED, we propose the transverse part of the non perturbative scalar-photon vertex. (paper)
Reassessment of Bohm's quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baumann, K.
1986-01-01
Bohm's interpretation of quantum theory is reexamined, with emphasis on quantum electrodynamics. Subjects of the discussion are the observability of 'hidden' variables, the applicability of Bohm's theory to spinor QED, the violation of Lorentz invariance, and variants of Bohm's theory. A formulation of causal quantum field theory in terms of distributions is also presented. (Author)
Conceptual assessment tool for advanced undergraduate electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charles Baily
2017-09-01
Full Text Available As part of ongoing investigations into student learning in advanced undergraduate courses, we have developed a conceptual assessment tool for upper-division electrodynamics (E&M II: the Colorado UppeR-division ElectrodyNamics Test (CURrENT. This is a free response, postinstruction diagnostic with 6 multipart questions, an optional 3-question preinstruction test, and accompanying grading rubrics. The instrument’s development was guided by faculty-consensus learning goals and research into common student difficulties. It can be used to gauge the effectiveness of transformed pedagogy, and to gain insights into student thinking in the covered topic areas. We present baseline data representing 500 students across 9 institutions, along with validity, reliability, and discrimination measures of the instrument and scoring rubric.
Massless quantum electrodynamics: a variational study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piquini, P.C.
1990-01-01
The variational method was used to study the probable existence of a compound vacuum in quantum electrodynamics. An Ansatz containing a condensate of electron-positron pairs was investigated and an optimization equation for the condensate wave function found. (L.C.J.A.)
Scale covariant physics: a 'quantum deformation' of classical electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knoll, Yehonatan; Yavneh, Irad
2010-01-01
We present a deformation of classical electrodynamics, continuously depending on a 'quantum parameter', featuring manifest gauge, Poincare and scale covariance. The theory, dubbed extended charge dynamics (ECD), associates a certain length scale with each charge which, due to scale covariance, is an attribute of a solution, not a parameter of the theory. When the EM field experienced by an ECD charge is slowly varying over that length scale, the dynamics of the charge reduces to classical dynamics, its emitted radiation reduces to the familiar Lienard-Wiechert potential and the above length scale is identified as the charge's Compton length. It is conjectured that quantum mechanics describes statistical aspects of ensembles of ECD solutions, much like classical thermodynamics describes statistical aspects of ensembles of classical solutions. A unique 'remote sensing' feature of ECD, supporting that conjecture, is presented, along with an explanation for the illusion of a photon within a classical treatment of the EM field. Finally, a novel conservation law associated with the scale covariance of ECD is derived, indicating that the scale of a solution may 'drift' with time at a constant rate, much like translation covariance implies a uniform drift of the (average) position.
Pole-factorization theorem in quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stapp, H.P.
1996-01-01
In quantum electrodynamics a classical part of the S-matrix is normally factored out in order to obtain a quantum remainder that can be treated perturbatively without the occurrence of infrared divergences. However, this separation, as usually performed, introduces spurious large-distance effects that produce an apparent breakdown of the important correspondence between stable particles and poles of the S-matrix, and, consequently, lead to apparent violations of the correspondence principle and to incorrect results for computations in the mesoscopic domain lying between the atomic and classical regimes. An improved computational technique is described that allows valid results to be obtained in this domain, and that leads, for the quantum remainder, in the cases studied, to a physical-region singularity structure that, as regards the most singular parts, is the same as the normal physical-region analytic structure in theories in which all particles have non-zero mass. The key innovations here are to define the classical part in coordinate space, rather than in momentum space, and to define there a separation of the photon-electron coupling into its classical and quantum parts that has the following properties: (1) The contributions from the terms containing only classical couplings can be summed to all orders to give a unitary operator that generates the coherent state that corresponds to the appropriate classical process, and (2) The quantum remainder can be rigorously shown to exhibit, as regards its most singular parts, the normal analytic structure. 22 refs
Maxwell equations in conformal invariant electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fradkin, E.S.; AN SSSR, Novosibirsk. Inst. Avtomatiki i Ehlektrometrii); Kozhevnikov, A.A.; Palchik, M.Ya.; Pomeransky, A.A.
1983-01-01
We consider a conformal invariant formulation of quantum electrodynamics. Conformal invariance is achieved with a specific mathematical construction based on the indecomposable representations of the conformal group associated with the electromagnetic potential and current. As a corolary of this construction modified expressions for the 3-point Green functions are obtained which both contain transverse parts. They make it possible to formulate a conformal invariant skeleton perturbation theory. It is also shown that the Euclidean Maxwell equations in conformal electrodynamics are manifestations of its kinematical structure: in the case of the 3-point Green functions these equations follow (up to constants) from the conformal invariance while in the case of higher Green functions they are equivalent to the equality of the kernels of the partial wave expansions. This is the manifestation of the mathematical fast of a (partial) equivalence of the representations associated with the potential, current and the field tensor. (orig.)
Probing nonlinear electrodynamics in slowly rotating spacetimes through neutrino astrophysics
Cuesta, Herman J. Mosquera; Lambiase, Gaetano; Pereira, Jonas P.
2017-01-01
Huge electromagnetic fields are known to be present during the late stages of the dynamics of supernovae. Thus, when dealing with electrodynamics in this context, the possibility may arise to probe nonlinear theories (generalizations of the Maxwellian electromagnetism). We firstly solve Einstein field equations minimally coupled to an arbitrary (current-free) nonlinear Lagrangian of electrodynamics (NLED) in the slow rotation regime $a\\ll M$ (black hole's mass), up to first order in $a/M$. We...
Electrodynamic wireless power transmission to a torsional receiver
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McEachern, K M; Arnold, D P
2013-01-01
This paper presents a wireless power transmission (WPT) concept that uses electrodynamic coupling and torsional motion of a permanent magnet in the receiver. The system is shown to transfer an average power of 3.09 mW (power density equal to 143 μW/cm 3 ) over a distance of 1 cm, an average power of 1.98 mW over a distance of 2 cm, and an average power of 126 μW over a distance of 7 cm. We also demonstrate unaltered power transmission through conductive media, including a human hand and an aluminum plate, highlighting a key advantage of the electrodynamic wireless power transmission approach
Lorentz covariance ‘almost’ implies electromagnetism and more
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sobouti, Y
2015-01-01
Beginning from two simple assumptions, (i) the speed of light is a universal constant, or its equivalent, the spacetime intervals are Lorentz invariant, and (ii) there are mutually interacting particles, with a covariant ‘source-field’ equation, one arrives at a class of field equations of which the standard electromagnetism (EM) and electrodynamics are special cases. The formalism, depending on how one formulates the source-field equation, allows one to speculate magnetic monopoles, massive photons, nonlinear EMs, and more. (paper)
Experiments and Numerical Simulations of Electrodynamic Tether
Iki, Kentaro; Kawamoto, Satomi; Takahashi, Ayaka; Ishimoto, Tomori; Yanagida, Atsushi; Toda, Susumu
As an effective means of suppressing space debris growth, the Aerospace Research and Development Directorate of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has been investigating an active space debris removal system that employs highly efficient electrodynamic tether (EDT) technology for orbital transfer. This study investigates tether deployment dynamics by means of on-ground experiments and numerical simulations of an electrodynamic tether system. Some key parameters used in the numerical simulations, such as the elastic modulus and damping ratio of the tether, the spring constant of the coiling of the tether, and deployment friction, must be estimated, and various experiments are conducted to determine these values. As a result, the following values were obtained: The elastic modulus of the tether was 40 GPa, and the damping ratio of the tether was 0.02. The spring constant and the damping ratio of the tether coiling were 10-4 N/m and 0.025 respectively. The deployment friction was 0.038ν + 0.005 N. In numerical simulations using a multiple mass tether model, tethers with lengths of several kilometers are deployed and the attitude dynamics of satellites attached to the end of the tether and tether libration are calculated. As a result, the simulations confirmed successful deployment of the tether with a length of 500 m using the electrodynamic tether system.
Testing Born-Infeld Electrodynamics in Waveguides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferraro, Rafael
2007-01-01
Waveguides can be employed to test nonlinear effects in electrodynamics. We solve Born-Infeld equations for TE waves in a rectangular waveguide. We show that the energy velocity acquires a dependence on the amplitude, and harmonic components appear as a consequence of the nonlinear behavior
Photon interactions in ultra-peripheral heavy-ion collisions in the ATLAS detector at the LHC
Webb, Samuel; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
Two ATLAS analyses involving photon interactions in ultra peripheral lead- lead collisions are described, namely the study of dijet production in photo- nuclear ultra peripheral collisions and a measurement of light-by-light scattering. The first, is an important way to probe and constrain nuclear parton distribution functions, which are known to exhibit suppression at low Bjorken- x with respect to proton PDFs, as well as enhancement at higher Bjorken-x. Light-by-light scattering is forbidden in classical electrodynamics as it violates the super-position principle and is a fundamental prediction of quantum mechanics. The first direct evidence for this interaction with two quasi-real initial state photons is presented.
Quantum electrodynamics of particles with arbitrary spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, H.S.
1978-01-01
A generalization of quantum electrodynamics is developed for particles of higher spin, with careful attention to the requirements of consistency, causality, unitarity and renormalizability. It is shown that field equations studied previously by the author are expressible in arbitrarily many different forms, which are equivalent in the absence of electromagnetic interactions, but not when electromagnetic coupling is introduced in a gauge-invariant way. A form is chosen which satisfies the requirements of casuality. It is shown how to define a particle density, which is positive-definite in the subspace spanned by solutions of the field equation, and satisifies a Lorentz-invariant conservation law. The quantization and renormalization of the resulting electrodynamics is studied, and is found to require only minor modifications of the existing theory for particles of spin 1/2
The chronicle of the classical electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bassalo, J.M.F.
1984-01-01
In this Chronicle of the classical electrodynamics it is shown how this important branch of classical physics was developed since the mathematical formulation of the electromagnetism empiric laws carried by Maxwell, mainly the laws of Coulomb, Oersted, Ampere, Biot-Savart, Faraday, Henry and Lenz, up to the settlement of the radiation theory, scientific background for the technological development of the wireless telegraphy. Through this chronicle, it is also seen how Maxwell got one of the main results of the past century classical physics - the electromagnetic theory of light -, and how the experimental production of an electromagnetic wave by Hertz, unchained a collection of theoretical papers which explained many experimental results such as dispersion of light, thermical radiation, X-rays and its scattering through the matter. At last, it is still seen that the study of electrodynamics of moving bodies led to the relativity theory, presented by Einstein's famous paper about such subject. (Author) [pt
On the electrodynamics of spinning particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holten, J.W. van
1990-01-01
The electrodynamics of spinning point particles is considered. A modification of the Lorentz force law is introduced which can be interpreted as a classical limit of the Dirac-Klein-Gordon equation. An improved version of the inhomogeneous Maxwell equations is constructed to describe the classical fields of spinning particles. Both classical and quantum electrodynamics are shown to predict relativistic time-dilatation effects for spinning particles in an electromagnetic field, even in the limit of zero velocity. The life-time of unstable charged particles moving in a Coulomb field is computed for both spin-zero and spin-half particles. Comparison shows spin effects to be present but relatively small. The magnitude of further spin-dependent correction from hyperfine interactions is computed. A measurement of the life-time of muons in atomic bound states separated by such spin-dependent hyperfine interactions would provide a clean test for the effect predicted. Similar effects are shown to arise in non-abelian gauge theories such as QCD. (author). 18 refs
REDUCE in elementary particle physics. Quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grozin, A.G.
1990-01-01
This preprint is the second part of the problem book on using REDUCE for calculations of cross sections and decay probabilities in elementary particle physics. It contains examples of calculations in quantum electrodynamics. 5 refs
Spectral ansatz in quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atkinson, D.; Slim, H.A.
1979-01-01
An ansatz of Delbourgo and Salam for the spectral representation of the vertex function in quantum electrodynamics. The Ward-Takahashi identity is respected, and the electron propagator does not have a ghost. The infra-red and ultraviolet behaviours of the electron propagator in this theory are considered, and a rigorous existence theorem for the propagator in the Yennie gauge is presented
Self-interacting asymmetric dark matter coupled to a light massive dark photon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petraki, Kalliopi; Pearce, Lauren; Kusenko, Alexander
2014-01-01
Dark matter (DM) with sizeable self-interactions mediated by a light species offers a compelling explanation of the observed galactic substructure; furthermore, the direct coupling between DM and a light particle contributes to the DM annihilation in the early universe. If the DM abundance is due to a dark particle-antiparticle asymmetry, the DM annihilation cross-section can be arbitrarily large, and the coupling of DM to the light species can be significant. We consider the case of asymmetric DM interacting via a light (but not necessarily massless) Abelian gauge vector boson, a dark photon. In the massless dark photon limit, gauge invariance mandates that DM be multicomponent, consisting of positive and negative dark ions of different species which partially bind in neutral dark atoms. We argue that a similar conclusion holds for light dark photons; in particular, we establish that the multi-component and atomic character of DM persists in much of the parameter space where the dark photon is sufficiently light to mediate sizeable DM self-interactions. We discuss the cosmological sequence of events in this scenario, including the dark asymmetry generation, the freeze-out of annihilations, the dark recombination and the phase transition which gives mass to the dark photon. We estimate the effect of self-interactions in DM haloes, taking into account this cosmological history. We place constraints based on the observed ellipticity of large haloes, and identify the regimes where DM self-scattering can affect the dynamics of smaller haloes, bringing theory in better agreement with observations. Moreover, we estimate the cosmological abundance of dark photons in various regimes, and derive pertinent bounds
Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin quantization of histories electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noltingk, Duncan
2002-01-01
This article is a continuation of earlier work where a classical history theory of pure electrodynamics was developed in which the history fields have five components. The extra component is associated with an extra constraint, thus enlarging the gauge group of histories electrodynamics. In this article we quantize the classical theory developed previously by two methods. First we quantize the reduced classical history space to obtain a reduced quantum history theory. Second we quantize the classical BRST-extended history space, and use the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin charge to define a 'cohomological' quantum history theory. Finally, we show that the reduced history theory is isomorphic (as a history theory) to the cohomological history theory
Fractal electrodynamics via non-integer dimensional space approach
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2015-09-01
Using the recently suggested vector calculus for non-integer dimensional space, we consider electrodynamics problems in isotropic case. This calculus allows us to describe fractal media in the framework of continuum models with non-integer dimensional space. We consider electric and magnetic fields of fractal media with charges and currents in the framework of continuum models with non-integer dimensional spaces. An application of the fractal Gauss's law, the fractal Ampere's circuital law, the fractal Poisson equation for electric potential, and equation for fractal stream of charges are suggested. Lorentz invariance and speed of light in fractal electrodynamics are discussed. An expression for effective refractive index of non-integer dimensional space is suggested.
Quantum-electrodynamics corrections in pionic hydrogen
Schlesser, S.; Le Bigot, E. -O.; Indelicato, P.; Pachucki, K.
2011-01-01
We investigate all pure quantum-electrodynamics corrections to the np --> 1s, n = 2-4 transition energies of pionic hydrogen larger than 1 meV, which requires an accurate evaluation of all relevant contributions up to order alpha 5. These values are needed to extract an accurate strong interaction
How Very Massive Metal Free Stars Start Cosmological Reionization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wise, John H.; Abel, Tom
2007-01-01
The initial conditions and relevant physics for the formation of the earliest galaxies are well specified in the concordance cosmology. Using ab initio cosmological Eulerian adaptive mesh refinement radiation hydrodynamical calculations, we discuss how very massive stars start the process of cosmological reionization. The models include non-equilibrium primordial gas chemistry and cooling processes and accurate radiation transport in the Case B approximation using adaptively ray traced photon packages, retaining the time derivative in the transport equation. Supernova feedback is modeled by thermal explosions triggered at parsec scales. All calculations resolve the local Jeans length by at least 16 grid cells at all times and as such cover a spatial dynamic range of ∼10 6 . These first sources of reionization are highly intermittent and anisotropic and first photoionize the small scales voids surrounding the halos they form in, rather than the dense filaments they are embedded in. As the merging objects form larger, dwarf sized galaxies, the escape fraction of UV radiation decreases and the H II regions only break out on some sides of the galaxies making them even more anisotropic. In three cases, SN blast waves induce star formation in overdense regions that were formed earlier from ionization front instabilities. These stars form tens of parsecs away from the center of their parent DM halo. Approximately 5 ionizing photons are needed per sustained ionization when star formation in 10 6 M · halos are dominant in the calculation. As the halos become larger than ∼10 7 M # circle d ot#, the ionizing photon escape fraction decreases, which in turn increases the number of photons per ionization to 15--50, in calculations with stellar feedback only. Supernova feedback in these more massive halos creates a more diffuse medium, allowing the stellar radiation to escape more easily and maintaining the ratio of 5 ionizing photons per sustained ionization
Electrodynamics of quantum spin liquids
Dressel, Martin; Pustogow, Andrej
2018-05-01
Quantum spin liquids attract great interest due to their exceptional magnetic properties characterized by the absence of long-range order down to low temperatures despite the strong magnetic interaction. Commonly, these compounds are strongly correlated electron systems, and their electrodynamic response is governed by the Mott gap in the excitation spectrum. Here we summarize and discuss the optical properties of several two-dimensional quantum spin liquid candidates. First we consider the inorganic material herbertsmithite ZnCu3(OH)6Cl2 and related compounds, which crystallize in a kagome lattice. Then we turn to the organic compounds -EtMe3Sb[Pd(dmit)2]2, κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Ag2(CN)3 and κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu2(CN)3, where the spins are arranged in an almost perfect triangular lattice, leading to strong frustration. Due to differences in bandwidth, the effective correlation strength varies over a wide range, leading to a rather distinct behavior as far as the electrodynamic properties are concerned. We discuss the spinon contributions to the optical conductivity in comparison to metallic quantum fluctuations in the vicinity of the Mott transition.
Refractive index in generalized superconductors with Born-Infeld electrodynamics
Cheng, Jun; Pan, Qiyuan; Yu, Hongwei; Jing, Jiliang
2018-03-01
We investigate, in the probe limit, the negative refraction in the generalized superconductors with the Born-Infeld electrodynamics. We observe that the system has a negative Depine-Lakhtakia index in the superconducting phase at small frequencies and the greater the Born-Infeld corrections the larger the range of frequencies or the range of temperatures for which the negative refraction occurs. Furthermore, we find that the tunable Born-Infeld parameter can be used to improve the propagation of light in the holographic setup. Our analysis indicates that the Born-Infeld electrodynamics plays an important role in determining the optical properties of the boundary theory.
Probing hidden sector photons through the Higgs window
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahlers, M.
2008-07-01
We investigate the possibility that a (light) hidden sector extra photon receives its mass via spontaneous symmetry breaking of a hidden sector Higgs boson, the so-called hidden-Higgs. The hidden-photon can mix with the ordinary photon via a gauge kinetic mixing term. The hidden-Higgs can couple to the Standard Model Higgs via a renormalizable quartic term - sometimes called the Higgs Portal. We discuss the implications of this light hidden-Higgs in the context of laser polarization and light-shining-through-the-wall experiments as well as cosmological, astrophysical, and non-Newtonian force measurements. For hidden-photons receiving their mass from a hidden-Higgs we find in the small mass regime significantly stronger bounds than the bounds on massive hidden sector photons alone. (orig.)
Probing hidden sector photons through the Higgs window
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahlers, Markus; Jaeckel, Joerg; Redondo, Javier; Ringwald, Andreas
2008-01-01
We investigate the possibility that a (light) hidden sector extra photon receives its mass via spontaneous symmetry breaking of a hidden sector Higgs boson, the so-called hidden-Higgs. The hidden-photon can mix with the ordinary photon via a gauge kinetic mixing term. The hidden-Higgs can couple to the standard model Higgs via a renormalizable quartic term - sometimes called the Higgs portal. We discuss the implications of this light hidden-Higgs in the context of laser polarization and light-shining-through-the-wall experiments as well as cosmological, astrophysical, and non-Newtonian force measurements. For hidden-photons receiving their mass from a hidden-Higgs, we find in the small mass regime significantly stronger bounds than the bounds on massive hidden sector photons alone.
Lamb Shift in Nonrelativistic Quantum Electrodynamics.
Grotch, Howard
1981-01-01
The bound electron self-energy or Lamb shift is calculated in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics. Retardation is retained and also an interaction previously dropped in other nonrelativistic approaches is kept. Results are finite without introducing a cutoff and lead to a Lamb shift in hydrogen of 1030.9 MHz. (Author/JN)
Hilbert space theory of classical electrodynamics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Hilbert space; Koopman–von Neumann theory; classical electrodynamics. PACS No. 03.50. ... The paper is divided into four sections. Section 2 .... construction of Sudarshan is to be contrasted with that of Koopman and von Neumann. ..... ture from KvN and [16] in this formulation is to define new momentum and coordinate.
Engineering squeezed states of microwave radiation with circuit quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Pengbo; Li Fuli
2011-01-01
We introduce a squeezed state source for microwave radiation with tunable parameters in circuit quantum electrodynamics. We show that when a superconducting artificial multilevel atom interacting with a transmission line resonator is suitably driven by external classical fields, two-mode squeezed states of the cavity modes can be engineered in a controllable fashion from the vacuum state via adiabatic following of the ground state of the system. This scheme appears to be robust against decoherence and is realizable with present techniques in circuit quantum electrodynamics.
One-loop calculations with massive particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oldenborgh, G.J. van.
1990-01-01
In this thesis some techniques for performing one-loop calculations with massive particles are presented. Numerical techniques are presented necessary for evaluating one-loop integrals which occur in one-loop calculations of photon-photon scattering. The algorithms have been coded in FORTRAN (to evaluate the scalar integrals) and the algebraic language FORM (to reduce the tensor integrals to scalar integrals). Applications are made in the theory of the strong interaction, QCD, i.e. in handling one-loop integrals with massive particles, in order to regulate the infinities by mass parameters encountered in this theory. However this simplifies the computation considerably, the description of the proton structure functions have to be renormalized in order to obtain physical results. This renormalization is different from the published results for the gluon and thus has to be redone. The first physics results that have been obtained with these new methods are presented. These concern heavy quark production in semi-leptonic interactions, for instance neutrino charm production and top production at the electron-proton (ep) collider HERA and the proposed LEP/LHC combination. Total and differential cross-sections for one-loop corrections to top production at the HERA and proposed LEP/HLC ep colliders are given and structure functions for charmed quark production are compared with previously published results. (author). 58 refs.; 18 figs.; 5 tabs
Successive canonical transformation in model two-body electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raha, S.
1978-10-01
The possibility is investigated of bypassing the no interaction theorum of Currie, Jordan and Sudarshan for direct action Lagrangians. Starting with the field theoretic description of a two-body electrodynamic problem, the field variable is solved for in terms of the particle variables, which paves the way to write an action-at-a-distance Hamiltonian for the problem. A suitable transformation is found which uncouples the field and the particle variables in the interaction up to order e 2 . It is shown that this transformation leaves the statement of Newton's 2nd law unchanged which also agrees with the standard results of electrodynamics. This allows for the identification of canonical variables for the proper action-at-a-distance problem. 19 references
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tjiang, P.C.; Burden, C.J.
1998-01-01
Full text: We consider the problem of designing an Ansatz for the transverse part of the fermion-photon vertex in QED 3 . Our work is based on that of Ball and Chiu, who consider restrictions placed on the vertex by the U(1) Ward identity, and on subsequent modifications which attempt to satisfy the Landau-Khalatnikov transformation rules. A class of vertex Ansaetze including that proposed by Dong et al is tested using the gauge invariance of the vacuum polarisation scalar
Atomic physics tests of quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohr, P.J.
1976-08-01
The tests of quantum electrodynamics derived from bound systems and the free electron and muon magnetic moments are reviewed. The emphasis is on the areas in which recent developments in theory or experiment have taken place. Also determinations of the fine structure constant from the Josephson effect and the fine structure of helium are discussed
ELECTRODYNAMIC STABILITY COMPUTATIONS FOR FLEXIBLE CONDUCTORS OF THE AERIAL LINES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. I. Sergey
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In aerial transmission lines aluminium multiwire conductors are in use. Owing to their flexible design the electrodynamic effect of short circuit currents may lead to intolerable mutual rendezvous and even cross-whipping of the phase conductors. The increasing motion of the conductors caused by effect of the short-circuit electrodynamic force impulse is accompanied by the dynamic load impact affecting the conductors, insulating and supporting constructions of the aerial lines. Intensity of the short-circuit currents electrodynamic impact on the flexible conductors depends on the short circuit current magnitude. For research into electrodynamic endurance of the conductors of the aerial lines located at the vertices of arbitrary triangle with spans of a large length, the authors assume the conductor analytical model in the form of a flexible tensile thread whose mass is distributed evenly lengthwise the conductor. With this analytical model, by the action of the imposed forces the conductor assumes the form conditioned by the diagram of applied external forces, and resists neither bending nor torsion. The initial conditions calculation task reduces to solving the flexible thread statics equations. The law of motion of the conductor marginal points comes out of the conjoint solution of dynamic equations of the conductor and structural components of the areal electric power lines. Based on the proposed algorithm, the researchers of the Chair of the Electric Power Stations of BNTU developed a software program LINEDYS+, which in its characteristics yields to no foreign analogs, e. g. SAMSEF. To calculate the initial conditions they modified a software program computing the flexible conductor mechanics named MR 21. The conductor short-circuit electrodynamic interaction estimation considers structural elements of the areal lines, ice and wind loads, objective parameters of the short circuit. The software programs are accommodated with the simple and
Global positioning of spin GPS scheme for half-spin massive spinors
Jadach, Stanislaw; Was, Zbigniew
2001-01-01
We present a simple and flexible method of keeping track of the complex phases and spin quantisation axes for half-spin initial- and final-state Weyl spinors in scattering amplitudes of Standard Model high energy physics processes. Both cases of massless and massive spinors are discussed. The method is demonstrated and checked numerically for spin correlations in tau tau production and decay. Its application is in our work of combining effects due to multiple photon emission (exponentiation) and spin, embodied in the Monte Carlo event generators for production and decay of unstable fermions such as the, tau lepton, t-quark and hypothetical new heavy particles. In particular, the recurrent problem of combining, for such unstable fermions, one author's calculation of production and another author's calculation of decay, in the presence or absence of multiple photon effects, is there given a practical solution, both for Weyl spinor methods and for the traditional Jacob-Wick helicity methods. Moreover, for massiv...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wolters, Janik; Kewes, Guenter; Schell, Andreas W.; Aichele, Thomas; Benson, Oliver [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, Berlin (Germany); Nuesse, Nils; Schoengen, Max; Loechel, Bernd [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Hanke, Tobias; Leitenstorfer, Alfred [Department of Physics and Center for Applied Photonics, Universitaet Konstanz, Konstanz (Germany); Bratschitsch, Rudolf [Department of Physics and Center for Applied Photonics, Universitaet Konstanz, Konstanz (Germany); Technische Universitaet Chemnitz, Institut fuer Physik, Chemnitz (Germany)
2012-05-15
We demonstrate the ability to modify the emission properties and enhance the interaction strength of single-photon emitters coupled to nanophotonic structures based on metals and dielectrics. Assembly of individual diamond nanocrystals, metal nanoparticles, and photonic crystal cavities to meta-structures is introduced. Experiments concerning controlled coupling of single defect centers in nanodiamonds to optical nanoantennas made of gold bowtie structures are reviewed. By placing one and the same emitter at various locations with high precision, a map of decay rate enhancements was obtained. Furthermore, we demonstrate the formation of a hybrid cavity quantum electrodynamics system in which a single defect center is coupled to a single mode of a gallium phosphite photonic crystal cavity. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Quantum Hall effect in quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penin, Alexander A.
2009-01-01
We consider the quantum Hall effect in quantum electrodynamics and find a deviation from the quantum-mechanical prediction for the Hall conductivity due to radiative antiscreening of electric charge in an external magnetic field. A weak dependence of the universal von Klitzing constant on the magnetic field strength, which can possibly be observed in a dedicated experiment, is predicted
Implications of rail electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rolader, G.E.; Jamison, K.A.
1990-01-01
A model is developed to investigate possible effects of rail electrodynamics on the performance of railguns. This model describes the oscillatory nature of the rail motion in response to the Lorentz force and the compressive restoration force of material which is behind the rails. In this simple model the rails are found to oscillate with a frequency of β. The rail dynamic behavior induces local electric fields. The authors investigate the significance of these electric fields on stationary particles (lab frame) and on particles moving at the velocity of the plasma/projectile system (projectile frame)
Quantum electrodynamics and light rays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sudarshan, E.C.G.
1978-11-01
Light is a quantum electrodynamic entity and hence bundles of rays must be describable in this framework. The duality in the description of elementary optical phenomena is demonstrated in terms of two-point correlation functions and in terms of collections of light rays. The generalizations necessary to deal with two-slit interference and diffraction by a rectangular slit are worked out and the usefulness of the notion of rays of darkness illustrated. 10 references
Non-existence of rest-frame spin-eigenstate spinors in their own electrodynamics
Fabbri, Luca; da Rocha, Roldão
2018-05-01
We assume a physical situation where gravity with torsion is neglected for an electrodynamically self-interacting spinor that will be taken in its rest-frame and spin-eigenstate: we demonstrate that under this circumstance no solution exists for the system of field equations. Despite such a situation might look artificial nevertheless it represents the instance that is commonly taken as the basis for all computations of quantum electrodynamics.
Semiconductor quantum optics with tailored photonic nanostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laucht, Arne
2011-01-01
This thesis describes detailed investigations of the effects of photonic nanostructures on the light emission properties of self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots. Nanoscale optical cavities and waveguides are employed to enhance the interaction between light and matter, i.e. photons and excitons, up to the point where optical non-linearities appear at the quantum (single photon) level. Such non-linearities are an essential component for the realization of hardware for photon based quantum computing since they can be used for the creation and detection of non-classical states of light and may open the way to new genres of quantum optoelectronic devices such as optical modulators and optical transistors. For single semiconductor quantum dots in photonic crystal nanocavities we investigate the coupling between excitonic transitions and the highly localized mode of the optical cavity. We explore the non-resonant coupling mechanisms which allow excitons to couple to the cavity mode, even when they are not spectrally in resonance. This effect is not observed for atomic cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments and its origin is traced to phonon-assisted scattering for small detunings (ΔE ∝5 meV). For quantum dots in high-Q cavities we observe the coherent coupling between exciton and cavity mode in the strong coupling regime of light-matter interaction, probe the influence of pure dephasing on the coherent interaction at high excitation levels and high lattice temperatures, and examine the coupling of two spatially separated quantum dots via the exchange of real and virtual photons mediated by the cavity mode. Furthermore, we study the spontaneous emission properties of quantum dots in photonic crystal waveguide structures, estimate the fraction of all photons emitted into the propagating waveguide mode, and demonstrate the on-chip generation of single photon emission into the waveguide. The results obtained during the course of this thesis contribute significantly to
Angular momentum in non-relativistic QED and photon contribution to spin of hydrogen atom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Panying; Ji Xiangdong; Xu Yang; Zhang Yue
2010-01-01
We study angular momentum in non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics (NRQED). We construct the effective total angular momentum operator by applying Noether's theorem to the NRQED lagrangian. We calculate the NRQED matching for the individual components of the QED angular momentum up to one loop. We illustrate an application of our results by the first calculation of the angular momentum of the ground state hydrogen atom carried in radiative photons, α em 3 /18π, which might be measurable in future atomic experiments.
Modeling and Control of Electrodynamic Tethers - an Energy and Topology Approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Martin Birkelund
A space tether is a cable used to connect spacecrafts in an orbiting structure. If an electrical current is lead through the tether, it can be utilized to provide propulsion for the spacecraft. In this case the cable is referred to as an electrodynamic tether. The system utilizes the magnetic field...... of the Earth for creating a Lorentz force along the tether which occur when a current carrying wire operates in a magnetic field. The use of electrodynamic tethers are interesting since they operate solely on electrical energy, which can be provided by solar panels of the spacecrafts. In this way the amount...... when using electrodynamic tethers is that the force created along the tether is based on an external uncontrollable condition, namely the magnetic field. Even whit a known model of the magnetic field, limitations to the creation of the Lorentz force still exists, since the force can only be generated...
Lorentz-violating electrodynamics and the cosmic microwave background.
Kostelecký, V Alan; Mewes, Matthew
2007-07-06
Possible Lorentz-violating effects in the cosmic microwave background are studied. We provide a systematic classification of renormalizable and nonrenormalizable operators for Lorentz violation in electrodynamics and use polarimetric observations to search for the associated violations.
Quantum electrodynamic effects for light and heavy nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1973-01-01
The autoionization of positrons and the problem of vacuum polarization are discussed within the framework of quantum field theory. Various possible heavy ion experiments to check on the nonlinearity of electrodynamics are described. (8 figures) (U.S.)
Mathematical aspects of field quantization. Quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bongaarts, P.J.M.
1983-01-01
Fundamental mathematical aspects of quantum field theory are discussed. A brief review of various approaches to mathematical problems of quantum electrodynamics is given, preceded by a more extensive account of the development of ideas on the mathematical nature of quantum fields in general, providing an appropriate historical context. (author)
Students' Difficulties with Vector Calculus in Electrodynamics
Bollen, Laurens; van Kampen, Paul; De Cock, Mieke
2015-01-01
Understanding Maxwell's equations in differential form is of great importance when studying the electrodynamic phenomena discussed in advanced electromagnetism courses. It is therefore necessary that students master the use of vector calculus in physical situations. In this light we investigated the difficulties second year students at KU Leuven…
Detection of tokamak plasma positrons using annihilation photons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guanying, Yu; Liu, Jian; Xie, Jinlin [University of Science and Technology, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); Li, Jiangang, E-mail: j_li@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)
2017-05-15
Highlights: • A design for detection of tokamak plasma positrons is given. • Identify the main obstacle toward experimental confirmation of fusion plasma positrons. • Signal to noise ratio in a plasma disruption is estimated. • Unique potential applications of fusion plasma positrons are discussed. - Abstract: A massive amount of positrons (plasma positrons), produced by the collision between runaway electrons and nuclei during fusion plasma disruption, was first predicted theoretically in 2003. To help confirm this prediction, we report here the design of an experimental system to detect tokamak plasma positrons. Because a substantial amount of positrons (material positrons) are produced when runaway electrons impact plasma-facing materials, we proposed maximizing the ratio of plasma to material positrons by inserting a thin carbon target at the plasma edge as a plasma positron bombing target and producing a plasma disruption scenario triggered by massive gas injection. Meanwhile, the coincidence detection of positron annihilation photons was used to filter out the noise of annihilation photons from locations other than the carbon target and that of bremsstrahlung photons near 511 keV. According to our simulation, the overall signal-to-noise ratio should be more than 10:1.
Compton Operator in Quantum Electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia, Hector Luna; Garcia, Luz Maria
2015-01-01
In the frame in the quantum electrodynamics exist four basic operators; the electron self-energy, vacuum polarization, vertex correction, and the Compton operator. The first three operators are very important by its relation with renormalized and Ward identity. However, the Compton operator has equal importance, but without divergence, and little attention has been given it. We have calculated the Compton operator and obtained the closed expression for it in the frame of dimensionally continuous integration and hypergeometric functions
Nanomechanical control of optical field and quality factor in photonic crystal structures
Cotrufo, Michele; Midolo, Leonardo; Zobenica, Žarko; Petruzzella, Maurangelo; van Otten, Frank W. M.; Fiore, Andrea
2018-03-01
Actively controlling the properties of localized optical modes is crucial for cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. While several methods to tune the optical frequency have been demonstrated, the possibility of controlling the shape of the modes has scarcely been investigated. Yet an active manipulation of the mode pattern would allow direct control of the mode volume and the quality factor and therefore of the radiative processes. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a nano-optoelectromechanical device in which a mechanical displacement affects the spatial pattern of the electromagnetic field. The device is based on a double-membrane photonic crystal waveguide which, upon bending, creates a spatial modulation of the effective refractive index, resulting in an effective potential well or antiwell for the optical modes. The change in the field pattern drastically affects the optical losses: large modulations of the quality factors and dissipative coupling rates larger than 1 GHz/nm are predicted by calculations and confirmed by experiments. This concept opens new avenues in solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics in which the field, instead of the frequency, is coupled to the mechanical motion.
Electrodynamics with a Future Conformal Horizon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibison, Michael
2010-01-01
We investigate the impact of singularities occurring at future times in the Friedmann equations expressed in conformal coordinates to determine the consequences of extending the time coordinate through the singularity for the physics of matter and radiation occupying just one side. Mostly this involves investigation of the relationship between the metric with line element ds 2 a 2 (t)(dt 2 -dx 2 ) and time reversal symmetry within electrodynamics. It turns out compatibility between these two is possible only if there is a singular physical event at the time of the singularity or if the topology is not trivial. In both cases the singularity takes on the appearance of a time-like mirror. We are able to demonstrate a relationship between the broken time symmetry in electrodynamics characterized by retarded radiation and radiation reaction and the absolute conformal time relative to the time of the singularity, i.e. between the Electromagnetic and Cosmological arrows of time. It is determined that the Wheeler-Feynman reasoning but with the future absorber replaced by the Cosmological mirror leads to a conflict with observation unless matter is strongly bound electromagnetically to the environment.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reitzenstein, S.; Schneider, C.; Albert, F.
2011-01-01
Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are fascinating nanoscopic structures for photonics and future quantum information technology. However, the random position of self-organized QDs inhibits a deterministic coupling in devices relying on cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) effects which complicates......, e.g., the large scale fabrication of quantum light sources. As a result, large efforts focus on the growth and the device integration of site-controlled QDs. We present the growth of low density arrays of site-controlled In(Ga)As QDs where shallow etched nanoholes act as nucleation sites...... linewidth, the oscillator strength and the quantum efficiency. A stacked growth of strain coupled SCQDs forming on wet chemically etched nanoholes provide the smallest linewidth with an average value of 210 μeV. Using time resolved photoluminescence studies on samples with a varying thickness of the capping...
(2+1-dimensional regular black holes with nonlinear electrodynamics sources
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yun He
2017-11-01
Full Text Available On the basis of two requirements: the avoidance of the curvature singularity and the Maxwell theory as the weak field limit of the nonlinear electrodynamics, we find two restricted conditions on the metric function of (2+1-dimensional regular black hole in general relativity coupled with nonlinear electrodynamics sources. By the use of the two conditions, we obtain a general approach to construct (2+1-dimensional regular black holes. In this manner, we construct four (2+1-dimensional regular black holes as examples. We also study the thermodynamic properties of the regular black holes and verify the first law of black hole thermodynamics.
Grimes, Dale M; Grimes, Craig A
2002-10-01
This is the second of two articles, the first of which contains a proposed explanation of quantum theory based upon electron nonlocality and classical electrodynamics. In this second article classical field theory is used to describe a unique field set for exchange of radiation between an atomic eigenstate and the far field. The radiation satisfies the thermodynamic condition of reversibility as described by Boltzmann, Planck, and Einstein. The exchanged radiation supports the kinematic properties of photons, and it can be emitted or absorbed by a vanishingly small volume.
Optimization of three-dimensional micropost microcavities for cavity quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vuckovic, Jelena; Pelton, Matthew; Scherer, Axel; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa
2002-01-01
This paper presents a detailed analysis, based on the first-principles finite-difference time-domain method, of the resonant frequency, quality factor (Q), mode volume (V), and radiation pattern of the fundamental (HE 11 ) mode in a three-dimensional distributed-Bragg-reflector (DBR) micropost microcavity. By treating this structure as a one-dimensional cylindrical photonic crystal containing a single defect, we are able to push the limits of Q/V beyond those achievable by standard micropost designs, based on the simple rules established for planar DBR microcavities. We show that some of the rules that work well for designing large-diameter microposts (e.g., high-refractive-index contrast) fail to provide high-quality cavities with small diameters. By tuning the thicknesses of mirror layers and the spacer, the number of mirror pairs, the refractive indices of high- and low-refractive index regions, and the cavity diameter, we are able to achieve Q as high as 10 4 , together with a mode volume of 1.6 cubic wavelengths of light in the high-refractive-index material. The combination of high Q and small V makes these structures promising candidates for the observation of such cavity-quantum-electrodynamics phenomena as strong coupling between a quantum dot and the cavity field, and single-quantum-dot lasing
Yizengaw, E.; Moldwin, M.; Zesta, E.
2015-12-01
The currently funded African Meridian B-Field Education and Research (AMBER) magnetometer array comprises more than thirteen magnetometers stationed globally in the vicinity of geomagnetic equator. One of the main objectives of AMBER network is to understand the longitudinal variability of equatorial electrodynamics as function of local time, magnetic activity, and season. While providing complete meridian observation in the region and filling the largest land-based gap in global magnetometer coverage, the AMBER array addresses two fundamental areas of space physics: first, the processes governing electrodynamics of the equatorial ionosphere as a function of latitude (or L-shell), local time, longitude, magnetic activity, and season, and second, ULF pulsation strength at low/mid-latitude regions and its connection with equatorial electrojet and density fluctuation. The global AMBER network can also be used to augment observations from space-based instruments, such us the triplet SWARM mission and the upcoming ICON missions. Thus, in coordination with space-based and other ground-based observations, the AMBER magnetometer network provides a great opportunity to understand the electrodynamics that governs equatorial ionosphere motions. In this paper we present the longitudinal variability of the equatorial electrodynamics using the combination of instruments onboard SWARM and C/NOFS satellites and ground-based AMBER network. Both ground- and pace-based observations show stronger dayside and evening sector equatorial electrodynamics in the American and Asian sectors compared to the African sector. On the other hand, the African sector is home to stronger and year-round ionospheric bubbles/irregularities compared to the American and Asian sectors. This raises the question if the evening sector equatorial electrodynamics (vertical drift), which is believed to be the main cause for the enhancement of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth rate, is stronger in the
Berestetskii, Vladimir B; Pitaevskii, L P
1982-01-01
Several significant additions have been made to the second edition, including the operator method of calculating the bremsstrahlung cross-section, the calcualtion of the probabilities of photon-induced pair production and photon decay in a magneticfield, the asymptotic form of the scattering amplitudes at high energies, inelastic scattering of electrons by hadrons, and the transformation of electron-positron pairs into hadrons.
Rapidly rotating pulsar radiation in vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Denisov, V.I.; Pimenov, A.B.; Sokolov, V.A. [Moscow State University, Physics Department, Moscow (Russian Federation); Denisova, I.P. [Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University), Moscow (Russian Federation)
2016-11-15
In this paper we investigate the corrections of vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics on rapidly rotating pulsar radiation and spin-down in the perturbative QED approach (post-Maxwellian approximation). An analytical expression for the pulsar's radiation intensity has been obtained and analyzed. (orig.)
Subwavelength silicon photonics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheben, P.; Bock, P.J.; Schmid, J.H.; Lapointe, J.; Janz, S.; Xu, D.-X.; Densmore, A.; Delage, A.; Lamontagne, B.; Florjanczyk, M.; Ma, R.
2011-01-01
With the goal of developing photonic components that are compatible with silicon microelectronic integrated circuits, silicon photonics has been the subject of intense research activity. Silicon is an excellent material for confining and manipulating light at the submicrometer scale. Silicon optoelectronic integrated devices have the potential to be miniaturized and mass-produced at affordable cost for many applications, including telecommunications, optical interconnects, medical screening, and biological and chemical sensing. We review recent advances in silicon photonics research at the National Research Council Canada. A new type of optical waveguide is presented, exploiting subwavelength grating (SWG) effect. We demonstrate subwavelength grating waveguides made of silicon, including practical components operating at telecom wavelengths: input couplers, waveguide crossings and spectrometer chips. SWG technique avoids loss and wavelength resonances due to diffraction effects and allows for single-mode operation with direct control of the mode confinement by changing the refractive index of a waveguide core over a range as broad as 1.6 - 3.5 simply by lithographic patterning. The light can be launched to these waveguides with a coupling loss as small as 0.5 dB and with minimal wavelength dependence, using coupling structures similar to that shown in Fig. 1. The subwavelength grating waveguides can cross each other with minimal loss and negligible crosstalk which allows massive photonic circuit connectivity to overcome the limits of electrical interconnects. These results suggest that the SWG waveguides could become key elements for future integrated photonic circuits. (authors)
Radiation damping and decoherence in quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Breuer, H.P.
2000-01-01
The processes of radiation damping and decoherence in quantum electrodynamics are studied from an open system's point of view. Employing functional techniques of field theory, the degrees of freedom of the radiation field are eliminated to obtain the influence phase functional which describes the reduced dynamics of the matter variables. The general theory is applied to the dynamics of a single electron in the radiation field. From a study of the wave packet dynamics a quantitative measure for the degree of decoherence, the decoherence function, is deduced. The latter is shown to describe the emergence of decoherence through the emission of bremsstrahlung caused by the relative motion of interfering wave packets. It is argued that this mechanism is the most fundamental process in quantum electrodynamics leading to the destruction of coherence, since it dominates for short times and because it is at work even in the electromagnetic field vacuum at zero temperature. It turns out that decoherence trough bremsstrahlung is very small for single electrons but extremely large for superpositions of many-particle states. (orig.)
Covariant electrodynamics in linear media: Optical metric
Thompson, Robert T.
2018-03-01
While the postulate of covariance of Maxwell's equations for all inertial observers led Einstein to special relativity, it was the further demand of general covariance—form invariance under general coordinate transformations, including between accelerating frames—that led to general relativity. Several lines of inquiry over the past two decades, notably the development of metamaterial-based transformation optics, has spurred a greater interest in the role of geometry and space-time covariance for electrodynamics in ponderable media. I develop a generally covariant, coordinate-free framework for electrodynamics in general dielectric media residing in curved background space-times. In particular, I derive a relation for the spatial medium parameters measured by an arbitrary timelike observer. In terms of those medium parameters I derive an explicit expression for the pseudo-Finslerian optical metric of birefringent media and show how it reduces to a pseudo-Riemannian optical metric for nonbirefringent media. This formulation provides a basis for a unified approach to ray and congruence tracing through media in curved space-times that may smoothly vary among positively refracting, negatively refracting, and vacuum.
Ward-Takahashi identities in quantum electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nishijima, K; Sasaki, R [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics
1975-03-01
The Ward-Takahashi identities are derived for connected Green's functions in quantum electrodynamics without recourse to equal-time commutation relations, field equations and the Feynman-Dyson perturbation expansions. The argument is based on the dispersion formulation of field theories and only finite expressions are used throughout this derivation. These identities are shown to be consequences of the subtraction conditions imposed upon the 2-, 3- and 4-point Green's functions.
Problems of Technical Electrodynamics (Selected Articles),
1984-04-11
copy available. ii DC 83143001 PAGE 1 PROBLEMS OF TECHNICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS. DOC - 83143001 PAGE 2 In the collector /collection are connected the...composite/ compound reliable in mechanical sense forgings of rotors with a weight of 250 t and it is more and rotor binding bands. These K forgings must be...go - calculated coefficient, which considers the character of temperature field. With a linear change in temperature .=1, with parabolic =3
Electromagnetic form factors of a massive neutrino
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvornikov, M.S.; Studenikin, A.I.
2004-01-01
Electromagnetic form factors of a massive neutrino are studied in a minimally extended standard model in an arbitrary R ξ gauge and taking into account the dependence on the masses of all interacting particles. The contribution from all Feynman diagrams to the electric, magnetic, and anapole form factors, in which the dependence of the masses of all particles as well as on gauge parameters is accounted for exactly, are obtained for the first time in explicit form. The asymptotic behavior of the magnetic form factor for large negative squares of the momentum of an external photon is analyzed and the expression for the anapole moment of a massive neutrino is derived. The results are generalized to the case of mixing between various flavors of the neutrino. Explicit expressions are obtained for the electric, magnetic, and electric dipole and anapole transitional form factors as well as for the transitional electric dipole moment
RF electrodynamics in small particles of oxides - a review
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Srinivasu, VV
2008-01-01
Full Text Available RF electrodynamics, particularly, the low field rf absorption in small superconducting and manganite particles is reviewed and compared with their respective bulk counterparts. Experimental and theoretical aspects of the small particle...
Electrodynamics at the highest energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klein, Spencer R.
2002-01-01
At very high energies, the bremsstrahlung and pair production cross sections exhibit complex behavior due to the material in which the interactions occur. The cross sections in dense media can be dramatically different than for isolated atoms. This writeup discusses these in-medium effects, emphasizing how the cross section has different energy and target density dependencies in different regimes. Data from SLAC experiment E-146 will be presented to confirm the energy and density scaling. Finally, QCD analogs of the electrodynamics effects will be discussed
Vacuum nonlinear electrodynamic polarization effects in hard emission of pulsars and magnetars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Denisov, V.I.; Sokolov, V.A.; Svertilov, S.I., E-mail: vid.msu@yandex.ru, E-mail: sokolov.sev@inbox.ru, E-mail: sis@coronas.ru [Physics Department, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2017-09-01
The nonlinear electrodynamics influence of pulsar magnetic field on the electromagnetic pulse polarization is discussed from the point of observation interpretation. The calculations of pulsar magnetic field impact on the electromagnetic pulse polarization are made in such a way to make it easier to interpret these effects in space experiments. The law of hard emission pulse propagation in the pulsar magnetic field according to the vacuum (nonlinear electrodynamics is obtained. It has been shown, that due to the birefringence in the vacuum the front part of any hard emission pulse coming from a pulsar should be linearly polarized and the rest of pulse can have arbitrary polarization. The observational possibilities of vacuum birefringence are discussed. In this paper we give the estimations of detector parameters such as effective area, exposure time and necessity of polarization measurements with high accuracy. The combination of large area and extremely long exposure time gives the good opportunity to search the fine polarization effects like vacuum nonlinear electrodynamics birefringence.
Observational tests for the evolution of massive stars in nearby galaxies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leitherer, C.
1990-01-01
Population synthesis calculations applicable to the massive stellar content in nearby galaxies are presented. Stellar evolution calculations are combined with mass loss, model atmospheres with line blanketing, and a spectral type calibration to compute observable parameters of massive stars as a function of the star formation rate and the initial mass function slope. The number of O stars of given spectral types, the number of W-R stars, supernova rates, and fluxes of ionizing photons are predicted. Important constraints for the theories of stellar atmospheres and stellar evolution can be derived from observations if stellar number counts and ionizing flux data are available. 94 refs
Correlation functions and susceptibilities of photonics band gap reservoirs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konopka, M.
1998-01-01
We investigate quantum statistical properties of photonic band gap reservoirs in terms of correlation functions and susceptibilities in time and spectral domains. Typical features are oscillations of the time-dependent correlation functions and susceptibilities. This is because photonic bad gap reservoirs are intrinsically non-Markovian reservoirs. The results help us to understand better how intrinsic quantum-statistical properties of a reservoir influence dynamics of an atom interacting with this reservoir. Boundary conditions influence time and spectral properties of the electromagnetic field. This well-known fact has a great importance in optics and generally in electromagnetism. Specific examples are resonators used in laser technique and cavity electrodynamics. In quantum optics high-Q micro cavities are used for single-atom experiments when an atom can interact in a coherent way with an electromagnetic field which has its mode structure totally different from those in free space. In particular, interaction of an (effectively) two-level atom with a single-mode cavity field was observed in the region of microwaves (with the wavelength about 1 cm). In 1987 Yablonovitch and John independently proposed that certain periodic dielectric structures can present forbidden frequency gaps (or pseudo gaps in partially disordered structures) for transverse modes. Such periodic structures were named 'photonic band structures' or 'photonic crystals', in analogy with electronic crystals which also have a (forbidden) gap for electronic energy. For true photonic crystals the basic property of blocking electromagnetic wave propagation must be fulfilled for all waves within some frequency range, i.e. for all wavevector and polarization directions
Hosseini, Mahdi
Our ability to engineer quantum states of light and matter has significantly advanced over the past two decades, resulting in the production of both Gaussian and non-Gaussian optical states. The resulting tailored quantum states enable quantum technologies such as quantum optical communication, quantum sensing as well as quantum photonic computation. The strong nonlinear light-atom interaction is the key to deterministic quantum state preparation and quantum photonic processing. One route to enhancing the usually weak nonlinear light-atom interactions is to approach the regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) interaction by means of high finesse optical resonators. I present results from the MIT experiment of large conditional cross-phase modulation between a signal photon, stored inside an atomic quantum memory, and a control photon that traverses a high-finesse optical cavity containing the atomic memory. I also present a scheme to probabilistically change the amplitude and phase of a signal photon qubit to, in principle, arbitrary values by postselection on a control photon that has interacted with that state. Notably, small changes of the control photon polarization measurement basis by few degrees can substantially change the amplitude and phase of the signal state. Finally, I present our ongoing effort at Purdue to realize similar peculiar quantum phenomena at the single photon level on chip scale photonic systems.
Constraints on Massive Axion-Like Particles from X-ray Observations of NGC1275
Chen, Linhan; Conlon, Joseph P.
2018-06-01
If axion-like particles (ALPs) exist, photons can convert to ALPs on passage through regions containing magnetic fields. The magnetised intracluster medium of large galaxy clusters provides a region that is highly efficient at ALP-photon conversion. X-ray observations of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) located within galaxy clusters can be used to search for and constrain ALPs, as photon-ALP conversion would lead to energy-dependent quasi-sinusoidal modulations in the X-ray spectrum of an AGN. We use Chandra observations of the central AGN of the Perseus Cluster, NGC1275, to place bounds on massive ALPs up to ma ˜ 10-11eV, extending previous work that used this dataset to constrain massless ALPs.
A reformulation of mechanics and electrodynamics.
Pinheiro, Mario J
2017-07-01
Classical mechanics, as commonly taught in engineering and science, are confined to the conventional Newtonian theory. But classical mechanics has not really changed in substance since Newton formulation, describing simultaneous rotation and translation of objects with somewhat complicate drawbacks, risking interpretation of forces in non-inertial frames. In this work we introduce a new variational principle for out-of-equilibrium, rotating systems, obtaining a set of two first order differential equations that introduces a thermodynamic-mechanistic time into Newton's dynamical equation, and revealing the same formal symplectic structure shared by classical mechanics, fluid mechanics and thermodynamics. The results is a more consistent formulation of dynamics and electrodynamics, explaining natural phenomena as the outcome from a balance between energy and entropy, embedding translational with rotational motion into a single equation, showing centrifugal and Coriolis force as derivatives from the transport of angular momentum, and offering a natural method to handle variational problems, as shown with the brachistochrone problem. In consequence, a new force term appears, the topological torsion current, important for spacecraft dynamics. We describe a set of solved problems showing the potential of a competing technique, with significant interest to electrodynamics as well. We expect this new approach to have impact in a large class of scientific and technological problems.
Can there be massive photons? A pedagogical glance at the origin of mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robles, P; Claro, F
2012-01-01
Among the most startling experiences a student encounters is learning that, unlike electrons and other elementary particles, photons have no mass. Under certain circumstances, however, the light quantum behaves as if it did have a finite mass. Starting from Maxwell's equations, we discuss how this arises when light interacts with a charged plasma, or travels along a waveguide. The motion of such photons is analysed using kinematic concepts of special relativity, and we show how a cutoff frequency for effective propagation appears. Seeing how an environment may yield an apparent dynamic mass to the photon paves the way for later understanding: might the Higgs boson field provide other particles, such as the electron, with a mass? This paper is addressed to mid-level physics students, teachers and lecturers, requiring only a knowledge of classical electromagnetic and special relativity theories. (paper)
Semiconductor quantum optics with tailored photonic nanostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laucht, Arne
2011-06-15
This thesis describes detailed investigations of the effects of photonic nanostructures on the light emission properties of self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots. Nanoscale optical cavities and waveguides are employed to enhance the interaction between light and matter, i.e. photons and excitons, up to the point where optical non-linearities appear at the quantum (single photon) level. Such non-linearities are an essential component for the realization of hardware for photon based quantum computing since they can be used for the creation and detection of non-classical states of light and may open the way to new genres of quantum optoelectronic devices such as optical modulators and optical transistors. For single semiconductor quantum dots in photonic crystal nanocavities we investigate the coupling between excitonic transitions and the highly localized mode of the optical cavity. We explore the non-resonant coupling mechanisms which allow excitons to couple to the cavity mode, even when they are not spectrally in resonance. This effect is not observed for atomic cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments and its origin is traced to phonon-assisted scattering for small detunings ({delta}E<{proportional_to}5 meV) and a multi-exciton-based, Auger-like process for larger detunings ({delta}E >{proportional_to}5 meV). For quantum dots in high-Q cavities we observe the coherent coupling between exciton and cavity mode in the strong coupling regime of light-matter interaction, probe the influence of pure dephasing on the coherent interaction at high excitation levels and high lattice temperatures, and examine the coupling of two spatially separated quantum dots via the exchange of real and virtual photons mediated by the cavity mode. Furthermore, we study the spontaneous emission properties of quantum dots in photonic crystal waveguide structures, estimate the fraction of all photons emitted into the propagating waveguide mode, and demonstrate the on-chip generation of
Modeling, Design and Analysis of a Electrodynamic Levitation System by Considering the Skin Effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Rajabi Sabadani
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, lift and drag forces of permanent-magnet electrodynamic suspension (PMEDS System have been studied by considering the skin effect. Electrodynamic suspension is based on repulsive force between two magnetic fields with the same polarity. In this research the electrodynamic suspension system consists of a moving permanent magnet block levitated over a flat conducting plate with 2 mm thickness. At first, the analytical model of the PMEDS is proposed. For this propose, permanent magnet poles are modeled by the current sheets. Then the eddy current is calculated on aluminum sheet by considering the skin effect. Finally, the lift and drag forces are calculated in difference speed. The 2D finite element method is utilized to investigate the effect of speed variations on the performance of PMEDS at two different airgap. Two-dimensional finite element model, the accuracy of proposed analytical model is validated. The results of the finite element method are compared with results obtained by analytical model. It shows the accuracy of the analytical model in the estimation of the lift and drag forces of an electrodynamic suspension system.
Some problems of relativistic electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strel'tsov, V.N.
1991-01-01
Some problems of electrodynamics are considered from the point of view of the radar formulation of relativity theory. This formulation is based on light or retarded distances, the increasing of longitudinal sizes of moving objects is its consequence ( e longation formula ) . Based of Lienard-Wiechert potentials it is shown that in terms of retarded distances equipotential surfaces take the form of rotation ellipsoids, stretched in the direction of electric charge motion. The difficulty connected with the appearance of charge in a moving (neutral) current-carrying conductor is overcome. 23 refs.; 4 figs
Excited states in stochastic electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franca, H.M.; Marshall, T.W.
1987-12-01
It is shown that the set of Wigner functions associated with the excited states of the harmonic oscillator constitute a complete set of functions over the phase space. An arbitraty distribution can be expanded in terms of these Wigner functions. By studying the time evolution, according to Stochastic Electrodynamics, of the expansion coefficients, becomes feasible to separate explicity the contributionsof the radiative reaction and the vaccuum field to the Einsten. A coefficients for this system. A simple semiclassical explanation of the Weisskopf-Heitler phenomenon in resonance fluorescence is also supplied. (author) [pt
Study of atomic states in the vicinity of a massive surface - Application to the FORCA-G experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pelisson, Sophie
2012-01-01
This thesis presents the theoretical modeling of the experiment FORCA-G (FORce de CAsimir et Gravitation a courte distance) currently in progress at Paris Observatory. The purpose of this experiment is to measure short-range interactions between an atom and a massive surface. This interaction are of two kind: quantum electrodynamical (Casimir-Polder effect) and gravitational. The work presented here was to calculate the atomic states in the context of the experiment such that we can predict results and performances of the experiment. This has allowed to optimize the experimental scheme both for the high-precision measurement of the Casimir-Polder effect and for the search of deviation from the Newton's law of gravity predicted by unification theories. (author)
Neutron propagation in moving matter: the Fizeau experiment with massive particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klein, A.G.; Opat, G.I.; Cimmino, A.
1981-01-01
Using a two-slit neutron interferometer, the authors have mesured the shift of the interference pattern induced by the motion of a quartz rod. The measured shift is found to be in agreement with the quantum mechanical prediction derived from a relativity argument. Some peculiarities of the case of massive particles as compared with the classic Fizeau photon case are discussed
Photonic band gap materials: Technology, applications and challenges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johri, M.; Ahmed, Y.A.; Bezboruah, T.
2006-05-01
Last century has been the age of Artificial Materials. One material that stands out in this regard is the semiconductor. The revolution in electronic industry in the 20th century was made possible by the ability of semiconductors to microscopically manipulate the flow of electrons. Further advancement in the field made scientists suggest that the new millennium will be the age of photonics in which artificial materials will be synthesized to microscopically manipulate the flow of light. One of these will be Photonic Band Gap material (PBG). PBG are periodic dielectric structures that forbid propagation of electromagnetic waves in a certain frequency range. They are able to engineer most fundamental properties of electromagnetic waves such as the laws of refraction, diffraction, and emission of light from atoms. Such PBG material not only opens up variety of possible applications (in lasers, antennas, millimeter wave devices, efficient solar cells photo-catalytic processes, integrated optical communication etc.) but also give rise to new physics (cavity electrodynamics, localization, disorder, photon-number-state squeezing). Unlike electronic micro-cavity, optical waveguides in a PBG microchip can simultaneously conduct hundreds of wavelength channels of information in a three dimensional circuit path. In this article we have discussed some aspects of PBG materials and their unusual properties, which provided a foundation for novel practical applications ranging from clinical medicine to information technology. (author)
Serendipity in dark photon searches
Ilten, Philip; Soreq, Yotam; Williams, Mike; Xue, Wei
2018-06-01
Searches for dark photons provide serendipitous discovery potential for other types of vector particles. We develop a framework for recasting dark photon searches to obtain constraints on more general theories, which includes a data-driven method for determining hadronic decay rates. We demonstrate our approach by deriving constraints on a vector that couples to the B-L current, a leptophobic B boson that couples directly to baryon number and to leptons via B- γ kinetic mixing, and on a vector that mediates a protophobic force. Our approach can easily be generalized to any massive gauge boson with vector couplings to the Standard Model fermions, and software to perform any such recasting is provided at https://gitlab.com/philten/darkcast https://gitlab.com/philten/darkcast" TargetType="URL"/> .
Extension of Newton's Dynamical Spectral Shift for Photons in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Extension of Newton's Dynamical Spectral Shift for Photons in Gravitational Fields of Static Homogeneous Spherical Massive Bodies. ... is perfectly in agreement with the physical fact that gravitational scalar potential is negative and increase in recession leads to decrease in kinetic energy and hence decrease in frequency.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waldron, R.A.
1979-01-01
An account is given of Ritz's electrodynamics. Ritz's paper is divided into two parts. In the first he criticises the Lorentz-Maxwell theory based on fields, and comments on alternative theories based on particle interactions. In the second he develops his own theory, also based on particle interactions. He starts from a force law which is analogous to a force law derived by Schwarzschild from the Lorentz theory. While the approach is interesting, it leads to results which do not agree with experimental results obtained several decades later, after Ritz's death. A similar approach is applied to gravitation and is shown to be capable of explaining the anomalous precession of the planet Mercury. (Auth.)
Searching for Heavy Photons with Detached Verices in the Heavy Photon Search Experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Szumila-Vance, Holly [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2017-08-01
The Jefferson Lab Heavy Photon Search (HPS) experiment is searching for a hypothetical massive particle called the heavy photon which could mediate a dark electromagnetic-type force. If heavy photons kinetically mix with Standard Model photons, they may be radiated by electrons scattering from a heavy nucleus and then decay to e+e- pairs. HPS uniquely searches for heavy photons that either decay at the target or a measurable distance after. The experiment utilizes a silicon vertex tracker (SVT) for momentum and vertex reconstruction, together with an electromagnetic calorimeter for measuring particle energies and triggering events. The HPS experiment took its first data during the spring 2015 engineering run using a 1 GeV electron beam incident on a tungsten target and its second data in the spring of 2016 at a beam energy of 2.3 GeV. The 2015 run obtained two days of production data that was used for the first physics results. The analysis of the data was conducted as a blinded analysis by tuning cuts on 10% of the data. This dissertation discusses the displaced vertex search for heavy photons in the 2015 engineering run. It describes the theoretical motivation for looking for heavy photons and provides an overview of the HPS experimental design and performance. The performance details of the experiment are primarily derived from the 2015 engineering run with some discussion from the higher energy running in 2016. This dissertation further discusses the cuts used to optimize the displaced vertex search and the results of the search. The displaced vertex search did not set a limit on the heavy photon but did validate the methodology for conducting the search. Finally, we used the full data set to make projections and guide future analyses.
Topological solitons in 8-spinor mie electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rybakov, Yu. P., E-mail: soliton4@mail.ru [Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Department of Theoretical Physics (Russian Federation)
2013-10-15
We investigate the effective 8-spinor field model suggested earlier as the generalization of nonlinear Mie electrodynamics. We first study in pure spinorial model the existence of topological solitons endowed with the nontrivial Hopf invariant Q{sub H}, which can be interpreted as the lepton number. Electromagnetic field being included as the perturbation, we estimate the energy and the spin of the localized charged configuration.
Electrodynamics of spin currents in superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirsch, J.E.
2008-01-01
In recent work we formulated a new set of electrodynamic equations for superconductors as an alternative to the conventional London equations, compatible with the prediction of the theory of hole superconductivity that superconductors expel negative charge from the interior towards the surface. Charge expulsion results in a macroscopically inhomogeneous charge distribution and an electric field in the interior, and because of this a spin current is expected to exist. Furthermore, we have recently shown that a dynamical explanation of the Meissner effect in superconductors leads to the prediction that a spontaneous spin current exists near the surface of superconductors (spin Meissner effect). In this paper we extend the electrodynamic equations proposed earlier for the charge density and charge current to describe also the space and time dependence of the spin density and spin current. This allows us to determine the magnitude of the expelled negative charge and interior electric field as well as of the spin current in terms of other measurable properties of superconductors. We also provide a 'geometric' interpretation of the difference between type I and type II superconductors, discuss how superconductors manage to conserve angular momentum, discuss the relationship between our model and Slater's seminal work on superconductivity, and discuss the magnitude of the expected novel effects for elemental and other superconductors. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Quantum electrodynamics with unstable vacuum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fradkin, E.S. (P.N. Lebedev Physical Inst., USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow (USSR)); Gitman, D.M. (Moscow Inst. of Radio Engineering Electronics and Automation (USSR)); Shvartsman, Sh.M. (Tomsk State Pedagogical Inst. (USSR))
1991-01-01
Intense external fields destabilize vacuum inducing the creation of particle pairs. In this book the formalism of quantum electrodynamics (QED), using a special perturbation theory with matrix propagators, is systematically analyzed for such systems. The developed approach is, however, general for any quantum field with unstable vacuum. The authors propose solutions for real pair-creating fields. They discuss the general form for the causal function and many other Green's functions, as well as methods for finding them. Analogies to the optical theorem and rules for computing total probabilities are given, as are solutions for non-Abelian theories. (orig.).
2018-01-01
We introduce a simple scheme to efficiently compute photon exchange-correlation contributions due to the coupling to transversal photons as formulated in the newly developed quantum-electrodynamical density-functional theory (QEDFT).1−5 Our construction employs the optimized-effective potential (OEP) approach by means of the Sternheimer equation to avoid the explicit calculation of unoccupied states. We demonstrate the efficiency of the scheme by applying it to an exactly solvable GaAs quantum ring model system, a single azulene molecule, and chains of sodium dimers, all located in optical cavities and described in full real space. While the first example is a two-dimensional system and allows to benchmark the employed approximations, the latter two examples demonstrate that the correlated electron-photon interaction appreciably distorts the ground-state electronic structure of a real molecule. By using this scheme, we not only construct typical electronic observables, such as the electronic ground-state density, but also illustrate how photon observables, such as the photon number, and mixed electron-photon observables, for example, electron–photon correlation functions, become accessible in a density-functional theory (DFT) framework. This work constitutes the first three-dimensional ab initio calculation within the new QEDFT formalism and thus opens up a new computational route for the ab initio study of correlated electron–photon systems in quantum cavities. PMID:29594185
Self-energy quantum electrodynamics: Multipole radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salamin, Y.I.
1993-01-01
Within the context of Barut's self-field approach to quantum electrodynamics, it is shown that the exact relativistic expression for the Einstein A-coefficient of atomic spontaneous emission reduces, in the long wavelength approximation, to a form containing electric- and magnetic-like multipole contributions related to the transition charge and current distributions of the relativistic electron. A number of interesting features of the expressions involved are discussed, and their generalization to interacting composite systems is also pointed out. 10 refs
Some basic problems of quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steinmann, O.
1981-01-01
QED (= quantum electrodynamics) is often said to be one of the most successful theories, if not 'the' most successful one, that we possess in physics. That it is a theory is, however, not yet established beyond possible doubt. In this talk I report on the present state of this problem. The question is whether the computational rules of QED, which stand up so well to all practical tests, can be founded logically in a consistent, exactly formulizable, theory. (orig./HSI)
Electrodynamics of Magnetoactive Media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Browning, P K
2004-01-01
'Electrodynamics of Magnetoactive Media' is an unusual book in that it cuts across conventional physics discipline boundaries. The unifying theme allowing this is, quite simply, the physics of magnetic fields in various media. I believe the authors are correct in stating that the book is unique in specifically covering electrodynamic phenomena associated with magnetic fields, though of course some of the more elementary aspects are covered in the classical textbooks on electromagnetism, which are duly acknowledged. This interdisciplinarity makes the book very interesting to people with a range of backgrounds. For example, as a plasma physicist, I was familiar with most of the material on plasmas, but liquid crystals and superconductors were entirely new territory for me. These chapters were indeed both accessible and interesting, and it was surprising for me to see how much commonality there is in the physics of these various media. The first part of the book covers some fundamentals of electrodynamics and magnetostatics, and of electromagnetic waves. Most of this material is covered in textbooks on electromagnetism, and some of it is very basic (for example, LRC circuit theory, surely covered in most first year physics courses, is included) but it is perhaps a useful prelude for what is to come. The generic topic of charged particle motion in electromagnetic fields is well covered. Three main magnetoactive media are then discussed: plasmas (focusing on waves), liquid crystals and superconductors. It is all too easy to criticise a book on the grounds of omitted material, but I do feel that a chapter on magnetostatics in plasmas would have been very helpful, covering force-free fields and so on. Some interesting analogies could then have been exploited. For example, I was intrigued to discover an equation for magnetic fields in superconductors (equation (9.36)) which, apart from a change of sign, is identical to the Helmholtz equation used to model linear force
The two-photon self-energy and other QED radiative corrections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zschocke, S.
2001-07-01
One of the main issues in current nuclear physics is the precise measurement of the Lamb shift of strongly bound electrons in quantum electrodynamic (QED) tests in strong fields in highly charged ions. The currently performed high-precision measurements require extreme accuracy in the theoretical calculation of Lamb shift. This requires consideration of all α and α 2 order QED corrections as well as of precisely all orders in Zα. In the past years most of these QED corrections have been calculated both in 1st order and in 2nd order interference theory. As yet however, it has not been possible to assess the contribution of the two-photon self-energy, which has therefore been the greatest uncertainty factor in predicting Lamb shift in hydrogen-like systems. This study examines the contribution of these processes to Lamb shift. It also provides the first ever derivation of renormalized terms of two-photon vacuum polarisation and self-energy vacuum polarisation. Until now it has only been possible to evaluate these contributions by way of an Uehling approximation [de
Recent advances in bound state quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.; Lepage, G.P.
1977-06-01
Recent developments are reviewed in four areas of computational quantum electrodynamics: a new relativistic two-body formalism equal in rigor to the Bethe-Salpeter formalism but with strong calculational advantages is discussed; recent work on the computation of the decay rate of bound systems (positronium in particular) is presented; limits on possible composite structure of leptons are discussed; a new multidimensional integration program ('VEGAS') suitable for higher order calculations is presented
On the equation of motion in electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Papas, C.H.
1975-01-01
A new vector equation of motion in electrodynamics is proposed by replacing the Schott term in the Lorentz-Dirac equation by an expression depending on the electro-magnetic field vectors E and B and the velocity vector V. It is argued that several conceptual difficulties in the Lorentz-Dirac equation disappear while the results remain the same except for extreme high fields and velocities as could be encountered in astrophysics
Dimensional renormalization and comparison of renormalization schemes in quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coquereaux, R.
1979-02-01
The method of dimensional renormalization as applied to quantum electrodynamics is discussed. A general method is given which allows one to compare the various quantities like coupling constants and masses that appear in different renormalization schemes
Electrodynamics, Differential Forms and the Method of Images
Low, Robert J.
2011-01-01
This paper gives a brief description of how Maxwell's equations are expressed in the language of differential forms and use this to provide an elegant demonstration of how the method of images (well known in electrostatics) also works for electrodynamics in the presence of an infinite plane conducting boundary. The paper should be accessible to an…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menezes, R.; Nascimento, J.R.S.; Ribeiro, R.F.; Wotzasek, C.
2002-01-01
We study the dual equivalence between the non-linear generalization of the self-dual (NSD BF ) and the topologically massive B and F models with particular emphasis on the non-linear electrodynamics proposed by Born and Infeld. This is done through a dynamical gauge embedding of the non-linear self-dual model yielding to a gauge invariant and dynamically equivalent theory. We clearly show that non-polinomial NSD BF models can be map, through a properly defined duality transformation into TM BF actions. The general result obtained is then particularized for a number of examples, including the Born-Infeld-BF (BIBF) model that has experienced a revival in the recent literature
On foundational and geometric critical aspects of quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prugovecki, E.
1994-01-01
The foundational difficulties encountered by the conventional formulation of quantum electrodynamics, and the criticism by Dirac Schwinger, Rohrlich, and others, aimed at some of the physical and mathematical premises underlying that formulation, are reviewed and discussed. The basic failings of the conventional methods of quantization of the electromagnetic field are pointed out, especially with regard to the issue of local (anti) commutativity of quantum fields as an embodiment of relativistic microcausality. A brief description is given of a recently advanced new type of approach to quantum electrodynamics, and to quantum field theory in general, which is epistemically based on intrinsically quantum ideas about the physical nature of spacetime, and is mathematically based on a fiber theoretical formulation of quantum geometries, aimed in part at removing the aforementioned difficulties and inconsistencies. It is shown that these ideas can be traced to a conceptualization of spacetime outlined by Einstein in the last edition of his well-known semipopular exposition of relativity theory. 57 refs
QED3 formulation of vortices in boson condensates and metafluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soares, Thales Costa; Spalenza, Wesley; Helayel Neto, Jose Abdalla
2002-01-01
Full text: One consider a system of many non-relativistic particles as a fluid, going from the discrete set of space-time coordinates of each particle to a continuous field. With an interparticle potential that satisfies a number of physically reasonable assumptions, one shows how the Lagrangian describing the motion of the fluid displays an exact local gauge invariance governed by a scalar parameter. The conserved quantity associated to this local symmetry is derived and discussed in the light of planar Electrodynamics, with photons identified as sound waves in the fluid and point-like charges corresponding to vortices with azimuthal circulation. On the other hand, exploiting further the field configurations of planar Electrodynamics, one finds a peculiar source for the electrostatic sector with azimuthal electric field and a string-like scalar potential. This work sets out to attempt at establishing a parallel between this vortex-like electric field configurations in fluid dynamics. Vortices in boson condensates and the fluid dynamics of the condensates are reassessed and translated into electromagnetic fields of planar (Chern-Simons massive) QED. On The other hand, the metafluid equations, once suitable reduced from 3 to 2 space dimensions, are also seen to match field configurations of Maxwell (massless photons) planar QED. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steinmetz, Tilo
2008-04-29
In the present dissertation experiments on resonator quantum electrodynamics on a microtrap chip are described. Thereby for the first time single atoms catched in a chip trap could be detected. For this in the framework of this thesis a novel optical microresonator was developed, which can because of its miniaturization be combined with the microtrap technique introduced in our working group for the manipulation of ultracold atoms. For this resonator glass-fiber ends are used as mirror substrates, between which a standing light wave is formed. With such a fiber Fabry-Perot resonator we obtain a finess of up to {approx}37,000. Because of the small mode volumina in spite of moderate resonator quality the coherent interaction between an atom and a photon can be made so large that the regime of the strong atom-resonator coupling is reached. For the one-atom-one-photon coupling rate and the one-atom-one-photon cooperativity thereby record values of g{sub 0}=2{pi}.300 MHz respectively C{sub 0}=210 are reached. Just so for the first time the strong coupling regime between a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and the field of a high-quality resonator could be reached. The BEC was thereby by means of the magnetic microtrap potentials deterministically brought to a position within the resonator and totally transformed in a well defined antinode of an additionally optical standing-wave trap. The spectrum of the coupled atom-resonator system was measured for different atomic numbers and atom-resonator detunings, whereby a collective vacuum Rabi splitting of more than 20 GHz could be reached. [German] In der vorliegenden Dissertation werden Experimente zur Resonator-Quantenelektrodynamik auf einem Mikrofallenchip beschrieben. Dabei konnte u. a. erstmals einzelne, in einer Chipfalle gefangene Atome detektiert werden. Hier fuer wurde im Rahmen dieser Arbeit ein neuartiger optischer Mikroresonator entwickelt, der sich dank seiner Miniaturisierung mit der in unserer Arbeitsgruppe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saddi, M.B.; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B.S.
2008-01-01
The collision integral cross-sections of double-photon Compton process are measured experimentally for 662 keV incident gamma photons. The measurements are successfully carried out using a single gamma ray detector, and do not require the complicated slow-fast coincidence technique used till now for observing this higher order quantum electrodynamics (QED) process. The energy spectra of one of the two final photons, originating in this process, in direction of the gamma ray detector are observed as a long tail to the single-photon Compton line on lower side of the full energy peak in the observed spectra. An inverse response matrix converts the observed pulse-height distribution of a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector to a true photon spectrum. This also results in extraction of events originating from double-photon Compton interactions. The present measured values of collision integral cross-section, although of same magnitude, deviate from the corresponding values obtained from the theory. In view of the magnitude of deviations, in addition to small value of probability of occurrence of this process, the agreement of measured values with theory is reasonably acceptable
Prytz, Kjell
2015-01-01
This book is intended as an undergraduate textbook in electrodynamics at basic or advanced level. The objective is to attain a general understanding of the electrodynamic theory and its basic experiments and phenomena in order to form a foundation for further studies in the engineering sciences as well as in modern quantum physics. The outline of the book is obtained from the following principles: • Base the theory on the concept of force and mutual interaction • Connect the theory to experiments and observations accessible to the student • Treat the electric, magnetic and inductive phenomena cohesively with respect to force, energy, dipoles and material • Present electrodynamics using the same principles as in the preceding mechanics course • Aim at explaining that theory of relativity is based on the magnetic effect • Introduce field theory after the basic phenomena have been explored in terms of forc...
On the New Symmetries in Electrodynamics and Quantum Theory
Kotel'nikov, G. A.
2004-01-01
The generalized definition of symmetry is formulated. Application of this definition for symmetric analysis of theoretical physics equations is considered. The version of electrodynamics is constructed permitting the faster-than-light motions of particles with real masses. Some elements of physical interpretation of the proposed theory are presented.
Inflationary universe from higher derivative quantum gravity coupled with scalar electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Myrzakulov, R. [Department of General & Theoretical Physics and Eurasian Center for Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Odintsov, S.D. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, ICE/CSIC-IEEC, Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciències, Torre C5-Parell-2a pl, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, s/n 08193 Cerdanyola del Valles, Barcelona (Spain); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics (TUSUR) 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Sebastiani, L., E-mail: lorenzo.sebastiani@unitn.it [Department of General & Theoretical Physics and Eurasian Center for Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan)
2016-06-15
We study inflation for a quantum scalar electrodynamics model in curved space–time and for higher-derivative quantum gravity (QG) coupled with scalar electrodynamics. The corresponding renormalization-group (RG) improved potential is evaluated for both theories in Jordan frame where non-minimal scalar-gravitational coupling sector is explicitly kept. The role of one-loop quantum corrections is investigated by showing how these corrections enter in the expressions for the slow-roll parameters, the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio and how they influence the bound of the Hubble parameter at the beginning of the primordial acceleration. We demonstrate that the viable inflation maybe successfully realized, so that it turns out to be consistent with last Planck and BICEP2/Keck Array data.
GENERALIZED p-FORMS ELECTRODYNAMICS IN CLIFFORD SPACES
Castro, C
2003-01-01
Using Clifford algebraic methods we describe how to generalize Maxwell theory of Electrodynamics asociated with ordinary point-charges to a generalized Maxwell theory in Clifford spaces involving extended-charges and p-forms of arbitrary rank. Clifford algebras contain the appropriate algebraic-geometric features to implement the principle of polydimensional transformations (branes of different dimensionality are rotated into each other) that could possibly lead to a proper formulation of string and M theory.
Quantum electrodynamics of strong fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greiner, W.
1983-01-01
Quantum Electrodynamics of Strong Fields provides a broad survey of the theoretical and experimental work accomplished, presenting papers by a group of international researchers who have made significant contributions to this developing area. Exploring the quantum theory of strong fields, the volume focuses on the phase transition to a charged vacuum in strong electric fields. The contributors also discuss such related topics as QED at short distances, precision tests of QED, nonperturbative QCD and confinement, pion condensation, and strong gravitational fields In addition, the volume features a historical paper on the roots of quantum field theory in the history of quantum physics by noted researcher Friedrich Hund
Minimal theory of quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berrondo, M.; Jauregui, R.
1986-01-01
Within the general framework of the Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann axiomatic field theory, we obtain a simple and coherent formulation of quantum electrodynamics. The definitions of the current densities fulfill the one-particle stability condition, and the commutation relations for the interacting fields are obtained rather than being postulated a priori, thus avoiding the inconsistencies which appear in the canonical formalism. This is possible due to the fact that we use the integral form of the equations of motion in order to compute the propagators and the S matrix. The resulting spectral representations automatically fulfill the correct boundary conditions thus fixing the ubiquitous quasilocal operators in a unique fashion
Pakniat, R.; Soltani, M.; Tavassoly, M. K.
2018-03-01
Recently we studied the effect of photon addition in the initial coherent field on the entanglement swapping which causes some improvements in the process [Soltani et al., Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 31, 1750198 (2017)]. In this paper, we investigate the influence of multiphoton transitions in the atom-field interaction based on the cavity quantum electrodynamics on the entanglement swapping and show its considerable constructive effect on this process. The presented model consists of two two-level atoms namely A1 and A2 and two distinct cavity fields F1 and F2. Initially, the atoms are prepared in a maximally entangled state and the fields in the cavities are prepared in hybrid entangled state of number and coherent states, separately. Making the atom A2 to interact with the field F1 (via the generalized Jaynes-Cummings model which allows m-photon transitions between atomic levels in the emission and absorption processes) followed by their detection allows us to arrive at the entanglement swapping from the two atoms A1, A2 and the two fields F1, F2 to the atom-field A1-F2 system. Then, we pay our attention to the time evolution of success probability of detecting processes and fidelity. Also, to determine the amount of entanglement of the generated entangled state in the swapping process, the linear entropy is evaluated and the effect of parameter m concerning the multiphoton transitions on these quantities is investigated, numerically. It is observed that, by increasing the number of photons in the transition process, one may obtain considerable improvement in the relevant quantities of the entanglement swapping. In detail, the satisfactorily acceptable values 1 and 0.5 corresponding to success probability and fidelity are obtained for most of the times during observing of the above-mentioned procedure. We concluded that the presented formalism in this paper is much more advantageous than our presentation model in our earlier work mentioned above.
Eringen, A C
1990-01-01
The electrodynamics of continua is a branch ofthe physical sciences concerned with the interaction of electromagnetic fields with deformable bodies. De formable bodies are considered to be continua endowed with continuous distributions of mass and charge. The theory of electromagnetic continua is concerned with the determination of deformations, motions, stress, and elec tromagnetic fields developed in bodies upon the applications of external loads. External loads may be of mechanical origin (e.g., forces, couples, constraints placed on the surface of the body, and initial and boundary conditions arising from thermal and other changes) and/or electromagnetic origin (e.g., electric, magnetic, and current fields). Because bodies of different constitutions respond to external stimuli in a different way, it is imperative to characterize properly the response functions relevant to a given class of continua. This is done by means of the constitutive theory. For example, an elastic dielectric responds to electro...
Eringen, A C
1990-01-01
This is the second volume of a two-volume set presenting a unified approach to the electrodynamics of continua, based on the principles of contemporary continuum of physics. The first volume was devoted mainly to the development of the theory and applications to deformable solid media. This volume extends the developments of the first volume to richer and newer grounds. It contains discussions on fluid media, magnetohydrodynamics, eletrohydrodynamics and media with more complicated structures. With the discussion, in the last two chapters, of memory-dependent materials and non-local E-M theory, the authors account for the nonlocal effects arising from motions and fields of material points at past times and at spatially distant points. This discussion is included here to stimulate further research in these important fields, which are presently in development stages. The second volume is self-contained and can be studied without the help of volume I. A section summarizing the constitutive equations and the unde...
Infrared finiteness in Yang--Mills theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Appelquist, T.; Carazzone, J.; Kluberg-Stern, H.; Roth, M.
1976-01-01
The infrared divergences of renormalizable theories with coupled massless fields (in particular, the Yang--Mills theory) are shown to cancel for transition probabilities corresponding to finite-energy-resolution detectors, just as in quantum electrodynamics. This result is established through lowest nontrivial order in perturbation theory for the detection of massive muons in a quantum electrodynamic theory containing massless electrons or the detection of massive quarks in a Yang--Mills theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ren, Bao-Cang; Wei, Hai-Rui; Deng, Fu-Guo
2013-01-01
To date, all work concerning the construction of quantum logic gates, an essential part of quantum computing, has focused on operating in one degree of freedom (DOF) for quantum systems. Here, we investigate the possibility of achieving scalable photonic quantum computing based on two DOFs for quantum systems. We construct a deterministic hyper-controlled-not (hyper-CNOT) gate operating in both the spatial mode and polarization DOFs for a photon pair simultaneously, using the giant optical Faraday rotation induced by a single-electron spin in a quantum dot inside a one-side optical microcavity as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. With this hyper-CNOT gate and linear optical elements, two-photon four-qubit cluster entangled states can be prepared and analyzed, which give an application to manipulate more information with less resources. We analyze the experimental feasibility of this hyper-CNOT gate and show that it can be implemented with current technology. (letter)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lichtenberg, A
1979-02-15
The invention refers to an electrodynamic support and/or guide device for a magnetic levitation train, in which magnets, particularly superconducting magnets are situated on a vehicle, which has rail-like electrically conducting plates or loops on the track. The purpose of the invention is to describe such an electrodynamic support and/or guide device, which can achieve contactless support or guidance of an electrodynamic levitation vehicle when stopped. According to the invention, the problem is solved by the magnetic fields of the support and/or guide magnets acting on the electrically conducting plates or loops of the track being controlled so that moving magnetic fields relative to the vehicle are produced. In this way it is possible to support and/or to guide the vehicle electro-dynamically from standstill to the maximum speed and to drive or brake it.
Infrared phenomena in quantum electrodynamics : II. Bremsstrahlung and compton scattering
Haeringen, W. van
The infrared aspects of quantum electrodynamics are discussed by treating two examples of scattering processes, bremsstrahlung and Compton scattering. As in the previous paper one uses a non-covariant diagram technique which gives very clear insight in the cancelling of infrared divergences between
Yang--Mills gauge theories and Baker--Johnson quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lemmon, J.; Mahanthappa, K.T.
1976-01-01
We show that the physical mass of a fermion in a symmetric asymptotically free non-Abelian vector gauge theory is dynamical in origin. We comment on the close analogy that exists between such a theory and the Baker--Johnson finite quantum electrodynamics. Comments are also made when there is spontaneous symmetry breaking
Matsubara-Fradkin thermodynamical quantization of Podolsky electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonin, C. A.; Pimentel, B. M.
2011-01-01
In this work, we apply the Matsubara-Fradkin formalism and the Nakanishi's auxiliary field method to the quantization of the Podolsky electrodynamics in thermodynamic equilibrium. This approach allows us to write consistently the path integral representation for the partition function of gauge theories in a simple manner. Furthermore, we find the Dyson-Schwinger-Fradkin equations and the Ward-Fradkin-Takahashi identities for the Podolsky theory. We also write the most general form for the polarization tensor in thermodynamic equilibrium.
Thin-shell wormholes in Born–Infeld electrodynamics with modified Chaplygin gas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharif, M., E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan); Azam, M., E-mail: azam.math@ue.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan); Division of Science and Technology, University of Education, Township Campus, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan)
2014-07-25
In this paper, we construct spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes in the scenario of Born–Infeld electrodynamics theory. We take the modified Chaplygin gas for the description of exotic matter around the wormhole throat. The stability of static wormhole solutions with different values of charge and Born–Infeld parameter is investigated. We compare our results with those obtained for generalized Chaplygin gas [36] and conclude that stable static wormhole solutions also exist even for large value of Born–Infeld parameter. - Highlights: • Constructed thin-shell wormholes in Born–Infeld electrodynamics for modified Chaplygin. • Studied its stability with different values of charge and Born–Infeld parameter. • New stable solutions are found even for large value of Born–Infeld parameter. • Selection of EoS significantly changes the presence and stability of static solutions.
Fixed point structure of quenched, planar quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Love, S.T.
1986-07-01
Gauge theories exhibiting a hierarchy of fermion mass scales may contain a pseudo-Nambu-Boldstone boson of spontaneously broken scale invariance. The relation between scale and chiral symmetry breaking is studied analytically in quenched, planar quantum electrodynamics in four dimensions. The model possesses a novel nonperturbative ultraviolet fixed point governing its strong coupling phase which requires the mixing of four fermion operators. 12 refs
On the electrodynamic explanation of the retrograde motion of the electric arc
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, J.S.; Allen, J.E.
1992-01-01
The retrograde motion of the cathode spot in a transverse magnetic field is one of the more intriguing phenomena of the electric arc. Although the phenomenon has been known for nearly ninety years since its discovery by Stark and has stimulated numerous investigations which result in many models giving explanation from different points of view, there is still no theory that can account both qualitatively and quantitatively for all the observations. Most of the explanations of the retrograde motion involve the study of cathode processes to give the preferential formation of new cathode spots along the retrograde direction. One line of explanation, which is rather different from the others, is based on electrodynamics. In this approach the retrograde motion is treated as an electrodynamic event. The present paper develops the theory suggested by Robson and von Engel. A more complete model is proposed and studied in detail by means of electromagnetic field theory. The results obtained not only show that the retrograde motion can be explained by the electrodynamics, but also confirm that the average current density on the cathode spot must be around the order of 10 12 A/m 2 . Recent studies of spot current density have shown values of this order. (author) 22 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab
THE CHOICE OF A RATIONAL STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF ELECTRODYNAMIC TRANSPORT SYSTEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. O. Radchenko
2009-03-01
Full Text Available The design schemes of electrodynamic maglev systems with a plane track structure are developed and the results of investigation of levitating motion of such systems along rectilinear or curvilinear tracks are presented.
Photonic circuits for iterative decoding of a class of low-density parity-check codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlichin, Dmitri S; Mabuchi, Hideo
2014-01-01
Photonic circuits in which stateful components are coupled via guided electromagnetic fields are natural candidates for resource-efficient implementation of iterative stochastic algorithms based on propagation of information around a graph. Conversely, such message=passing algorithms suggest novel circuit architectures for signal processing and computation that are well matched to nanophotonic device physics. Here, we construct and analyze a quantum optical model of a photonic circuit for iterative decoding of a class of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes called expander codes. Our circuit can be understood as an open quantum system whose autonomous dynamics map straightforwardly onto the subroutines of an LDPC decoding scheme, with several attractive features: it can operate in the ultra-low power regime of photonics in which quantum fluctuations become significant, it is robust to noise and component imperfections, it achieves comparable performance to known iterative algorithms for this class of codes, and it provides an instructive example of how nanophotonic cavity quantum electrodynamic components can enable useful new information technology even if the solid-state qubits on which they are based are heavily dephased and cannot support large-scale entanglement. (paper)
Rail electrodynamics in a plasma armature railgun
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rolader, G.E.; Jamison, K.A.; Villecco, R.A.; Graham, F.R.
1991-01-01
A model is developed to investigate rail electrodynamics in a plasma armature railgun. This model describes the rail motion in response to the transitory Lorentz force and the compressive restoration force from the material which is between the rails and the containment structure. In this model the distance between the rails is found to oscillate with a frequency of β. The magnetic field and the dynamic behavior of the rails induce local electric fields. We investigate the significance of these electric fields in the laboratory frame and in the projectile frame. In the lab frame, rail electrodynamics induces local electric fields which have maximums spaced behind the projectile at locations where βt p is an odd multiple of π, where t p is the time since the projectile has passed an axial location on the rails. When the projectile is accelerating, rail dynamics induce electric fields in the projectile frame which have maximums where βt p is an even multiple of π. As the projectile velocity increases, the locations of the peak voltages move farther behind the projectile. For the CHECMATE railgun, calculations indicate that the rail displacement is on the order of 2 mm, the rail velocity is on the order of 50 m/s, and the voltages induced in the projectile frame are on the order of 20--40 V
Tunnelling of Massive/Massless Bosons from the Apparent Horizon of FRW Universe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kimet Jusufi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the Hawking radiation of vector particles from the apparent horizon of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW universe in the framework of quantum tunnelling method. Furthermore we use Proca equation, a relativistic wave equation for a massive/massless spin-1 particle (massless γ photons, weak massive W± and Z0 bosons, strong massless gluons, and ρ and ω mesons together with a Painlevé space-time metric for the FRW universe. We solve the Proca equation via Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ equation and the WKB approximation method. We recover the same result for the Hawking temperature associated with vector particles as in the case of scalar and Dirac particles tunnelled from outside to the inside of the apparent horizon in a FRW universe.
Dual-keel electrodynamic maglev system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jianlang, He [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Rote, D M [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Zian, Wang [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Coffey, H T [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)
1996-12-31
This paper introduces a new concept for an electrodynamic-suspension maglev system that has a dual-keel arrangement. Each keel consists of a row of superconducting magnets aboard the vehicle. The keels move in troughs in the guideway that are each lined with pairs of figure-eight-shaped null-flux coils. Each pair of null-flux coils is cross-connected to produce null-flux suspension and guidance force. The cross-connected figure-eight null-flux coils in each trough are also energized by a three-phase power supply to produce propulsive force. Preliminary analysis shows that the new system has many advantages over other EDS systems in terms of system performance and dynamic stability. (orig.)
Structure of the vertex function in finite quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mannheim, P.D.
1975-01-01
We study the structure of the renormalized electromagnetic current vertes, GAMMA-tilde/sub μ/(p,p+q,q), in finite quantum electrodynamics. Using conformal invariance we find that GAMMA-tilde/sub μ/(p,p,0) takes the simple form of Z 1 γ/sub μ/ when the external fermions are far off the mass shell. We interpret this result as an old theorem on the structure of the vertex function due to Gell--Mann and Zachariasen. We give the general structure of the vertex for arbitrary momentum transfer parametrically, and discuss how the Bethe--Salpeter equation and the Federbush--Johnson theorem are satisfied. We contrast the meaning of pointlike in a finite field theory with the meaning understood in the parton model. We discuss to what extent the condition Z 1 = 0, which may hold in conformal theories other than finite quantum electrodynamics, may be interpreted as a bootstrap condition. We show that the vanishing of Z 1 prevents their being bound states in the Migdal--Polyakov bootstrap
Observers' measurements in premetric electrodynamics: Time and radar length
Gürlebeck, Norman; Pfeifer, Christian
2018-04-01
The description of an observer's measurement in general relativity and the standard model of particle physics is closely related to the spacetime metric. In order to understand and interpret measurements, which test the metric structure of the spacetime, like the classical Michelson-Morley, Ives-Stilwell, Kennedy-Thorndike experiments or frequency comparison experiments in general, it is necessary to describe them in theories, which go beyond the Lorentzian metric structure. However, this requires a description of an observer's measurement without relying on a metric. We provide such a description of an observer's measurement of the fundamental quantities time and length derived from a premetric perturbation of Maxwell's electrodynamics and a discussion on how these measurements influence classical relativistic observables like time dilation and length contraction. Most importantly, we find that the modification of electrodynamics influences the measurements at two instances: the propagation of light is altered as well as the observer's proper time normalization. When interpreting the results of a specific experiment, both effects cannot be disentangled, in general, and have to be taken into account.
The Final Stages of Massive Star Evolution and Their Supernovae
Heger, Alexander
In this chapter I discuss the final stages in the evolution of massive stars - stars that are massive enough to burn nuclear fuel all the way to iron group elements in their core. The core eventually collapses to form a neutron star or a black hole when electron captures and photo-disintegration reduce the pressure support to an extent that it no longer can hold up against gravity. The late burning stages of massive stars are a rich subject by themselves, and in them many of the heavy elements in the universe are first generated. The late evolution of massive stars strongly depends on their mass, and hence can be significantly effected by mass loss due to stellar winds and episodic mass loss events - a critical ingredient that we do not know as well as we would like. If the star loses all the hydrogen envelope, a Type I supernova results, if it does not, a Type II supernova is observed. Whether the star makes neutron star or a black hole, or a neutron star at first and a black hole later, and how fast they spin largely affects the energetics and asymmetry of the observed supernova explosion. Beyond photon-based astronomy, other than the sun, a supernova (SN 1987) has been the only object in the sky we ever observed in neutrinos, and supernovae may also be the first thing we will ever see in gravitational wave detectors like LIGO. I conclude this chapter reviewing the deaths of the most massive stars and of Population III stars.
Wall thickness tests by means of rotating electrodynamic transducers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hueschelrath, G.
1986-01-01
For about three years, the EROT system has been employed for measuring wall thicknesses on pipes of ferritic steels. The experience gathered and the degree of reliability reached up to now are definitely encouraging, so that an increased use of electrodynamic transducers can be expected for measuring pipes with outside diameters of up to 22 inches. (orig.) [de
Quantum electrodynamics in strong external fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, B.; Rafelski, J.; Kirsch, J.
1981-05-01
We review the theoretical description of quantum electrodynamics in the presence of strong and supercritical fields. In particular, the process of the spontaneous vacuum decay accompanied by the observable positron emission in heavy ion collisions is described. Emphasis is put on the proper formulation of many-body aspects in the framework of quantum field theory. The extension of the theory to the description of Bose fields and many-body effects is presented, and the Klein paradox is resolved. Some implications of the theoretical methods developed here are presented concerning non-abelian gauge theories and the quark confinement puzzle. (orig.)
Electrodynamics in scale-covariant gravity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mansfield, V.N.; Malin, S.
1980-01-01
Utilizing the inherent scale-invariance of Maxwell's Equations, classical electrodynamics is incorporated into the theory of scale-invariant gravity. In this incorporation the gravitational constant G is shown to transform like β -2 (β is the gauge function), the generalized Lorentz Force Law is derived, the electric charge is shown to be invariant under gauge transformation, and matter creation is shown to be a necessity. In all nontrivial gauges a modified version of QED is obtained. The deviation from standard QED, however, is shown to be beyond the range of experimental detection when G α β -2 . (orig.)
Big Fish in Small Ponds: massive stars in the low-mass clusters of M83
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrews, J. E.; Calzetti, D.; McElwee, Sean [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Chandar, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Elmegreen, B. G. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Kennicutt, R. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Kim, Hwihyun [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Krumholz, Mark R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lee, J. C.; Whitmore, B. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); O' Connell, R. W., E-mail: jandrews@astro.umass.edu, E-mail: callzetti@astro.umass.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)
2014-09-20
We have used multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 data of the starbursting spiral galaxy M83 in order to measure variations in the upper end of the stellar initial mass function (uIMF) using the production rate of ionizing photons in unresolved clusters with ages ≤ 8 Myr. As in earlier papers on M51 and NGC 4214, the uIMF in M83 is consistent with a universal IMF, and stochastic sampling of the stellar populations in the ∼<10{sup 3} M {sub ☉} clusters are responsible for any deviations in this universality. The ensemble cluster population, as well as individual clusters, also imply that the most massive star in a cluster does not depend on the cluster mass. In fact, we have found that these small clusters seem to have an over-abundance of ionizing photons when compared to an expected universal or truncated IMF. This also suggests that the presence of massive stars in these clusters does not affect the star formation in a destructive way.
Jet and photon measurements with ATLAS
Nachman, Benjamin Philip; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
The strong force is responsible for a rich set of phenomena that can be probed using a variety of techniques over a wide energy and angular range at the Large Hadron Collider. This talk reports on the latest results from the ATLAS experiment that measure the high energy, wide angle, collinear, and soft regimes of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). There is also an important connection between QCD at high energies and electroweak phenomena including massive gauge bosons as well as photons.
Electromagnetic energy flow lines as possible paths of photons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davidovic, M [Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Belgrade, Bulevar Kralja Aleksandra 73, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Sanz, A S; Miret-Artes, S [Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones CientIficas, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Arsenovic, D; Bozic, M [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia)], E-mail: milena@grf.bg.ac.yu, E-mail: asanz@imaff.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: arsenovic@phy.bg.ac.yu, E-mail: bozic@phy.bg.ac.yu, E-mail: s.miret@imaff.cfmac.csic.es
2009-07-15
Motivated by recent experiments where interference patterns behind a grating are obtained by accumulating single photon events, we provide here an electromagnetic energy flow-line description to explain the emergence of such patterns. We find and discuss an analogy between the equation describing these energy flow lines and the equation of Bohmian trajectories used to describe the motion of massive particles.
Electrodynamic modeling applied to micro-strip gas chambers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fang, R.
1998-01-01
Gas gain variations as functions of time, counting rate and substrate resistivity have been observed with Micro-Strip Gas Chambers (MSGC). Such a chamber is here treated as a system of 2 dielectrics, gas and substrate, with finite resistivities. Electric charging between their interface results in variations of the electric field and the gas gain. The electrodynamic equations (including time dependence) for such a system are proposed. A Rule of Charge Accumulation (RCA) is then derived which allows to determine the quantity and sign of charges accumulated on the surface at equilibrium. In order to apply the equations and the rule to MSGCs, a model of gas conductance induced by ionizing radiation is proposed, and a differential equation and some formulae are derived to calculate the rms dispersion and the spatial distribution of electrons (ions) in inhomogeneous electric fields. RCA coupled with a precise simulation of the electric fields gives the first quantitative explanation of gas gain variations of MSGCs. Finally an electrodynamic simulation program is made to reproduce the dynamic process of gain variation due to surface charging with an uncertainty of at most 15% relative to experimental data. As a consequence, the methods for stabilizing operation of MSGCs are proposed. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giuseppe Vitiello
2014-05-01
Full Text Available In electrodynamics there is a mutual exchange of energy and momentum between the matter field and the electromagnetic field and the total energy and momentum are conserved. For a constant magnetic field and harmonic scalar potential, electrodynamics is shown to be isomorph to a system of damped/amplified harmonic oscillators. These can be described by squeezed coherent states which in turn are isomorph to self-similar fractal structures. Under the said conditions of constant magnetic field and harmonic scalar potential, electrodynamics is thus isomorph to fractal self-similar structures and squeezed coherent states. At a quantum level, dissipation induces noncommutative geometry with the squeezing parameter playing a relevant role. Ubiquity of fractals in Nature and relevance of coherent states and electromagnetic interaction point to a unified, integrated vision of Nature.
Abrikosov vortices from electrodynamics with c-number Dirac spinors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cabo, A.; Perez-Martinez, A.M.
1986-01-01
We obtain the solutions of the classical equations of motion in electrodynamics with c-number fermion fields in the presence of a uniform charge background. Translationally invariant and cylindrically symmetric exact solutions are found. We also find an approximate cylindrically symmetric solution similar to the Abrikosov vortex in a type-II superconductor. The corresponding value of the magnetic flux is hc/2e
On causal nonrelativistic classical electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goedecke, G.H.
1984-01-01
The differential-difference (DD) motion equations of the causal nonrelativistic classical electrodynamics developed by the author in 1975 are shown to possess only nonrunaway, causal solutions with no discontinuities in particle velocity or position. As an example, the DD equation solution for the problem of an electromagnetic shock incident on an initially stationary charged particle is contrasted with the standard Abraham-Lorentz equation solution. The general Cauchy problem for these DD motion equations is discussed. In general, in order to uniquely determine a solution, the initial data must be more detailed than the standard Cauchy data of initial position and velocity. Conditions are given under which the standard Cauchy data will determine the DD equation solutions to sufficient practical accuracy
Split Octonion electrodynamics and unified fields of dyons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bisht, P.S.
2004-01-01
Split octonion electrodynamics has been developed in terms of Zorn's vector matrix realization by reformulating electromagnetic potential, current, field tensor and other dynamical quantities. Corresponding field equation (Unified Maxwell's equations) and equation of motion have been reformulated by means of split octonion and its Zorn vector realization in unique, simpler and consistent manner. It has been shown that this theory reproduces the dyon field equations in the absence of gravito-dyons and vice versa
Few Issues Related to an Electrodynamic Exciter Control
Čala, M.
2015-01-01
There are multiple problems to solve when controlling an electromagnetic exciter for vibrations generation. Main challenge is to straighten a frequency response of an exciter which is normally not uniform due to resonances resulting from the mechanical construction of an exciter, specimen to test, or mounting fixture. This paper describes number of aspects to consider, which arose during implementation of the control system for small electrodynamic exciter on the Department of Control and Ins...
On the renormalization group equations of quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirayama, Minoru
1980-01-01
The renormalization group equations of quantum electrodynamics are discussed. The solution of the Gell-Mann-Low equation is presented in a convenient form. The interrelation between the Nishijima-Tomozawa equation and the Gell-Mann-Low equation is clarified. The reciprocal effective charge, so to speak, turns out to play an important role to discuss renormalization group equations. Arguments are given that the reciprocal effective charge vanishes as the renormalization momentum tends to infinity. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouchendira, Rym; Clade, Pierre; Nez, Francois; Biraben, Francois; Guellati-Khelifa, Saida
2013-01-01
The fine structure constant α has a particular status in physics. Its precise determination is required to test the quantum electrodynamics (QED) theory. The constant α is also a keystone for the determination of other fundamental physical constants, especially the ones involved in the framework of the future International System of units. This paper presents Paris experiment, where the fine structure constant is determined by measuring the recoil velocity of a rubidium atom when it absorbs a photon. The impact of the recent improvement of QED calculations of the electron moment anomaly and the recent measurement of the cesium atom recoil at Berkeley will be discussed. The opportunity to provide a precise value of the ratio h/m u between the Planck constant and the atomic mass constant will be investigated. (copyright 2013 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Signatures of massive sgoldstinos at hadron colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perazzi, Elena; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Zwirner, Fabio
2000-01-01
In supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model with a very light gravitino, the effective theory at the weak scale should contain not only the goldstino G-tilde, but also its supersymmetric partners, the sgoldstinos. In the simplest case, the goldstino is a gauge-singlet and its superpartners are two neutral spin-0 particles, S and P. We study possible signals of massive sgoldstinos at hadron colliders, focusing on those that are most relevant for the Tevatron. We show that inclusive production of sgoldstinos, followed by their decay into two photons, can lead to observable signals or to stringent combined bounds on the gravitino and sgoldstino masses. Sgoldstino decays into two gluon jets may provide a useful complementary signature
Searching a dark photon with HADES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gumberidze, Malgorzata [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: HADES-Collaboration
2014-07-01
The existence of a photon-like massive particle, the γ' or dark photon, is postulated in several extensions of the Standard Model. These models are often advocated to explain some recent puzzling astrophysical observations, as well as to solve the sofar unexplained deviation between the measured and calculated values of the muon anomaly. The dark photon, unlike conventional photon, would have mass and would be detectable via its mixing with the latter. We present a search for the e{sup +}e{sup -} decay of such a hypothetical dark photon, also named U vector boson, in inclusive dielectron spectra measured by HADES in the p(3.5 GeV)+p,Nb reactions, as well as the Ar(1.756 GeV/u)+KCl reaction. An upper limit on the kinetic mixing parameter squared ε{sup 2} at 90% CL has been obtained for the mass range M(U)=0.02-0.55 GeV/c{sup 2} and is compared with the present world data set. For masses 0.03-0.1GeV/c{sup 2}, the limit has been lowered with respect to previous results, allowing to exclude a large part of the parameter region favored by the muon g-2 anomaly. Furthermore, an improved upper limit of 2.3.10{sup -6} at 90% CL on the branching ratio has been set on the branching ratio of the helicity-suppressed direct decay of the eta meson, η→e{sup +}e{sup -}.
Preliminary AD-Horn Thermomechanical and Electrodynamic Simulations
AUTHOR|(CDS)2095747; Horvath, David; Calviani, Marco
2016-01-01
As part of the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) target area consolidation activities planned for LS2, it has been necessary to perform a comprehensive study of the thermo-structural behaviour of the AD magnetic horn during operation, in order to detail specific requirements for the upgrade projects and testing procedures. The present work illustrates the preliminary results of the finite element analysis carried out to evaluate the thermal and structural behaviour of the device, as well as the methodology used to model and solve the thermomechanical and electrodynamic simulations performed in the AD magnetic horn.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo
2011-01-01
Motivated by possible applications within the framework of anti-de Sitter gravity/conformal field theory correspondence, charged black holes with AdS asymptotics, which are solutions to Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity in D dimensions, and whose electric field is described by nonlinear electrodynamics are studied. For a topological static black hole ansatz, the field equations are exactly solved in terms of the electromagnetic stress tensor for an arbitrary nonlinear electrodynamic Lagrangian in any dimension D and for arbitrary positive values of Gauss-Bonnet coupling. In particular, this procedure reproduces the black hole metric in Born-Infeld and conformally invariant electrodynamics previously found in the literature. Altogether, it extends to D>4 the four-dimensional solution obtained by Soleng in logarithmic electrodynamics, which comes from vacuum polarization effects. Falloff conditions for the electromagnetic field that ensure the finiteness of the electric charge are also discussed. The black hole mass and vacuum energy as conserved quantities associated to an asymptotic timelike Killing vector are computed using a background-independent regularization of the gravitational action based on the addition of counterterms which are a given polynomial in the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures.
Longitudinal spin dependence of massive lepton pair production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berger, E. L.; Gordon, L. E.; Klasen, M.
2000-01-01
In this paper, the authors summarize recent work in which they demonstrate that the Compton subprocess, q + g -> γ* + q also dominates the Drell-Yan cross section in polarized and unpolarized proton-proton reactions for values of the transverse momentum Q T of the pair that are larger than roughly half of the pair mass Q, Q T > Q/2. The Drell-Yan process is therefore a valuable, heretofore overlooked, independent source of constraints on the spin-averaged and spin-dependent gluon densities. Although the Drell-Yan cross section is smaller than the prompt photon cross section, massive lepton pair production is cleaner theoretically since long-range fragmentation contributions are absent as are the experimental and theoretical complications associated with isolation of the real photon. Moreover, the dynamics of spin-dependence in hard-scattering processes is a sufficiently complex topic, and its understanding at an early stage in its development, that several defensible approaches for extracting polarized parton densities deserve to be pursued with the expectation that consistent results must emerge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergshoeff, E.; Ortin, T.
1998-01-01
We investigate the effective world-volume theories of branes in a background given by (the bosonic sector of) 10-dimensional massive IIA supergravity (''''massive branes'''') and their M-theoretic origin. In the case of the solitonic 5-brane of type IIA superstring theory the construction of the Wess-Zumino term in the world-volume action requires a dualization of the massive Neveu-Schwarz/Neveu-Schwarz target space 2-form field. We find that, in general, the effective world-volume theory of massive branes contains new world-volume fields that are absent in the massless case, i.e. when the mass parameter m of massive IIA supergravity is set to zero. We show how these new world-volume fields can be introduced in a systematic way. (orig.)
Nonlinear model of short-scale electrodynamics in the auroral ionosphere
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.-M. A. Noël
Full Text Available The optical detection of auroral subarcs a few tens of m wide as well as the direct observation of shears several m/s per m over km to sub km scales by rocket instrumentation both indicate that violent and highly localized electrodynamics can occur at times in the auroral ionosphere over scales 100 m or less in width. These observations as well as the detection of unstable ion-acoustic waves observed by incoherent radars along the geomagnetic field lines has motivated us to develop a detailed time-dependent two-dimensional model of short-scale auroral electrodynamics that uses current continuity, Ohm's law, and 8-moment transport equations for the ions and electrons in the presence of large ambient electric fields to describe wide auroral arcs with sharp edges in response to sharp cut-offs in precipitation (even though it may be possible to describe thin arcs and ultra-thin arcs with our model, we have left such a study for future work. We present the essential elements of this new model and illustrate the model's usefulness with a sample run for which the ambient electric field is 100 mV/m away from the arc and for which electron precipitation cuts off over a region 100 m wide. The sample run demonstrates that parallel current densities of the order of several hundred µA m^{-2} can be triggered in these circumstances, together with shears several m/s per m in magnitude and parallel electric fields of the order of 0.1 mV/m around 130 km altitude. It also illustrates that the local ionospheric properties like densities, temperature and composition can strongly be affected by the violent localized electrodynamics and vice-versa.
Key words: Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere, electric fields and currents, ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parisi, Joseph Robert
1974-02-19
A{sup -} A{sup +} and on the integrated cross section is shown; in particular, the modification of the energy behavior, due to these cutoffs, is exhibited. In spite of the sometimes drastic reduction of the cross sections predicted, fairly high counting rates may still be expected in the experiments suggested (for A = e, μ, π, k ) with e{sup -} e{sup ±} storage rings of the next generation (beam energy ≅ 1-5 GeV, luminosity ≅ 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}). Chapter 4: We here study the creation of pseudoscalar particles (X = π{sup 0}, η, η') through photon-photon collisions in e{sup -} e{sup ±} storage rings. Two types of experiment are considered: In the first one, the purpose is to determine the coupling constant of the X γγ vertex, or the decay width Γ(X → γγ), where both photons are (quasi-) real. In the second one, the purpose is to measure the form factor of the X γγ vertex in the case of one highly virtual photon, the other one being (quasi-) real. Chapter 5: We here consider various virtual scattering processes in e{sup -}e{sup -} storage rings, i. e.: a) Virtual Compton scattering (processes ee' → ee' γ where one outgoing electron and the photon are detected at large angle); various angular distributions are shown, and an experiment performed at Orsay is analyzed. b) Virtual eμ and eπ scattering; an experiment is suggested with the purpose of studying the electromagnetic form factor of the pion or testing quantum electrodynamics. c) Virtual γμ and γπ scattering. Conclusion: We briefly discuss the prospects for photon-photon collisions in e{sup -} e{sup ±} storage rings in the near future, and the interest of various experiments of this type. The respective merits and disadvantages of e{sup -} e{sup +} annihilation and γγ materialization experiments are compared. (author)
Photon echo quantum random access memory integration in a quantum computer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moiseev, Sergey A; Andrianov, Sergey N
2012-01-01
We have analysed an efficient integration of multi-qubit echo quantum memory (QM) into the quantum computer scheme based on squids, quantum dots or atomic resonant ensembles in a quantum electrodynamics cavity. Here, one atomic ensemble with controllable inhomogeneous broadening is used for the QM node and other nodes characterized by the homogeneously broadened resonant line are used for processing. We have found the optimal conditions for the efficient integration of the multi-qubit QM modified for the analysed scheme, and we have determined the self-temporal modes providing a perfect reversible transfer of the photon qubits between the QM node and arbitrary processing nodes. The obtained results open the way for realization of a full-scale solid state quantum computing based on the efficient multi-qubit QM. (paper)
Experimental status of quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drell, S.D.
1980-01-01
The speech of Drell S. on the symposium dedicated to 60th anniversary of Schwinger J. is presented. The fundamental status of the hero of the day in quantum field theory, which turned into quantum electrodynamics, are stated. The theory has been perfectly experimentally confirmed and now is the main model permitting to explain weak and strong interactions. The attention is paid on the difference between theoretical and experimental values of the electron anomalous magnetic moment (asub(e)) obtained in the sixth order of perturbation theory. It is necessary to carry out calculations in the octic order of the perturbation theory in order to obtain more precise value of asub(e). The theory and the experimental difference is demonstrated on the example of estimation of fine and hyperfine structure of hydrogen, muonium, and positronium
Dark-photon search using data from CRESST-II Phase 2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Angloher, G.; Bauer, P.; Iachellini, N.F.; Hauff, D.; Kiefer, M.; Mancuso, M.; Petricca, F.; Proebst, F.; Seidel, W.; Stodolsky, L.; Strauss, R.; Tanzke, A.; Wuestrich, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Bento, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Universidade de Coimbra, Departamento de Fisica, Coimbra (Portugal); Bucci, C.; Gorla, P.; Pagliarone, C. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Canonica, L. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Defay, X.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Lanfranchi, J.C.; Muenster, A.; Potzel, W.; Schoenert, S.; Thi, H.H.T.; Ulrich, A.; Wawoczny, S.; Willers, M.; Zoeller, A. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Garching (Germany); Erb, A. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Garching (Germany); Walther-Meissner-Institut fuer Tieftemperaturforschung, Garching (Germany); Guetlein, A.; Kluck, H.; Puig, R.; Schieck, J.; Tuerkoglu, C. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik der Oesterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (Austria); Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Jochum, J.; Loebell, J.; Strandhagen, C.; Uffinger, M.; Usherov, I. [Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Kraus, H. [University of Oxford, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Reindl, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Schaeffner, K. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); GSSI-Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy)
2017-05-15
Identifying the nature and origin of dark matter is one of the major challenges for modern astro and particle physics. Direct dark-matter searches aim at an observation of dark-matter particles interacting within detectors. The focus of several such searches is on interactions with nuclei as provided e.g. by weakly interacting massive particles. However, there is a variety of dark-matter candidates favoring interactions with electrons rather than with nuclei. One example are dark photons, i.e., long-lived vector particles with a kinetic mixing to standard-model photons. In this work we present constraints on this kinetic mixing based on data from CRESST-II Phase 2 corresponding to an exposure before cuts of 52 kg-days. These constraints improve the existing ones for dark-photon masses between 0.3 and 0.7 keV/c{sup 2}. (orig.)
Search for dark photons using data from CRESST-II Phase 2
Gütlein, A.; Angloher, G.; Bento, A.; Bucci, C.; Canonica, L.; Defay, X.; Erb, A.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Ferreiro Iachellini, N.; Gorla, P.; Hauff, D.; Jochum, J.; Kiefer, M.; Kluck, H.; Kraus, H.; Lanfranchi, J.-C.; Loebell, J.; Mancuso, M.; Münster, A.; Pagliarone, C.; Petricca, F.; Potzel, W.; Pröbst, F.; Puig, R.; Reindl, F.; Schäffner, K.; Schieck, J.; Schönert, S.; Seidel, W.; Stahlberg, M.; Stodolsky, L.; Strandhagen, C.; Strauss, R.; Tanzke, A.; Trinh Thi, H. H.; Türkoǧlu, C.; Uffinger, M.; Ulrich, A.; Usherov, I.; Wawoczny, S.; Willers, M.; Wüstrich, M.; Zöller, A.
2017-09-01
Understanding the nature and origin of dark matter is one of the most important challenges for modern particle physics. During the previous decade the sensitivities of direct dark matter searches have improved by several orders of magnitude. These experiments focus their work mainly on the search for dark-matter particles interacting with nuclei (e.g. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles, WIMPs). However, there exists a large variety of different candidates for dark-matter particles. One of these candidates, the so-called dark photon, is a long-lived vector boson with a kinetic mixing to the standard-model photon. In this work we present the preliminary results of our search for dark photons. Using data from the direct dark matter search CRESST-II Phase 2 we can improve the existing constraints for the kinetic mixing for dark-photon masses between 0.3 and 0.5 keV/c2. In addition, we also present projected sensitivities for the next phases of the CRESST-III experiment showing great potential to improve the sensitivity for dark-photon masses below 1 keV.
Development of superconducting magnets for the Canadian electrodynamic Maglev vehicle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fife, A.A.; Ensing, H.J.; Tillotson, M.; Westera, W.
1986-01-01
A review is presented on the current status of superconducting magnet developments for the Canadian electrodynamic Maglev transportation system. Various design aspects of the levitation and linear synchronous motor magnets, appropriate for the current vehicle concepts, are discussed. In addition, recent experimental work is outlined on the development of a suitable epoxy impregnation technology for the superconducting coils
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Munehiro, H
1980-05-29
When driving the carriage of a printer through a rotating motor, there are problems regarding the limited accuracy of the carriage position due to rotation or contraction and ageing of the cable. In order to solve the problem, a direct drive system was proposed, in which the printer carriage is driven by a linear motor. If one wants to keep the motor circuit of such a motor compact, then the magnetic flux density in the air gap must be reduced or the motor travel must be reduced. It is the purpose of this invention to create an electrodynamic linear motor, which on the one hand is compact and light and on the other hand has a relatively high constant force over a large travel. The invention is characterised by the fact that magnetic fields of alternating polarity are generated at equal intervals in the magnetic field, and that the coil arrangement has 2 adjacent coils, whose size corresponds to half the length of each magnetic pole. A logic circuit is provided to select one of the two coils and to determine the direction of the current depending on the signals of a magnetic field sensor on the coil arrangement.
Viking investigations of auroral electrodynamical processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marklund, G.
1993-01-01
Recent results from the Viking electric field experiment and their contribution to a better understanding of the aurora and of associated ionosphere-magnetosphere processes are briefly reviewed. The high-resolution electric field data have provided new and important results in a number of different areas, including auroral electrodynamics both on the arc scale size and on the global scale, the auroral acceleration process, the current-voltage relationship, substorms, and the dynamics of the polar cusp. After a short introduction presenting some of the characteristic features of the high-altitude electric field data the remainder of this paper focuses on the role of the electric field in auroral electrodynamics and in the auroral acceleration process. The relationships between the auroral emissions and the associated electric field, current, particle, and conductivity distributions are discussed for both small-scale and large-scale auroral distributions on the basis of results from Viking event studies and from numerical model studies. Particular attention is paid to ionospheric convection and field- aligned current signatures associated with northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) auroral distributions, such as the theta aurora or those characterized by extended auroral activity poleward of the classical auroral oval. The role of dc electric fields for the auroral acceleration process has been further investigated and clarified. Intense low-frequency electric field fluctuations (< l Hz) have been shown to play an important role in the auroral acceleration process. In this frequency range the electric field appears static for the electrons but not for the ions, giving rise to a selective acceleration. Estimates of the acceleration potential based on a number of different methods generally show good agreement, providing convincing evidence of the role of dc electric fields in the auroral acceleration process
Clothed Particles in Quantum Electrodynamics and Quantum Chromodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shebeko Alexander
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The notion of clothing in quantum field theory (QFT, put forward by Greenberg and Schweber and developed by M. Shirokov, is applied in quantum electrodynamics (QED and quantum chromodynamics (QCD. Along the guideline we have derived a novel analytic expression for the QED Hamiltonian in the clothed particle representation (CPR. In addition, we are trying to realize this notion in QCD (to be definite for the gauge group SU(3 when drawing parallels between QCD and QED.
A space-time lattice version of scalar electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kijowski, J.; Thielmann, A.
1993-10-01
A Minkowski-lattice version of quantum scalar electrodynamics is constructed. Quantum field is consequently described in a gauge-independent way, i.e. the algebra of quantum observables of the theory is generated by gauge-invariant operators assigned to zero-, one-, and two-dimensional elements of the lattice. The operators satisfy canonical commutation relations. Field dynamics is formulated in terms of difference equations imposed on the field operators. The dynamics is obtained from a discrete version of the path-integral. (author). 19 refs
Modeling the electromechanical interactions in a null-flux electrodynamic maglev system
Boeij, de J.; Steinbuch, M.; Gutierrez, H.M.
2005-01-01
The fundamental electromechanical interactions in a passive -flux electrodynamic maglev system (EDS) are mediated by the voltages induced in the levitation coils by the sled magnets, and by the forces exerted on the sled as a result of the induced currents. This work presents a reliable and compact
Satisfying the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen criterion with massive particles
Peise, J.; Kruse, I.; Lange, K.; Lücke, B.; Pezzè, L.; Arlt, J.; Ertmer, W.; Hammerer, K.; Santos, L.; Smerzi, A.; Klempt, C.
2015-01-01
In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) questioned the completeness of quantum mechanics by devising a quantum state of two massive particles with maximally correlated space and momentum coordinates. The EPR criterion qualifies such continuous-variable entangled states, where a measurement of one subsystem seemingly allows for a prediction of the second subsystem beyond the Heisenberg uncertainty relation. Up to now, continuous-variable EPR correlations have only been created with photons, while the demonstration of such strongly correlated states with massive particles is still outstanding. Here we report on the creation of an EPR-correlated two-mode squeezed state in an ultracold atomic ensemble. The state shows an EPR entanglement parameter of 0.18(3), which is 2.4 s.d. below the threshold 1/4 of the EPR criterion. We also present a full tomographic reconstruction of the underlying many-particle quantum state. The state presents a resource for tests of quantum nonlocality and a wide variety of applications in the field of continuous-variable quantum information and metrology. PMID:26612105
Satisfying the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen criterion with massive particles.
Peise, J; Kruse, I; Lange, K; Lücke, B; Pezzè, L; Arlt, J; Ertmer, W; Hammerer, K; Santos, L; Smerzi, A; Klempt, C
2015-11-27
In 1935, Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen (EPR) questioned the completeness of quantum mechanics by devising a quantum state of two massive particles with maximally correlated space and momentum coordinates. The EPR criterion qualifies such continuous-variable entangled states, where a measurement of one subsystem seemingly allows for a prediction of the second subsystem beyond the Heisenberg uncertainty relation. Up to now, continuous-variable EPR correlations have only been created with photons, while the demonstration of such strongly correlated states with massive particles is still outstanding. Here we report on the creation of an EPR-correlated two-mode squeezed state in an ultracold atomic ensemble. The state shows an EPR entanglement parameter of 0.18(3), which is 2.4 s.d. below the threshold 1/4 of the EPR criterion. We also present a full tomographic reconstruction of the underlying many-particle quantum state. The state presents a resource for tests of quantum nonlocality and a wide variety of applications in the field of continuous-variable quantum information and metrology.
Quantum quincunx in cavity quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanders, Barry C.; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Tregenna, Ben; Knight, Peter L.
2003-01-01
We introduce the quantum quincunx, which physically demonstrates the quantum walk and is analogous to Galton's quincunx for demonstrating the random walk by employing gravity to draw pellets through pegs on a board, thereby yielding a binomial distribution of final peg locations. In contradistinction to the theoretical studies of quantum walks over orthogonal lattice states, we introduce quantum walks over nonorthogonal lattice states (specifically, coherent states on a circle) to demonstrate that the key features of a quantum walk are observable albeit for strict parameter ranges. A quantum quincunx may be realized with current cavity quantum electrodynamics capabilities, and precise control over decoherence in such experiments allows a remarkable decrease in the position noise, or spread, with increasing decoherence
Flux Modulation in the Electrodynamic Loudspeaker
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Halvorsen, Morten; Tinggaard, Carsten; Agerkvist, Finn T.
2015-01-01
This paper discusses the effect of flux modulation in the electrodynamic loudspeaker with main focus on the effect on the force factor. A measurement setup to measure the AC flux modulation with static voice coil is explained and the measurements shows good consistency with FEA simulations....... Measurements of the generated AC flux modulation shows, that eddy currents are the main source to magnetic losses in form of phase lag and amplitude changes. Use of a copper cap shows a decrease in flux modulation amplitude at the expense of increased power losses. Finally, simulations show...... that there is a high dependency between the generated AC flux modulation from the voice coil and the AC force factor change....
Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1996-03-01
Research results of hard photon technology have been summarized as a part of novel technology development highly utilizing the quantum nature of photon. Hard photon technology refers to photon beam technologies which use photon in the 0.1 to 200 nm wavelength region. Hard photon has not been used in industry due to the lack of suitable photon sources and optical devices. However, hard photon in this wavelength region is expected to bring about innovations in such areas as ultrafine processing and material synthesis due to its atom selective reaction, inner shell excitation reaction, and spatially high resolution. Then, technological themes and possibility have been surveyed. Although there are principle proposes and their verification of individual technologies for the technologies of hard photon generation, regulation and utilization, they are still far from the practical applications. For the photon source technology, the laser diode pumped driver laser technology, laser plasma photon source technology, synchrotron radiation photon source technology, and vacuum ultraviolet photon source technology are presented. For the optical device technology, the multi-layer film technology for beam mirrors and the non-spherical lens processing technology are introduced. Also are described the reduction lithography technology, hard photon excitation process, and methods of analysis and measurement. 430 refs., 165 figs., 23 tabs.
Quantum Electrodynamical Shifts in Multivalent Heavy Ions.
Tupitsyn, I I; Kozlov, M G; Safronova, M S; Shabaev, V M; Dzuba, V A
2016-12-16
The quantum electrodynamics (QED) corrections are directly incorporated into the most accurate treatment of the correlation corrections for ions with complex electronic structure of interest to metrology and tests of fundamental physics. We compared the performance of four different QED potentials for various systems to access the accuracy of QED calculations and to make a prediction of highly charged ion properties urgently needed for planning future experiments. We find that all four potentials give consistent and reliable results for ions of interest. For the strongly bound electrons, the nonlocal potentials are more accurate than the local potential.
Photons coming from an opaque obstacle as a manifestation of heavy neutrino decays
Reynoso, Matías M.; Romero, Ismael; Sampayo, Oscar A.
2018-05-01
Within the framework of physics beyond the standard model, we study the possibility that mesons produced in the atmosphere by the cosmic-ray flux decay to heavy Majorana neutrinos and the latter, in turn, decay mostly to photons in the low-mass region. We study the photon flux produced by sterile Majorana neutrinos (N ) decaying after passing through a massive and opaque object such as a mountain. To model the production of N 's in the atmosphere and their decay to photons, we consider the interaction between the Majorana neutrinos and the standard matter as modeled by an effective theory. We then calculate the heavy neutrino flux originated by the decay of mesons in the atmosphere. The surviving photon flux, originated by N decays, is calculated using transport equations that include the effects of Majorana neutrino production and decay.
Electrodynamic Tethers and E-Sails as Active Experiment Testbeds and Technologies in Space
Gilchrist, B. E.; Wiegmann, B.; Johnson, L.; Bilen, S. G.; Habash Krause, L.; Miars, G.; Leon, O.
2017-12-01
The use of small-to-large flexible structures in space such as tethers continues to be studied for scientific and technology applications. Here we will consider tether electrodynamic and electrostatic interactions with magneto-plasmas in ionospheres, magnetospheres, and interplanetary space. These systems are enabling fundamental studies of basic plasma physics phenomena, allowing direct studies of the space environment, and generating technological applications beneficial for science missions. Electrodynamic tethers can drive current through the tether based on the Lorenz force adding or extracting energy from its orbit allowing for the study of charged bodies or plasma plumes moving through meso-sonic magnetoplasmas [1]. Technologically, this also generates propulsive forces requiring no propellant and little or no consumables in any planetary system with a magnetic field and ionosphere, e.g., Jupiter [2]. Further, so called electric sails (E-sails) are being studied to provide thrust through momentum exchange with the hypersonic solar wind. The E-sail uses multiple, very long (10s of km) charged, mostly bare rotating conducting tethers to deflect solar wind protons. It is estimated that a spacecraft could achieve a velocity over 100 km/s with time [3,4]. 1. Banks, P.M., "Review of electrodynamic tethers for space plasma science," J. Spacecraft and Rockets, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 234-239, 1989. 2. Talley, C., J. Moore, D. Gallagher, and L. Johnson, "Propulsion and power from a rotating electrodynamic tether at Jupiter," 38th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, January 2000. 3. Janhunen, P., "The electric sail—A new propulsion method which may enable fast missions to the outer solar system," J. British Interpl. Soc., vol. 61, no. 8, pp. 322-325, 2008. 4. Wiegman, B., T. Scheider, A. Heaton, J. Vaughn, N. Stone, and K. Wright, "The Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS)—Design, trades, and analyses performed in a two-year NASA investigation
Applications of the infinite momentum method to quantum electrodynamics and bound state problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.
1973-01-01
It is shown that the infinite momentum method is a valid and useful calculational alternative to standard perturbation theory methods. The most exciting future applications may be in bound state problems in quantum electrodynamics
Experimental Evaluation of Three Designs of Electrodynamic Flexural Transducers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tobias J. R. Eriksson
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Three designs for electrodynamic flexural transducers (EDFT for air-coupled ultrasonics are presented and compared. An all-metal housing was used for robustness, which makes the designs more suitable for industrial applications. The housing is designed such that there is a thin metal plate at the front, with a fundamental flexural vibration mode at ∼50 kHz. By using a flexural resonance mode, good coupling to the load medium was achieved without the use of matching layers. The front radiating plate is actuated electrodynamically by a spiral coil inside the transducer, which produces an induced magnetic field when an AC current is applied to it. The transducers operate without the use of piezoelectric materials, which can simplify manufacturing and prolong the lifetime of the transducers, as well as open up possibilities for high-temperature applications. The results show that different designs perform best for the generation and reception of ultrasound. All three designs produced large acoustic pressure outputs, with a recorded sound pressure level (SPL above 120 dB at a 40 cm distance from the highest output transducer. The sensitivity of the transducers was low, however, with single shot signal-to-noise ratio ( SNR ≃ 15 dB in transmit–receive mode, with transmitter and receiver 40 cm apart.
Two-dimensional Yukawa interactions from nonlocal Proca quantum electrodynamics
Alves, Van Sérgio; Macrı, Tommaso; Magalhães, Gabriel C.; Marino, E. C.; Nascimento, Leandro O.
2018-05-01
We derive two versions of an effective model to describe dynamical effects of the Yukawa interaction among Dirac electrons in the plane. Such short-range interaction is obtained by introducing a mass term for the intermediate particle, which may be either scalar or an abelian gauge field, both of them in (3 +1 ) dimensions. Thereafter, we consider that the fermionic matter field propagates only in (2 +1 ) dimensions, whereas the bosonic field is free to propagate out of the plane. Within these assumptions, we apply a mechanism for dimensional reduction, which yields an effective model in (2 +1 ) dimensions. In particular, for the gauge-field case, we use the Stueckelberg mechanism in order to preserve gauge invariance. We refer to this version as nonlocal-Proca quantum electrodynamics (NPQED). For both scalar and gauge cases, the effective models reproduce the usual Yukawa interaction in the static limit. By means of perturbation theory at one loop, we calculate the mass renormalization of the Dirac field. Our model is a generalization of Pseudo quantum electrodynamics (PQED), which is a gauge-field model that provides a Coulomb interaction for two-dimensional electrons. Possibilities of application to Fermi-Bose mixtures in mixed dimensions, using cold atoms, are briefly discussed.
The Destructive Birth of Massive Stars and Massive Star Clusters
Rosen, Anna; Krumholz, Mark; McKee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico
2017-01-01
Massive stars play an essential role in the Universe. They are rare, yet the energy and momentum they inject into the interstellar medium with their intense radiation fields dwarfs the contribution by their vastly more numerous low-mass cousins. Previous theoretical and observational studies have concluded that the feedback associated with massive stars' radiation fields is the dominant mechanism regulating massive star and massive star cluster (MSC) formation. Therefore detailed simulation of the formation of massive stars and MSCs, which host hundreds to thousands of massive stars, requires an accurate treatment of radiation. For this purpose, we have developed a new, highly accurate hybrid radiation algorithm that properly treats the absorption of the direct radiation field from stars and the re-emission and processing by interstellar dust. We use our new tool to perform a suite of three-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic simulations of the formation of massive stars and MSCs. For individual massive stellar systems, we simulate the collapse of massive pre-stellar cores with laminar and turbulent initial conditions and properly resolve regions where we expect instabilities to grow. We find that mass is channeled to the massive stellar system via gravitational and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities. For laminar initial conditions, proper treatment of the direct radiation field produces later onset of RT instability, but does not suppress it entirely provided the edges of the radiation-dominated bubbles are adequately resolved. RT instabilities arise immediately for turbulent pre-stellar cores because the initial turbulence seeds the instabilities. To model MSC formation, we simulate the collapse of a dense, turbulent, magnetized Mcl = 106 M⊙ molecular cloud. We find that the influence of the magnetic pressure and radiative feedback slows down star formation. Furthermore, we find that star formation is suppressed along dense filaments where the magnetic field is
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gsponer, Andre
2009-01-01
The objective of this introduction to Colombeau algebras of generalized functions (in which distributions can be freely multiplied) is to explain in elementary terms the essential concepts necessary for their application to basic nonlinear problems in classical physics. Examples are given in hydrodynamics and electrodynamics. The problem of the self-energy of a point electric charge is worked out in detail: the Coulomb potential and field are defined as Colombeau generalized functions, and integrals of nonlinear expressions corresponding to products of distributions (such as the square of the Coulomb field and the square of the delta function) are calculated. Finally, the methods introduced in Gsponer (2007 Eur. J. Phys. 28 267, 2007 Eur. J. Phys. 28 1021 and 2007 Eur. J. Phys. 28 1241), to deal with point-like singularities in classical electrodynamics are confirmed
Baumann, Gerd
2005-01-01
Mathematica for Theoretical Physics: Electrodynamics, Quantum Mechanics, General Relativity, and Fractals This second edition of Baumann's Mathematica® in Theoretical Physics shows readers how to solve physical problems and deal with their underlying theoretical concepts while using Mathematica® to derive numeric and symbolic solutions. Each example and calculation can be evaluated by the reader, and the reader can change the example calculations and adopt the given code to related or similar problems. The second edition has been completely revised and expanded into two volumes: The first volume covers classical mechanics and nonlinear dynamics. Both topics are the basis of a regular mechanics course. The second volume covers electrodynamics, quantum mechanics, relativity, and fractals and fractional calculus. New examples have been added and the representation has been reworked to provide a more interactive problem-solving presentation. This book can be used as a textbook or as a reference work, by student...
On conformal invariance in gauge theories. Quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaikov, R.P.
1983-01-01
In the present paper another nontrivial model of the conformal quantum electrodynamics is proposed. The main hypothesis is that the electromagnetic potential together with an additional zero scale, dimensional scalar field is transformed by a nonbasic and, consequently, nondecomposable representation of the conformal group. There are found nontrivial conformal covariant two-point functions and an invariant action from which equations of motion are derived. There is considered the covariant procedure of quantization and it is shown that the norm of one-particle physical states is positive definite
Can There Be Massive Photons? A Pedagogical Glance at the Origin of Mass
Robles, P.; Claro, F.
2012-01-01
Among the most startling experiences a student encounters is learning that, unlike electrons and other elementary particles, photons have no mass. Under certain circumstances, however, the light quantum behaves as if it did have a finite mass. Starting from Maxwell's equations, we discuss how this arises when light interacts with a charged plasma,…
Measurement system of correlation functions of microwave single photon source in real time
Korenkov, A.; Dmitriev, A.; Astafiev, O.
2018-02-01
Several quantum setups, such as quantum key distribution networks[1] and quantum simulators (e.g. boson sampling), by their design rely on single photon sources (SPSs). These quantum setups were demonstrated to operate in optical frequency domain. However, following the steady advances in circuit quantum electrodynamics, a proposal has been made recently[2] to demonstrate boson sampling with microwave photons. This in turn requires the development of reliable microwave SPS. It's one of the most important characteristics are the first-order and the second-order correlation functions g1 and g2. The measurement technique of g1 and g2 is significantly different from that in the optical domain [3],[4] because of the current unavailability of microwave single-photon detectors. In particular, due to high levels of noise present in the system a substantial amount of statistics in needed to be acquired. This work presents a platform for measurement of g1 and g2 that processes the incoming data in real time, maximizing the efficiency of data acquisition. The use of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) electronics, common in similar experiments[3] but complex in programming, is avoided; instead, the calculations are performed on a standard desktop computer. The platform is used to perform the measurements of the first-order and the second-order correlation functions of the microwave SPS.
Quantum electrodynamics and light rays. [Two-point correlation functions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sudarshan, E.C.G.
1978-11-01
Light is a quantum electrodynamic entity and hence bundles of rays must be describable in this framework. The duality in the description of elementary optical phenomena is demonstrated in terms of two-point correlation functions and in terms of collections of light rays. The generalizations necessary to deal with two-slit interference and diffraction by a rectangular slit are worked out and the usefulness of the notion of rays of darkness illustrated. 10 references.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blinder, S M
2003-01-01
It is shown how point charges and point dipoles with finite self-energies can be accommodated in classical electrodynamics. The key idea is the introduction of constitutive relations for the electromagnetic vacuum, which actually mirrors the physical reality of vacuum polarization. Our results reduce to conventional electrodynamics for scales large compared to the classical electron radius r 0 ∼ 2.8 x 10 -15 m. A classical simulation for a structureless electron is proposed, with the appropriate values of mass, spin and magnetic moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moiseev, S.A.
1997-01-01
The single-photon echo (SP-echo) effect is predicted to appear in the case of three-level medium excitation by means of a single photon propagating to the medium along two optical paths with a mutual time delay surpassing the temporal duration of the photon wave packet. The quantum electrodynamical theory describing this interaction is presented and the S-matrix of the field is shown for infinite time (t=∞). Using the S-matrix approach, physical properties of the scattering field are studied. Hence, it is shown that the field has an echo signal at the ω 32 0 carrier frequency. It has been shown that the echo signal exists only in the field amplitude while being absent in its intensity behaviour. Thus, SP-echo is an interference effect and is not influenced by the energy irradiation. The problems of SP-echo detection in the gamma-region (where special generation difficulties appear) are discussed. The influence of the additional detection of theω 21 0 frequency field on the echo signal has been shown. A special case is the EPR-paradox which can appear within the echo phenomenon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moiseev, S.A
1997-05-15
The single-photon echo (SP-echo) effect is predicted to appear in the case of three-level medium excitation by means of a single photon propagating to the medium along two optical paths with a mutual time delay surpassing the temporal duration of the photon wave packet. The quantum electrodynamical theory describing this interaction is presented and the S-matrix of the field is shown for infinite time (t={infinity}). Using the S-matrix approach, physical properties of the scattering field are studied. Hence, it is shown that the field has an echo signal at the {omega}{sub 32}{sup 0} carrier frequency. It has been shown that the echo signal exists only in the field amplitude while being absent in its intensity behaviour. Thus, SP-echo is an interference effect and is not influenced by the energy irradiation. The problems of SP-echo detection in the gamma-region (where special generation difficulties appear) are discussed. The influence of the additional detection of the{omega}{sub 21}{sup 0} frequency field on the echo signal has been shown. A special case is the EPR-paradox which can appear within the echo phenomenon.
The 2s1/2 → 2p1/2 + one photon transition in hydrogen and hydrogenlike ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kelsey, E.J.
1977-01-01
The 2s 1 / 2 → 2p 1 / 2 + one photon transition rate is calculated and discussed for hydrogen and hydrogenlike ions. It is noted that the induced transition rather than the spontaneous transition is of primary importance since it is the basis of many of the precision Lamb-shift measurements. The lack of a calculation of the transition rate other than a heuristic nonrelativistic derivation which requires a nontrivial assumption motivates the calculation presented here based on the external field approximation to quantum electrodynamics. It is found that the heuristic answer is correct in lowest order. In this derivation we see that the 2s 1 / 2 → 2p 1 / 2 + one photon transition gives an apparent contradiction to the often-stated remark that for the electric dipole matrix element there exist three equivalent representations, the ''length,'' ''velocity,'' and ''acceleration'' forms. The difficulties of an experimental determination of this transition rate using induced transitions in hydrogenlike ions are briefly noted as well as the somewhat different case of heavy muonic atoms where the spontaneous 2s 1 / 2 → 2p 1 / 2 + one photon transition has been observed
Studies of nonlinear electrodynamics of high-temperature superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lam, Q.H.
1991-01-01
Nonlinear electrodynamics of high-Tc superconductors are studied theoretically and experimentally. For powdered samples, a novel model is presented in which the metallographically observed superconducting grains in the powder are modeled as superconducting current loops of various areas with weak links. Surprising harmonic generation behavior in an ac field, H 1 cos(ωt), is predicted by the model; the power at high harmonics show sharp dips almost periodic in a super-posing dc magnetic field, revealing flux quantization in the prototype loops in the model. Such oscillation of the harmonic power in dc magnetic field, P nf (H dc ), is experimentally observed in powdered YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 . For bulk sintered cylindrical samples, a generalized critical state model is presented. The nonlinear electrodynamics are due to flux-pinning. Experiments in ac and dc magnetic fields on a sintered cylindrical rod of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 yield unambiguous evidence of independent inter- and intragranular contributions to the complex harmonic permeability μ n = μ' n - iμ double-prime n . These data, together with P nf (H dc ), are explained quantitatively by the generalized critical state model, yielding a dependence on magnetic field of J c (H) ∼ H 02 local for the intergranular component, a steeper field dependence than for conventional type-II superconductors. Temperature-dependence measurements reveal that, while the intragranular supercurrents disappear at T c ≥ 91.2 K, the intergranular supercurrents disappear at T ≥ 86.6 K
de Rham, Claudia
2014-01-01
We review recent progress in massive gravity. We start by showing how different theories of massive gravity emerge from a higher-dimensional theory of general relativity, leading to the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati model (DGP), cascading gravity, and ghost-free massive gravity. We then explore their theoretical and phenomenological consistency, proving the absence of Boulware–Deser ghosts and reviewing the Vainshtein mechanism and the cosmological solutions in these models. Finally, we present alt...
Higher order corrections in quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rafael, E.
1977-01-01
Theoretical contributions to high-order corrections in purely leptonic systems, such as electrons and muons, muonium (μ + e - ) and positronium (e + e - ), are reviewed to establish the validity of quantum electrodynamics (QED). Two types of QED contributions to the anomalous magnetic moments are considered, from diagrams with one fermion type lines and those witn two fermion type lines. The contributions up to eighth order are compared to the data available with a different accuracy. Good agreement is stated within the experimental errors. The experimental accuracy of the muonium hyperfine structure and of the radiative corrections to the decay of positronium are compared to the one attainable in theoretical calculations. The need for a higher precision in both experimental data and theoretical calculations is stated
Multiband Photonic Phased-Array Antenna
Tang, Suning
2015-01-01
A multiband phased-array antenna (PAA) can reduce the number of antennas on shipboard platforms while offering significantly improved performance. Crystal Research, Inc., has developed a multiband photonic antenna that is based on a high-speed, optical, true-time-delay beamformer. It is capable of simultaneously steering multiple independent radio frequency (RF) beams in less than 1,000 nanoseconds. This high steering speed is 3 orders of magnitude faster than any existing optical beamformer. Unlike other approaches, this technology uses a single controlling device per operation band, eliminating the need for massive optical switches, laser diodes, and fiber Bragg gratings. More importantly, only one beamformer is needed for all antenna elements.
Progress in quantum electrodynamics theory of highly charged ions
Volotka, A. V.; Glazov, D. A.; Plunien, G.; Shabaev, V. M.
2013-01-01
Recent progress in quantum electrodynamics (QED) calculations of highly charged ions is reviewed. The theoretical predictions for the binding energies, the hyperfine splittings, and the g factors are presented and compared with available experimental data. Special attention is paid to tests of bound-state QED at strong field regime. Future prospects for tests of QED at the strongest electric and magnetic fields as well as for determination of the fine structure constant and the nuclear magnet...
Sheykhi, A.; Abdollahzadeh, Z.
2018-03-01
We investigate the effects of an external magnetic field as well as exponential nonlinear electrodynamics on the properties of s-wave holographic superconductors. Our strategy for this study is the matching method, which is based on the match of the solutions near the horizon and on the boundary at some intermediate point. When the magnetic field is turned off, we obtain the critical temperature as well as the condensation operator and show that the critical exponent is still 1/2, which is the universal value in the mean field theory. Then, we turn on the magnetic field and obtain the critical magnetic field, B c , in order to study its behavior in terms of the temperature. Interestingly enough, we find that in the presence of exponential nonlinear electrodynamics, the critical temperature decreases, while the critical magnetic field increases compared to the Maxwell case. We also observe that the critical magnetic field increases with increasing the nonlinear parameter b.
Lorentz invariance violation and simultaneous emission of electromagnetic and gravitational waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Passos
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In this work, we compute some phenomenological bounds for the electromagnetic and massive gravitational high-derivative extensions supposing that it is possible to have an astrophysical process that generates simultaneously gravitational and electromagnetic waves. We present Lorentz invariance violating (LIV higher-order derivative models, following the Myers–Pospelov approach, to electrodynamics and massive gravitational waves. We compute the corrected equation of motion of these models, their dispersion relations and the velocities. The LIV parameters for the gravitational and electromagnetic sectors, ξg and ξγ, respectively, were also obtained for three different approaches: luminal photons, time delay of flight and the difference of graviton and photon velocities. These LIV parameters depend on the mass scales where the LIV-terms become relevant, M for the electromagnetic sector and M1 for the gravitational one. We obtain, using the values for M and M1 found in the literature, that ξg∼10−2, which is expected to be phenomenologically relevant and ξγ∼103, which cannot be suitable for an effective LIV theory. However, we show that ξγ can be interesting in a phenomenological point of view if M≫M1. Finally the relation between the variation of the velocities of the photon and the graviton in relation to the speed of light was calculated and resulted in Δvg/Δvγ≲1.82×10−3.
Two-dimensional quantum electrodynamics as a model in the constructive quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, K.R.
1976-01-01
We investigate two-dimensional quantum electrodynamics((QED) 2 ) type models on the basis of the Hamiltonian formalism of a vector field. The transformation into a sine-Gordon equation is clarified as a generalized mass-shift transformation through canonical linear transformations. (auth.)
Brain Electrodynamic and Hemodynamic Signatures Against Fatigue During Driving
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Chun-Hsiang Chuang
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Fatigue is likely to be gradually cumulated in a prolonged and attention-demanding task that may adversely affect task performance. To address the brain dynamics during a driving task, this study recruited 16 subjects to participate in an event-related lane-departure driving experiment. Each subject was instructed to maintain attention and task performance throughout an hour-long driving experiment. The subjects' brain electrodynamics and hemodynamics were simultaneously recorded via 32-channel electroencephalography (EEG and 8-source/16-detector functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS. The behavior performance demonstrated that all subjects were able to promptly respond to lane-deviation events, even if the sign of fatigue arose in the brain, which suggests that the subjects were fighting fatigue during the driving experiment. The EEG event-related analysis showed strengthening alpha suppression in the occipital cortex, a common brain region of fatigue. Furthermore, we noted increasing oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO of the brain to fight driving fatigue in the frontal cortex, primary motor cortex, parieto-occipital cortex and supplementary motor area. In conclusion, the increasing neural activity and cortical activations were aimed at maintaining driving performance when fatigue emerged. The electrodynamic and hemodynamic signatures of fatigue fighting contribute to our understanding of the brain dynamics of driving fatigue and address driving safety issues through the maintenance of attention and behavioral performance.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lalanne, D.
1970-07-17
The experiment we have performed on the ACO (Orsay Collider Ring) is one of the most accurate tests of quantum electrodynamics over very short interaction distances (10{sup -14} cm). We have studied the electron-positron elastic scattering at very wide angle. This work is divided into 4 parts. The first part reviews recent tests of quantum electrodynamics and presents the electron-positron elastic scattering. The second part describes the measurement of brightness: the experimental device, data analysis and accuracy. The measurement of brightness has been performed by detecting the photons emitted in the double Bremsstrahlung reaction: e{sup +}e{sup -} → e{sup +}e{sup -}γγ. The third part deals with the measurement of the number of Bhabha events. The last part compares the experimental value of the Bhabha scattering with the theoretically expected value. We have got the following results: the number of Bhabha events: 757 events, the experimental value for Bhabha scattering cross-section: [1.97 ± 0.09 (stat.) ± 0.10 (syst.)]*10{sup -31} cm{sup 2}. The comparison of this experimental value with the expected value has allowed us to set the lower limit of the cutting parameter Λ: Λ > 2 GeV.
Dimensional regularization and renormalization of Coulomb gauge quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heckathorn, D.
1979-01-01
Quantum electrodynamics is renormalized in the Coulomb gauge with covariant counter terms and without momentum-dependent wave-function renormalization constants. It is shown how to dimensionally regularize non-covariant integrals occurring in this guage, and prove that the 'minimal' subtraction prescription excludes non-covariant counter terms. Motivated by the need for a renormalized Coulomb gauge formalism in certain practical calculations, the author introduces a convenient prescription with physical parameters. The renormalization group equations for the Coulomb gauge are derived. (Auth.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Siping [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Hubei University of Arts and Science, Xiangyang 441053 (China); Yu, Rong, E-mail: rong-yu2013@163.com [School of Science, Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Intelligent Robot, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Li, Jiahua, E-mail: huajia-li@163.com [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Key Laboratory of Fundamental Physical Quantities Measurement of Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wu, Ying [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)
2013-12-28
We explore the entanglement generation and the corresponding dynamics between two separate nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond nanocrystal coupled to a photonic molecule consisting of a pair of coupled photonic crystal (PC) cavities. By calculating the entanglement concurrence with readily available experimental parameters, it is found that the entanglement degree strongly depends on the cavity-cavity hopping strength and the NV-center-cavity detuning. High concurrence peak and long-lived entanglement plateau can be achieved by properly adjusting practical system parameters. Meanwhile, we also discuss the influence of the coupling strength between the NV centers and the cavity modes on the behavior of the concurrence. Such a PC-NV system can be employed for quantum entanglement generation and represents a building block for an integrated nanophotonic network in a solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics platform. In addition, the present theory can also be applied to other similar systems, such as two single quantum emitters positioned close to a microtoroidal resonator with the whispering-gallery-mode fields propagating inside the resonator.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wundt, Benedikt J.; Jentschura, Ulrich D.
2008-01-01
Canonically, the quantum electrodynamic radiative corrections in bound systems have been evaluated in photon energy regularization, i.e., using a noncovariant overlapping parameter that separates the high-energy relativistic scales of the virtual quanta from the nonrelativistic domain. Here, we calculate the higher-order corrections to the one-photon self-energy calculation with three different overlapping parameters (photon energy, photon mass and dimensional regularization) and demonstrate the reparameterization invariance of nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics (NRQED) using this particular example. We also present new techniques for the calculation of the low-energy part of this correction, which lead to results for the Lamb shift of highly excited states that are important for high-precision spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wundt, Benedikt J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 103980, 69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Jentschura, Ulrich D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 103980, 69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.jentschura@mpi-hd.mpg.de
2008-01-24
Canonically, the quantum electrodynamic radiative corrections in bound systems have been evaluated in photon energy regularization, i.e., using a noncovariant overlapping parameter that separates the high-energy relativistic scales of the virtual quanta from the nonrelativistic domain. Here, we calculate the higher-order corrections to the one-photon self-energy calculation with three different overlapping parameters (photon energy, photon mass and dimensional regularization) and demonstrate the reparameterization invariance of nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics (NRQED) using this particular example. We also present new techniques for the calculation of the low-energy part of this correction, which lead to results for the Lamb shift of highly excited states that are important for high-precision spectroscopy.
Effects of stellar evolution and ionizing radiation on the environments of massive stars
Mackey, J.; Langer, N.; Mohamed, S.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Neilson, H. R.; Meyer, D. M.-A.
2014-09-01
We discuss two important effects for the astrospheres of runaway stars: the propagation of ionizing photons far beyond the astropause, and the rapid evolution of massive stars (and their winds) near the end of their lives. Hot stars emit ionizing photons with associated photoheating that has a significant dynamical effect on their surroundings. 3-D simulations show that H ii regions around runaway O stars drive expanding conical shells and leave underdense wakes in the medium they pass through. For late O stars this feedback to the interstellar medium is more important than that from stellar winds. Late in life, O stars evolve to cool red supergiants more rapidly than their environment can react, producing transient circumstellar structures such as double bow shocks. This provides an explanation for the bow shock and linear bar-shaped structure observed around Betelgeuse.
In-Depth Development of Classical Electrodynamics
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Keilman Y. N.
2008-01-01
Full Text Available There is hope that a properly developed Classical Electrodynamics (CED will be able to play a role in a unified field theory explaining electromagnetism, quantum phenomena, and gravitation. There is much work that has to be done in this direction. In this article we propose a move towards this aim by refining the basic principles of an improved CED. Attention is focused on the reinterpretation of the E-M potential. We use these basic principles to obtain solutions that explain the interactions between a constant electromagnetic field and a thin layer of material continuum; between a constant electromagnetic field and a spherical configuration of material continuum (for a charged elementary particle; between a transverse electromagnetic wave and a material continuum; between a longitudinal aether wave (dummy wave and a material continuum.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikolai N. Bogolubov
2015-04-01
Full Text Available We review new electrodynamics models of interacting charged point particles and related fundamental physical aspects, motivated by the classical A.M. Ampère magnetic and H. Lorentz force laws electromagnetic field expressions. Based on the Feynman proper time paradigm and a recently devised vacuum field theory approach to the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian, the formulations of alternative classical electrodynamics models are analyzed in detail and their Dirac type quantization is suggested. Problems closely related to the radiation reaction force and electron mass inertia are analyzed. The validity of the Abraham-Lorentz electromagnetic electron mass origin hypothesis is argued. The related electromagnetic Dirac–Fock–Podolsky problem and symplectic properties of the Maxwell and Yang–Mills type dynamical systems are analyzed. The crucial importance of the remaining reference systems, with respect to which the dynamics of charged point particles is framed, is explained and emphasized.
The Evolution of Low-Metallicity Massive Stars
Szécsi, Dorottya
2016-07-01
Massive star evolution taking place in astrophysical environments consisting almost entirely of hydrogen and helium - in other words, low-metallicity environments - is responsible for some of the most intriguing and energetic cosmic phenomena, including supernovae, gamma-ray bursts and gravitational waves. This thesis aims to investigate the life and death of metal-poor massive stars, using theoretical simulations of the stellar structure and evolution. Evolutionary models of rotating, massive stars (9-600 Msun) with an initial metal composition appropriate for the low-metallicity dwarf galaxy I Zwicky 18 are presented and analyzed. We find that the fast rotating models (300 km/s) become a particular type of objects predicted only at low-metallicity: the so-called Transparent Wind Ultraviolet INtense (TWUIN) stars. TWUIN stars are fast rotating massive stars that are extremely hot (90 kK), very bright and as compact as Wolf-Rayet stars. However, as opposed to Wolf-Rayet stars, their stellar winds are optically thin. As these hot objects emit intense UV radiation, we show that they can explain the unusually high number of ionizing photons of the dwarf galaxy I Zwicky 18, an observational quantity that cannot be understood solely based on the normal stellar population of this galaxy. On the other hand, we find that the most massive, slowly rotating models become another special type of object predicted only at low-metallicity: core-hydrogen-burning cool supergiant stars. Having a slow but strong stellar wind, these supergiants may be important contributors in the chemical evolution of young galactic globular clusters. In particular, we suggest that the low mass stars observed today could form in a dense, massive and cool shell around these, now dead, supergiants. This scenario is shown to explain the anomalous surface abundances observed in these low mass stars, since the shell itself, having been made of the mass ejected by the supergiant’s wind, contains nuclear
Dispersion relations in quantum electrodynamics on the noncommutative Minkowski space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zahn, J.W.
2006-12-15
We study field theories on the noncommutative Minkowski space with noncommuting time. The focus lies on dispersion relations in quantized interacting models in the Yang-Feldman formalism. In particular, we compute the two-point correlation function of the field strength in noncommutative quantum electrodynamics to second order. At this, we take into account the covariant coordinates that allow the construction of local gauge invariant quantities (observables). It turns out that this does not remove the well-known severe infrared problem, as one might have hoped. Instead, things become worse, since nonlocal divergences appear. We also show that these cancel in a supersymmetric version of the theory if the covariant coordinates are adjusted accordingly. Furthermore, we study the {phi}{sup 3} and the Wess-Zumino model and show that the distortion of the dispersion relations is moderate for parameters typical for the Higgs field. We also discuss the formulation of gauge theories on noncommutative spaces and study classical electrodynamics on the noncommutative Minkowski space using covariant coordinates. In particular, we compute the change of the speed of light due to nonlinear effects in the presence of a background field. Finally, we examine the so-called twist approach to quantum field theory on the noncommutative Minkowski space and point out some conceptual problems of this approach. (orig.)
Dispersion relations in quantum electrodynamics on the noncommutative Minkowski space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zahn, J.W.
2006-12-01
We study field theories on the noncommutative Minkowski space with noncommuting time. The focus lies on dispersion relations in quantized interacting models in the Yang-Feldman formalism. In particular, we compute the two-point correlation function of the field strength in noncommutative quantum electrodynamics to second order. At this, we take into account the covariant coordinates that allow the construction of local gauge invariant quantities (observables). It turns out that this does not remove the well-known severe infrared problem, as one might have hoped. Instead, things become worse, since nonlocal divergences appear. We also show that these cancel in a supersymmetric version of the theory if the covariant coordinates are adjusted accordingly. Furthermore, we study the Φ 3 and the Wess-Zumino model and show that the distortion of the dispersion relations is moderate for parameters typical for the Higgs field. We also discuss the formulation of gauge theories on noncommutative spaces and study classical electrodynamics on the noncommutative Minkowski space using covariant coordinates. In particular, we compute the change of the speed of light due to nonlinear effects in the presence of a background field. Finally, we examine the so-called twist approach to quantum field theory on the noncommutative Minkowski space and point out some conceptual problems of this approach. (orig.)
Mathematical Modeling of Electrodynamics Near the Surface of Earth and Planetary Water Worlds
Tyler, Robert H.
2017-01-01
An interesting feature of planetary bodies with hydrospheres is the presence of an electrically conducting shell near the global surface. This conducting shell may typically lie between relatively insulating rock, ice, or atmosphere, creating a strong constraint on the flow of large-scale electric currents. All or parts of the shell may be in fluid motion relative to main components of the rotating planetary magnetic field (as well as the magnetic fields due to external bodies), creating motionally-induced electric currents that would not otherwise be present. As such, one may expect distinguishing features in the types of electrodynamic processes that occur, as well as an opportunity for imposing specialized mathematical methods that efficiently address this class of application. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss such specialized methods. Specifically, thin-shell approximations for both the electrodynamics and fluid dynamics are combined to derive simplified mathematical formulations describing the behavior of these electric currents as well as their associated electric and magnetic fields. These simplified formulae allow analytical solutions featuring distinct aspects of the thin-shell electrodynamics in idealized cases. A highly efficient numerical method is also presented that is useful for calculations under inhomogeneous parameter distributions. Finally, the advantages as well as limitations in using this mathematical approach are evaluated. This evaluation is presented primarily for the generic case of bodies with water worlds or other thin spherical conducting shells. More specific discussion is given for the case of Earth, but also Europa and other satellites with suspected oceans.
Thermodynamic potential in quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morley, P.D.
1978-01-01
The thermodynamic potential, Ω, in quantum electrodynamics (QED) is derived using the path-integral formalism. Renormalization of Ω is shown by proving the following theorem: Ω/sub B/(e/sub B/,m/sub B/,T,μ) - Ω/sub B/(e/sub B/,m/sub B/,T = 0,μ = 0) = Ω/sub R/(e/sub R/,m/sub R/,T,μ,S), where B and R refer to bare and renormalized quantities, respectively, and S is the Euclidean subtraction momentum squared. This theorem is proved explicitly to e/sub R/ 4 order and could be analogously extended to any higher order. Renormalization-group equations are derived for Ω/sub R/, and it is shown that perturbation theory in a medium is governed by effective coupling constants which are functions of the density. The behavior of the theory at high densities is governed by the Euclidean ultraviolet behavior of the theory in the vacuum
Electrodynamic Wireless Power Transmission to Rotating Magnet Receivers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garraud, A; Jimenez, J D; Garraud, N; Arnold, D P
2014-01-01
This paper presents an approach for electrodynamic wireless power transmission (EWPT) using a synchronously rotating magnet located in a 3.2 cm 3 receiver. We demonstrate wireless power transmission up to 99 mW (power density equal to 31 mW/cm 3 ) over a 5-cm distance and 5 mW over a 20-cm distance. The maximum operational frequency, and hence maximal output power, is constrained by the magnetic field amplitude. A quadratic relationship is found between the maximal output power and the magnetic field. We also demonstrate simultaneous, power transmission to multiple receivers positioned at different locations
Engineering electrodynamics electric machine, transformer, and power equipment design
Turowski, Janusz
2013-01-01
Due to a huge concentration of electromagnetic fields and eddy currents, large power equipment and systems are prone to crushing forces, overheating, and overloading. Luckily, power failures due to disturbances like these can be predicted and/or prevented.Based on the success of internationally acclaimed computer programs, such as the authors' own RNM-3D, Engineering Electrodynamics: Electric Machine, Transformer, and Power Equipment Design explains how to implement industry-proven modeling and design techniques to solve complex electromagnetic phenomena. Considering recent progress in magneti
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sessler, A.M.
1995-04-01
Since the seminal work by Ginsburg, et at., the subject of giving the Next Linear Collider photon-photon capability, as well as electron-positron capability, has drawn much attention. A 1990 article by V.I. Teinov describes the situation at that time. In March 1994, the first workshop on this subject was held. This report briefly reviews the physics that can be achieved through the photon-photon channel and then focuses on the means of achieving such a collider. Also reviewed is the spectrum of backscattered Compton photons -- the best way of obtaining photons. We emphasize the spectrum actually obtained in a collider with both polarized electrons and photons (peaked at high energy and very different from a Compton spectrum). Luminosity is estimated for the presently considered colliders, and interaction and conversion-point geometries are described. Also specified are laser requirements (such as wavelength, peak power, and average power) and the lasers that might be employed. These include conventional and free-electron lasers. Finally, we describe the R ampersand D necessary to make either of these approaches viable and explore the use of the SLC as a test bed for a photon-photon collider of very high energy
Quantized Faraday and Kerr rotation and axion electrodynamics of a 3D topological insulator.
Wu, Liang; Salehi, M; Koirala, N; Moon, J; Oh, S; Armitage, N P
2016-12-02
Topological insulators have been proposed to be best characterized as bulk magnetoelectric materials that show response functions quantized in terms of fundamental physical constants. Here, we lower the chemical potential of three-dimensional (3D) Bi 2 Se 3 films to ~30 meV above the Dirac point and probe their low-energy electrodynamic response in the presence of magnetic fields with high-precision time-domain terahertz polarimetry. For fields higher than 5 tesla, we observed quantized Faraday and Kerr rotations, whereas the dc transport is still semiclassical. A nontrivial Berry's phase offset to these values gives evidence for axion electrodynamics and the topological magnetoelectric effect. The time structure used in these measurements allows a direct measure of the fine-structure constant based on a topological invariant of a solid-state system. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Observation of the Photon-Blockade Breakdown Phase Transition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. M. Fink
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Nonequilibrium phase transitions exist in damped-driven open quantum systems when the continuous tuning of an external parameter leads to a transition between two robust steady states. In second-order transitions this change is abrupt at a critical point, whereas in first-order transitions the two phases can coexist in a critical hysteresis domain. Here, we report the observation of a first-order dissipative quantum phase transition in a driven circuit quantum electrodynamics system. It takes place when the photon blockade of the driven cavity-atom system is broken by increasing the drive power. The observed experimental signature is a bimodal phase space distribution with varying weights controlled by the drive strength. Our measurements show an improved stabilization of the classical attractors up to the millisecond range when the size of the quantum system is increased from one to three artificial atoms. The formation of such robust pointer states could be used for new quantum measurement schemes or to investigate multiphoton phases of finite-size, nonlinear, open quantum systems.
Implementation Options for the PROPEL Electrodynamic Tether Demonstration Mission
Bilen, Sven G.; Johnson, C. Les; Gilchrist, Brian E.; Hoyt, Robert P.; Elder, Craig H.; Fuhrhop, Keith P.; Scadera, Michael; Stone, Nobie
2014-01-01
The PROPEL ("Propulsion using Electrodynamics") flight demonstration mission concept will demonstrate the use of an electrodynamic tether (EDT) for generating thrust, which will allow the propulsion system to overcome the limitations of the rocket equation. The mission concept has been developed by a team of government, industry, and academia partners led by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). PROPEL is being designed for versatility of the EDT system with multiple end users in mind and to be flexible with respect to platform. Previously, we reported on a comprehensive mission design for PROPEL with a mission duration of six months or longer with multiple mission goals including demonstration of significant boost, deboost, inclination change, and drag make-up activities. To explore a range of possible configurations, primarily driven by cost considerations, other mission concept designs have been pursued. In partnership with the NASA's Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) Game Changing Program, NASA MSFC Leadership, and the MSFC Advanced Concepts Office, a mission concept design was developed for a near-term EDT propulsion flight validation mission. The Electrodynamic Tether Propulsion Study (ETPS) defined an EDT propulsion system capable of very large delta-V for use on future missions developed by NASA, DoD, and commercial customers. To demonstrate the feasibility of an ETPS, the study focused on a space demonstration mission concept design with configuration of a pair of tethered satellite busses, one of which is the Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). The HTV would fly its standard ISS resupply mission. When resupply mission is complete, the ISS reconfigures and releases the HTV to perform the EDT experiment at safe orbital altitudes below the ISS. Though the focus of this particular mission concept design addresses a scenario involving the HTV or a similar vehicle, the propulsion system's capability is relevant to a number of applications, as noted above
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Sheykhi
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We construct a new class of charged rotating black brane solutions in the presence of logarithmic nonlinear electrodynamics with complete set of the rotation parameters in arbitrary dimensions. The topology of the horizon of these rotating black branes is flat, while due to the presence of the dilaton field the asymptotic behavior of them is neither flat nor (anti-de Sitter [(AdS]. We investigate the physical properties of the solutions. The mass and angular momentum of the spacetime are obtained by using the counterterm method inspired by AdS/CFT correspondence. We derive temperature, electric potential, and entropy associated with the horizon and check the validity of the first law of thermodynamics on the black brane horizon. We study thermal stability of the solutions in both canonical and grand-canonical ensemble and disclose the effects of the rotation parameter, nonlinearity of electrodynamics, and dilaton field on the thermal stability conditions. We find the solutions are thermally stable for α1 the solutions may encounter an unstable phase, where α is dilaton-electromagnetic coupling constant.
Chiral current generation in QED by longitudinal photons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Acosta Avalo, J.L., E-mail: jlacosta@instec.cu [Instituto Superior de Tecnologías y Ciencias Aplicadas (INSTEC), Ave Salvador Allende, No. 1110, Vedado, La Habana 10400 (Cuba); Pérez Rojas, H., E-mail: hugo@icimaf.cu [Instituto de Cibernética, Matemática y Física (ICIMAF), Calle E esq 15, No. 309, Vedado, La Habana 10400 (Cuba)
2016-08-15
We report the generation of a pseudovector electric current having imbalanced chirality in an electron–positron strongly magnetized gas in QED. It propagates along the external applied magnetic field B as a chiral magnetic effect in QED. It is triggered by a perturbative electric field parallel to B, associated to a pseudovector longitudinal mode propagating along B. An electromagnetic chemical potential was introduced, but our results remain valid even when it vanishes. A nonzero fermion mass was assumed, which is usually considered vanishing in the literature. In the quantum field theory formalism at finite temperature and density, an anomaly relation for the axial current was found for a medium of massive fermions. It bears some analogy to the Adler–Bell–Jackiw anomaly. From the expression for the chiral current in terms of the photon self-energy tensor in a medium, it is obtained that electrons and positrons scattered by longitudinal photons (inside the light cone) contribute to the chiral current, as well as the to pair creation due to longitudinal photons (out of light cone). In the static limit, an electric pseudovector current is obtained in the lowest Landau level.
Chiral current generation in QED by longitudinal photons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.L. Acosta Avalo
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We report the generation of a pseudovector electric current having imbalanced chirality in an electron–positron strongly magnetized gas in QED. It propagates along the external applied magnetic field B as a chiral magnetic effect in QED. It is triggered by a perturbative electric field parallel to B, associated to a pseudovector longitudinal mode propagating along B. An electromagnetic chemical potential was introduced, but our results remain valid even when it vanishes. A nonzero fermion mass was assumed, which is usually considered vanishing in the literature. In the quantum field theory formalism at finite temperature and density, an anomaly relation for the axial current was found for a medium of massive fermions. It bears some analogy to the Adler–Bell–Jackiw anomaly. From the expression for the chiral current in terms of the photon self-energy tensor in a medium, it is obtained that electrons and positrons scattered by longitudinal photons (inside the light cone contribute to the chiral current, as well as the to pair creation due to longitudinal photons (out of light cone. In the static limit, an electric pseudovector current is obtained in the lowest Landau level.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zangeneh, M. Kord; Dehyadegari, A. [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University,Eram Square, Shiraz, P.O. Box 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sheykhi, A.; Dehghani, M.H. [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University,Eram Square, Shiraz, P.O. Box 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astrophysics and Astronomy of Maragha (RIAAM),P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-03-07
In this paper, we construct a new class of topological black hole Lifshitz solutions in the presence of nonlinear exponential electrodynamics for Einstein-dilaton gravity. We show that the reality of Lifshitz supporting Maxwell matter fields exclude the negative horizon curvature solutions except for the asymptotic AdS case. Calculating the conserved and thermodynamical quantities, we obtain a Smarr type formula for the mass and confirm that thermodynamics first law is satisfied on the black hole horizon. Afterward, we study the thermal stability of our solutions and figure out the effects of different parameters on the stability of solutions under thermal perturbations. Next, we apply the gauge/gravity duality in order to calculate the ratio of shear viscosity to entropy for a three-dimensional hydrodynamic system by using the pole method. Furthermore, we study the behavior of holographic conductivity for two-dimensional systems such as graphene. We consider linear Maxwell and nonlinear exponential electrodynamics separately and disclose the effect of nonlinearity on holographic conductivity. We indicate that holographic conductivity vanishes for z>3 in the case of nonlinear electrodynamics while it does not in the linear Maxwell case. Finally, we solve perturbative additional field equations numerically and plot the behaviors of real and imaginary parts of conductivity for asymptotic AdS and Lifshitz cases. We present experimental results match with our numerical ones.
A new perspective on relativistic transformation for Maxwell's equations of electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Y.-S.
2009-01-01
A new scheme for relativistic transformation of the electromagnetic fields is formulated through relativistic transformation in the wavevector space, instead of the space-time space. Maxwell's equations of electrodynamics are shown to be form-invariant among inertial frames in accordance with this new scheme of relativistic transformation. This new perspective on relativistic transformation not only fulfills the principle of relativity, but is also compatible with quantum theory.
Shor's quantum factoring algorithm on a photonic chip.
Politi, Alberto; Matthews, Jonathan C F; O'Brien, Jeremy L
2009-09-04
Shor's quantum factoring algorithm finds the prime factors of a large number exponentially faster than any other known method, a task that lies at the heart of modern information security, particularly on the Internet. This algorithm requires a quantum computer, a device that harnesses the massive parallelism afforded by quantum superposition and entanglement of quantum bits (or qubits). We report the demonstration of a compiled version of Shor's algorithm on an integrated waveguide silica-on-silicon chip that guides four single-photon qubits through the computation to factor 15.
Electrodynamic Dust Shield for Space Applications
Mackey, Paul J.; Johansen, Michael R.; Olsen, Robert C.; Raines, Matthew G.; Phillips, James R., III; Cox, Rachel E.; Hogue, Michael D.; Pollard, Jacob R. S.; Calle, Carlos I.
2016-01-01
Dust mitigation technology has been highlighted by NASA and the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) as a Global Exploration Roadmap (GER) critical technology need in order to reduce life cycle cost and risk, and increase the probability of mission success. The Electrostatics and Surface Physics Lab in Swamp Works at the Kennedy Space Center has developed an Electrodynamic Dust Shield (EDS) to remove dust from multiple surfaces, including glass shields and thermal radiators. Further development is underway to improve the operation and reliability of the EDS as well as to perform material and component testing outside of the International Space Station (ISS) on the Materials on International Space Station Experiment (MISSE). This experiment is designed to verify that the EDS can withstand the harsh environment of space and will look to closely replicate the solar environment experienced on the Moon.
Entanglement transfer from electrons to photons in quantum dots: an open quantum system approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Budich, Jan C; Trauzettel, Bjoern
2010-01-01
We investigate entanglement transfer from a system of two spin-entangled electron-hole pairs, each placed in a separate single mode cavity, to the photons emitted due to cavity leakage. Dipole selection rules and a splitting between the light hole and the heavy hole subbands are the crucial ingredients establishing a one-to-one correspondence between electron spins and circular photon polarizations. To account for the measurement of the photons as well as dephasing effects, we choose a stochastic Schroedinger equation and a conditional master equation approach, respectively. The influence of interactions with the environment as well as asymmetries in the coherent couplings on the photon entanglement is analysed for two concrete measurement schemes. The first one is designed to violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, while the second one employs the visibility of interference fringes to prove the entanglement of the photons. Because of the spatial separation of the entangled electronic system over two quantum dots, a successful verification of entangled photons emitted by this system would imply the detection of nonlocal spin entanglement of massive particles in a solid state structure.
Lectures on cosmology and action at a distance electrodynamics
Hoyle, Fred
1996-01-01
This book describes the subject of electrodynamics at classical as well as quantum level, developed as an interaction at a distance. Thus it has electric charges interacting with one another directly and not through the medium of a field. In general such an interaction travels forward and backward in time symmetrically, thus apparently violating the principle of causality. It turns out, however, that in such a description the cosmological boundary conditions become very important. The theory therefore works only in a cosmology with the right boundary conditions; but when it does work it is fre
Classical and quantum electrodynamics and the B(3) field
Evans, Myron W
2001-01-01
It is well known that classical electrodynamics is riddled with internal inconsistencies springing from the fact that it is a linear, Abelian theory in which the potentials are unphysical. This volume offers a self-consistent hypothesis which removes some of these problems, as well as builds a framework on which linear and nonlinear optics are treated as a non-Abelian gauge field theory based on the emergence of the fundamental magnetizing field of radiation, the B(3) field. Contents: Interaction of Electromagnetic Radiation with One Fermion; The Field Equations of Classical O (3) b Electrodyn
Three-loop massive form factors: complete light-fermion corrections for the vector current
Lee, Roman N.; Smirnov, Alexander V.; Smirnov, Vladimir A.; Steinhauser, Matthias
2018-03-01
We compute the three-loop QCD corrections to the massive quark-anti-quark-photon form factors F 1 and F 2 involving a closed loop of massless fermions. This subset is gauge invariant and contains both planar and non-planar contributions. We perform the reduction using FIRE and compute the master integrals with the help of differential equations. Our analytic results can be expressed in terms of Goncharov polylogarithms. We provide analytic results for all master integrals which are not present in the large- N c calculation considered in refs. [1, 2].
How Very Massive Metal-Free Stars Start Cosmological Reionization
Wise, John H.; Abel, Tom
2008-01-01
The initial conditions and relevant physics for the formation of the earliest galaxies are well specified in the concordance cosmology. Using ab initio cosmological Eulerian adaptive mesh refinement radiation hydrodynamical calculations, we discuss how very massive stars start the process of cosmological reionization. The models include nonequilibrium primordial gas chemistry and cooling processes and accurate radiation transport in the case B approximation using adaptively ray-traced photon packages, retaining the time derivative in the transport equation. Supernova feedback is modeled by thermal explosions triggered at parsec scales. All calculations resolve the local Jeans length by at least 16 grid cells at all times and as such cover a spatial dynamic range of approx.10(exp 6). These first sources of reionization are highly intermittent and anisotropic and first photoionize the small-scale voids surrounding the halos they form in, rather than the dense filaments they are embedded in. As the merging objects form larger, dwarf-sized galaxies, the escape fraction of UV radiation decreases and the H II regions only break out on some sides of the galaxies, making them even more anisotropic. In three cases, SN blast waves induce star formation in overdense regions that were formed earlier from ionization front instabilities. These stars form tens of parsecs away from the center of their parent DM halo. Approximately five ionizing photons are needed per sustained ionization when star formation in 10(exp 6) stellar Mass halos is dominant in the calculation. As the halos become larger than approx.10(exp 7) Stellar Mass, the ionizing photon escape fraction decreases, which in turn increases the number of photons per ionization to 15-50, in calculations with stellar feedback only. Radiative feedback decreases clumping factors by 25% when compared to simulations without star formation and increases the average temperature of ionized gas to values between 3000 and 10,000 K.
Gsponer, Andre
2009-01-01
The objective of this introduction to Colombeau algebras of generalized functions (in which distributions can be freely multiplied) is to explain in elementary terms the essential concepts necessary for their application to basic nonlinear problems in classical physics. Examples are given in hydrodynamics and electrodynamics. The problem of the…
Photon technology. Hard photon technology; Photon technology. Hard photon gijutsu
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1997-03-01
For the application of photon to industrial technologies, in particular, a hard photon technology was surveyed which uses photon beams of 0.1-200nm in wavelength. Its features such as selective atom reaction, dense inner shell excitation and spacial high resolution by quantum energy are expected to provide innovative techniques for various field such as fine machining, material synthesis and advanced inspection technology. This wavelength region has been hardly utilized for industrial fields because of poor development of suitable photon sources and optical devices. The developmental meaning, usable time and issue of a hard photon reduction lithography were surveyed as lithography in ultra-fine region below 0.1{mu}m. On hard photon analysis/evaluation technology, the industrial use of analysis, measurement and evaluation technologies by micro-beam was viewed, and optimum photon sources and optical systems were surveyed. Prediction of surface and surface layer modification by inner shell excitation, the future trend of this process and development of a vacuum ultraviolet light source were also surveyed. 383 refs., 153 figs., 17 tabs.
Searching for heavy photons in the HPS Experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Uemura, Sho [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
2016-11-01
The Heavy Photon Search (HPS) is a new experiment at Jefferson Lab that searches for a massive U(1) vector boson (known as a heavy photon or A′) in the MeV-GeV mass range and coupling weakly to ordinary matter through a kinetic mixing interaction. The HPS experiment seeks to produce heavy photons by electron bremsstrahlung on a fixed target, is sensitive to heavy photon decays to e+e-, and targets the range in heavy photon mass m_A' ~ 20 - 600 MeV, and kinetic mixing strength epsilon^2 ~ 10^-5 - 10^−10. HPS searches for heavy photons using two signatures: a narrow mass resonance and displaced vertices. This dissertation presents the theoretical and experimental motivations for a heavy photon, the design and operation of the HPS experiment, and the displaced vertex search. The data used in this dissertation is the unblinded fraction of the 2015 HPS run, for the period of operation where the HPS silicon vertex tracker (SVT) was operated at its nominal position. This data was recorded from May 13 to May 18, 2015, at a beam energy of 1.056 GeV and a nominal beam current of 50 nA. The integrated luminosity is 119 nb^-1, which is equivalent to 0.172 days of ideal running at the nominal beam current. This dissertation presents results (signal significance and upper limits) from the displaced vertex search in the mass range m_A' ~ 20 - 60 MeV, and kinetic mixing strength epsilon^2 ~ 2 × 10^-8 - 10^-10. This search does not have sufficient sensitivity to exclude a canonical heavy photon at any combination of m_A' and epsilon^2. The strictest limit achieved in this analysis on the production of a particle that decays like a heavy photon is 115 times the expected production cross-section for a heavy photon. Factors limiting the sensitivity of this analysis are discussed. Projections of HPSperformance with the full 2015 data set, and with planned improvements to theanalysis, are presented. Comparisons are also made to earlier reach estimates.
On the bosonization of the massless spinor electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhov, S.G.; Stoyanov, D.Ts.
1979-01-01
A method for constructing a field transformed according to a linear representation of a Lie group out of fields transformed nonlinearly under the action of the same group is proposed. This procedure is used in order to construct spinor fields out of tensor ones. Such a ''bosonization'' of the spinor field is used to reformulate the massless spinor electrodynamics in terms of nonlinear tensor fields. It appears in this formulation that the Dirac equation is reduced to a definition of the electromagnetic vector potential in terms of the nonlinear tensor fields and to the current conservations playing the role of a consistency condition for this formulation
Numerical and Analytical Model of an Electrodynamic Dust Shield for Solar Panels on Mars
Calle, C. I.; Linell, B.; Chen, A.; Meyer, J.; Clements, S.; Mazumder, M. K.
2006-01-01
Masuda and collaborators at the University of Tokyo developed a method to confine and transport particles called the electric curtain in which a series of parallel electrodes connected to an AC source generates a traveling wave that acts as a contactless conveyor. The curtain electrodes can be excited by a single-phase or a multi-phase AC voltage. A multi-phase curtain produces a non-uniform traveling wave that provides controlled transport of those particles [1-6]. Multi-phase electric curtains from two to six phases have been developed and studied by several research groups [7-9]. We have developed an Electrodynamic Dust Shield prototype using threephase AC voltage electrodes to remove dust from surfaces. The purpose of the modeling work presented here is to research and to better understand the physics governing the electrodynamic shield, as well as to advance and to support the experimental dust shield research.
Generating functional of the mean field in quantum electrodynamics with non-stable vacuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gitman, D.M.; Kuchin, V.A.
1981-01-01
Generating functional for calculating a mean field, in the case of unstable vacuum, in quantum field theory has been suggested. Continual representation for the generating functional of the mean field has been found in the case of quantum electrodynamics with an external field. Generating electron-positron pairs from vacuum [ru
Quantum electrodynamics within the framework of a new 4-dimensional symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, J.P.
1977-06-01
Quantum electrodynamics is discussed within the framework of a new 4-dimensional symmetry in which the concept of time, the propagation of light and the transformation property of many physical quantities are drastically different from those in special relativity. However, they are consistent with experiments. The new framework allows for natural developments of additional concepts. A possible and crucial experimental test of the new 4-dimensional symmetry is discussed
Inclusive hard processes in photon-photon and photon-proton interactions
Glasman, Claudia
1999-01-01
Measurements of jet, prompt photon, high-pT hadron and heavy quark production in photon-induced processes provide tests of QCD and are sensitive to the photon parton densities. A review of the latest experimental results in photon-photon and photon-proton interactions is presented. Next-to-leading-order QCD calculations for these measurements are discussed.
Scale solutions and coupling constant in electrodynamics of vector particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arbuzov, B.A.; Boos, E.E.; Kurennoy, S.S.
1980-01-01
A new approach in nonrenormalizable gauge theories is studied, the electrodynamics of vector particles being taken as an example. One and two-loop approximations in Schwinger-Dyson set of equations are considered with account for conditions imposed by gauge invariance. It is shown, that solutions with scale asymptotics can occur in this case but only for a particular value of coupling constant. This value in solutions obtained is close to the value of the fine structure constant α=1/137
Quasi-potential approach to the problem of bound states in quantum electrodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rizov, V A; Todorov, I T [Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia. Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika
1975-07-01
The paper reviews two types of quasipotential equations. An equation with a non-local potential is derived from the equations of motion of quantum electrodynamics. It is also related to a Bethe-Salpeter type of equation for the retarded Green function. Most of the paper is devoted to a systematic study of a local version of the Logunov-Tavkhelidze quasipotential approach.
Dynamical Mass Generation and Confinement in Maxwell-Chern-Simons Planar Quantum Electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez Madrigal, S; Raya, A; Hofmann, C P
2011-01-01
We study the non-perturbative phenomena of Dynamical Mass Generation and Confinement by truncating at the non-perturbative level the Schwinger-Dyson equations in Maxwell-Chern-Simons planar quantum electrodynamics. We obtain numerical solutions for the fermion propagator in Landau gauge within the so-called rainbow approximation. A comparison with the ordinary theory without the Chern-Simons term is presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. P. Preobrazhensky
2017-02-01
Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of optimization of the characteristics of scattering of electromagnetic waves on periodic electrodynamic structure. The solution of the scattering problem is based on the method of integral equations, the optimization of the characteristics is based on the genetic algorithm. Recommendations on the parameters of the periodic structure under given angles are given.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cunningham, J; Gatenby, R [Moffitt Cancer Research Institute, Tampa, FL (United States)
2014-06-01
Purpose: To develop a simulation to catalyze a reevaluation of common assumptions about 3 dimensional diffusive processes and help cell biologists gain a more nuanced, intuitive understanding of the true physical hurdles of protein signaling cascades. Furthermore, to discuss the possibility of intracellular electrodynamics as a critical, unrecognized component of cellular biology and protein dynamics that is necessary for optimal information flow from the cell membrane to the nucleus. Methods: The Unity 3D gaming physics engine was used to build an accurate virtual scale model of the cytoplasm within a few hundred nanometers of the nuclear membrane. A cloud of simulated pERK proteins is controlled by the physics simulation, where diffusion is based on experimentally measured values and the electrodynamics are based on theoretical nano-fluid dynamics. The trajectories of pERK within the cytoplasm and through the 1250 nuclear pores on the nuclear surface is recorded and analyzed. Results: The simulation quickly demonstrates that pERKs moving solely by diffusion will rarely locate and come within capture distance of a nuclear pore. The addition of intracellular electrodynamics between charges on the nuclear pore complexes and on pERKs increases the number of successful translocations by allowing the electro-physical attractive effects to draw in pERKs from the cytoplasm. The effects of changes in intracellular shielding ion concentrations allowed for estimation of the “capture radius” under varying conditions. Conclusion: The simulation allows a shift in perspective that is paramount in attempting to communicate the scale and dynamics of intracellular protein cascade mechanics. This work has allowed researchers to more fully understand the parameters involved in intracellular electrodynamics, such as shielding anion concentration and protein charge. As these effects are still far below the spatial resolution of currently available measurement technology this
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cunningham, J; Gatenby, R
2014-01-01
Purpose: To develop a simulation to catalyze a reevaluation of common assumptions about 3 dimensional diffusive processes and help cell biologists gain a more nuanced, intuitive understanding of the true physical hurdles of protein signaling cascades. Furthermore, to discuss the possibility of intracellular electrodynamics as a critical, unrecognized component of cellular biology and protein dynamics that is necessary for optimal information flow from the cell membrane to the nucleus. Methods: The Unity 3D gaming physics engine was used to build an accurate virtual scale model of the cytoplasm within a few hundred nanometers of the nuclear membrane. A cloud of simulated pERK proteins is controlled by the physics simulation, where diffusion is based on experimentally measured values and the electrodynamics are based on theoretical nano-fluid dynamics. The trajectories of pERK within the cytoplasm and through the 1250 nuclear pores on the nuclear surface is recorded and analyzed. Results: The simulation quickly demonstrates that pERKs moving solely by diffusion will rarely locate and come within capture distance of a nuclear pore. The addition of intracellular electrodynamics between charges on the nuclear pore complexes and on pERKs increases the number of successful translocations by allowing the electro-physical attractive effects to draw in pERKs from the cytoplasm. The effects of changes in intracellular shielding ion concentrations allowed for estimation of the “capture radius” under varying conditions. Conclusion: The simulation allows a shift in perspective that is paramount in attempting to communicate the scale and dynamics of intracellular protein cascade mechanics. This work has allowed researchers to more fully understand the parameters involved in intracellular electrodynamics, such as shielding anion concentration and protein charge. As these effects are still far below the spatial resolution of currently available measurement technology this
Magnetized black holes and nonlinear electrodynamics
Kruglov, S. I.
2017-08-01
A new model of nonlinear electrodynamics with two parameters is proposed. We study the phenomenon of vacuum birefringence, the causality and unitarity in this model. There is no singularity of the electric field in the center of pointlike charges and the total electrostatic energy is finite. We obtain corrections to the Coulomb law at r →∞. The weak, dominant and strong energy conditions are investigated. Magnetized charged black hole is considered and we evaluate the mass, metric function and their asymptotic at r →∞ and r → 0. The magnetic mass of the black hole is calculated. The thermodynamic properties and thermal stability of regular black holes are discussed. We calculate the Hawking temperature of black holes and show that there are first-order and second-order phase transitions. The parameters of the model when the black hole is stable are found.
Plasma physics and fusion plasma electrodynamics
Bers, Abraham
2016-01-01
Plasma is a ubiquitous state of matter at high temperatures. The electrodynamics of plasmas encompasses a large number of applications, from understanding plasmas in space and the stars, to their use in processing semiconductors, and their role in controlled energy generation by nuclear fusion. This book covers collective and single particle dynamics of plasmas for fully ionized as well as partially ionized plasmas. Many aspects of plasma physics in current fusion energy generation research are addressed both in magnetic and inertial confinement plasmas. Linear and nonlinear dynamics in hydrodynamic and kinetic descriptions are offered, making both simple and complex aspects of the subject available in nearly every chapter. The approach of dividing the basic aspects of plasma physics as "linear, hydrodynamic descriptions" to be covered first because they are "easier", and postponing the "nonlinear and kinetic descriptions" for later because they are "difficult" is abandoned in this book. For teaching purpose...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilman, F.J.
1980-01-01
A brief summary of the present status of photon-photon interactions is presented. Stress is placed on the use of two-photon collisions to test present ideas on the quark constituents of hadrons and on the theory of strong interactions
Optical Search for QED vacuum magnetic birefringence, Axions and photon Regeneration
Pugnat, P; Hryczuk, A; Finger, M; Finger, M; Kral, M
2007-01-01
Since its prediction in 1936 by Euler, Heisenberg and Weisskopf in the earlier development of the Quantum Electrodynamic (QED) theory, the Vacuum Magnetic Birefringence (VMB) is still a challenge for optical metrology techniques. According to QED, the vacuum behaves as an optically active medium in the presence of an external magnetic field. It can be experimentally probed with a linearly polarized laser beam. After propagating through the vacuum submitted to a transverse magnetic field, the polarization of the laser beam will change to elliptical and the parameters of the polarization are directly related to fundamental constants such as the fine structure constant and the electron Compton wavelength. Contributions to the VMB could also arise from the existence of light scalar or pseudo-scalar particles like axions that couple to two photons and this would manifest itself as a sizeable deviation from the initial QED prediction. On one side, the interest in axion search, providing an answer to the strong-CP p...
Massive Submucosal Ganglia in Colonic Inertia.
Naemi, Kaveh; Stamos, Michael J; Wu, Mark Li-Cheng
2018-02-01
- Colonic inertia is a debilitating form of primary chronic constipation with unknown etiology and diagnostic criteria, often requiring pancolectomy. We have occasionally observed massively enlarged submucosal ganglia containing at least 20 perikarya, in addition to previously described giant ganglia with greater than 8 perikarya, in cases of colonic inertia. These massively enlarged ganglia have yet to be formally recognized. - To determine whether such "massive submucosal ganglia," defined as ganglia harboring at least 20 perikarya, characterize colonic inertia. - We retrospectively reviewed specimens from colectomies of patients with colonic inertia and compared the prevalence of massive submucosal ganglia occurring in this setting to the prevalence of massive submucosal ganglia occurring in a set of control specimens from patients lacking chronic constipation. - Seven of 8 specimens affected by colonic inertia harbored 1 to 4 massive ganglia, for a total of 11 massive ganglia. One specimen lacked massive ganglia but had limited sampling and nearly massive ganglia. Massive ganglia occupied both superficial and deep submucosal plexus. The patient with 4 massive ganglia also had 1 mitotically active giant ganglion. Only 1 massive ganglion occupied the entire set of 10 specimens from patients lacking chronic constipation. - We performed the first, albeit distinctly small, study of massive submucosal ganglia and showed that massive ganglia may be linked to colonic inertia. Further, larger studies are necessary to determine whether massive ganglia are pathogenetic or secondary phenomena, and whether massive ganglia or mitotically active ganglia distinguish colonic inertia from other types of chronic constipation.
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Townsend, Paul K.
2012-01-01
We present a brief review of New Massive Gravity, which is a unitary theory of massive gravitons in three dimensions obtained by considering a particular combination of the Einstein-Hilbert and curvature squared terms.
Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics of high-Q cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khanbekyan, Mikayel
2009-01-01
In this thesis macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in linear media was applied in order to develop an universally valid quantum theory for the description of the interaction of the electromagnetic field with atomic sources in high-Q cavities. In this theory a complete description of the characteristics of the emitted radiation is given. The theory allows to show the limits of the applicability of the usually applied theory. In order to establish an as possible generally valid theory first the atom-field interaction was studied in the framework of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics in dispersive and absorptive media. In order to describe the electromagnetic field from Maxwell's equations was started, whereby the noise-current densities, which are connected with the absorption of the medium, were included. The solution of these equations expresses the electromagnetic field variables by the noise-current densities by means of Green's tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. The explicit quantization is performed by means of the noise-current densities, whereby a diagonal Hamiltonian is introduced, which then guarantees the time development according to Maxwell's equation and the fulfillment of the fundamental simultaneous commutation relations of the field variables. In the case of the interaction of the medium-supported field with atoms the Hamiltonian must be extended by atom-field interactions energies, whereby the canonical coupling schemes of the minimal or multipolar coupling can be used. The dieelectric properties of the material bodies as well as their shape are coded in the Green tensor of the macroscopic Maxwell equations. As preparing step first the Green tensor was specified in order to derive three-dimensional input-output relations for the electromagnetic field operators on a plane multilayer structure. Such a general dewscription of the electromagnetic field allows the inclusion both of dispersion and absorption of the media and the possible
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richmond, A.D.; Kamide, Y.; Akasofu, S.I.; Alcayde, D.; Blanc, M.; De LaBeaujardiere, O.; Evans, D.S.; Foster, J.C.; Holt, J.M.; Friis-Christensen, E.; Pellinen, R.J.; Senior, C.; Zaitzev, A.N.
1990-01-01
An analysis of several global measures of high-latitude ionospheric electrodynamic activity is undertakn on the basis of results obtained from the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) procedure applied to incoherent scatter radar and ground magnetometer observatons for January 18-19, 1984. Different global measures of electric potentials, currents, resistances, and energy transfer from the magnetosphere show temporal variations that are generally well correlated. The authors present parameterizations of thees quantities in terms of the AE index and the hemispheric power index of precipitating auroral particles. It is shown how error estimates of the mapped electric fields can be used to correct the estimation of Joule heating. Global measures of potential drop, field-aligned current, and Joule heating as obtained by the AMIE procedure are compared with similar measures presented in previous studies. Agreement is found to within the uncertainties inherent in each study. The mean potential drop through which field-aligned currents flow in closing through the ionosphere is approximately 28% of the total polar cap potential drop under all conditions during these 2 days. They note that order-of-magnitude differences can appear when comparing different global measures of total electric current flow and of effective resistances of the global circuit, so that care must be exercised in choosing characteristic values of these parameters for circuit-analogy studies of ionosphere-magnetosphere electrodynamic coupling
STABLE ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY OF MASSIVE ICE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yurij K. Vasil’chuk
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The paper summarises stable-isotope research on massive ice in the Russian and North American Arctic, and includes the latest understanding of massive-ice formation. A new classification of massive-ice complexes is proposed, encompassing the range and variabilityof massive ice. It distinguishes two new categories of massive-ice complexes: homogeneousmassive-ice complexes have a similar structure, properties and genesis throughout, whereasheterogeneous massive-ice complexes vary spatially (in their structure and properties andgenetically within a locality and consist of two or more homogeneous massive-ice bodies.Analysis of pollen and spores in massive ice from Subarctic regions and from ice and snow cover of Arctic ice caps assists with interpretation of the origin of massive ice. Radiocarbon ages of massive ice and host sediments are considered together with isotope values of heavy oxygen and deuterium from massive ice plotted at a uniform scale in order to assist interpretation and correlation of the ice.
Processes of arbitrary order in quantum electrodynamics with a pair-creating external field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gitman, D.M.
1977-01-01
Dyson's perturbation theory analogue for quantum electrodynamical processes with arbitrary initial and final states in an external field creating pairs is discussed. The interaction with the field is taken into account exactly. The possibility of using Feynman diagrams, together with modified correspondence rules, for the representation of the above mentioned processes is demonstrated. (author)
Space Environmental Testing of the Electrodynamic Dust Shield Technology
Calle, Carlos I.; Mackey, P. J.; Hogue, M. D.; Johansen, M .R.; Yim, H.; Delaune, P. B.; Clements, J. S.
2013-01-01
NASA's exploration missions to Mars and the moon may be jeopardized by dust that will adhere to surfaces of (a) Optical systems, viewports and solar panels, (b) Thermal radiators, (c) Instrumentation, and (d) Spacesuits. We have developed an active dust mitigation technology, the Electrodynamic Dust Shield, a multilayer coating that can remove dust and also prevents its accumulation Extensive testing in simulated laboratory environments and on a reduced gravity flight shows that high dust removal performance can be achieved Long duration exposure to the space environment as part of the MISSE-X payload will validate the technology for lunar missions.
Lyapunov Orbits in the Jupiter System Using Electrodynamic Tethers
Bokelmann, Kevin; Russell, Ryan P.; Lantoine, Gregory
2013-01-01
Various researchers have proposed the use of electrodynamic tethers for power generation and capture from interplanetary transfers. The effect of tether forces on periodic orbits in Jupiter-satellite systems are investigated. A perturbation force is added to the restricted three-body problem model and a series of simplifications allows development of a conservative system that retains the Jacobi integral. Expressions are developed to find modified locations of equilibrium positions. Modified families of Lyapunov orbits are generated as functions of tether size and Jacobi integral. Zero velocity curves and stability analyses are used to evaluate the dynamical properties of tether-modified orbits.
The Earth's ionosphere plasma physics and electrodynamics
Kelley, Michael C
2007-01-01
Although interesting in its own right, due to the ever-increasing use of satellites for communication and navigation, weather in the ionosphere is of great concern. Every such system uses trans-ionospheric propagation of radio waves, waves which must traverse the commonly turbulent ionosphere. Understanding this turbulence and predicting it are one of the major goals of the National Space Weather program. Acquiring such a prediction capability will rest on understanding the very topics of this book, the plasma physics and electrodynamics of the system. Fully updated to reflect advances in the field in the 20 years since the first edition published Explores the buffeting of the ionosphere from above by the sun and from below by the lower atmosphere Unique text appropriate both as a reference and for coursework.
Berube-Lauziere, Yves
The measurement-based quantum feedback scheme developed and implemented by Haroche and collaborators to actively prepare and stabilize specific photon number states in cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) is a milestone achievement in the active protection of quantum states from decoherence. This feat was achieved by injecting, after each weak dispersive measurement of the cavity state via Rydberg atoms serving as cavity sensors, a low average number classical field (coherent state) to steer the cavity towards the targeted number state. This talk will present the generalization of the theory developed for targeting number states in order to prepare and stabilize desired superpositions of two cavity photon number states. Results from realistic simulations taking into account decoherence and imperfections in a CQED set-up will be presented. These demonstrate the validity of the generalized theory and points to the experimental feasibility of preparing and stabilizing such superpositions. This is a further step towards the active protection of more complex quantum states than number states. This work, cast in the context of CQED, is also almost readily applicable to circuit QED. YBL acknowledges financial support from the Institut Quantique through a Canada First Research Excellence Fund.
Electron-positron annihilation: unitarity, scaling and electrodynamics at high energies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karl, G [Guelph Univ., Ontario (Canada); European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))
1974-01-01
The work on e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation by Cabibbo, Wolfenstein and the author is reviewed. The restrictions of unitarity are analyzed and the connection between the cross sections sigmasub(h) (into hadrons) and sigmasub(..mu..) (into muons) is derived. The possibility of non-scaling in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation is studied and it is pointed out that it leads to no contradiction with presently available information. It is further pointed out that non-scaling could provide a cut-off mechanism for quantum electrodynamics.
CONFERENCE: Photon-photon collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1983-01-01
Despite being difficult to observe, photon-photon collisions have opened up a range of physics difficult, or even impossible, to access by other methods. The progress which has been made in this field was evident at the fifth international workshop on photon-photon collisions, held in Aachen from 13-16 April and attended by some 120 physicists
Aoki, Katsuki; Maeda, Kei-ichi; Misonoh, Yosuke; Okawa, Hirotada
2018-02-01
We find vacuum solutions such that massive gravitons are confined in a local spacetime region by their gravitational energy in asymptotically flat spacetimes in the context of the bigravity theory. We call such self-gravitating objects massive graviton geons. The basic equations can be reduced to the Schrödinger-Poisson equations with the tensor "wave function" in the Newtonian limit. We obtain a nonspherically symmetric solution with j =2 , ℓ=0 as well as a spherically symmetric solution with j =0 , ℓ=2 in this system where j is the total angular momentum quantum number and ℓ is the orbital angular momentum quantum number, respectively. The energy eigenvalue of the Schrödinger equation in the nonspherical solution is smaller than that in the spherical solution. We then study the perturbative stability of the spherical solution and find that there is an unstable mode in the quadrupole mode perturbations which may be interpreted as the transition mode to the nonspherical solution. The results suggest that the nonspherically symmetric solution is the ground state of the massive graviton geon. The massive graviton geons may decay in time due to emissions of gravitational waves but this timescale can be quite long when the massive gravitons are nonrelativistic and then the geons can be long-lived. We also argue possible prospects of the massive graviton geons: applications to the ultralight dark matter scenario, nonlinear (in)stability of the Minkowski spacetime, and a quantum transition of the spacetime.
Gravitational waves and electrodynamics: new perspectives.
Cabral, Francisco; Lobo, Francisco S N
2017-01-01
Given the recent direct measurement of gravitational waves (GWs) by the LIGO-VIRGO collaboration, the coupling between electromagnetic fields and gravity have a special relevance since it opens new perspectives for future GW detectors and also potentially provides information on the physics of highly energetic GW sources. We explore such couplings using the field equations of electrodynamics on (pseudo) Riemann manifolds and apply it to the background of a GW, seen as a linear perturbation of Minkowski geometry. Electric and magnetic oscillations are induced that propagate as electromagnetic waves and contain information as regards the GW which generates them. The most relevant results are the presence of longitudinal modes and dynamical polarization patterns of electromagnetic radiation induced by GWs. These effects might be amplified using appropriate resonators, effectively improving the signal to noise ratio around a specific frequency. We also briefly address the generation of charge density fluctuations induced by GWs and the implications for astrophysics.
Stochastic Electrodynamics and the Compton effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franca, H.M.; Barranco, A.V.
1987-12-01
Some of the main qualitative features of the Compton effect are tried to be described within the realm of Classical Stochastic Electrodynamics (SED). It is found indications that the combined action of the incident wave (frequency ω), the radiation reaction force and the zero point fluctuating electromagnetic fields of SED, are able to given a high average recoil velocity v/c=α/(1+α) to the charged particle. The estimate of the parameter α gives α ∼ ℎω/mc 2 where 2Πℎ is the constant and mc 2 is the rest energy of the particle. It is verified that this recoil is just that necessary to explain the frequency shift, observed in the scattered radiation as due to a classical double Doppler shift. The differential cross section for the radiation scattered by the recoiling charge using classical electromagnetism also calculated. The same expression as obtained by Compton in his fundamental work of 1923 is found. (author) [pt
Gravitational waves and electrodynamics: new perspectives
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cabral, Francisco; Lobo, Francisco S.N. [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal)
2017-04-15
Given the recent direct measurement of gravitational waves (GWs) by the LIGO-VIRGO collaboration, the coupling between electromagnetic fields and gravity have a special relevance since it opens new perspectives for future GW detectors and also potentially provides information on the physics of highly energetic GW sources. We explore such couplings using the field equations of electrodynamics on (pseudo) Riemann manifolds and apply it to the background of a GW, seen as a linear perturbation of Minkowski geometry. Electric and magnetic oscillations are induced that propagate as electromagnetic waves and contain information as regards the GW which generates them. The most relevant results are the presence of longitudinal modes and dynamical polarization patterns of electromagnetic radiation induced by GWs. These effects might be amplified using appropriate resonators, effectively improving the signal to noise ratio around a specific frequency. We also briefly address the generation of charge density fluctuations induced by GWs and the implications for astrophysics. (orig.)
Quantum electrodynamics in curved space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchbinder, I.L.; Gitman, D.M.; Fradkin, E.S.
1981-01-01
The lagrangian of quantum electrodynamics in curved space-time is constructed and the interaction picture taking into account the external gravitational field exactly is introduced. The transform from the Heisenberg picture to the interaction picture is carried out in a manifestly covariant way. The properties of free spinor and electromagnetic quantum fields are discussed and conditions under which initial and final creation and annihilation operators are connected by unitarity transformation are indicated. The derivation of Feynman's rules for quantum processes are calculated on the base of generalized normal product of operators. The way of reduction formula derivations is indicated and the suitable Green's functions are introduced. A generating functional for this Green's function is defined and the system of functional equations for them is obtained. The representation of different generating funcationals by means of functional integrals is introduced. Some consequences of S-matrix unitary condition are considered which leads to the generalization of the optic theorem
Fluidic electrodynamics: Approach to electromagnetic propulsion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martins, Alexandre A.; Pinheiro, Mario J.
2009-01-01
We report on a new methodological approach to electrodynamics based on a fluidic viewpoint. We develop a systematic approach establishing analogies between physical magnitudes and isomorphism (structure-preserving mappings) between systems of equations. This methodological approach allows us to give a general expression for the hydromotive force, thus re-obtaining the Navier-Stokes equation departing from the appropriate electromotive force. From this ground we offer a fluidic approach to different kinds of issues with interest in propulsion, e.g., the force exerted by a charged particle on a body carrying current; the magnetic force between two parallel currents; the Magnus's force. It is shown how the intermingle between the fluid vector fields and electromagnetic fields leads to new insights on their dynamics. The new concepts introduced in this work suggest possible applications to electromagnetic (EM) propulsion devices and the mastery of the principles of producing electric fields of required configuration in plasma medium.
Kuniyal, Ravi Shankar; Uniyal, Rashmi; Biswas, Anindya; Nandan, Hemwati; Purohit, K. D.
2018-06-01
We investigate the geodesic motion of massless test particles in the background of a noncommutative geometry-inspired Schwarzschild black hole. The behavior of effective potential is analyzed in the equatorial plane and the possible motions of massless particles (i.e. photons) for different values of impact parameter are discussed accordingly. We have also calculated the frequency shift of photons in this space-time. Further, the mass parameter of a noncommutative inspired Schwarzschild black hole is computed in terms of the measurable redshift of photons emitted by massive particles moving along circular geodesics in equatorial plane. The strength of gravitational fields of noncommutative geometry-inspired Schwarzschild black hole and usual Schwarzschild black hole in General Relativity is also compared.
The effect of scattering on single photon transmission of optical angular momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrews, D L
2011-01-01
Schemes for the communication and registration of optical angular momentum depend on the fidelity of transmission between optical system components. It is known that electron spin can be faithfully relayed between exciton states in quantum dots; it has also been shown by several theoretical and experimental studies that the use of beams conveying orbital angular momentum can significantly extend the density and efficiency of such information transfer. However, it remains unclear to what extent the operation of such a concept at the single photon level is practicable—especially where this involves optical propagation through a material system, in which forward scattering events can intervene. The possibility of transmitting and decoding angular momentum over nanoscale distances itself raises other important issues associated with near-field interrogation. This paper provides a framework to address these and related issues. A quantum electrodynamical representation is constructed and used to pursue the consequences of individual photons, from a Laguerre–Gaussian beam, undergoing single and multiple scattering events in the course of propagation. In this context, issues concerning orbital angular momentum conservation, and its possible compromise, are tackled by identifying the relevant components of the electromagnetic scattering and coupling tensors, using an irreducible Cartesian basis. The physical interpretation broadly supports the fidelity of quantum information transmission, but it also identifies potential limitations of principle
The effect of scattering on single photon transmission of optical angular momentum
Andrews, D. L.
2011-06-01
Schemes for the communication and registration of optical angular momentum depend on the fidelity of transmission between optical system components. It is known that electron spin can be faithfully relayed between exciton states in quantum dots; it has also been shown by several theoretical and experimental studies that the use of beams conveying orbital angular momentum can significantly extend the density and efficiency of such information transfer. However, it remains unclear to what extent the operation of such a concept at the single photon level is practicable—especially where this involves optical propagation through a material system, in which forward scattering events can intervene. The possibility of transmitting and decoding angular momentum over nanoscale distances itself raises other important issues associated with near-field interrogation. This paper provides a framework to address these and related issues. A quantum electrodynamical representation is constructed and used to pursue the consequences of individual photons, from a Laguerre-Gaussian beam, undergoing single and multiple scattering events in the course of propagation. In this context, issues concerning orbital angular momentum conservation, and its possible compromise, are tackled by identifying the relevant components of the electromagnetic scattering and coupling tensors, using an irreducible Cartesian basis. The physical interpretation broadly supports the fidelity of quantum information transmission, but it also identifies potential limitations of principle.
Casimir-Lifshitz force for nonreciprocal media and applications to photonic topological insulators
Fuchs, Sebastian; Lindel, Frieder; Krems, Roman V.; Hanson, George W.; Antezza, Mauro; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi
2017-12-01
Based on the theory of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics, we generalize the expression of the Casimir force for nonreciprocal media. The essential ingredient of this result is the Green's tensor between two nonreciprocal semi-infinite slabs, including a reflexion matrix with four coefficients that mixes optical polarizations. This Green's tensor does not obey Lorentz's reciprocity and thus violates time-reversal symmetry. The general result for the Casimir force is analyzed in the retarded and nonretarded limits, concentrating on the influences arising from reflections with or without change of polarization. In a second step, we apply our general result to a photonic topological insulator whose nonreciprocity stems from an anisotropic permittivity tensor, namely InSb. We show that there is a regime for the distance between the slabs where the magnitude of the Casimir force is tunable by an external magnetic field. Furthermore, the strength of this tuning depends on the orientation of the magnetic field with respect to the slab surfaces.
Efficient modeling of photonic crystals with local Hermite polynomials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boucher, C. R.; Li, Zehao; Albrecht, J. D.; Ram-Mohan, L. R.
2014-01-01
Developing compact algorithms for accurate electrodynamic calculations with minimal computational cost is an active area of research given the increasing complexity in the design of electromagnetic composite structures such as photonic crystals, metamaterials, optical interconnects, and on-chip routing. We show that electric and magnetic (EM) fields can be calculated using scalar Hermite interpolation polynomials as the numerical basis functions without having to invoke edge-based vector finite elements to suppress spurious solutions or to satisfy boundary conditions. This approach offers several fundamental advantages as evidenced through band structure solutions for periodic systems and through waveguide analysis. Compared with reciprocal space (plane wave expansion) methods for periodic systems, advantages are shown in computational costs, the ability to capture spatial complexity in the dielectric distributions, the demonstration of numerical convergence with scaling, and variational eigenfunctions free of numerical artifacts that arise from mixed-order real space basis sets or the inherent aberrations from transforming reciprocal space solutions of finite expansions. The photonic band structure of a simple crystal is used as a benchmark comparison and the ability to capture the effects of spatially complex dielectric distributions is treated using a complex pattern with highly irregular features that would stress spatial transform limits. This general method is applicable to a broad class of physical systems, e.g., to semiconducting lasers which require simultaneous modeling of transitions in quantum wells or dots together with EM cavity calculations, to modeling plasmonic structures in the presence of EM field emissions, and to on-chip propagation within monolithic integrated circuits
Haeringen, W. van
In view of remaining obscurities and difficulties in existing treatments of the infrared divergences in quantum electrodynamics this problem has been considered anew. The approximate model introduced in 1937 by Bloch and Nordsieck is rediscussed. It is explicitly shown to be a good substitute for
Maxwell electrodynamics subjected to quantum vacuum fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gevorkyan, A. S.; Gevorkyan, A. A.
2011-01-01
The propagation of electromagnetic waves in the vacuum is considered taking into account quantum fluctuations in the limits of Maxwell-Langevin (ML) equations. For a model of “white noise” fluctuations, using ML equations, a second order partial differential equation is found which describes the quantum distribution of virtual particles in vacuum. It is proved that in order to satisfy observed facts, the Lamb Shift etc, the virtual particles should be quantized in unperturbed vacuum. It is shown that the quantized virtual particles in toto (approximately 86 percent) are condensed on the “ground state” energy level. It is proved that the extension of Maxwell electrodynamics with inclusion of the vacuum quantum field fluctuations may be constructed on a 6D space-time continuum with a 2D compactified subspace. Their influence on the refraction indexes of vacuum is studied.
Two-photon exchange corrections in elastic lepton-proton scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tomalak, Oleksandr; Vanderhaeghen, Marc [Johannes Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz (Germany)
2015-07-01
The measured value of the proton charge radius from the Lamb shift of energy levels in muonic hydrogen is in strong contradiction, by 7-8 standard deviations, with the value obtained from electronic hydrogen spectroscopy and the value extracted from unpolarized electron-proton scattering data. The dominant unaccounted higher order contribution in scattering experiments corresponds to the two photon exchange (TPE) diagram. The elastic contribution to the TPE correction was studied with the fixed momentum transfer dispersion relations and compared to the hadronic model with off-shell photon-nucleon vertices. A dispersion relation formalism with one subtraction was proposed. Theoretical predictions of the TPE elastic contribution to the unpolarized elastic electron-proton scattering and polarization transfer observables in the low momentum transfer region were made. The TPE formalism was generalized to the case of massive leptons and the elastic contribution was evaluated for the kinematics of upcoming muon-proton scattering experiment (MUSE).
Photon-Photon Collisions -- Past and Future
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, Stanley J.
2005-01-01
I give a brief review of the history of photon-photon physics and a survey of its potential at future electron-positron colliders. Exclusive hadron production processes in photon-photon and electron-photon collisions provide important tests of QCD at the amplitude level, particularly as measures of hadron distribution amplitudes. There are also important high energy γγ and eγ tests of quantum chromodynamics, including the production of jets in photon-photon collisions, deeply virtual Compton scattering on a photon target, and leading-twist single-spin asymmetries for a photon polarized normal to a production plane. Since photons couple directly to all fundamental fields carrying the electromagnetic current including leptons, quarks, W's and supersymmetric particles, high energy γγ collisions will provide a comprehensive laboratory for Higgs production and exploring virtually every aspect of the Standard Model and its extensions. High energy back-scattered laser beams will thus greatly extend the range of physics of the International Linear Collider
Review on Electrodynamic Energy Harvesters—A Classification Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roland Lausecker
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Beginning with a short historical sketch, electrodynamic energy harvesters with focus on vibration generators and volumes below 1dm3 are reviewed. The current challenges to generate up to several milliwatts of power from practically relevant flows and vibrations are addressed, and the variety of available solutions is sketched. Sixty-seven different harvester concepts from more than 130 publications are classified with respect to excitation, additional boundary conditions, design and fabrication. A chronological list of the harvester concepts with corresponding references provides an impression about the developments. Besides resonant harvester concepts, the review includes broadband approaches and mechanisms to harvest from flow. Finally, a short overview of harvesters in applications and first market ready concepts is given.
A generalization of Dirac non-linear electrodynamics, and spinning charged particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodrigues Junior, W.A.; Vaz Junior, J.; Recami, E.
1992-08-01
The Dirac non-linear electrodynamics is generalized by introducing two potentials (namely, the vector potential a and the pseudo-vector potential γ 5 B of the electromagnetic theory with charges and magnetic monopoles), and by imposing the pseudoscalar part of the product W W * to BE zero, with W = A + γ 5 B. Also, is demonstrated that the field equations of such a theory posses a soliton-like solution which can represent a priori a charged particle. (L.C.J.A.)
Photonic compressive sensing enabled data efficient time stretch optical coherence tomography
Mididoddi, Chaitanya K.; Wang, Chao
2018-03-01
Photonic time stretch (PTS) has enabled real time spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). However, this method generates a torrent of massive data at GHz stream rate, which requires capturing as per Nyquist principle. If the OCT interferogram signal is sparse in Fourier domain, which is always true for samples with limited number of layers, it can be captured at lower (sub-Nyquist) acquisition rate as per compressive sensing method. In this work we report a data compressed PTS-OCT system based on photonic compressive sensing with 66% compression with low acquisition rate of 50MHz and measurement speed of 1.51MHz per depth profile. A new method has also been proposed to improve the system with all-optical random pattern generation, which completely avoids electronic bottleneck in traditional binary pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) generators.
Modeling the 3-DOF dynamics of an electrodynamic Maglev suspension system with a passive sled
Boeij, de J.; Gutierrez, H.M.; Agarwal, R.; Steinbuch, M.
2003-01-01
A model that describes the 3-DOF dynamics of a passively levitated electro-dynamic maglevsystem is presented. The model is based on the flux-current-force interactions and the geometricrelationships between the levitation coils and the permanent magnets on the sled. The model ispresented in a
Lift to Drag Ratio Analysis in Magnetic Levitation with an Electrodynamic Wheel
Gutarra-Leon, Angel; Cordrey, Vincent; Majewski, Walerian
Our experiments explored inductive magnetic levitation (MagLev) using simple permanent magnets and conductive tracks. Our investigations used a circular Halbach array with a 1 Tesla variable magnetic field on the outer rim of the ring. Such a system is usually called an Electrodynamic Wheel (EDW). Rotating this wheel around a horizontal axis above or below a flat conducting surface should induce eddy currents in said surface through the variable magnetic flux. The eddy currents produce, in turn, their own magnetic fields, which interact with the magnets of the EDW. We constructed a four-inch diameter Electrodynamic Wheel using twelve Neodymium permanent magnets and demonstrated that the magnetic interactions produce both lift and drag forces on the EDW. These forces can be used for levitation and propulsion of the EDW to produce magnetic levitation without coils and complex control circuitry. We achieved full levitation of the non-magnetic aluminum and copper plates. Our results confirm the expected behavior of lift to drag ratio as proportional to (L/R) ω, with L and R being the inductance and resistance of the track plate, and ω being the angular velocity of the magnetic flux. Supported by grants from the Virginia Academy of Science, Society of Physics Students, Virginia Community College System, and the NVCC Educational Foundation.
Quantum electrodynamics at high temperature. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez-Estrada, R.F.
1988-01-01
The photon sector of QED in d = 3 spatial dimensions is analyzed at high temperature thereby generalizing nontrivially a previous study for d = 1. The imaginary time formalism and an improved renormalized perturbation theory which incorporates second order Debye screening are used. General results are presented for the leading high temperature contributions to all renormalized connected photon Green's functions for fixed external momenta (much smaller than the temperature) to all orders in the improved perturbation theory. Those leading contributions are ultraviolet finite, infrared convergent and gauge invariant, and display an interesting form of dimensional reduction at high temperature. A new path integral representations is given for the high temperature partition function with an external photon source, which is shown to generate all leading high temperature Green's functions mentioned above, and, so, it displays neatly the kind of dimensional reduction which makes QED to become simpler at high temperature. This limiting partition function corresponds to an imaginary time dependent electron positron field interacting with an electromagnetic field at zero imaginary time, and it depends on the renormalized electron mass and electric charge, the second order contribution to the usual renormalization constant Z 3 and a new mass term, which is associated to the photon field with vanishing Lorentz index. The new mass term corresponds to a finite number of diagrams in the high temperature improved perturbation theory and carriers ultraviolet divergences which are compensated for by other contributions (so that the leading high temperature Green's functions referred to above are ultraviolet finite). The dominant high temperature contributions to the renormalized thermodynamic potential to all perturbative orders: i) are given in terms of the above leading high-temperature contributions to the photon Green's functions (except for a few diagrams of low order in the
Photon Collider Physics with Real Photon Beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gronberg, J; Asztalos, S
2005-01-01
Photon-photon interactions have been an important probe into fundamental particle physics. Until recently, the only way to produce photon-photon collisions was parasitically in the collision of charged particles. Recent advances in short-pulse laser technology have made it possible to consider producing high intensity, tightly focused beams of real photons through Compton scattering. A linear e + e - collider could thus be transformed into a photon-photon collider with the addition of high power lasers. In this paper they show that it is possible to make a competitive photon-photon collider experiment using the currently mothballed Stanford Linear Collider. This would produce photon-photon collisions in the GeV energy range which would allow the discovery and study of exotic heavy mesons with spin states of zero and two
Understanding interference experiments with polarized light through photon trajectories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanz, A.S.; Davidovic, M.; Bozic, M.; Miret-Artes, S.
2010-01-01
Bohmian mechanics allows to visualize and understand the quantum-mechanical behavior of massive particles in terms of trajectories. As shown by Bialynicki-Birula, Electromagnetism also admits a hydrodynamical formulation when the existence of a wave function for photons (properly defined) is assumed. This formulation thus provides an alternative interpretation of optical phenomena in terms of photon trajectories, whose flow yields a pictorial view of the evolution of the electromagnetic energy density in configuration space. This trajectory-based theoretical framework is considered here to study and analyze the outcome from Young-type diffraction experiments within the context of the Arago-Fresnel laws. More specifically, photon trajectories in the region behind the two slits are obtained in the case where the slits are illuminated by a polarized monochromatic plane wave. Expressions to determine electromagnetic energy flow lines and photon trajectories within this scenario are provided, as well as a procedure to compute them in the particular case of gratings totally transparent inside the slits and completely absorbing outside them. As is shown, the electromagnetic energy flow lines obtained allow to monitor at each point of space the behavior of the electromagnetic energy flow and, therefore, to evaluate the effects caused on it by the presence (right behind each slit) of polarizers with the same or different polarization axes. This leads to a trajectory-based picture of the Arago-Fresnel laws for the interference of polarized light.