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Sample records for mass causing functional

  1. Slope of the mass function of low-mass stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkov, O.Yu.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that the modern method of obtaining the initial mass function contains a number of a uncertainties that can have a significant effect on the slope of the function in the low-mass section (m < m**). The influence of changes of the mass-luminosity relation, the scale of bolometric corrections, and the luminosity function on the form of the mass function is considered. The effect of photometrically unresolved binaries is also discussed. Some quantitative estimates are made, and it is shown that the slope of the initial mass function in the low-mass section can vary in wide ranges

  2. The low-luminosity stellar mass function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroupa, Pavel; Tout, C.A.; Gilmore, Gerard

    1990-01-01

    The stellar mass function for low-mass stars is constrained using the stellar luminosity function and the slope of the mass-luminosity relation. We investigate the range of mass functions for stars with absolute visual magnitude fainter than M V ≅ +5 which are consistent with both the local luminosity function and the rather poorly determined mass-absolute visual magnitude relation. Points of inflexion in the mass-luminosity relation exist because of the effects of H - , H 2 and of other molecules on the opacity and equation of state. The first two of these correspond to absolute magnitudes M V ≅ +7 and M V ≅ +12, respectively, at which structure is evident in the stellar luminosity function (a flattening and a maximum, respectively). Combining the mass-luminosity relation which shows these inflexion points with a peaked luminosity function, we test smooth mass functions in the mass range 0.9-0.1 the solar mass. (author)

  3. An Empirical Mass Function Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, S. G.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Power, C.

    2018-03-01

    The halo mass function, encoding the comoving number density of dark matter halos of a given mass, plays a key role in understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies. As such, it is a key goal of current and future deep optical surveys to constrain the mass function down to mass scales that typically host {L}\\star galaxies. Motivated by the proven accuracy of Press–Schechter-type mass functions, we introduce a related but purely empirical form consistent with standard formulae to better than 4% in the medium-mass regime, {10}10{--}{10}13 {h}-1 {M}ȯ . In particular, our form consists of four parameters, each of which has a simple interpretation, and can be directly related to parameters of the galaxy distribution, such as {L}\\star . Using this form within a hierarchical Bayesian likelihood model, we show how individual mass-measurement errors can be successfully included in a typical analysis, while accounting for Eddington bias. We apply our form to a question of survey design in the context of a semi-realistic data model, illustrating how it can be used to obtain optimal balance between survey depth and angular coverage for constraints on mass function parameters. Open-source Python and R codes to apply our new form are provided at http://mrpy.readthedocs.org and https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/tggd/index.html respectively.

  4. Adrenal Mass Causing Secondary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Darlene Y

    2015-11-01

    Most hypertensive patients have essential (primary) hypertension; only 5% to 10% have a secondary cause. Two clinical characteristics suggestive of secondary hypertension are early onset (hypertension (>180/110 mm Hg). When faced with these findings, clinicians should consider a secondary cause of hypertension. A 22-year-old woman being evaluated for asthma exacerbation in the emergency department was noted to have severe persistent hypertension. Additional evaluation revealed severe hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, and hypernatremia. The patient was admitted to the hospital for blood pressure management, electrolyte replacement, and further evaluation of presumed hyperaldosteronism. Diagnostic imaging revealed a large adrenal mass. Surgical resection was performed, leading to a diagnosis of hyperaldosteronism caused by adrenal carcinoma. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Secondary hypertension is far less common than essential hypertension; however, considering the large volume of patients seen in emergency departments, it is likely that some will have secondary hypertension. Emergency physicians should be aware of the clinical characteristics that suggest secondary hypertension so that the appropriate diagnostic and treatment pathways can be pursued. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. An unusual cause of paediatric abdominal pain: Mesenteric masses accompanied with volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Wang, Shan; Zhang, Jun; Kong, Xiang Ru; Zhao, Zhenzhen; Li, Chang Chun

    2016-07-01

    Volvulus caused by mesenteric masses is rare and may result in serious consequences. This study aimed to better characterize volvulus caused by mesenteric masses in children. A retrospective study was conducted in 24 patients who underwent surgical treatment between January 1994 and January 2014 in one single institution. There were 10 boys and 14 girls. The most frequent findings were abdominal pain (100%), emesis (91.7%) and nausea (83.3%). Physical examination showed positive ileus signs in majority cases, and palpable mass was found in half of the patients. Ultrasound and CT scans revealed mesenteric masses in 21 and 24 patients, and 'whirlpool sign' was observed in 19 and 22 patients, respectively. Emergency laparotomy was performed in all patients. Histological examination revealed that 18 cystic masses were lymphangioma, 5 solid cases were lipoma and the remaining one was lipoblastoma. The postoperative course was uneventful in 22 patients, and postoperative obstruction and incision infection occurred in 2 patients. There was no evidence of recurrence at follow-up. Volvulus caused by mesenteric masses is a rare but potentially life-threatening cause of abdominal pain, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of paediatric acute abdominal pain.

  6. The initial mass function for very low mass stars in the Hyades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, W.B.; Burrows, A.; Lunine, J.I.

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical luminosity functions at various evolutionary ages for stars and substellar objects (brown dwarfs), spanning the mass range from 0.03 to 0.2 solar mass is computed. These functions constrain the distribution of very low mass objects in a star cluster of known age. Calculations with a 1988-1989 survey of faint members of the Hyades cluster by Leggett and Hawkins (1988, 1989), a cluster whose age is 6 x 10 to the 8th yr are compared. The comparison shows that the survey does not reach sufficiently low luminosities to reveal brown dwarfs. A strong constraint on the initial mass function (IMF) for very low mass stars in the Hyades is obtained and it is inferred that its IMF does not increase with decreasing mass for the mass interval investigated here. Results imply at most a moderate contribution from brown dwarfs to the cluster mass, and to the Galaxy's mass if the Hyades are representative of the Galaxy as a whole. 10 refs

  7. Functional genomics by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens S.; Mann, M

    2000-01-01

    Systematic analysis of the function of genes can take place at the oligonucleotide or protein level. The latter has the advantage of being closest to function, since it is proteins that perform most of the reactions necessary for the cell. For most protein based ('proteomic') approaches to gene f...... numbers of intact proteins by mass spectrometry directly. Examples from this laboratory illustrate biological problem solving by modern mass spectrometric techniques. These include the analysis of the structure and function of the nucleolus and the analysis of signaling complexes....

  8. Satellite Orbital Precessions Caused by the Octupolar Mass Moment ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. I consider a satellite moving around a non-spherical body of mass M and equatorial radius R, and calculate its orbital precessions caused by the body's octupolar mass moment J4. I consider only the effects averaged over one orbital period T of the satellite. I give exact for- mulas, not restricted to any special values ...

  9. Quasar Mass Functions Across Cosmic Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    I present mass functions of actively accreting black holes detected in different quasar surveys which in concert cover a wide range of cosmic history. I briefly address what we learn from these mass functions. I summarize the motivation for such a study and the methods by which we determine black...

  10. Binary Systems and the Initial Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkov, O. Yu.

    2017-07-01

    In the present paper we discuss advantages and disadvantages of binary stars, which are important for star formation history determination. We show that to make definite conclusions of the initial mass function shape, it is necessary to study binary population well enough to correct the luminosity function for unresolved binaries; to construct the mass-luminosity relation based on wide binaries data, and to separate observational mass functions of primaries, of secondaries, and of unresolved binaries.

  11. Body fat and fat-free mass and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, Janne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the association between BMI and all-cause mortality could be disentangled into opposite effects of body fat and fat-free mass (FFM). RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: All-cause mortality was studied in the Danish follow-up study "Diet, Cancer and Health" with 27...... fat mass divided by height squared), FFM index (FFM divided by height squared), and mortality. All analyses were adjusted for smoking habits. RESULTS: Men and women showed similar associations. J-shaped associations were found between body fat mass index and mortality adjusted for FFM and smoking....... The mortality rate ratios in the upper part of body fat mass were 1.12 per kg/m2 (95% confidence interval: 1.07, 1.18) in men and 1.06 per kg/m2 (95% confidence interval: 1.02, 1.10) in women. Reversed J-shaped associations were found between FFM index and mortality with a tendency to level off for high values...

  12. Constraining the Stellar Mass Function in the Galactic Center via Mass Loss from Stellar Collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Rubin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dense concentration of stars and high-velocity dispersions in the Galactic center imply that stellar collisions frequently occur. Stellar collisions could therefore result in significant mass loss rates. We calculate the amount of stellar mass lost due to indirect and direct stellar collisions and find its dependence on the present-day mass function of stars. We find that the total mass loss rate in the Galactic center due to stellar collisions is sensitive to the present-day mass function adopted. We use the observed diffuse X-ray luminosity in the Galactic center to preclude any present-day mass functions that result in mass loss rates >10-5M⨀yr−1 in the vicinity of ~1″. For present-day mass functions of the form, dN/dM∝M-α, we constrain the present-day mass function to have a minimum stellar mass ≲7M⨀ and a power-law slope ≳1.25. We also use this result to constrain the initial mass function in the Galactic center by considering different star formation scenarios.

  13. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate ( 99 mTc0 4 ) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and 99 mTc0 4 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland

  14. Low-mass stars in globular clusters. III. The mass function of 47 Tucanae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marchi, G.; Paresce, F.

    1995-12-01

    We have used the WFPC2 on board HST to investigate the stellar population in a field located 4'6 E of the center of the globular cluster 47 Tuc (NGC 104), close to the half-mass radius, through wide band imaging at 606 and 812nm. A total of ~3000 stars are accurately classified by two-color photometry to form a color-magnitude diagram extending down to a limiting magnitude m_814_=~m_I_=~24. A rich cluster main sequence is detected spanning the range from m_814_=~18 through m_814_=~23, where it spreads considerably due to the increasing photometric uncertainty and galaxy contamination. A secondary sequence of objects is also detected, parallel to the main sequence, as expected for a population of binary stars. The measured binary fraction in the range 195%. The main sequence luminosity function obtained from the observed CMD increases with decreasing luminosity following a power-law trend with index α=~0.15 in the range 5crowding. On the basis of the available mass-luminosity relation for this metallicity, the resultant mass function shows a power-law increase in numbers for decreasing masses in the range 0.8-0.3Msun_ with a slope α=~1.5, but then flattens out in the 0.3-0.15Msun_ range. The comparison of the mass function of 47 Tuc with that of NGC 6397 (Paper I) and of M 15 (Paper II), previously investigated with the same instrumentation, suggests that the stellar population near the half-mass radius of these clusters should not be very sensitive to either internal or externally-driven dynamical processes. The difference between their mass functions could then be attributed to metallicity, reflecting an intrinsic difference in their initial mass functions, unless mass-segregation is stronger in 47 Tuc than in the other two clusters. This latter circumstance could be due, for instance, to the large number of binaries discovered in 47 Tuc. In all cases, however, the mass function is found to flatten below 0.3Msun_ and the flattening is most likely an intrinsic

  15. Accurate mass and velocity functions of dark matter haloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparat, Johan; Prada, Francisco; Yepes, Gustavo; Klypin, Anatoly

    2017-08-01

    N-body cosmological simulations are an essential tool to understand the observed distribution of galaxies. We use the MultiDark simulation suite, run with the Planck cosmological parameters, to revisit the mass and velocity functions. At redshift z = 0, the simulations cover four orders of magnitude in halo mass from ˜1011M⊙ with 8783 874 distinct haloes and 532 533 subhaloes. The total volume used is ˜515 Gpc3, more than eight times larger than in previous studies. We measure and model the halo mass function, its covariance matrix w.r.t halo mass and the large-scale halo bias. With the formalism of the excursion-set mass function, we explicit the tight interconnection between the covariance matrix, bias and halo mass function. We obtain a very accurate (function. We also model the subhalo mass function and its relation to the distinct halo mass function. The set of models obtained provides a complete and precise framework for the description of haloes in the concordance Planck cosmology. Finally, we provide precise analytical fits of the Vmax maximum velocity function up to redshift z publicly available in the Skies and Universes data base.

  16. The ALFALFA H I mass function: a dichotomy in the low-mass slope and a locally suppressed `knee' mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Michael G.; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Moorman, Crystal

    2018-06-01

    We present the most precise measurement of the z = 0 H I mass function (HIMF) to date based on the final catalogue of the ALFALFA (Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA) blind H I survey of the nearby Universe. The Schechter function fit has a `knee' mass log (M_{*} h2_{70}/M_{⊙}) = 9.94 ± 0.01 ± 0.05, a low-mass slope parameter α = -1.25 ± 0.02 ± 0.1, and a normalization φ _{*} = (4.5 ± 0.2 ± 0.8) × 10^{-3} h3_{70} Mpc^{-3 dex^{-1}}, with both random and systematic uncertainties as quoted. Together these give an estimate of the H I content of the z = 0 Universe as Ω _{H I} = (3.9 ± 0.1 ± 0.6) × 10^{-4} h^{-1}_{70} (corrected for H I self-absorption). Our analysis of the uncertainties indicates that the `knee' mass is a cosmologically fair measurement of the z = 0 value, with its largest uncertainty originating from the absolute flux calibration, but that the low-mass slope is only representative of the local Universe. We also explore large-scale trends in α and M* across the ALFALFA volume. Unlike with the 40 per cent sample, there is now sufficient coverage in both of the survey fields to make an independent determination of the HIMF in each. We find a large discrepancy in the low-mass slope (Δα = 0.14 ± 0.03) between the two regions, and argue that this is likely caused by the presence of a deep void in one field and the Virgo cluster in the other. Furthermore, we find that the value of the `knee' mass within the Local Volume appears to be suppressed by 0.18 ± 0.04 dex compared to the global ALFALFA value, which explains the lower value measured by the shallower H I Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS). We discuss possible explanations and interpretations of these results and how they can be expanded on with future surveys.

  17. Multiquark masses and wave functions through modified Green's function Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerbikov, B.O.; Polikarpov, M.I.; Shevchenko, L.V.

    1987-01-01

    The Modified Green's function Monte Carlo method (MGFMC) is used to calculate the masses and ground-state wave functions of multiquark systems in the potential model. The previously developed MGFMC is generalized in order to treat systems containing quarks with inequal masses. The obtained results are presented with the Cornell potential for the masses and the wave functions of light and heavy flavoured baryons and multiquark states (N=6, 9, 12) made of light quarks

  18. The luminosity and mass functions of the Pleiades: low-mass stars and brown dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambly, N.C.; Jameson, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    COSMOS measurements of R and I Schmidt plates are used to determine the luminosity function and hence mass function of the Pleiades open cluster. Star counts are made in the cluster and the field star contribution, measured outside the cluster, is subtracted. A lower limit of 30 brown dwarfs is found; the mass function is flat at the lowest masses. (author)

  19. Planetary mass function and planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominik, M.

    2011-02-01

    With planets orbiting stars, a planetary mass function should not be seen as a low-mass extension of the stellar mass function, but a proper formalism needs to take care of the fact that the statistical properties of planet populations are linked to the properties of their respective host stars. This can be accounted for by describing planet populations by means of a differential planetary mass-radius-orbit function, which together with the fraction of stars with given properties that are orbited by planets and the stellar mass function allows the derivation of all statistics for any considered sample. These fundamental functions provide a framework for comparing statistics that result from different observing techniques and campaigns which all have their very specific selection procedures and detection efficiencies. Moreover, recent results both from gravitational microlensing campaigns and radial-velocity surveys of stars indicate that planets tend to cluster in systems rather than being the lonely child of their respective parent star. While planetary multiplicity in an observed system becomes obvious with the detection of several planets, its quantitative assessment however comes with the challenge to exclude the presence of further planets. Current exoplanet samples begin to give us first hints at the population statistics, whereas pictures of planet parameter space in its full complexity call for samples that are 2-4 orders of magnitude larger. In order to derive meaningful statistics, however, planet detection campaigns need to be designed in such a way that well-defined fully deterministic target selection, monitoring and detection criteria are applied. The probabilistic nature of gravitational microlensing makes this technique an illustrative example of all the encountered challenges and uncertainties.

  20. AN INITIAL MASS FUNCTION STUDY OF THE DWARF STARBURST GALAXY NGC 4214

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J. E.; Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Chandar, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Lee, J. C.; Whitmore, B. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Elmegreen, B. G. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States); Kennicutt, R. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge University, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kissel, J. S. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Da Silva, Robert L.; Krumholz, Mark R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); O' Connell, R. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Dopita, M. A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Frogel, Jay A. [Galaxies Unlimited, 1 Tremblant Court, Lutherville, MD (United States); Kim, Hwihyun, E-mail: jandrews@astro.umass.edu, E-mail: callzetti@astro.umass.edu [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    The production rate of ionizing photons in young ({<=}8 Myr), unresolved stellar clusters in the nearby irregular galaxy NGC 4214 is probed using multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 data. We normalize the ionizing photon rate by the cluster mass to investigate the upper end of the stellar initial mass function (IMF). We have found that within the uncertainties the upper end of the stellar IMF appears to be universal in this galaxy, and that deviations from a universal IMF can be attributed to stochastic sampling of stars in clusters with masses {approx}<10{sup 3} M{sub Sun }. Furthermore, we have found that there does not seem to be a dependence of the maximum stellar mass on the cluster mass. We have also found that for massive clusters, feedback may cause an underrepresentation in H{alpha} luminosities, which needs to be taken into account when conducting this type of analysis.

  1. Mass Estinctions Caused by Large Bolide Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavarez, Luis W.

    1987-01-01

    In this talk, I will describe the wealth of evidence that has forced my colleagues and me to conclude that the great mass extinctions, 65 million years ago, were caused by a large bolide impact on the earth. Bolide is a new word to most people, and it means any piece of solar system debris, such as a meteorite, asteroid, or comet nucleus. As I will show, the bolide responsible for the extinction of most of the then existing species, including the dinosaurs, was about 10 kilometers in diameter.

  2. Stellar Initial Mass Function: Trends With Galaxy Mass And Radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Taniya

    2017-06-01

    There is currently no consensus about the exact shape and, in particular, the universality of the stellar initial mass function (IMF). For massive galaxies, it has been found that near-infrared (NIR) absorption features, which are sensitive to the ratio of dwarf to giant stars, deviate from a Milky Way-like IMF; their modelling seems to require a larger fraction of low mass stars. There are now increasing results looking at whether the IMF varies not only with galaxy mass, but also radially within galaxies. The SDSS-IV/MaNGA integral-field survey will provide spatially resolved spectroscopy for 10,000 galaxies at R 2000 from 360-1000nm. Spectra of early-type galaxies were stacked to achieve high S/N which is particularly important for features in the NIR. Trends with galaxy radius and mass were compared to stellar population models for a range of absorption features in order to separate degeneracies due to changes in stellar population parameters, such as age, metallicity and element abundances, with potential changes in the IMF. Results for 611 galaxies show that we do not require an IMF steeper than Kroupa as a function of galaxy mass or radius based on the NaI index. The Wing-Ford band hints towards a steeper IMF at large radii however we do not have reliable measurements for the most massive galaxies.

  3. Renal function after prolonged hypotensive anesthesia and surgery in dogs with reduced renal mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, E A; Rawlings, C A; Finco, D R; Crowell, W A

    1981-10-01

    The effect of prolonged hypotensive anesthesia and surgery on renal function was studied in 8 dogs with decreased renal mass. Renal mass was reduced by unilateral nephrectomy and ligation of 4 of the 6 terminal renal artery branches of the opposite kidney. One week after reduction in renal mass, the dogs were azotemic with a serum urea nitrogen (SUN) value of 65.8 +/- 11.5 mg/dl. Glomerular filtration rate, as estimated by 14C-inulin clearance, was 0.66 +/- 0.19 ml/kg of body weight/hour. A mean arterial pressure of less than 75 mm of Hg was maintained for 4 hours in dogs given 2.3 +/- 0.7% halothane. An exploratory laparotomy lasting 1 hour was performed. The day after the hypotensive episode, 3 dogs began vomiting, became dehydrated, and had SUN values greater than 100 mg/dl. The SUN values returned to base-line values after the dogs were rehydrated. Eight days after the hypotensive episode, 14C-inulin clearance decreased 15.2 +/- 8.2% (P less than 0.005) compared with base-line clearance values. Light microscopic and electron microscopic observations of the kidneys did not demonstrate acute renal failure. Prolonged hypotensive anesthesia can cause a decrease in renal function, and may cause prerenal uremia and/or acute renal failure.

  4. Hepatic Mass Caused by Fasciola Hepatica: A Tricky Differential Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Bülent; Köklü, Seyfettin; Gedikoğlu, Gökhan

    2013-01-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infestation caused by the trematode fasciola hepatica. It presents a wide spectrum of clinical pictures ranging from fever and eosinophilia to ambiguous gastrointestinal symptoms in the acute phase. However, it may often be overlooked, especially in the acute phase, because of uncertain symptoms. Fasciola hepatica can have an initial presentation similar to the presentation of malignancy. Here, we report a case of a hepatic mass caused by fasciola hepatica. PMID:24080633

  5. Mass functions for eight galactic clusters in the solar neighborhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francic, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    Mass functions for eight galactic clusters in the solar neighborhood have been obtained. The mass functions have been determined from proper motion membership probabilities and unlike similar investigations, corrected for outlying cluster stars. The membership probabilities have been determined from the joint proper motion and surface density distributions for the field and clusters stars. They have also been corrected for any magnitude dependences. Comparison of the mass functions with the Salpeter IMF shows that the older clusters tend to be deficient in the number of low mass stars, while the younger clusters tend to have more. Analysis of the relaxation times shows that the deficiency of faint stars in the older clusters is likely due to their evaporation from the cluster. The combined mass function for six of the cluster results in a power law with a power law index of -1.97 ± 0.17 for 1.1 < M/Mass of sun < 2.5. This agrees with a recent determination of the field star IMF where the power law index is -2.00 ± 0.18 for 0.8 < M/Mass of sun < 18. If the older clusters are not considered, then comparison of the combined mass function with the individual cluster mass functions shows that the universality hypothesis cannot be denied

  6. Mass functions from the excursion set model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiotelis, Nicos; Del Popolo, Antonino

    2017-11-01

    Aims: We aim to study the stochastic evolution of the smoothed overdensity δ at scale S of the form δ(S) = ∫0S K(S,u)dW(u), where K is a kernel and dW is the usual Wiener process. Methods: For a Gaussian density field, smoothed by the top-hat filter, in real space, we used a simple kernel that gives the correct correlation between scales. A Monte Carlo procedure was used to construct random walks and to calculate first crossing distributions and consequently mass functions for a constant barrier. Results: We show that the evolution considered here improves the agreement with the results of N-body simulations relative to analytical approximations which have been proposed from the same problem by other authors. In fact, we show that an evolution which is fully consistent with the ideas of the excursion set model, describes accurately the mass function of dark matter haloes for values of ν ≤ 1 and underestimates the number of larger haloes. Finally, we show that a constant threshold of collapse, lower than it is usually used, it is able to produce a mass function which approximates the results of N-body simulations for a variety of redshifts and for a wide range of masses. Conclusions: A mass function in good agreement with N-body simulations can be obtained analytically using a lower than usual constant collapse threshold.

  7. Evolution of Mass Functions of Coeval Stars through Wind Mass Loss and Binary Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, F.R.N.; Izzard, R.G.; Langer, N.; de Mink, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate determinations of stellar mass functions and ages of stellar populations are crucial to much of astrophysics. We analyze the evolution of stellar mass functions of coeval main-sequence stars, including all relevant aspects of single and binary star evolution. We show that the slope of the

  8. The maximal-density mass function for primordial black hole dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Benjamin V.; Profumo, Stefano; Yant, Jackson

    2018-04-01

    The advent of gravitational wave astronomy has rekindled interest in primordial black holes (PBH) as a dark matter candidate. As there are many different observational probes of the PBH density across different masses, constraints on PBH models are dependent on the functional form of the PBH mass function. This complicates general statements about the mass functions allowed by current data, and, in particular, about the maximum total density of PBH. Numerical studies suggest that some forms of extended mass functions face tighter constraints than monochromatic mass functions, but they do not preclude the existence of a functional form for which constraints are relaxed. We use analytical arguments to show that the mass function which maximizes the fraction of the matter density in PBH subject to all constraints is a finite linear combination of monochromatic mass functions. We explicitly compute the maximum fraction of dark matter in PBH for different combinations of current constraints, allowing for total freedom of the mass function. Our framework elucidates the dependence of the maximum PBH density on the form of observational constraints, and we discuss the implications of current and future constraints for the viability of the PBH dark matter paradigm.

  9. Study of incidence and causes of repeated mass miniature radiography of chest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandan, S; Bhargava, S K; Sharma, H M; Ved, P K; Singh, Dhan [T.B. Demonstration and Training Centre, Agra (India)

    1976-01-01

    A study has been conducted to find out the retake rate of mass miniature radiography of chest and causes of retake. The rate has been found to be 1.96% and common causes of retake are too light or dark film and movement (motion) other than respiratory. Precautionary measures against these causes should prevent unnecessary exposure of patients to radiation and also ensure economy.

  10. TAK1 regulates skeletal muscle mass and mitochondrial function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindi, Sajedah M.; Sato, Shuichi; Xiong, Guangyan; Bohnert, Kyle R.; Gibb, Andrew A.; Gallot, Yann S.; McMillan, Joseph D.; Hill, Bradford G.

    2018-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass is regulated by a complex array of signaling pathways. TGF-β–activated kinase 1 (TAK1) is an important signaling protein, which regulates context-dependent activation of multiple intracellular pathways. However, the role of TAK1 in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass remains unknown. Here, we report that inducible inactivation of TAK1 causes severe muscle wasting, leading to kyphosis, in both young and adult mice.. Inactivation of TAK1 inhibits protein synthesis and induces proteolysis, potentially through upregulating the activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy. Phosphorylation and enzymatic activity of AMPK are increased, whereas levels of phosphorylated mTOR and p38 MAPK are diminished upon inducible inactivation of TAK1 in skeletal muscle. In addition, targeted inactivation of TAK1 leads to the accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria and oxidative stress in skeletal muscle of adult mice. Inhibition of TAK1 does not attenuate denervation-induced muscle wasting in adult mice. Finally, TAK1 activity is highly upregulated during overload-induced skeletal muscle growth, and inactivation of TAK1 prevents myofiber hypertrophy in response to functional overload. Overall, our study demonstrates that TAK1 is a key regulator of skeletal muscle mass and oxidative metabolism. PMID:29415881

  11. AN INITIAL MASS FUNCTION FOR INDIVIDUAL STARS IN GALACTIC DISKS. I. CONSTRAINING THE SHAPE OF THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parravano, Antonio; McKee, Christopher F.; Hollenbach, David J.

    2011-01-01

    We derive a semi-empirical galactic initial mass function (IMF) from observational constraints. We assume that the IMF, ψ(m), is a smooth function of the stellar mass m. The mass dependence of the proposed IMF is determined by five parameters: the low-mass slope γ, the high-mass slope -Γ (taken to be -1.35), the characteristic mass m ch (∼ the peak mass of the IMF), and the lower and upper limits on the mass, m l and m u (taken to be 0.004 and 120 M sun , respectively): ψ(m)dln m ∝ m -Γ {1 - exp [- (m/m ch ) γ+Γ ]}dln m. The values of γ and m ch are derived from two integral constraints: (1) the ratio of the number density of stars in the range m = 0.1-0.6 M sun to that in the range m = 0.6-0.8 M sun as inferred from the mass distribution of field stars in the local neighborhood and (2) the ratio of the number of stars in the range m = 0.08-1 M sun to the number of brown dwarfs in the range m = 0.03-0.08 M sun in young clusters. The IMF satisfying the above constraints is characterized by the parameters γ = 0.51 and m ch = 0.35 M sun (which corresponds to a peak mass of 0.27 M sun ). This IMF agrees quite well with the Chabrier IMF for the entire mass range over which we have compared with data, but predicts significantly more stars with masses sun ; we also compare with other IMFs in current use and give a number of important parameters implied by the IMFs.

  12. THE DEMOGRAPHICS OF BROAD-LINE QUASARS IN THE MASS-LUMINOSITY PLANE. II. BLACK HOLE MASS AND EDDINGTON RATIO FUNCTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Brandon C. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93107 (United States); Shen, Yue [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS-51, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    We employ a flexible Bayesian technique to estimate the black hole (BH) mass and Eddington ratio functions for Type 1 (i.e., broad line) quasars from a uniformly selected data set of {approx}58, 000 quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7. We find that the SDSS becomes significantly incomplete at M {sub BH} {approx}< 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun} or L/L {sub Edd} {approx}< 0.07, and that the number densities of Type 1 quasars continue to increase down to these limits. Both the mass and Eddington ratio functions show evidence of downsizing, with the most massive and highest Eddington ratio BHs experiencing Type 1 quasar phases first, although the Eddington ratio number densities are flat at z < 2. We estimate the maximum Eddington ratio of Type 1 quasars in the observable universe to be L/L {sub Edd} {approx} 3. Consistent with our results in Shen and Kelly, we do not find statistical evidence for a so-called sub-Eddington boundary in the mass-luminosity plane of broad-line quasars, and demonstrate that such an apparent boundary in the observed distribution can be caused by selection effect and errors in virial BH mass estimates. Based on the typical Eddington ratio in a given mass bin, we estimate growth times for the BHs in Type 1 quasars and find that they are comparable to or longer than the age of the universe, implying an earlier phase of accelerated (i.e., with higher Eddington ratios) and possibly obscured growth. The large masses probed by our sample imply that most of our BHs reside in what are locally early-type galaxies, and we interpret our results within the context of models of self-regulated BH growth.

  13. The Incomplete Conditional Stellar Mass Function: Unveiling the Stellar Mass Functions of Galaxies at 0.1 < Z < 0.8 from BOSS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hong; Yang, Xiaohu; Lu, Yi

    2018-05-01

    We propose a novel method to constrain the missing fraction of galaxies using galaxy clustering measurements in the galaxy conditional stellar mass function (CSMF) framework, which is applicable to surveys that suffer significantly from sample selection effects. The clustering measurements, which are not sensitive to the random sampling (missing fraction) of galaxies, are widely used to constrain the stellar–halo mass relation (SHMR). By incorporating a missing fraction (incompleteness) component into the CSMF model (ICSMF), we use the incomplete stellar mass function and galaxy clustering to simultaneously constrain the missing fractions and the SHMRs. Tests based on mock galaxy catalogs with a few typical missing fraction models show that this method can accurately recover the missing fraction and the galaxy SHMR, hence providing us with reliable measurements of the galaxy stellar mass functions. We then apply it to the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) over the redshift range of 0.1 1011 M ⊙. We find that the sample completeness for BOSS is over 80% at z account, we provide accurate measurements of the stellar mass functions for galaxies with {10}11 {M}ȯ < {M}* < {10}12 {M}ȯ , as well as the SHMRs, over the redshift range 0.1 < z < 0.8 in this largest galaxy redshift survey.

  14. ROCK MASS DAMAGED ZONE CAUSED BY BLASTING DURING TUNNEL EXCAVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Antičević

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Design of underground spaces, including tunnels, and repositories for radioactive waste include the application of the same or similar technologies. Tunnel excavation by blasting inevitably results in the damage in the rock mass around the excavation profile. The damage in the rock mass immediately next to the tunnel profile emerges as the expanding of the existing cracks and the appearance of new cracks, i.e. as the change of the physical and-mechanical properties of the rock mass. Concerning the design of deep geological repositories, requirements in terms of damaged rock are the same or more rigorous than for the design of tunnel. The aforementioned research is directed towards determining the depth of damage zone caused by blasting. The depth of the damage zone is determined by measuring the changes of physical and-mechanical properties of the rock mass around the tunnel excavation profile. By this research the drilling and blasting parameters were correlated with the depth and size of the damage zone (the paper is published in Croatian.

  15. Functioning adrenal myelolipoma: A rare cause of hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendar Jakka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-occurrence of adrenal incidentaloma with hypertension calls for evaluation of endocrine causes including pheochromocytoma, Cushing′s disease, and primary aldosteronism. We are reporting 40-years-old man who presented with hypertension and adrenal mass. He had elevated metanephrines, histology of resected adrenal mass revealed adrenal myelolipoma, and immuno-histochemistry was positive for chromogranin A. Both his blood pressure and urinary metanephrines returned to normal after surgery. The association of hypertension and adrenal myelolipoma may not be entirely coincidental, as it may be associated with secreting catecholamine. Literature on such an uncommon association is reviewed briefly as well.

  16. The baryonic mass function of galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, J I; Trentham, Neil

    2005-12-15

    In the Big Bang about 5% of the mass that was created was in the form of normal baryonic matter (neutrons and protons). Of this about 10% ended up in galaxies in the form of stars or of gas (that can be in molecules, can be atomic, or can be ionized). In this work, we measure the baryonic mass function of galaxies, which describes how the baryonic mass is distributed within galaxies of different types (e.g. spiral or elliptical) and of different sizes. This can provide useful constraints on our current cosmology, convolved with our understanding of how galaxies form. This work relies on various large astronomical surveys, e.g. the optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey (to observe stars) and the HIPASS radio survey (to observe atomic gas). We then perform an integral over our mass function to determine the cosmological density of baryons in galaxies: Omega(b,gal)=0.0035. Most of these baryons are in stars: Omega(*)=0.0028. Only about 20% are in gas. The error on the quantities, as determined from the range obtained between different methods, is ca 10%; systematic errors may be much larger. Most (ca 90%) of the baryons in the Universe are not in galaxies. They probably exist in a warm/hot intergalactic medium. Searching for direct observational evidence and deeper theoretical understanding for this will form one of the major challenges for astronomy in the next decade.

  17. Photon structure functions with heavy particle mass effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uematsu, Tsuneo, E-mail: uematsu@scphys.kyoto-u.jp [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Maskawa Institute for Science and Culture, Kyoto Sangyo University, Kamigamo, Kita-ku, Kyoto 603-8555 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    In the framework of the perturbative QCD we investigate heavy particle mass effects on the unpolarized and polarized photon structure functions, F{sub 2}{sup γ} and g{sub 1}{sup γ}, respectively. We present our basic formalism to treat heavy particle mass effects to NLO in perturbative QCD. We also study heavy quark effects on the QCD sum rule for the first moment of g{sub 1}{sup γ}, which is related to axial anomaly. The photon structure function in supersymmetric QCD is also briefly discussed.

  18. On the abundance of extreme voids II: a survey of void mass functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chongchitnan, Siri; Hunt, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The abundance of cosmic voids can be described by an analogue of halo mass functions for galaxy clusters. In this work, we explore a number of void mass functions: from those based on excursion-set theory to new mass functions obtained by modifying halo mass functions. We show how different void mass functions vary in their predictions for the largest void expected in an observational volume, and compare those predictions to observational data. Our extreme-value formalism is shown to be a new practical tool for testing void theories against simulation and observation.

  19. The f ( R ) halo mass function in the cosmic web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun-Bates, F. von; Winther, H.A.; Alonso, D.; Devriendt, J., E-mail: francesca.vonbraun-bates@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: hans.a.winther@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: david.alonso@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: julien.devriendt@physics.ox.ac.uk [Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-01

    An important indicator of modified gravity is the effect of the local environment on halo properties. This paper examines the influence of the local tidal structure on the halo mass function, the halo orientation, spin and the concentration-mass relation. We use the excursion set formalism to produce a halo mass function conditional on large-scale structure. Our simple model agrees well with simulations on large scales at which the density field is linear or weakly non-linear. Beyond this, our principal result is that f ( R ) does affect halo abundances, the halo spin parameter and the concentration-mass relationship in an environment-independent way, whereas we find no appreciable deviation from \\text(ΛCDM) for the mass function with fixed environment density, nor the alignment of the orientation and spin vectors of the halo to the eigenvectors of the local cosmic web. There is a general trend for greater deviation from \\text(ΛCDM) in underdense environments and for high-mass haloes, as expected from chameleon screening.

  20. THE PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY. IV. A PROBABILISTIC APPROACH TO INFERRING THE HIGH-MASS STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION AND OTHER POWER-LAW FUNCTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Clifton Johnson, L.; Beerman, Lori C.; Williams, Benjamin F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Hogg, David W.; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel T. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Rix, Hans-Walter; Gouliermis, Dimitrios [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon Company, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Lang, Dustin [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Gordon, Karl D.; Kalirai, Jason S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Skillman, Evan D., E-mail: dweisz@astro.washington.edu [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2013-01-10

    We present a probabilistic approach for inferring the parameters of the present-day power-law stellar mass function (MF) of a resolved young star cluster. This technique (1) fully exploits the information content of a given data set; (2) can account for observational uncertainties in a straightforward way; (3) assigns meaningful uncertainties to the inferred parameters; (4) avoids the pitfalls associated with binning data; and (5) can be applied to virtually any resolved young cluster, laying the groundwork for a systematic study of the high-mass stellar MF (M {approx}> 1 M {sub Sun }). Using simulated clusters and Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the probability distribution functions, we show that estimates of the MF slope, {alpha}, are unbiased and that the uncertainty, {Delta}{alpha}, depends primarily on the number of observed stars and on the range of stellar masses they span, assuming that the uncertainties on individual masses and the completeness are both well characterized. Using idealized mock data, we compute the theoretical precision, i.e., lower limits, on {alpha}, and provide an analytic approximation for {Delta}{alpha} as a function of the observed number of stars and mass range. Comparison with literature studies shows that {approx}3/4 of quoted uncertainties are smaller than the theoretical lower limit. By correcting these uncertainties to the theoretical lower limits, we find that the literature studies yield ({alpha}) = 2.46, with a 1{sigma} dispersion of 0.35 dex. We verify that it is impossible for a power-law MF to obtain meaningful constraints on the upper mass limit of the initial mass function, beyond the lower bound of the most massive star actually observed. We show that avoiding substantial biases in the MF slope requires (1) including the MF as a prior when deriving individual stellar mass estimates, (2) modeling the uncertainties in the individual stellar masses, and (3) fully characterizing and then explicitly modeling the

  1. THE PANCHROMATIC HUBBLE ANDROMEDA TREASURY. IV. A PROBABILISTIC APPROACH TO INFERRING THE HIGH-MASS STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION AND OTHER POWER-LAW FUNCTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Clifton Johnson, L.; Beerman, Lori C.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Hogg, David W.; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel T.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Gouliermis, Dimitrios; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Lang, Dustin; Bell, Eric F.; Gordon, Karl D.; Kalirai, Jason S.; Skillman, Evan D.

    2013-01-01

    We present a probabilistic approach for inferring the parameters of the present-day power-law stellar mass function (MF) of a resolved young star cluster. This technique (1) fully exploits the information content of a given data set; (2) can account for observational uncertainties in a straightforward way; (3) assigns meaningful uncertainties to the inferred parameters; (4) avoids the pitfalls associated with binning data; and (5) can be applied to virtually any resolved young cluster, laying the groundwork for a systematic study of the high-mass stellar MF (M ∼> 1 M ☉ ). Using simulated clusters and Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the probability distribution functions, we show that estimates of the MF slope, α, are unbiased and that the uncertainty, Δα, depends primarily on the number of observed stars and on the range of stellar masses they span, assuming that the uncertainties on individual masses and the completeness are both well characterized. Using idealized mock data, we compute the theoretical precision, i.e., lower limits, on α, and provide an analytic approximation for Δα as a function of the observed number of stars and mass range. Comparison with literature studies shows that ∼3/4 of quoted uncertainties are smaller than the theoretical lower limit. By correcting these uncertainties to the theoretical lower limits, we find that the literature studies yield (α) = 2.46, with a 1σ dispersion of 0.35 dex. We verify that it is impossible for a power-law MF to obtain meaningful constraints on the upper mass limit of the initial mass function, beyond the lower bound of the most massive star actually observed. We show that avoiding substantial biases in the MF slope requires (1) including the MF as a prior when deriving individual stellar mass estimates, (2) modeling the uncertainties in the individual stellar masses, and (3) fully characterizing and then explicitly modeling the completeness for stars of a given mass. The precision on MF

  2. Comparison of muscle/lean mass measurement methods: correlation with functional and biochemical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehring, B; Siglinsky, E; Krueger, D; Evans, W; Hellerstein, M; Yamada, Y; Binkley, N

    2018-03-01

    DXA-measured lean mass is often used to assess muscle mass but has limitations. Thus, we compared DXA lean mass with two novel methods-bioelectric impedance spectroscopy and creatine (methyl-d3) dilution. The examined methodologies did not measure lean mass similarly and the correlation with muscle biomarkers/function varied. Muscle function tests predict adverse health outcomes better than lean mass measurement. This may reflect limitations of current mass measurement methods. Newer approaches, e.g., bioelectric impedance spectroscopy (BIS) and creatine (methyl-d3) dilution (D3-C), may more accurately assess muscle mass. We hypothesized that BIS and D3-C measured muscle mass would better correlate with function and bone/muscle biomarkers than DXA measured lean mass. Evaluations of muscle/lean mass, function, and serum biomarkers were obtained in older community-dwelling adults. Mass was assessed by DXA, BIS, and orally administered D3-C. Grip strength, timed up and go, and jump power were examined. Potential muscle/bone serum biomarkers were measured. Mass measurements were compared with functional and serum data using regression analyses; differences between techniques were determined by paired t tests. Mean (SD) age of the 112 (89F/23M) participants was 80.6 (6.0) years. The lean/muscle mass assessments were correlated (.57-.88) but differed (p Lean mass measures were unrelated to the serum biomarkers measured. These three methodologies do not similarly measure muscle/lean mass and should not be viewed as being equivalent. Functional tests assessing maximal muscle strength/power (grip strength and jump power) correlated with all mass measures whereas gait speed was not. None of the selected serum measures correlated with mass. Efforts to optimize muscle mass assessment and identify their relationships with health outcomes are needed.

  3. M dwarfs in the Local Milky Way: The Field Low-Mass Stellar Luminosity and Mass Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochanski, Jr, John J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Modern sky surveys, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Two-Micron All Sky Survey, have revolutionized how Astronomy is done. With millions of photometric and spectroscopic observations, global observational properties can be studied with unprecedented statistical significance. Low-mass stars dominate the local Milky Way, with tens of millions observed by SDSS within a few kpc. Thus, they make ideal tracers of the Galactic potential, and the thin and thick disks. In this thesis dissertation, I present my efforts to characterize the local low-mass stellar population, using a collection of observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). First, low-mass stellar template spectra were constructed from the co-addition of thousands of SDSS spectroscopic observations. These template spectra were used to quantify the observable changes introduced by chromospheric activity and metallicity. Furthermore, the average ugriz colors were measured as a function of spectral type. Next, the local kinematic structure of the Milky Way was quantified, using a special set of SDSS spectroscopic observations. Combining proper motions and radial velocities (measured using the spectral templates), along with distances, the full UVW space motions of over 7000 low-mass stars along one line of sight were computed. These stars were also separated kinematically to investigate other observational differences between the thin and thick disks. Finally, this dissertation details a project designed to measure the luminosity and mass functions of low-mass stars. Using a new technique optimized for large surveys, the field luminosity function (LF) and local stellar density profile are measured simultaneously. The sample size used to estimate the LF is nearly three orders of magnitude larger than any previous study, offering a definitive measurement of this quantity. The observed LF is transformed into a mass function (MF) and compared to previous studies.

  4. Subpubic cartilaginous cyst: A rare cause of a pelvic soft tissue mass

    OpenAIRE

    Chacko, A; Vedajallam, S; Makhanya, NZ

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of subpubic cartilaginous cyst in a multiparous female patient as a cause of a pelvic soft tissue (vulvar) mass. We discuss the relevant imaging and differential diagnosis as well as specific considerations in making the diagnosis of a subpubic cartilaginous cyst.

  5. Late Frasnian mass extinction: Conodont event stratigraphy, global changes, and possible causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Charles A.; Ziegler, Willi; Dreesen, Roland; Butler, Jamie L.

    1988-01-01

    Several abrupt changes in conodont biofacies are documented to occur synchronously at six primary control sections across the Frasnian-Famennian boundary in Euramerica. These changes occurred within a time-span of only about 100,000 years near the end of the latest Frasnian linguiformis Zone, which is formally named to replace the Uppermost gigas Zone. The conodont-biofacies changes are interpreted to reflect a eustatic rise followed by an abrupt eustatic fall immediately preceding the late Frasnian mass extinction. Two new conodont species are named and described. Ancyrognathus ubiquitus n.sp. is recorded only just below and above the level of late Frasnian extinction and hence is a global marker for that event. Palmatolepispraetriangularis n.sp. is the long-sought Frasnian ancestor of the formerly cryptogenic species, Pa. triangularis, indicator of the earliest Famennian Lower triangularis Zone. The actual extinction event occurred entirely within the Frasnian and is interpreted to have been of brief duration-from as long as 20,000 years to as short as several days. The eustatic rise-and-fall couplet associated with the late Frasnian mass extinction is similar to eustatic couplets associated with the demise of most Frasnian (F2h) reefs worldwide about 1 m.y. earlier and with a latest Famennian mass extinction about 9.5 m.y. later. All these events may be directly or indirectly attributable to extraterrestrial triggering mechanisms. An impact of a small bolide or a near miss of a larger bolide may have caused the earlier demise of Frasnian reefs. An impact of possibly the same larger bolide in the Southern Hemisphere would explain the late Frasnian mass extinction. Global regression during the Famennian probably resulted from Southern-Hemisphere glaciation triggered by the latest Frasnian impact. Glaciation probably was the indirect cause of the latest Famennian mass extinction.

  6. EDDINGTON-LIMITED ACCRETION AND THE BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTION AT REDSHIFT 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willott, Chris J.; Crampton, David; Hutchings, John B.; Schade, David; Albert, Loic; Arzoumanian, Doris; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Omont, Alain; Delorme, Philippe; Reyle, Celine

    2010-01-01

    We present discovery observations of a quasar in the Canada-France High-z Quasar Survey (CFHQS) at redshift z = 6.44. We also use near-infrared spectroscopy of nine CFHQS quasars at z ∼ 6 to determine black hole masses. These are compared with similar estimates for more luminous Sloan Digital Sky Survey quasars to investigate the relationship between black hole mass and quasar luminosity. We find a strong correlation between Mg II FWHM and UV luminosity and that most quasars at this early epoch are accreting close to the Eddington limit. Thus, these quasars appear to be in an early stage of their life cycle where they are building up their black hole mass exponentially. Combining these results with the quasar luminosity function, we derive the black hole mass function at z = 6. Our black hole mass function is ∼10 4 times lower than at z = 0 and substantially below estimates from previous studies. The main uncertainties which could increase the black hole mass function are a larger population of obscured quasars at high redshift than is observed at low redshift and/or a low quasar duty cycle at z = 6. In comparison, the global stellar mass function is only ∼10 2 times lower at z = 6 than at z = 0. The difference between the black hole and stellar mass function evolution is due to either rapid early star formation which is not limited by radiation pressure as is the case for black hole growth or inefficient black hole seeding. Our work predicts that the black hole mass-stellar mass relation for a volume-limited sample of galaxies declines rapidly at very high redshift. This is in contrast to the observed increase at 4 < z < 6 from the local relation if one just studies the most massive black holes.

  7. Retrospective investigation of serological finding in diagnosis of parasite agents caused mass in liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safinaz Demirkaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Many of parasite agent cause diseases damaging the liver. The parasite infections settled the liver give rise to focal mass named as reactive hyperplasia or granulomatous reactions in this organ. Some of parasites caused focal mass in liver are cystic echinococ, Fasciola hepatica and Entamoeba histolytica. The diagnoses of these parasites which are localized to liver have been carried out with serological methods (Indirect hemagglutination (IHA, Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technic (IFAT and ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay and radiological imaging. In this study, we was aimed to investigating of prevalence with serological methods of parasite diseases like cystic echinococcosis, fascioliasis and amebic liver abscess in patients determined preliminary diagnosis mass with radiological imaging Methods: For this study, One hundred patient’s sera were included to investigation. It were investigated E.histolytica antibody with IHA method, anti-echinococcus IgG antibody with IFAT method and anti-fasciolia hepatica IgG antibody with ELISA method in sera of patient’s determined mass preliminary diagnosis with radiological imaging. Results: It were encountered these parasite in 27% of patients who determined mass preliminary diagnosis. It was determined in 1% E.histolytica, 13% Cystic echinococcus and 13% Fasciola hepatica seropositive of patients. Conclusion: The patients detected mass preliminary in liver should be evaluated for these parasites. We believe that will not be enough only radiological imaging in identification of these parasitic infections and should definitely need to be supported with a serological test.

  8. The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury. IV. A Probabilistic Approach to Inferring the High-mass Stellar Initial Mass Function and Other Power-law Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Hogg, David W.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel T.; Lang, Dustin; Johnson, L. Clifton; Beerman, Lori C.; Bell, Eric F.; Gordon, Karl D.; Gouliermis, Dimitrios; Kalirai, Jason S.; Skillman, Evan D.; Williams, Benjamin F.

    2013-01-01

    We present a probabilistic approach for inferring the parameters of the present-day power-law stellar mass function (MF) of a resolved young star cluster. This technique (1) fully exploits the information content of a given data set; (2) can account for observational uncertainties in a straightforward way; (3) assigns meaningful uncertainties to the inferred parameters; (4) avoids the pitfalls associated with binning data; and (5) can be applied to virtually any resolved young cluster, laying the groundwork for a systematic study of the high-mass stellar MF (M >~ 1 M ⊙). Using simulated clusters and Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of the probability distribution functions, we show that estimates of the MF slope, α, are unbiased and that the uncertainty, Δα, depends primarily on the number of observed stars and on the range of stellar masses they span, assuming that the uncertainties on individual masses and the completeness are both well characterized. Using idealized mock data, we compute the theoretical precision, i.e., lower limits, on α, and provide an analytic approximation for Δα as a function of the observed number of stars and mass range. Comparison with literature studies shows that ~3/4 of quoted uncertainties are smaller than the theoretical lower limit. By correcting these uncertainties to the theoretical lower limits, we find that the literature studies yield langαrang = 2.46, with a 1σ dispersion of 0.35 dex. We verify that it is impossible for a power-law MF to obtain meaningful constraints on the upper mass limit of the initial mass function, beyond the lower bound of the most massive star actually observed. We show that avoiding substantial biases in the MF slope requires (1) including the MF as a prior when deriving individual stellar mass estimates, (2) modeling the uncertainties in the individual stellar masses, and (3) fully characterizing and then explicitly modeling the completeness for stars of a given mass. The precision on MF

  9. Seeking a paleontological signature for mass extinctions caused by flood basalt eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J.; Bush, A. M.; Chang, E. T.; Heim, N. A.; Knope, M. L.; Pruss, S. B.

    2016-12-01

    Flood basalt eruptions coincide with numerous extinction events in the fossil record. Increasingly precise absolute age determinations for both the timing of eruption and of species extinctions have strengthened the case for flood basalt eruptions as the single most important trigger for major mass extinction events in the fossil record. However, the extent to which flood basalt eruptions cause a pattern of biotic loss distinctive from extinctions triggered by other geological or biological processes remains an open question. In the absence of diagnostic mapping between geological triggers and biological losses, establishing the identities of causal agents for mass extinctions will continue to depend primarily on evidence for temporal coincidence. Here we use a synoptic database of marine animal genera spanning the Phanerozoic, including times of first and last occurrence, body size, motility, life position, feeding mode, and respiratory physiology to assess whether extinction events temporally associated with flood basalt eruptions exhibit a diagnostic pattern of extinction selectivity. We further ask whether any events not associated with known large igneous provinces nevertheless display extinction patterns suggestive of such a cause. Finally, we ask whether extinction events associated with other primary causes, such as glaciation or bolide impact, are distinguishable from events apparently triggered by flood basalt eruptions on the basis of extinction selectivity patterns

  10. Low relative skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older persons is associated with functional impairment and physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ian; Heymsfield, Steven B; Ross, Robert

    2002-05-01

    To establish the prevalence of sarcopenia in older Americans and to test the hypothesis that sarcopenia is related to functional impairment and physical disability in older persons. Cross-sectional survey. Nationally representative cross-sectional survey using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Fourteen thousand eight hundred eighteen adult NHANES III participants aged 18 and older. The presence of sarcopenia and the relationship between sarcopenia and functional impairment and disability were examined in 4,504 adults aged 60 and older. Skeletal muscle mass was estimated from bioimpedance analysis measurements and expressed as skeletal muscle mass index (SMI = skeletal muscle mass/body mass x 100). Subjects were considered to have a normal SMI if their SMI was greater than -one standard deviation above the sex-specific mean for young adults (aged 18-39). Class I sarcopenia was considered present in subjects whose SMI was within -one to -two standard deviations of young adult values, and class II sarcopenia was present in subjects whose SMI was below -two standard deviations of young adult values. The prevalence of class I and class II sarcopenia increased from the third to sixth decades but remained relatively constant thereafter. The prevalence of class I (59% vs 45%) and class II (10% vs 7%) sarcopenia was greater in the older (> or = 60 years) women than in the older men (P normal SMI, respectively. Some of the associations between class II sarcopenia and functional impairment remained significant after adjustment for age, race, body mass index, health behaviors, and comorbidity. Reduced relative skeletal muscle mass in older Americans is a common occurrence that is significantly and independently associated with functional impairment and disability, particularly in older women. These observations provide strong support for the prevailing view that sarcopenia may be an important and potentially reversible cause of

  11. The warm dark matter halo mass function below the cut-off scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Raul E.; Hahn, Oliver; Abel, Tom

    2013-10-01

    Warm dark matter (WDM) cosmologies are a viable alternative to the cold dark matter (CDM) scenario. Unfortunately, an accurate scrutiny of the WDM predictions with N-body simulations has proven difficult due to numerical artefacts. Here, we report on cosmological simulations that, for the first time, are devoid of those problems, and thus are able to accurately resolve the WDM halo mass function well below the cut-off. We discover a complex picture, with perturbations at different evolutionary stages populating different ranges in the halo mass function. On the smallest mass scales we can resolve, identified objects are typically centres of filaments that are starting to collapse. On intermediate mass scales, objects typically correspond to fluctuations that have collapsed and are in the process of relaxation, whereas the high-mass end is dominated by objects similar to haloes identified in CDM simulations. We then explicitly show how the formation of low-mass haloes is suppressed, which translates into a strong cut-off in the halo mass function. This disfavours some analytic formulations that predict a halo mass function that would extend well below the free streaming mass. We argue for a more detailed exploration of the formation of the smallest structures expected to form in a given cosmology, which, we foresee, will advance our overall understanding of structure formation.

  12. Could a nearby supernova explosion have caused a mass extinction?

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard

    1995-01-01

    We examine the possibility that a nearby supernova explosion could have caused one or more of the mass extinctions identified by palaeontologists. We discuss the likely rate of such events in the light of the recent identification of Geminga as a supernova remnant less than 100 pc away and the discovery of a millisecond pulsar about 150 pc away, and observations of SN 1987A. The fluxes of $\\gamma$ radiation and charged cosmic rays on the Earth are estimated, and their effects on the Earth's ozone layer discussed. A supernova explosion of the order of 10 pc away could be expected every few hundred million years, and could destroy the ozone layer for hundreds of years, letting in potentially lethal solar ultraviolet radiation. In addition to effects on land ecology, this could entail mass destruction of plankton and reef communities, with disastrous consequences for marine life as well. A supernova extinction should be distinguishable from a meteorite impact such as the one that presumably killed the dinosaurs.

  13. Compensatory function of crime fiction texts in mass culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Krapivnyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Philosophical and anthropological analysis allowed to confirm that the compensatory function is one of the basic functions of formulaic crime fiction texts in mass culture. It closely interacts and has no clear borderlines with other anthropological functions of the crime fiction genre. Structuring and systematizing human consciousness, entertaining and educating the recipient, the compensatory function positively influences the addresser, the addressee and the modern society. In the mass culture the function under consideration has a number of aspects, in particular, therapeutic, entertaining, educating etc. It transforms into a mechanism of regulating mental state when life processes are becoming more complicated and human psyche needs regular training and relaxation (including the creation of virtual situations in the crime fiction world, associated with crime, violence, aggression and their effects for all the related parties. However, the compensatory function of crime fiction texts also follows classical traditions, oriented on rationalism and enlightenment, as well as encourages regulation of moral and legal state system in the times of Modernity and Postmodernity, that is promotes moral and legal culture in the society.

  14. Mass corrections to Green functions in instanton vacuum model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esaibegyan, S.V.; Tamaryan, S.N.

    1987-01-01

    The first nonvanishing mass corrections to the effective Green functions are calculated in the model of instanton-based vacuum consisting of a superposition of instanton-antiinstanton fluctuations. The meson current correlators are calculated with account of these corrections; the mass spectrum of pseudoscalar octet as well as the value of the kaon axial constant are found. 7 refs

  15. RECONCILING THE OBSERVED STAR-FORMING SEQUENCE WITH THE OBSERVED STELLAR MASS FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leja, Joel; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Franx, Marijn; Whitaker, Katherine E.

    2015-01-01

    We examine the connection between the observed star-forming sequence (SFR ∝ M α ) and the observed evolution of the stellar mass function in the range 0.2 < z < 2.5. We find that the star-forming sequence cannot have a slope α ≲ 0.9 at all masses and redshifts because this would result in a much higher number density at 10 < log (M/M ☉ ) < 11 by z = 1 than is observed. We show that a transition in the slope of the star-forming sequence, such that α = 1 at log (M/M ☉ ) < 10.5 and α = 0.7-0.13z (Whitaker et al.) at log (M/M ☉ ) > 10.5, greatly improves agreement with the evolution of the stellar mass function. We then derive a star-forming sequence that reproduces the evolution of the mass function by design. This star-forming sequence is also well described by a broken power law, with a shallow slope at high masses and a steep slope at low masses. At z = 2, it is offset by ∼0.3 dex from the observed star-forming sequence, consistent with the mild disagreement between the cosmic star formation rate (SFR) and recent observations of the growth of the stellar mass density. It is unclear whether this problem stems from errors in stellar mass estimates, errors in SFRs, or other effects. We show that a mass-dependent slope is also seen in other self-consistent models of galaxy evolution, including semianalytical, hydrodynamical, and abundance-matching models. As part of the analysis, we demonstrate that neither mergers nor hidden low-mass quiescent galaxies are likely to reconcile the evolution of the mass function and the star-forming sequence. These results are supported by observations from Whitaker et al

  16. LISA extreme-mass-ratio inspiral events as probes of the black hole mass function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gair, Jonathan R.; Tang, Christopher; Volonteri, Marta

    2010-01-01

    One of the sources of gravitational waves for the proposed space-based gravitational wave detector, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), are the inspirals of compact objects into supermassive black holes in the centers of galaxies--extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs). Using LISA observations, we will be able to measure the parameters of each EMRI system detected to very high precision. However, the statistics of the set of EMRI events observed by LISA will be more important in constraining astrophysical models than extremely precise measurements for individual systems. The black holes to which LISA is most sensitive are in a mass range that is difficult to probe using other techniques, so LISA provides an almost unique window onto these objects. In this paper we explore, using Bayesian techniques, the constraints that LISA EMRI observations can place on the mass function of black holes at low redshift. We describe a general framework for approaching inference of this type--using multiple observations in combination to constrain a parametrized source population. Assuming that the scaling of the EMRI rate with the black-hole mass is known and taking a black-hole distribution given by a simple power law, dn/dlnM=A 0 (M/M * ) α 0 , we find that LISA could measure the parameters to a precision of Δ(lnA 0 )∼0.08, and Δ(α 0 )∼0.03 for a reference model that predicts ∼1000 events. Even with as few as 10 events, LISA should constrain the slope to a precision ∼0.3, which is the current level of observational uncertainty in the low-mass slope of the black-hole mass function. We also consider a model in which A 0 and α 0 evolve with redshift, but find that EMRI observations alone do not have much power to probe such an evolution.

  17. THE OVERDENSITY AND MASSES OF THE FRIENDS-OF-FRIENDS HALOS AND UNIVERSALITY OF HALO MASS FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, Surhud; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Dalal, Neal; Gottloeber, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The friends-of-friends algorithm (hereafter FOF) is a percolation algorithm which is routinely used to identify dark matter halos from N-body simulations. We use results from percolation theory to show that the boundary of FOF halos does not correspond to a single density threshold but to a range of densities close to a critical value that depends upon the linking length parameter, b. We show that for the commonly used choice of b = 0.2, this critical density is equal to 81.62 times the mean matter density. Consequently, halos identified by the FOF algorithm enclose an average overdensity which depends on their density profile (concentration) and therefore changes with halo mass, contrary to the popular belief that the average overdensity is ∼180. We derive an analytical expression for the overdensity as a function of the linking length parameter b and the concentration of the halo. Results of tests carried out using simulated and actual FOF halos identified in cosmological simulations show excellent agreement with our analytical prediction. We also find that the mass of the halo that the FOF algorithm selects crucially depends upon mass resolution. We find a percolation-theory-motivated formula that is able to accurately correct for the dependence on number of particles for the mock realizations of spherical and triaxial Navarro-Frenk-White halos. However, we show that this correction breaks down when applied to the real cosmological FOF halos due to the presence of substructures. Given that abundance of substructure depends on redshift and cosmology, we expect that the resolution effects due to substructure on the FOF mass and halo mass function will also depend on redshift and cosmology and will be difficult to correct for in general. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for the universality of the mass function.

  18. Mass-spectrometric exploration of proteome structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aebersold, Ruedi; Mann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    , the structures and functions of selected proteins have been studied using biochemical and biophysical methods. However, the properties and behaviour of the proteome as an integrated system have largely remained elusive. Powerful mass-spectrometry-based technologies now provide unprecedented insights...

  19. Proton fragmentation functions considering finite-mass corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moosavi Nejad, S.M. [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Particles and Accelerators, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soleymaninia, M. [Payame Noor Universtiy, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maktoubian, A. [Yazd University, Faculty of Physics, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    We present new sets of proton fragmentation functions (FFs) describing the production of protons from the gluon and each of the quarks, obtained by the NLO QCD fits to all relevant data sets of single-inclusive electron-positron annihilation. Specifically, we determine their uncertainties using the Gaussian method for error estimation. Our analysis is in good agreement with the e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation data. We also include finite-mass effects of the proton in our calculations, a topic to which very little attention is paid in the literature. Proton mass effects turn out to be appreciable for gluon and light quark FFs. The inclusion of finite-mass effects tends to improve the overall description of the data by reducing the minimized χ{sup 2} values significantly. As an application, we apply the extracted FFs to make predictions for the scaled-energy distribution of protons inclusively produced in top quark decays at next-to-leading order, relying on the universality and scaling violations of FFs. (orig.)

  20. A Dual Power Law Distribution for the Stellar Initial Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Karl Heinz; Essex, Christopher; Basu, Shantanu; Prehl, Janett

    2018-05-01

    We introduce a new dual power law (DPL) probability distribution function for the mass distribution of stellar and substellar objects at birth, otherwise known as the initial mass function (IMF). The model contains both deterministic and stochastic elements, and provides a unified framework within which to view the formation of brown dwarfs and stars resulting from an accretion process that starts from extremely low mass seeds. It does not depend upon a top down scenario of collapsing (Jeans) masses or an initial lognormal or otherwise IMF-like distribution of seed masses. Like the modified lognormal power law (MLP) distribution, the DPL distribution has a power law at the high mass end, as a result of exponential growth of mass coupled with equally likely stopping of accretion at any time interval. Unlike the MLP, a power law decay also appears at the low mass end of the IMF. This feature is closely connected to the accretion stopping probability rising from an initially low value up to a high value. This might be associated with physical effects of ejections sometimes (i.e., rarely) stopping accretion at early times followed by outflow driven accretion stopping at later times, with the transition happening at a critical time (therefore mass). Comparing the DPL to empirical data, the critical mass is close to the substellar mass limit, suggesting that the onset of nuclear fusion plays an important role in the subsequent accretion history of a young stellar object.

  1. Premature loss of muscle mass and function in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, N; Bunout, D; Hirsch, S; Barrera, G; Leiva, L; Henríquez, S; De la Maza, M P

    2016-07-01

    Muscle mass and function are among the most relevant factors that contribute to an optimal quality of life, and are strong predictors of mortality in the elderly. Loss of lean tissues and deterioration of muscle function have been described as one of the many complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), but most studies do not isolate age as an intervening factor. To study whether adult DM2 patients up to 60years of age have decreased muscle mass and function compared with healthy non-diabetic (ND) subjects of similar age. Appendicular fat-free mass (ApFFM) by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), handgrip strength (HS), quadriceps strength (QS), 12 min walking capacity (12MW) and the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) were measured in 100 DM2 patients and 39 ND controls. Muscle quality, or the ratio between lean mass and muscle strength of upper and lower limbs, and the functional limitations associated with pain and stiffness assessed according to the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthrosis Index (WOMAC) were also recorded. Specific tests were performed to rule out microvascular diabetic complications (retinal and peripheral nerves), metabolic control, kidney function and vitamin D status and examine their association with ApFFM and function. ApFFM was significantly higher among DM2 female patients and lower among diabetic men. However opposite results were obtained when individual values were corrected for body mass index (BMI), specifically among women, who were more likely to be obese. As for muscle strength and global functionality tests, significantly better performances in TUG, 12MW, QS and HS were observed among ND subjects of both sexes. These differences prevailed even after excluding diabetic patients with microvascular complications as well as those with more than 10years of diabetes. Muscle quality was also significantly better among ND women. Higher scores of pain and stiffness in the WOMAC scale correlated with 12MW and TUG in both groups but

  2. Evolution of the Black Hole Mass Function in Star Clusters from Multiple Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Pierre; Mocz, Philip; Loeb, Abraham

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the effects of black hole (BH) mergers in star clusters on the black hole mass function (BHMF). As BHs are not produced in pair-instability supernovae, it is suggested that there is a dearth of high-mass stellar BHs. This dearth generates a gap in the upper end of the BHMF. Meanwhile, parameter fitting of X-ray binaries suggests the existence of a gap in the mass function under 5 solar masses. We show, through evolving a coagulation equation, that BH mergers can appreciably fill the upper mass gap, and that the lower mass gap generates potentially observable features at larger mass scales. We also explore the importance of ejections in such systems and whether dynamical clusters can be formation sites of intermediate-mass BH seeds.

  3. Could a nearby supernova explosion have caused a mass extinction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J; Schramm, D N

    1995-01-03

    We examine the possibility that a nearby supernova explosion could have caused one or more of the mass extinctions identified by paleontologists. We discuss the possible rate of such events in the light of the recent suggested identification of Geminga as a supernova remnant less than 100 parsec (pc) away and the discovery of a millisecond pulsar about 150 pc away and observations of SN 1987A. The fluxes of gamma-radiation and charged cosmic rays on the Earth are estimated, and their effects on the Earth's ozone layer are discussed. A supernova explosion of the order of 10 pc away could be expected as often as every few hundred million years and could destroy the ozone layer for hundreds of years, letting in potentially lethal solar ultraviolet radiation. In addition to effects on land ecology, this could entail mass destruction of plankton and reef communities, with disastrous consequences for marine life as well. A supernova extinction should be distinguishable from a meteorite impact such as the one that presumably killed the dinosaurs at the "KT boundary." The recent argument that the KT event was exceedingly large and thus quite rare supports the need for other catastrophic events.

  4. Mitigating mass movement caused by earthquakes and typhoons: a case study of central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiun-Chuan

    2013-04-01

    Typhoons caused huge damages to Taiwan at the average of 3.8 times a year in the last 100 years, according to Central Weather Bureau data. After the Chi-Chi earthquake of 1999 at the magnitude of Richard Scale 7.3, typhoons with huge rainfall would cause huge debris flow and deposits at river channels. As a result of earthquakes, loose debris falls and flows became significant hazards in central Taiwan. Analysis of rainfall data and data about the sites of slope failure show that damage from natural hazards was enhanced in the last 20 years, as a result of the Chi-Chi earthquake. There are three main types of mass movement in Central Taiwan: landslides, debris flows and gully erosion. Landslides occurred mainly along hill slopes and river channel banks. Many dams, check dams, housing structures and even river channels can be raised to as high as 60 meters as a result of stacking up floating materials of landslides. Debris flows occurred mainly through typhoon periods and activated ancient debris deposition. New gullies were thus developed from deposits loosened and shaken up by earthquakes. Extreme earthquakes and typhoon events occurred frequently in the last 20 years. This paper analyzes the geological and geomorphologic background for the precarious areas and typhoons in central Taiwan, to make a systematic understanding of mass movement harzards. The mechanism and relations of debris flows and rainfall data in central Taiwan are analyzed. Ways for mitigating mass movement threats are also proposed in this paper. Keywords: mass movement, earthquakes, typhoons, hazard mitigation, central Ta

  5. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the galaxy stellar mass function to z = 0.1 from the r-band selected equatorial regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A. H.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Driver, S. P.; Alpaslan, M.; Andrews, S. K.; Baldry, I. K.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Brough, S.; Brown, M. J. I.; Colless, M.; da Cunha, E.; Davies, L. J. M.; Graham, Alister W.; Holwerda, B. W.; Hopkins, A. M.; Kafle, P. R.; Kelvin, L. S.; Loveday, J.; Maddox, S. J.; Meyer, M. J.; Moffett, A. J.; Norberg, P.; Phillipps, S.; Rowlands, K.; Taylor, E. N.; Wang, L.; Wilkins, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    We derive the low-redshift galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF), inclusive of dust corrections, for the equatorial Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) data set covering 180 deg2. We construct the mass function using a density-corrected maximum volume method, using masses corrected for the impact of optically thick and thin dust. We explore the galactic bivariate brightness plane (M⋆-μ), demonstrating that surface brightness effects do not systematically bias our mass function measurement above 107.5 M⊙. The galaxy distribution in the M-μ plane appears well bounded, indicating that no substantial population of massive but diffuse or highly compact galaxies are systematically missed due to the GAMA selection criteria. The GSMF is fitted with a double Schechter function, with M^\\star =10^{10.78± 0.01± 0.20} M_{⊙}, φ ^\\star _1=(2.93± 0.40)× 10^{-3} h_{70}^3 Mpc-3, α1 = -0.62 ± 0.03 ± 0.15, φ ^\\star _2=(0.63± 0.10)× 10^{-3} h_{70}^3 Mpc-3 and α2 = -1.50 ± 0.01 ± 0.15. We find the equivalent faint end slope as previously estimated using the GAMA-I sample, although we find a higher value of M^\\star. Using the full GAMA-II sample, we are able to fit the mass function to masses as low as 107.5 M⊙, and assess limits to 106.5 M⊙. Combining GAMA-II with data from G10-COSMOS, we are able to comment qualitatively on the shape of the GSMF down to masses as low as 106 M⊙. Beyond the well-known upturn seen in the GSMF at 109.5, the distribution appears to maintain a single power-law slope from 109 to 106.5. We calculate the stellar mass density parameter given our best-estimate GSMF, finding Ω _\\star = 1.66^{+0.24}_{-0.23}± 0.97 h^{-1}_{70} × 10^{-3}, inclusive of random and systematic uncertainties.

  6. A high precision semi-analytic mass function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Popolo, Antonino [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, University of Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Pace, Francesco [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Le Delliou, Morgan, E-mail: adelpopolo@oact.inaf.it, E-mail: francesco.pace@manchester.ac.uk, E-mail: delliou@ift.unesp.br [Instituto de Física Teorica, Universidade Estadual de São Paulo (IFT-UNESP), Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco 2—Barra Funda, 01140-070 São Paulo, SP Brazil (Brazil)

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, extending past works of Del Popolo, we show how a high precision mass function (MF) can be obtained using the excursion set approach and an improved barrier taking implicitly into account a non-zero cosmological constant, the angular momentum acquired by tidal interaction of proto-structures and dynamical friction. In the case of the ΛCDM paradigm, we find that our MF is in agreement at the 3% level to Klypin's Bolshoi simulation, in the mass range M {sub vir} = 5 × 10{sup 9} h {sup −1} M {sub ⊙}–−5 × 10{sup 14} h {sup −1} M {sub ⊙} and redshift range 0 ∼< z ∼< 10. For z = 0 we also compared our MF to several fitting formulae, and found in particular agreement with Bhattacharya's within 3% in the mass range 10{sup 12}–10{sup 16} h {sup −1} M {sub ⊙}. Moreover, we discuss our MF validity for different cosmologies.

  7. Enterobius granuloma: an unusual cause of omental mass in an 11-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Sinan; Ekinci, Saniye; Orhan, Diclehan; Senocak, Mehmet Emin

    2014-01-01

    Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) is the only nematode that infects humans. It is one of the most common intestinal parasites. Pinworm commonly infests the terminal ileum and colon, and does not cause severe morbidity unless ectopic infection occurs. However, granulomatous lesions caused by ectopic Enterobius vermicularis infection may lead to unusual clinical symptoms and may be misinterpreted as malignant lesions. Herein, the authors present an 11-year-old girl with pinworm infection who presented with abdominal pain and an omental mass, with special emphasis on the diagnosis and treatment.

  8. Constraints on the brown dwarf mass function from optical and infrared searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probst, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    Photometric surveys of faint proper motion stars and searches for infrared binary companions have identified a few very low luminosity objects. The author considers how these searches may constrain the brown dwarf mass function. An astrophysically plausible brown dwarf population is defined which yields a dark mass density = 0.5 x the observed density. Using the sensitivity and other limits of various surveys, the expected numbers of observable brown dwarfs are obtained from the model population for comparison with actual results. Reasonable improvement in search protocol could yield statistically significant tests of the brown dwarf mass function. (author)

  9. The Effects of Single and Close Binary Evolution on the Stellar Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, R. N. F.; Izzard, G. R.; de Mink, S.; Langer, N., Stolte, A., de Koter, A.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Hussmann, B.; Liermann, A.; Sana, H.

    2013-06-01

    Massive stars are almost exclusively born in star clusters, where stars in a cluster are expected to be born quasi-simultaneously and with the same chemical composition. The distribution of their birth masses favors lower over higher stellar masses, such that the most massive stars are rare, and the existence of an stellar upper mass limit is still debated. The majority of massive stars are born as members of close binary systems and most of them will exchange mass with a close companion during their lifetime. We explore the influence of single and binary star evolution on the high mass end of the stellar mass function using a rapid binary evolution code. We apply our results to two massive Galactic star clusters and show how the shape of their mass functions can be used to determine cluster ages and comment on the stellar upper mass limit in view of our new findings.

  10. What caused the UK's largest common dolphin (Delphinus delphis mass stranding event?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D Jepson

    Full Text Available On 9 June 2008, the UK's largest mass stranding event (MSE of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis occurred in Falmouth Bay, Cornwall. At least 26 dolphins died, and a similar number was refloated/herded back to sea. On necropsy, all dolphins were in good nutritive status with empty stomachs and no evidence of known infectious disease or acute physical injury. Auditory tissues were grossly normal (26/26 but had microscopic haemorrhages (5/5 and mild otitis media (1/5 in the freshest cases. Five lactating adult dolphins, one immature male, and one immature female tested were free of harmful algal toxins and had low chemical pollutant levels. Pathological evidence of mud/seawater inhalation (11/26, local tide cycle, and the relative lack of renal myoglobinuria (26/26 suggested MSE onset on a rising tide between 06:30 and 08∶21 hrs (9 June. Potential causes excluded or considered highly unlikely included infectious disease, gas/fat embolism, boat strike, by-catch, predator attack, foraging unusually close to shore, chemical or algal toxin exposure, abnormal weather/climatic conditions, and high-intensity acoustic inputs from seismic airgun arrays or natural sources (e.g., earthquakes. International naval exercises did occur in close proximity to the MSE with the most intense part of the exercises (including mid-frequency sonars occurring four days before the MSE and resuming with helicopter exercises on the morning of the MSE. The MSE may therefore have been a "two-stage process" where a group of normally pelagic dolphins entered Falmouth Bay and, after 3-4 days in/around the Bay, a second acoustic/disturbance event occurred causing them to strand en masse. This spatial and temporal association with the MSE, previous associations between naval activities and cetacean MSEs, and an absence of other identifiable factors known to cause cetacean MSEs, indicates naval activity to be the most probable cause of the Falmouth Bay MSE.

  11. What Caused the UK's Largest Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) Mass Stranding Event?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Paul D.; Deaville, Robert; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Barnett, James; Brownlow, Andrew; Brownell Jr., Robert L.; Clare, Frances C.; Davison, Nick; Law, Robin J.; Loveridge, Jan; Macgregor, Shaheed K.; Morris, Steven; Murphy, Sinéad; Penrose, Rod; Perkins, Matthew W.; Pinn, Eunice; Seibel, Henrike; Siebert, Ursula; Sierra, Eva; Simpson, Victor; Tasker, Mark L.; Tregenza, Nick; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fernández, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    On 9 June 2008, the UK's largest mass stranding event (MSE) of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) occurred in Falmouth Bay, Cornwall. At least 26 dolphins died, and a similar number was refloated/herded back to sea. On necropsy, all dolphins were in good nutritive status with empty stomachs and no evidence of known infectious disease or acute physical injury. Auditory tissues were grossly normal (26/26) but had microscopic haemorrhages (5/5) and mild otitis media (1/5) in the freshest cases. Five lactating adult dolphins, one immature male, and one immature female tested were free of harmful algal toxins and had low chemical pollutant levels. Pathological evidence of mud/seawater inhalation (11/26), local tide cycle, and the relative lack of renal myoglobinuria (26/26) suggested MSE onset on a rising tide between 06∶30 and 08∶21 hrs (9 June). Potential causes excluded or considered highly unlikely included infectious disease, gas/fat embolism, boat strike, by-catch, predator attack, foraging unusually close to shore, chemical or algal toxin exposure, abnormal weather/climatic conditions, and high-intensity acoustic inputs from seismic airgun arrays or natural sources (e.g., earthquakes). International naval exercises did occur in close proximity to the MSE with the most intense part of the exercises (including mid-frequency sonars) occurring four days before the MSE and resuming with helicopter exercises on the morning of the MSE. The MSE may therefore have been a “two-stage process” where a group of normally pelagic dolphins entered Falmouth Bay and, after 3–4 days in/around the Bay, a second acoustic/disturbance event occurred causing them to strand en masse. This spatial and temporal association with the MSE, previous associations between naval activities and cetacean MSEs, and an absence of other identifiable factors known to cause cetacean MSEs, indicates naval activity to be the most probable cause of the Falmouth Bay MSE. PMID

  12. Ages of young star clusters, massive blue stragglers, and the upper mass limit of stars: Analyzing age-dependent stellar mass functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, F. R. N.; Izzard, R. G.; Langer, N.; Stolte, A.; Hußmann, B. [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie der Universität Bonn, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); De Mink, S. E. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara St, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); De Koter, A.; Sana, H. [Astronomical Institute " Anton Pannekoek" , Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gvaramadze, V. V. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Universitetskij Pr. 13, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Liermann, A., E-mail: fschneid@astro.uni-bonn.de [Max Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-01-10

    Massive stars rapidly change their masses through strong stellar winds and mass transfer in binary systems. The latter aspect is important for populations of massive stars as more than 70% of all O stars are expected to interact with a binary companion during their lifetime. We show that such mass changes leave characteristic signatures in stellar mass functions of young star clusters that can be used to infer their ages and to identify products of binary evolution. We model the observed present-day mass functions of the young Galactic Arches and Quintuplet star clusters using our rapid binary evolution code. We find that the shaping of the mass function by stellar wind mass loss allows us to determine the cluster ages as 3.5 ± 0.7 Myr and 4.8 ± 1.1 Myr, respectively. Exploiting the effects of binary mass exchange on the cluster mass function, we find that the most massive stars in both clusters are rejuvenated products of binary mass transfer, i.e., the massive counterpart of classical blue straggler stars. This resolves the problem of an apparent age spread among the most luminous stars exceeding the expected duration of star formation in these clusters. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to probe stochastic sampling, which support the idea of the most massive stars being rejuvenated binary products. We find that the most massive star is expected to be a binary product after 1.0 ± 0.7 Myr in Arches and after 1.7 ± 1.0 Myr in Quintuplet. Today, the most massive 9 ± 3 stars in Arches and 8 ± 3 in Quintuplet are expected to be such objects. Our findings have strong implications for the stellar upper mass limit and solve the discrepancy between the claimed 150 M {sub ☉} limit and observations of four stars with initial masses of 165-320 M {sub ☉} in R136 and of supernova 2007bi, which is thought to be a pair-instability supernova from an initial 250 M {sub ☉} star. Using the stellar population of R136, we revise the upper mass limit to values in the range

  13. Ages of young star clusters, massive blue stragglers, and the upper mass limit of stars: Analyzing age-dependent stellar mass functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, F. R. N.; Izzard, R. G.; Langer, N.; Stolte, A.; Hußmann, B.; De Mink, S. E.; Anton Pannekoek, Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands))" data-affiliation=" (Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands))" >De Koter, A.; Anton Pannekoek, Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands))" data-affiliation=" (Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands))" >Sana, H.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Liermann, A.

    2014-01-01

    Massive stars rapidly change their masses through strong stellar winds and mass transfer in binary systems. The latter aspect is important for populations of massive stars as more than 70% of all O stars are expected to interact with a binary companion during their lifetime. We show that such mass changes leave characteristic signatures in stellar mass functions of young star clusters that can be used to infer their ages and to identify products of binary evolution. We model the observed present-day mass functions of the young Galactic Arches and Quintuplet star clusters using our rapid binary evolution code. We find that the shaping of the mass function by stellar wind mass loss allows us to determine the cluster ages as 3.5 ± 0.7 Myr and 4.8 ± 1.1 Myr, respectively. Exploiting the effects of binary mass exchange on the cluster mass function, we find that the most massive stars in both clusters are rejuvenated products of binary mass transfer, i.e., the massive counterpart of classical blue straggler stars. This resolves the problem of an apparent age spread among the most luminous stars exceeding the expected duration of star formation in these clusters. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to probe stochastic sampling, which support the idea of the most massive stars being rejuvenated binary products. We find that the most massive star is expected to be a binary product after 1.0 ± 0.7 Myr in Arches and after 1.7 ± 1.0 Myr in Quintuplet. Today, the most massive 9 ± 3 stars in Arches and 8 ± 3 in Quintuplet are expected to be such objects. Our findings have strong implications for the stellar upper mass limit and solve the discrepancy between the claimed 150 M ☉ limit and observations of four stars with initial masses of 165-320 M ☉ in R136 and of supernova 2007bi, which is thought to be a pair-instability supernova from an initial 250 M ☉ star. Using the stellar population of R136, we revise the upper mass limit to values in the range 200-500 M ☉ .

  14. Ages of Young Star Clusters, Massive Blue Stragglers, and the Upper Mass Limit of Stars: Analyzing Age-dependent Stellar Mass Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, F. R. N.; Izzard, R. G.; de Mink, S. E.; Langer, N.; Stolte, A.; de Koter, A.; Gvaramadze, V. V.; Hußmann, B.; Liermann, A.; Sana, H.

    2014-01-01

    Massive stars rapidly change their masses through strong stellar winds and mass transfer in binary systems. The latter aspect is important for populations of massive stars as more than 70% of all O stars are expected to interact with a binary companion during their lifetime. We show that such mass changes leave characteristic signatures in stellar mass functions of young star clusters that can be used to infer their ages and to identify products of binary evolution. We model the observed present-day mass functions of the young Galactic Arches and Quintuplet star clusters using our rapid binary evolution code. We find that the shaping of the mass function by stellar wind mass loss allows us to determine the cluster ages as 3.5 ± 0.7 Myr and 4.8 ± 1.1 Myr, respectively. Exploiting the effects of binary mass exchange on the cluster mass function, we find that the most massive stars in both clusters are rejuvenated products of binary mass transfer, i.e., the massive counterpart of classical blue straggler stars. This resolves the problem of an apparent age spread among the most luminous stars exceeding the expected duration of star formation in these clusters. We perform Monte Carlo simulations to probe stochastic sampling, which support the idea of the most massive stars being rejuvenated binary products. We find that the most massive star is expected to be a binary product after 1.0 ± 0.7 Myr in Arches and after 1.7 ± 1.0 Myr in Quintuplet. Today, the most massive 9 ± 3 stars in Arches and 8 ± 3 in Quintuplet are expected to be such objects. Our findings have strong implications for the stellar upper mass limit and solve the discrepancy between the claimed 150 M ⊙ limit and observations of four stars with initial masses of 165-320 M ⊙ in R136 and of supernova 2007bi, which is thought to be a pair-instability supernova from an initial 250 M ⊙ star. Using the stellar population of R136, we revise the upper mass limit to values in the range 200-500 M ⊙.

  15. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Variation of the Stellar Initial Mass Function in Spiral and Early-type Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Ge, Junqiang; Mao, Shude; Cappellari, Michele; Long, R. J.; Li, Ran; Emsellem, Eric; Dutton, Aaron A.; Li, Cheng; Bundy, Kevin; Thomas, Daniel; Drory, Niv; Lopes, Alexandre Roman

    2017-04-01

    We perform Jeans anisotropic modeling (JAM) on elliptical and spiral galaxies from the MaNGA DR13 sample. By comparing the stellar mass-to-light ratios estimated from stellar population synthesis and from JAM, we find a systematic variation of the initial mass function (IMF) similar to that in the earlier {{ATLAS}}3{{D}} results. Early-type galaxies (elliptical and lenticular) with lower velocity dispersions within one effective radius are consistent with a Chabrier-like IMF, while galaxies with higher velocity dispersions are consistent with a more bottom-heavy IMF such as the Salpeter IMF. Spiral galaxies have similar systematic IMF variations, but with slightly different slopes and larger scatters, due to the uncertainties caused by the higher gas fractions and extinctions for these galaxies. Furthermore, we examine the effects of stellar mass-to-light ratio gradients on our JAM modeling, and we find that the trends become stronger after considering the gradients.

  16. On the problem of secular variability in the stellar initial mass function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meusinger, H.

    1987-01-01

    The hypothesis of secular variations in the stellar initial mass function (IMF) is studied. It is found that neither the present-day mass function of the nearby main sequence field stars nor the velocity distribution of these stars are contradictory with this hypothesis. The luminosity functions of unbiased kinematically defined age-groups of the nearby stars also provide no strong constraints. Simple evoluion models with time-dependent IMF and star formation rate enable to fit the data of blue irregular galaxies. Some problems with an universal IMF are pointed out. (author)

  17. The Origin of Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, Albrecht

    2010-07-01

    The world of physics presently looks to the LHC (CERN), where many expect the Higgs boson to be found. The Higgs is supposed to (partly) explain the cause of mass. There are indications that neither the Higgs nor Supersymmetric Particles will be found. In order to understand mass, the Higgs is not needed. Inertial mass is caused by a fundamental process. Binding fields propagate at the finite speed of light. An inevitable consequence is that every expanded object has an inertial behaviour, even if the constituents of the object are mass-less. To explain the mass of elementary particles, we have to accept that these particles are expanded. This is on the one hand in conflict with the concept of present physics; on the other hand it is in no conflict with any experiment. And it conforms to the analysis of Schroedinger with respect to the Dirac function of the electron. The corresponding particle model explains particle properties, like the magnetic moment (and therefore also the Bohr Magneton) and the constancy of the spin, correctly without any use of QM. Also the dynamic properties of mass, i.e. the relativistic increase of mass at motion and the mass-energy-relation, follow in a straight way from this concept.

  18. Structure function of off-mass-shell pions and the calculation of the Sullivan process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakin, C.M.; Sun, W.

    1994-01-01

    We construct a model for the pion (valence) structure function that fits the experimental data obtained in the study of the Drell-Yan process. The model may also be used to calculate the structure function of off-mass-shell pions. We apply our model in the study of deep-inelastic scattering from off-mass-shell pions found in the nucleon and are thus able to resolve a problem encountered in the standard analysis of such processes. The usual analysis is made using the structure function of on-mass-shell pions and requires the use of a soft πNN form factor that is inconsistent with standard nuclear physics phenomenology. The use of our off-mass-shell structure functions allows for a fit to the data for nonperturbative aspects of the nucleon ''sea'' with a pion-nucleon form factor of the standard form

  19. Nucleon effective mass effects on the Pauli-blocking function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, S.R. de; Mesa, J.; Deppman, A.; Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Duarte, S.B.; Oliveira, E.C. de; Tavares, O.A.P.; Medeiros, E.L.; Goncalves, M.; Paiva, E. de

    2002-01-01

    The effects of nucleon effective mass on the Pauli-blocking function are worked out. We have shown that such effects on the quasi-deuteron mechanism of photonuclear absorption are rather relevant. The Pauli-blocking function has been evaluated by applying a Monte Carlo calculation particularly suitable for simulation of intranuclear cascade processes of intermediate-energy nuclear reactions. The nucleon binding in the photonuclear absorption mechanism is taken into account accordingly. (author)

  20. Nucleon effective mass effects on the Pauli-blocking function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, S.R. de; Mesa, J.; Deppman, A.; Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Goncalves, M.; Paiva, E. de

    2002-05-01

    The effects of nucleon effective mass on the Pauli-blocking function are worked out. We have shown that such effects on the quasi-deuteron mechanism of photonuclear absorption are rather relevant. The pauli-blocking function has been evaluated by applying a Monte Carlo calculation particularly suitable for simulation of intranuclear cascade process of intermediate-energy nuclear reactions. The nucleon binding in the photonuclear absorption mechanism is accordingly taken into account. (author)

  1. Predicting mass loading as a function of pressure difference across prefilter/HEPA filter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novick, V.J.; Klassen, J.F.; Monson, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a methodology for predicting the mass loading and pressure drop effects on a prefilter/ HEPA filter system. The methodology relies on the use of empirical equations for the specific resistance of the aerosol loaded filter as a function of the particle diameter. These correlations relate the pressure difference across a filter to the mass loading on the filter and accounts for aerosol particle density effects. These predictions are necessary for the efficient design of new filtration systems and for risk assessment studies of existing filter systems. This work specifically addresses the prefilter/HEPA filter Airborne Activity Confinement Systems (AACS) at the Savannah River Plant. In order to determine the mass loading on the system, it is necessary to establish the efficiency characteristics for the prefilter, the mass loading characteristics of the prefilter measured as a function of pressure difference across the prefilter, and the mass loading characteristics of the HEPA filter as a function of pressure difference across the filter. Furthermore, the efficiency and mass loading characteristics need to be determined as a function of the aerosol particle diameter. A review of the literature revealed that no previous work had been performed to characterize the prefilter material of interest. In order to complete the foundation of information necessary to predict total mass loadings on prefilter/HEPA filter systems, it was necessary to determine the prefilter efficiency and mass loading characteristics. The measured prefilter characteristics combined with the previously determined HEPA filter characteristics allowed the resulting pressure difference across both filters to be predicted as a function of total particle mass for a given particle distribution. These predictions compare favorably to experimental measurements (±25%)

  2. Could a nearby supernova explosion have caused a mass extinction?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Schramm, D.N.

    1995-01-01

    We examine the possibility that a nearby supernova explosion could have caused one or more of the mass extinctions identified by paleontologists. We discuss the possible rate of such events in the light of the recent suggested identification of Geminga as a supernova remnant less than 100 parsec (pc) away and the discovery of a millisecond pulsar about 150 pc away and observations of SN 1987A. The fluxes of γ-radiation and charged cosmic rays on the Earth are estimated, and their effects on the Earth's ozone layer are discussed. A supernova explosion of the order of 10 pc away could be expected as often as every few hundred million years and could destroy the ozone layer for hundreds of years, letting in potentially lethal solar ultraviolet radiation. In addition to effects on land ecology, this could entail mass destruction of plankton and reef communities, with disastrous consequences for marine life as well. A supernova extinction should be distinguishable from a meteorite impact such as the one that presumably killed the dinosaurs at the open-quotes KT boundary.close quotes The recent argument that the KT event was exceedingly large and thus quite rare supports the need for other catastrophic events. 24 refs

  3. Response functions of free mass gravitational wave antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrook, F. B.

    1985-01-01

    The work of Gursel, Linsay, Spero, Saulson, Whitcomb and Weiss (1984) on the response of a free-mass interferometric antenna is extended. Starting from first principles, the earlier work derived the response of a 2-arm gravitational wave antenna to plane polarized gravitational waves. Equivalent formulas (generalized slightly to allow for arbitrary elliptical polarization) are obtained by a simple differencing of the '3-pulse' Doppler response functions of two 1-arm antennas. A '4-pulse' response function is found, with quite complicated angular dependences for arbitrary incident polarization. The differencing method can as readily be used to write exact response functions ('3n+1 pulse') for antennas having multiple passes or more arms.

  4. Waist circumference as compared with body-mass index in predicting mortality from specific causes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael F Leitzmann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Whether waist circumference provides clinically meaningful information not delivered by body-mass index regarding prediction of cause-specific death is uncertain.We prospectively examined waist circumference (WC and body-mass index (BMI in relation to cause-specific death in 225,712 U.S. women and men. Cox regression was used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS version 9.1.During follow-up from 1996 through 2005, we documented 20,977 deaths. Increased WC consistently predicted risk of death due to any cause as well as major causes of death, including deaths from cancer, cardiovascular disease, and non-cancer/non-cardiovascular diseases, independent of BMI, age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, and alcohol intake. When WC and BMI were mutually adjusted in a model, WC was related to 1.37 fold increased risk of death from any cancer and 1.82 fold increase risk of death from cardiovascular disease, comparing the highest versus lowest WC categories. Importantly, WC, but not BMI showed statistically significant positive associations with deaths from lung cancer and chronic respiratory disease. Participants in the highest versus lowest WC category had a relative risk of death from lung cancer of 1.77 (95% CI, 1.41 to 2.23 and of death from chronic respiratory disease of 2.77 (95% CI, 1.95 to 3.95. In contrast, subjects in the highest versus lowest BMI category had a relative risk of death from lung cancer of 0.94 (95% CI, 0.75 to 1.17 and of death from chronic respiratory disease of 1.18 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.56.Increased abdominal fat measured by WC was related to a higher risk of deaths from major specific causes, including deaths from lung cancer and chronic respiratory disease, independent of BMI.

  5. Eddington's demon: inferring galaxy mass functions and other distributions from uncertain data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreschkow, D.; Murray, S. G.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Westmeier, T.

    2018-03-01

    We present a general modified maximum likelihood (MML) method for inferring generative distribution functions from uncertain and biased data. The MML estimator is identical to, but easier and many orders of magnitude faster to compute than the solution of the exact Bayesian hierarchical modelling of all measurement errors. As a key application, this method can accurately recover the mass function (MF) of galaxies, while simultaneously dealing with observational uncertainties (Eddington bias), complex selection functions and unknown cosmic large-scale structure. The MML method is free of binning and natively accounts for small number statistics and non-detections. Its fast implementation in the R-package dftools is equally applicable to other objects, such as haloes, groups, and clusters, as well as observables other than mass. The formalism readily extends to multidimensional distribution functions, e.g. a Choloniewski function for the galaxy mass-angular momentum distribution, also handled by dftools. The code provides uncertainties and covariances for the fitted model parameters and approximate Bayesian evidences. We use numerous mock surveys to illustrate and test the MML method, as well as to emphasize the necessity of accounting for observational uncertainties in MFs of modern galaxy surveys.

  6. The Mass Function of Young Star Clusters in the "Antennae" Galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang; Fall

    1999-12-20

    We determine the mass function of young star clusters in the merging galaxies known as the "Antennae" (NGC 4038/9) from deep images taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on the refurbished Hubble Space Telescope. This is accomplished by means of reddening-free parameters and a comparison with stellar population synthesis tracks to estimate the intrinsic luminosity and age, and hence the mass, of each cluster. We find that the mass function of the young star clusters (with ages less, similar160 Myr) is well represented by a power law of the form psi&parl0;M&parr0;~M-2 over the range 104 less, similarM less, similar106 M middle dot in circle. This result may have important implications for our understanding of the origin of globular clusters during the early phases of galactic evolution.

  7. THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION AND THE SURFACE DENSITY PROFILE OF NGC 6231

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Hwankyung [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Sejong University, 98, Kunja-dong, Kwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Sana, Hugues [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekeok' , Amsterdam University, Science Park 904, 1098-XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bessell, Michael S., E-mail: sungh@sejong.ac.kr, E-mail: H.Sana@uva.nl, E-mail: bessell@mso.anu.edu.au [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, MSO, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2013-02-01

    We have performed new wide-field photometry of the young open cluster NGC 6231 to study the shape of the initial mass function (IMF) and mass segregation. We also investigated the reddening law toward NGC 6231 from optical to mid-infrared color excess ratios, and found that the total-to-selective extinction ratio is R{sub V} = 3.2, which is very close to the normal value. But many early-type stars in the cluster center show large color excess ratios. We derived the surface density profiles of four member groups, and found that they reach the surface density of field stars at about 10', regardless of stellar mass. The IMF of NGC 6231 is derived for the mass range 0.8-45 M{sub Sun }. The slope of the IMF of NGC 6231 ({Gamma} = -1.1 {+-} 0.1) is slightly shallower than the canonical value, but the difference is marginal. In addition, the mass function varies systematically, and is a strong function of radius-it is very shallow at the center, and very steep at the outer ring suggesting the cluster is mass segregated. We confirm the mass segregation for the massive stars (m {approx}> 8 M{sub Sun }) by a minimum spanning tree analysis. Using a Monte Carlo method, we estimate the total mass of NGC 6231 to be about 2.6 ({+-} 0.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun }. We constrain the age of NGC 6231 by comparison with evolutionary isochrones. The age of the low-mass stars ranges from 1 to 7 Myr with a slight peak at 3 Myr. However, the age of the high-mass stars depends on the adopted models and is 3.5 {+-} 0.5 Myr from the non-rotating or moderately rotating models of Brott et al. as well as the non-rotating models of Ekstroem et al. But the age is 4.0-7.0 Myr if the rotating models of Ekstroem et al. are adopted. This latter age is in excellent agreement with the timescale of ejection of the high-mass runaway star HD 153919 from NGC 6231, albeit the younger age cannot be entirely excluded.

  8. Spectroscopic constraints on the form of the stellar cluster mass function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, N.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Trancho, G.; Weisz, D. R.; Larsen, S. S.; Fouesneau, M.; Kaschinski, C. B.; Gieles, M.

    2012-05-01

    This contribution addresses the question of whether the initial cluster mass function (ICMF) has a fundamental limit (or truncation) at high masses. The shape of the ICMF at high masses can be studied using the most massive young (advantages are that more clusters can be used and that the ICMF leaves a distinct pattern on the global relation between the cluster luminosity and median age within a population. If a truncation is present, a generic prediction (nearly independent of the cluster disruption law adopted) is that the median age of bright clusters should be younger than that of fainter clusters. In the case of an non-truncated ICMF, the median age should be independent of cluster luminosity. Here, we present optical spectroscopy of twelve young stellar clusters in the face-on spiral galaxy NGC 2997. The spectra are used to estimate the age of each cluster, and the brightness of the clusters is taken from the literature. The observations are compared with the model expectations of Larsen (2009, A&A, 494, 539) for various ICMF forms and both mass dependent and mass independent cluster disruption. While there exists some degeneracy between the truncation mass and the amount of mass independent disruption, the observations favour a truncated ICMF. For low or modest amounts of mass independent disruption, a truncation mass of 5-6 × 105 M⊙ is estimated, consistent with previous determinations. Additionally, we investigate possible truncations in the ICMF in the spiral galaxy M 83, the interacting Antennae galaxies, and the collection of spiral and dwarf galaxies present in Larsen (2009, A&A, 494, 539) based on photometric catalogues taken from the literature, and find that all catalogues are consistent with having a truncation in the cluster mass functions. However for the case of the Antennae, we find a truncation mass of a few × 106M⊙ , suggesting a dependence on the environment, as has been previously suggested.

  9. Functional Requirements for the Next Generation of Mass Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Berkly

    2012-01-01

    While the latest update to National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) redefines mass notification as "emergency communications systems" (ECS), the end user community is formulating expectations related to the future functionality of today's alerting solutions. Numerous best practices have surfaced since alerting technology began its rapid,…

  10. The origin of nuclear mass number dependence in EMC-effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Y.; Date, S.; Nakamura, A.; Sato, H.; Sumiyoshi, H.; Yoshinada, K.

    1985-03-01

    The origin of the mass number dependence of the nucleon structure functions extracted from the deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering is investigated by factorizing the structure function into A and x dependent parts. It is found that the mass number dependence is determined by the probability of exotic components in multi-nucleon overlap. This suggests that the deformation of the nucleon structure function is caused by the interaction among nucleons during their overlap. (author)

  11. A Universal Break in the Planet-to-star Mass-ratio Function of Kepler MKG Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascucci, Ilaria; Mulders, Gijs D.; Gould, Andrew; Fernandes, Rachel

    2018-04-01

    We follow the microlensing approach and quantify the occurrence of Kepler exoplanets as a function of planet-to-star mass ratio, q, rather than planet radius or mass. For planets with radii ∼1–6 R ⊕ and periods law with a break at ∼3 × 10‑5 independent of host type for hosts below 1 M ⊙. These findings indicate that the planet-to-star mass ratio is a more fundamental quantity in planet formation than planet mass. We then compare our results to those from microlensing for which the overwhelming majority satisfies the M host common planet inside the snowline is ∼3–10 times less massive than the one outside. With rocky planets interior to gaseous planets, the solar system broadly follows the combined mass-ratio function inferred from Kepler and microlensing. However, the exoplanet population has a less extreme radial distribution of planetary masses than the solar system. Establishing whether the mass-ratio function beyond the snowline is also host type independent will be crucial to build a comprehensive theory of planet formation.

  12. Mass coral bleaching causes biotic homogenization of reef fish assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Laura E; Graham, Nicholas A J; Pratchett, Morgan S; Eurich, Jacob G; Hoey, Andrew S

    2018-04-06

    Global climate change is altering community composition across many ecosystems due to nonrandom species turnover, typically characterized by the loss of specialist species and increasing similarity of biological communities across spatial scales. As anthropogenic disturbances continue to alter species composition globally, there is a growing need to identify how species responses influence the establishment of distinct assemblages, such that management actions may be appropriately assigned. Here, we use trait-based analyses to compare temporal changes in five complementary indices of reef fish assemblage structure among six taxonomically distinct coral reef habitats exposed to a system-wide thermal stress event. Our results revealed increased taxonomic and functional similarity of previously distinct reef fish assemblages following mass coral bleaching, with changes characterized by subtle, but significant, shifts toward predominance of small-bodied, algal-farming habitat generalists. Furthermore, while the taxonomic or functional richness of fish assemblages did not change across all habitats, an increase in functional originality indicated an overall loss of functional redundancy. We also found that prebleaching coral composition better predicted changes in fish assemblage structure than the magnitude of coral loss. These results emphasize how measures of alpha diversity can mask important changes in the structure and functioning of ecosystems as assemblages reorganize. Our findings also highlight the role of coral species composition in structuring communities and influencing the diversity of responses of reef fishes to disturbance. As new coral species configurations emerge, their desirability will hinge upon the composition of associated species and their capacity to maintain key ecological processes in spite of ongoing disturbances. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The COSMOS2015 galaxy stellar mass function . Thirteen billion years of stellar mass assembly in ten snapshots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidzon, I.; Ilbert, O.; Laigle, C.; Coupon, J.; McCracken, H. J.; Delvecchio, I.; Masters, D.; Capak, P.; Hsieh, B. C.; Le Fèvre, O.; Tresse, L.; Bethermin, M.; Chang, Y.-Y.; Faisst, A. L.; Le Floc'h, E.; Steinhardt, C.; Toft, S.; Aussel, H.; Dubois, C.; Hasinger, G.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D. B.; Scoville, N.; Silverman, J. D.

    2017-09-01

    We measure the stellar mass function (SMF) and stellar mass density of galaxies in the COSMOS field up to z 6. We select them in the near-IR bands of the COSMOS2015 catalogue, which includes ultra-deep photometry from UltraVISTA-DR2, SPLASH, and Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam. At z> 2.5 we use new precise photometric redshifts with error σz = 0.03(1 + z) and an outlier fraction of 12%, estimated by means of the unique spectroscopic sample of COSMOS ( 100 000 spectroscopic measurements in total, more than one thousand having robust zspec> 2.5). The increased exposure time in the DR2, along with our panchromatic detection strategy, allow us to improve the completeness at high z with respect to previous UltraVISTA catalogues (e.g. our sample is >75% complete at 1010 ℳ⊙ and z = 5). We also identify passive galaxies through a robust colour-colour selection, extending their SMF estimate up to z = 4. Our work provides a comprehensive view of galaxy-stellar-mass assembly between z = 0.1 and 6, for the first time using consistent estimates across the entire redshift range. We fit these measurements with a Schechter function, correcting for Eddington bias. We compare the SMF fit with the halo mass function predicted from ΛCDM simulations, finding that at z> 3 both functions decline with a similar slope in thehigh-mass end. This feature could be explained assuming that mechanisms quenching star formation in massive haloes become less effective at high redshifts; however further work needs to be done to confirm this scenario. Concerning the SMF low-mass end, it shows a progressive steepening as it moves towards higher redshifts, with α decreasing from -1.47+0.02-0.02 at z ≃ 0.1 to -2.11+0.30-0.13 at z ≃ 5. This slope depends on the characterisation of the observational uncertainties, which is crucial to properly remove the Eddington bias. We show that there is currently no consensus on the method to quantify such errors: different error models result in different best

  14. Antarctic Mass Loss from GRACE from Space- and Time-Resolved Modeling with Slepian Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, F. J.; Harig, C.

    2013-12-01

    The melting of polar ice sheets is a major contributor to global sea-level rise. Antarctica is of particular interest since most of the mass loss has occurred in West Antarctica, however updated glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) models and recent mass gains in East Antarctica have reduced the continent-wide integrated decadal trend of mass loss. Here we present a spatially and temporally resolved estimation of the Antarctic ice mass change using Slepian localization functions. With a Slepian basis specifically for Antarctica, the basis functions maximize their energy on the continent and we can project the geopotential fields into a sparse set of orthogonal coefficients. By fitting polynomial functions to the limited basis coefficients we maximize signal-to-noise levels and need not perform smoothing or destriping filters common to other approaches. In addition we determine an empirical noise covariance matrix from the GRACE data to estimate the uncertainty of mass estimation. When applied to large ice sheets, as in our own recent Greenland work, this technique is able to resolve both the overall continental integrated mass trend, as well as the spatial distribution of the mass changes over time. Using CSR-RL05 GRACE data between Jan. 2003 and Jan 2013, we estimate the regional accelerations in mass change for several sub-regions and examine how the spatial pattern of mass has changed. The Amundsen Sea coast of West Antarctica has experienced a large acceleration in mass loss (-26 Gt/yr^2). While mass loss is concentrated near Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers, it has also increased along the coast further towards the Ross ice shelf.

  15. Green's function matching method for adjoining regions having different masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern Horing, Norman J

    2006-01-01

    We present a primer on the method of Green's function matching for the determination of the global Schroedinger Green's function for all space subject to joining conditions at an interface between two (or more) separate parts of the region having different masses. The object of this technique is to determine the full space Schroedinger Green's function in terms of the individual Green's functions of the constituent parts taken as if they were themselves extended to all space. This analytical method has had successful applications in the theory of surface states, and remains of interest for nanostructures

  16. Very Low-mass Stars and Brown Dwarfs in Upper Scorpius Using Gaia DR1: Mass Function, Disks, and Kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Neil J.; Scholz, Aleks; Jayawardhana, Ray

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of the brown dwarf population in star-forming regions is dependent on knowing distances and proper motions and therefore will be improved through the Gaia space mission. In this paper, we select new samples of very low-mass objects (VLMOs) in Upper Scorpius using UKIDSS colors and optimized proper motions calculated using Gaia DR1. The scatter in proper motions from VLMOs in Upper Scorpius is now (for the first time) dominated by the kinematic spread of the region itself, not by the positional uncertainties. With age and mass estimates updated using Gaia parallaxes for early-type stars in the same region, we determine masses for all VLMOs. Our final most complete sample includes 453 VLMOs of which ˜125 are expected to be brown dwarfs. The cleanest sample is comprised of 131 VLMOs, with ˜105 brown dwarfs. We also compile a joint sample from the literature that includes 415 VLMOs, out of which 152 are likely brown dwarfs. The disk fraction among low-mass brown dwarfs (M< 0.05 {M}⊙ ) is substantially higher than in more massive objects, indicating that disks around low-mass brown dwarfs survive longer than in low-mass stars overall. The mass function for 0.01< M< 0.1 {M}⊙ is consistent with the Kroupa Initial Mass Function. We investigate the possibility that some “proper motion outliers” have undergone a dynamical ejection early in their evolution. Our analysis shows that the color-magnitude cuts used when selecting samples introduce strong bias into the population statistics due to varying levels of contamination and completeness.

  17. QCD's Partner Needed for Mass Spectra and Parton Structure Functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.S.

    2009-01-01

    as in the case of the hydrogen atom, bound-state wave functions are needed to generate hadronic spectra. For this purpose, in 1971, Feynman and his students wrote down a Lorentz-invariant harmonic oscillator equation. This differential equation has one set of solutions satisfying the Lorentz-covariant boundary condition. This covariant set generates Lorentz-invariant mass spectra with their degeneracies. Furthermore, the Lorentz-covariant wave functions allow us to calculate the valence parton distribution by Lorentz-boosting the quark-model wave function from the hadronic rest frame. However, this boosted wave function does not give an accurate parton distribution. The wave function needs QCD corrections to make a contact with the real world. Likewise, QCD needs the wave function as a starting point for calculating the parton structure function. (author)

  18. Factorization for the light-jet mass and hemisphere soft function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, Thomas [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics,Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Pecjak, Benjamin D. [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, University of Durham,DH1 3LE Durham (United Kingdom); Shao, Ding Yu [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics,Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-12-05

    Many collider observables suffer from non-global logarithms not captured by standard resummation techniques. Classic examples are the light-jet mass event shape in the limit of small mass and the related hemisphere soft function. We derive factorization formulas for both of these and explicitly demonstrate that they capture all logarithms present at NNLO. These formulas achieve full scale separation and provide the basis for all-order resummations. A characteristic feature of non-global observables is that the soft radiation is driven by multi-Wilson-line operators, and the ones arising here map onto those relevant for the case of narrow-cone jet cross sections. Numerically, the contributions of non-global logarithms to resummed hemisphere-mass event shapes are sizeable.

  19. Radiomanganese PET Detects Changes in Functional β-cell Mass in Mouse Models of Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez, Reinier; Graves, Stephen A.; Gregg, Trillian

    2017-01-01

    functional β-cell mass using 52Mn2+ (t1/2: 5.6 d). We investigated the whole-body distribution of 52Mn2+ in healthy adult mice by dynamic and static PET imaging. Pancreatic VDCC uptake of 52Mn2+ was successfully manipulated pharmacologically in vitro and in vivo using glucose, nifedipine (VDCC blocker...... for functional β-cell mass determination through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel (VDCC)-mediated internalization of Mn2+, the clinical utility of this technique is limited by the cytotoxic levels of Mn2+ contrast agent. Here, we show that positron emission tomography (PET) is advantageous for determining...... from pancreatic sections. 52Mn2+-PET also reported the expected increase in functional β-cell mass in the ob/ob model of pre-type 2 diabetes, a result corroborated by histological β-cell mass measurements and live-cell imaging of β-cell Ca2+ oscillations. These results indicate that 52Mn2+-PET...

  20. The evolution of the global stellar mass function of star clusters: an analytic description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.; Baumgardt, H.; Gieles, M.

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of the global stellar mass function of star clusters is studied based on a large set of N-body simulations of clusters with a range of initial masses, initial concentrations, in circular or elliptical orbits in different tidal environments. Models with and without initial mass

  1. Target mass corrections to electroweak structure functions and perturbative neutrino cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzer, S.; Reno, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    We provide a complete and consistent framework to include subasymptotic perturbative as well as mass corrections to the leading twist (τ=2) evaluation of charged and neutral current weak structure functions and the perturbative neutrino cross sections. We reexamine previous calculations in a modern language and fill in the gaps that we find missing for a complete and ready-to-use 'NLO ξ-scaling' formulary. In particular, as a new result we formulate the mixing of the partonic and hadronic structure function tensor basis in the operator approach to deep inelastic scattering. As an underlying framework we follow the operator product expansion in the manner of Georgi and Politzer that allows the inclusion of target mass corrections at arbitrary order in QCD and we provide explicit analytical and numerical results at NLO. We compare this approach with a simpler collinear parton model approach to ξ scaling. Along with target mass corrections we include heavy quark mass effects as a calculable leading twist power suppressed correction. The complete corrections have been implemented into a Monte Carlo integration program to evaluate structure functions and/or integrated cross sections. As applications, we compare the operator approach with the collinear approximation numerically and we investigate the NLO and mass corrections to observables that are related to the extraction of the weak mixing angle from a Paschos-Wolfenstein-like relation in neutrino-iron scattering. We expect that the interpretation of neutrino scattering events in terms of oscillation physics and electroweak precision physics will benefit from our results

  2. RESOLVE AND ECO: THE HALO MASS-DEPENDENT SHAPE OF GALAXY STELLAR AND BARYONIC MASS FUNCTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, Kathleen D.; Kannappan, Sheila J.; Stark, David V.; Moffett, Amanda J.; Norris, Mark A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina, 141 Chapman Hall CB 3255, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Berlind, Andreas A., E-mail: keckert@physics.unc.edu [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2016-06-20

    In this work, we present galaxy stellar and baryonic (stars plus cold gas) mass functions (SMF and BMF) and their halo mass dependence for two volume-limited data sets. The first, RESOLVE-B, coincides with the Stripe 82 footprint and is extremely complete down to baryonic mass M {sub bary} ∼ 10{sup 9.1} M {sub ⊙}, probing the gas-rich dwarf regime below M {sub bary} ∼ 10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙}. The second, ECO, covers a ∼40× larger volume (containing RESOLVE-A) and is complete to M {sub bary} ∼ 10{sup 9.4} M {sub ⊙}. To construct the SMF and BMF we implement a new “cross-bin sampling” technique with Monte Carlo sampling from the full likelihood distributions of stellar or baryonic mass. Our SMFs exhibit the “plateau” feature starting below M {sub star} ∼ 10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙} that has been described in prior work. However, the BMF fills in this feature and rises as a straight power law below ∼10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙}, as gas-dominated galaxies become the majority of the population. Nonetheless, the low-mass slope of the BMF is not as steep as that of the theoretical dark matter halo MF. Moreover, we assign group halo masses by abundance matching, finding that the SMF and BMF, separated into four physically motivated halo mass regimes, reveal complex structure underlying the simple shape of the overall MFs. In particular, the satellite MFs are depressed below the central galaxy MF “humps” in groups with mass <10{sup 13.5} M {sub ⊙} yet rise steeply in clusters. Our results suggest that satellite destruction and stripping are active from the point of nascent group formation. We show that the key role of groups in shaping MFs enables reconstruction of a given survey’s SMF or BMF based on its group halo mass distribution.

  3. Functional proteomics with new mass spectrometric and bioinformatics tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesners, P.W.A.

    2001-01-01

    A comprehensive range of mass spectrometric tools is required to investigate todays life science applications and a strong focus is on addressing the needs of functional proteomics. Application examples are given showing the streamlined process of protein identification from low femtomole amounts of digests. Sample preparation is achieved with a convertible robot for automated 2D gel picking, and MALDI target dispensing. MALDI-TOF or ESI-MS subsequent to enzymatic digestion. A choice of mass spectrometers including Q-q-TOF with multipass capability, MALDI-MS/MS with unsegmented PSD, Ion Trap and FT-MS are discussed for their respective strengths and applications. Bioinformatics software that allows both database work and novel peptide mass spectra interpretation is reviewed. The automated database searching uses either entire digest LC-MS n ESI Ion Trap data or MALDI MS and MS/MS spectra. It is shown how post translational modifications are interactively uncovered and de-novo sequencing of peptides is facilitated

  4. Mass Alarms in Main Control Room Caused Condensate on the Instrumentation and Control Cards in Turbine Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goo, Cheol-Soo

    2015-01-01

    A bunch of alarms and trouble lights on the main control room simultaneously turned on during inspection and exchange of the coolers of the turbine building at pressurized water reactor of the Hanbit nuclear power plant No. 6. The main cause was condensate on instrumentation cards of plant control system (PCS) installed at enclosures in the turbine building which have MUX cabinets to transmit signals between the main control room and local equipment. To control the temperature and humidity of the MUX cabinets, two coolers of the plant chilled water system supply air to the compact enclosures at turbine building where temperature and humidity is high in the summer. It is an unusual experience that mass alarms abnormally were occurred in the main control room during normal plant operation phases. Spurious signals with unknown cause at control and instrumentation system occasionally may have an unnecessary actuation of monitoring equipment and a plant scram even. One of the main causes is humidity by a rapid temperature change of the control and instrumentation cards. Dew on the instrumentation cards could form an abnormal short circuit in printed circuit board with the compact circuits and make any malfunction of the related system. Instrumentation and control cards with integrated circuits are vulnerable to high humidity and temperature where the system is enclosed in a small housing or enclosure surrounding with hash environment such as a turbine building. It was found that there was no functional degradation of the safety systems and no outsides releases of radioactive materials by this occurrence. (author)

  5. Characterizing the Syphilis-Causing Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum Proteome Using Complementary Mass Spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara K Osbak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum is the etiological agent of syphilis, a chronic multistage disease. Little is known about the global T. pallidum proteome, therefore mass spectrometry studies are needed to bring insights into pathogenicity and protein expression profiles during infection.To better understand the T. pallidum proteome profile during infection, we studied T. pallidum ssp. pallidum DAL-1 strain bacteria isolated from rabbits using complementary mass spectrometry techniques, including multidimensional peptide separation and protein identification via matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF and electrospray ionization (ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 6033 peptides were detected, corresponding to 557 unique T. pallidum proteins at a high level of confidence, representing 54% of the predicted proteome. A previous gel-based T. pallidum MS proteome study detected 58 of these proteins. One hundred fourteen of the detected proteins were previously annotated as hypothetical or uncharacterized proteins; this is the first account of 106 of these proteins at the protein level. Detected proteins were characterized according to their predicted biological function and localization; half were allocated into a wide range of functional categories. Proteins annotated as potential membrane proteins and proteins with unclear functional annotations were subjected to an additional bioinformatics pipeline analysis to facilitate further characterization. A total of 116 potential membrane proteins were identified, of which 16 have evidence supporting outer membrane localization. We found 8/12 proteins related to the paralogous tpr gene family: TprB, TprC/D, TprE, TprG, TprH, TprI and TprJ. Protein abundance was semi-quantified using label-free spectral counting methods. A low correlation (r = 0.26 was found between previous microarray signal data and protein abundance.This is

  6. Lesions causing freezing of gait localize to a cerebellar functional network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Alfonso; Laganiere, Simon E.; Lam, Susy; Fox, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Freezing of gait is a disabling symptom in Parkinson’s disease and related disorders, but the brain regions involved in symptom generation remain unclear. Here we analyze brain lesions causing acute onset freezing of gait to identify regions causally involved in symptom generation. Methods Fourteen cases of lesion-induced freezing of gait were identified from the literature and lesions were mapped to a common brain atlas. Because lesion-induced symptoms can come from sites connected to the lesion location, not just the lesion location itself, we also identified brain regions functionally connected to each lesion location. This technique, termed lesion network mapping, has been recently shown to identify regions involved in symptom generation across a variety of lesion-induced disorders. Results Lesion location was heterogeneous and no single region could be considered necessary for symptom generation. However, over 90% (13/14) of lesions were functionally connected to a focal area in the dorsal medial cerebellum. This cerebellar area overlapped previously recognized regions that are activated by locomotor tasks, termed the cerebellar locomotor region. Connectivity to this region was specific to lesions causing freezing of gait compared to lesions causing other movement disorders (hemichorea or asterixis). Interpretation Lesions causing freezing of gait are located within a common functional network characterized by connectivity to the cerebellar locomotor region. These results based on causal brain lesions complement prior neuroimaging studies in Parkinson’s disease patients, advancing our understanding of the brain regions involved in freezing of gait. PMID:28009063

  7. A rare cause of hyperthyroidism: functioning thyroid metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Daphne; Ho, Su Chin

    2014-10-09

    Hyperthyroidism is a common medical problem that is readily treated with antithyroid medications. However, attributing the correct aetiology of hyperthyroidism alters management and outcome. We present a case of a 66-year-old woman with a seemingly common problem of hyperthyroidism associated with a goitre, which was initially attributed to a toxic nodule. However, Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake scan and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody were negative, inconsistent with a toxic nodule or Grave's disease. Her thyroid function tests proved difficult to control over the next few months. She eventually proceeded to a total thyroidectomy and histology revealed follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma. She was started on levothyroxine postoperatively but developed severe hyperthyroidism, revealing the cause of hyperthyroidism to be autonomously functioning thyroid metastases. Although functioning thyroid metastases are very rare, they need to be considered among the differential diagnoses of hyperthyroidism, as there are nuances in management that could alter the eventual outcome. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. Plant litter functional diversity effects on litter mass loss depend on the macro-detritivore community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patoine, Guillaume; Thakur, Madhav P; Friese, Julia; Nock, Charles; Hönig, Lydia; Haase, Josephine; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2017-11-01

    A better understanding of the mechanisms driving litter diversity effects on decomposition is needed to predict how biodiversity losses affect this crucial ecosystem process. In a microcosm study, we investigated the effects of litter functional diversity and two major groups of soil macro-detritivores on the mass loss of tree leaf litter mixtures. Furthermore, we tested the effects of litter trait community means and dissimilarity on litter mass loss for seven traits relevant to decomposition. We expected macro-detritivore effects on litter mass loss to be most pronounced in litter mixtures of high functional diversity. We used 24 leaf mixtures differing in functional diversity, which were composed of litter from four species from a pool of 16 common European tree species. Earthworms, isopods, or a combination of both were added to each litter combination for two months. Litter mass loss was significantly higher in the presence of earthworms than in that of isopods, whereas no synergistic effects of macro-detritivore mixtures were found. The effect of functional diversity of the litter material was highest in the presence of both macro-detritivore groups, supporting the notion that litter diversity effects are most pronounced in the presence of different detritivore species. Species-specific litter mass loss was explained by nutrient content, secondary compound concentration, and structural components. Moreover, dissimilarity in N concentrations increased litter mass loss, probably because detritivores having access to nutritionally diverse food sources. Furthermore, strong competition between the two macro-detritivores for soil surface litter resulted in a decrease of survival of both macro-detritivores. These results show that the effects of litter functional diversity on decomposition are contingent upon the macro-detritivore community and composition. We conclude that the temporal dynamics of litter trait diversity effects and their interaction with

  9. The Cause of Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Einstein said that gravity is an acceleration like any other acceleration. But gravity causes relativistic effects at non-relativistic speeds; so gravity could have relativistic origins. And since the strong force is thought to cause most of mass, and mass is proportional to gravity; the strong force is therefore also proportional to gravity. The strong force could thus cause relativistic increases of mass through the creation of virtual gluons; along with a comparable contraction of space ar...

  10. The evolution of the mass-transfer functions in liquid Yukawa systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaulina, O. S., E-mail: olga.vaulina@bk.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    The results of analytic and numerical investigation of mass-transfer processes in nonideal liquid systems are reported. Calculations are performed for extended 2D and 3D systems of particles that interact with a screened Yukawa-type Coulomb potential. The main attention is paid to 2D structures. A new analytic model is proposed for describing the evolution of mass-transfer functions in systems of interacting particles, including the transition between the ballistic and diffusion regimes of their motion.

  11. Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900 000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NN, NN; Whitlock, Gary; Lewington, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main associations of body-mass index (BMI) with overall and cause-specific mortality can best be assessed by long-term prospective follow-up of large numbers of people. The Prospective Studies Collaboration aimed to investigate these associations by sharing data from many studies....

  12. Do protostellar fountains shape the regional core mass function?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jin-Zeng; Huang Ya-Fang; Carlos Mallamaci Claudio; César Podestà Ricardo; Actis Vicente Eloy; Maria Pacheco Ana

    2013-01-01

    The emerging massive binary system associated with AFGL 961 signifies the latest generation of massive star and cluster formation in the Rosette Molecular Complex. We present the detection of a compact cluster of dusty cores toward the AFGL 961 region based on continuum imaging at 1.3 mm by the Submillimeter Array. The binary components of AFGL 961 are associated with the most intensive millimeter emission cores or envelopes, confirming that they are indeed in an early stage of evolution. The other massive cores, however, are found to congregate in the close vicinity of the central high-mass protostellar binary. They have no apparent infrared counterparts and are, in particular, well aligned transverse to the bipolar molecular outflows originating from AFGL 961. This provides evidence for a likely triggered origin of the massive cores. All 40 individual cores with masses ranging between 0.6 and 15 Msun were detected above a 3 σ level of 3.6 mJy beam −1 (or 0.4 Msun), based on which we derive a total core mass of 107 Msun in the AFGL 961 region. As compared to the stellar initial mass function, a shallow slope of 1.8 is, however, derived from the best fit to the mass spectrum of the millimeter cores with a prestellar and/or protostellar origin. The flatter core mass distribution in the AFGL 961 region is attributed here to dynamic perturbations from the massive molecular outflows that originated from the massive protostellar binary, which may have altered the otherwise more quiescent conditions of core or star formation, enhanced the formation of more massive cores and, as a result, influenced the core mass distribution in its close vicinity.

  13. GALAXY FORMATION WITH COLD GAS ACCRETION AND EVOLVING STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Xi; Lin, W. P.; Skibba, Ramin; Chen, D. N.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of the galaxy stellar mass function is especially useful to test the current model of galaxy formation. Observational data have revealed a few inconsistencies with predictions from the ΛCDM model. For example, most massive galaxies have already been observed at very high redshifts, and they have experienced only mild evolution since then. In conflict with this, semi-analytical models (SAMs) of galaxy formation predict an insufficient number of massive galaxies at high redshift and a rapid evolution between redshift 1 and 0. In addition, there is a strong correlation between star formation rate (SFR) and stellar mass for star-forming galaxies, which can be roughly reproduced with the model, but with a normalization that is too low at high redshift. Furthermore, the stellar mass density obtained from the integral of the cosmic star formation history is higher than the measured one by a factor of 2. In this paper, we study these issues using an SAM that includes (1) cold gas accretion in massive halos at high redshift; (2) tidal stripping of stellar mass from satellite galaxies; and (3) an evolving stellar initial mass function (IMF; bottom-light) with a higher gas recycle fraction. Our results show that the combined effects from (1) and (2) can predict sufficiently massive galaxies at high redshifts and reproduce their mild evolution at low redshift, while the combined effects of (1) and (3) can reproduce the correlation between SFR and stellar mass for star-forming galaxies across a wide range of redshifts. A bottom-light/top-heavy stellar IMF could partly resolve the conflict between the stellar mass density and cosmic star formation history.

  14. Estimation of bone Calcium-to-Phosphorous mass ratio using dual-energy nonlinear polynomial functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotiropoulou, P; Koukou, V; Martini, N; Nikiforidis, G; Michail, C; Kandarakis, I; Fountos, G; Kounadi, E

    2015-01-01

    In this study an analytical approximation of dual-energy inverse functions is presented for the estimation of the calcium-to-phosphorous (Ca/P) mass ratio, which is a crucial parameter in bone health. Bone quality could be examined by the X-ray dual-energy method (XDEM), in terms of bone tissue material properties. Low- and high-energy, log- intensity measurements were combined by using a nonlinear function, to cancel out the soft tissue structures and generate the dual energy bone Ca/P mass ratio. The dual-energy simulated data were obtained using variable Ca and PO 4 thicknesses on a fixed total tissue thickness. The XDEM simulations were based on a bone phantom. Inverse fitting functions with least-squares estimation were used to obtain the fitting coefficients and to calculate the thickness of each material. The examined inverse mapping functions were linear, quadratic, and cubic. For every thickness, the nonlinear quadratic function provided the optimal fitting accuracy while requiring relative few terms. The dual-energy method, simulated in this work could be used to quantify bone Ca/P mass ratio with photon-counting detectors. (paper)

  15. Local quark-hadron duality of nucleon spin structure functions with target mass corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Y.B. . E-mail dongyb@mail.ihep.ac.cn; Chen, D.Y.

    2007-01-01

    Target mass corrections to nucleon spin structure functions are analyzed. Our results show that the corrections are important to the structure functions in a large x region. Moreover, they play a remarkable role to the local quark-hadron duality of the nucleon spin structure functions in three individual inelastic resonance production regions

  16. I and C functional test facility malfunction cause and effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kee Choon.

    1997-06-01

    The objective of I and C function test facility (FTF) is to validate newly developed digital control and protection algorithm, alarm reduction algorithm and the function of operator support system and so on. To realize transient and accident situation in the FTF, the result of the activation of malfunction should be similar to the situation of real nuclear power plants. In this technical report, describe the Group, Malfunction No., Description, Option, Recommendations, Considered in Subroutine, Limitations, Cause, and Effect of the malfunctions implemented in FTF. (author)

  17. Prevalence of skeletal muscle mass loss and its association with swallowing function after cardiovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Takahashi, Rimiko; Watanabe, Naoko; Oritsu, Hideyuki; Shimizu, Yoshitaka

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of skeletal muscle mass loss and its association with swallowing function in patients with dysphagia after cardiovascular surgery. A retrospective cohort study was performed in 65 consecutive patients with dysphagia after cardiovascular surgery who were prescribed speech therapy. Skeletal muscle index (SMI) was calculated as total psoas muscle area assessed via abdominal computed tomography divided by height squared. Cutoff values were 6.36 cm 2 /m 2 for men and 3.92 cm 2 /m 2 for women. The Food Intake Level Scale (FILS) was used to assess the swallowing function. Univariate and ordered logistic regression analyses were applied to examine the associations between skeletal muscle mass loss and dysphagia. The study included 50 men and 15 women (mean age 73 ± 8 y). The mean SMI was 4.72 ± 1.37 cm 2 /m 2 in men and 3.33 ± 1.42 cm 2 /m 2 in women. Skeletal muscle mass loss was found in 53 (82%) patients. Twelve had tracheostomy cannula. Thirteen were non-oral feeding (FILS levels 1-3), 5 were oral food intake and alternative nutrition (levels 4-6), and 47 were oral food intake alone (levels 7-9) at discharge. The FILS at discharge was significantly lower in patients with skeletal muscle mass loss. Ordered logistic regression analysis of swallowing function showed that skeletal muscle mass loss and tracheostomy cannula were associated independently with the FILS at discharge. The prevalence of skeletal muscle mass loss is very high, and skeletal muscle mass loss is associated with swallowing function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Muscular exercise can cause highly pathological liver function tests in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Jonas; Hindorf, Ulf; Persson, Paula; Bengtsson, Thomas; Malmqvist, Ulf; Werkström, Viktoria; Ekelund, Mats

    2008-02-01

    The occurrence of idiosyncratic drug hepatotoxicity is a major problem in all phases of clinical drug development and the leading cause of postmarketing warnings and withdrawals. Physical exercise can result in transient elevations of liver function tests. There is no consensus in the literature on which forms of exercise may cause changes in liver function tests and to what extent. Weightlifting results in profound increases in liver function tests in healthy men used to moderate physical activity, not including weightlifting. Liver function tests are significantly increased for at least 7 days after weightlifting. It is important to impose relevant restrictions on heavy muscular exercise prior to and during clinical studies. To investigate the effect of intensive muscular exercise (weightlifting) on clinical chemistry parameters reflecting liver function in healthy men. Fifteen healthy men, used to moderate physical activity not including weightlifting, performed an 1 h long weightlifting programme. Blood was sampled for clinical chemistry parameters [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), gamma-glutamyl transferase (gamma GT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin] at repeated intervals during 7 days postexercise and at a follow-up examination 10-12 days postexercise. Five out of eight studied clinical chemistry parameters (AST, ALT, LD, CK and myoglobin) increased significantly after exercise (P exercise. In addition, LD and, in particular, CK and myoglobin showed highly elevated levels. These findings highlight the importance of imposing restrictions on weightlifting prior to and during clinical studies. Intensive muscular exercise, e.g. weightlifting, should also be considered as a cause of asymptomatic elevations of liver function tests in daily clinical practice.

  19. Determination of the mass function of extra-galactic GMCs via NIR color maps. Testing the method in a disk-like geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainulainen, J.; Juvela, M.; Alves, J.

    2007-06-01

    The giant molecular clouds (GMCs) of external galaxies can be mapped with sub-arcsecond resolution using multiband observations in the near-infrared. However, the interpretation of the observed reddening and attenuation of light, and their transformation into physical quantities, is greatly hampered by the effects arising from the unknown geometry and the scattering of light by dust particles. We examine the relation between the observed near-infrared reddening and the column density of the dust clouds. In this paper we particularly assess the feasibility of deriving the mass function of GMCs from near-infrared color excess data. We perform Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations with 3D models of stellar radiation and clumpy dust distributions. We include the scattered light in the models and calculate near-infrared color maps from the simulated data. The color maps are compared with the true line-of-sight density distributions of the models. We extract clumps from the color maps and compare the observed mass function to the true mass function. For the physical configuration chosen in this study, essentially a face-on geometry, the observed mass function is a non-trivial function of the true mass function with a large number of parameters affecting its exact form. The dynamical range of the observed mass function is confined to 103.5dots 105.5 M_⊙ regardless of the dynamical range of the true mass function. The color maps are more sensitive in detecting the high-mass end of the mass function, and on average the masses of clouds are underestimated by a factor of ˜ 10 depending on the parameters describing the dust distribution. A significant fraction of clouds is expected to remain undetected at all masses. The simulations show that the cloud mass function derived from JHK color excess data using simple foreground screening geometry cannot be regarded as a one-to-one tracer of the underlying mass function.

  20. Functional group composition of ambient and source organic aerosols determined by tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dron, J.; El Haddad, I.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Wortham, H.; Marchand, N. [Univ Aix Marseille, CNRS, Lab Chim Provence, Equipe Instrumentat and React Atmospher, UMR 6264, F-13331 Marseille 3 (France); Jaffrezo, J.L. [Univ Grenoble 1, CNRS, UMR 5183, Lab Glaciol and Geophys Environm, F-38402 St Martin Dheres (France)

    2010-07-01

    The functional group composition of various organic aerosols (OA) is investigated using a recently developed analytical approach based on atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (APCIMS/MS). The determinations of three functional groups contents are performed quantitatively by neutral loss (carboxylic and carbonyl groups, R-COOH and R-CO-R' respectively) and precursor ion (nitro groups, R-NO{sub 2}) scanning modes of a tandem mass spectrometer. Major organic aerosol sources are studied: vehicular emission and wood combustion for primary aerosol sources; and a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced through photooxidation of o-xylene. The results reveal significant differences in the functional group contents of these source aerosols. The laboratory generated SOA is dominated by carbonyls while carboxylics are preponderate in the wood combustion particles. On the other hand, vehicular emissions are characterised by a strong nitro content. The total amount of the three functional groups accounts for 1.7% (vehicular) to 13.5% (o-xylene photooxidation) of the organic carbon. Diagnostic functional group ratios are then used to tentatively discriminate sources of particles collected in an urban background environment located in an Alpine valley (Chamonix, France) during a strong winter pollution event. The three functional groups under study account for a total functionalization rate of 2.2 to 3.8% of the organic carbon in this ambient aerosol, which is also dominated by carboxylic moieties. In this particular case study of a deep alpine valley during winter, we show that the nitro- and carbonyl-to-carboxylic diagnostic ratios can be a useful tool to discriminate sources. In these conditions, the total OA concentrations are highly dominated by wood combustion OA. This result is confirmed by an organic markers source apportionment approach which assess a wood burning organic carbon contribution of about 60%. Finally, examples of functional

  1. BANYAN. IX. The Initial Mass Function and Planetary-mass Object Space Density of the TW HYA Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Jonathan; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Malo, Lison; Doyon, René; Filippazzo, Joseph C.; Weinberger, Alycia J.; Donaldson, Jessica K.; Lépine, Sébastien; Lafrenière, David; Artigau, Étienne; Burgasser, Adam J.; Looper, Dagny; Boucher, Anne; Beletsky, Yuri; Camnasio, Sara; Brunette, Charles; Arboit, Geneviève

    2017-02-01

    A determination of the initial mass function (IMF) of the current, incomplete census of the 10 Myr-old TW Hya association (TWA) is presented. This census is built from a literature compilation supplemented with new spectra and 17 new radial velocities from ongoing membership surveys, as well as a reanalysis of Hipparcos data that confirmed HR 4334 (A2 Vn) as a member. Although the dominant uncertainty in the IMF remains census incompleteness, a detailed statistical treatment is carried out to make the IMF determination independent of binning while accounting for small number statistics. The currently known high-likelihood members are fitted by a log-normal distribution with a central mass of {0.21}-0.06+0.11 M ⊙ and a characteristic width of {0.8}-0.1+0.2 dex in the 12 M Jup-2 M ⊙ range, whereas a Salpeter power law with α ={2.2}-0.5+1.1 best describes the IMF slope in the 0.1-2 M ⊙ range. This characteristic width is higher than other young associations, which may be due to incompleteness in the current census of low-mass TWA stars. A tentative overpopulation of isolated planetary-mass members similar to 2MASS J11472421-2040204 and 2MASS J11193254-1137466 is identified: this indicates that there might be as many as {10}-5+13 similar members of TWA with hot-start model-dependent masses estimated at ˜5-7 M Jup, most of which would be too faint to be detected in 2MASS. Our new radial velocity measurements corroborate the membership of 2MASS J11472421-2040204, and secure TWA 28 (M8.5 γ), TWA 29 (M9.5 γ), and TWA 33 (M4.5 e) as members. The discovery of 2MASS J09553336-0208403, a young L7-type interloper unrelated to TWA, is also presented.

  2. Reduction of determinate errors in mass bias-corrected isotope ratios measured using a multi-collector plasma mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, W.

    2015-01-01

    A nebulizer-centric instrument response function model of the plasma mass spectrometer was combined with a signal drift model, and the result was used to identify the causes of the non-spectroscopic determinate errors remaining in mass bias-corrected Pb isotope ratios (Tl as internal standard) measured using a multi-collector plasma mass spectrometer. Model calculations, confirmed by measurement, show that the detectable time-dependent errors are a result of the combined effect of signal drift and differences in the coordinates of the Pb and Tl response function maxima (horizontal offset effect). If there are no horizontal offsets, then the mass bias-corrected isotope ratios are approximately constant in time. In the absence of signal drift, the response surface curvature and horizontal offset effects are responsible for proportional errors in the mass bias-corrected isotope ratios. The proportional errors will be different for different analyte isotope ratios and different at every instrument operating point. Consequently, mass bias coefficients calculated using different isotope ratios are not necessarily equal. The error analysis based on the combined model provides strong justification for recommending a three step correction procedure (mass bias correction, drift correction and a proportional error correction, in that order) for isotope ratio measurements using a multi-collector plasma mass spectrometer

  3. Increasing Muscle Mass Improves Vascular Function in Obese (db/db) Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shuiqing; Mintz, James D.; Salet, Christina D.; Han, Weihong; Giannis, Athanassios; Chen, Feng; Yu, Yanfang; Su, Yunchao; Fulton, David J.; Stepp, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background A sedentary lifestyle is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and exercise has been shown to ameliorate this risk. Inactivity is associated with a loss of muscle mass, which is also reversed with isometric exercise training. The relationship between muscle mass and vascular function is poorly defined. The aims of the current study were to determine whether increasing muscle mass by genetic deletion of myostatin, a negative regulator of muscle growth, can influence vascular function in mesenteric arteries from obese db/db mice. Methods and Results Myostatin expression was elevated in skeletal muscle of obese mice and associated with reduced muscle mass (30% to 50%). Myostatin deletion increased muscle mass in lean (40% to 60%) and obese (80% to 115%) mice through increased muscle fiber size (PMyostatin deletion decreased adipose tissue in lean mice, but not obese mice. Markers of insulin resistance and glucose tolerance were improved in obese myostatin knockout mice. Obese mice demonstrated an impaired endothelial vasodilation, compared to lean mice. This impairment was improved by superoxide dismutase mimic Tempol. Deletion of myostatin improved endothelial vasodilation in mesenteric arteries in obese, but not in lean, mice. This improvement was blunted by nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor l‐NG‐nitroarginine methyl ester (l‐NAME). Prostacyclin (PGI2)‐ and endothelium‐derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)‐mediated vasodilation were preserved in obese mice and unaffected by myostatin deletion. Reactive oxygen species) was elevated in the mesenteric endothelium of obese mice and down‐regulated by deletion of myostatin in obese mice. Impaired vasodilation in obese mice was improved by NADPH oxidase inhibitor (GKT136901). Treatment with sepiapterin, which increases levels of tetrahydrobiopterin, improved vasodilation in obese mice, an improvement blocked by l‐NAME. Conclusions Increasing muscle mass by genetic deletion of

  4. Reconciling mass functions with the star-forming main sequence via mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhardt, Charles L.; Yurk, Dominic; Capak, Peter

    2017-06-01

    We combine star formation along the 'main sequence', quiescence and clustering and merging to produce an empirical model for the evolution of individual galaxies. Main-sequence star formation alone would significantly steepen the stellar mass function towards low redshift, in sharp conflict with observation. However, a combination of star formation and merging produces a consistent result for correct choice of the merger rate function. As a result, we are motivated to propose a model in which hierarchical merging is disconnected from environmentally independent star formation. This model can be tested via correlation functions and would produce new constraints on clustering and merging.

  5. Evidence for top-heavy stellar initial mass functions with increasing density and decreasing metallicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Michael; Kroupa, Pavel; Dabringhausen, Jörg; Pawlowski, Marcel S.

    2012-05-01

    Residual-gas expulsion after cluster formation has recently been shown to leave an imprint in the low-mass present-day stellar mass function (PDMF) which allowed the estimation of birth conditions of some Galactic globular clusters (GCs) such as mass, radius and star formation efficiency. We show that in order to explain their characteristics (masses, radii, metallicity and PDMF) their stellar initial mass function (IMF) must have been top heavy. It is found that the IMF is required to become more top heavy the lower the cluster metallicity and the larger the pre-GC cloud-core density are. The deduced trends are in qualitative agreement with theoretical expectation. The results are consistent with estimates of the shape of the high-mass end of the IMF in the Arches cluster, Westerlund 1, R136 and NGC 3603, as well as with the IMF independently constrained for ultra-compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs). The latter suggests that GCs and UCDs might have formed along the same channel or that UCDs formed via mergers of GCs. A Fundamental Plane is found which describes the variation of the IMF with density and metallicity of the pre-GC cloud cores. The implications for the evolution of galaxies and chemical enrichment over cosmological times are expected to be major.

  6. Anatomy and function relation in the coronary tree: from bifurcations to myocardial flow and mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Ghassan S; Finet, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    The study of the structure-function relation of coronary bifurcations is necessary not only to understand the design of the vasculature but also to use this understanding to restore structure and hence function. The objective of this review is to provide quantitative relations between bifurcation anatomy or geometry, flow distribution in the bifurcation and degree of perfused myocardial mass in order to establish practical rules to guide optimal treatment of bifurcations including side branches (SB). We use the scaling law between flow and diameter, conservation of mass and the scaling law between myocardial mass and diameter to provide geometric relations between the segment diameters of a bifurcation, flow fraction distribution in the SB, and the percentage of myocardial mass perfused by the SB. We demonstrate that the assessment of the functional significance of an SB for intervention should not only be based on the diameter of the SB but also on the diameter of the mother vessel as well as the diameter of the proximal main artery, as these dictate the flow fraction distribution and perfused myocardial mass, respectively. The geometric and flow rules for a bifurcation are extended to a trifurcation to ensure optimal therapy scaling rules for any branching pattern.

  7. Neuroendocrine causes of amenorrhea--an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourman, Lindsay T; Fazeli, Pouneh K

    2015-03-01

    Secondary amenorrhea--the absence of menses for three consecutive cycles--affects approximately 3-4% of reproductive age women, and infertility--the failure to conceive after 12 months of regular intercourse--affects approximately 6-10%. Neuroendocrine causes of amenorrhea and infertility, including functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and hyperprolactinemia, constitute a majority of these cases. In this review, we discuss the physiologic, pathologic, and iatrogenic causes of amenorrhea and infertility arising from perturbations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, including potential genetic causes. We focus extensively on the hormonal mechanisms involved in disrupting the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. A thorough understanding of the neuroendocrine causes of amenorrhea and infertility is critical for properly assessing patients presenting with these complaints. Prompt evaluation and treatment are essential to prevent loss of bone mass due to hypoestrogenemia and/or to achieve the time-sensitive treatment goal of conception.

  8. Myositis ossificans traumatica causing ankylosis of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthimathi, B; Udhaya Shankar, S; Arun Kumar, K; Narayanan, V L

    2014-12-01

    Myositis ossificans traumatica is an unusual complication following a muscle contusion injury. A significantly large myositic mass causing ankylosis of the elbow is even rarer. We report a 13-year-old boy who presented with a 14-month history of a fixed elbow with no movement and a palpable bony mass in the anterior aspect of the elbow. He had sustained significant trauma to the affected limb 1 month prior to onset of symptoms, which was managed by native massage and bandaging for 4 weeks. The clinicoradiological diagnosis was suggestive of myositis ossificans, and the myositic mass was completely excised. Histopathology revealed lamellar bone. The 2-year follow-up showed full function of the affected limb and no signs of recurrence. We report this case of clinical interest due to the unusually large myositic mass.

  9. Functional group composition of ambient and source organic aerosols determined by tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dron

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The functional group composition of various organic aerosols (OA is investigated using a recently developed analytical approach based on atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS. The determinations of three functional groups contents are performed quantitatively by neutral loss (carboxylic and carbonyl groups, R-COOH and R-CO-R´ respectively and precursor ion (nitro groups, R-NO2 scanning modes of a tandem mass spectrometer. Major organic aerosol sources are studied: vehicular emission and wood combustion for primary aerosol sources; and a secondary organic aerosol (SOA produced through photooxidation of o-xylene. The results reveal significant differences in the functional group contents of these source aerosols. The laboratory generated SOA is dominated by carbonyls while carboxylics are preponderate in the wood combustion particles. On the other hand, vehicular emissions are characterised by a strong nitro content. The total amount of the three functional groups accounts for 1.7% (vehicular to 13.5% (o-xylene photooxidation of the organic carbon. Diagnostic functional group ratios are then used to tentatively discriminate sources of particles collected in an urban background environment located in an Alpine valley (Chamonix, France during a strong winter pollution event. The three functional groups under study account for a total functionalisation rate of 2.2 to 3.8% of the organic carbon in this ambient aerosol, which is also dominated by carboxylic moieties. In this particular case study of a deep alpine valley during winter, we show that the nitro- and carbonyl-to-carboxylic diagnostic ratios can be a useful tool to discriminate sources. In these conditions, the total OA concentrations are highly dominated by wood combustion OA. This result is confirmed by an organic markers source apportionment approach which assess a wood burning organic carbon contribution of about 60

  10. Mass Poverty in Nigeria: Cultural Bases, Causes and Remedies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from these, mass poverty in Nigeria, is tacitly encouraged by the government whose various policies and programmes have been tailored to further impoverish the masses. The widespread poverty in Nigeria is webbed around a culture that situates people and their offsprings in a particular social strata and engenders ...

  11. Higher order and heavy quark mass effects in the determination of parton distribution functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertone, Valerio

    2013-07-01

    The present thesis was devoted to the study of the inclusion of higher-order corrections and heavy quark mass effects in a PDF determination. This has been carried out in the NNPDF framework resulting originally in the NNPDF2.1 sets, which were at a later stage supplemented by the first LHC data leading to the most recent NNPDF2.3 sets. In Chapter 1 the concept of Parton Distribution Function (PDF) was introduced. We have shown how the analytical computation of the Deep-Inelastic-Scattering (DIS) process at order α{sub s} in QCD leads to initial-stale collinear divergences which, using the factorization theorem, can be reabsorbed into the PDFs. The energy dependence of PDFs is fully determined and the task is then reduced to the determination of the x (Bjorken variable) dependence. In Chapter 2 a detailed discussion of the factorization schemes presently available to include heavy quark mass effects into DIS structure functions has been given. It emerged that there are two possible basic approaches to the calculation of the DIS structure functions. In the first approach, the so-called Fixed-Flavour-Number Scheme (FFNS), the calculation is performed retaining the quark mass of the heavy flavours which provide a ''natural'' regulator for the infrared divergences. In the second approach, called Zero-Mass Variable-Flavour-Number Scheme (ZM-VFNS), the heavy quark masses are instead set to zero and this gives rise to the usual final-state collinear divergences that are absorbed into the PDFs. In addition, in the ZM-VFNS, the number of active flavours is assumed to increase by one unity as the energy of the process crosses the energy threshold of a given heavy quark. In order to obtain a factorization scheme that is accurate both at large and low energies, several prescriptions that interpolate between FFNS at low energy and ZM-VFNS at large energy have been proposed and implemented in as many PDF fits. In Chapter 2 they have been described showing how they behave for

  12. Higher order and heavy quark mass effects in the determination of parton distribution functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertone, Valerio

    2013-07-01

    The present thesis was devoted to the study of the inclusion of higher-order corrections and heavy quark mass effects in a PDF determination. This has been carried out in the NNPDF framework resulting originally in the NNPDF2.1 sets, which were at a later stage supplemented by the first LHC data leading to the most recent NNPDF2.3 sets. In Chapter 1 the concept of Parton Distribution Function (PDF) was introduced. We have shown how the analytical computation of the Deep-Inelastic-Scattering (DIS) process at order α{sub s} in QCD leads to initial-stale collinear divergences which, using the factorization theorem, can be reabsorbed into the PDFs. The energy dependence of PDFs is fully determined and the task is then reduced to the determination of the x (Bjorken variable) dependence. In Chapter 2 a detailed discussion of the factorization schemes presently available to include heavy quark mass effects into DIS structure functions has been given. It emerged that there are two possible basic approaches to the calculation of the DIS structure functions. In the first approach, the so-called Fixed-Flavour-Number Scheme (FFNS), the calculation is performed retaining the quark mass of the heavy flavours which provide a ''natural'' regulator for the infrared divergences. In the second approach, called Zero-Mass Variable-Flavour-Number Scheme (ZM-VFNS), the heavy quark masses are instead set to zero and this gives rise to the usual final-state collinear divergences that are absorbed into the PDFs. In addition, in the ZM-VFNS, the number of active flavours is assumed to increase by one unity as the energy of the process crosses the energy threshold of a given heavy quark. In order to obtain a factorization scheme that is accurate both at large and low energies, several prescriptions that interpolate between FFNS at low energy and ZM-VFNS at large energy have been proposed and implemented in as many PDF fits. In Chapter 2 they have been described showing

  13. Higher order and heavy quark mass effects in the determination of parton distribution functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertone, Valerio

    2013-01-01

    The present thesis was devoted to the study of the inclusion of higher-order corrections and heavy quark mass effects in a PDF determination. This has been carried out in the NNPDF framework resulting originally in the NNPDF2.1 sets, which were at a later stage supplemented by the first LHC data leading to the most recent NNPDF2.3 sets. In Chapter 1 the concept of Parton Distribution Function (PDF) was introduced. We have shown how the analytical computation of the Deep-Inelastic-Scattering (DIS) process at order α s in QCD leads to initial-stale collinear divergences which, using the factorization theorem, can be reabsorbed into the PDFs. The energy dependence of PDFs is fully determined and the task is then reduced to the determination of the x (Bjorken variable) dependence. In Chapter 2 a detailed discussion of the factorization schemes presently available to include heavy quark mass effects into DIS structure functions has been given. It emerged that there are two possible basic approaches to the calculation of the DIS structure functions. In the first approach, the so-called Fixed-Flavour-Number Scheme (FFNS), the calculation is performed retaining the quark mass of the heavy flavours which provide a ''natural'' regulator for the infrared divergences. In the second approach, called Zero-Mass Variable-Flavour-Number Scheme (ZM-VFNS), the heavy quark masses are instead set to zero and this gives rise to the usual final-state collinear divergences that are absorbed into the PDFs. In addition, in the ZM-VFNS, the number of active flavours is assumed to increase by one unity as the energy of the process crosses the energy threshold of a given heavy quark. In order to obtain a factorization scheme that is accurate both at large and low energies, several prescriptions that interpolate between FFNS at low energy and ZM-VFNS at large energy have been proposed and implemented in as many PDF fits. In Chapter 2 they have been described showing how

  14. Lung function studied by servo-controlled ventilator and respiratory mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piiper, J.

    1987-01-01

    The gas exchange function of lungs is studied. The gas concentration, measured by mass spectrometry and the lung volume and rate of change of lung volume are discussed. A servo-controlled ventilator is presented. Several experimental projects performed on anesthetized paralyzed dogs are reported. (M.A.C.) [pt

  15. CLASH-VLT: The stellar mass function and stellar mass density profile of the z=0.44 cluster of galaxies MACS J1206.2-0847

    CERN Document Server

    Annunziatella, M; Mercurio, A.; Nonino, M.; Rosati, P.; Balestra, I.; Presotto, V.; Girardi, M.; Gobat, R.; Grillo, C.; Medezinski, E.; Kelson, D.; Postman, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Brescia, M.; Sartoris, B.; Demarco, R.; Fritz, A.; Koekemoer, A.; Lemze, D.; Lombardi, M.; Bradley, L.; Coe, D.; Donahue, M.; Regös, E.; Umetsu, K.; Vanzella, E.; Infante, L.; Kuchner, U.; Maier, C.; Verdugo, M.; Ziegler, B.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The study of the galaxy stellar mass function (SMF) in relation to the galaxy environment and the stellar mass density profile, rho(r), is a powerful tool to constrain models of galaxy evolution. Aims. We determine the SMF of the z=0.44 cluster of galaxies MACS J1206.2-0847 separately for passive and star-forming (SF) galaxies, in different regions of the cluster, from the center out to approximately 2 virial radii. We also determine rho(r) to compare it to the number density and total mass density profiles. Methods. We use the dataset from the CLASH-VLT survey. Stellar masses are obtained by SED fitting on 5-band photometric data obtained at the Subaru telescope. We identify 1363 cluster members down to a stellar mass of 10^9.5 Msolar. Results. The whole cluster SMF is well fitted by a double Schechter function. The SMFs of cluster SF and passive galaxies are statistically different. The SMF of the SF cluster galaxies does not depend on the environment. The SMF of the passive population has a signif...

  16. A direct measurement of the baryonic mass function of galaxies & implications for the galactic baryon fraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papastergis, Emmanouil; Cattaneo, Andrea; Huang, Shan; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.

    2012-01-01

    We use both an HI-selected and an optically-selected galaxy sample to directly measure the abundance of galaxies as a function of their "baryonic" mass (stars + atomic gas). Stellar masses are calculated based on optical data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and atomic gas masses are

  17. The effects of the initial mass function on the chemical evolution of elliptical galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Masi, Carlo; Matteucci, F.; Vincenzo, F.

    2018-03-01

    We describe the use of our chemical evolution model to reproduce the abundance patterns observed in a catalogue of elliptical galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4. The model assumes ellipticals form by fast gas accretion, and suffer a strong burst of star formation followed by a galactic wind, which quenches star formation. Models with fixed initial mass function (IMF) failed in simultaneously reproducing the observed trends with the galactic mass. So, we tested a varying IMF; contrary to the diffused claim that the IMF should become bottom heavier in more massive galaxies, we find a better agreement with data by assuming an inverse trend, where the IMF goes from being bottom heavy in less massive galaxies to top heavy in more massive ones. This naturally produces a downsizing in star formation, favouring massive stars in largest galaxies. Finally, we tested the use of the integrated Galactic IMF, obtained by averaging the canonical IMF over the mass distribution function of the clusters where star formation is assumed to take place. We combined two prescriptions, valid for different SFR regimes, to obtain the Integrated Initial Mass Function values along the whole evolution of the galaxies in our models. Predicted abundance trends reproduce the observed slopes, but they have an offset relative to the data. We conclude that bottom-heavier IMFs do not reproduce the properties of the most massive ellipticals, at variance with previous suggestions. On the other hand, an IMF varying with galactic mass from bottom heavier to top heavier should be preferred.

  18. Uncertainties and Systematic Effects on the estimate of stellar masses in high z galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimbeni, S.; Fontana, A.; Giallongo, E.; Grazian, A.; Menci, N.; Pentericci, L.; Santini, P.

    2009-05-01

    We discuss the uncertainties and the systematic effects that exist in the estimates of the stellar masses of high redshift galaxies, using broad band photometry, and how they affect the deduced galaxy stellar mass function. We use at this purpose the latest version of the GOODS-MUSIC catalog. In particular, we discuss the impact of different synthetic models, of the assumed initial mass function and of the selection band. Using Chariot & Bruzual 2007 and Maraston 2005 models we find masses lower than those obtained from Bruzual & Chariot 2003 models. In addition, we find a slight trend as a function of the mass itself comparing these two mass determinations with that from Bruzual & Chariot 2003 models. As consequence, the derived galaxy stellar mass functions show diverse shapes, and their slope depends on the assumed models. Despite these differences, the overall results and scenario is observed in all these cases. The masses obtained with the assumption of the Chabrier initial mass function are in average 0.24 dex lower than those from the Salpeter assumption, at all redshifts, causing a shift of galaxy stellar mass function of the same amount. Finally, using a 4.5 μm-selected sample instead of a Ks-selected one, we add a new population of highly absorbed, dusty galaxies at z~=2-3 of relatively low masses, yielding stronger constraints on the slope of the galaxy stellar mass function at lower masses.

  19. Functional Dysregulation of CDC42 Causes Diverse Developmental Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Simone; Krumbach, Oliver H F; Pantaleoni, Francesca; Coppola, Simona; Amin, Ehsan; Pannone, Luca; Nouri, Kazem; Farina, Luciapia; Dvorsky, Radovan; Lepri, Francesca; Buchholzer, Marcel; Konopatzki, Raphael; Walsh, Laurence; Payne, Katelyn; Pierpont, Mary Ella; Vergano, Samantha Schrier; Langley, Katherine G; Larsen, Douglas; Farwell, Kelly D; Tang, Sha; Mroske, Cameron; Gallotta, Ivan; Di Schiavi, Elia; Della Monica, Matteo; Lugli, Licia; Rossi, Cesare; Seri, Marco; Cocchi, Guido; Henderson, Lindsay; Baskin, Berivan; Alders, Mariëlle; Mendoza-Londono, Roberto; Dupuis, Lucie; Nickerson, Deborah A; Chong, Jessica X; Meeks, Naomi; Brown, Kathleen; Causey, Tahnee; Cho, Megan T; Demuth, Stephanie; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Gelb, Bruce D; Bamshad, Michael J; Zenker, Martin; Ahmadian, Mohammad Reza; Hennekam, Raoul C; Tartaglia, Marco; Mirzaa, Ghayda M

    2018-01-17

    Exome sequencing has markedly enhanced the discovery of genes implicated in Mendelian disorders, particularly for individuals in whom a known clinical entity could not be assigned. This has led to the recognition that phenotypic heterogeneity resulting from allelic mutations occurs more commonly than previously appreciated. Here, we report that missense variants in CDC42, a gene encoding a small GTPase functioning as an intracellular signaling node, underlie a clinically heterogeneous group of phenotypes characterized by variable growth dysregulation, facial dysmorphism, and neurodevelopmental, immunological, and hematological anomalies, including a phenotype resembling Noonan syndrome, a developmental disorder caused by dysregulated RAS signaling. In silico, in vitro, and in vivo analyses demonstrate that mutations variably perturb CDC42 function by altering the switch between the active and inactive states of the GTPase and/or affecting CDC42 interaction with effectors, and differentially disturb cellular and developmental processes. These findings reveal the remarkably variable impact that dominantly acting CDC42 mutations have on cell function and development, creating challenges in syndrome definition, and exemplify the importance of functional profiling for syndrome recognition and delineation. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuroendocrine Causes of Amenorrhea—An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourman, Lindsay T.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Secondary amenorrhea—the absence of menses for three consecutive cycles—affects approximately 3–4% of reproductive age women, and infertility—the failure to conceive after 12 months of regular intercourse—affects approximately 6–10%. Neuroendocrine causes of amenorrhea and infertility, including functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and hyperprolactinemia, constitute a majority of these cases. Objective: In this review, we discuss the physiologic, pathologic, and iatrogenic causes of amenorrhea and infertility arising from perturbations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, including potential genetic causes. We focus extensively on the hormonal mechanisms involved in disrupting the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Conclusions: A thorough understanding of the neuroendocrine causes of amenorrhea and infertility is critical for properly assessing patients presenting with these complaints. Prompt evaluation and treatment are essential to prevent loss of bone mass due to hypoestrogenemia and/or to achieve the time-sensitive treatment goal of conception. PMID:25581597

  1. Leukocyte-reduction filters and radiation do not cause significant changes in platelet function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagura, Yutaka; Tsuno, Hirokazu; Shibata, Yoichi; Takahashi, Koki

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of radiation and leukocyte-reduction filters on platelet function. Platelet aggregation in response to collagen and ADP were measured prior to and after irradiation and filtration, as were the platelet recovery rate and complement factor C3. Four types of leukocyte-reduction filter were used, namely positively-, negatively-, and non-charged filters (all of polyester composition), as well as a polyurethane filter. Radiation itself did not significantly affect either the platelet recovery rate, platelet function, or C3 value. On the other hand, filtration through polyester leukocyte-reduction filters resulted in a significant reduction in the platelet recovery rate, an effect not observed with the polyurethane filter. However, none of the filters caused significant changes in platelet function or in C3 value. We concluded that radiation and filtration do not cause significant changes in platelet function, but polyurethane filters are superior to polyester filters in relation to platelet recovery. (author)

  2. Transsphenoidal Surgery for Pituitary Tumors and Other Sellar Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Tina J; Martin, Linda G; Chen, Annie V

    2018-01-01

    Transsphenoidal surgery is an option for dogs and cats with functional and nonfunctional pituitary masses or other sellar and parasellar masses. An adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting tumor causing Cushing disease is the most common clinically relevant pituitary tumor in dogs, and the most common pituitary tumor seen in cats is a growth hormone-secreting tumor causing acromegaly. Transsphenoidal surgery can lead to rapid resolution of clinical signs and provide a cure for these patients. Because of the risks associated with this surgery, it should only be attempted by a cohesive pituitary surgery group with a sophisticated medical and surgical team. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mass Functions of the Active Black Holes in Distant Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Fan, X.; Tremonti, C. A.

    2007-01-01

    We present the mass functions of actively accreting supermassive black holes over the redshift range 0.3......We present the mass functions of actively accreting supermassive black holes over the redshift range 0.3...

  4. An HI selected sample of galaxies : The HI mass function and the surface brightness distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwaan, M; Briggs, F; Sprayberry, D

    Results from the Arecibo HI Strip Survey, an unbiased extragalactic HI survey, combined with optical and 21 cm follow-up observations, determine the HI mass function and the cosmological mass density of HI at the present epoch. Both are consistent with earlier estimates, computed for the population

  5. Presumed cause of mass deaths of rooks (Corvus Frugilegus Pastinator) using PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Katsumi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Sera, Koichiro; Yasuda, Masaaki; Kakino, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Eighty-nine wild birds were found dead in Ogata Village in northern Japan in March 2006. Eighty-eight of the birds were rooks (Corvus Frugilegus Pastinator), which are migratory birds. Since the use of rodenticide (thallium sulfide and zinc phosphide) in the area around where the birds had been found was revealed by a survey, etiological and pathological examinations including elemental analysis by means of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) were conducted. Elemental analysis showed high concentrations (56-365 dry-μg/g) of thallium in the lungs, gastric contents, intestines, livers and kidneys. Histopathological examination revealed vacuolar degeneration of hepatic cells and granular and/or hyaline droplet degeneration of renal tubular epithelia. The results suggest that the mass deaths were caused by thallium poisoning. (author)

  6. The Low-mass Population in the Young Cluster Stock 8: Stellar Properties and Initial Mass Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jose, Jessy; Herczeg, Gregory J.; Fang, Qiliang [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Haidian Qu, Beijing 100871 (China); Samal, Manash R. [Graduate Institute of Astronomy, National Central University 300, Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32001, Taiwan (China); Panwar, Neelam, E-mail: jessyvjose1@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2017-02-10

    The evolution of H ii regions/supershells can trigger a new generation of stars/clusters at their peripheries, with environmental conditions that may affect the initial mass function, disk evolution, and star formation efficiency. In this paper we study the stellar content and star formation processes in the young cluster Stock 8, which itself is thought to be formed during the expansion of a supershell. We present deep optical photometry along with JHK and 3.6 and 4.5 μ m photometry from UKIDSS and Spitzer -IRAC. We use multicolor criteria to identify the candidate young stellar objects in the region. Using evolutionary models, we obtain a median log(age) of ∼6.5 (∼3.0 Myr) with an observed age spread of ∼0.25 dex for the cluster. Monte Carlo simulations of the population of Stock 8, based on estimates for the photometric uncertainty, differential reddening, binarity, and variability, indicate that these uncertainties introduce an age spread of ∼0.15 dex. The intrinsic age spread in the cluster is ∼0.2 dex. The fraction of young stellar objects surrounded by disks is ∼35%. The K -band luminosity function of Stock 8 is similar to that of the Trapezium cluster. The initial mass function (IMF) of Stock 8 has a Salpeter-like slope at >0.5 M {sub ⊙} and flattens and peaks at ∼0.4 M {sub ⊙}, below which it declines into the substellar regime. Although Stock 8 is surrounded by several massive stars, there seems to be no severe environmental effect in the form of the IMF due to the proximity of massive stars around the cluster.

  7. Rapidly enlarging neck mass in a neonate causing airway compromise

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Kyra; Leal, Andres; McGill, Thomas; Jacob, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Up to 20% of all congenital pediatric head and neck masses are branchial cleft cysts. Second branchial cleft cysts account for 95% of branchial anomalies, and fourth branchial cleft cysts are the rarest type. Their typical presentations include non–life-threatening symptoms, such as drainage, skin irritations, minor swelling, and tenderness. We describe a 5-week-old neonate with increasing stridor secondary to a rapidly growing neck mass. Imaging and surgical excision confirmed the mass to be...

  8. Association of body mass index with decline in residual kidney function after initiation of dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drechsler, Christiane; de Mutsert, Renée; Grootendorst, Diana C.; Boeschoten, Elisabeth W.; Krediet, Raymond T.; le Cessie, Saskia; Wanner, Christoph; Dekker, Friedo W.; Apperloo, A. J.; Bijlsma, J. A.; Boekhout, M.; Boer, W. H.; Büller, H. R.; de Charro, F. T. H.; de Fijter, C. W. H.; Doorenbos, C. J.; Fagel, W. J.; Feith, G. W.; Frenken, L. A. M.; Gerlag, P. G. G.; Gorgels, J. P. M. C.; Grave, W.; Huisman, R. M.; Jager, K. J.; Jie, K.; Koning-Mulder, W. A. H.; Koolen, M. I.; Kremer Hovinga, T. K.; Lavrijssen, A. T. J.; Luik, A. J.; Parlevliet, K. J.; Raasveld, M. H. M.; Schonck, M. J. M.; Schuurmans, M. M. J.; Siegert, C. E. H.; Stegeman, C. A.; Stevens, P.; Thijssen, J. G. P.; Valentijn, R. M.; van Buren, M.; van den Dorpel, M. A.; van der Boog, P. J. M.; van der Meulen, J.; van der Sande, F. M.; van Es, A.; van Geelen, J. A. C. A.; Vastenburg, G. H.; Verburgh, C. A.; Vincent, H. H.; Vos, P. F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is a risk factor for loss of kidney function in the general population, but it is unknown whether it proceeds to affect residual kidney function when patients require dialysis. Our aim was to study the effects of body mass index (BMI) on decline in kidney function and risk to

  9. The relationship between structural and functional connectivity: graph theoretical analysis of an EEG neural mass model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponten, S.C.; Daffertshofer, A.; Hillebrand, A.; Stam, C.J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between structural network properties and both synchronization strength and functional characteristics in a combined neural mass and graph theoretical model of the electroencephalogram (EEG). Thirty-two neural mass models (NMMs), each representing the lump activity

  10. Ventricular fibrillation caused by electrocoagulation in monopolar mode during laparoscopic subphrenic mass resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chun-Yan; Wang, Yi-Fan; Yu, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Background Monopolar is usually a safe and effective electrosurgical unit used in laparoscopic general surgery. However, it can cause adverse outcomes and even cardiac arrest. We present a video of laparoscopic subphrenic mass resection using monopolar coagulation during which ventricular fibrillation occurred and from which the patient was successfully resuscitated. Methods Our patient was a 39-year-old man who was admitted to our institution for treatment of a liver mass. The mass was located in the left subphrenic region and was 3.31 cm × 2.7 cm according to B ultrasound. He had had a spleen resection after a car accident 14 years before. He was otherwise healthy and a physical examination was negative. He was scheduled for “laparoscopic exploration, mass resection.” General anesthesia was induced and the operation began. While dissecting the mass from the diaphragm there was some bleeding; monopolar electrocoagulation with 68 W was performed upon which ventricular fibrillation occurred. The operation was stopped and closed-chest compression began immediately. Defibrillation (200-J shock) was performed in 1 min and rhythm returned to sinus. Results The operation was resumed carefully and uneventfully. The patient was sent to the postoperative acute care unit and was extubated 10 min after operation. The patient recovered uneventfully without any signs of permanent cardiac injury and was discharged on postoperative day 3. The final pathology was accessory spleen. Conclusions We present a video of a patient who experienced ventricular fibrillation during laparoscopic surgery which was successfully defibrillated leaving no permanent cardiac injury. We assume the reason for the ventricular fibrillation was the low-frequency leakage current from electrocoagulation which may be conducted by Swan-Ganz catheter to the heart. It is important that we be familiar with the character of electrosurgical unit when performing laparoscopic surgery. We should be

  11. Connection between Dynamically Derived Initial Mass Function Normalization and Stellar Population Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Cappellari, Michele; Alatalo, Katherine; Bayet, Estelle; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    We report on empirical trends between the dynamically determined stellar initial mass function (IMF) and stellar population properties for a complete, volume-limited sample of 260 early-type galaxies from the ATLAS3D project. We study trends between our dynamically derived IMF normalization αdyn ≡

  12. Functional status and all-cause mortality in serious mental illness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D Hayes

    Full Text Available Serious mental illness can affect many aspects of an individual's ability to function in daily life. The aim of this investigation was to determine if the environmental and functional status of people with serious mental illness contribute to the high mortality risk observed in this patient group.We identified cases of schizophrenia, schizoaffective and bipolar disorder aged ≥ 15 years in a large secondary mental healthcare case register linked to national mortality tracing. We modelled the effect of activities of daily living (ADLs, living conditions, occupational and recreational activities and relationship factors (Health of the Nation Outcome Scale [HoNOS] subscales on all-cause mortality over a 4-year observation period (2007-10 using Cox regression.We identified 6,880 SMI cases (242 deaths in the observation period. ADL impairment was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 1.9; 95% CI 1.3-2.8; p = 0.001, p for trend across ADL categories = 0.001 after controlling for a broad range of covariates (including demographic factors, physical health, mental health symptoms and behaviours, socio-economic status and mental health service contact. No associations were found for the other three exposures. Stratification by age indicated that ADLs were most strongly associated with mortality in the youngest (15 to <35 years and oldest (≥ 55 years groups.Functional impairment in people with serious mental illness diagnoses is a marker of increased mortality risk, possibly in younger age groups as a marker of negative symptomatology.

  13. The impact of Spitzer infrared data on stellar mass estimates - and a revised galaxy stellar mass function at 0 < z < 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, F.; Feulner, G.; Hopp, U.

    2008-01-01

    Aims:We estimate stellar masses of galaxies in the high redshift universe with the intention of determining the influence of newly available Spitzer/IRAC infrared data on the analysis. Based on the results, we probe the mass assembly history of the universe. Methods: We use the GOODS-MUSIC catalog, which provides multiband photometry from the U-filter to the 8 μm Spitzer band for almost 15 000 galaxies with either spectroscopic (for ≈7% of the sample) or photometric redshifts, and apply a standard model fitting technique to estimate stellar masses. We than repeat our calculations with fixed photometric redshifts excluding Spitzer photometry and directly compare the outcomes to look for systematic deviations. Finally we use our results to compute stellar mass functions and mass densities up to redshift z = 5. Results: We find that stellar masses tend to be overestimated on average if further constraining Spitzer data are not included into the analysis. Whilst this trend is small up to intermediate redshifts z ⪉ 2.5 and falls within the typical error in mass, the deviation increases strongly for higher redshifts and reaches a maximum of a factor of three at redshift z ≈ 3.5. Thus, up to intermediate redshifts, results for stellar mass density are in good agreement with values taken from literature calculated without additional Spitzer photometry. At higher redshifts, however, we find a systematic trend towards lower mass densities if Spitzer/IRAC data are included.

  14. THE PALOMAR/KECK ADAPTIVE OPTICS SURVEY OF YOUNG SOLAR ANALOGS: EVIDENCE FOR A UNIVERSAL COMPANION MASS FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metchev, Stanimir A.; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.

    2009-01-01

    We present results from an adaptive optics survey for substellar and stellar companions to Sun-like stars. The survey targeted 266 F5-K5 stars in the 3 Myr-3 Gyr age range with distances of 10-190 pc. Results from the survey include the discovery of two brown dwarf companions (HD 49197B and HD 203030B), 24 new stellar binaries, and a triple system. We infer that the frequency of 0.012-0.072 M sun brown dwarfs in 28-1590 AU orbits around young solar analogs is 3.2 +3.1 -2.7 % (2σ limits). The result demonstrates that the deficiency of substellar companions at wide orbital separations from Sun-like stars is less pronounced than in the radial velocity 'brown dwarf desert'. We infer that the mass distribution of companions in 28-1590 AU orbits around solar-mass stars follows a continuous dN/dM 2 ∝ M -0.4 2 relation over the 0.01-1.0 M sun secondary mass range. While this functional form is similar to that for isolated objects less than 0.1 M sun , over the entire 0.01-1.0 M sun range, the mass functions of companions and of isolated objects differ significantly. Based on this conclusion and on similar results from other direct imaging and radial velocity companion surveys in the literature, we argue that the companion mass function follows the same universal form over the entire range between 0 and 1590 AU in orbital semimajor axis and ∼ 0.01-20 M sun in companion mass. In this context, the relative dearth of substellar versus stellar secondaries at all orbital separations arises naturally from the inferred form of the companion mass function.

  15. Role of Educational Status in Explaining the Association between Body Mass Index and Cognitive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Yi-Te; Kao, Tung-Wei; Peng, Tao-Chun; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Yang, Hui-Fang; Sun, Yu-Shan; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Preserving physical and cognitive function becomes an important issue as people age. A growing number of studies have found that the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive function changes in different age groups. It is obvious that higher educational status is linked to higher cognitive function in terms of numerous risk factors that influence cognitive function. This study aimed to investigate the interplay between obesity and cognitive function categorized by diff...

  16. Cluster abundance in chameleon f ( R ) gravity I: toward an accurate halo mass function prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cataneo, Matteo; Rapetti, David [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Lombriser, Lucas [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Li, Baojiu, E-mail: matteoc@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: drapetti@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: llo@roe.ac.uk, E-mail: baojiu.li@durham.ac.uk [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-01

    We refine the mass and environment dependent spherical collapse model of chameleon f ( R ) gravity by calibrating a phenomenological correction inspired by the parameterized post-Friedmann framework against high-resolution N -body simulations. We employ our method to predict the corresponding modified halo mass function, and provide fitting formulas to calculate the enhancement of the f ( R ) halo abundance with respect to that of General Relativity (GR) within a precision of ∼< 5% from the results obtained in the simulations. Similar accuracy can be achieved for the full f ( R ) mass function on the condition that the modeling of the reference GR abundance of halos is accurate at the percent level. We use our fits to forecast constraints on the additional scalar degree of freedom of the theory, finding that upper bounds competitive with current Solar System tests are within reach of cluster number count analyses from ongoing and upcoming surveys at much larger scales. Importantly, the flexibility of our method allows also for this to be applied to other scalar-tensor theories characterized by a mass and environment dependent spherical collapse.

  17. Effects of Body Mass Index on Lung Function Index of Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiao; Ye, Jun; Yang, Jian; Zhu, Changan; Sheng, Lei; Zhang, Yongliang

    2018-01-01

    To study the effect of body mass index (BMI) on lung function indexes in Chinese population. A cross-sectional study was performed on 10, 592 participants. The linear relationship between lung function and BMI was evaluated by multivariate linear regression analysis, and the correlation between BMI and lung function was assessed by Pearson correlation analysis. Correlation analysis showed that BMI was positively related with the decreasing of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC (P <0.05), the increasing of FVC% predicted value (FVC%pre) and FEV1% predicted value (FEV1%pre). These suggested that Chinese people can restrain the decline of lung function to prevent the occurrence and development of COPD by the control of BMI.

  18. Glacier albedo decrease in the European Alps: potential causes and links with mass balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mauro, Biagio; Julitta, Tommaso; Colombo, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Both mountain glaciers and polar ice sheets are losing mass all over the Earth. They are highly sensitive to climate variation, and the widespread reduction of glaciers has been ascribed to the atmospheric temperature increase. Beside this driver, also ice albedo plays a fundamental role in defining mass balance of glaciers. In fact, dark ice absorbs more energy causing faster glacier melting, and this can drive to more negative balances. Previous studies showed that the albedo of Himalayan glaciers and the Greenland Ice Sheet is decreasing with important rates. In this contribution, we tested the hypothesis that also glaciers in the European Alps are getting darker. We analyzed 16-year time series of MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer) snow albedo from Terra (MOD13A1, 2000-2015) and Aqua (MYD13A1, 2002-2015) satellites. These data feature a spatial resolution of 500m and a daily temporal resolution. We evaluated the existence of a negative linear and nonlinear trend of the summer albedo values both at pixel and at glacier level. We also calculated the correlation between MODIS summer albedo and glacier mass balances (from the World Glaciological Monitoring Service, WGMS database), for all the glaciers with available mass balance during the considered period. In order to estimate the percentage of the summer albedo that can be explained by atmospheric temperature, we correlated MODIS albedo and monthly air temperature extracted from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset. Results show that decreasing trends exist with a strong spatial variability in the whole Alpine chain. In large glaciers, such as the Aletch (Swiss Alps), the trend varies significantly also within the glacier, showing that the trend is higher in the area across the accumulation and ablation zone. Over the 17 glaciers with mass balance available in the WGMS data set, 11 gave significant relationship with the MODIS summer albedo. Moreover, the comparison between ERA-Interim temperature

  19. DENSE CORES IN THE PIPE NEBULA: AN IMPROVED CORE MASS FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathborne, J. M.; Lada, C. J.; Muench, A. A.; Alves, J. F.; Kainulainen, J.; Lombardi, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we derive an improved core mass function (CMF) for the Pipe Nebula from a detailed comparison between measurements of visual extinction and molecular-line emission. We have compiled a refined sample of 201 dense cores toward the Pipe Nebula using a two-dimensional threshold identification algorithm informed by recent simulations of dense core populations. Measurements of radial velocities using complimentary C 18 O (1-0) observations enable us to cull out from this sample those 43 extinction peaks that are either not associated with dense gas or are not physically associated with the Pipe Nebula. Moreover, we use the derived C 18 O central velocities to differentiate between single cores with internal structure and blends of two or more physically distinct cores, superposed along the same line of sight. We then are able to produce a more robust dense core sample for future follow-up studies and a more reliable CMF than was possible previously. We confirm earlier indications that the CMF for the Pipe Nebula departs from a single power-law-like form with a break or knee at M ∼ 2.7 ± 1.3 M sun . Moreover, we also confirm that the CMF exhibits a similar shape to the stellar initial mass function (IMF), but is scaled to higher masses by a factor of ∼4.5. We interpret this difference in scaling to be a measure of the star formation efficiency (22% ± 8%). This supports earlier suggestions that the stellar IMF may originate more or less directly from the CMF.

  20. Description of odd-mass nuclei by multi-reference energy density functional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bally, B.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we are interested in the treatment of odd-mass atomic nuclei in energy density functional (EDF) models. More precisely, the goal of this thesis is to develop and to apply to odd-mass nuclei, the theoretical extensions of the EDF method that are: first, the projection technique, and secondly the configuration mixing by the generator coordinate method (GCM). These two extensions are part of the so-called multi-reference energy density functional (MR-EDF) formalism and allow one to take into account, within an EDF context, the 'beyond-mean-field' correlations between the nucleons forming the nucleus. Until now, the MR-EDF formalism has been applied, in its fully-fledged version, only to the calculation of even-even nuclei. In this thesis, we want to demonstrate the applicability of such a model also for the description of odd-mass nuclei. In the first part of this thesis, we describe the theoretical formalism of the EDF models, giving particular attention to the treatment of symmetries within our approach. In the second part of the manuscript, we apply our model to the nucleus 25 Mg and investigate different aspects of the method (e.g. numerical accuracy, convergence of the configuration mixing, comparison to known experimental data). The results obtained in this work are encouraging and demonstrate the potential of our approach for theoretical nuclear structure calculations. (author)

  1. Absenteeism due to Functional Limitations Caused by Seven Common Chronic Diseases in US Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Tam D; Wei, Feifei; Beverly, Claudia J

    2015-07-01

    The study examined the relationship between functional limitation due to chronic diseases and absenteeism among full-time workers. The studied chronic diseases include arthritis/rheumatism, cancer, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, lung disease, and stroke. We analyzed data from the 2011 to 2013 National Health Interview Survey. Economic impact was determined by workdays lost and lost income. Increase in absenteeism was observed for each studied condition. Employees with multiple conditions also saw increase absenteeism. Employers lose 28.2 million workdays annually ($4.95 billion in lost income) due to functional limitation caused by chronic diseases. The results show a burden on society due to functional limitation caused by studied chronic diseases. Employers should look into implementing intervention/prevention programs, such as the Chronic Disease Self-Management Programs, to help reduce the cost associated with absenteeism.

  2. OGLE-2017-BLG-1434Lb: Eighth qTurnover in Planet Mass-Ratio Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udalski, A.; Ryu, Y.-H.; Sajadian, S.; Gould, A.; Mrǎłz, P.; Poleski, R.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Soszyński, I.; Kozłowski, S.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M.; Rybicki, K.; Iwanek, P.; Albrow, M. D.; Chung, S.-J.; Han, C.; Hwang, K.-H.; Jung, Y., K.; Shin, I.-G.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Yee, J. C.; Zang, W.; Zhu, W.; Cha, S.-M.; Kim, D.-J.; Kim, H.-W.; Kim, S.-L.; Lee, C.-U.; Lee, D.-J.; Lee, Y.; Park, B.-G.; Pogge, R. W.; Bozza, V.; Dominik, M.; Helling, C.; Hundertmark, M.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Longa-Peña, P.; Lowry, S.; Burgdorf, M.; Campbell-White, J.; Ciceri, S.; Evans, D.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Fujii, Y. I.; Haikala, L. K.; Henning, T.; Hinse, T. C.; Mancini, L.; Peixinho, N.; Rahvar, S.; Rabus, M.; Skottfelt, J.; Snodgrass, C.; Southworth, J.; von Essen, C.

    2018-03-01

    We report the discovery of a cold Super-Earth planet (mp=4.4±0.5 M⊙) orbiting a low-mass (M=0.23±0.03) M⊙ dwarf at projected separation a⊥=1.18±0.10 a.u., i.e., about 1.9 times the distance the snow line. The system is quite nearby for a microlensing planet, DL=0.86±0.09 kpc. Indeed, it was the large lens-source relative parallax πrel=1.0 mas (combined with the low mass M) that gave rise to the large, and thus well-measured, "microlens parallax" πE∝(πrel/M)1/2 that enabled these precise measurements. OGLE-2017-BLG-1434Lb is the eighth microlensing planet with planet-host mass ratio qturnover" in the mass function found by Suzuki et al. relative to the power law of opposite sign n=-0.93±0.13 at higher mass ratios q≳2×10-4. We combine our result with that of Suzuki et al. to obtain p=0.73+0.42-0.34.

  3. Carboxylic acid functional group analysis using constant neutral loss scanning-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dron, Julien [Laboratoire de Chimie et Environnement, Marseille Universites (case 29), 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)], E-mail: julien.dron@up.univ-mrs.fr; Eyglunent, Gregory; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Wortham, Henri [Laboratoire de Chimie et Environnement, Marseille Universites (case 29), 3 place Victor Hugo, 13331 Marseille Cedex 3 (France)

    2007-12-12

    The present study describes the development of a new analytical technique for the functional group determination of the carboxylic moiety using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) operated in the constant neutral loss scanning (CNLS) mode. Carboxylic groups were first derivatized into their corresponding methyl esters by reacting with BF{sub 3}/methanol mix and the reaction mixture was then directly injected into the APCI chamber. The loss of methanol (m/z = 32 amu) resulting from the fragmentation of the protonated methyl esters was then monitored. Applying this method together with a statistical approach to reference mixtures containing 31 different carboxylic acids at randomly calculated concentrations demonstrated its suitability for quantitative functional group measurements with relative standard deviations below 15% and a detection limit of 0.005 mmol L{sup -1}. Its applicability to environmental matrices was also shown through the determination of carboxylic acid concentrations inside atmospheric aerosol samples. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that the tandem mass spectrometry was successfully applied to functional group analysis, offering great perspectives in the characterization of complex mixtures which are prevailing in the field of environmental analysis as well as in the understanding of the chemical processes occurring in these matrices.

  4. Carboxylic acid functional group analysis using constant neutral loss scanning-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dron, Julien; Eyglunent, Gregory; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Marchand, Nicolas; Wortham, Henri

    2007-01-01

    The present study describes the development of a new analytical technique for the functional group determination of the carboxylic moiety using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) operated in the constant neutral loss scanning (CNLS) mode. Carboxylic groups were first derivatized into their corresponding methyl esters by reacting with BF 3 /methanol mix and the reaction mixture was then directly injected into the APCI chamber. The loss of methanol (m/z = 32 amu) resulting from the fragmentation of the protonated methyl esters was then monitored. Applying this method together with a statistical approach to reference mixtures containing 31 different carboxylic acids at randomly calculated concentrations demonstrated its suitability for quantitative functional group measurements with relative standard deviations below 15% and a detection limit of 0.005 mmol L -1 . Its applicability to environmental matrices was also shown through the determination of carboxylic acid concentrations inside atmospheric aerosol samples. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time that the tandem mass spectrometry was successfully applied to functional group analysis, offering great perspectives in the characterization of complex mixtures which are prevailing in the field of environmental analysis as well as in the understanding of the chemical processes occurring in these matrices

  5. On calculating double logarithmical asymptotics of vertex functions defined on the mass shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belokurov, V.V.; Usyukina, N.I.

    1981-01-01

    The essence of the calculation method of double logarithmical asymptotics of vertex functions defined on the mass shell is presented. Using the method the asymptotics of the form-factor of electron is calculated. The ladder and cross-ladder diagrams are asymptotically considerable in every order of the perturbation theory. The way in which the asymptotics of the 4-order diagrams is calculated has been shown. The diagrams of this order and reduction procedures for them are given in a graphic form. The photon mass μ 2 not equal to 0 plays the role of a regulator, removing infrared divergencies. The double logarithmical asymptotics of the form-factor of electron on the mass shell is calculated rigorously in an arbitrary order of the perturbation theory [ru

  6. Mass serving theory application to the analysis of maintenance system functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljko Predrag Petrović

    2013-06-01

    that describe the process of serving within the given limited values of the parameters. The key indicators of effectiveness are: the number of serving channels; the average serving time and the average number of clients accessing the system per time unit. The best way of analysing the functioning of MSS in the optimum regime is a comparison of the two opposing criteria of effectiveness: the probability of serving and the ratio of the serving channel occupancy, assuming that the initial parameters - the average time of serving and the intensity of the input stream of clients - are constant. Under these conditions, the optimal number of serving channels should be determined. As a criterion of optimality, we accept the following fact: the MSS operates in the optimum regime if the probability of serving and the ratio of the serving channel occupancy are large enough, values so that the TE value is minimal. It can be noticed that the values of both probabilities are similar when the number of serving channels is 2. In other cases, these deviations are larger. The improvement of one criterion causes the deterioration of the other one and vice versa. It can be concluded that the optimal number of serving channels is when Ps and Pzk have equal values, and the values of probability exceed 51%. The analysis of the shown case of the optimization in the MSS indicates that the number of TE is oversized i.e. the largest number of technological requirements could be fulfilled with 2 TE (instead of 4 as in a real system. Retention time in the mass serving system When analyzing the retention time of technical means in the MSS, we can notice that, by increasing the number of serving channels, all values of time converge to a single value. Using the previous results which show that the number of 2 serving channels is optimal, we have analysed the range of values of retention time in the MSS for different values of malfunction intensity. The analyzed data show clearly how the retention

  7. A Mass of Pancreatic and Gastric Heterotopia Causing a Small Bowel Obstruction in a 61-Year-Old Male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfrejat, Majd; Khalil, Bassem; Jackobs, Jordan; Anderson, William; Eschbacher, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Heterotopic tissue is a congenital anomaly that has been previously reported. Gastric and pancreatic heterotopia are among the most studied ones. Herein, we describe a case of a combined pancreatic and gastric heterotopia that formed a mass and caused a small intestine obstruction in a 61-year-old male. We also did a brief literature review of cases with gastric and pancreatic heterotopia in adult patients.

  8. Mass spectra and wave functions of meson systems and the covariant oscillator quark model as an expansion basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Ryuichi; Ishida, Shin; Wada, Hiroaki; Yamada, Kenji; Sekiguchi, Motoo

    1999-01-01

    We examine mass spectra and wave functions of the nn-bar, cc-bar and bb-bar meson systems within the framework of the covariant oscillator quark model with the boosted LS-coupling scheme. We solve nonperturbatively an eigenvalue problem for the squared-mass operator, which incorporates the four-dimensional color-Coulomb-type interaction, by taking a set of covariant oscillator wave functions as an expansion basis. We obtain mass spectra of these meson systems, which reproduce quite well their experimental behavior. The resultant manifestly covariant wave functions, which are applicable to analyses of various reaction phenomena, are given. Our results seem to suggest that the present model may be considered effectively as a covariant version of the nonrelativistic linear-plus-Coulomb potential quark model. (author)

  9. Environmental conditions as the cause of the great mass extinction of marine organisms in the Late Devonian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barash, M. S.

    2017-08-01

    During the Late Devonian extinction, 70-82% of all marine species disappeared. The main causes of this mass extinction include tectonic activity, climate and sea-level fluctuations, volcanism, and the collision of the Earth with cosmic bodies (impact events). The major causes are considered to be volcanism accompanying formation of the Viluy traps and, probably, basaltic magmatism in the Southern Urals, alkaline magmatism within the East European platform, and volcanism in northern Iran and northern and southern China. Several large impact craters of Late Devonian age have been documented in different parts of the world. The available data indicate that this time period on the Earth was marked by two major sequences of events: terrestrial events that resulted in extensive volcanism and cosmic (or impact) events. They produced similar effects such as emissions of harmful chemical compounds and aerosols to cause greenhouse warming and the darkening of the atmosphere, which prevented photosynthesis and cause ocean stagnation and anoxia. This disrupted the food chain and reduced ecosystem productivity. As a result, all vital processes were disturbed and a large part of the marine biota became extinct.

  10. Mass Spectrometric Approaches to the Identification of Potential Ingredients in Cigarette Smoke Causing Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiyama, Shizuyo; Kunitomo, Masaru; Yoshikawa, Noriko; Nakamura, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains many harmful chemicals that contribute to the pathogenesis of smoking-related diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Many studies have been done to identify cytotoxic chemicals in cigarette smoke and elucidate the onset of the above-mentioned diseases caused by smoking. However, definitive mechanisms for cigarette smoke toxicity remain unknown. As candidates for cytotoxic chemicals, we have recently found methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and acetic anhydride in nicotine/tar-free cigarette smoke extract (CSE) using L-tyrosine (Tyr), an amino acid with highly reactive hydroxyl group. The presence of MVK and acetic anhydride in CSE was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). We also found new reaction products formed in B16-BL6 mouse melanoma (B16-BL6) cells treated with CSE using LC/MS. These were identified as glutathione (GSH) conjugates of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, MVK, crotonaldehyde (CA), and acrolein (ACR), by the mass value and product ion spectra of these new products. ACR and MVK are type-2 alkenes, which are well known as electron acceptors and form Michael-type adducts to nucleophilic side chain of amino acids on peptides. These α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds may have a key role in CSE-induced cell death.

  11. Hemodynamics, functional state of endothelium and renal function, platelets depending on the body mass index in patients with chronic heart failure and preserved systolic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushnir Yu.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate hemodynamics, endothelium function of kidneys and platelets depending on the body mass index (BMI in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF and preserved systolic function. 42 patients (mean age - 76,690,83 years with CHF II-III FC NYHA with preserved systolic function (LVEF>45% were enrolled. Echocardiography was performed, endothelial function, serum creatinine levels and microalbuminuria were determined in patients. BMI and glomerulation filtration rate were calculated by formulas. The morphological and functional status of platelets was estimated by electronic microscopy. It was defined that increased BMI in patients with CHF and preserved systolic function determines the structural and functional changes of the myocardium and leads to the endothelial and renal functional changes. An increased risk of thrombogenesis was established in patients with overweight and obesity.

  12. A Mass of Pancreatic and Gastric Heterotopia Causing a Small Bowel Obstruction in a 61-Year-Old Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majd Alfrejat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic tissue is a congenital anomaly that has been previously reported. Gastric and pancreatic heterotopia are among the most studied ones. Herein, we describe a case of a combined pancreatic and gastric heterotopia that formed a mass and caused a small intestine obstruction in a 61-year-old male. We also did a brief literature review of cases with gastric and pancreatic heterotopia in adult patients.

  13. CONSTRAINTS ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STELLAR MASS AND HALO MASS AT LOW AND HIGH REDSHIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moster, Benjamin P.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Maulbetsch, Christian; Van den Bosch, Frank C.; Maccio, Andrea V.; Naab, Thorsten; Oser, Ludwig

    2010-01-01

    We use a statistical approach to determine the relationship between the stellar masses of galaxies and the masses of the dark matter halos in which they reside. We obtain a parameterized stellar-to-halo mass (SHM) relation by populating halos and subhalos in an N-body simulation with galaxies and requiring that the observed stellar mass function be reproduced. We find good agreement with constraints from galaxy-galaxy lensing and predictions of semi-analytic models. Using this mapping, and the positions of the halos and subhalos obtained from the simulation, we find that our model predictions for the galaxy two-point correlation function (CF) as a function of stellar mass are in excellent agreement with the observed clustering properties in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey at z = 0. We show that the clustering data do not provide additional strong constraints on the SHM function and conclude that our model can therefore predict clustering as a function of stellar mass. We compute the conditional mass function, which yields the average number of galaxies with stellar masses in the range m ± dm/2 that reside in a halo of mass M. We study the redshift dependence of the SHM relation and show that, for low-mass halos, the SHM ratio is lower at higher redshift. The derived SHM relation is used to predict the stellar mass dependent galaxy CF and bias at high redshift. Our model predicts that not only are massive galaxies more biased than low-mass galaxies at all redshifts, but also the bias increases more rapidly with increasing redshift for massive galaxies than for low-mass ones. We present convenient fitting functions for the SHM relation as a function of redshift, the conditional mass function, and the bias as a function of stellar mass and redshift.

  14. The Galaxy mass function up to z =4 in the GOODS-MUSIC sample: into the epoch of formation of massive galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, A.; Salimbeni, S.; Grazian, A.; Giallongo, E.; Pentericci, L.; Nonino, M.; Fontanot, F.; Menci, N.; Monaco, P.; Cristiani, S.; Vanzella, E.; de Santis, C.; Gallozzi, S.

    2006-12-01

    Aims.The goal of this work is to measure the evolution of the Galaxy Stellar Mass Function and of the resulting Stellar Mass Density up to redshift ≃4, in order to study the assembly of massive galaxies in the high redshift Universe. Methods: .We have used the GOODS-MUSIC catalog, containing 3000 Ks-selected galaxies with multi-wavelength coverage extending from the U band to the Spitzer 8 μm band, of which 27% have spectroscopic redshifts and the remaining fraction have accurate photometric redshifts. On this sample we have applied a standard fitting procedure to measure stellar masses. We compute the Galaxy Stellar Mass Function and the resulting Stellar Mass Density up to redshift ≃4, taking into proper account the biases and incompleteness effects. Results: .Within the well known trend of global decline of the Stellar Mass Density with redshift, we show that the decline of the more massive galaxies may be described by an exponential timescale of ≃6 Gyr up to z≃ 1.5, and proceeds much faster thereafter, with an exponential timescale of ≃0.6 Gyr. We also show that there is some evidence for a differential evolution of the Galaxy Stellar Mass Function, with low mass galaxies evolving faster than more massive ones up to z≃ 1{-}1.5 and that the Galaxy Stellar Mass Function remains remarkably flat (i.e. with a slope close to the local one) up to z≃ 1{-}1.3. Conclusions: .The observed behaviour of the Galaxy Stellar Mass Function is consistent with a scenario where about 50% of present-day massive galaxies formed at a vigorous rate in the epoch between redshift 4 and 1.5, followed by a milder evolution until the present-day epoch.

  15. DARK MATTER CONTRACTION AND THE STELLAR CONTENT OF MASSIVE EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES: DISFAVORING 'LIGHT' INITIAL MASS FUNCTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, M. W.; Treu, T.; Gavazzi, R.; Bolton, A. S.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Marshall, P. J.

    2010-01-01

    We use stellar dynamics, strong lensing, stellar population synthesis models, and weak lensing shear measurements to constrain the dark matter (DM) profile and stellar mass in a sample of 53 massive early-type galaxies. We explore three DM halo models (unperturbed Navarro, Frenk, and White (NFW) halos and the adiabatic contraction models of Blumenthal and Gnedin) and impose a model for the relationship between the stellar and virial mass (i.e., a relationship for the star formation efficiency as a function of halo mass). We show that, given our model assumptions, the data clearly prefer a Salpeter-like initial mass function (IMF) over a lighter IMF (e.g., Chabrier or Kroupa), irrespective of the choice of DM halo. In addition, we find that the data prefer at most a moderate amount of adiabatic contraction (Blumenthal adiabatic contraction is strongly disfavored) and are only consistent with no adiabatic contraction (i.e., an NFW halo) if a mass-dependent IMF is assumed, in the sense of a more massive normalization of the IMF for more massive halos.

  16. Testing for Nonuniform Differential Item Functioning with Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carol M.; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    In extant literature, multiple indicator multiple cause (MIMIC) models have been presented for identifying items that display uniform differential item functioning (DIF) only, not nonuniform DIF. This article addresses, for apparently the first time, the use of MIMIC models for testing both uniform and nonuniform DIF with categorical indicators. A…

  17. Effect of low appendicular lean mass, grip strength, and gait speed on the functional outcome after surgery for distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Young Hak; Noh, Jung Ho; Gong, Hyun Sik; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2017-12-01

    Patients with low appendicular lean mass plus slow gait speed or weak grip strength are at risk for poor functional recovery after surgery for distal radius fracture, even when they have similar radiologic outcomes. Loss of skeletal muscle mass and consequent loss in muscle function associate with aging, and this condition negatively impacts the activities of daily living and increases elderly individuals' frailty to falls. Thus, patients with low appendicular lean mass would show different functional recovery compared to those without this condition after surgery for distal radius fracture (DRF). This study compares the functional outcomes after surgery for DRF in patients with or without low appendicular lean mass plus slowness or weakness. A total of 157 patients older than 50 years of age with a DRF treated via volar plate fixation were enrolled in this prospective study. A definition of low appendicular lean mass with slowness or weakness was based on the consensus of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. The researchers compared functional assessments (wrist range of motion and Michigan Hand Questionnaire [MHQ]) and radiographic assessments (radial inclination, volar tilt, ulnar variance, and articular congruity) 12 months after surgery between patients with and without low appendicular lean mass plus slowness or weakness. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to determine whether appendicular lean mass, grip strength, gait speed, patient demographic, or injury characteristics accounted for the functional outcomes. Patients with low appendicular lean mass plus slowness or weakness showed a significantly lower recovery of MHQ score than those in the control group throughout 12 months. There was no significant difference in the range of motion between the groups. The radiologic outcomes showed no significant difference between groups in terms of volar tilt, radial inclination, or ulnar variance. According to multivariable regression analysis

  18. Independent prognostic value of left ventricular mass, diastolic function, and fasting plasma glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Nielsen, Mette Lundgren; Leósdóttir, Margrét

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the independent prognostic value of left ventricular (LV) mass, diastolic function, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) for the prediction of incident cardiac events in a random population sample. DESIGN AND METHOD: 415 women and 999 men aged 56-79 years, included between 2002...

  19. Age- and gender-specific differences in left and right ventricular cardiac function and mass determined by cine magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstede, J.; Lipke, C.; Beer, M.; Hofmann, S.; Pabst, T.; Kenn, W.; Hahn, D.; Neubauer, S.

    2000-01-01

    We examined possible age- and gender-specific differences in the function and mass of left (LV) and right (RV) ventricles in 36 healthy volunteers using cine gradient-recalled echo magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects were divided into four groups (nine men and nine women in each): men aged under 45 years (32 ± 7), women aged under 45 (27 ± 6), men aged over 45 (59 ± 8), and women aged over 45 (57 ± 9). Functional analysis of cardiac volume and mass and of LV wall motion was performed by manual segmentation of the endocardial and epicardial borders of the end-diastolic and end-systolic frame; both absolute and normalized (per square meter body surface area) values were evaluated. With age there was a significant decrease in both absolute and normalized LV and RV chamber volumes (EDV, ESV), while LV and RV masses remained unchanged. Gender-specific differences were found in cardiac mass and volume (for men and women, respectively: LV mass, 155 ± 18 and 110 ± 16 g; LV EDV, 118 ± 27 and 96 ± 21 ml; LV ESV, 40 ± 13 and 29 ± 9 ml; RV mass, 52 ± 10 and 39 ± 5 g; RV EDV, 131 ± 28 and 100 ± 23 ml; RV ESV, 53 ± 17 and 33 ± 15 ml). Normalization to body surface area eliminated differences in LV volumes but not those in LV mass, RV mass, or RV function. Functional parameters such as cardiac output and LV ejection fraction showed nonsignificant or only slight differences and were thus largely independent of age and gender. Intra- and interobserver variability ranged between 1.4 % and 5.9 % for all parameters. Cine magnetic resonance imaging thus shows age- and gender-specific differences in cardiac function, and therefore the evaluation of cardiac function in patients should consider age- and gender-matched normative values. (orig.)

  20. Low-energy. beta. -function in a finite super-Yang-Mills model with multiple mass scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O.; Helayel-Neto, J.A. (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy))

    1985-02-14

    We compute the one-loop contribution to the low-energy light-fermion gauge coupling in a finite supersymmetric gauge theory with two mass scales: a heavy mass that breaks an initial N=4 supersymmetry down to N=2, but respects the finiteness, and a light mass that, for simplicity, is set to zero. We find that coupling grows with the mass of the heavy intermediate states. Hence the latter do not decouple at low energies, leading to large logarithms that invalidate low-energy perturbation theory. Consequently, further manipulations are required to obtain a meaningful perturbative expansion. Enforcing decoupling through finite renormalizations, that absorb the heavy mass effects into a redefinition of the parameters of the lagrangian, introduces an arbitrary subtraction mass ..mu... The requirement that the S-matrix elements be independent of ..mu.. leads to a non-trivial renormalization-group equation for the low-energy theory, with a non-vanishing ..beta..-function.

  1. The Relationship Between 
Body Mass Index and Sexual Function in Endometrial Cancer
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rubi M; Hanlon, Alexandra; Small, William; Strauss, Jonathan B; Lin, Lillie; Wells, Jessica; Bruner, Deborah W

    2018-01-01

    To explore the association between pretreatment body mass index (BMI) and post-treatment sexual function in women treated for endometrial cancer. 
. 28 postmenopausal women treated with vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) took part in this multisite exploratory secondary analysis at the University of Pennsylvania and Northwestern University. 
. Secondary data analysis was used to determine if pretreatment BMI is associated with post-VBT sexual function in postmenopausal women treated for endometrial cancer at baseline and at six months post-treatment. Because of small sample size, participants were dichotomized according to enrollment BMI. Both groups had poor sexual function at baseline. Although improved function was observed with time, neither group reached a score indicating healthy sexual function.
. Understanding factors that influence sexual health in patients with gynecologic cancer can improve post-treatment quality of life. 
.

  2. Reference absolute and indexed values for left and right ventricular volume, function and mass from cardiac computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanovska, Jadranka; Prasitdumrong, Hutsaya; Patel, Smita; Sundaram, Baskaran; Gross, Barry H.; Yilmaz, Zeynep N.; Kazerooni, Ella A.

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volumetric and functional parameters are important biomarkers for morbidity and mortality in patients with heart failure. To retrospectively determine reference mean values of LV and RV volume, function and mass normalised by age, gender and body surface area (BSA) from retrospectively electrocardiographically gated 64-slice cardiac computed tomography (CCT) by using automated analysis software in healthy adults. The study was approved by the institutional review board with a waiver of informed consent. Seventy-four healthy subjects (49% female, mean age 49.6±11) free of hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia with a normal CCT formed the study population. Analyses of LV and RV volume (end-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes), function (ejection fraction), LV mass and inter-rater reproducibility were performed with commercially available analysis software capable of automated contour detection. General linear model analysis was performed to assess statistical significance by age group after adjustment for gender and BSA. Bland–Altman analysis assessed the inter-rater agreement. The reference range for LV and RV volume, function, and LV mass was normalised to age, gender and BSA. Statistically significant differences were noted between genders in both LV mass and RV volume (P-value<0.0001). Age, in concert with gender, was associated with significant differences in RV end-diastolic volume and LV ejection fraction (P-values 0.027 and 0.03). Bland–Altman analysis showed acceptable limits of agreement (±1.5% for ejection fraction) without systematic error. LV and RV volume, function and mass normalised to age, gender and BSA can be reported from CCT datasets, providing additional information important for patient management.

  3. A morbillivirus causing mass mortality in seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhaus, A

    1989-12-01

    During an outbreak of a serious apparently infectious disease among harbour seals (Phoca vitulina), which started in the Kattegat area in April 1988 and rapidly spread to the North sea, the Wadden sea and the Baltic sea, greater than 17,000 animals died within a period of eight months. In August 1988 it was realized that the clinical symptoms and pathological lesions were similar to those found in canine distemper: apart from general depression and fever, the animals suffered from severe respiratory, gastrointestinal and central nervous disease and a variety of viral, bacterial and parasitic infections were frequently encountered, suggesting a severe malfunctioning of the immune system. At different expert meetings, held in several of the countries involved, possible explanations for the deaths were not only attributed to an infectious agent, but also to effects of overpopulation and environmental pollution. Seroepizootiological studies and the failure of vaccination experiments suggested that a herpesvirus and a picornavirus, which had been isolated from dead seals at the beginning of the outbreak, were opportunistic infections occurring in animals suffering from another infection rather than being the primary cause of the outbreaks. Serological studies were then extended to other viruses of carnivores, known to cause similar symptoms. Screening of a large panel of seal sera from the Netherlands, Denmark, FRG, Sweden and the UK, collected before and during the outbreak, in a virus neutralization test for the presence of canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibodies, indicated that CDV or a closely related morbillivirus was the primary cause of the disease outbreak.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Evidence of Cosmic Evolution of the Stellar Initial Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2008-02-01

    Theoretical arguments and indirect observational evidence suggest that the stellar IMF may evolve with time, such that it is more weighted toward high-mass stars at higher redshift. Here we test this idea by comparing the rate of luminosity evolution of massive early-type galaxies in clusters at 0.02 measured evolution of the M/LB ratio gives x = - 0.3+ 0.4-0.7 for the logarithmic slope of the IMF in the region around 1 M⊙, significantly flatter than the present-day value in the Milky Way disk of x = 1.3 +/- 0.3. The best-fitting luminosity-weighted formation redshift of the stars in massive cluster galaxies is 3.7+ 2.3-0.8, and a possible interpretation is that the characteristic mass mc had a value of ~2 M⊙ at z ~ 4 (compared to mc ~ 0.1 M⊙ today), in qualitative agreement with models in which the characteristic mass is a function of the Jeans mass in molecular clouds. Such a "bottom-light" IMF for massive cluster galaxies has significant implications for the interpretation of measurements of galaxy formation and evolution. Applying a simple form of IMF evolution to literature data, we find that the volume-averaged SFR at high redshift may have been overestimated (by a factor of 3-4 at z > 4), and the cosmic star formation history may have a fairly well defined peak at z ~ 1.5. The M/LV ratios of galaxies are less affected than their SFRs, and future data on the stellar mass density at z > 3 will provide further constraints on IMF evolution. The formal errors likely underestimate the uncertainties, and confirmation of these results requires a larger sample of clusters and the inclusion of redder rest-frame colors in the analysis. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  5. Body Mass Index and Decline of Cognitive Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujin Kim

    Full Text Available The association between body mass index (BMI and cognitive function is a public health issue. This study investigated the relationship between obesity and cognitive impairment which was assessed by the Korean version of the Mini-mental state examination (K-MMSE among mid- and old-aged people in South Korea.A cohort of 5,125 adults, age 45 or older with normal cognitive function (K-MMSE≥24 at baseline (2006, was derived from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA 2006~2012. The association between baseline BMI and risk of cognitive impairment was assessed using multiple logistic regression models. We also assessed baseline BMI and change of cognitive function over the 6-year follow-up using multiple linear regressions.During the follow-up, 358 cases of severe cognitive impairment were identified. Those with baseline BMI≥25 kg/m2 than normal-weight (18.5≤BMI<23 kg/m2 were marginally less likely to experience the development of severe cognitive impairment (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.52 to 1.03; Ptrend = 0.03. This relationship was stronger among female (aOR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.40 to 1.00; Ptrend = 0.01 and participants with low-normal K-MMSE score (MMSE: 24-26 at baseline (aOR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.35 to 0.98; Ptrend<0.01. In addition, a slower decline of cognitive function was observed in obese individuals than those with normal weight, especially among women and those with low-normal K-MMSE score at baseline.In this nationally representative study, we found that obesity was associated with lower risk of cognitive decline among mid- and old-age population.

  6. The Excursion Set Theory of Halo Mass Functions, Halo Clustering, and Halo Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentner, Andrew R.

    I review the excursion set theory with particular attention toward applications to cold dark matter halo formation and growth, halo abundance, and halo clustering. After a brief introduction to notation and conventions, I begin by recounting the heuristic argument leading to the mass function of bound objects given by Press and Schechter. I then review the more formal derivation of the Press-Schechter halo mass function that makes use of excursion sets of the density field. The excursion set formalism is powerful and can be applied to numerous other problems. I review the excursion set formalism for describing both halo clustering and bias and the properties of void regions. As one of the most enduring legacies of the excursion set approach and one of its most common applications, I spend considerable time reviewing the excursion set theory of halo growth. This section of the review culminates with the description of two Monte Carlo methods for generating ensembles of halo mass accretion histories. In the last section, I emphasize that the standard excursion set approach is the result of several simplifying assumptions. Dropping these assumptions can lead to more faithful predictions and open excursion set theory to new applications. One such assumption is that the height of the barriers that define collapsed objects is a constant function of scale. I illustrate the implementation of the excursion set approach for barriers of arbitrary shape. One such application is the now well-known improvement of the excursion set mass function derived from the "moving" barrier for ellipsoidal collapse. I also emphasize that the statement that halo accretion histories are independent of halo environment in the excursion set approach is not a general prediction of the theory. It is a simplifying assumption. I review the method for constructing correlated random walks of the density field in the more general case. I construct a simple toy model to illustrate that excursion set

  7. Converging on the Initial Mass Function of Stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federrath, Christoph; Krumholz, Mark; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the origin of stellar masses—the initial mass function (IMF)— remains one of the most challenging problems in astrophysics. The IMF is a key ingredient for simulations of galaxy formation and evolution, and is used to calibrate star formation relations in extra-galactic observations. Modeling the IMF directly in hydrodynamical simulations has been attempted in several previous studies, but the most important processes that control the IMF remain poorly understood. This is because predicting the IMF from direct hydrodynamical simulations involves complex physics such as turbulence, magnetic fields, radiation feedback and mechanical feedback, all of which are difficult to model and the methods used have limitations in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. Moreover, a physical interpretation of the simulated IMFs requires a numerically converged solution at high resolution, which has so far not been convincingly demonstrated. Here we present a resolution study of star cluster formation aimed at producing a converged IMF. We compare a set of magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) adaptive-mesh-refinement simulations with three different implementations of the thermodynamics of the gas: 1) with an isothermal equation of state (EOS), 2) with a polytropic EOS, and 3) with a simple stellar heating feedback model. We show that in the simulations with an isothermal or polytropic EOS, the number of stars and their mass distributions depend on the numerical resolution. By contrast, the simulations that employ the simple radiative feedback module demonstrate convergence in the number of stars formed and in their IMFs. (paper)

  8. Invariant mass dependence of two-pion inclusive correlation functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.; Singer, R.; Thomas, G.H.; Kafka, T.

    1976-06-01

    High energy two-particle inclusive correlations are studied as a function of the invariant mass M of the pair. Using data from 205 GeV/c pp interactions, one compares the correlation functions C(M) for (+-) and (--) pairs of produced pions. Strong positive correlations are observed in both distributions in the form of a broad threshold enhancement at small M. The decrease of C(M) as M increases is interpreted in the Mueller-Regge framework. From the M dependence of C +- one extracts an effective trajectory intercept of roughly α(0) approximately equal to 0.5 +- 0.1, consistent with the (rho,f) pair. For the exotic (--) system, one finds a low intercept, α(0) approximately equal to -0.5. A rho resonance signal is observed above background in C +- (M). Near threshold, effects suggestive of Bose symmetry are seen but are not conclusive. In an exclusive picture, one relates most of the correlation in the threshold region to resonances involving three or more pions. One also examines the joint correlations in M and the azimuthal angle phi

  9. Characterizing the lipid and metabolite changes associated with placental function and pregnancy complications using ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry and mass spectrometry imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin S.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2017-12-01

    Successful pregnancy is dependent upon discrete biological events, which include embryo implantation, decidualization, and placentation. Problems associated with each of these events can cause infertility or conditions such as preeclampsia. A greater understanding of the molecular changes associated with these complex processes is necessary to aid in identifying treatments for each condition. Previous nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry studies have been used to identify metabolites and lipids associated with pregnancy-related complications. However, due to limitations associated with conventional implementations of both techniques, novel technology developments are needed to more fully understand the initiation and development of pregnancy related problems at the molecular level. In this perspective, we describe current analytical techniques for metabolomic and lipidomic characterization of pregnancy complications and discuss the potential for new technologies such as ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry and mass spectrometry imaging to contribute to a better understanding of the molecular changes that affect the placenta and pregnancy outcomes.

  10. Origin of a bottom-heavy stellar initial mass function in elliptical galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekki, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the origin of a bottom-heavy stellar initial mass function (IMF) recently observed in elliptical galaxies by using chemical evolution models with a non-universal IMF. We adopt the variable Kroupa IMF with the three slopes (α 1 , α 2 , and α 3 ) dependent on metallicities ([Fe/H]) and densities (ρ g ) of star-forming gas clouds and thereby search for the best IMF model that can reproduce (1) the observed steep IMF slope (α 2 ∼ 3, i.e., bottom-heavy) for low stellar masses (m ≤ 1 M ☉ ) and (2) the correlation of α 2 with chemical properties of elliptical galaxies in a self-consistent manner. We find that if the IMF slope α 2 depends on both [Fe/H] and ρ g , then elliptical galaxies with higher [Mg/Fe] can have steeper α 2 (∼3) in our models. We also find that the observed positive correlation of stellar mass-to-light ratios (M/L) with [Mg/Fe] in elliptical galaxies can be quantitatively reproduced in our models with α 2 ∝β[Fe/H] + γlog ρ g , where β ∼ 0.5 and γ ∼ 2. We discuss whether the IMF slopes for low-mass (α 2 ) and high-mass stars (α 3 ) need to vary independently from each other to explain a number of IMF-related observational results self-consistently. We also briefly discuss why α 2 depends differently on [Fe/H] in dwarf and giant elliptical galaxies.

  11. Currarino triad with dual pathology in the presacral mass: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thambidorai, C R; Muin, I; Razman, J; Zulfiqar, A

    2003-07-01

    Currarino triad, which comprises anorectal stenosis, anterior sacral defect, and a presacral mass, is an uncommon cause of constipation in children and adults. The presacral mass in this triad is most often caused by an anterior sacral meningocele, a teratoma, or an enterogenous cyst, but rarely may be caused by dual pathology. A neonate with Currarino triad and dual pathology in the presacral mass is described in this report. A male Chinese neonate, who presented with abdominal distention and constipation on the second day of life, was found to have features of Currarino triad. Colostomy was done in the neonatal period, and the presacral mass was excised by posterior sagittal perineal approach at the age of six months. The excised presacral mass consisted of an anterior meningocele and a teratoma. The patient continued to have constipation during follow-up and required anorectoplasty to correct residual anorectal stenosis. At the time of this report the patient was three years old and growing normally with normal anorectal function. Of a total of about 200 cases of complete Currarino triad found in the literature, in only 22 patients did the presacral mass contain both meningocele and teratoma. The features of these 22 patients and the current views on the surgical management of Currarino triad are discussed.

  12. Craniocervical mycetoma caused bu Streptomyces somaliensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramboer, J.H.; De Graaf, A.S.; Hewlett, R.H.; Kirby, P.A.; Robson, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, computerized tomography (CT) and clinical-pathological findings are described in a case of craniocervical mycetoma caused by the actinomycete Streptomyces somaliensis. Clinical features includes epilepsy, visual and hearing disturbance, quadriplegia and incontinence. CT revealed a hyperdense, diffusely enhancing intra-extracranial mass, further defined by MR to involve the oropharyngeal region, skull base, cranial-cervical peridural spaces and brain. On treatment with Dapsone, the lesion decreased in size, with recovery of spinal cord function. The combined plain film, CT and MR images are considered to be diagnostic of this form of mycetoma. (author). 10 refs.; 4 figs

  13. Craniocervical mycetoma caused bu Streptomyces somaliensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramboer, J.H.; De Graaf, A.S. (Tygerberg Hospital, Bellville (South Africa). Dept. of Internal Medicine); Hewlett, R.H. (Tygerberg Hospital, Bellville (South Africa). Dept. of Radiology); Kirby, P.A. (Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa). Department of Anatomical Pathology); Robson, R.A. (Tygerberg Hospital, Capetown (South Africa). Department of Microbiology)

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, computerized tomography (CT) and clinical-pathological findings are described in a case of craniocervical mycetoma caused by the actinomycete Streptomyces somaliensis. Clinical features includes epilepsy, visual and hearing disturbance, quadriplegia and incontinence. CT revealed a hyperdense, diffusely enhancing intra-extracranial mass, further defined by MR to involve the oropharyngeal region, skull base, cranial-cervical peridural spaces and brain. On treatment with Dapsone, the lesion decreased in size, with recovery of spinal cord function. The combined plain film, CT and MR images are considered to be diagnostic of this form of mycetoma. (author). 10 refs.; 4 figs.

  14. Use of multilevel logistic regression to identify the causes of differential item functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balluerka, Nekane; Gorostiaga, Arantxa; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Hidalgo, María Dolores

    2010-11-01

    Given that a key function of tests is to serve as evaluation instruments and for decision making in the fields of psychology and education, the possibility that some of their items may show differential behaviour is a major concern for psychometricians. In recent decades, important progress has been made as regards the efficacy of techniques designed to detect this differential item functioning (DIF). However, the findings are scant when it comes to explaining its causes. The present study addresses this problem from the perspective of multilevel analysis. Starting from a case study in the area of transcultural comparisons, multilevel logistic regression is used: 1) to identify the item characteristics associated with the presence of DIF; 2) to estimate the proportion of variation in the DIF coefficients that is explained by these characteristics; and 3) to evaluate alternative explanations of the DIF by comparing the explanatory power or fit of different sequential models. The comparison of these models confirmed one of the two alternatives (familiarity with the stimulus) and rejected the other (the topic area) as being a cause of differential functioning with respect to the compared groups.

  15. Bilateral renal masses in a 10-year-old girl with renal failure and urinary tract infection: the importance of functional imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbania, Thomas H. [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, 505 Parnassus Ave., Box 0628, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kammen, Bamidele F.; Nancarrow, Paul A. [Children' s Hospital and Research Center Oakland, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Oakland, CA (United States); Morrell, Rose Ellen [Children' s Hospital and Research Center Oakland, Department of Nephrology, Oakland, CA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Renal sonography is a routine step in the evaluation of new onset renal failure. When renal masses are discovered in this setting, functional imaging may be critical. We report a case of bilateral renal masses in a girl with urinary tract infection and renal insufficiency found to have vesicoureteral reflux. Renal scintigraphy revealed these masses to be the only remaining functional renal tissue, preventing potentially harmful resection. (orig.)

  16. Bilateral renal masses in a 10-year-old girl with renal failure and urinary tract infection: the importance of functional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbania, Thomas H.; Kammen, Bamidele F.; Nancarrow, Paul A.; Morrell, Rose Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Renal sonography is a routine step in the evaluation of new onset renal failure. When renal masses are discovered in this setting, functional imaging may be critical. We report a case of bilateral renal masses in a girl with urinary tract infection and renal insufficiency found to have vesicoureteral reflux. Renal scintigraphy revealed these masses to be the only remaining functional renal tissue, preventing potentially harmful resection. (orig.)

  17. DETERMINING QUASAR BLACK HOLE MASS FUNCTIONS FROM THEIR BROAD EMISSION LINES: APPLICATION TO THE BRIGHT QUASAR SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Fan Xiaohui; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    We describe a Bayesian approach to estimating quasar black hole mass functions (BHMF) using the broad emission lines to estimate black hole mass. We show how using the broad-line mass estimates in combination with statistical techniques developed for luminosity function estimation (e.g., the 1/V a correction) leads to statistically biased results. We derive the likelihood function for the BHMF based on the broad-line mass estimates, and derive the posterior distribution for the BHMF, given the observed data. We develop our statistical approach for a flexible model where the BHMF is modeled as a mixture of Gaussian functions. Statistical inference is performed using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, and we describe a Metropolis-Hastings algorithm to perform the MCMC. The MCMC simulates random draws from the probability distribution of the BHMF parameters, given the data, and we use a simulated data set to show how these random draws may be used to estimate the probability distribution for the BHMF. In addition, we show how the MCMC output may be used to estimate the probability distribution of any quantities derived from the BHMF, such as the peak in the space density of quasars. Our method has the advantage that it is able to constrain the BHMF even beyond the survey detection limits at the adopted confidence level, accounts for measurement errors and the intrinsic uncertainty in broad-line mass estimates, and provides a natural way of estimating the probability distribution of any quantities derived from the BHMF. We conclude by using our method to estimate the local active BHMF using the z BH ∼> 10 8 M sun . Our analysis implies that at a given M BH , z < 0.5 broad-line quasars have a typical Eddington ratio of ∼0.4 and a dispersion in Eddington ratio of ∼<0.5 dex.

  18. CONNECTION BETWEEN DYNAMICALLY DERIVED INITIAL MASS FUNCTION NORMALIZATION AND STELLAR POPULATION PARAMETERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Cappellari, Michele; Bayet, Estelle; Bureau, Martin; Davies, Roger L.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Crocker, Alison F.; Davis, Timothy A.; De Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Kuntschner, Harald; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom; Naab, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    We report on empirical trends between the dynamically determined stellar initial mass function (IMF) and stellar population properties for a complete, volume-limited sample of 260 early-type galaxies from the ATLAS 3D project. We study trends between our dynamically derived IMF normalization α dyn ≡ (M/L) stars /(M/L) Salp and absorption line strengths, and interpret these via single stellar population-equivalent ages, abundance ratios (measured as [α/Fe]), and total metallicity, [Z/H]. We find that old and alpha-enhanced galaxies tend to have on average heavier (Salpeter-like) mass normalization of the IMF, but stellar population does not appear to be a good predictor of the IMF, with a large range of α dyn at a given population parameter. As a result, we find weak α dyn -[α/Fe] and α dyn –Age correlations and no significant α dyn –[Z/H] correlation. The observed trends appear significantly weaker than those reported in studies that measure the IMF normalization via the low-mass star demographics inferred through stellar spectral analysis

  19. Connection between Dynamically Derived Initial Mass Function Normalization and Stellar Population Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Cappellari, Michele; Alatalo, Katherine; Bayet, Estelle; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2014-09-01

    We report on empirical trends between the dynamically determined stellar initial mass function (IMF) and stellar population properties for a complete, volume-limited sample of 260 early-type galaxies from the ATLAS3D project. We study trends between our dynamically derived IMF normalization αdyn ≡ (M/L)stars/(M/L)Salp and absorption line strengths, and interpret these via single stellar population-equivalent ages, abundance ratios (measured as [α/Fe]), and total metallicity, [Z/H]. We find that old and alpha-enhanced galaxies tend to have on average heavier (Salpeter-like) mass normalization of the IMF, but stellar population does not appear to be a good predictor of the IMF, with a large range of αdyn at a given population parameter. As a result, we find weak αdyn-[α/Fe] and αdyn -Age correlations and no significant αdyn -[Z/H] correlation. The observed trends appear significantly weaker than those reported in studies that measure the IMF normalization via the low-mass star demographics inferred through stellar spectral analysis.

  20. Using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool in infective endocarditis: a case report of a patient with mitral valve infective endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holler, Jon Gitz; Pedersen, Line; Calum, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    A case of infective endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva is presented. The use of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool in infective endocarditis is discussed.......A case of infective endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva is presented. The use of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as a rapid and accurate diagnostic tool in infective endocarditis is discussed....

  1. Evolution of Galaxy Luminosity and Stellar-Mass Functions since $z=1$ with the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozzi, D.; et al.

    2017-07-27

    We present the first study of the evolution of the galaxy luminosity and stellar-mass functions (GLF and GSMF) carried out by the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe the COMMODORE galaxy catalogue selected from Science Verification images. This catalogue is made of $\\sim 4\\times 10^{6}$ galaxies at $0functions against literature results obtained with spectroscopic redshifts; ii) we want to shed light on the way galaxies build up their masses over cosmic time. We find that both the ${\\it i}$-band galaxy luminosity and stellar mass functions are characterised by a double-Schechter shape at $z<0.2$. Both functions agree well with those based on spectroscopic redshifts. The DES GSMF agrees especially with those measured for the GAlaxy Mass Assembly and the PRism MUlti-object Survey out to $z\\sim1$. At $0.2mass densities respectively to be constant ($\\rho_{\\rm L}\\propto (1+z)^{-0.12\\pm0.11}$) and decreasing ($\\rho_{\\rm Mstar}\\propto (1+z)^{-0.5\\pm0.1}$) with $z$. This indicates that, while at higher redshift galaxies have less stellar mass, their luminosities do not change substantially because of their younger and brighter stellar populations. Finally, we also find evidence for a top-down mass-dependent evolution of the GSMF.

  2. Instantons: Dynamical mass generation, chiral ward identities and the topological charge correlation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, N.A.

    1983-01-01

    When dynamical mass generation resulting from the breakdown of chiral symmetry is taken into account, instanton dynamics treated within the dilute gas approximation may satisfy the constraints on the quark condensates and the topological charge correlation function derived by Crewther from an analysis of the chiral Ward identities assuming the absence of a physical axial U(1) Goldstone boson. From a consideration of the contribution of the eta' to the topological charge correlation function, a relationship is derived in which msub(eta') 2 fsub(eta') 2 is proportional to the vacuum energy density. (orig.)

  3. Change in mobility function and its causes in adults with cerebral palsy by Gross Motor Function Classification System level: A cross-sectional questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himuro, Nobuaki; Mishima, Reiko; Seshimo, Takashi; Morishima, Toshibumi; Kosaki, Keisuke; Ibe, Shigeharu; Asagai, Yoshimi; Minematsu, Koji; Kurita, Kazuhiro; Okayasu, Tsutomu; Shimura, Tsukasa; Hoshino, Kotaro; Suzuki, Toshiro; Yanagizono, Taiichiro

    2018-04-07

    The prognosis for mobility function by Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level is vital as a guide to rehabilitation for people with cerebral palsy. This study sought to investigate change in mobility function and its causes in adults with cerebral palsy by GMFCS level. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire study. A total of 386 participants (26 y 8 m, SD 5 y 10 m) with cerebral palsy were analyzed. Participant numbers by GMFCS level were: I (53), II (139), III (74) and IV (120). The median age of participants with peak mobility function in GMFCS level III was younger than that in the other levels. 48% had experienced a decline in mobility. A Kaplan-Meier plot showed the risk of mobility decline increased in GMFCS level III; the hazard ratio was 1.97 (95% CI, 1.20-3.23) compared with level I. The frequently reported causes of mobility decline were changes in environment, and illness and injury in GMFCS level III, stiffness and deformity in level IV, and reduced physical activity in level II and III. Peak mobility function and mobility decline occurred at a younger age in GMFCS level III, with the cause of mobility decline differing by GMFCS level.

  4. Evidence for a constant initial mass function in early-type galaxies based on their X-ray binary populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E.; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Kundu, Arunav; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Lehmer, Bret D.; Maraston, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent studies have proposed that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) of early type galaxies varies systematically as a function of galaxy mass, with higher mass galaxies having bottom-heavy IMFs. These bottom-heavy IMFs have more low-mass stars relative to the number of high mass stars, and therefore naturally result in proportionally fewer neutron stars (NSs) and black holes (BHs). In this paper, we specifically predict the variation in the number of BHs and NSs based on the power-law IMF variation required to reproduce the observed mass-to-light ratio trends with galaxy mass. We then test whether such variations are observed by studying the field low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) populations of nearby early-type galaxies. In these binaries, an NS or BH accretes matter from a low-mass donor star. Their number is therefore expected to scale with the number of BHs and NSs present in a galaxy. We find that the number of LMXBs per K-band light is similar among the galaxies in our sample. These data therefore demonstrate the uniformity of the slope of the IMF from massive stars down to those now dominating the K-band light and are consistent with an invariant IMF. Our results are inconsistent with an IMF which varies from a Kroupa/Chabrier like IMF for low-mass galaxies to a steep power-law IMF (with slope x = 2.8) for high mass galaxies. We discuss how these observations constrain the possible forms of the IMF variations and how future Chandra observations can enable sharper tests of the IMF.

  5. Evidence for a constant initial mass function in early-type galaxies based on their X-ray binary populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peacock, Mark B.; Zepf, Stephen E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Maccarone, Thomas J. [Texas Tech University, Physics Department, Box 41051, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Kundu, Arunav [Eureka Scientific, Inc., 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100 Oakland, CA 94602 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Lehmer, Bret D. [The Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Maraston, Claudia, E-mail: mpeacock@msu.edu [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    A number of recent studies have proposed that the stellar initial mass function (IMF) of early type galaxies varies systematically as a function of galaxy mass, with higher mass galaxies having bottom-heavy IMFs. These bottom-heavy IMFs have more low-mass stars relative to the number of high mass stars, and therefore naturally result in proportionally fewer neutron stars (NSs) and black holes (BHs). In this paper, we specifically predict the variation in the number of BHs and NSs based on the power-law IMF variation required to reproduce the observed mass-to-light ratio trends with galaxy mass. We then test whether such variations are observed by studying the field low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) populations of nearby early-type galaxies. In these binaries, an NS or BH accretes matter from a low-mass donor star. Their number is therefore expected to scale with the number of BHs and NSs present in a galaxy. We find that the number of LMXBs per K-band light is similar among the galaxies in our sample. These data therefore demonstrate the uniformity of the slope of the IMF from massive stars down to those now dominating the K-band light and are consistent with an invariant IMF. Our results are inconsistent with an IMF which varies from a Kroupa/Chabrier like IMF for low-mass galaxies to a steep power-law IMF (with slope x = 2.8) for high mass galaxies. We discuss how these observations constrain the possible forms of the IMF variations and how future Chandra observations can enable sharper tests of the IMF.

  6. Cosmological constraints from the evolution of the cluster baryon mass function at z similar to 0.5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikhlinin, A.; Voevodkin, A.; Mullis, C.R.

    2003-01-01

    measurements of the gas masses for distant clusters, we find strong evolution of the baryon mass function between z > 0.4 and the present. The observed evolution defines a narrow band in the Omega(m)-Lambda plane, Omega(m) + 0.23Lambda = 0.41 +/- 0.10 at 68% confidence, which intersects with constraints from...

  7. An analytic distribution function for a mass-less cored stellar system in a cuspy dark-matter halo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breddels, Maarten A.; Helmi, Amina

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of a distribution function that can be used to represent spherical mass-less cored stellar systems having constant mildly tangential velocity anisotropy embedded in cuspy dark-matter halos. In particular, we derived analytically the functional form of the distribution

  8. Mass ejection in failed supernovae: variation with stellar progenitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rodrigo; Quataert, Eliot; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Coughlin, Eric R.

    2018-05-01

    We study the ejection of mass during stellar core-collapse when the stalled shock does not revive and a black hole forms. Neutrino emission during the protoneutron star phase causes a decrease in the gravitational mass of the core, resulting in an outward going sound pulse that steepens into a shock as it travels out through the star. We explore the properties of this mass ejection mechanism over a range of stellar progenitors using spherically symmetric, time-dependent hydrodynamic simulations that treat neutrino mass-loss parametrically and follow the shock propagation over the entire star. We find that all types of stellar progenitor can eject mass through this mechanism. The ejected mass is a decreasing function of the surface gravity of the star, ranging from several M⊙ for red supergiants to ˜0.1 M⊙ for blue supergiants and ˜10-3 M⊙ for Wolf-Rayet stars. We find that the final shock energy at the surface is a decreasing function of the core-compactness, and is ≲ 1047-1048 erg in all cases. In progenitors with a sufficiently large envelope, high core-compactness, or a combination of both, the sound pulse fails to unbind mass. Successful mass ejection is accompanied by significant fallback accretion that can last from hours to years. We predict the properties of shock breakout and thermal plateau emission produced by the ejection of the outer envelope of blue supergiant and Wolf-Rayet progenitors in otherwise failed supernovae.

  9. Inefficient functional sympatholysis is an overlooked cause of malperfusion in contracting skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saltin, Bengt; Mortensen, Stefan P

    2012-01-01

    Contracting skeletal muscle can overcome sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity (functional sympatholysis), which allows for a blood supply that matches the metabolic demand. This ability is thought to be mediated by locally released substances that modulate the effect of noradrenaline (NA) on the α...... sympatholysis and muscle blood flow are impaired compared to young men, but regular physical activity can prevent these age related impairments. In young subjects, two weeks of leg immobilization causes a reduced ability for functional sympatholysis, whereas the trained leg maintained this function. Patients...... with essential hypertension have impaired functional sympatholysis in the forearm, and reduced exercise hyperaemia in the leg, but this can be normalized by aerobic exercise training. The effect of physical activity on the local mechanisms that modulate sympathetic vasoconstriction is clear, but it remains...

  10. A low-energy β-function in a finite super-Yang-Mills model with multiple mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.; Helayel-Neto, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    We compute the one-loop contribution to the low-energy light-fermion gauge coupling in a finite supersymmetric gauge theory with two mass scales: a heavy mass that breaks an initial N=4 supersymmetry down to N=2, but respects the finiteness, and a light mass that, for simplicity, is set to zero. We find that coupling grows with the mass of the heavy intermediate states. Hence the latter do not decouple at low energies, leading to large logarithms that invalidate low-energy perturbation theory. Consequently, further manipulations are required to obtain a meaningful perturbative expansion. Enforcing decoupling through finite renormalizations, that absorb the heavy mass effects into a redefinition of the parameters of the lagrangian, introduces an arbitrary subtraction mass μ. The requirement that the S-matrix elements be independent of μ leads to a non-trivial renormalization-group equation for the low-energy theory, with a non-vanishing β-function. (orig.)

  11. A low-energy β-function in a finite super-Yang-Mills model with multiple mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.; Helayel-Neto, J.A.

    1984-08-01

    We compute the one-loop contribution to the low-energy light-fermion gauge coupling in a finite supersymmetric gauge theory with two mass scales: a heavy mass that breaks an initial N=4 supersymmetry down to N=2, but respects the finiteness, and a light mass that, for simplicity, is set to zero. We find that the coupling grows with the mass of the heavy intermediate states. Hence the latter do not decouple at low energies, leading to large logarithms that invalidate low-energy perturbation theory. Consequently, further manipulations are required to obtain a meaningful perturbative expansion. Enforcing decoupling through finite renormalizations, that absorb the heavy mass effects into a redefinition of the parameters of the Lagrangian, introduces an arbitrary subtraction mass μ. The requirement that the S-matrix elements be independent of μ leads to a non-trivial renormalization-group equation for the low-energy theory, with a non-vanishing β-function. (author)

  12. [Vascular adrenal cyst causing difficult to control high blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Escudero, D; Torres Roca, M; Hernández Contreras, M E; Sánchez Rodríguez, C; Oñate Celdrán, J

    Hypertension is a prevalent disease in developed countries. Adrenal masses, and especially adrenal cysts, are a rare and usually asymptomatic finding, which can go unnoticed or be detected as incidental findings in imaging tests. These circumstances make the multidisciplinary approach mandatory. The case is presented on a 72 year-old woman with uncontrolled high blood pressure referred to the Urology Department due to the incidental finding of a right retroperitoneal mass. A functional and imaging study was performed, establishing a diagnosis of adrenal cyst causing hypertensive symptoms. A literature search was performed in order to assess diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. With the diagnosis of adrenal cyst causing uncontrolled high blood pressure, a right laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed. After surgery the patient has maintained blood pressure within the normal range. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary for the management of rare diseases. The surgical approach, if possible, should be laparoscopic. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Functions and Dysfunctions of Mass Communication Media | Rabiu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mass communication provides a way of interacting, distantly, with unknown audiences. It is the process of sharing experience in which a huge number of people are involved simultaneously, or almost so. It often occurs through the use of mass media channels and technology. The mass media are all around us. To live even ...

  14. Retroperitoneal Mass Masquerading as Failure to Thrive in a 91-year-old Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ologun, Gabriel O; Yarze, Noel; Bertsch, David; Mwesige, Joseph

    2017-11-08

    Failure to thrive (FTT) is a state of overall decline. Patients often present with weight loss, poor appetite, malnutrition, and decreased physical functioning. The etiology is multifactorial including chronic diseases, functional impairments, and acute illnesses. Evaluation for reversible causes is paramount, and treatment is aimed at maintaining or improving functional status. We present a case of a 91-year-old woman with a retroperitoneal mass that was found on workup for failure to thrive.

  15. Impaired physical function, loss of muscle mass and assessment of biomechanical properties in critical ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jesper Brøndum

    2012-01-01

    Intensive care unit (ICU) admission is associated with muscle weakness and ICU survivors report sustained limitation of physical capacity for years after discharge. Limited information is available on the underlying biomechanical properties responsible for this muscle function impairment. A plaus......Intensive care unit (ICU) admission is associated with muscle weakness and ICU survivors report sustained limitation of physical capacity for years after discharge. Limited information is available on the underlying biomechanical properties responsible for this muscle function impairment....... A plausible contributor to the accentuated catabolic drive in ICU patients is a synergistic response to inflammation and inactivity leading to loss of muscle mass. As these entities are predominantly present in the early phase of ICU stay, interventions employed during this time frame may exhibit the greatest...... potential to counteract loss of muscle mass. Despite the obvious clinical significance of muscle atrophy for the functional impairment observed in ICU survivors, no preventive therapies have been identified as yet. The overall aim of the present dissertation is to characterize aspects of physical function...

  16. Instantons: Dynamical mass generation, chiral ward identities and the topological charge correlation function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, N.A. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Physics)

    1983-01-10

    When dynamical mass generation resulting from the breakdown of chiral symmetry is taken into account, instanton dynamics treated within the dilute gas approximation may satisfy the constraints on the quark condensates and the topological charge correlation function derived by Crewther from an analysis of the chiral Ward identities assuming the absence of a physical axial U(1) Goldstone boson. From a consideration of the contribution of the eta' to the topological charge correlation function, a relationship is derived in which msub(eta')/sup 2/fsub(eta')/sup 2/ is proportional to the vacuum energy density.

  17. A rare pediatric case of grossly dilated ureter presenting as abdominal mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Madhur Kumar; Govindarajan, Krishna Kumar; Chakkalakkoombil, Sunitha Vellathussery; Halanaik, Dhanapathi

    2016-01-01

    Renal masses account for 55% of cases presenting as palpable abdominal mass in children.[1] An eight year male presented with palpable abdominal mass and pain. The patient underwent renal dynamic scan, which raised possibility of left duplex kidney with non-functioning moiety, as the size of left kidney was smaller than seen on Ultrasonography (USG). Magnetic resonance (MR)urography confirmed the findings with patient undergoing left hemi-nephrectomy and is doing well. In case of discrepancy in size of kidney on USG and renal scan, duplex kidney should be considered as differential, other causes being, renal cyst, benign/malignant mass and renal calculi. Gross hydro-ureter presenting as palpable abdominal mass is very rare with few reported cases.[234

  18. CONNECTION BETWEEN DYNAMICALLY DERIVED INITIAL MASS FUNCTION NORMALIZATION AND STELLAR POPULATION PARAMETERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermid, Richard M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia); Cappellari, Michele; Bayet, Estelle; Bureau, Martin; Davies, Roger L. [Sub-Department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Alatalo, Katherine [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Blitz, Leo [Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bois, Maxime [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA and CNRS, 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Bournaud, Frédéric; Duc, Pierre-Alain [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU/SAp- CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Crocker, Alison F. [Ritter Astrophysical Observatory, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Davis, Timothy A.; De Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, Eric; Kuntschner, Harald [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Khochfar, Sadegh [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Krajnović, Davor [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Naab, Thorsten, E-mail: richard.mcdermid@mq.edu.au [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); and others

    2014-09-10

    We report on empirical trends between the dynamically determined stellar initial mass function (IMF) and stellar population properties for a complete, volume-limited sample of 260 early-type galaxies from the ATLAS{sup 3D} project. We study trends between our dynamically derived IMF normalization α{sub dyn} ≡ (M/L){sub stars}/(M/L){sub Salp} and absorption line strengths, and interpret these via single stellar population-equivalent ages, abundance ratios (measured as [α/Fe]), and total metallicity, [Z/H]. We find that old and alpha-enhanced galaxies tend to have on average heavier (Salpeter-like) mass normalization of the IMF, but stellar population does not appear to be a good predictor of the IMF, with a large range of α{sub dyn} at a given population parameter. As a result, we find weak α{sub dyn}-[α/Fe] and α{sub dyn} –Age correlations and no significant α{sub dyn} –[Z/H] correlation. The observed trends appear significantly weaker than those reported in studies that measure the IMF normalization via the low-mass star demographics inferred through stellar spectral analysis.

  19. Accurate donor electron wave functions from a multivalley effective mass theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendo, Luke; Hu, Xuedong

    Multivalley effective mass (MEM) theories combine physical intuition with a marginal need for computational resources, but they tend to be insensitive to variations in the wavefunction. However, recent papers suggest full Bloch functions and suitable central cell donor potential corrections are essential to replicating qualitative and quantitative features of the wavefunction. In this talk, we consider a variational MEM method that can accurately predict both spectrum and wavefunction of isolated phosphorus donors. As per Gamble et. al, we employ a truncated series representation of the Bloch function with a tetrahedrally symmetric central cell correction. We use a dynamic dielectric constant, a feature commonly seen in tight-binding methods. Uniquely, we use a freely extensible basis of either all Slater- or all Gaussian-type functions. With a large basis able to capture the influence of higher energy eigenstates, this method is well positioned to consider the influence of external perturbations, such as electric field or applied strain, on the charge density. This work is supported by the US Army Research Office (W911NF1210609).

  20. Mass psychogenic illness after vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, C John

    2003-01-01

    When vaccines are administered to groups, the physical reactions of the recipients may be similar, causing a form of mass reaction, the mechanism for which is the same as that for mass reactions from other causes. These phenomena have been categorised as mass psychogenic illness (MPI), and have been defined as the collective occurrence of a constellation of symptoms suggestive of organic illness but without an identified cause in a group of people with shared beliefs about the cause of the symptom(s). A review of the literature shows that such outbreaks have been reported in differing cultural and environmental settings including developing and industrialised countries, in the work place, on public transport, in schools, and the military. The perceived threats have been against agents such as food poisoning, fire and toxic gases. Whatever the place or perceived threat, the response seems to be similar. The symptoms generally included headache, dizziness, weakness, and loss of consciousness. Once under way, MPIs are not easy to stop. Incidents reported in the literature show that they can quickly gather momentum and can be amplified by the press who disseminate information rapidly, escalating the events. Management of such mass events can be extremely difficult. Should the public health official in charge continue to try and determine the cause, or should this person call off the entire investigation? It is suggested here that once vaccines are identified as a probable cause of the phenomenon, a dismissive approach may actually be harmful. Unless the spokesperson has already earned a high level of trust, the public are not likely to be convinced easily that nothing was wrong with the vaccine until it has been tested. An increased awareness of MPIs on the part of organisers of future mass vaccination campaigns seems appropriate. Immunisation managers should be aware that mass immunisation campaigns could generate such mass reactions. It is therefore essential that

  1. Arterial spin labeling MR imaging for characterisation of renal masses in patients with impaired renal function: initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrosa, Ivan; Rafatzand, Khashayar; Robson, Philip; Alsop, David C.; Wagner, Andrew A.; Atkins, Michael B.; Rofsky, Neil M.

    2012-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the feasibility of arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of vascularity of renal masses in patients with impaired renal function. Between May 2007 and November 2008, 11/67 consecutive patients referred for MRI evaluation of a renal mass underwent unenhanced ASL-MRI due to moderate-to-severe chronic or acute renal failure. Mean blood flow in vascularised and non-vascularised lesions and the relation between blood flow and final diagnosis of malignancy were correlated with a 2-sided homogeneous variance t-test and the Fisher Exact Test, respectively. A p value 2 (range 7-39). The average blood flow of 11 renal masses interpreted as ASL-positive (134 +/- 85.7 mL/100 g/min) was higher than that of 6 renal masses interpreted as ASL-negative (20.5 +/- 8.1 mL/100 g/min)(p = 0.015). ASL-positivity correlated with malignancy (n = 3) or epithelial atypia (n = 1) at histopathology or progression at follow up (n = 7). ASL detection of vascularity in renal masses in patients with impaired renal function is feasible and seems to indicate neoplasia although the technique requires further evaluation. (orig.)

  2. HEAVY-ELEMENT ENRICHMENT OF A JUPITER-MASS PROTOPLANET AS A FUNCTION OF ORBITAL LOCATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helled, R.; Schubert, G.

    2009-01-01

    One possible mechanism for giant planet formation is disk instability in which the planet is formed as a result of gravitational instability in the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young star. The final composition and core mass of the planet will depend on the planet's mass, environment, and the planetesimal accretion efficiency. We calculate heavy-element enrichment in a Jupiter-mass protoplanet formed by disk instability at various radial distances from the star, considering different disk masses and surface density distributions. Although the available mass for accretion increases with radial distance (a) for disk solid surface density (σ) functions σ = σ 0 a -α with α 5 years of planetary evolution, when the planet is extended and before gap opening and type II migration take place. The accreted mass is calculated for disk masses of 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1 M sun with α = 1/2, 1, and 3/2. We show that a Jupiter-mass protoplanet can accrete 1-110 M + of heavy elements, depending on the disk properties. Due to the limitation on the accretion timescale, our results provide lower bounds on heavy-element enrichment. Our results can explain the large variation in heavy-element enrichment found in extrasolar giant planets. Since higher disk surface density is found to lead to larger heavy-element enrichment, our model results are consistent with the correlation between heavy-element enrichment and stellar metallicity. Our calculations also suggest that Jupiter could have formed at a larger radial distance than its current location while still accreting the mass of heavy elements predicted by interior models. We conclude that in the disk instability model the final composition of a giant planet is strongly determined by its formation environment. The heavy-element abundance of a giant planet does not discriminate between its origin by either disk instability or core accretion.

  3. Association between bone mass as assessed by quantitative ultrasound and physical function in elderly women: The Fujiwara-kyo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Minematsu

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Measurements of physical function can effectively identify elderly women with low bone mass at an early stage without the need for bone mass measurements. In particular, one-leg standing time and 10-m gait time were good predictors of low bone mass, and is easy to measure, low-cost, and can be self-measured. These findings will be helpful in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

  4. On the Mass Distribution of Stellar-Mass Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkov O. Yu.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The observational stellar-mass black hole mass distribution exhibits a maximum at about 8 M⊙. It can be explained via the details of the massive star evolution, supernova explosions, or consequent black hole evolution. We propose another explanation, connected with an underestimated influence of the relation between the initial stellar mass and the compact remnant mass. We show that an unimodal observational mass distribution of black holes can be produced by a power-law initial mass function and a monotonic “remnant mass versus initial mass” relation.

  5. Branchial cysts: an unusual cause of a mediastinal mass: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotecha, Vihar; Muturi, Alex; Ruturi, Josiah

    2015-09-29

    Complex embryological processes form the head and neck of humans. It is not flawless; remnants lead to sinuses or cysts, commonly in the head and neck region. We present the a case of an 8-year-old boy, a primary school pupil, from rural Kenya with chronic cough, wheezing, difficulty in breathing and dyspnea on exertion. He was treated with antibiotics and antitubercular drugs without improvement prior to referral to our hospital. A computed tomography scan of his chest revealed a superior mediastinal mass extending into his neck. A diagnosis of a brachial cleft cyst was made and our patient underwent a successful excision of the mass through a median strenotomy and neck dissection. Branchial cysts of the neck are common, accounting for 20% of pediatric neck masses. Usually they present as a neck mass but in our case it presented as a mediastinal mass, which is a very rare clinical presentation. Surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment. To the surgeon, the embryology and anatomy should be absolutely clear as dissection may be challenging due to the close proximity and variable course of the cystic stalk to major neck vessels and nerves.

  6. Orbital apex cyst: a rare cause of compressive optic neuropathy post-functional endoscopic sinus surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh YN

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Yi Ni Koh,1,2 Shu Fen Ho,2 Letchumanan Pathma,3 Harvinder Singh,3 Embong Zunaina1 1Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, 3Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital Raja Permaisuri Bainun, Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia Abstract: There are various causes that can lead to compressive optic neuropathy. We present here orbital apex cyst as an unusual cause of compressive optic neuropathy in a 49-year-old male. He presented with 2 weeks painless loss of vision in the left eye with left-sided headache. He had had left functional endoscopic sinus surgery for left nasal polyps 4 years earlier. Magnetic resonance imaging of brain and orbit revealed a left discrete orbital nodule, possibly orbital cyst or mucocele, which was compressing on the left optic nerve. Left eye vision improved markedly from hand movement to 6/36 pinhole 6/18 after initiation of intravenous dexamethasone. A subsequent endoscopic endonasal left optic nerve decompression found the orbital nodule lesion to be an orbital cyst. Marsupialization was performed instead of excision, as the cyst ruptured intraoperatively. Postoperative vision improved to 6/7.5 with normal optic nerve function postoperatively. Possible cause of orbital apex cyst is discussed. Keywords: orbital cyst, compressive optic neuropathy, functional endoscopic sinus surgery

  7. Mass of the spirals galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maupome, L; Pismis, P; Aguilar, L [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City. Inst. de Astronomia

    1981-01-01

    In an earlier paper we have found that the total mass of galaxies-especially of the spirals-based on values published until 1975, decreased as the Hubble type varied from Sa through Sc and Irregulars. It was also pointed out that masses determined from the hydrogen 21-cm line were higher than the optically determined masses. To investigate the cause of these tendencies we have estimated the masses using an analytic rotation curve of Brandt adjusted to the optical observations in order to include all the mass of a galaxy up to the last observed point. Although the masses computed in this manner were found to be larger, as expected, the decrease of mass with Hubble type found earlier is confirmed. However, there is a discrepancy in the earlier types (Sa, Sab) in that their radio-masses are smaller than the optically determined ones. At present, the cause of this is not clear.

  8. STELLAR POPULATIONS IN THE CENTRAL 0.5 pc OF THE GALAXY. II. THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, J. R. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Do, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Ghez, A. M.; Morris, M. R.; Yelda, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Matthews, K., E-mail: jlu@ifa.hawaii.edu, E-mail: tuan.do@uci.edu, E-mail: ghez@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: morris@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: kym@caltech.edu [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 301-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    The supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way plays host to a massive, young cluster that may have formed in one of the most inhospitable environments in the Galaxy. We present new measurements of the global properties of this cluster, including the initial mass function (IMF), age, and cluster mass. These results are based on Keck laser-guide-star adaptive optics observations used to identify the young stars and measure their Kp-band luminosity function as presented in Do et al. A Bayesian inference methodology is developed to simultaneously fit the global properties of the cluster utilizing the observations and extensive simulations of synthetic star clusters. We find that the slope of the mass function for this cluster is {alpha} = 1.7 {+-} 0.2, which is steeper than previously reported, but still flatter than the traditional Salpeter slope of 2.35. The age of the cluster is between 2.5 and 5.8 Myr with 95% confidence, which is a younger age than typically adopted but consistent within the uncertainties of past measurements. The exact age of the cluster is difficult to determine since our results show two distinct age solutions (3.9 Myr and 2.8 Myr) due to model degeneracies in the relative number of Wolf-Rayet and OB stars. The total cluster mass is between 14,000 and 37,000 M {sub Sun} above 1 M {sub Sun} and it is necessary to include multiple star systems in order to fit the observed luminosity function and the number of observed Wolf-Rayet stars. The new IMF slope measurement is now consistent with X-ray observations indicating a factor of 10 fewer X-ray emitting pre-main-sequence stars than expected when compared with a Salpeter IMF. The young cluster at the Galactic center is one of the few definitive examples of an IMF that deviates significantly from the near-universal IMFs found in the solar neighborhood.

  9. A PHYSICAL MODEL FOR THE 0 {approx}< z {approx}< 8 REDSHIFT EVOLUTION OF THE GALAXY ULTRAVIOLET LUMINOSITY AND STELLAR MASS FUNCTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tacchella, Sandro; Carollo, C. Marcella [Department of Physics, Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Trenti, Michele, E-mail: tasandro@phys.ethz.ch [Kavli Institute for Cosmology and Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-10

    We present a model to understand the redshift evolution of the UV luminosity and stellar mass functions of Lyman break galaxies. Our approach is based on the assumption that the luminosity and stellar mass of a galaxy is related to its dark-matter (DM) halo assembly and gas infall rate. Specifically, galaxies experience a burst of star formation at the halo assembly time, followed by a constant star formation rate, representing a secular star formation activity sustained by steady gas accretion. Star formation from steady gas accretion is the dominant contribution to the galaxy UV luminosity at all redshifts. The model is calibrated by constructing a galaxy luminosity versus halo mass relation at z = 4 via abundance matching. After this luminosity calibration, the model naturally fits the z = 4 stellar mass function, and correctly predicts the evolution of both luminosity and stellar mass functions from z = 0 to z = 8. While the details of star formation efficiency and feedback are hidden within our calibrated luminosity versus halo mass relation, our study highlights that the primary driver of galaxy evolution across cosmic time is the buildup of DM halos, without the need to invoke a redshift-dependent efficiency in converting gas into stars.

  10. FURTHER DEFINING SPECTRAL TYPE 'Y' AND EXPLORING THE LOW-MASS END OF THE FIELD BROWN DWARF MASS FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davy Kirkpatrick, J.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Cushing, Michael C.; Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L.; McLean, Ian S.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Mainzer, Amanda K.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Tinney, C. G.; Parker, Stephen; Salter, Graeme

    2012-01-01

    We present the discovery of another seven Y dwarfs from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using these objects, as well as the first six WISE Y dwarf discoveries from Cushing et al., we further explore the transition between spectral types T and Y. We find that the T/Y boundary roughly coincides with the spot where the J – H colors of brown dwarfs, as predicted by models, turn back to the red. Moreover, we use preliminary trigonometric parallax measurements to show that the T/Y boundary may also correspond to the point at which the absolute H (1.6 μm) and W2 (4.6 μm) magnitudes plummet. We use these discoveries and their preliminary distances to place them in the larger context of the solar neighborhood. We present a table that updates the entire stellar and substellar constituency within 8 pc of the Sun, and we show that the current census has hydrogen-burning stars outnumbering brown dwarfs by roughly a factor of six. This factor will decrease with time as more brown dwarfs are identified within this volume, but unless there is a vast reservoir of cold brown dwarfs invisible to WISE, the final space density of brown dwarfs is still expected to fall well below that of stars. We also use these new Y dwarf discoveries, along with newly discovered T dwarfs from WISE, to investigate the field substellar mass function. We find that the overall space density of late-T and early-Y dwarfs matches that from simulations describing the mass function as a power law with slope –0.5 < α < 0.0; however, a power law may provide a poor fit to the observed object counts as a function of spectral type because there are tantalizing hints that the number of brown dwarfs continues to rise from late-T to early-Y. More detailed monitoring and characterization of these Y dwarfs, along with dedicated searches aimed at identifying more examples, are certainly required.

  11. Geographic origin as a determinant of left ventricular mass and diastolic function - the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vähämurto, L; Juonala, M; Ruohonen, S; Hutri-Kähönen, N; Kähönen, M; Laitinen, T; Tossavainen, P; Jokinen, E; Viikari, J; Raitakari, O T; Pahkala, K

    2018-03-01

    Eastern Finns have higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and carotid intima-media thickness than western Finns although current differences in CHD risk factors are minimal. Left ventricular (LV) mass and diastolic function predict future cardiovascular events but their east-west differences are unknown. We examined the association of eastern/western baseline origin with LV mass and diastolic function. The study population included 2045 subjects of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study with data from the baseline survey (1980) and the latest follow-up (2011) when echocardiography was performed at the age of 34-49 years. Subjects with eastern baseline origin had in 2011 higher LV mass (139±1.0 vs. 135±1.0 g, p=0.006) and E/e'-ratio indicating weaker LV diastolic function (4.86±0.03 vs. 4.74±0.03, p=0.02) than western subjects. Results were independent of age, sex, area of examination and CHD risk factors such as blood pressure and BMI (LV mass indexed with height: porigin (135±0.9 vs. 131±0.9 ml, p=0.0011) but left atrial end-systolic volume, also indicating LV diastolic function, was not different between eastern and western subjects (43.4±0.5 vs. 44.0±0.5 ml, p=0.45). Most of the subjects were well within the normal limits of these echocardiographic measurements. In our healthy middle-aged population, geographic origin in eastern Finland associated with higher LV mass compared to western Finland. Higher E/e'-ratio suggests that subjects with eastern baseline origin might have higher prevalence of diastolic dysfunction in the future than western subjects.

  12. Body Mass Index (BMI) and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The BMI and All-Cause Mortality Pooling Project quantified the risk associated with being overweight and the extent to which the relationship between BMI and all-cause mortality varies by certain factors.

  13. Mesenteric plasmacytoma: An unusual cause of an abdominal mass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 69-year-old HIV-positive man who was not on antiretroviral therapy and had an absolute CD4+ count of 632 cells/μl ... There were no lytic lesions in the spine or pelvis, and no clinical or radiological signs of ... by tumour mass invasion include bone pain and spinal cord compression. Hypercalcaemia is a common ...

  14. Study of mechanism of cancer caused by carcinogenic substances with accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shan; He Ming; Wu Shaoyong; You Qubo; Xu Guoji; Wang Qien; Liu Shijie

    2001-01-01

    Full text: It is reported that most of the cancerous patients were caused by cancerogenic substances. The research in recent years shows that carcinogenesis is related with Ca in the cells. In normal cells, the level of free Ca 2+ is very stable, the Ca 2+ as messenger plays an important role to keep normal function of cells. However, the level of free Ca 2+ in cells increases when the cells are exposed to cancerogenic substances such as cigarette smoking solution and chrysotile. But where do the increased Ca 2+ come from? There are three possibilities: 1) from outside of cell membrane; 2) from inside of nucleus; or 3) from both outside and inside of cells. By using external cultivation of cells 41 Ca as tracer and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) as measurement method, we investigate the origin of the increased Ca 2+ when the cells are exposed to cigarette smoking solution or chrysoltile is being undertaken. Several results as below have been gotten. 1. 41 Ca synthesis. A high purification of isotope of 40 Ca (99.95%) in form of CaO was irradiated by thermal neutron with a heavy water reactor at the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The irradiation time and neutron flux were 988h and 4.9x10 13 , respectively. A 41 Ca/ 40 Ca ratio of 7x10 -5 was obtained. The conversion efficiency of Ca metal to CaH 2 was 80% to 90%. 2. CaH 2 sample preparation. There are two steps for CaH 2 sample preparation in AMS measurement. In the first step, CaO is reduced to metallic calcium via vacuum distillation and in the second, the CaO is converted into a hybrid. 3. 41 Ca AMS measurement. The first 41 Ca AMS measurement was performed with Hl-13 tandem AMS system in the CIAE. By using a 41 Ca blank sample, 30 nA of CaH 3 - ions from ion source can be obtained. Ions were accelerated with a terminal voltage of 7.8 and Ca 8+ (E=69.7 MeV) ions were selected. From the measurement, a 41 Ca/ 40 Ca ratio of about 10 -14 was deduced. (author)

  15. Body mass index and its correlation with pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis from Cartagena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Mora García

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sinus-pulmonary manifestations are a major concern in CF patients. Pulmonary function shows a strong relationship with nutritional status. In Colombia, malnutrition is a public health issue; however there are no reports that fully analyze nutritional status and lung function in CF children. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was developed conducted with 32 patients registered in the CF Attention Program. Measurements were performed following the NIOSH Spirometry Training Guide. Body Mass Index (Z-Score was calculated according to Onis.et.al. Correlation was determined by a regression model. Results. 14 children were able to perform the test with criteria for the study, mean for age 12.4 ± 3.4 years. % Forced Expiratory Volume1 and % Forced Vital Capacity means were 66.7 ± 28.5 and 69.5 ± 2.0, respectively. Body Mass Index (Z-score mean was -1.17. BMIregression for % Forced Expiratory Volume1, r2=0.31(P<0.01; % Forced Vital Capacity, r2=0.22(P<.01. Conclusions. Results demonstrated a correlation between Body Mass Index and Lung Function. This correlation persists, even in populations with notorious nutritional deficit such as this group. Special nutritional therapies should be implemented for this group and similar populations.

  16. Thyrotoxicosis caused by functioning metastatic thyroid carcinoma. A rare and elusive cause of hyperthyroidism with low radioactive iodine uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ober, K.P.; Cowan, R.J.; Sevier, R.E.; Poole, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    A patient with progressively worsening thyrotoxicosis, refractory to medical therapy, is described. Repeated measurements of thyroidal RAI uptake over a 13 month period were low consistently and could not be explained by iodine ingestion, thyroiditis, or administration of exogenous thyroid hormone. An I-131 scan ultimately revealed striking activity at the base of the skull, reflecting ectopic excessive production of thyroid hormone by a solitary functioning metastatic thyroid carcinoma. The thyrotoxic state resolved after large doses of therapeutic I-131. Typical features of this rare cause of hyperthyroidism are discussed

  17. Subaru weak-lensing survey of dark matter subhalos in the Coma cluster: Subhalo mass function and statistical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabe, Nobuhiro; Futamase, Toshifumi; Kuroshima, Risa; Kajisawa, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    We present a 4 deg 2 weak gravitational lensing survey of subhalos in the very nearby Coma cluster using the Subaru/Suprime-Cam. The large apparent size of cluster subhalos allows us to measure the mass of 32 subhalos detected in a model-independent manner, down to the order of 10 –3 of the virial mass of the cluster. Weak-lensing mass measurements of these shear-selected subhalos enable us to investigate subhalo properties and the correlation between subhalo masses and galaxy luminosities for the first time. The mean distortion profiles stacked over subhalos show a sharply truncated feature which is well-fitted by a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) mass model with the truncation radius, as expected due to tidal destruction by the main cluster. We also found that subhalo masses, truncation radii, and mass-to-light ratios decrease toward the cluster center. The subhalo mass function, dn/dln M sub , in the range of 2 orders of magnitude in mass, is well described by a single power law or a Schechter function. Best-fit power indices of 1.09 −0.32 +0.42 for the former model and 0.99 −0.23 +0.34 for the latter, are in remarkable agreement with slopes of ∼0.9-1.0 predicted by the cold dark matter paradigm. The tangential distortion signals in the radial range of 0.02-2 h –1 Mpc from the cluster center show a complex structure which is well described by a composition of three mass components of subhalos, the NFW mass distribution as a smooth component of the main cluster, and a lensing model from a large scale structure behind the cluster. Although the lensing signals are 1 order of magnitude lower than those for clusters at z ∼ 0.2, the total signal-to-noise ratio, S/N = 13.3, is comparable, or higher, because the enormous number of background source galaxies compensates for the low lensing efficiency of the nearby cluster.

  18. Low Body Mass Index, Serum Creatinine, and Cause of Death in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Kashish; Gulati, Rajiv; Reeder, Guy S; Lennon, Ryan J; Lewis, Bradley R; Behfar, Atta; Sandhu, Gurpreet S; Rihal, Charanjit S; Singh, Mandeep

    2016-10-31

    Low body mass index (BMI) and serum creatinine are surrogate markers of frailty and sarcopenia. Their relationship with cause-specific mortality in elderly patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention is not well studied. We determined long-term cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality in 9394 consecutive patients aged ≥65 years who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention from 2000 to 2011. BMI and serum creatinine were divided into 4 categories. During a median follow-up of 4.2 years (interquartile range 1.8-7.3 years), 3243 patients (33.4%) died. In the multivariable model, compared with patients with normal BMI, patients with low BMI had significantly increased all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7), which was related to both cardiovascular causes (HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.8) and noncardiovascular causes (HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.06-1.9). Compared with normal BMI, significant reduction was noted in patients who were overweight and obese in terms of cardiovascular mortality (overweight: HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.67-0.88; obese: HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.70-0.93) and noncardiovascular mortality (overweight: HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74-0.97; obese: HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.72-0.95). In a multivariable model, in patients with normal BMI, low creatinine (≤0.70 mg/dL) was significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.5) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.4-3.8) compared with patients with normal creatinine (0.71-1.0 mg/dL); however, this was not observed in other BMI categories. We identified a new subgroup of patients with low serum creatinine and normal BMI that was associated with increased all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality in elderly patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Low BMI was associated with increased cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality. Nutritional support, resistance training, and weight-gain strategies may have potential roles for these patients undergoing

  19. Charmed-meson fragmentation functions with finite-mass corrections and their application in various processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneesch, Torben

    2010-12-15

    We have calculated the single-inclusive production cross section of massive quarks in electron-positron-annihilation with next-to-leading order QCD corrections. With these results we have extracted fragmentation functions for the fragmentation from partons into D{sup 0}, D{sup +} and D{sup *} mesons, where we have used experimental data from the B factories Belle and CLEO and from the ALEPH and OPAL experiments at the LEP collider. In our analysis we have included the masses of c and b quarks and of the D mesons and tested the evolution of fragmentation functions with a global fit spanning the B factories' center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=10.5 GeV to LEP's run at the Z boson resonance at M{sub Z}. We have applied this fragmentation functions in deep inelastic scattering for comparisons with HERA data using parton cross sections from the literature available in program form. We have then modified this cross section to calculate predictions for deep inelastic two-photon-scattering. By applying the Weizsaecker-Williams spectrum on the real photon we have calculated predictions for LEP1, LEP2 and the future ILC experiments. For ILC we have also included a beamstrahlung spectrum. Finally we have calculated production cross sections for the planned e{gamma} mode of the ILC with the help of a Compton spectrum. (orig.)

  20. Cardiovascular Disease and Thyroid Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Jens; Selmer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones at the ce......Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones...... at the cellular level. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with increased left ventricular mass of the heart, which reverts after obtaining euthyroidism. Mortality and risk of major cardiovascular events are increased. Subclinical hypothyroidism is also associated with subtle changes in the heart, e.g. its...

  1. Mesenteric lipoma causing recurrent intestinal obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-12

    Jan 12, 2013 ... vomiting, constipation, and central abdominal mass. ... Mesenteric lipoma may cause abdominal pain by complete intestinal .... Kaniklides C, Frykberg T, Lundkvist K. Pediatric mesenteric lipoma: An unusual cause of repeated ...

  2. Signalling pathways regulating muscle mass in ageing skeletal muscle. The role of the IGF1-Akt-mTOR-FoxO pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandri, M.; Barberi, L.; Bijlsma, A.Y.; Blaauw, B.; Dyar, K.A.; Milan, G.; Mammucari, C.; Meskers, C.G.M.; Pallafacchina, G.; Paoli, A.; Pion, D.; Roceri, M.; Romanello, V.; Serrano, A.L.; Toniolo, L.; Larsson, L.; Maier, A.B.; Munoz-Canoves, P.; Musaro, A.; Pende, M.; Reggiani, C.; Rizzuto, R.; Schiaffino, S.

    2013-01-01

    During ageing skeletal muscles undergo a process of structural and functional remodelling that leads to sarcopenia, a syndrome characterized by loss of muscle mass and force and a major cause of physical frailty. To determine the causes of sarcopenia and identify potential targets for interventions

  3. Low-momentum ghost dressing function and the gluon mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucaud, Ph.; Leroy, J. P.; Le Yaouanc, A.; Micheli, J.; Pene, O.; Gomez, M. E.; Rodriguez-Quintero, J.

    2010-01-01

    We study the low-momentum ghost propagator Dyson-Schwinger equation in the Landau gauge, assuming for the truncation a constant ghost-gluon vertex, as it is extensively done, and a simple model for a massive gluon propagator. Then, regular Dyson-Schwinger equation solutions (the zero-momentum ghost dressing function not diverging) appear to emerge, and we show the ghost propagator to be described by an asymptotic expression reliable up to the order O(q 2 ). That expression, depending on the gluon mass and the zero-momentum Taylor-scheme effective charge, is proven to fit pretty well some low-momentum ghost propagator data [I. L. Bogolubsky, E. M. Ilgenfritz, M. Muller-Preussker, and A. Sternbeck, Phys. Lett. B 676, 69 (2009); Proc. Sci., LAT2007 (2007) 290] from big-volume lattice simulations where the so-called ''simulated annealing algorithm'' is applied to fix the Landau gauge.

  4. FoxO1 gain of function in the pancreas causes glucose intolerance, polycystic pancreas, and islet hypervascularization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Kikuchi

    Full Text Available Genetic studies revealed that the ablation of insulin/IGF-1 signaling in the pancreas causes diabetes. FoxO1 is a downstream transcription factor of insulin/IGF-1 signaling. We previously reported that FoxO1 haploinsufficiency restored β cell mass and rescued diabetes in IRS2 knockout mice. However, it is still unclear whether FoxO1 dysregulation in the pancreas could be the cause of diabetes. To test this hypothesis, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing constitutively active FoxO1 specifically in the pancreas (TG. TG mice had impaired glucose tolerance and some of them indeed developed diabetes due to the reduction of β cell mass, which is associated with decreased Pdx1 and MafA in β cells. We also observed increased proliferation of pancreatic duct epithelial cells in TG mice and some mice developed a polycystic pancreas as they aged. Furthermore, TG mice exhibited islet hypervascularities due to increased VEGF-A expression in β cells. We found FoxO1 binds to the VEGF-A promoter and regulates VEGF-A transcription in β cells. We propose that dysregulation of FoxO1 activity in the pancreas could account for the development of diabetes and pancreatic cysts.

  5. Left ventricular dimensions, systolic functions, and mass in term neonates with symmetric and asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinar, Bahar; Sert, Ahmet; Gokmen, Zeynel; Aypar, Ebru; Aslan, Eyup; Odabas, Dursun

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated structural changes in the heart and cardiac dysfunction in foetuses with intrauterine growth restriction. There are no available data that evaluated left ventricular dimensions and mass in neonates with symmetric and asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate left ventricular dimensions, systolic functions, and mass in neonates with symmetric and asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction. We also assessed associated maternal risk factors, and compared results with healthy appropriate for gestational age neonates. In all, 62 asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction neonates, 39 symmetric intrauterine growth restriction neonates, and 50 healthy appropriate for gestational age neonates were evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography. The asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction group had significantly lower left ventricular end-systolic and end-diastolic diameters and posterior wall diameter in systole and diastole than the control group. The symmetric intrauterine growth restriction group had significantly lower left ventricular end-diastolic diameter than the control group. All left ventricular dimensions were lower in the asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction neonates compared with symmetric intrauterine growth restriction neonates (p>0.05), but not statistically significant except left ventricular posterior wall diameter in diastole (3.08±0.83 mm versus 3.54 ±0.72 mm) (pintrauterine growth restriction groups had significantly lower relative posterior wall thickness (0.54±0.19 versus 0.48±0.13 versus 0.8±0.12), left ventricular mass (9.8±4.3 g versus 8.9±3.4 g versus 22.2±5.7 g), and left ventricular mass index (63.6±29.1 g/m2 versus 54.5±24.4 g/m2 versus 109±28.8 g/m2) when compared with the control group. Our study has demonstrated that although neonates with both symmetric and asymmetric intrauterine growth restriction had lower left ventricular dimensions, relative

  6. Muscle quality, aerobic fitness and fat mass predict lower-extremity physical function in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misic, Mark M; Rosengren, Karl S; Woods, Jeffrey A; Evans, Ellen M

    2007-01-01

    Muscle mass, strength and fitness play a role in lower-extremity physical function (LEPF) in older adults; however, the relationships remain inadequately characterized. This study aimed to examine the relationships between leg mineral free lean mass (MFLM(LEG)), leg muscle quality (leg strength normalized for MFLM(LEG)), adiposity, aerobic fitness and LEPF in community-dwelling healthy elderly subjects. Fifty-five older adults (69.3 +/- 5.5 years, 36 females, 19 males) were assessed for leg strength using an isokinetic dynamometer, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and aerobic fitness via a treadmill maximal oxygen consumption test. LEPF was assessed using computerized dynamic posturography and stair ascent/descent, a timed up-and-go task and a 7-meter walk with and without an obstacle. Muscle strength, muscle quality and aerobic fitness were similarly correlated with static LEPF tests (r range 0.27-0.40, p < 0.05); however, the strength of the independent predictors was not robust with explained variance ranging from 9 to 16%. Muscle quality was the strongest correlate of all dynamic LEPF tests (r range 0.54-0.65, p < 0.001). Using stepwise linear regression analysis, muscle quality was the strongest independent predictor of dynamic physical function explaining 29-42% of the variance (p < 0.001), whereas aerobic fitness or body fat mass explained 5-6% of the variance (p < 0.05) depending on performance measure. Muscle quality is the most important predictor, and aerobic fitness and fat mass are secondary predictors of LEPF in community-dwelling older adults. These findings support the importance of exercise, especially strength training, for optimal body composition, and maintenance of strength and physical function in older adults.

  7. Lean body mass and muscle function in head and neck cancer patients and healthy individuals - results from the DAHANCA 25 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønbro, Simon; Dalgas, Ulrik; Primdahl, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introduction. Loss of lean body mass is common following radiotherapy in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and may reduce maximal muscle strength and functional performance. However, the associations between lean body mass, muscle strength and functional...... m max gait speed, 30 s chair rise, 30 s arm curl, stair climb) from HNSCC patients from the DAHANCA 25 trials and data from 24 healthy individuals were included. Results. Lean body mass and maximal muscle strength were significantly associated according to the gender and age-adjusted linear...... regression model (p regression analyses showed that HNSCC patients expressed significant lower levels of the investigated variables after radiotherapy...

  8. Arterial spin labeling MR imaging for characterisation of renal masses in patients with impaired renal function: initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa, Ivan [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States); Rafatzand, Khashayar; Robson, Philip; Alsop, David C. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Wagner, Andrew A. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Surgery, Division of Urology, Boston, MA (United States); Atkins, Michael B. [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Hematology/Oncology, Boston, MA (United States); Rofsky, Neil M. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Departments of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2012-02-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the feasibility of arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of vascularity of renal masses in patients with impaired renal function. Between May 2007 and November 2008, 11/67 consecutive patients referred for MRI evaluation of a renal mass underwent unenhanced ASL-MRI due to moderate-to-severe chronic or acute renal failure. Mean blood flow in vascularised and non-vascularised lesions and the relation between blood flow and final diagnosis of malignancy were correlated with a 2-sided homogeneous variance t-test and the Fisher Exact Test, respectively. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Seventeen renal lesions were evaluated in 11 patients (8 male; mean age = 70 years) (range 57-86). The median eGFR was 24 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2} (range 7-39). The average blood flow of 11 renal masses interpreted as ASL-positive (134 +/- 85.7 mL/100 g/min) was higher than that of 6 renal masses interpreted as ASL-negative (20.5 +/- 8.1 mL/100 g/min)(p = 0.015). ASL-positivity correlated with malignancy (n = 3) or epithelial atypia (n = 1) at histopathology or progression at follow up (n = 7). ASL detection of vascularity in renal masses in patients with impaired renal function is feasible and seems to indicate neoplasia although the technique requires further evaluation. (orig.)

  9. Glimpsing the imprint of local environment on the galaxy stellar mass function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Adam R.; Lemaux, Brian C.; Lubin, Lori M.; Gal, Roy R.; Wu, Po-Feng; Holden, Bradford; Kocevski, Dale D.; Mei, Simona; Pelliccia, Debora; Rumbaugh, Nicholas; Shen, Lu

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the impact of local environment on the galaxy stellar mass function (SMF) spanning a wide range of galaxy densities from the field up to dense cores of massive galaxy clusters. Data are drawn from a sample of eight fields from the Observations of Redshift Evolution in Large-Scale Environments (ORELSE) survey. Deep photometry allow us to select mass-complete samples of galaxies down to 109 M⊙. Taking advantage of >4000 secure spectroscopic redshifts from ORELSE and precise photometric redshifts, we construct three-dimensional density maps between 0.55 environmental dependence in the SMFs of star-forming and quiescent galaxies, although not quite as strongly for the quiescent subsample. To characterize the connection between the SMF of field galaxies and that of denser environments, we devise a simple semi-empirical model. The model begins with a sample of ≈106 galaxies at zstart = 5 with stellar masses distributed according to the field. Simulated galaxies then evolve down to zfinal = 0.8 following empirical prescriptions for star-formation, quenching and galaxy-galaxy merging. We run the simulation multiple times, testing a variety of scenarios with differing overall amounts of merging. Our model suggests that a large number of mergers are required to reproduce the SMF in dense environments. Additionally, a large majority of these mergers would have to occur in intermediate density environments (e.g. galaxy groups).

  10. Standard dose 131I therapy for hyperthyroidism caused by autonomously functioning thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fui, S.C.N.T.; Maisey, M.N.

    1979-01-01

    Thirty-one patients with hyperthyroidism shown on scintigrams to have autonomously functioning thyroid nodules were treated with a standard dose of 15mCi of 131 I. Of thirty patients who have been followed up for at least 6 months to over 3 years, all but one patient were euthyroid after a single dose. Repeat scintigram and Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone test after therapy confirmed that twenty-five patients were cured of the disease. Only one patient developed hypothyroidism. This simplified dose regimen of radioiodine is effective in the treatment of hyperthyroidism caused by autonomously functioning nodules and is not complicated by the high incidence of hyperthyroidism that is observed following radioiodine therapy of Grave's disease. (author)

  11. The effects of dietary protein intake on appendicular lean mass and muscle function in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Cameron J; Milan, Amber M; Mitchell, Sarah M

    2017-01-01

    Background: The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for protein intake in the adult population is widely promoted as 0.8 g · kg-1 · d-1 Aging may increase protein requirements, particularly to maintain muscle mass.Objective: We investigated whether controlled protein consumption at the current RDA...... or twice the RDA (2RDA) affects skeletal muscle mass and physical function in elderly men.Design: In this parallel-group randomized trial, 29 men aged >70 y [mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m2): 28.3 ± 4.2] were provided with a complete diet containing either 0.8 (RDA) or 1.6 (2RDA) g protein · kg-1 · d-1...... energy balance (mean ± SD RDA: 209 ± 213 kcal/d; 2RDA 145 ± 214 kcal/d; P= 0.427 for difference between the groups). In comparison with RDA, whole-body lean mass increased in 2RDA (P = 0.001; 1.49 ± 1.30 kg, P

  12. Gender-specific association between dietary acid load and total lean body mass and its dependency on protein intake in seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Sarcopenia, the age-related decline of muscle mass, is one of the most important causes of loss of physical function and falls in seniors. Causes of sarcopenia are multiple, but there is evidence that diet-related mild metabolic acidosis may play a role in the development of skeletal mus...

  13. Subaru Weak-lensing Survey of Dark Matter Subhalos in the Coma Cluster: Subhalo Mass Function and Statistical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Nobuhiro; Futamase, Toshifumi; Kajisawa, Masaru; Kuroshima, Risa

    2014-04-01

    We present a 4 deg2 weak gravitational lensing survey of subhalos in the very nearby Coma cluster using the Subaru/Suprime-Cam. The large apparent size of cluster subhalos allows us to measure the mass of 32 subhalos detected in a model-independent manner, down to the order of 10-3 of the virial mass of the cluster. Weak-lensing mass measurements of these shear-selected subhalos enable us to investigate subhalo properties and the correlation between subhalo masses and galaxy luminosities for the first time. The mean distortion profiles stacked over subhalos show a sharply truncated feature which is well-fitted by a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) mass model with the truncation radius, as expected due to tidal destruction by the main cluster. We also found that subhalo masses, truncation radii, and mass-to-light ratios decrease toward the cluster center. The subhalo mass function, dn/dln M sub, in the range of 2 orders of magnitude in mass, is well described by a single power law or a Schechter function. Best-fit power indices of 1.09^{+0.42}_{-0.32} for the former model and 0.99_{-0.23}^{+0.34} for the latter, are in remarkable agreement with slopes of ~0.9-1.0 predicted by the cold dark matter paradigm. The tangential distortion signals in the radial range of 0.02-2 h -1 Mpc from the cluster center show a complex structure which is well described by a composition of three mass components of subhalos, the NFW mass distribution as a smooth component of the main cluster, and a lensing model from a large scale structure behind the cluster. Although the lensing signals are 1 order of magnitude lower than those for clusters at z ~ 0.2, the total signal-to-noise ratio, S/N = 13.3, is comparable, or higher, because the enormous number of background source galaxies compensates for the low lensing efficiency of the nearby cluster. Based on data collected from the Subaru Telescope and obtained from SMOKA, operated by the Astronomy Data Center, National Astronomical Observatory of

  14. Wave function, spectrum and effective mass of holes in 2 D quantum antiferromagnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhao-bin; Ll, Yan-min; Lai, Wu-yan; Yu, Lu

    1989-12-01

    A new quantum Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdeG) formalism is developed to study the self-consistent motion of holes on an quantum antiferromagnetic (QAFM) background within the generalized t- J model. The local distortion of spin configurations and the renormalization of the hole motion due to virtual excitations of the distorted spin background are treated on an equal footing. The hole wave function and its spectrum, as well as the effective mass for a propagating hole are calculated explicitly.

  15. Functional divergence caused by ancient positive selection of a Drosophila hybrid incompatibility locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Barbash

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific hybrid lethality and sterility are a consequence of divergent evolution between species and serve to maintain the discrete identities of species. The evolution of hybrid incompatibilities has been described in widely accepted models by Dobzhansky and Muller where lineage-specific functional divergence is the essential characteristic of hybrid incompatibility genes. Experimentally tractable models are required to identify and test candidate hybrid incompatibility genes. Several Drosophila melanogaster genes involved in hybrid incompatibility have been identified but none has yet been shown to have functionally diverged in accordance with the Dobzhansky-Muller model. By introducing transgenic copies of the X-linked Hybrid male rescue (Hmr gene into D. melanogaster from its sibling species D. simulans and D. mauritiana, we demonstrate that Hmr has functionally diverged to cause F1 hybrid incompatibility between these species. Consistent with the Dobzhansky-Muller model, we find that Hmr has diverged extensively in the D. melanogaster lineage, but we also find extensive divergence in the sibling-species lineage. Together, these findings implicate over 13% of the amino acids encoded by Hmr as candidates for causing hybrid incompatibility. The exceptional level of divergence at Hmr cannot be explained by neutral processes because we use phylogenetic methods and population genetic analyses to show that the elevated amino-acid divergence in both lineages is due to positive selection in the distant past-at least one million generations ago. Our findings suggest that multiple substitutions driven by natural selection may be a general phenomenon required to generate hybrid incompatibility alleles.

  16. Next-to leading order analysis of target mass corrections to structure functions and asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, L.T.; Accardi, A.; Hobbs, T.J.; Melnitchouk, W.

    2011-01-01

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of target mass corrections (TMCs) to spin-averaged structure functions and asymmetries at next-to-leading order. Several different prescriptions for TMCs are considered, including the operator product expansion, and various approximations to it, collinear factorization, and xi-scaling. We assess the impact of each of these on a number of observables, such as the neutron to proton F 2 structure function ratio, and parity-violating electron scattering asymmetries for protons and deuterons which are sensitive to gamma-Z interference effects. The corrections from higher order radiative and nuclear effects on the parity-violating deuteron asymmetry are also quantified.

  17. The Seven Sisters DANCe. I. Empirical isochrones, luminosity, and mass functions of the Pleiades cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouy, H.; Bertin, E.; Sarro, L. M.; Barrado, D.; Moraux, E.; Bouvier, J.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Berihuete, A.; Olivares, J.; Beletsky, Y.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The DANCe survey provides photometric and astrometric (position and proper motion) measurements for approximately 2 million unique sources in a region encompassing ~80 deg2 centered on the Pleiades cluster. Aims: We aim at deriving a complete census of the Pleiades and measure the mass and luminosity functions of the cluster. Methods: Using the probabilistic selection method previously described, we identified high probability members in the DANCe (i ≥ 14 mag) and Tycho-2 (V ≲ 12 mag) catalogues and studied the properties of the cluster over the corresponding luminosity range. Results: We find a total of 2109 high-probability members, of which 812 are new, making it the most extensive and complete census of the cluster to date. The luminosity and mass functions of the cluster are computed from the most massive members down to ~0.025 M⊙. The size, sensitivity, and quality of the sample result in the most precise luminosity and mass functions observed to date for a cluster. Conclusions: Our census supersedes previous studies of the Pleiades cluster populations, in terms of both sensitivity and accuracy. Based on service observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.Table 1 and Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgDANCe catalogs (Tables 6 and 7) and full Tables 2-5 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A148

  18. A rare cause of glans penis masses in childhood: Fibroepithelial polyp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şencan, Arzu; Şencan, Aydın; Günşar, Cüneyt; Çayırlı, Hasan; Neşe, Nalan

    2015-01-01

    Fibroepithelial polyps of glans penis are very rarely seen in childhood. A 6-month-old male admitted to our institution with a slowly enlarging glans penis mass on the ventral side of the glans penis. The mass was totally excised, and hystopathological diagnosis was a fibroepithelial polyp. All of the reported cases published previously, except one, are of adult age and all of them have been associated with the history of long-term condom catheter use. The presence of the case in childhood; however, suggests that the pathology might be congenital. This is the second pediatric case presented in the English literature. PMID:25552832

  19. CLASSIFYING BENIGN AND MALIGNANT MASSES USING STATISTICAL MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Surendiran

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the primary and most common disease found in women which causes second highest rate of death after lung cancer. The digital mammogram is the X-ray of breast captured for the analysis, interpretation and diagnosis. According to Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS benign and malignant can be differentiated using its shape, size and density, which is how radiologist visualize the mammograms. According to BIRADS mass shape characteristics, benign masses tend to have round, oval, lobular in shape and malignant masses are lobular or irregular in shape. Measuring regular and irregular shapes mathematically is found to be a difficult task, since there is no single measure to differentiate various shapes. In this paper, the malignant and benign masses present in mammogram are classified using Hue, Saturation and Value (HSV weight function based statistical measures. The weight function is robust against noise and captures the degree of gray content of the pixel. The statistical measures use gray weight value instead of gray pixel value to effectively discriminate masses. The 233 mammograms from the Digital Database for Screening Mammography (DDSM benchmark dataset have been used. The PASW data mining modeler has been used for constructing Neural Network for identifying importance of statistical measures. Based on the obtained important statistical measure, the C5.0 tree has been constructed with 60-40 data split. The experimental results are found to be encouraging. Also, the results will agree to the standard specified by the American College of Radiology-BIRADS Systems.

  20. A man with multiple cardiac masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrabhinduwat, Manasawee; Arciniegas Calle, Maria C; Colgan, Joseph P; Villarraga, Benoy N

    2018-06-12

    A 37-year-old male presented with cough, dyspnea, significant weight loss (45 pounds) and subacute fever for the past two months. Physical examination revealed inspiratory and expiratory wheezing bilaterally. A normal S1, S2 and a 3/6 systolic ejection murmur at the left upper parasternal border with respiratory variation were found during cardiac auscultation. Kidney and bone marrow biopsy reported a high grade B cell lymphoma. Echocardiography and cardiac CT findings consisted of multiple intracardiac masses affecting the right ventricular (RV) outflow track, RV apex, medial portion of the right atrium and posterior left atrium, as well as mild impairment of the RV systolic function. The masses in the RV outflow track caused partial obstruction (Pulmonary Valve peak velocity 2.3 m/s) with a RV systolic pressure of 43 mmHg. The infiltrative mass in the interatrial septum extended into both the right and left atrial cavities. The right superior pulmonary vein was occluded. This patient was treated with aggressive chemotherapy and had a good clinical response that resulted in mass size reduction after the first course of chemotherapy. Multimodality imaging techniques such as echocardiography, cardiac CT and PET scan can provide complementary information to better evaluate, stage and manage these patients. © 2018 The authors.

  1. Structural and functional analysis of the ASM p.Ala359Asp mutant that causes acid sphingomyelinase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Mariana; Castro-Fernández, Víctor; Latorre, Mauricio; Castro, Juan; Schuchman, Edward H; Guixé, Victoria; González, Mauricio; Zanlungo, Silvana

    2016-10-21

    Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) type A and B are recessive hereditary disorders caused by deficiency in acid sphingomyelinase (ASM). The p.Ala359Asp mutation has been described in several patients but its functional and structural effects in the protein are unknown. In order to characterize this mutation, we modeled the three-dimensional ASM structure using the recent available crystal of the mammalian ASM as a template. We found that the p.Ala359Asp mutation is localized in the hydrophobic core and far from the sphingomyelin binding site. However, energy function calculations using statistical potentials indicate that the mutation causes a decrease in ASM stability. Therefore, we investigated the functional effect of the p.Ala359Asp mutation in ASM expression, secretion, localization and activity in human fibroblasts. We found a 3.8% residual ASM activity compared to the wild-type enzyme, without changes in the other parameters evaluated. These results support the hypothesis that the p.Ala359Asp mutation causes structural alterations in the hydrophobic environment where ASM is located, decreasing its enzymatic activity. A similar effect was observed in other previously described NPDB mutations located outside the active site of the enzyme. This work shows the first full size ASM mutant model describe at date, providing a complete analysis of the structural and functional effects of the p.Ala359Asp mutation over the stability and activity of the enzyme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. THE VMC SURVEY. XVIII. RADIAL DEPENDENCE OF THE LOW-MASS, 0.55–0.82 M{sub ⊙} STELLAR MASS FUNCTION IN THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER 47 TUCANAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chaoli; Li, Chengyuan; De Grijs, Richard [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yi He Yuan Lu 5, Hai Dian District, Beijing 100871 (China); Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR M468, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA, 6009 (Australia); Deng, Licai; For, Bi-Qing [Key Laboratory for Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Zaggia, Simone; Rubele, Stefano [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Piatti, Andrés E. [Observatorio Astrońomico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, 5000, Córdoba (Argentina); Cioni, Maria-Rosa L. [Universität Potsdam, Institut für Physik und Astronomie, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24/25, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Emerson, Jim [Astronomy Unit, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Ripepi, Vincenzo; Marconi, Marcella [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Ivanov, Valentin D. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, Garching bei München, D-85748 (Germany); Chen, Li, E-mail: jackzcl@outlook.com, E-mail: grijs@pku.edu.cn [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2015-12-20

    We use near-infrared observations obtained as part of the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) Survey of the Magellanic Clouds (VMC), as well as two complementary Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data sets, to study the luminosity and mass functions (MFs) as a function of clustercentric radius of the main-sequence stars in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae. The HST observations indicate a relative deficit in the numbers of faint stars in the central region of the cluster compared with its periphery, for 18.75 ≤ m{sub F606W} ≤ 20.9 mag (corresponding to a stellar mass range of 0.55 < m{sub *}/M{sub ⊙} < 0.73). The stellar number counts at 6.′7 from the cluster core show a deficit for 17.62 ≤ m{sub F606W} ≤ 19.7 mag (i.e., 0.65 < m{sub *}/M{sub ⊙} < 0.82), which is consistent with expectations from mass segregation. The VMC-based stellar MFs exhibit power-law shapes for masses in the range 0.55 < m{sub *}/M{sub ⊙} < 0.82. These power laws are characterized by an almost constant slope, α. The radial distribution of the power-law slopes α thus shows evidence of the importance of both mass segregation and tidal stripping, for both the first- and second-generation stars in 47 Tuc.

  3. The 'greenhouse effect' as a function of atmospheric mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelbring, Hans

    2003-07-01

    The main reason for claiming a scientific basis for 'Anthropogenic Greenhouse Warming (AGW)' is related to the use of 'radiative energy flux models' as a major tool for describing vertical energy fluxes within the atmosphere. Such models prescribe that the temperature difference between a planetary surface and the planetary average black body radiation temperature (commonly called the Greenhouse Effect, GE) is caused almost exclusively by the so called greenhouse gases. Here, using a different approach, it is shown that GE can be explained as mainly being a consequence of known physical laws describing the behaviour of ideal gases in a gravity field. A simplified model of Earth, along with a formal proof concerning the model atmosphere and evidence from real planetary atmospheres will help in reaching conclusions. The distinguishing premise is that the bulk part of a planetary GE depends on its atmospheric surface mass density. Thus the GE can be exactly calculated for an ideal planetary model atmosphere. In a real atmosphere some important restrictions have to be met if the gravity induced GE is to be well developed. It will always be partially developed on atmosphere bearing planets. A noteworthy implication is that the calculated values of AGW, accepted by many contemporary climate scientists, are thus irrelevant and probably quite insignificant (not detectable) in relation to natural processes causing climate change. (Author)

  4. Evolution of the stellar mass function in multiple-population globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesperini, Enrico; Hong, Jongsuk; Webb, Jeremy J.; D'Antona, Franca; D'Ercole, Annibale

    2018-05-01

    We present the results of a survey of N-body simulations aimed at studying the effects of the long-term dynamical evolution on the stellar mass function (MF) of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters. Our simulations show that if first-(1G) and second-generation (2G) stars have the same initial MF (IMF), the global MFs of the two populations are affected similarly by dynamical evolution and no significant differences between the 1G and 2G MFs arise during the cluster's evolution. If the two populations have different IMFs, dynamical effects do not completely erase memory of the initial differences. Should observations find differences between the global 1G and 2G MFs, these would reveal the fingerprints of differences in their IMFs. Irrespective of whether the 1G and 2G populations have the same global IMF or not, dynamical effects can produce differences between the local (measured at various distances from the cluster centre) 1G and 2G MFs; these differences are a manifestation of the process of mass segregation in populations with different initial structural properties. In dynamically old and spatially mixed clusters, however, differences between the local 1G and 2G MFs can reveal differences between the 1G and 2G global MFs. In general, for clusters with any dynamical age, large differences between the local 1G and 2G MFs are more likely to be associated with differences in the global MF. Our study also reveals a dependence of the spatial mixing rate on the stellar mass, another dynamical consequence of the multiscale nature of multiple-population clusters.

  5. Modelling fat mass as a function of weekly physical activity profiles measured by Actigraph accelerometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustin, Nicole H; Faraway, Julian J; Mattocks, Calum; Cooper, Ashley R; Ness, Andy R

    2012-01-01

    We show results on the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children (ALSPAC) using a new approach for modelling the relationship between health outcomes and physical activity assessed by accelerometers. The key feature of the model is that it uses the histogram of physical activity counts as a predictor function, rather than scalar summary measures such as average daily moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Three models are fitted: (1a) A regression of fat mass at age 12 (N = 4164) onto the histogram of accelerometer counts at age 12; (1b) A regression of fat mass at age 14 (N = 2403) onto the histogram of accelerometer counts at age 12 and (1c) a regression of fat mass at age 14 (N = 2413) onto the accelerometer counts at age 14. All three models significantly improve on models including MVPA instead of the histogram and improve the goodness of fit of models (2a), (2b) and (2c) from R 2 = 0.267, 0.248 and 0.230 to R 2 = 0.292, 0.263 and 0.258 for models (1a), (1b) and (1c) respectively. The proportion of time spent in sedentary and very light activity (corresponding to slow walking and similar activities) has a positive contribution towards fat mass and time spent in moderate to vigorous activity has a negative contribution towards fat mass. (paper)

  6. Improved Function With Enhanced Protein Intake per Meal: A Pilot Study of Weight Reduction in Frail, Obese Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; Pieper, Carl F.; Orenduff, Melissa C.; McDonald, Shelley R.; McClure, Luisa B.; Zhou, Run; Payne, Martha E.; Bales, Connie W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a significant cause of functional limitations in older adults; yet, concerns that weight reduction could diminish muscle along with fat mass have impeded progress toward an intervention. Meal-based enhancement of protein intake could protect function and/or lean mass but has not been studied during geriatric obesity reduction. Methods: In this 6-month randomized controlled trial, 67 obese (body mass index ?30kg/m2) older (?60 years) adults with a Short Physical Performa...

  7. Mass transfer and transport in salt repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-02-01

    Salt is a unique rock isolation of nuclear waste because it is ''dry'' and nearly impermeable. In this paper we summarize some mass-transfer and transport analyses of salt repositories. First we analyses brine migration. Heating by high-level waste can cause brine in grain boundaries to move due to pressure-gradients. We analyze brine migration treating salt as a thermoelastic solid and found that brine migration is transient and localized. We use previously developed techniques to estimate release rates from waste packages by diffusion. Interbeds exist in salt and may be conduits for radionuclide migration. We analyze steady-state migration due to brine flow in the interbed, as a function of the Peclet number. Then we analyze transient mass transfer, both into the interbed and directly to salt, due only to diffusion. Finally we compare mass transfer rates of a waste cylinder in granite facing a fracture and in salt facing an interbed. In all cases, numerical illustrations of the analytic solution are given. 10 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Habitable zones exposed: astrosphere collapse frequency as a function of stellar mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David S; Scalo, John M

    2009-09-01

    Stellar astrospheres--the plasma cocoons carved out of the interstellar medium by stellar winds--are one of several buffers that partially screen planetary atmospheres and surfaces from high-energy radiation. Screening by astrospheres is continually influenced by the passage of stars through the fluctuating density field of the interstellar medium (ISM). The most extreme events occur inside dense interstellar clouds, where the increased pressure may compress an astrosphere to a size smaller than the liquid-water habitable-zone distance. Habitable planets then enjoy no astrospheric buffering from exposure to the full flux of galactic cosmic rays and interstellar dust and gas, a situation we call "descreening" or "astrospheric collapse." Under such conditions the ionization fraction in the atmosphere and contribution to radiation damage of putative coding organisms at the surface would increase significantly, and a series of papers have suggested a variety of global responses to descreening. These possibilities motivate a more careful calculation of the frequency of descreening events. Using a ram-pressure balance model, we compute the size of the astrosphere in the apex direction as a function of parent-star mass and velocity and ambient interstellar density, emphasizing the importance of gravitational focusing of the interstellar flow. The interstellar densities required to descreen planets in the habitable zone of solar- and subsolar-mass stars are found to be about 600(M/M[middle dot in circle])(-2) cm(-3) for the Sun's velocity relative to the local ISM. Such clouds are rare and small, indicating that descreening encounters are rare. We use statistics from two independent catalogues of dense interstellar clouds to derive a dependence of descreening frequency on the parent-star mass that decreases strongly with decreasing stellar mass, due to the weaker gravitational focusing and smaller habitable-zone distances for lower-mass stars. We estimate an uncertain

  9. Mechanical muscle function and lean body mass during supervised strength training and testosterone therapy in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvorning, Thue; Christensen, Louise L; Madsen, Klavs

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effect of strength training and testosterone therapy on mechanical muscle function and lean body mass (LBM) in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 24-week study.......To examine the effect of strength training and testosterone therapy on mechanical muscle function and lean body mass (LBM) in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 24-week study....

  10. A free vibration of beams carrying a concentrated mass under distributed axial forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Ken-ichi; Nagaya, Kosuke; Takeda, Sadahiko; Arai, Noriyuki.

    1988-01-01

    The free bending vibrations of beams with a concentrated mass subjected to axial forces caused by axial acceleration are analyzed by the Galerkin method, introducing the mode shape functions which are the sum of the products of the finite power series and the trigonometrical function. This analytical method makes it easy to construct the equations of motion in each boundary condition only by exchanging the coefficients of the finite power series. Numerical calculations are carried out under four sets of boundary conditions combined with simply supported and clamped edges. The natural frequencies and the corresponding modes of vibration are determined under both various locations of the concentrated mass and axial forces. it is found that the transverse inertia force and the axial force, due to the concentrated mass, have significant effects on the change of the natural frequencies for beams. Furthermore the distinction of boundary conditions gives predominant influence to the variation of natural frequencies. (author)

  11. The determination of carbon dioxide concentration using atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry/isotopic dilution and errors in concentration measurements caused by dryers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLacy, Brendan G; Bandy, Alan R

    2008-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry/isotopically labeled standard (APIMS/ILS) method has been developed for the determination of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentration. Descriptions of the instrumental components, the ionization chemistry, and the statistics associated with the analytical method are provided. This method represents an alternative to the nondispersive infrared (NDIR) technique, which is currently used in the atmospheric community to determine atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. The APIMS/ILS and NDIR methods exhibit a decreased sensitivity for CO(2) in the presence of water vapor. Therefore, dryers such as a nafion dryer are used to remove water before detection. The APIMS/ILS method measures mixing ratios and demonstrates linearity and range in the presence or absence of a dryer. The NDIR technique, on the other hand, measures molar concentrations. The second half of this paper describes errors in molar concentration measurements that are caused by drying. An equation describing the errors was derived from the ideal gas law, the conservation of mass, and Dalton's Law. The purpose of this derivation was to quantify errors in the NDIR technique that are caused by drying. Laboratory experiments were conducted to verify the errors created solely by the dryer in CO(2) concentration measurements post-dryer. The laboratory experiments verified the theoretically predicted errors in the derived equations. There are numerous references in the literature that describe the use of a dryer in conjunction with the NDIR technique. However, these references do not address the errors that are caused by drying.

  12. Integral-functional representation of mass operator of quasiparticles interacting with polarizational phonons at T = 0 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkach, M.V.

    2002-01-01

    The integral-functional representation of mass operator of spinless quasiparticles interacting with polarizational phonons at T = 0 K is obtained for the first time. This representation is equivalent to the infinite branched integral fraction. It does not depend on the binding force and effectively takes into account the many phonon processes

  13. Two-fluid static spherical configurations with linear mass function in the Einstein-Cartan theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallakhmetov, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the Einstein-Cartan theory, two-fluid static spherical configurations with linear mass function are considered. One of these modelling anisotropic matter distributions within star and the other fluid is a perfect fluid representing a source of torsion. It is shown that the solutions of the Einstein equations for anisotropic relativistic spheres in General Relativity may generate the solutions in the Einstein-Cartan theory. Some exact solutions are obtained

  14. Possible Function of Molecular Chaperones in Diseases Caused by Propagating Amyloid Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir F. Lazarev

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of neurodegenerative pathologies stem from the formation of toxic oligomers and aggregates composed of wrongly folded proteins. These protein complexes can be released from pathogenic cells and enthralled by other cells, causing the formation of new aggregates in a prion-like manner. By this mechanism, migrating complexes can transmit a disorder to distant regions of the brain and promote gradually transmitting degenerative processes. Molecular chaperones can counteract the toxicity of misfolded proteins. In this review, we discuss recent data on the possible cytoprotective functions of chaperones in horizontally transmitting neurological disorders.

  15. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry of Functional Membrane-bound Chemotaxis Receptor Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Seena S.; Eyles, Stephen J.; Weis, Robert M.; Thompson, Lynmarie K.

    2014-01-01

    The transmembrane signaling mechanism of bacterial chemotaxis receptors is thought to involve changes in receptor conformation and dynamics. The receptors function in ternary complexes with two other proteins, CheA and CheW, that form extended membrane-bound arrays. Previous studies have shown that attractant binding induces a small (~2 Å) piston displacement of one helix of the periplasmic and transmembrane domains towards the cytoplasm, but it is not clear how this signal propagates through the cytoplasmic domain to control the kinase activity of the CheA bound at the membrane-distal tip, nearly 200 Å away. The cytoplasmic domain has been shown to be highly dynamic, which raises the question of how a small piston motion could propagate through a dynamic domain to control CheA kinase activity. To address this, we have developed a method for measuring dynamics of the receptor cytoplasmic fragment (CF) in functional complexes with CheA and CheW. Hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) measurements of global exchange of CF demonstrate that CF exhibits significantly slower exchange in functional complexes than in solution. Since the exchange rates in functional complexes are comparable to that of other proteins of similar structure, the CF appears to be a well-structured protein within these complexes, which is compatible with its role in propagating a signal that appears to be a tiny conformational change in the periplasmic and transmembrane domains of the receptor. We also demonstrate the feasibility of this protocol for local exchange measurements, by incorporating a pepsin digest step to produce peptides with 87% sequence coverage and only 20% back exchange. This method extends HDX-MS to membrane-bound functional complexes without detergents that may perturb the stability or structure of the system. PMID:24274333

  16. Multiple populations within globular clusters in Early-type galaxies Exploring their effect on stellar initial mass function estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantereau, W.; Usher, C.; Bastian, N.

    2018-05-01

    It is now well-established that most (if not all) ancient globular clusters host multiple populations, that are characterised by distinct chemical features such as helium abundance variations along with N-C and Na-O anti-correlations, at fixed [Fe/H]. These very distinct chemical features are similar to what is found in the centres of the massive early-type galaxies and may influence measurements of the global properties of the galaxies. Additionally, recent results have suggested that M/L variations found in the centres of massive early-type galaxies might be due to a bottom-heavy stellar initial mass function. We present an analysis of the effects of globular cluster-like multiple populations on the integrated properties of early-type galaxies. In particular, we focus on spectral features in the integrated optical spectrum and the global mass-to-light ratio that have been used to infer variations in the stellar initial mass function. To achieve this we develop appropriate stellar population synthesis models and take into account, for the first time, an initial-final mass relation which takes into consideration a varying He abundance. We conclude that while the multiple populations may be present in massive early-type galaxies, they are likely not responsible for the observed variations in the mass-to-light ratio and IMF sensitive line strengths. Finally, we estimate the fraction of stars with multiple populations chemistry that come from disrupted globular clusters within massive ellipticals and find that they may explain some of the observed chemical patterns in the centres of these galaxies.

  17. THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION AT 0.9 < z < 1.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martín-Navarro, Ignacio; Trujillo, Ignacio; Vazdekis, Alexandre [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, c/Vía Láctea s/n, E38205 - La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Esquej, Pilar; Sánchez, Helena Domínguez; Espino, Néstor [Departamento de Astrofísica, Facultad de CC. Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Barro, Guillermo [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Bruzual, Gustavo [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Campus Morelia, México (Mexico); Charlot, Stéphane [UPMC-CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); Cava, Antonio [Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 Ch. des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Ferreras, Ignacio [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Barbera, Francesco La [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Napoli (Italy); Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cenarro, A. Javier, E-mail: imartin@iac [Centro de Estudios de Física del Cosmos de Aragǿn, Plaza San Juan 1, E-44001 Teruel (Spain)

    2015-01-01

    We explore the stellar initial mass function (IMF) of a sample of 49 massive quiescent galaxies (MQGs) at 0.9 < z < 1.5. We base our analysis on intermediate resolution spectro-photometric data in the GOODS-N field taken in the near-infrared and optical with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 G141 grism and the Survey for High-z Absorption Red and Dead Sources. To constrain the slope of the IMF, we have measured the TiO{sub 2} spectral feature, whose strength depends strongly on the content of low-mass stars, as well as on stellar age. Using ultraviolet to near-infrared individual and stacked spectral energy distributions, we have independently estimated the stellar ages of our galaxies. Knowing the age of the stellar population, we interpret the strong differences in the TiO{sub 2} feature as an IMF variation. In particular, for the heaviest z ∼ 1 MQGs (M > 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}), we find an average age of 1.7 ± 0.3 Gyr and a bottom-heavy IMF (Γ {sub b} = 3.2 ± 0.2). Lighter MQGs (2 × 10{sup 10} < M < 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}) at the same redshift are younger on average (1.0 ± 0.2 Gyr) and present a shallower IMF slope (Γ{sub b}=2.7{sub −0.4}{sup +0.3}). Our results are in good agreement with the findings about the IMF slope in early-type galaxies of similar mass in the present-day universe. This suggests that the IMF, a key characteristic of the stellar populations in galaxies, is bottom-heavier for more massive galaxies and has remained unchanged in the last ∼8 Gyr.

  18. Unusual cause of acute abdominal pain in a postmenopausal woman: adnexal torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Biler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adnexal torsion is an infrequent but significant cause of acute lower abdominal pain in women. While adnexal torsion is generally considered in premenopausal women presenting with acute abdominal pain and a pelvic mass, it is a rare cause of acute abdominal pain during postmenopausal period. The diagnosis of adnexal torsion is often challenging due to nonspesific clinical, laboratory and physical examination findings. Causes of adnexal torsion is also different in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. While a simple functional cyst is often the cause of torsion in premenopausal women, it is more rarely the cause in postmenopausal women. Adnexal torsion is a surgical emergency. The surgery of adnexal torsion is performed either via conventional exploratory laparotomy or laparoscopic surgery. Adnexal torsion in postmenopausal women should be considered not only in the setting of sudden onset pain, but also in long-term abdominal discomfort. In this article, we presented a case with adnexal torsion that rarely cause acute abdominal pain in postmenopausal women. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(1.000: 167-170

  19. Impaired skin capillary recruitment in essential hypertension is caused by both functional and structural capillary rarefaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serne, EH; Gans, ROB; ter Maaten, JC; Tangelder, GJ; Donker, AJM; Stehouwer, CDA

    Capillary rarefaction occurs in many tissues in patients with essential hypertension and may contribute to an increased vascular resistance and impaired muscle metabolism. Rarefaction may be caused by a structural (anatomic) absence of capillaries, functional nonperfusion, or both. The aim of this

  20. Space weather and coronal mass ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Space weather has attracted a lot of attention in recent times. Severe space weather can disrupt spacecraft, and on Earth can be the cause of power outages and power station failure. It also presents a radiation hazard for airline passengers and astronauts. These ""magnetic storms"" are most commonly caused by coronal mass ejections, or CMES, which are large eruptions of plasma and magnetic field from the Sun that can reach speeds of several thousand km/s. In this SpringerBrief, Space Weather and Coronal Mass Ejections, author Timothy Howard briefly introduces the coronal mass ejection, its sc

  1. NEW ISOLATED PLANETARY-MASS OBJECTS AND THE STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR MASS FUNCTION OF THE σ ORIONIS CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peña Ramírez, K.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Martín, E. L.; Petr-Gotzens, M. G.

    2012-01-01

    We report on our analysis of the VISTA Orion ZY JHK s photometric data (completeness magnitudes of Z = 22.6 and J = 21.0 mag) focusing on a circular area of 2798.4 arcmin 2 around the young σ Orionis star cluster (∼3 Myr, ∼352 pc, and solar metallicity). The combination of the VISTA photometry with optical, WISE and Spitzer data allows us to identify a total of 210 σ Orionis member candidates with masses in the interval 0.25-0.004 M ☉ , 23 of which are new planetary-mass object findings. These discoveries double the number of cluster planetary-mass candidates known so far. One object has colors compatible with a T spectral type. The σ Orionis cluster harbors about as many brown dwarfs (69, 0.072-0.012 M ☉ ) and planetary-mass objects (37, 0.012-0.004 M ☉ ) as very low mass stars (104, 0.25-0.072 M ☉ ). Based on Spitzer data, we derive a disk frequency of ∼40% for very low mass stars, brown dwarfs, and planetary-mass objects in σ Orionis. The radial density distributions of these three mass intervals are alike: all are spatially concentrated within an effective radius of 12' (1.2 pc) around the multiple star σ Ori, and no obvious segregation between disk-bearing and diskless objects is observed. Using the VISTA data and the Mayrit catalog, we derive the cluster mass spectrum (ΔN/ΔM ∼ M –α ) from ∼19 to 0.006 M ☉ (VISTA ZJ completeness), which is reasonably described by two power-law expressions with indices of α = 1.7 ± 0.2 for M > 0.35 M ☉ , and α = 0.6 ± 0.2 for M ☉ . The σ Orionis mass spectrum smoothly extends into the planetary-mass regime down to 0.004 M ☉ . Our findings of T-type sources ( ☉ ) in the VISTA σ Orionis exploration appear to be smaller than what is predicted by the extrapolation of the cluster mass spectrum down to the survey J-band completeness.

  2. NEW ISOLATED PLANETARY-MASS OBJECTS AND THE STELLAR AND SUBSTELLAR MASS FUNCTION OF THE {sigma} ORIONIS CLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena Ramirez, K.; Bejar, V. J. S. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/. Via Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Martin, E. L. [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Crta. Ajalvir km 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Petr-Gotzens, M. G., E-mail: karla@iac.es, E-mail: vbejar@iac.es, E-mail: mosorio@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: ege@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: mpetr@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-07-20

    We report on our analysis of the VISTA Orion ZY JHK{sub s} photometric data (completeness magnitudes of Z = 22.6 and J = 21.0 mag) focusing on a circular area of 2798.4 arcmin{sup 2} around the young {sigma} Orionis star cluster ({approx}3 Myr, {approx}352 pc, and solar metallicity). The combination of the VISTA photometry with optical, WISE and Spitzer data allows us to identify a total of 210 {sigma} Orionis member candidates with masses in the interval 0.25-0.004 M{sub Sun }, 23 of which are new planetary-mass object findings. These discoveries double the number of cluster planetary-mass candidates known so far. One object has colors compatible with a T spectral type. The {sigma} Orionis cluster harbors about as many brown dwarfs (69, 0.072-0.012 M{sub Sun }) and planetary-mass objects (37, 0.012-0.004 M{sub Sun }) as very low mass stars (104, 0.25-0.072 M{sub Sun }). Based on Spitzer data, we derive a disk frequency of {approx}40% for very low mass stars, brown dwarfs, and planetary-mass objects in {sigma} Orionis. The radial density distributions of these three mass intervals are alike: all are spatially concentrated within an effective radius of 12' (1.2 pc) around the multiple star {sigma} Ori, and no obvious segregation between disk-bearing and diskless objects is observed. Using the VISTA data and the Mayrit catalog, we derive the cluster mass spectrum ({Delta}N/{Delta}M {approx} M{sup -{alpha}}) from {approx}19 to 0.006 M{sub Sun} (VISTA ZJ completeness), which is reasonably described by two power-law expressions with indices of {alpha} = 1.7 {+-} 0.2 for M > 0.35 M{sub Sun }, and {alpha} = 0.6 {+-} 0.2 for M < 0.35 M{sub Sun }. The {sigma} Orionis mass spectrum smoothly extends into the planetary-mass regime down to 0.004 M{sub Sun }. Our findings of T-type sources (<0.004 M{sub Sun }) in the VISTA {sigma} Orionis exploration appear to be smaller than what is predicted by the extrapolation of the cluster mass spectrum down to the survey J

  3. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in evolving food webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allhoff, K T; Drossel, B

    2016-05-19

    We use computer simulations in order to study the interplay between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF) during both the formation and the ongoing evolution of large food webs. A species in our model is characterized by its own body mass, its preferred prey body mass and the width of its potential prey body mass spectrum. On an ecological time scale, population dynamics determines which species are viable and which ones go extinct. On an evolutionary time scale, new species emerge as modifications of existing ones. The network structure thus emerges and evolves in a self-organized manner. We analyse the relation between functional diversity and five community level measures of ecosystem functioning. These are the metabolic loss of the predator community, the total biomasses of the basal and the predator community, and the consumption rates on the basal community and within the predator community. Clear BEF relations are observed during the initial build-up of the networks, or when parameters are varied, causing bottom-up or top-down effects. However, ecosystem functioning measures fluctuate only very little during long-term evolution under constant environmental conditions, despite changes in functional diversity. This result supports the hypothesis that trophic cascades are weaker in more complex food webs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. Unifying the functional diversity in natural and cultivated soils using the overall body-mass distribution of nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Christian; Maas, Rob

    2017-11-28

    Sustainable use of our soils is a key goal for environmental protection. As many ecosystem services are supported belowground at different trophic levels by nematodes, soil nematodes are expected to provide objective metrics for biological quality to integrate physical and chemical soil variables. Trait measurements of body mass carried out at the individual level can in this way be correlated with environmental properties that influence the performance of soil biota. Soil samples were collected across 200 sites (4 soil types and 5 land-use types resulting in 9 combinations) during a long-term monitoring programme in the Netherlands and the functional diversity of nematode communities was investigated. Using three commonly used functional diversity indices applicable to single traits (Divergence, Evenness and Richness), a unified index of overall body-mass distribution is proposed to better illustrate the application of functional metrics as a descriptor of land use. Effects of land use and soil chemistry on the functional diversity of nematodes were demonstrated and a combination of environmental factors accounts for the low functional value of Scots Pine forest soils in comparison to the high functional value of heathland soils, whereas human factors account for the low functional and chemical values of arable fields. These findings show an unexpected high functional vulnerability of nematodes inhabiting clay-rich soils in comparison to sandy soils and support the notion that soil C:N ratio is a major driver of biodiversity. The higher the C:N ratio, the higher the overall diversity, as soil nematodes cope better with nutrient-poor agroecosystems under less intense fertilization. A trait-based way focusing on size distribution of nematodes is proposed to maintain environmental health by monitoring the overall diversity in soil biota, keeping agriculture and forestry sustainable.

  5. Correlation between T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance with left ventricular function and mass in adolescent and adult major thalassemia patients with iron overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djer, Mulyadi M; Anggriawan, Shirley L; Gatot, Djajadiman; Amalia, Pustika; Sastroasmoro, Sudigdo; Widjaja, Patricia

    2013-10-01

    to assess for a correlation between T2*CMR with LV function and mass in thalassemic patients with iron overload. a cross-sectional study on thalassemic patients was conducted between July and September 2010 at Cipto Mangunkusumo and Premier Hospitals, Jakarta, Indonesia. Clinical examinations, review of medical charts, electrocardiography, echocardiography, and T2*CMR were performed. Cardiac siderosis was measured by T2*CMR conduction time. Left ventricle diastolic and systolic functions, as well as LV mass index were measured using echocardiography. Correlations between T2*CMR and echocardiography findings, as well as serum ferritin were determined using Pearson's and Spearman's tests. thirty patients aged 13-41 years were enrolled, of whom two-thirds had -thalassemia major and one-third had HbE/-thalassemia. Diastolic dysfunction was identified in 8 patients, whereas systolic function was normal in all patients. Increased LV mass index was found in 3 patients. T2*CMR conduction times ranged from 8.98 to 55.04 ms and a value below 20 ms was demonstrated in 14 patients. There was a statistically significant moderate positive correlation of T2*CMR conduction time with E/A ratio (r = 0.471, P = 0.009), but no correlation was found with LV mass index (r=0.097, P=0.608). A moderate negative correlation was found between T2*CMR and serum ferritin (r = -0.514, P = 0.004), while a moderate negative correlation was found between serum ferritin and E/A ratio (r = -0.425, P = 0.019). T2*CMR myocardial conduction time has a moderate positive correlation with diastolic function, moderate negative correlation with serum ferritin, but not with LV mass index and systolic function.

  6. A mass census of the nearby universe with the RESOLVE survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Kathleen

    The galaxy mass function, i.e., the distribution of galaxies as a function of mass, is a useful way to characterize the galaxy population. In this work, we examine the stellar and baryonic mass function, and the velocity function of galaxies and galaxy groups for two volume-limited surveys of the nearby universe. Stellar masses are estimated from multi-band photometry, and we add cold atomic gas from measurements and a newly calibrated estimator to obtain baryonic mass. Velocities are measured from the internal motions of galaxies and groups and account for all matter within the system. We compare our observed mass and velocity functions with the halo mass function from theoretical simulations of dark matter, which predict a much more steeply rising low-mass slope than is normally observed for the galaxy mass function. We show that taking into account the cold gas mass, which dominates the directly detectable mass of low-mass galaxies, steepens the low-mass slope of the galaxy mass function. The low- mass slope of the baryonic mass function, however, is still much shallower than that of the halo mass function. The discrepancy in low-mass slope persists when examining the velocity function, which accounts for all matter in galaxies (detectable or not), suggesting that some mechanism must reduce the mass in halos or destroy them completely. We investigate the role of environment by performing group finding and examining the mass and velocity functions as a function of group halo mass. Broken down by halo mass regime, we find dips and varying low-mass slopes in the mass and velocity functions, suggesting that group formation processes such as merging and stripping, which destroy and lower the mass of low-mass satellites respectively, potentially contribute to the discrepancy in low-mass slope. In particular, we focus on the nascent group regime, groups of mass 10 11.4-12 [solar mass] with few members, which has a depressed and flat low-mass slope in the galaxy mass

  7. Hypertrophic Synovitis of the Facet Joint Causing Root Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Iwatsuki M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritic changes in the facet joints are common in the presence of degenerative disc disease. Changes in the joint capsule accompany changes in the articular surfaces. Intraspinal synovial cysts that cause radicular pain, cauda equina syndrome, and myelopathy have been reported; however, there have been few reports in orthopedic or neurosurgical literature regarding hypertrophic synovitis of the facet joint presenting as an incidental para-articular mass. Here, we report a case of hypertrophic synovitis causing root pain. We describe the case of a 65-year-old man suffering from right sciatica and right leg pain in the L5 nerve-root dermatome for 1 year; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed an enhanced mass around the L4–5 facet joint. We investigated this mass pathologically. After right medial facetectomy, the symptoms resolved. Pathological investigation revealed this mass was hypertrophic synovitis. Hypertrophic synovitis of the facet joint might cause root pain.

  8. Imaging of fetal chest masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Richard A. [Lucile Packard Children' s Hospital, Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-01-15

    Prenatal imaging with high-resolution US and rapid acquisition MRI plays a key role in the accurate diagnosis of congenital chest masses. Imaging has enhanced our understanding of the natural history of fetal lung masses, allowing for accurate prediction of outcome, parental counseling, and planning of pregnancy and newborn management. This paper will focus on congenital bronchopulmonary malformations, which account for the vast majority of primary lung masses in the fetus. In addition, anomalies that mimic masses and less common causes of lung masses will be discussed. (orig.)

  9. Genetic disruption of SOD1 gene causes glucose intolerance and impairs β-cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Salmon, Adam B; Aguayo-Mazzucato, Cristina; Li, Mengyao; Balas, Bogdan; Guardado-Mendoza, Rodolfo; Giaccari, Andrea; Reddick, Robert L; Reyna, Sara M; Weir, Gordon; Defronzo, Ralph A; Van Remmen, Holly; Musi, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, it is not clear whether oxidative damage is a cause or a consequence of the metabolic abnormalities present in diabetic subjects. The goal of this study was to determine whether inducing oxidative damage through genetic ablation of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) leads to abnormalities in glucose homeostasis. We studied SOD1-null mice and wild-type (WT) littermates. Glucose tolerance was evaluated with intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests. Peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity was quantitated with the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. β-Cell function was determined with the hyperglycemic clamp and morphometric analysis of pancreatic islets. Genetic ablation of SOD1 caused glucose intolerance, which was associated with reduced in vivo β-cell insulin secretion and decreased β-cell volume. Peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity were not significantly altered in SOD1-null mice. High-fat diet caused glucose intolerance in WT mice but did not further worsen the glucose intolerance observed in standard chow-fed SOD1-null mice. Our findings suggest that oxidative stress per se does not play a major role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and demonstrate that oxidative stress caused by SOD1 ablation leads to glucose intolerance secondary to β-cell dysfunction.

  10. Alteration in neonatal nutrition causes perturbations in hypothalamic neural circuits controlling reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Emilie; Ciofi, Philippe; Prevot, Vincent; Bouret, Sebastien G

    2012-08-15

    It is increasingly accepted that alterations of the early life environment may have lasting impacts on physiological functions. In particular, epidemiological and animal studies have indicated that changes in growth and nutrition during childhood and adolescence can impair reproductive function. However, the precise biological mechanisms that underlie these programming effects of neonatal nutrition on reproduction are still poorly understood. Here, we used a mouse model of divergent litter size to investigate the effects of early postnatal overnutrition and undernutrition on the maturation of hypothalamic circuits involved in reproductive function. Neonatally undernourished females display attenuated postnatal growth associated with delayed puberty and defective development of axonal projections from the arcuate nucleus to the preoptic region. These alterations persist into adulthood and specifically affect the organization of neural projections containing kisspeptin, a key neuropeptide involved in pubertal activation and fertility. Neonatal overfeeding also perturbs the development of neural projections from the arcuate nucleus to the preoptic region, but it does not result in alterations in kisspeptin projections. These studies indicate that alterations in the early nutritional environment cause lasting and deleterious effects on the organization of neural circuits involved in the control of reproduction, and that these changes are associated with lifelong functional perturbations.

  11. Mass Psychogenic Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Outbreaks of mass psychogenic illness show us how stress affects us. Think of how stage fright can cause nausea, shortness of breath, headache, dizziness, a racing heart, a stomachache, or diarrhea. ...

  12. From Stars to Superplanets: The Low-Mass Initial Mass Function in the Young Cluster IC 348

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Najita, Joan R; Tiede, Glenn P; Carr, John S

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the low-mass population of the young cluster IC 348 down to the deuterium-burning limit, a fiducial boundary between brown dwarf and planetary mass objects, using a new and innovative...

  13. Effects of Initial Body Mass Index and Weight Change on All-Cause Mortality: A 10-Year Cohort Study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Susan; Pi, Sunmi; Hwang, Jinseub; Kang, Jae-Heon; Kwon, Jin-Won

    2018-02-01

    We evaluated the effects of baseline body mass index (BMI) and its changes over 4 years on all-cause mortality in Korean population. We analyzed 351 735 participants whose BMI was measured in both 2002/2003 and 2006/2007. Mortality was assessed until 2013. Multivariate hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were estimated. Underweight and severe obesity with BMI >30 kg/m 2 were significantly associated with higher mortality. Similarly, >5% decrease or >10% increase of BMI for 4 years was associated with the increased risk of death. Comparing the results between baseline BMI and BMI change, the BMI change showed more stable associations with mortality than the baseline BMI in subgroup analysis such as nonsmokers and healthy participants. This study suggests that BMI change could be a useful health indicator along with obesity level by BMI. In addition, maintaining a healthy weight is needed for longevity, but rapid weight change should be carefully monitored.

  14. The ATLAS3D project - XX. Mass-size and mass-σ distributions of early-type galaxies: bulge fraction drives kinematics, mass-to-light ratio, molecular gas fraction and stellar initial mass function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellari, Michele; McDermid, Richard M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, M.; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnović, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Young, Lisa M.

    2013-07-01

    ) and dwarf irregulars (Im), respectively. We use dynamical models to analyse our kinematic maps. We show that σe traces the bulge fraction, which appears to be the main driver for the observed trends in the dynamical (M/L)JAM and in indicators of the (M/L)pop of the stellar population like Hβ and colour, as well as in the molecular gas fraction. A similar variation along contours of σe is also observed for the mass normalization of the stellar initial mass function (IMF), which was recently shown to vary systematically within the ETGs' population. Our preferred relation has the form log _{10} [(M/L)_stars/(M/L)_Salp]=a+b× log _{10}({σ _e}/130 {km s^{-1}}) with a = -0.12 ± 0.01 and b = 0.35 ± 0.06. Unless there are major flaws in all stellar population models, this trend implies a transition of the mean IMF from Kroupa to Salpeter in the interval log _{10}({σ _e}/{km s}^{-1})≈ 1.9-2.5 (or {σ _e}≈ 90-290 km s-1), with a smooth variation in between, consistently with what was shown in Cappellari et al. The observed distribution of galaxy properties on the MP provides a clean and novel view for a number of previously reported trends, which constitute special two-dimensional projections of the more general four-dimensional parameters trends on the MP. We interpret it as due to a combination of two main effects: (i) an increase of the bulge fraction, which increases σe, decreases Re, and greatly enhance the likelihood for a galaxy to have its star formation quenched, and (ii) dry merging, increasing galaxy mass and Re by moving galaxies along lines of roughly constant σe (or steeper), while leaving the population nearly unchanged.

  15. Evolution of the cluster optical galaxy luminosity function in the CFHTLS: breaking the degeneracy between mass and redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarron, F.; Martinet, N.; Durret, F.; Adami, C.

    2018-06-01

    Obtaining large samples of galaxy clusters is important for cosmology: cluster counts as a function of redshift and mass can constrain the parameters of our Universe. They are also useful in order to understand the formation and evolution of clusters. We develop an improved version of the Adami & MAzure Cluster FInder (AMACFI), now the Adami, MAzure & Sarron Cluster FInder (AMASCFI), and apply it to the 154 deg2 of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) to obtain a large catalogue of 1371 cluster candidates with mass M200 > 1014 M⊙ and redshift z ≤ 0.7. We derive the selection function of the algorithm from the Millennium simulation, and cluster masses from a richness-mass scaling relation built from matching our candidates with X-ray detections. We study the evolution of these clusters with mass and redshift by computing the i'-band galaxy luminosity functions (GLFs) for the early-type (ETGs) and late-type galaxies (LTGs). This sample is 90% pure and 70% complete, and therefore our results are representative of a large fraction of the cluster population in these redshift and mass ranges. We find an increase in both the ETG and LTG faint populations with decreasing redshift (with Schechter slopes αETG = -0.65 ± 0.03 and αLTG = -0.95 ± 0.04 at z = 0.6, and αETG = -0.79 ± 0.02 and αLTG = -1.26 ± 0.03 at z = 0.2) and also a decrease in the LTG (but not the ETG) bright end. Our large sample allows us to break the degeneracy between mass and redshift, finding that the redshift evolution is more pronounced in high-mass clusters, but that there is no significant dependence of the faint end on mass for a given redshift. These results show that the cluster red sequence is mainly formed at redshift z > 0.7, and that faint ETGs continue to enrich the red sequence through quenching of brighter LTGs at z ≤ 0.7. The efficiency of this quenching is higher in large-mass clusters, while the accretion rate of faint LTGs is lower as the more massive

  16. Adult phantoms as function of body mass, height and posture by using caucasian anthropomorphic statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, Richard; Cassola, Vagner Ferreira; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira; Khoury, Helen Jamil; Milian, Felix Mas

    2011-01-01

    The CALLDose X 4.0 computer program uses conversion coefficients for the MASH and FASH adult phantoms on the vertical and supine postures, representing the standard man and woman according to ICRP 90 and are called 'basic phantoms'. For improving the representation of real patients in the CALLDose X , this paper developed adults phantoms as function of mass and height by using anthropometric data from nine of them prevailing caucasian countries

  17. Is a top-heavy initial mass function needed to reproduce the submillimetre galaxy number counts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarzadeh, Mohammadtaher; Lu, Yu; Hayward, Christopher C.

    2017-12-01

    Matching the number counts and redshift distribution of submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) without invoking modifications to the initial mass ffunction (IMF) has proved challenging for semi-analytic models (SAMs) of galaxy formation. We adopt a previously developed SAM that is constrained to match the z = 0 galaxy stellar mass function and makes various predictions which agree well with observational constraints; we do not recalibrate the SAM for this work. We implement three prescriptions to predict the submillimetre flux densities of the model galaxies; two depend solely on star formation rate, whereas the other also depends on the dust mass. By comparing the predictions of the models, we find that taking into account the dust mass, which affects the dust temperature and thus influences the far-infrared spectral energy distribution, is crucial for matching the number counts and redshift distribution of SMGs. Moreover, despite using a standard IMF, our model can match the observed SMG number counts and redshift distribution reasonably well, which contradicts the conclusions of some previous studies that a top-heavy IMF, in addition to taking into account the effect of dust mass, is needed to match these observations. Although we have not identified the key ingredient that is responsible for our model matching the observed SMG number counts and redshift distribution without IMF variation - which is challenging given the different prescriptions for physical processes employed in the SAMs of interest - our results demonstrate that in SAMs, IMF variation is degenerate with other physical processes, such as stellar feedback.

  18. The Changes of Energy Interactions between Nucleus Function and Mitochondria Functions Causing Transmutation of Chronic Inflammation into Cancer Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponizovskiy, Michail R

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between nucleus and mitochondria functions induce the mechanism of maintenance stability of cellular internal energy according to the first law of thermodynamics in able-bodied cells and changes the mechanisms of maintenance stability of cellular internal energy creating a transition stationary state of ablebodied cells into quasi-stationary pathologic states of acute inflammation transiting then into chronic inflammation and then transmuting into cancer metabolism. The mechanisms' influences of intruding etiologic pathologic agents (microbe, virus, etc.) lead to these changes of energy interactions between nucleus and mitochondria functions causing general acute inflammation, then passing into local chronic inflammation, and reversing into cancer metabolism transmutation. Interactions between biochemical processes and biophysical processes of cellular capacitors' operations create a supplementary mechanism of maintenance stability of cellular internal energy in the norm and in pathology. Discussion of some scientific works eliminates doubts of the authors of these works.

  19. Functional failure modes cause-consequence logic suited for mobile robots used at scientific facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Douzi Imran; Bonnal, Pierre; Verma, A K

    2014-01-01

    The scientific facilities emitting ionizing radiation may have some significant failures and hazard issues, in and around their infrastructure. Significantly, this will also cause risks to workers and environment, which has led engineers to explore the use and implementation of mobile robots (MR), in order to reduce or eliminate such risks concerned with safety issues. Safe functioning of MR and the systems working at hazardous facilities is essential and therefore all the systems, structures and components (SSC) of a hazardous facility have to correspond to high reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (=RAMS) demands. RAMS characteristics have a causal relationship with the risks related to the facility systems availability, safety and life cycle costs. They also form the basis for the operating systems and MR performance, to carry out the desired functions. In this paper we have developed and presented a method for how to consider and model a SSC with respect to its desired functions and also ...

  20. SALPETER NORMALIZATION OF THE STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION FOR MASSIVE GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, Shravan; Cappellari, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The stellar initial mass function (IMF) is a key parameter for studying galaxy evolution. Here we measure the IMF mass normalization for a sample of 68 field galaxies in the redshift range 0.7-0.9 within the Extended Groth Strip. To do this we derive the total (stellar + dark matter) mass-to-light [(M/L)] ratio using axisymmetric dynamical models. Within the region where we have kinematics (about one half-light radius), the models assume (1) that mass follows light, implying negligible differences between the slope of the stellar and total density profiles, (2) constant velocity anisotropy (β z ≡1−σ z 2 /σ R 2 =0.2), and (3) that galaxies are seen at the average inclination for random orientations (i.e., i = 60°, where i = 90° represents edge-on). The dynamical models are based on anisotropic Jeans equations, constrained by Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging and the central velocity dispersion of the galaxies, extracted from good-quality spectra taken by the DEEP2 survey. The population (M/L) are derived from full-spectrum fitting of the same spectra with a grid of simple stellar population models. Recent dynamical modeling results from the ATLAS 3D project and numerical simulations of galaxy evolution indicate that the dark matter fraction within the central regions of our galaxies should be small. This suggests that our derived total (M/L) should closely approximate the stellar M/L. Our comparison of the dynamical (M/L) and the population (M/L) then implies that for galaxies with stellar mass M * ≳ 10 11 M ☉ , the average normalization of the IMF is consistent with a Salpeter slope, with a substantial scatter. This is similar to what is found within a similar mass range for nearby galaxies

  1. Gaugino mass without singlets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudice, Gian F.; Luty, Markus A.; Murayama, Hitoshi; Rattazzi, Riccardo

    1998-01-01

    In models with dynamical supersymmetry breaking in the hidden sector, the gaugino masses in the observable sector have been believed to be extremely suppressed (below 1 keV), unless there is a gauge singlet in the hidden sector with specific couplings to the observable sector gauge multiplets. We point out that there is a pure supergravity contribution to gaugino masses at the quantum level arising from the superconformal anomaly. Our results are valid to all orders in perturbation theory and are related to the ''exact'' beta functions for soft terms. There is also an anomaly contribution to the A terms proportional to the beta function of the corresponding Yukawa coupling. The gaugino masses are proportional to the corresponding gauge beta functions, and so do not satisfy the usual GUT relations

  2. Upper and lower limb functionality and body mass index in physically active older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Molinari Tecchio

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Aging leads to sarcopenia and functional capacity decline, compromising upper (UL and lower limb (LL performance of activities. Body mass index (BMI is an important parameter for the assessment of health conditions in older adults, especially with regard to obesity, since it leads to functional limitations in terms of mobility and task performance. Objective: To investigate the potential association between UL and LL functionality and BMI in physically active older adults; and to characterize this population with regard to BMI and UL and LL functionality. Methods: The data were collected between August 2013 and April 2014. The sample comprised 371 physically active older adults. This study used secondary data from the program “PET Saúde IPA/SMS”. The program interviewed older adults living in areas comprised by the Third Family Health Unit of a neighborhood in Porto Alegre/RS. This paper used questions from the “Instrumento de Avaliação Multidimensional Rápida da Pessoa Idosa” (Instrument for Rapid Multidimensional Assessment of Elderly People, in English that had to do with UL and LL functionality, weight, height and BMI. Results and Conclusion: There was no association between UL and LL functionality and BMI in physically active older adults. More than half of the sample was overweight. Most participants had functional UL and LL. While occupation, self-perception of health as “good” and “very good”, and physical activity were found to be associated with LL functionality; regular physical exercise was found to be associated with UL and LL functionality.

  3. Soft tissue organ masses of Beagles as a function of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Gillett, N.A.; Gerlach, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    Beagle dogs have been used for the past 30 yr for radio toxicological studies in several Department of Energy laboratories. Since the animals are maintained for their life span, it is important to recognize the potential importance of age-related changes in organ masses, particularly as they relate to dosimetry. To determine the extent and magnitude of soft-tissue organ mass changes relative to age and gender of Beagle dogs, groups of three male and three female dogs at ages 2.7, 6.0, 8.8, 11.7, and 14.0 yr were sacrificed. The resulting organ mass data were analyzed by linear regression both in terms of gross mass and mass normalized to whole-body mass. The results indicated that very little change in masses could be detected in this population over the age range studied, which includes the median life span of dogs In this colony. The rate of change of masses was shown to have an insignificant effect on the calculation of radiation dose, even over long time periods. (author)

  4. Soft tissue organ masses of Beagles as a function of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, R A; Gillett, N A; Gerlach, R F

    1988-12-01

    Beagle dogs have been used for the past 30 yr for radio toxicological studies in several Department of Energy laboratories. Since the animals are maintained for their life span, it is important to recognize the potential importance of age-related changes in organ masses, particularly as they relate to dosimetry. To determine the extent and magnitude of soft-tissue organ mass changes relative to age and gender of Beagle dogs, groups of three male and three female dogs at ages 2.7, 6.0, 8.8, 11.7, and 14.0 yr were sacrificed. The resulting organ mass data were analyzed by linear regression both in terms of gross mass and mass normalized to whole-body mass. The results indicated that very little change in masses could be detected in this population over the age range studied, which includes the median life span of dogs In this colony. The rate of change of masses was shown to have an insignificant effect on the calculation of radiation dose, even over long time periods. (author)

  5. MPAI (mass probes aided ionization) method for total analysis of biomolecules by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Aki; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Hifumi, Hiroki; Honma, Yuya; Tanji, Noriyuki; Iwasawa, Naoko; Suzuki, Yoshio; Suzuki, Koji

    2007-01-01

    We have designed and synthesized various mass probes, which enable us to effectively ionize various molecules to be detected with mass spectrometry. We call the ionization method using mass probes the "MPAI (mass probes aided ionization)" method. We aim at the sensitive detection of various biological molecules, and also the detection of bio-molecules by a single mass spectrometry serially without changing the mechanical settings. Here, we review mass probes for small molecules with various functional groups and mass probes for proteins. Further, we introduce newly developed mass probes for proteins for highly sensitive detection.

  6. Green's functions for theories with massless particles (in perturbation theory). [Growth properties, momentum space, mass renormalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, P [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Seneor, R [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique, 75 - Paris (France). Centre de Physique Theorique)

    1975-01-01

    With the method of perturbative renormalization developed by Epstein and Glaser it is shown that Green's functions exist for theories with massless particles such as Q.E.D. and lambda:PHI/sup 2n/ theories. Growth properties are given in momentum space. In the case of Q.E.D., it is also shown that one can perform the physical mass renormalization.

  7. THE ARECIBO LEGACY FAST ALFA SURVEY. IX. THE LEO REGION H I CATALOG, GROUP MEMBERSHIP, AND THE H I MASS FUNCTION FOR THE LEO I GROUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stierwalt, Sabrina; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Martin, Ann M.; Kent, Brian R.; Saintonge, Amelie; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Karachentseva, Valentina E.

    2009-01-01

    We present the catalog of H I sources extracted from the ongoing Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) extragalactic H I line survey, found within the sky region bounded by 9 h 36 m h 36 m and +08 0 0 . The H I catalog presented here for this 118 deg 2 region is combined with the ones derived from surrounding regions also covered by the ALFALFA survey to examine the large-scale structure in the complex Leo region. Because of the combination of wide sky coverage and superior sensitivity, spatial and spectral resolution, the ALFALFA H I catalog of the Leo region improves significantly on the numbers of low H I mass sources as compared with those found in previous H I surveys. The H I mass function of the Leo I group presented here is dominated by low-mass objects: 45 of the 65 Leo I members have M H I 8 M-odot, yielding tight constraints on the low-mass slope of the Leo I H I mass function. The best-fit slope is α ≅ -1.41 + 0.2 - 0.1. A direct comparison between the ALFALFA H I line detections and an optical search of the Leo I region proves the advantage of the ALFALFA strategy in finding low-mass, gas-rich dwarfs. These results suggest the existence of a significant population of low surface brightness, gas-rich, yet still very low H I mass galaxies, and may reflect the same type of morphological segregation as is seen in the Local Group. While the low-mass end slope of the Leo I H I mass function is steeper than that determined for luminosity functions of the group, the slope still falls short of the values predicted by simulations of structure formation in the lambda cold dark matter paradigm.

  8. Mutations in RIT1 cause Noonan syndrome - additional functional evidence and expanding the clinical phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenighofer, M; Hung, C Y; McCauley, J L; Dallman, J; Back, E J; Mihalek, I; Gripp, K W; Sol-Church, K; Rusconi, P; Zhang, Z; Shi, G-X; Andres, D A; Bodamer, O A

    2016-03-01

    RASopathies are a clinically heterogeneous group of conditions caused by mutations in 1 of 16 proteins in the RAS-mitogen activated protein kinase (RAS-MAPK) pathway. Recently, mutations in RIT1 were identified as a novel cause for Noonan syndrome. Here we provide additional functional evidence for a causal role of RIT1 mutations and expand the associated phenotypic spectrum. We identified two de novo missense variants p.Met90Ile and p.Ala57Gly. Both variants resulted in increased MEK-ERK signaling compared to wild-type, underscoring gain-of-function as the primary functional mechanism. Introduction of p.Met90Ile and p.Ala57Gly into zebrafish embryos reproduced not only aspects of the human phenotype but also revealed abnormalities of eye development, emphasizing the importance of RIT1 for spatial and temporal organization of the growing organism. In addition, we observed severe lymphedema of the lower extremity and genitalia in one patient. We provide additional evidence for a causal relationship between pathogenic mutations in RIT1, increased RAS-MAPK/MEK-ERK signaling and the clinical phenotype. The mutant RIT1 protein may possess reduced GTPase activity or a diminished ability to interact with cellular GTPase activating proteins; however the precise mechanism remains unknown. The phenotypic spectrum is likely to expand and includes lymphedema of the lower extremities in addition to nuchal hygroma. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Crustal displacements in Greenland caused by ice mass variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina

    rates indicates, that the modeled elastic displacements are well captured. Based on this analysis, the GIA rates are estimated to -1 ± 0.6 mm/yr at KELY, 2 ± 0.7 mm/yr at SCOR, and 0.5 ± 0.5 mm/yr at QAQ1. At the sites KULU and THU2 the elastic displacement rates could not be accurately estimated...... modeled and removed. Over a period of a few decades, the GIA rate is assumed to be constant. Hence, changes in the observed rate results from the present-day changes. Here, mass change grids, derived from Ice, Cloud,and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) data from three overlapping time spans are used...

  10. The mass spectrum of interstellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, J.M.; Garwood, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    The abundances of diffuse clouds and molecular clouds in the inner Galaxy and at the solar circle are compared. Using results of recent low-latitude 21 cm absorption studies, the number of diffuse clouds per kiloparsec along the line of sight is derived as a function of the cloud column density, under two assumptions relating cloud densities and temperatures. The density of clouds is derived as a function of cloud mass. The results are consistent with a single, continuous mass spectrum for interstellar clouds from less than 1 solar mass to 1,000,000 solar masses, with perhaps a change of slope at masses where the atomic and molecular mass fractions are roughly equal. 36 refs

  11. Augmented β-Cell Function and Mass in Glucocorticoid-Treated Rodents Are Associated with Increased Islet Ir-β/AKT/mTOR and Decreased AMPK/ACC and AS160 Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André O. P. Protzek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoid (GC therapies may adversely cause insulin resistance (IR that lead to a compensatory hyperinsulinemia due to insulin hypersecretion. The increased β-cell function is associated with increased insulin signaling that has the protein kinase B (AKT substrate with 160 kDa (AS160 as an important downstream AKT effector. In muscle, both insulin and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK signaling phosphorylate and inactivate AS160, which favors the glucose transporter (GLUT-4 translocation to plasma membrane. Whether AS160 phosphorylation is modulated in islets from GC-treated subjects is unknown. For this, two animal models, Swiss mice and Wistar rats, were treated with dexamethasone (DEX (1 mg/kg body weight for 5 consecutive days. DEX treatment induced IR, hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia in both species, but glucose intolerance and hyperglycemia only in rats. DEX treatment caused increased insulin secretion in response to glucose and augmented β-cell mass in both species that were associated with increased islet content and increased phosphorylation of the AS160 protein. Protein AKT phosphorylation, but not AMPK phosphorylation, was found significantly enhanced in islets from DEX-treated animals. We conclude that the augmented β-cell function developed in response to the GC-induced IR involves inhibition of the islet AS160 protein activity.

  12. Top quark mass measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Tuula; Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Helsinki U. of Tech.

    2008-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest elementary particle. Its mass is one of the fundamental parameters of the standard model of particle physics, and an important input to precision electroweak tests. This thesis describes three measurements of the top-quark mass in the dilepton decay channel. The dilepton events have two neutrinos in the final state; neutrinos are weakly interacting particles that cannot be detected with a multipurpose experiment. Therefore, the signal of dilepton events consists of a large amount of missing energy and momentum carried off by the neutrinos. The top-quark mass is reconstructed for each event by assuming an additional constraint from a top mass independent distribution. Template distributions are constructed from simulated samples of signal and background events, and parameterized to form continuous probability density functions. The final top-quark mass is derived using a likelihood fit to compare the reconstructed top mass distribution from data to the parameterized templates. One of the analyses uses a novel technique to add top mass information from the observed number of events by including a cross-section-constraint in the likelihood function. All measurements use data samples collected by the CDF II detector

  13. Intrasplenic masses of ``preserved`` functioning splenic tissue in sickle cell disease: correlation of imaging findings (CT, ultrasound, MRI, and nuclear scintigraphy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, T.L. [Department of Radiology, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital of New York, 3959 Broadway, BHN 3-318, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Berdon, W.E. [Department of Radiology, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital of New York, 3959 Broadway, BHN 3-318, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Haller, J.O. [Department of Radiology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York (United States); Ruzal-Shapiro, C. [Department of Radiology, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital of New York, 3959 Broadway, BHN 3-318, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Hurlet-Jenson, A. [Department of Pediatrics, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital of New York, New York (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Purpose. We studied six patients with sickle cell disease (SSD), five homozygous for sickle cell anemia and one with sickle beta-thalassemia, in whom rounded intrasplenic masses proved to be preserved functioning splenic tissue. Materials and methods. Available images including computed tomography, ultrasonography, bone scans (Tc-99m MDP), liver spleen scans (Tc-99m sulfur colloid), and MRI were evaluated. Results. The masses were low density on CT (in an otherwise calcified spleen), hypoechoic relative to the echogenic spleen on US, and had the imaging characteristics of normal spleen on MRI. They failed to accumulate Tc-99m MDP but did demonstrate uptake of Tc-99m sulfur colloid. Conclusion. In a patient with SSD and intrasplenic masses, proper correlation of multiple imaging modalities will establish the diagnosis of functioning splenic tissue and avoid mistaken diagnosis of splenic abscess or infarction. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Intrasplenic masses of ''preserved'' functioning splenic tissue in sickle cell disease: correlation of imaging findings (CT, ultrasound, MRI, and nuclear scintigraphy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, T.L.; Berdon, W.E.; Haller, J.O.; Ruzal-Shapiro, C.; Hurlet-Jenson, A.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose. We studied six patients with sickle cell disease (SSD), five homozygous for sickle cell anemia and one with sickle beta-thalassemia, in whom rounded intrasplenic masses proved to be preserved functioning splenic tissue. Materials and methods. Available images including computed tomography, ultrasonography, bone scans (Tc-99m MDP), liver spleen scans (Tc-99m sulfur colloid), and MRI were evaluated. Results. The masses were low density on CT (in an otherwise calcified spleen), hypoechoic relative to the echogenic spleen on US, and had the imaging characteristics of normal spleen on MRI. They failed to accumulate Tc-99m MDP but did demonstrate uptake of Tc-99m sulfur colloid. Conclusion. In a patient with SSD and intrasplenic masses, proper correlation of multiple imaging modalities will establish the diagnosis of functioning splenic tissue and avoid mistaken diagnosis of splenic abscess or infarction. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab

  15. [Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stárka, Luboslav; Dušková, Michaela

    2015-10-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) besides pregnancy and syndrome of polycystic ovary is one of the most common causes of secondary amenorrhea. FHA results from the aberrations in pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, which in turn causes impairment of the gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone). FHA is a form of the defence of organism in situations where life functions are more important than reproductive function. FHA is reversible; it can be normalized after ceasing the stress situation. There are three types of FHA: weight loss related, stress-related, and exercise-related amenorrhea. The final consequences are complex hormonal changes manifested by profound hypoestrogenism. Additionally, these patients present mild hypercortisolemia, low serum insulin levels, low insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and low total triiodothyronine. Women health in this disorder is disturbed in several aspects including the skeletal system, cardiovascular system, and mental problems. Patients manifest a decrease in bone mass density, which is related to an increase in fracture risk. Therefore, osteopenia and osteoporosis are the main long-term complications of FHA. Cardiovascular complications include endothelial dysfunction and abnormal changes in the lipid profile. FHA patients present significantly higher depression and anxiety and also sexual problems compared to healthy subjects.

  16. The effect of the molecular mass on the sputtering by electrosprayed nanodroplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrajo-Pelaez, Rafael; Gamero-Castaño, Manuel, E-mail: mgameroc@uci.edu

    2015-07-30

    Highlights: • We study the effect of the molecular mass on nanodroplet sputtering of silicon. • The impact phenomenology is a strong function of the projectile’s molecular mass. • Nanodroplet sputtering intrinsically is a molecular scale phenomenon. - Abstract: Energetic bombardment of covalently bonded materials by electrosprayed nanodroplets causes sputtering and topographic changes on the surface of the target. This work investigates the influence of the projectile's molecular mass on these phenomena by sputtering single-crystal silicon wafers with a variety of liquids (molecular masses between 45.0 and 773.3 amu), and acceleration voltages. The electrosprays are characterized via time of flight to determine the charge to mass ratio of the nanodroplets which, together with the acceleration voltage, yield the impact velocity, the stagnation pressure, and the molecular kinetic energy of the projectile. The estimated range of droplet diameters is 20–79 nm, while the impact velocity, the stagnation pressure and the molecular kinetic energy range between 2.9–10 km/s, 4.7–63 GPa, and 2.1–98 eV. We find that the damage on the surface of the targets strongly depends on the molecular mass of the projectile: liquids with low molecular mass sputter significantly less and produce nanometric indentations and low surface roughness, the latter increasing moderately with stagnation pressure; in contrast, the roughness and sputtering caused by the impacts of droplets with larger molecular mass reach significantly higher values, and exhibit non-monotonic behaviors. The maximum sputtering yields for formamide, EAN, EMI-BF{sub 4}, EMI-Im, TES, and TPP are 0.20, 0.75, 1.20, 2.80, 4.00 and 2.90 silicon atoms per molecule in the projectile. These trends indicate that despite their rather large diameters, the sputtering by electrosprayed nanodroplets is intrinsically a molecular scale phenomenon.

  17. Mass killings and detection of impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Digby J.

    Highly energetic bolide impacts occur and their flux is known. For larger bodies the energy release is greater than for any other short-term global phenomenon. Such impacts produce or release a large variety of shock induced changes including major atmospheric, sedimentologic, seismic and volcanic events. These events must necessarily leave a variety of records in the stratigraphic column, including mass killings resulting in major changes in population density and reduction or extinction of many taxonomic groups, followed by characteristic patterns of faunal and flora replacement. Of these effects, mass killings, marked by large-scale loss of biomass, are the most easily detected evidence in the field but must be manifest on a near-global scale. Such mass killings that appear to be approximately synchronous and involve disappearance of biomass at a bedding plane in many sedimentologically independent sections globally suggest a common cause and probable synchroneity. Mass killings identify an horizon which may be examined for evidence of cause. Geochemical markers may be ephemeral and absence may not be significant. There appears to be no reason why ongoing phenomena such as climate and sea-level changes are primary causes of anomolous episodic events.

  18. Physical and mental health functioning after all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence: a register-linkage follow-up study among ageing employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Mänty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickness absence has been shown to be a risk marker for severe future health outcomes, such as disability retirement and premature death. However, it is poorly understood how all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence is reflected in subsequent physical and mental health functioning over time. The aim of this study was to examine the association of all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence with subsequent changes in physical and mental health functioning among ageing municipal employees. Methods Prospective survey and register data from the Finnish Helsinki Health Study and the Social Insurance Institution of Finland were used. Register based records for medically certified all-cause and diagnostic-specific sickness absence spells (>14 consecutive calendar days in 2004–2007 were examined in relation to subsequent physical and mental health functioning measured by Short-Form 36 questionnaire in 2007 and 2012. In total, 3079 respondents who were continuously employed over the sickness absence follow-up were included in the analyses. Repeated-measures analysis was used to examine the associations. Results During the 3-year follow-up, 30% of the participants had at least one spell of medically certified sickness absence. All-cause sickness absence was associated with lower subsequent physical and mental health functioning in a stepwise manner: the more absence days, the poorer the subsequent physical and mental health functioning. These differences remained but narrowed slightly during the follow-up. Furthermore, the adverse association for physical health functioning was strongest among those with sickness absence due to diseases of musculoskeletal or respiratory systems, and on mental functioning among those with sickness absence due to mental disorders. Conclusions Sickness absence showed a persistent adverse stepwise association with subsequent physical and mental health functioning. Evidence on health

  19. Physical and mental health functioning after all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence: a register-linkage follow-up study among ageing employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mänty, Minna; Lallukka, Tea; Lahti, Jouni; Pietiläinen, Olli; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi

    2017-01-25

    Sickness absence has been shown to be a risk marker for severe future health outcomes, such as disability retirement and premature death. However, it is poorly understood how all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence is reflected in subsequent physical and mental health functioning over time. The aim of this study was to examine the association of all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence with subsequent changes in physical and mental health functioning among ageing municipal employees. Prospective survey and register data from the Finnish Helsinki Health Study and the Social Insurance Institution of Finland were used. Register based records for medically certified all-cause and diagnostic-specific sickness absence spells (>14 consecutive calendar days) in 2004-2007 were examined in relation to subsequent physical and mental health functioning measured by Short-Form 36 questionnaire in 2007 and 2012. In total, 3079 respondents who were continuously employed over the sickness absence follow-up were included in the analyses. Repeated-measures analysis was used to examine the associations. During the 3-year follow-up, 30% of the participants had at least one spell of medically certified sickness absence. All-cause sickness absence was associated with lower subsequent physical and mental health functioning in a stepwise manner: the more absence days, the poorer the subsequent physical and mental health functioning. These differences remained but narrowed slightly during the follow-up. Furthermore, the adverse association for physical health functioning was strongest among those with sickness absence due to diseases of musculoskeletal or respiratory systems, and on mental functioning among those with sickness absence due to mental disorders. Sickness absence showed a persistent adverse stepwise association with subsequent physical and mental health functioning. Evidence on health-related outcomes after long-term sickness absence may provide useful

  20. Association of sitting time and breaks in sitting with muscle mass, strength, function, and inflammation in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, N; Healy, G N; Gianoudis, J; Formica, M; Gardiner, P A; Eakin, E E; Nowson, C A; Daly, R M

    2018-02-26

    The mechanisms through which excessive sitting time impacts health are important to understand. This study found that each hour of sitting per day was not associated with physical function, although associations with poor body composition were observed. Reducing sitting time for improved weight management in older adults needs further exploration. To examine the association of sitting time and breaks in sitting time with muscle mass, strength, function, and inflammation in older Australians. Data from the thigh-worn activPAL3™ monitor (7-day continuous wear) was used to derive time spent sitting (hours) and total number of sit-stand transitions per day. Body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), lower-body muscle strength, function (timed up-and-go [TUG], 4-m gait speed, four square step test, 30-second sit-to-stand), and serum inflammatory markers (interleukin-[IL-6], IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-α], and adiponectin) were measured. Multiple regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, education, employment status, marital status, number of prescription medications, smoking status, vitamin D, and stepping time, were used to assess the associations. Data from 123 community-dwelling older adults (aged 65-84 years, 63% female) were used. Total daily sitting time was associated with lower percentage lean mass (β [95%CI], - 1.70% [- 2.30, - 1.10]) and higher total body fat mass (2.92 kg [1.94, 3.30]). More frequent breaks in sitting time were associated with a 45% reduced risk of having pre-sarcopenia (OR = 0.55; 95% CI 0.34, 0.91; model 1), defined as appendicular lean mass divided by BMI. No significant associations were observed for sitting time or breaks in sitting with measures of muscle strength, function, or inflammation. In older community-dwelling adults, greater sitting time was associated with a lower percentage lean mass, while more frequent breaks in sitting time were associated with lower odds of having

  1. Obesity, change of body mass index and subsequent physical and mental health functioning: a 12-year follow-up study among ageing employees

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Svärd; Jouni Lahti; Eira Roos; Ossi Rahkonen; Eero Lahelma; Tea Lallukka; Minna Mänty

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies suggest an association between weight change and subsequent poor physical health functioning, whereas the association with mental health functioning is inconsistent. We aimed to examine whether obesity and change of body mass index among normal weight, overweight and obese women and men associate with changes in physical and mental health functioning. Meth...

  2. Fake signals caused by heavy-mass motions near a sensitive spherical gravitational wave antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Alberto; Cerdonio, Massimo; Montero, Alvaro

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we analyse in quantitative detail the effect of a moving mass on a spherical gravitational wave detector. This applies to situations where heavy traffic or similar disturbances occur near the GW antenna. Such disturbances result in quadrupole tidal stresses in the antenna mass, and they therefore precisely fake a real gravitational signal. The study shows that there are always characteristic frequencies, depending on the motion of the external masses, at which the fake signals are most intense. It however appears that, even at those frequencies, fake signals should be orders of magnitude below the sensitivity curve of an optimized detector, in likely realistic situations

  3. Complete orthonormal sets on the past light cone - II: Functions belonging to spin 1/2 and non-zero rest mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, G.H.

    1987-12-01

    This is the second of a series of papers preparing the mathematical framework for a past light cone formulation for the quantum mechanics of particles of arbitrary mass and spin. The aim of past light cone quantum theory is to define quantum states solely in terms of data accessible to an observer, i.e. information from within his current past light cone. In order to set up such a theory one needs to define on the past light cone complete orthonormal sets of functions which belong to the appropriate representation of the Poincare group. Such functions are interpreted as energy-momentum eigenfunctions. The present paper treats the case of spin 1/2 and non-zero rest mass. (author). 7 refs

  4. Role of Educational Status in Explaining the Association between Body Mass Index and Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yi-Te; Kao, Tung-Wei; Peng, Tao-Chun; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Yang, Hui-Fang; Sun, Yu-Shan; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2016-02-01

    Preserving physical and cognitive function becomes an important issue as people age. A growing number of studies have found that the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive function changes in different age groups. It is obvious that higher educational status is linked to higher cognitive function in terms of numerous risk factors that influence cognitive function. This study aimed to investigate the interplay between obesity and cognitive function categorized by different educational status.This study included 5021 participants aged 20 to 59 years who completed 3 neurocognitive function tests, including a simple reaction time test (SRTT), a symbol digit substitution test (SDST), and a serial digit learning test (SDLT) as reported in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III database. The associations between neurocognitive function and BMI were analyzed using multivariate linear regression while controlling for confounders.After adjusting for pertinent covariates in mode 3, the β coefficients in the female participants with more than 12 years of education (interpreted as change of 3 neurocognitive function tests for each increment in BMI) comparing obesity groups to those with normal BMI were 16.2 (P education and female participants with fewer than 12 years of education demonstrated increased impairment as their BMI increased. However, this association was not significant after adjustments.Obese individuals had worse neurocognitive function than those of normal weight or overweight, especially in women with a high educational level.

  5. Maximally twisted mass lattice QCD at the physical pion mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostrzewa, Bartosz

    2016-01-01

    In computer simulations of Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics, the usage of unphysically large quark masses and the subsequent extrapolation of results to the physical value of the quark masses are major sources of systematic uncertainty. In this thesis, the feasibility and practicality of numerical simulations of Quantum Chromodynamics with physically light up and down quarks using the Wilson twisted mass quark discretisation are explored. Working in this regime is complicated firstly by the numerical expense of these simulations and secondly by the presence of potentially large lattice artefacts. The twisted mass discretisation is affected by an unphysical mass difference between the charged and neutral pions, rendering simulations at the physical charged pion mass infeasible if this mass splitting is too large. With the aim of reducing it, the Sheikholeslami-Wohlert term is added to the twisted mass fermion action and simulations with mass degenerate up and down quarks are then performed as a proof of concept. It is demonstrated that these simulations are stable and that the parameters of the lattice theory can be successfully tuned to correspond to the physical charged pion mass. Subsequently, the parameter tuning for simulations with mass degenerate up and down quarks as well as strange and charm quarks is explored and it is shown that it can be carried out in steps. As benchmark observables, the masses and decay constants of pseudoscalar mesons with light, strange and charm valence quarks are calculated and seen to largely reproduce their phenomenological values, even though continuum and infinite volume extrapolations are not performed. Light, strange and charm quark mass estimates are determined based on this data and also seen to coincide with phenomenological and other lattice determinations. In this analysis, a particular emphasis is placed on the systematic error due to the choice of fit range for pseudoscalar correlation functions and a weighting method is

  6. EYS Mutations Causing Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa: Changes of Retinal Structure and Function with Disease Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. McGuigan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the EYS (eyes shut homolog gene are a common cause of autosomal recessive (ar retinitis pigmentosa (RP. Without a mammalian model of human EYS disease, there is limited understanding of details of disease expression and rates of progression of the retinal degeneration. We studied clinically and with chromatic static perimetry, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT, and en face autofluoresence imaging, a cohort of 15 patients (ages 12–51 at first visit, some of whom had longitudinal data of function and structure. Rod sensitivity was able to be measured by chromatic perimetry in most patients at their earliest visits and some patients retained patchy rod function into the fifth decade of life. As expected from RP, cone sensitivity persisted after rod function was no longer measurable. The photoreceptor nuclear layer of the central retina was abnormal except at the fovea in most patients at first visit. Perifoveal disease measured over a period of years indicated that photoreceptor structural loss was followed by dysmorphology of the inner retina and loss of retinal pigment epithelial integrity. Although there could be variability in severity, preliminary analyses of the rates of vision loss suggested that EYS is a more rapidly progressive disease than other ciliopathies causing arRP, such as USH2A and MAK.

  7. Symmetry Energy as a Function of Density and Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielewicz, Pawel; Lee, Jenny

    2007-01-01

    Energy in nuclear matter is, in practice, completely characterized at different densities and asymmetries, when the density dependencies of symmetry energy and of energy of symmetric matter are specified. The density dependence of the symmetry energy at subnormal densities produces mass dependence of nuclear symmetry coefficient and, thus, can be constrained by that latter dependence. We deduce values of the mass dependent symmetry coefficients, by using excitation energies to isobaric analog states. The coefficient systematic, for intermediate and high masses, is well described in terms of the symmetry coefficient values of a a V = (31.5-33.5) MeV for the volume coefficient and a a S = (9-12) MeV for the surface coefficient. These two further correspond to the parameter values describing density dependence of symmetry energy, of L∼95 MeV and K sym ∼25 MeV

  8. A rare cause of lomber pain: diopatic abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colak, F.; Saglam, M.; Sahin, M.; Bozlar, U.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysms are rare and life-threatening situations. Trauma and operative procedures are common causes of pseudoaneurysm. Abdominal pain is the most common symptom of them. They are usually detected incidentally. Objectives and tasks: We aim to present CTA findings of abdominal aortic pseudoaneurysm causes gradually increasing lomber pain in 70-year-old female patient. Physical examination also made diagnosis easy because of pulsatile mass detected. Materials and methods: Lomber MRG and endoscopic procedures were normal. Then we performed CTA to find the cause for pulsatile mass. Results: Pseudoaneurysm with approximately 6 x 7.5 cm size was compressing duodenum and not showing extravasation at the infrarenal segment of abdominal aorta detected in CTA. Pseudoaneurysm was filling from aorta through a 2 cm neck. Conclusion: Primary cause for pseudoaneurysms is traumating injuries. Initial presentation may be abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding or pulsatile mass. To plan treatment and figure out pseudoaneurysm CTA is very fast and non-invasive technic

  9. Miniature mass analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Cuna, C; Lupsa, N; Cuna, S; Tuzson, B

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of different mass analyzers that were specifically designed as small dimension instruments able to detect with great sensitivity and accuracy the main environmental pollutants. The mass spectrometers are very suited instrument for chemical and isotopic analysis, needed in environmental surveillance. Usually, this is done by sampling the soil, air or water followed by laboratory analysis. To avoid drawbacks caused by sample alteration during the sampling process and transport, the 'in situ' analysis is preferred. Theoretically, any type of mass analyzer can be miniaturized, but some are more appropriate than others. Quadrupole mass filter and trap, magnetic sector, time-of-flight and ion cyclotron mass analyzers can be successfully shrunk, for each of them some performances being sacrificed but we must know which parameters are necessary to be kept unchanged. To satisfy the miniaturization criteria of the analyzer, it is necessary to use asymmetrical geometries, with ion beam obl...

  10. Mass transport in propagating patterns of convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, E.; Steinberg, V.

    1988-01-01

    Recent studies of propagating waves in an oscillatory convection of binary mixtures arise questions about transport properties of this flow. Optical visualization of a field of refraction index due to a shadowgraph technique gives information on the temperature and concentration fields. However, experimental observation of rolls propagating along the cell as travelling waves (TW) does not necessarily imply that mass is transferred hydrodynamically by the convective motion along the cell. One of the possibilities discussed, e.g., is that TW observed is only a phase propagation. The traditional examples of such situations come from the domain of linear, superposition-oriented physics. Acoustic waves transfer momentum and energy, but do not cause the mass to make excursions for their equilibrium point that are larger than the oscillation amplitude. In the case of nonlinear physics we were aware that small amplitude surface waves cause only small oscillatory motion round the equilibrium point, while larger amplitudes can cause the mass to start moving in the direction of the TW. This paper discussed the different possibilities of mass transfer by TW. 27 refs., 20 figs

  11. Functional characterization and phenotypic monitoring of human hematopoietic stem cell expansion and differentiation of monocytes and macrophages by whole-cell mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Vogel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The different facets of macrophages allow them to play distinct roles in tissue homeostasis, tissue repair and in response to infections. Individuals displaying dysregulated macrophage functions are proposed to be prone to inflammatory disorders or infections. However, this being a cause or a consequence of the pathology remains often unclear. In this context, we isolated and expanded CD34+ HSCs from healthy blood donors and derived them into CD14+ myeloid progenitors which were further enriched and differentiated into macrophages. Aiming for a comprehensive phenotypic profiling, we generated whole-cell mass spectrometry (WCMS fingerprints of cell samples collected along the different stages of the differentiation process to build a predictive model using a linear discriminant analysis based on principal components. Through the capacity of the model to accurately predict sample's identity of a validation set, we demonstrate that WCMS profiles obtained from bona fide blood monocytes and respectively derived macrophages mirror profiles obtained from equivalent HSC derivatives. Finally, HSC-derived macrophage functionalities were assessed by quantifying cytokine and chemokine responses to a TLR agonist in a 34-plex luminex assay and by measuring their capacity to phagocytise mycobacteria. These functional read-outs could not discriminate blood monocytes-derived from HSC-derived macrophages. To conclude, we propose that this method opens new avenues to distinguish the impact of human genetics on the dysregulated biological properties of macrophages in pathological conditions.

  12. GFI1B mutation causes a bleeding disorder with abnormal platelet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, W S; Morel-Kopp, M-C; Chen, Q; Liang, H P; Bromhead, C J; Wright, S; Turakulov, R; Ng, A P; Roberts, A W; Bahlo, M; Ward, C M

    2013-11-01

    GFI1B is a transcription factor important for erythropoiesis and megakaryocyte development but previously unknown to be associated with human disease. A family with a novel bleeding disorder was identified and characterized. Genetic linkage analysis and massively parallel sequencing were used to localize the mutation causing the disease phenotype on chromosome 9. Functional studies were then performed in megakaryocytic cell lines to determine the biological effects of the mutant transcript. We have identified a family with an autosomal dominant bleeding disorder associated with macrothrombocytopenia, red cell anisopoikilocytosis, and platelet dysfunction. The severity of bleeding is variable with some affected individuals experiencing spontaneous bleeding while other family members exhibit only abnormal bleeding with surgery. A single nucleotide insertion was identified in GFI1B that predicts a frameshift mutation in the fifth zinc finger DNA-binding domain. This mutation alters the transcriptional activity of the protein, resulting in a reduction in platelet α-granule content and aberrant expression of key platelet proteins. GFI1B mutation represents a novel human bleeding disorder, and the described phenotype identifies GFI1B as a critical regulator of platelet shape, number, and function. © 2013 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  13. Microscopic description of fission in odd-mass uranium and plutonium nuclei with the Gogny energy density functional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Guzman, R. [Kuwait University, Physics Department, Kuwait (Kuwait); Robledo, L.M. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Madrid (Spain); Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Center for Computational Simulation, Boadilla del Monte (Spain)

    2017-12-15

    The parametrization D1M of the Gogny energy density functional is used to study fission in the odd-mass Uranium and Plutonium isotopes with A = 233,.., 249 within the framework of the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) Equal Filling Approximation (EFA). Ground state quantum numbers and deformations, pairing energies, one-neutron separation energies, barrier heights and fission isomer excitation energies are given. Fission paths, collective masses and zero point rotational and vibrational quantum corrections are used to compute the systematic of the spontaneous fission half-lives t{sub SF}, the masses and charges of the fission fragments as well as their intrinsic shapes. Although there exits a strong variance of the predicted fission rates with respect to the details involved in their computation, it is shown that both the specialization energy and the pairing quenching effects, taken into account fully variationally within the HFB-EFA blocking scheme, lead to larger spontaneous fission half-lives in odd-mass U and Pu nuclei as compared with the corresponding even-even neighbors. It is shown that modifications of a few percent in the strengths of the neutron and proton pairing fields can have a significant impact on the collective masses leading to uncertainties of several orders of magnitude in the predicted t{sub SF} values. Alpha-decay lifetimes have also been computed using a parametrization of the Viola-Seaborg formula. (orig.)

  14. A Rare Cause of Scrotal Mass in a Newborn: Antenatal Intravaginal Testicular Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ali Tuncer

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Intravaginal testicular torsion is a very rare pathology in the neonatal period. However, it is the most common type of torsion in puberty. In this article, we present a male patient with testicular hyperemia and a mass in the testis. Ultrasonography revealed intravaginal testicular torsion and absence of testicular blood flow. This paper aims to draw attention to the importance of neonatal examination for the presence of testicular torsion which is a rare pathology in newborns with scrotal colour change or presence of an abnormal mass.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of athlete's heart: myocardial mass, left ventricular function, and cross-sectional area of the coronary arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zandrino, F.; Sardanelli, F.; Molinari, G.; Masperone, M.A.; Smeraldi, A.; Odaglia, G.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate left ventricular myocardial mass and function as well as ostial coronary artery cross-sectional area in endurance athletes, an athlete group of 12 highly trained rowers and a control group of 12 sedentary healthy subjects underwent MR examination. An ECG-gated breath-hold cine gradient-echo sequence was used to calculate myocardial mass, end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes, stroke volume, and cardiac output, all related to body surface area, as well as ejection fraction. A 3D fat-saturated ECG- and respiratory-triggered navigator echo sequence was used to evaluate coronary arteries: left main (LM), left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex (LCx), and right coronary artery (RCA). Cross-sectional area was calculated and divided for body surface area. Myocardial mass was found significantly larger in athlete group than in control group (p = 0.0078), the same being for end-diastolic volume (p = 0.0078), stroke volume (p = 0.0055), LM (p = 0.0066) and LAD (p = 0.0129). No significant difference was found for all the remaining parameters. Significant correlation with myocardial mass was found for LM (p < 0.001) and LAD (p = 0.0340), not for LCx and RCA. Magnetic resonance imaging is a useful tool in evaluating the myocardial hypertrophy and function of athlete's heart. Magnetic resonance angiography is a valuable noninvasive method to visualize the correlated cross-sectional area increase of the left coronary artery system. (orig.)

  16. Analysis of performance and stress caused by a simulation of a mass casualty incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto Fernández-Pacheco, Antonio; Castro Delgado, Rafael; Arcos González, Pedro; Navarro Fernández, José Luis; Cerón Madrigal, José Joaquín; Juguera Rodriguez, Laura; Perez Alonso, Nuria; Armero-Barranco, David; Lidon López Iborra, María; Damian, Escribano Tortosa; Pardo Rios, Manuel

    2018-03-01

    To determine the stress that is potentially produced in professional health workers due to a mass casualty incident (MCI) simulated exercise, and its relation to prior academic training and the role played in the simulation. Observational study of stress in a MCI. For this work, two MCI drills comprised of 40 victims each were conducted. Two randomized groups of 36 students each were created: Master's Students Group (MSG) and Undergraduate Student Group (USG). The role performed by each student (triage or sectorization) was assessed. The stress level was determined by prior and subsequent measurements of alpha-amylase (αA), HR, SBP and DBP. The percentage of victims that were correctly triaged was 88.6%, 91.84% for MSG and 83.76% for the USG (p=0.004). The basal αA was 97,107.50±72,182.67IU/L and the subsequent αA was 136,195.55±90,176.46±IU/L (pperformed the triage and those who performed sectorization but there were no differences between undergraduate and Masters' students. Conducting a simulated exercise caused stress in personnel involved in the MCI, with a greater impact on participants who performed triage, although it was not influenced by their prior academic level. The stress level in our case did not affect or determine the performance of acquired skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of the influence of body composition on bone mass in children and adolescents based on a functional analysis of the muscle-bone relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golec, Joanna; Chlebna-Sokół, Danuta

    2014-01-01

    The functional model of skeletal development considers the mechanical factor to be the most important skeletal modulant. The aim of the study was a functional analysis of the bone-muscle relationship in children with low and normal bone mass. The study involved 149 children with low and 99 children with normal bone mass (control group). All patients underwent a densitometry examination (DXA). Low bone mass was diagnosed if the Z-score was below values of Z-scores for all parameters in children with low bone mass as compared to the control group. Children with low bone mass had lower content of adipose and muscle tissue and a marked deficit of muscle tissue with regard to height (which according to mechanostat theory leads to lower muscle-generated strain on bones). This group of children had also lower TBBMC/LBM Z-scores, which indicates greater fracture susceptibility. 1. Functional analysis, which showed associations between bone and muscle tissues, can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring skeletal system disorders as well as making therapeutic decisions.2. The study emphasizes the role of proper nutrition and physical activities, which contribute to proper body composition, in the prevention of bone mineralization disorders in childhood and adolescence. 3. The study showed the inadequacy of the classic reference ranges used in interpreting DXA data in children and demonstrated the usefulness of continuous variables for that purpose.

  18. Intrahepatic and adrenal hemorrhage as a rare cause of neonatal anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Mustafa Ali; Coban, Dilek; Doganay, Selim; Durak, Zehra; Kurtoglu, Selim

    2011-05-01

    Vaginal delivery of the macrosomic fetus may result in hemorrhage of intra-abdominal organs. Mostly affected organs are the liver and adrenal glands. Hemorrhage of liver is usually occurs as a subcapsular hemorrhage and it is clinically presented an abdominal mass without symptoms of anemia. But intraparenchymal hemorrhage of liver is very rare and there is no sign of abdominal mass. However, in contrast to subcapsular hemorrhage, symptoms of anemia are rapidly developed in newborns. A macrosomic newborn by vaginal delivery at term. Within 6 h after delivery, the patient showed pallor without tachycardia and hypotension. In laboratory studies, hemoglobin level failed from 14 g/dL to 10 g/dL within 6 h. Physical examination revealed no signs of abdominal mass. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage in the sixth segment of liver and right adrenal hemorrhage were detected on the ultrasonographic scan. Hepatic function tests were normal in the whole follow-up period, and hemorrhage resolved within two weeks. Following months after discharge, adrenal hemorrhage also resolved without any complication. Hepatic hemorrhages, causing hemorrhagic anemia in neonates, usually occur in subcapsular form. Intraparenchymal hepatic hemorrhage should especially be considered in those newborns, which are rapidly developed symptoms of anemia without any abdominal mass.

  19. [Gastroduodenal intussusception causing gastric retention.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alamili, M.; Berg, J.O.; Lindstrom, C.

    2008-01-01

    A case of gastroduodenal intussusception caused by a duodenal lipoma is presented. The condition was characterized by severe upper gastrointestinal retention, epigastric pain and weight loss. The mass was diagnosed by CT scan. The diagnosis was confirmed by operation. The patient was treated...

  20. Schroedinger equations with indefinite effective mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levai, G.; Znojil, M.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The interaction of a particle with the medium around it is usually described by some potential function V (x). It is also often necessary to take into consideration the effects of this medium using a position-dependent effective mass. A wide variety of effective masses m(x) have been used in methodological studies and applications mainly restricted to one dimensional problems, including mass functions that vanish at certain locations or those reaching infinity in some limit. The common feature of these m(x) functions was that they were all non-negative. In our recent study on the PT -symmetric version of the Coulomb potential we found that an asymptotically negative effective mass is necessary for the stability of the energy spectrum. This result inspired us to investigate under which conditions can one apply mass functions that are negative at least in some domains of the coordinate space. For the sake of simplicity we considered the infinitely deep squarewell potential in one dimension V(x) = (+∞, /x/ > L > 1, 0, /x/ 0 , /x/ 0 the energy spectrum becomes unbounded from below. This is not surprising considering that with a negative mass the kinetic energy also becomes negative. In order to stabilize the spectrum we considered energy-dependent effective mass functions that kept the mass finite even for increasing values of the energy. Our first choice was m(x,E) = (1, /x/ ∈ (1,L), -tanh (E), /x/ 2 tanh λ(k) tan k(L - 1) = -1, where λ(k) = k √tanh k 2 . With this choice the energy spectrum was found to be bounded from below. Qualitatively similar results were found for our second example, where we considered a threshold energy E thr by m(x,E) = 1, /x/ ∈ (1,L) , -1, E ≥ E thr , +1, E thr ), /x/ 2 , /x/ 0 and b = b(E) > 0. This lead to the rescaled secular equation tan κa/b x tanh κ(L - a) = b. (3) This setting allowed the investigation of the special limit in which the m(x) turns into the Dirac delta function. We

  1. Soft-tissue masses in the abdominal wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, U.; Moskovic, E.; Strauss, D.; Hayes, A.; Thway, K.; Pope, R.; Messiou, C.

    2014-01-01

    Masses involving the abdominal wall arise from a large number of aetiologies. This article will describe a diagnostic approach, imaging features of the most common causes of abdominal wall masses, and highly specific characteristics of less common diseases. A diagnostic algorithm for abdominal wall masses combines clinical history and imaging appearances to classify lesions

  2. Investigation of methodological factors potentially underlying the apparently paradoxical findings on body mass index and all-cause mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Joshy

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Findings regarding the association between overweight and all-cause mortality range from significantly lower to higher risk, compared with body-mass-index (BMI within the "normal" range. METHODS: We examined empirically potential methodological explanations for these apparently conflicting results using questionnaire and linked mortality data from 246,314 individuals aged ≥45 years in the Australian 45 and Up Study (11,127 deaths; median follow-up 3.9 years. Hazard ratios (HR for all-cause mortality associated with BMI were modelled according to different methods of accounting for illness at baseline, finer versus broader gradations of BMI and choice of reference group, adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: In analyses using the broad World Health Organization (WHO categories, the all-cause mortality HR was significantly lower in the overweight category (25.0-29.99 kg/m², than the normal weight (18.5-24.99 kg/m² category. However, in analyses accounting for baseline illness, which excluded those with pre-existing illness at baseline, ever-smokers and the first 2 years of follow up, absolute age-standardised mortality rates varied up to two-fold between finer BMI categories within the WHO normal weight category; rates were lowest at 22.5-24.99 kg/m² and mortality HRs increased steadily for BMI above (p(trend<0.02 and below (p(trend<0.003 this reference category. Hence, the breadth of the BMI categories used and whether or not baseline illness is accounted for explain the apparent discrepancies between reported BMI-mortality associations. CONCLUSION: Using fine BMI categories and the category with the lowest absolute rates as the reference group and accounting for the potential confounding effects of baseline illness is likely to yield the most reliable risk estimates for establishing the independent relationship of BMI to all-cause mortality. These results and those of other studies indicate that a BMI of 22.5-24.99 kg

  3. Empirical evidence for inertial mass anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, M.; Siemieniec, G.

    1985-01-01

    A several attempts at measuring the possible deviations from inertial mass isotropy caused by a non-uniform distribution of matter are reviewed. A simple model of the inertial mass anisotropy and the results of the currently performed measurements concerning this effect are presented. 34 refs. (author)

  4. Variations of the stellar initial mass function in semi-analytical models - II. The impact of cosmic ray regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanot, Fabio; De Lucia, Gabriella; Xie, Lizhi; Hirschmann, Michaela; Bruzual, Gustavo; Charlot, Stéphane

    2018-04-01

    Recent studies proposed that cosmic rays (CRs) are a key ingredient in setting the conditions for star formation, thanks to their ability to alter the thermal and chemical state of dense gas in the ultraviolet-shielded cores of molecular clouds. In this paper, we explore their role as regulators of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) variations, using the semi-analytic model for GAlaxy Evolution and Assembly (GAEA). The new model confirms our previous results obtained using the integrated galaxy-wide IMF (IGIMF) theory. Both variable IMF models reproduce the observed increase of α-enhancement as a function of stellar mass and the measured z = 0 excess of dynamical mass-to-light ratios with respect to photometric estimates assuming a universal IMF. We focus here on the mismatch between the photometrically derived (M^app_{\\star }) and intrinsic (M⋆) stellar masses, by analysing in detail the evolution of model galaxies with different values of M_{\\star }/M^app_{\\star }. We find that galaxies with small deviations (i.e. formally consistent with a universal IMF hypothesis) are characterized by more extended star formation histories and live in less massive haloes with respect to the bulk of the galaxy population. In particular, the IGIMF theory does not change significantly the mean evolution of model galaxies with respect to the reference model, a CR-regulated IMF instead implies shorter star formation histories and higher peaks of star formation for objects more massive than 1010.5 M⊙. However, we also show that it is difficult to unveil this behaviour from observations, as the key physical quantities are typically derived assuming a universal IMF.

  5. The stellar and substellar mass function in central region of the old open cluster Praesepe from deep LBT observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman B.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the mass function of open clusters of different ages allow us to study the efficiency with which brown dwarfs are evaporated from clusters to populate the field. Surveys in relatively old clusters (age ≳100 Myr do not suffer from problems found in young clusters, such as intra-cluster extinction and large uncertainties in brown dwarf models. In this paper, we present the results of a photometric survey to study the mass function of the old open cluster Praesepe (age of ~590 Myr and distance of ~190 pc, down to the substellar regime. We have performed optical (riz and Y-band photometric survey of Praesepe with the Large Binocular Telescope Camera, for a spatial coverage of 0.61 deg2 from ~90 MJ down to a 5σ detection limit at 40 MJ.

  6. Mass transfer resistance in ASFF reactors for waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettouney, H M; Al-Haddad, A A; Abu-Irhayem, T M

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of mass transfer resistances was performed for an aerated submerged fixed-film reactor (ASFF) for the treatment of waste water containing a mixture of sucrose and ammonia. Both external and internal mass transfer resistances were considered in the analysis, and characterized as a function of feed flow-rate and concentration. Results show that, over a certain operating regime, external mass transfer resistance in the system was greater for sucrose removal than ammonia. This is because the reaction rates for carbon removal were much larger than those of nitrogen. As a result, existence of any form of mass transfer resistance caused by inadequate mixing or diffusion limitations, strongly affects the overall removal rates of carbon more than nitrogen. Effects of the internal måss transfer resistance were virtually non-existent for ammonia removal. This behaviour was found over two orders of magnitude range for the effective diffusivity for ammonia, and one order of magnitude for the film specific surface area. However, over the same parameters' range, it is found that sucrose removal was strongly affected upon lowering its effective diffusivity and increasing the film specific surface area.

  7. [Gastroduodenal intussusception causing gastric retention.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alamili, M.; Berg, J.O.; Lindstrom, C.

    2008-01-01

    A case of gastroduodenal intussusception caused by a duodenal lipoma is presented. The condition was characterized by severe upper gastrointestinal retention, epigastric pain and weight loss. The mass was diagnosed by CT scan. The diagnosis was confirmed by operation. The patient was treated succ...

  8. Atomic mass prediction from the mass formula with empirical shell terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Masahiro; Yamada, Masami

    1982-08-01

    The mass-excess prediction of about 8000 nuclides was calculated from two types of the atomic mass formulas with empirical shell terms of Uno and Yamada. The theoretical errors to accompany the calculated mass excess are also presented. These errors have been obtained by a new statistical method. The mass-excess prediction includes the term of the gross feature of a nuclear mass surface, the shell terms and a small correction term for odd-odd nuclei. Two functional forms for the shell terms were used. The first is the constant form, and the sencond is the linear form. In determining the values of shell parameters, only the data of even-even and odd-A nuclei were used. A new statistical method was applied, in which the error inherent to the mass formula was taken account. The obtained shell parameters and the values of mass excess are shown in tables. (Kato, T.)

  9. Carbon source/sink function of a subtropical, eutrophic lake determined from an overall mass balance and a gas exchange and carbon burial balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hong; Xing Yangping; Xie Ping; Ni Leyi; Rong Kewen

    2008-01-01

    Although studies on carbon burial in lake sediments have shown that lakes are disproportionately important carbon sinks, many studies on gaseous carbon exchange across the water-air interface have demonstrated that lakes are supersaturated with CO 2 and CH 4 causing a net release of CO 2 and CH 4 to the atmosphere. In order to more accurately estimate the net carbon source/sink function of lake ecosystems, a more comprehensive carbon budget is needed, especially for gaseous carbon exchange across the water-air interface. Using two methods, overall mass balance and gas exchange and carbon burial balance, we assessed the carbon source/sink function of Lake Donghu, a subtropical, eutrophic lake, from April 2003 to March 2004. With the overall mass balance calculations, total carbon input was 14 905 t, total carbon output was 4950 t, and net carbon budget was +9955 t, suggesting that Lake Donghu was a great carbon sink. For the gas exchange and carbon burial balance, gaseous carbon (CO 2 and CH 4 ) emission across the water-air interface totaled 752 t while carbon burial in the lake sediment was 9477 t. The ratio of carbon emission into the atmosphere to carbon burial into the sediment was only 0.08. This low ratio indicates that Lake Donghu is a great carbon sink. Results showed good agreement between the two methods with both showing Lake Donghu to be a great carbon sink. This results from the high primary production of Lake Donghu, substantive allochthonous carbon inputs and intensive anthropogenic activity. Gaseous carbon emission accounted for about 15% of the total carbon output, indicating that the total output would be underestimated without including gaseous carbon exchange. - Due to high primary production, substantive allochthonous carbon inputs and intensive anthropogenic acitivity, subtropical, eutrophic Lake Donghu is a great carbon sink

  10. The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA Survey : X. The HI Mass Function and Omega_HI From the 40% ALFALFA Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Ann M.; Papastergis, Emmanouil; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Springob, Christopher M.; Stierwalt, Sabrina

    2010-01-01

    The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey has completed source extraction for 40% of its total sky area, resulting in the largest sample of HI-selected galaxies to date. We measure the HI mass function from a sample of 10,119 galaxies with 6.2

  11. Effects of Galaxy collisions on the structure and evolution of Galaxy clusters. I. Mass and luminosity functions and background light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.E.; Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin)

    1983-01-01

    The role of galaxy collisions in controlling the form of the galaxy mass and luminosity functions and in creating a diffuse background light is investigated by means of a direct computer simulation. Galaxy collisions are treated in a realistic manner, including both galaxy mergers and tidal encounters. A large number of theoretical studies of a galaxy collisions were consulted to formulate the basic input physics of collision cross sections. Despite this large number of studies, there remains considerable uncertainty in the effects of a collision on a galaxy due mainly to our lack of knowledge of the orbital distribution of matter in galaxies. To improve this situation, some methods of semiempirical calibration are suggested: for example, a survey of background light in clusters of different richness and morphological classes. If real galaxies are represented by galaxy models where the bulk of the matter is on radial, rather than circular, orbits, then tidal collisions are more damaging and there are a number of interesting effects: Repeated tidal encounters lead to galaxy mass and luminosity functions which are largely independent of model parameters and the initial galaxy mass function. It appears unlikely that the form of the average present-day luminosity function characteristic of both field and cluster galaxies is due to collisions, but certain observed deviations from the average found by Heiligman and Turner and by Dressler may be a signature of collisions, in particular a flat faint-end slope. The amount of luminous matter stripped from the galaxies in the simulations agrees with the amount of diffuse background light seen in the Coma Cluster

  12. Gas puff radiation performance as a function of radial mass distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, Philip L.; Krishnan, Mahadevan; Prasad, Rahul; Qi, Niansheng; Waisman, Eduardo; Failor, B.H.; Levine, J.S.; Sze, H.

    2002-01-01

    The basic concept of a z-pinch, that JxB forces implode a shell of mass, creating a hot dense plasma on-axis, is coming under closer scrutiny. Wire arrays may start with an initial cold mass in a near 'ideal' shell, but in fact they appear to develop complex radial mass distributions well before the final x-ray output. We consider here the situation for gas puff z-pinches. While the ideal of a gas 'shell' has been the nominal objective for many years, detailed measurements of gas flow show that nozzles used for plasma radiation sources (PRS) also have complex radial distributions. In particular, there are significant data showing that the best x-ray yield comes from the least shell-like distributions. Recent experiments on the Double Eagle generator with argon have further enhanced this view. For those tests with a double 'shell' nozzle, there was a factor of almost 4 increase in yield when the relative mass (outer:inner) in the two shells was changed from 2:1 to less than 1:1. We suggest the following explanation. A configuration with most of its mass at large radii is subject to severe disruption by instabilities during the implosion. A more continuous radial mass distribution with dρ/dr < 0 may mitigate instability development (via the 'snowplow stabilization' mechanism) and thus enhance the thermalization of the kinetic energy of the imploding mass. In addition, the appropriate balance of outer to inner mass maximizes the formation of a strong shock in the core of the pinch that heats the plasma and leads to x-ray emission

  13. The Role of Muscle Mass, Muscle Quality, and Body Composition in Risk for the Metabolic Syndrome and Functional Decline in Older Adults: Topical Collection on Nutrition, Obesity, and Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.T. Mankowski (Robert T.); S.D. Anton (Stephen D.); M. Aubertin-Leheudre (Mylene)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Age-related body composition changes include both loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and increase in fat mass, which jointly contribute to a decline in metabolic functions. Muscle quality is positively related to functional capacity and a lower risk for the development of the

  14. Neurodevelopmental disruption of cortico-striatal function caused by degeneration of habenula neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-A Lee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The habenula plays an important role on cognitive and affective functions by regulating monoamines transmission such as the dopamine and serotonin, such that its dysfunction is thought to underlie a number of psychiatric conditions. Given that the monoamine systems are highly vulnerable to neurodevelopmental insults, damages in the habenula during early neurodevelopment may cause devastating effects on the wide-spread brain areas targeted by monoamine innervations.Using a battery of behavioral, anatomical, and biochemical assays, we examined the impacts of neonatal damage in the habenula on neurodevelopmental sequelae of the prefrontal cortex (PFC and nucleus accumbens (NAcc and associated behavioral deficits in rodents. Neonatal lesion of the medial and lateral habenula by ibotenic acid produced an assortment of behavioral manifestations consisting of hyper-locomotion, impulsivity, and attention deficit, with hyper-locomotion and impulsivity being observed only in the juvenile period, whereas attention deficit was sustained up until adulthood. Moreover, these behavioral alterations were also improved by amphetamine. Our study further revealed that impulsivity and attention deficit were associated with disruption of PFC volume and dopamine (DA receptor expression, respectively. In contrast, hyper-locomotion was associated with decreased DA transporter expression in the NAcc. We also found that neonatal administration of nicotine into the habenula of neonatal brains produced selective lesion of the medial habenula. Behavioral deficits with neonatal nicotine administration were similar to those caused by ibotenic acid lesion of both medial and lateral habenula during the juvenile period, whereas they were different in adulthood.Because of similarity between behavioral and brain alterations caused by neonatal insults in the habenula and the symptoms and suggested neuropathology in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, these results

  15. Cross-sectional imaging in pediatric neck masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenigsberg, R.A.; Patel, M.; Horowitz, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on US, CT, and MR imaging that demonstrates unique roles in the evaluation of pediatric neck masses. The causes of these masses range from infections/abscesses to primary and secondary tumors. The purpose of this paper is to review pediatric neck masses and the current role of cross-sectional imaging. Seventy-one examinations of the neck by means of CT, US, and MR imaging on 62 patients aged 1-21 y were retrospectively reviewed. Diseases were categorized according to benign versus malignant causes. Benign: 9 abscesses/cellulitis, 5 thyroglossal duct cysts, 3 branchial cleft cysts, 2 parotid cysts, 2 benign enlarged lumphadenopathies, 2 cystic hydromas, 1 ranula, and 1 hematoma

  16. Using Dark Matter Haloes to Learn about Cosmic Acceleration: A New Proposal for a Universal Mass Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda; Afshordi, Niayesh

    2011-01-01

    Structure formation provides a strong test of any cosmic acceleration model because a successful dark energy model must not inhibit or overpredict the development of observed large-scale structures. Traditional approaches to studies of structure formation in the presence of dark energy or a modified gravity implement a modified Press-Schechter formalism, which relates the linear overdensities to the abundance of dark matter haloes at the same time. We critically examine the universality of the Press-Schechter formalism for different cosmologies, and show that the halo abundance is best correlated with spherical linear overdensity at 94% of collapse (or observation) time. We then extend this argument to ellipsoidal collapse (which decreases the fractional time of best correlation for small haloes), and show that our results agree with deviations from modified Press-Schechter formalism seen in simulated mass functions. This provides a novel universal prescription to measure linear density evolution, based on current and future observations of cluster (or dark matter) halo mass function. In particular, even observations of cluster abundance in a single epoch will constrain the entire history of linear growth of cosmological of perturbations.

  17. High-accuracy mass determination of unstable nuclei with a Penning trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The mass of a nucleus is its most fundamental property. A systematic study of nuclear masses as a function of neutron and proton number allows the observation of collective and single-particle effects in nuclear structure. Accurate mass data are the most basic test of nuclear models and are essential for their improvement. This is especially important for the astrophysical study of nuclear synthesis. In order to achieve the required high accuracy, the mass of ions captured in a Penning trap is determined via their cyclotron frequency $ \

  18. Neutrino wave function and oscillation suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.D.; Lychkovskiy, O.V.; Mamonov, A.A.; Okun, L.B.; Schepkin, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    We consider a thought experiment, in which a neutrino is produced by an electron on a nucleus in a crystal. The wave function of the oscillating neutrino is calculated assuming that the electron is described by a wave packet. If the electron is relativistic and the spatial size of its wave packet is much larger than the size of the crystal cell, then the wave packet of the produced neutrino has essentially the same size as the wave packet of the electron. We investigate the suppression of neutrino oscillations at large distances caused by two mechanisms: (1) spatial separation of wave packets corresponding to different neutrino masses; (2) neutrino energy dispersion for given neutrino mass eigenstates. We resolve the contributions of these two mechanisms. (orig.)

  19. Popliteal Venous Aneurysm: A Rare Cause of Recurrent Pulmonary Emboli and Limb Swelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, David A.; Robinson, Graham J.; Johnson, Brian F.

    2008-01-01

    Popliteal venous aneurysm is a rare cause of recurrent pulmonary embolism, although the true incidence of aneurysm is probably underestimated. One-third of patients suffer further embolic events despite therapeutic anticoagulation. We report the case of a 59-year-old male who presented with recurrent PEs over a period of 12 years despite anticoagulation therapy. A thrombophilia screen and abdominal ultrasound were normal at that time. He reattended with recurrent pulmonary emboli, left calf swelling, and a mass in his left popliteal fossa causing limitation of knee movement. Venous duplex and MRI of his popliteal fossa demonstrated a thrombosed true popliteal venous aneurysm with popliteal and superficial femoral vein occlusion. In view of the mass effect we proceeded to surgical excision of his aneurysm after prophylactic placement of an IVC filter. The patient regained normal knee function with intensive inpatient physiotherapy. He has been recommenced on lifelong anticoagulant. The presentation, investigation, and management of the condition are briefly discussed. We suggest that a bilateral lower limb duplex is performed to exclude venous aneurysm in all patients presenting with pulmonary embolism in which an underlying source cannot otherwise be identified and no thrombophilic tendency is detected.

  20. Ebselen treatment prevents islet apoptosis, maintains intranuclear Pdx-1 and MafA levels, and preserves β-cell mass and function in ZDF rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Jana; Parazzoli, Susan; Oseid, Elizabeth; Hertzel, Ann V; Bernlohr, David A; Vallerie, Sara N; Liu, Chang-qin; Lopez, Melissa; Harmon, Jamie S; Robertson, R Paul

    2013-10-01

    We reported earlier that β-cell-specific overexpression of glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-1 significantly ameliorated hyperglycemia in diabetic db/db mice and prevented glucotoxicity-induced deterioration of β-cell mass and function. We have now ascertained whether early treatment of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats with ebselen, an oral GPx mimetic, will prevent β-cell deterioration. No other antihyperglycemic treatment was given. Ebselen ameliorated fasting hyperglycemia, sustained nonfasting insulin levels, lowered nonfasting glucose levels, and lowered HbA1c levels with no effects on body weight. Ebselen doubled β-cell mass, prevented apoptosis, prevented expression of oxidative stress markers, and enhanced intranuclear localization of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox (Pdx)-1 and v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family, protein A (MafA), two critical insulin transcription factors. Minimal β-cell replication was observed in both groups. These findings indicate that prevention of oxidative stress is the mechanism whereby ebselen prevents apoptosis and preserves intranuclear Pdx-1 and MafA, which, in turn, is a likely explanation for the beneficial effects of ebselen on β-cell mass and function. Since ebselen is an oral antioxidant currently used in clinical trials, it is a novel therapeutic candidate to ameliorate fasting hyperglycemia and further deterioration of β-cell mass and function in humans undergoing the onset of type 2 diabetes.

  1. Top-quark mass from the diphoton mass spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawabata, Sayaka [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Institute of Convergence Fundamental Studies, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yokoya, Hiroshi [Quantum Universe Center, KIAS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    We calculate the gg → γγ amplitude by including the t anti t bound-state effects near their mass threshold. In terms of the non-relativistic expansion of the amplitude, the LO contribution is an energy-independent term in the one-loop amplitude. We include the NLO contribution described by the non-relativistic Green function and part of the NNLO contribution. Despite a missing NLO piece which can be accomplished with the two-loop-level amplitude via massive quarks, the shape of the diphoton mass spectrum is predicted with a good accuracy. Thanks to the simple and clean nature of the observable, its experimental measurement can be a direct method to determine the short-distance mass of the top quark at hadron colliders. (orig.)

  2. Ecological selectivity of the emerging mass extinction in the oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jonathan L; Bush, Andrew M; Heim, Noel A; Knope, Matthew L; McCauley, Douglas J

    2016-09-16

    To better predict the ecological and evolutionary effects of the emerging biodiversity crisis in the modern oceans, we compared the association between extinction threat and ecological traits in modern marine animals to associations observed during past extinction events using a database of 2497 marine vertebrate and mollusc genera. We find that extinction threat in the modern oceans is strongly associated with large body size, whereas past extinction events were either nonselective or preferentially removed smaller-bodied taxa. Pelagic animals were victimized more than benthic animals during previous mass extinctions but are not preferentially threatened in the modern ocean. The differential importance of large-bodied animals to ecosystem function portends greater future ecological disruption than that caused by similar levels of taxonomic loss in past mass extinction events. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Association of Body Mass Index with Asthma Severity and Pulmonary Function among Asthmatic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasuol Nasiri Kalmarzi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease in respiratory system and obesity is another inflammatory disease which incidence rate is increasing. Although, many studies have been conducted on severity of asthma and its relationship with obesity, but different results have been obtained. This study aimed to determine a relationship between asthma severity, Body Mass Index (BMI and pulmonary function in Kurdistan province, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study 90 asthmatic patients referred to referral hospital in Kurdistan, North West of Iran, were selected by simple random method. BMI was calculated by dividing weight by height.Pulmonary Function Test (PFT and bronchial-stimulation-test were used for confirmation and investigation of asthma severity. Data were analyzed using SPSS-15 and Chi-square and spearman correlation coefficient tests. Results: Relationship between BMI and severity of asthma (mild, medium and severe was evaluated, there was a relationship and positive relationship between them (P

  4. Measurement of the strangeness spectral function and the mass of the strange quark in hadronic τ decays with the OPAL detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mader, W.

    2004-03-01

    Tau lepton decays with open strangeness in the final state are measured with the Opal detector at LEP to determine the strange hadronic spectral function of the τ lepton and the mass of the strange quark. The decays τ - → (Kπ) - ν τ , (Kππ) - ν τ and (Kπππ) - ν τ with final states consisting of neutral and charged kaons and pions, have been studied. The invariant mass distribution of 93.4% of these final states have been experimentally determined. Monte Carlo simulations have been used for the remaining 6.6% and for the strange final states including η mesons. The reconstructed strange final states, corrected for resolution effects and detection efficiencies, yield the strange spectral function of the τ lepton. The moments of the spectral function and the ratio of strange to non-strange moments, which are important input parameters for theoretical analyses, are determined. Furthermore, the branching fractions B(τ - → K - π 0 ν τ ) = (0.471 ± 0.064 stat ± 0.021 sys )%, B(τ - → K - π + π - ν τ ) = (0.415 ± 0.059 stat ± 0.031 sys )% have been measured. From the CKM weighted difference of strange and non-strange spectral moments, the mass of the strange quark at the τ mass scale has been determined: m s (m τ 2 ) = (84 ± 14 exp ± 6 V us ± 17 theo ) MeV. Evolving this result to customary scales yields m s (1 GeV 2 ) = (111 -35 +26 ) MeV, m s (4 GeV 2 ) = (82 -25 +19 ) MeV. (orig.)

  5. On the Mass Distribution of Animal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redner, Sidney; Clauset, Aaron; Schwab, David

    2009-03-01

    We develop a simple diffusion-reaction model to account for the broad and asymmetric distribution of adult body masses for species within related taxonomic groups. The model assumes three basic evolutionary features that control body mass: (i) a fixed lower limit that is set by metabolic constraints, (ii) a species extinction risk that is a weakly increasing function of body mass, and (iii) cladogenetic diffusion, in which daughter species have a slight tendency toward larger mass. The steady-state solution for the distribution of species masses in this model can be expressed in terms of the Airy function. This solution gives mass distributions that are in good agreement with data on 4002 terrestrial mammal species from the late Quaternary and 8617 extant bird species.

  6. Regulation of lean mass, bone mass, and exercise tolerance by the central melanocortin system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore P Braun

    Full Text Available Signaling via the type 4-melanocortin receptor (MC4R is an important determinant of body weight in mice and humans, where loss of function mutations lead to significant obesity. Humans with mutations in the MC4R experience an increase in lean mass. However, the simultaneous accrual of fat mass in such individuals may contribute to this effect via mechanical loading. We therefore examined the relationship of fat mass and lean mass in mice lacking the type-4 melanocortin receptor (MC4RKO. We demonstrate that MC4RKO mice display increased lean body mass. Further, this is not dependent on changes in adipose mass, as MC4RKO mice possess more lean body mass than diet-induced obese (DIO wild type mice with equivalent fat mass. To examine potential sources of the increased lean mass in MC4RKO mice, bone mass and strength were examined in MC4RKO mice. Both parameters increase with age in MC4RKO mice, which likely contributes to increases in lean body mass. We functionally characterized the increased lean mass in MC4RKO mice by examining their capacity for treadmill running. MC4R deficiency results in a decrease in exercise performance. No changes in the ratio of oxidative to glycolytic fibers were seen, however MC4RKO mice demonstrate a significantly reduced heart rate, which may underlie their impaired exercise performance. The reduced exercise capacity we report in the MC4RKO mouse has potential clinical ramifications, as efforts to control body weight in humans with melanocortin deficiency may be ineffective due to poor tolerance for physical activity.

  7. A model on CME/Flare initiation: Loss of Equilibrium caused by mass loss of quiescent prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George; Chon Nam, Sok; Kim, Mun Song; Kim, Jik Su

    2015-08-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) model should give an answer to enough energy storage for giant bulk plasma into interplanetary space to escape against the sun’s gravitation and its explosive eruption. Advocates of ‘Mass Loading’ model (e.g. Low, B. 1996, SP, 167, 217) suggested a simple mechanism of CME initiation, the loss of mass from a prominence anchoring magnetic flux rope, but they did not associate the mass loss with the loss of equilibrium. The catastrophic loss of equilibrium model is considered as to be a prospective CME/Flare model to explain sudden eruption of magnetic flux systems. Isenberg, P. A., et al (1993, ApJ, 417, 368)developed ideal magnetohydrodynamic theory of the magnetic flux rope to show occurrence of catastrophic loss of equilibrium according to increasing magnetic flux transported into corona.We begin with extending their study including gravity on prominence’s material to obtain equilibrium curves in case of given mass parameters, which are the strengths of the gravitational force compared with the characteristic magnetic force. Furthermore, we study quasi-static evolution of the system including massive prominence flux rope and current sheet below it to obtain equilibrium curves of prominence’s height according to decreasing mass parameter in a properly fixed magnetic environment. The curves show equilibrium loss behaviors to imply that mass loss result in equilibrium loss. Released fractions of magnetic energy are greater than corresponding zero-mass case. This eruption mechanism is expected to be able to apply to the eruptions of quiescent prominences, which is located in relatively weak magnetic environment with 105 km of scale length and 10G of photospheric magnetic field.

  8. 92 INSULIN RESISTANCE: CAUSES AND METABOLIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... Edo State Institute of Technology and Management. Usen, Edo State ... type 2 diabetes mellitus. The cause of the vast ... Insulin (molecular mass 6000D) consists of 51 amino acids .... Experimental Biology and. Medicine 2004 ...

  9. The effects of dance music jump rope exercise on pulmonary function and body mass index after music jump rope exercise in overweight adults in 20's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, KyoChul

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a dance music jump rope exercise on changes Pulmonary Function and body mass index in female overweight subjects in their 20's. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly assigned to the dance music jump rope exercise group and the stationary cycle exercise group. All subjects have conducted the exercises three times a week for four weeks. Pulmonary function was evaluated using a spirometer, and body mass index was evaluated using an InBody 3.0. [Results] The findings of this study showed significant improvements in the voluntary capacity and body mass index of the experimental groups. Vital capacity was higher in the music jump rope exercise group than the stationary cycle exercise group, and body mass index was lower in the music jump rope exercise group than the stationary cycle exercise group. [Conclusion] This study showed that the dance music jump rope exercise can be used to improve vital capacity and body mass index.

  10. TDP-43 Loss-of-Function Causes Neuronal Loss Due to Defective Steroid Receptor-Mediated Gene Program Switching in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Vanden Broeck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available TDP-43 proteinopathy is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and related neurodegenerative disorders. Whether TDP-43 neurotoxicity is caused by a novel toxic gain-of-function mechanism of the aggregates or by a loss of its normal function is unknown. We increased and decreased expression of TDP-43 (dTDP-43 in Drosophila. Although upregulation of dTDP-43 induced neuronal ubiquitin and dTDP-43-positive inclusions, both up- and downregulated dTDP-43 resulted in selective apoptosis of bursicon neurons and highly similar transcriptome alterations at the pupal-adult transition. Gene network analysis and genetic validation showed that both up- and downregulated dTDP-43 directly and dramatically increased the expression of the neuronal microtubule-associated protein Map205, resulting in cytoplasmic accumulations of the ecdysteroid receptor (EcR and a failure to switch EcR-dependent gene programs from a pupal to adult pattern. We propose that dTDP-43 neurotoxicity is caused by a loss of its normal function.

  11. Mass spectrometry in clinical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersen, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    A brief description is given of the functional elements of a mass spectrometer and of some currently employed mass spectrometric techniques, such as combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, mass chromatography, and selected ion monitoring. Various areas of application of mass spectrometry in clinical chemistry are discussed, such as inborn errors of metabolism and other metabolic disorders, intoxications, quantitative determinations of drugs, hormones, gases, and trace elements, and the use of isotope dilution mass spectrometry as a definitive method for the establishment of true values for concentrations of various compounds in reference sera. It is concluded that mass spectrometry is of great value in clinical chemistry. (Auth.)

  12. Increased heart rate caused by atrial pacing with the closed-loop stimulation function prevented micturition syncope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuo Haraki, MD,PhD

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A 70-year-old man had been experiencing syncope several times a year. We implanted a DDD pacemaker with closed-loop stimulation (CLS function. When he urinated early in the morning, his increased atrial pacing rates elevated his heart rate (HR during and after micturition. After implantation of the DDD-CLS mode, he did not experience symptoms. In contrast, in the DDD-R mode, his intrinsic HR changed to atrial pacing after micturition but decreased to the basal rate within 2 min, and he experienced a sense of cold perspiration and presyncope. Increased HRs caused by atrial pacing with the CLS function were useful in the prevention of micturition syncope.

  13. The influence of galaxy environment on the stellar initial mass function of early-type galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosani, Giulio; Pasquali, Anna; La Barbera, Francesco; Ferreras, Ignacio; Vazdekis, Alexandre

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether the stellar initial mass function (IMF) of early-type galaxies depends on their host environment. To this purpose, we have selected a sample of early-type galaxies from the SPIDER catalogue, characterized their environment through the group catalogue of Wang et al., and used their optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra to constrain the IMF slope, through the analysis of IMF-sensitive spectral indices. To reach a high enough signal-to-noise ratio, we have stacked spectra in velocity dispersion (σ0) bins, on top of separating the sample by galaxy hierarchy and host halo mass, as proxies for galaxy environment. In order to constrain the IMF, we have compared observed line strengths and predictions of MIUSCAT/EMILES synthetic stellar population models, with varying age, metallicity, and `bimodal' (low-mass tapered) IMF slope (Γ _b). Consistent with previous studies, we find that Γ _b increases with σ0, becoming bottom-heavy (i.e. an excess of low-mass stars with respect to the Milky Way like IMF) at high σ0. We find that this result is robust against the set of isochrones used in the stellar population models, as well as the way the effect of elemental abundance ratios is taken into account. We thus conclude that it is possible to use currently state-of-the-art stellar population models and intermediate resolution spectra to consistently probe IMF variations. For the first time, we show that there is no dependence of Γb on environment or galaxy hierarchy, as measured within the 3 arcsec SDSS fibre, thus leaving the IMF as an intrinsic galaxy property, possibly set already at high redshift.

  14. Upper bounds on superpartner masses from upper bounds on the Higgs boson mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, M E; Casas, J A; Delgado, A

    2012-01-13

    The LHC is putting bounds on the Higgs boson mass. In this Letter we use those bounds to constrain the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) parameter space using the fact that, in supersymmetry, the Higgs mass is a function of the masses of sparticles, and therefore an upper bound on the Higgs mass translates into an upper bound for the masses for superpartners. We show that, although current bounds do not constrain the MSSM parameter space from above, once the Higgs mass bound improves big regions of this parameter space will be excluded, putting upper bounds on supersymmetry (SUSY) masses. On the other hand, for the case of split-SUSY we show that, for moderate or large tanβ, the present bounds on the Higgs mass imply that the common mass for scalars cannot be greater than 10(11)  GeV. We show how these bounds will evolve as LHC continues to improve the limits on the Higgs mass.

  15. Sixty-four-slice multidetector computed tomography for preoperative evaluation of left ventricular function and mass in patients with mitral regurgitation: comparison with magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Ying-kun; Yang, Zhi-gang; Ning, Gang; Rao, Li; Pen, Ying; Wu, Yang; Dong, Li; Zhang, Tai-ming; Zhang, Xiao-chun; Wang, Qi-ling

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative values of left ventricular (LV) function and muscle mass in patients with mitral regurgitation are independent predictors of cardiac morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate whether 64-MDCT can assess the LV function in patients with mitral regurgitation with high accuracy when compared with the MRI and echocardiography results. Fifty-one patients with mitral regurgitation underwent retrospectively ECG-gated 64-MDCT, echocardiography, and MRI for assessing the global ventricular function. End-diastolic and end-systolic volume, stroke volume, ejection fraction, and mass were measured on 64-MDCT and echocardiography, and compared with the results measured on MRI which served as the reference standard. Intertechnique agreement was tested by using Pearson's correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. No significant differences were revealed in calculated LV function and mass between the 64-MDCT and MRI (paired t test, p = 0.07-0.53). Pearson's correlation analysis showed the functional parameters and mass correlated closely between the 64-MDCT and MRI (r = 0.89-0.96, p < 0.001). When compared with MRI, echocardiography underestimated the volumetric parameters of LV (paired t test, p = 0.0003-0.004), but significantly overestimated the EF values (p = 0.003), and moderate correlations of functional parameters were obtained (r = 0.78, 0.60, 0.81, and 0.62, respectively). ECG-gated 64-MDCT allows for accurate and reliable assessment of LV function in patients with mitral regurgitation, whereas LV volumes measured by two-dimensional echocardiography were underestimated and the ejection fraction was overestimated when compared with those achieved by using MRI. (orig.)

  16. Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: The system generates superior quality mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data from both atmospheric pressure ionization (API) and...

  17. Loss of hfe function reverses impaired recognition memory caused by olfactory manganese exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qi; Kim, Jonghan

    2015-03-01

    Excessive manganese (Mn) in the brain promotes a variety of abnormal behaviors, including memory deficits, decreased motor skills and psychotic behavior resembling Parkinson's disease. Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is a prevalent genetic iron overload disorder worldwide. Dysfunction in HFE gene is the major cause of HH. Our previous study has demonstrated that olfactory Mn uptake is altered by HFE deficiency, suggesting that loss of HFE function could alter manganese-associated neurotoxicity. To test this hypothesis, Hfe-knockout (Hfe (-/-)) and wild-type (Hfe (+/+)) mice mice were intranasally-instilled with manganese chloride (MnCl2 5 mg/kg) or water daily for 3 weeks and examined for memory function. Olfactory Mn diminished both short-term recognition and spatial memory in Hfe (+/+) mice, as examined by novel object recognition task and Barnes maze test, respectively. Interestingly, Hfe (-/-) mice did not show impaired recognition memory caused by Mn exposure, suggesting a potential protective effect of Hfe deficiency against Mn-induced memory deficits. Since many of the neurotoxic effects of manganese are thought to result from increased oxidative stress, we quantified activities of anti-oxidant enzymes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Mn instillation decreased superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) activity in Hfe (+/+) mice, but not in Hfe (-/-) mice. In addition, Hfe deficiency up-regulated SOD1 and glutathione peroxidase activities. These results suggest a beneficial role of Hfe deficiency in attenuating Mn-induced oxidative stress in the PFC. Furthermore, Mn exposure reduced nicotinic acetylcholine receptor levels in the PFC, indicating that blunted acetylcholine signaling could contribute to impaired memory associated with intranasal manganese. Together, our model suggests that disrupted cholinergic system in the brain is involved in airborne Mn-induced memory deficits and loss of HFE function could in part prevent memory loss via a potential up-regulation of

  18. Adenosine kinase deficiency disrupts the methionine cycle and causes hypermethioninemia, encephalopathy, and abnormal liver function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjursell, Magnus K; Blom, Henk J; Cayuela, Jordi Asin; Engvall, Martin L; Lesko, Nicole; Balasubramaniam, Shanti; Brandberg, Göran; Halldin, Maria; Falkenberg, Maria; Jakobs, Cornelis; Smith, Desiree; Struys, Eduard; von Döbeln, Ulrika; Gustafsson, Claes M; Lundeberg, Joakim; Wedell, Anna

    2011-10-07

    Four inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are known to cause hypermethioninemia by directly interfering with the methionine cycle. Hypermethioninemia is occasionally discovered incidentally, but it is often disregarded as an unspecific finding, particularly if liver disease is involved. In many individuals the hypermethioninemia resolves without further deterioration, but it can also represent an early sign of a severe, progressive neurodevelopmental disorder. Further investigation of unclear hypermethioninemia is therefore important. We studied two siblings affected by severe developmental delay and liver dysfunction. Biochemical analysis revealed increased plasma levels of methionine, S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), and S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) but normal or mildly elevated homocysteine (Hcy) levels, indicating a block in the methionine cycle. We excluded S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH) deficiency, which causes a similar biochemical phenotype, by using genetic and biochemical techniques and hypothesized that there was a functional block in the SAHH enzyme as a result of a recessive mutation in a different gene. Using exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous c.902C>A (p.Ala301Glu) missense mutation in the adenosine kinase gene (ADK), the function of which fits perfectly with this hypothesis. Increased urinary adenosine excretion confirmed ADK deficiency in the siblings. Four additional individuals from two unrelated families with a similar presentation were identified and shown to have a homozygous c.653A>C (p.Asp218Ala) and c.38G>A (p.Gly13Glu) mutation, respectively, in the same gene. All three missense mutations were deleterious, as shown by activity measurements on recombinant enzymes. ADK deficiency is a previously undescribed, severe IEM shedding light on a functional link between the methionine cycle and adenosine metabolism. Copyright © 2011 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mass spectrometers in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushman, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes how the mass spectrometer enables true lung function, namely the exchange of gases between the environment and the organism, to be measured. This has greatly improved the understanding of respiratory disease and the latest generation of respiratory mass spectrometers will do much to increase the application of the technique. (author)

  20. Mass Estimation and Its Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    parameters); e.g., the rect- angular kernel function has fixed width or fixed per unit size. But the rectangular function used in mass has no parameter...MassTER is implemented in JAVA , and we use DBSCAN in WEKA [13] and a version of DENCLUE implemented in R (www.r-project.org) in our empirical evaluation...Proceedings of SIGKDD, 2010, 989-998. [13] I.H. Witten and E. Frank, Data Mining: Practical Machine Learning Tools and Techniques with Java Implementations

  1. Effect of body mass index on functional outcomes following arthroplasty procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Gokhan; Ceylan, Hasan Huseyin; Sayar, Safak; Kucukdurmaz, Fatih; Erdil, Mehmet; Tuncay, Ibrahim

    2015-12-18

    To evaluate the body mass index (BMI) change in arthroplasty patients and its impact on the patients' functional results. Between October 2010 and May 2013, 606 patients who were operated due to gonarthrosis, coxarthrosis, aseptic loosening of the total knee and hip prosthesis were evaluated prospectively. Patients were operated by three surgeons in three medical centers. Patients who were between 30-90 years of age and who were underwent total knee arthroplasty, total hip arthroplasty, revision knee arthroplasty, or revision hip arthroplasty were included in the study. We excluded the patients who cannot tolerate our standard postoperative rehabilitation program. Additionally, patients who had systemic inflammatory diseases, diabetes mellitus, or endochrinopathies were excluded from the study. The remaining 513 patients comprised our study group. Preoperative functional joint scores, height, weight and BMI of all patients were recorded. We used the Knee Society Score (KSS) for knee and Harris Hip Score (HHS) for hip patients. Postoperative functional scores were measured at 1(st), 6(th) and 12(th) months and recorded separately at outpatient visits. The mean age of the patients was 64.7 (range: 30-90) years (207 males/306 females) and the mean follow-up duration was 14.3 (range: 12-26) mo. We found that arthroplasty patients had weight gain and had an increase in BMI at the postoperative 1(st), 6(th) and 12(th) months. The mean BMI of the patients was 27.7 preoperatively, 27.8 at the postoperative 1(st) month, 28.1 at the 6(th) month and 28.6 at the 12(th) month (P < 0.01). At the last visit, the mean postoperative HHS of the hip arthroplasty patients was 82.2 ± 7.12 (preoperatively, 52.3; 1(st) month, 78.2; 6(th) month, 81.1; 12(th) month, 82.2), and the mean KSS of the knee arthroplasty patients was 79.3 ± 4.31 (preoperatively, 35.8; 1(st) month, 75.2; 6(th) month, 79.1; 12(th) month, 79.3). Worse functional results were noted in the patients who had a BMI

  2. Restraint training for awake functional brain scanning of rodents can cause long-lasting changes in pain and stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lucie A; Bauer, Lucy C; Pitcher, Mark H; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2016-08-01

    With the increased interest in longitudinal brain imaging of awake rodents, it is important to understand both the short-term and long-term effects of restraint on sensory and emotional processing in the brain. To understand the effects of repeated restraint on pain behaviors and stress responses, we modeled a restraint protocol similar to those used to habituate rodents for magnetic resonance imaging scanning, and studied sensory sensitivity and stress hormone responses over 5 days. To uncover lasting effects of training, we also looked at responses to the formalin pain test 2 weeks later. We found that while restraint causes acute increases in the stress hormone corticosterone, it can also cause lasting reductions in nociceptive behavior in the formalin test, coupled with heightened corticosterone levels and increased activation of the "nociceptive" central nucleus of the amygdala, as seen by Fos protein expression. These results suggest that short-term repeated restraint, similar to that used to habituate rats for awake functional brain scanning, could potentially cause long-lasting changes in physiological and brain responses to pain stimuli that are stress-related, and therefore could potentially confound the functional activation patterns seen in awake rodents in response to pain stimuli.

  3. A generating function for a class of effective Chew-Mandelstam functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, J.H.

    1982-12-01

    We have obtained the generating function for a class of effective Chew-Mandelstam functions for arbitrary integral angular momentum. From this a closed formula for the Chew-Mandelstam functions themselves is derived in both the simple equal mass case and in the more complicated case of unequal masses

  4. Gain-of-function mutations in the phosphatidylserine synthase 1 (PTDSS1) gene cause Lenz-Majewski syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sérgio B; Jenkins, Dagan; Chanudet, Estelle; Tasseva, Guergana; Ishida, Miho; Anderson, Glenn; Docker, James; Ryten, Mina; Sa, Joaquim; Saraiva, Jorge M; Barnicoat, Angela; Scott, Richard; Calder, Alistair; Wattanasirichaigoon, Duangrurdee; Chrzanowska, Krystyna; Simandlová, Martina; Van Maldergem, Lionel; Stanier, Philip; Beales, Philip L; Vance, Jean E; Moore, Gudrun E

    2014-01-01

    Lenz-Majewski syndrome (LMS) is a syndrome of intellectual disability and multiple congenital anomalies that features generalized craniotubular hyperostosis. By using whole-exome sequencing and selecting variants consistent with the predicted dominant de novo etiology of LMS, we identified causative heterozygous missense mutations in PTDSS1, which encodes phosphatidylserine synthase 1 (PSS1). PSS1 is one of two enzymes involved in the production of phosphatidylserine. Phosphatidylserine synthesis was increased in intact fibroblasts from affected individuals, and end-product inhibition of PSS1 by phosphatidylserine was markedly reduced. Therefore, these mutations cause a gain-of-function effect associated with regulatory dysfunction of PSS1. We have identified LMS as the first human disease, to our knowledge, caused by disrupted phosphatidylserine metabolism. Our results point to an unexplored link between phosphatidylserine synthesis and bone metabolism.

  5. Measurement of the strangeness spectral function and the mass of the strange quark in hadronic {tau} decays with the OPAL detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mader, W.

    2004-03-01

    Tau lepton decays with open strangeness in the final state are measured with the Opal detector at LEP to determine the strange hadronic spectral function of the {tau} lepton and the mass of the strange quark. The decays {tau}{sup -} {yields} (K{pi}){sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}}, (K{pi}{pi}){sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}} and (K{pi}{pi}{pi}){sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}} with final states consisting of neutral and charged kaons and pions, have been studied. The invariant mass distribution of 93.4% of these final states have been experimentally determined. Monte Carlo simulations have been used for the remaining 6.6% and for the strange final states including {eta} mesons. The reconstructed strange final states, corrected for resolution effects and detection efficiencies, yield the strange spectral function of the {tau} lepton. The moments of the spectral function and the ratio of strange to non-strange moments, which are important input parameters for theoretical analyses, are determined. Furthermore, the branching fractions B({tau}{sup -} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{sub {tau}}) = (0.471 {+-} 0.064{sub stat} {+-} 0.021{sub sys})%, B({tau}{sup -} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{nu}{sub {tau}}) = (0.415 {+-} 0.059{sub stat} {+-} 0.031{sub sys})% have been measured. From the CKM weighted difference of strange and non-strange spectral moments, the mass of the strange quark at the {tau} mass scale has been determined: m{sub s}(m{sub {tau}}{sup 2}) = (84 {+-} 14{sub exp} {+-} 6{sub V{sub us}} {+-} 17{sub theo}) MeV. Evolving this result to customary scales yields m{sub s}(1 GeV{sup 2}) = (111{sub -35}{sup +26}) MeV, m{sub s}(4 GeV{sup 2}) = (82{sub -25}{sup +19}) MeV. (orig.)

  6. Functional ablation of pRb activates Cdk2 and causes antiestrogen resistance in human breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Varma

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Estrogens are required for the proliferation of hormone dependent breast cancer cells, making estrogen receptor (ER positive tumors amenable to endocrine therapies such as antiestrogens. However, resistance to these agents remains a significant cause of treatment failure. We previously demonstrated that inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb family tumor suppressors causes antiestrogen resistance in MCF-7 cells, a widely studied model of estrogen responsive human breast cancers. In this study, we investigate the mechanism by which pRb inactivation leads to antiestrogen resistance. Cdk4 and cdk2 are two key cell cycle regulators that can phosphorylate and inactivate pRb, therefore we tested whether these kinases are required in cells lacking pRb function. pRb family members were inactivated in MCF-7 cells by expressing polyomavirus large tumor antigen (PyLT, and cdk activity was inhibited using the cdk inhibitors p16(INK4A and p21(Waf1/Cip1. Cdk4 activity was no longer required in cells lacking functional pRb, while cdk2 activity was required for proliferation in both the presence and absence of pRb function. Using inducible PyLT cell lines, we further demonstrated that pRb inactivation leads to increased cyclin A expression, cdk2 activation and proliferation in antiestrogen arrested cells. These results demonstrate that antiestrogens do not inhibit cdk2 activity or proliferation of MCF-7 cells in the absence of pRb family function, and suggest that antiestrogen resistant breast cancer cells resulting from pRb pathway inactivation would be susceptible to therapies that target cdk2.

  7. Genes Whose Gain or Loss-Of-Function Increases Skeletal Muscle Mass in Mice: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander A. J. Verbrugge

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle mass differs greatly in mice and humans and this is partially inherited. To identify muscle hypertrophy candidate genes we conducted a systematic review to identify genes whose experimental loss or gain-of-function results in significant skeletal muscle hypertrophy in mice. We found 47 genes that meet our search criteria and cause muscle hypertrophy after gene manipulation. They are from high to small effect size: Ski, Fst, Acvr2b, Akt1, Mstn, Klf10, Rheb, Igf1, Pappa, Ppard, Ikbkb, Fstl3, Atgr1a, Ucn3, Mcu, Junb, Ncor1, Gprasp1, Grb10, Mmp9, Dgkz, Ppargc1a (specifically the Ppargc1a4 isoform, Smad4, Ltbp4, Bmpr1a, Crtc2, Xiap, Dgat1, Thra, Adrb2, Asb15, Cast, Eif2b5, Bdkrb2, Tpt1, Nr3c1, Nr4a1, Gnas, Pld1, Crym, Camkk1, Yap1, Inhba, Tp53inp2, Inhbb, Nol3, Esr1. Knock out, knock down, overexpression or a higher activity of these genes causes overall muscle hypertrophy as measured by an increased muscle weight or cross sectional area. The mean effect sizes range from 5 to 345% depending on the manipulated gene as well as the muscle size variable and muscle investigated. Bioinformatical analyses reveal that Asb15, Klf10, Tpt1 are most highly expressed hypertrophy genes in human skeletal muscle when compared to other tissues. Many of the muscle hypertrophy-regulating genes are involved in transcription and ubiquitination. Especially genes belonging to three signaling pathways are able to induce hypertrophy: (a Igf1-Akt-mTOR pathway, (b myostatin-Smad signaling, and (c the angiotensin-bradykinin signaling pathway. The expression of several muscle hypertrophy-inducing genes and the phosphorylation of their protein products changes after human resistance and high intensity exercise, in maximally stimulated mouse muscle or in overloaded mouse plantaris.

  8. Measurement of the Strangeness Spectral Function and the Mass of the Strange Quark in Hadronic tau Decays with the OPAL Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mader, Wolfgang Franz

    2004-01-01

    Tau lepton decays with open strangeness in the final state are measured with the Opal detector at LEP to determine the strange hadronic spectral function of the τ lepton and the mass of the strange quark. The decays τ −→ (Kπ) −ντ , (Kππ) −ντ and (Kπππ) −ντ with final states consisting of neutral and charged kaons and pions, have been studied. The invariant mass distribution of 93.4% of these final states have been experimentally determined. Monte Carlo simulations have been used for the remaining 6.6% and for the strange final states including η mesons. The reconstructed strange final states, corrected for resolution effects and detection efficiencies, yield the strange spectral function of the τ lepton. The moments of the spectral function and the ratio of strange to non-strange moments, which are important input parameters for theoretical analyses, are determined. Furthermore, the branching fractions B(τ − → K −π 0 ντ ) = (0.471 ± 0.064stat ± 0.021sys) % B(τ − → K ...

  9. Mass Functions of the Active Black Holes in Distant Quasars from the Large Bright Quasar Survey, the Bright Quasar Survey, and the Color-Selected Sample of the SDSS Fall Equatorial Stripe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne; Osmer, Patrick S.

    2009-01-01

    We present mass functions of distant actively accreting supermassive black holes residing in luminous quasars discovered in the Large Bright Quasar Survey, the Bright Quasar Survey, and the Fall Equatorial Stripe of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The quasars cover a wide range of redshifts (0...... functions at similar redshifts based on the SDSS Data Release 3 quasar catalog presented by Vestergaard et al. We see clear evidence of cosmic downsizing in the comoving space density distribution of active black holes in the LBQS sample alone. In forthcoming papers, further analysis, comparison......, and discussion of these mass functions will be made with other existing black hole mass functions, notably that based on the SDSS DR3 quasar catalog. We present the relationships used to estimate the black hole mass based on the MgII emission line; the relations are calibrated to the Hbeta and CIV relations...

  10. Effect of Mass Transport in the Synthesis of Partially Acetylated Dendrimer: Implications for Functional Ligand–Nanoparticle Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Mullen, Douglas G.; Borgmeier, Emilee L.; Fang, Ming; McNerny, Daniel Q.; Desai, Ankur; Baker, James R.; Orr, Bradford G.; Holl, Mark M. Banaszak

    2010-01-01

    Partial acetylation of the amine-terminated poly(amidoamine) dendrimer has been used in the preparation of dendrimer particles conjugated with a wide variety of functional ligands including targeting moieties, therapeutic agents, and dye molecules. The effectiveness of mass transport during the partial acetylation reaction was found to have a major effect on subsequent distributions of dendrimer–ligand components and to be a major source of inconsistency between batches. This study has broad ...

  11. Mass transport in fracture media: impact of the random function model assumed for fractures conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capilla, J. E.; Rodrigo, J.; Gomez Hernandez, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Characterizing the uncertainty of flow and mass transport models requires the definition of stochastic models to describe hydrodynamic parameters. Porosity and hydraulic conductivity (K) are two of these parameters that exhibit a high degree of spatial variability. K is usually the parameter whose variability influence to a more extended degree solutes movement. In fracture media, it is critical to properly characterize K in the most altered zones where flow and solutes migration tends to be concentrated. However, K measurements use to be scarce and sparse. This fact calls to consider stochastic models that allow quantifying the uncertainty of flow and mass transport predictions. This paper presents a convective transport problem solved in a 3D block of fractured crystalline rock. the case study is defined based on data from a real geological formation. As the scarcity of K data in fractures does not allow supporting classical multi Gaussian assumptions for K in fractures, the non multi Gaussian hypothesis has been explored, comparing mass transport results for alternative Gaussian and non-Gaussian assumptions. The latter hypothesis allows reproducing high spatial connectivity for extreme values of K. This feature is present in nature, might lead to reproduce faster solute pathways, and therefore should be modeled in order to obtain reasonably safe prediction of contaminants migration in a geological formation. The results obtained for the two alternative hypotheses show a remarkable impact of the K random function model in solutes movement. (Author) 9 refs

  12. Mass extinctions and supernova explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Korschinek, Gunther

    2016-01-01

    A nearby supernova (SN) explosion could have negatively influenced life on Earth, maybe even been responsible for mass extinctions. Mass extinction poses a significant extinction of numerous species on Earth, as recorded in the paleontologic, paleoclimatic, and geological record of our planet. Depending on the distance between the Sun and the SN, different types of threats have to be considered, such as ozone depletion on Earth, causing increased exposure to the Sun's ultraviolet radiation, o...

  13. The theory and experiment of solute migration caused by excited state absorptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Jin; Ying-Lin, Song; Yu-Xiao, Wang; Min, Shui; Chang-Wei, Li; Jun-Yi, Yang; Xue-Ru, Zhang; Kun, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Nonsymmetrical transition from reverse-saturable absorption (RSA) to saturable absorption (SA) caused by excited state absorption induced mass transport of the CuPcTs dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide is observed in an open aperture Z-scan experiment with a 21-ps laser pulse. The nonsymmetrical transition from RSA to SA is ascribed neither to saturation of excited state absorption nor to thermal induced mass transport, the so-called Soret effect. In our consideration, strong nonlinear absorption causes the rapid accumulation of the non-uniform kinetic energy of the solute molecules. The non-uniform kinetic field in turn causes the migration of the solute molecules. Additionally, an energy-gradient-induced mass transport theory is presented to interpret the experimental results, and the theoretical calculations are also taken to fit our experimental results. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  14. THE HALO MASS FUNCTION FROM EXCURSION SET THEORY. I. GAUSSIAN FLUCTUATIONS WITH NON-MARKOVIAN DEPENDENCE ON THE SMOOTHING SCALE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggiore, Michele; Riotto, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    A classic method for computing the mass function of dark matter halos is provided by excursion set theory, where density perturbations evolve stochastically with the smoothing scale, and the problem of computing the probability of halo formation is mapped into the so-called first-passage time problem in the presence of a barrier. While the full dynamical complexity of halo formation can only be revealed through N-body simulations, excursion set theory provides a simple analytic framework for understanding various aspects of this complex process. In this series of papers we propose improvements of both technical and conceptual aspects of excursion set theory, and we explore up to which point the method can reproduce quantitatively the data from N-body simulations. In Paper I of the series, we show how to derive excursion set theory from a path integral formulation. This allows us both to derive rigorously the absorbing barrier boundary condition, that in the usual formulation is just postulated, and to deal analytically with the non-Markovian nature of the random walk. Such a non-Markovian dynamics inevitably enters when either the density is smoothed with filters such as the top-hat filter in coordinate space (which is the only filter associated with a well-defined halo mass) or when one considers non-Gaussian fluctuations. In these cases, beside 'Markovian' terms, we find 'memory' terms that reflect the non-Markovianity of the evolution with the smoothing scale. We develop a general formalism for evaluating perturbatively these non-Markovian corrections, and in this paper we perform explicitly the computation of the halo mass function for Gaussian fluctuations, to first order in the non-Markovian corrections due to the use of a top-hat filter in coordinate space. In Paper II of this series we propose to extend excursion set theory by treating the critical threshold for collapse as a stochastic variable, which better captures some of the dynamical complexity of the

  15. Quarkonium spectral function in medium at next-to-leading order for any quark mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnier, Yannis

    2015-01-01

    The vector channel spectral function at zero spatial momentum is calculated at next-to-leading order in thermal QCD for any quark mass. It corresponds to the imaginary part of the massive quark contribution to the photon polarisation tensor. The spectrum shows a well-defined transport peak in contrast to both the heavy quark limit studied previously, where the low frequency domain is exponentially suppressed at this order, and the naive massless case where it vanishes at leading order and diverges at next-to-leading order. From our general expressions, the massless limit can be taken and we show that no divergences occur if done carefully. Finally, we compare the massless limit to results from lattice simulations. (orig.)

  16. The optimally sampled galaxy-wide stellar initial mass function. Observational tests and the publicly available GalIMF code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhiqiang; Jerabkova, Tereza; Kroupa, Pavel

    2017-11-01

    Here we present a full description of the integrated galaxy-wide initial mass function (IGIMF) theory in terms of the optimal sampling and compare it with available observations. Optimal sampling is the method we use to discretize the IMF deterministically into stellar masses. Evidence indicates that nature may be closer to deterministic sampling as observations suggest a smaller scatter of various relevant observables than random sampling would give, which may result from a high level of self-regulation during the star formation process. We document the variation of IGIMFs under various assumptions. The results of the IGIMF theory are consistent with the empirical relation between the total mass of a star cluster and the mass of its most massive star, and the empirical relation between the star formation rate (SFR) of a galaxy and the mass of its most massive cluster. Particularly, we note a natural agreement with the empirical relation between the IMF power-law index and the SFR of a galaxy. The IGIMF also results in a relation between the SFR of a galaxy and the mass of its most massive star such that, if there were no binaries, galaxies with SFR first time, we show optimally sampled galaxy-wide IMFs (OSGIMF) that mimic the IGIMF with an additional serrated feature. Finally, a Python module, GalIMF, is provided allowing the calculation of the IGIMF and OSGIMF dependent on the galaxy-wide SFR and metallicity. A copy of the python code model is available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/607/A126

  17. From the Cluster Temperature Function to the Mass Function at Low Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Markevitch, Maxim

    2004-01-01

    This XMM project consisted of three observations of the nearby, hot galaxy cluster Triangulum Australis, one of the cluster center and two offsets. The goal was to measure the radial gas temperature profile out to large radii and derive the total gravitating mass within the radius of average mass overdensity 500. The central pointing also provides data for a detailed two-dimensional gas temperature map of this interesting cluster. We have analyzed all three observations. The derivation of the temperature map using the central pointing is complete, and the paper is soon to be submitted. During the course of this study and of the analysis of archival XMM cluster observations, it became apparent that the commonly used XMM background flare screening techniques are often not accurate enough for studies of the cluster outer regions. The information on the cluster's total masses is contained at large off-center distances, and it is precisely the temperatures for those low-brightness regions that are most affected by the detector background anomalies. In particular, our two offset observations of the Triangulum have been contaminated by the background flares ("bad cosmic weather") to a degree where they could not be used for accurate spectral analysis. This forced us to expand the scope of our project. We needed to devise a more accurate method of screening and modeling the background flares, and to evaluate the uncertainty of the XMM background modeling. To do this, we have analyzed a large number of archival EPIC blank-field and closed-cover observations. As a result, we have derived stricter background screening criteria. It also turned out that mild flares affecting EPIC-pn can be modeled with an adequate accuracy. Such modeling has been used to derive our Triangulum temperature map. The results of our XMM background analysis, including the modeling recipes, are presented in a paper which is in final preparation and will be submitted soon. It will be useful not only

  18. Thermobaricity, cabbeling, and water-mass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Trevor J.

    1987-05-01

    The efficient mixing of heat and salt along neutral surfaces (by mesoscale eddies) is shown to lead to vertical advection through these neutral surfaces. This is due to the nonlinearities of the equation of state of seawater through terms like ∂2ρ/∂θ∂p (thermobaric effect) and ∂2ρ/∂ θ2 (cabbeling). Cabbeling always causes a sinking or downwelling of fluid through neutral surfaces, whereas thermobaricity can lead to a vertical velocity (relative to neutral surfaces) of either sign. In this paper it is shown that for reasonable values of the lateral scalar diffusivity (especially below a depth of 1000 m), these two processes cause vertical velocities of the order of 10-7 m s-1 through neutral surfaces (usually downward!) and cause water-mass conversion of a magnitude equal to that caused by a vertical diffusivity of 10-4 m2 s-1 (often equivalent to a negative diffusivity). Both thermobaricity and cabbeling can occur in the presence of any nonzero amount of small-scale turbulence and so will not be detected by microstructure measurements. The conservation equations for tracers are considered in a nonorthogonal coordinate frame that moves with neutral surfaces in the ocean. Since only mixing processes cause advection across neutral surfaces, it is useful to regard this vertical advection as a symptom of various mixing processes rather than as a separate physical process. It is possible to derive conservative equations for scalars that do not contain the vertical advective term explicity. In these conservation equations, the terms that represent mixing processes are substantially altered. It is argued that this form of the conservation equations is the most appropriate when considering water-mass transformation, and some examples are given of its application in the North Atlantic. It is shown that the variation of the vertical diffusivity with height does not cause water-mass transformation. Also, salt fingering is often 3-4 times more effective at

  19. Late-career unemployment and all-cause mortality, functional disability and depression among the older adults in Taiwan: A 12-year population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wei-Min; Liao, Wen-Chun; Li, Chi-Rong; Lee, Shu-Hsin; Tang, Yih-Jing; Ho, Hsin-En; Lee, Meng-Chih

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate whether late-career unemployment is associated with increased all-cause mortality, functional disability, and depression among older adults in Taiwan. In this long-term prospective cohort study, data were retrieved from the Taiwan Longitudinal Study on Aging. This study was conducted from 1996 to 2007. The complete data from 716 men and 327 women aged 50-64 years were retrieved. Participants were categorized as normally employed or unemployed depending on their employment status in 1996. The cumulative number of unemployment after age 50 was also calculated. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the effect of the association between late-career unemployment and cumulative number of late-career unemployment on all-cause mortality, functional disability, and depression in 2007. The average age of the participants in 1996 was 56.3 years [interquartile range (IQR)=7.0]. A total of 871 participants were in the normally employed group, and 172 participants were in the unemployed group. After adjustment of gender, age, level of education, income, self-rated health and major comorbidities, late-career unemployment was associated with increased all-cause mortality [Odds ratio (OR)=2.79; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.74-4.47] and functional disability [OR=2.33; 95% CI=1.54-3.55]. The cumulative number of late-career unemployment was also associated with increased all-cause mortality [OR=1.91; 95% CI=1.35-2.70] and functional disability [OR=2.35; 95% CI=1.55-3.55]. Late-career unemployment and cumulative number of late-career unemployment are associated with increased all-cause mortality and functional disability. Older adults should be encouraged to maintain normal employment during the later stage of their career before retirement. Employers should routinely examine the fitness for work of older employees to prevent future unemployment. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Quantifying the resolution level where the GRACE satellites can separate Greenland's glacial mass balance from surface mass balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, J. A.; Chambers, D. P.

    2015-09-01

    Mass change over Greenland can be caused by either changes in the glacial dynamic mass balance (DMB) or the surface mass balance (SMB). The GRACE satellite gravity mission cannot directly separate the two physical causes because it measures the sum of the entire mass column with limited spatial resolution. We demonstrate one theoretical way to indirectly separate cumulative SMB from DMB with GRACE, using a least squares inversion technique with knowledge of the location of the glaciers. However, we find that the limited 60 × 60 spherical harmonic representation of current GRACE data does not provide sufficient resolution to adequately accomplish the task. We determine that at a maximum degree/order of 90 × 90 or above, a noise-free gravity measurement could theoretically separate the SMB from DMB signals. However, current GRACE satellite errors are too large at present to separate the signals. A noise reduction of a factor of 10 at a resolution of 90 × 90 would provide the accuracy needed for the interannual cumulative SMB and DMB to be accurately separated.

  1. Peculiarities of constructing the models of mass religious communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrushkevych Maria Stefanivna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Religious communication is a full-fledged, effective part of the mass information field. It uses new media to fulfil its needs. And it also functions in the field of mass culture and the information society. To describe the features of mass religious communication in the article, the author constructs a graphic model of its functioning.

  2. Effect of Protein Intake on Lean Body Mass in Functionally Limited Older Men: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Shalender; Apovian, Caroline M; Travison, Thomas G; Pencina, Karol; Moore, Lynn L; Huang, Grace; Campbell, Wayne W; Li, Zhuoying; Howland, Andrew S; Chen, Ruo; Knapp, Philip E; Singer, Martha R; Shah, Mitali; Secinaro, Kristina; Eder, Richard V; Hally, Kathleen; Schram, Haley; Bearup, Richelle; Beleva, Yusnie M; McCarthy, Ashley C; Woodbury, Erin; McKinnon, Jennifer; Fleck, Geeta; Storer, Thomas W; Basaria, Shehzad

    2018-04-01

    The Institute of Medicine set the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for protein at 0.8 g/kg/d for the entire adult population. It remains controversial whether protein intake greater than the RDA is needed to maintain protein anabolism in older adults. To investigate whether increasing protein intake to 1.3 g/kg/d in older adults with physical function limitations and usual protein intake within the RDA improves lean body mass (LBM), muscle performance, physical function, fatigue, and well-being and augments LBM response to a muscle anabolic drug. This randomized clinical trial with a 2 × 2 factorial design was conducted in a research center. A modified intent-to-treat analytic strategy was used. Participants were 92 functionally limited men 65 years or older with usual protein intake less thanor equal to 0.83 g/kg/d within the RDA. The first participant was randomized on September 21, 2011, and the last participant completed the study on January 19, 2017. Participants were randomized for 6 months to controlled diets with 0.8 g/kg/d of protein plus placebo, 1.3 g/kg/d of protein plus placebo, 0.8 g/kg/d of protein plus testosterone enanthate (100 mg weekly), or 1.3 g/kg/d of protein plus testosterone. Prespecified energy and protein contents were provided through custom-prepared meals and supplements. The primary outcome was change in LBM. Secondary outcomes were muscle strength, power, physical function, health-related quality of life, fatigue, affect balance, and well-being. Among 92 men (mean [SD] age, 73.0 [5.8] years), the 4 study groups did not differ in baseline characteristics. Changes from baseline in LBM (0.31 kg; 95% CI, -0.46 to 1.08 kg; P = .43) and appendicular (0.04 kg; 95% CI, -0.48 to 0.55 kg; P = .89) and trunk (0.24 kg; 95% CI, -0.17 to 0.66 kg; P = .24) lean mass, as well as muscle strength and power, walking speed and stair-climbing power, health-related quality of life, fatigue, and well-being, did not differ between men

  3. Simulation of defoliation caused by Black Sigatoka in the yield and quality of banana 'Nanica ' fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Domingues Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Defoliation caused by Black Sigatoka in yield and quality of banana 'Nanica' was stimulated in this study. A completely randomized 2x8 factorial design with six repetitions was used, in which period of bunch formation and number of leaves at flowering were established as factors. Plants for defoliation were selected on 04/05/2013 (Period 1, and on 07/01/2014 (Period 2. Six to to 13 leaves remained per plant by removing those with more than 50% of blade with injury or senescence. More appropriate climatic conditions before and after flowering, promoted greater mass accumulation in the bunch in Period 2. The increased number of leaves at flowering increased the length of the fruit and the mass of 4th hand, as well as the bunch mass and postharvest period. Defoliation is suggested only for non-functional leaves as well as the maintenance of at least 10 leaves per plant, independent of the period of bunch formation.

  4. Post-hatching development of mitochondrial function, organ mass and metabolic rate in two ectotherms, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis and the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. G. Sirsat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The ontogeny of endothermy in birds is associated with disproportionate growth of thermogenic organs and increased mitochondrial oxidative capacity. However, no similar study has been made of the development of these traits in ectotherms. For comparison, we therefore investigated the metabolism, growth and muscle mitochondrial function in hatchlings of a turtle and a crocodilian, two ectotherms that never develop endothermy. Metabolic rate did not increase substantially in either species by 30 days post-hatching. Yolk-free body mass and heart mass did not change through 30 days in alligators and heart mass was a constant proportion of body mass, even after 1 year. Yolk-free body mass and liver mass grew 36% and 27%, respectively, in turtles during the first 30 days post-hatch. The mass-specific oxidative phosphorylation capacity of mitochondria, assessed using permeabilized muscle fibers, increased by a non-significant 47% in alligator thigh and a non-significant 50% in turtle thigh over 30 days, but did not increase in the heart. This developmental trajectory of mitochondrial function is slower and shallower than that previously observed in ducks, which demonstrate a 90% increase in mass-specific oxidative phosphorylation capacity in thigh muscles over just a few days, a 60% increase in mass-specific oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the heart over a few days, and disproportionate growth of the heart and other organs. Our data thus support the hypothesis that these developmental changes in ducks represent mechanistic drivers for attaining endothermy.

  5. Post-hatching development of mitochondrial function, organ mass and metabolic rate in two ectotherms, the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) and the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirsat, Sarah K G; Sirsat, Tushar S; Price, Edwin R; Dzialowski, Edward M

    2016-04-15

    The ontogeny of endothermy in birds is associated with disproportionate growth of thermogenic organs and increased mitochondrial oxidative capacity. However, no similar study has been made of the development of these traits in ectotherms. For comparison, we therefore investigated the metabolism, growth and muscle mitochondrial function in hatchlings of a turtle and a crocodilian, two ectotherms that never develop endothermy. Metabolic rate did not increase substantially in either species by 30 days post-hatching. Yolk-free body mass and heart mass did not change through 30 days in alligators and heart mass was a constant proportion of body mass, even after 1 year. Yolk-free body mass and liver mass grew 36% and 27%, respectively, in turtles during the first 30 days post-hatch. The mass-specific oxidative phosphorylation capacity of mitochondria, assessed using permeabilized muscle fibers, increased by a non-significant 47% in alligator thigh and a non-significant 50% in turtle thigh over 30 days, but did not increase in the heart. This developmental trajectory of mitochondrial function is slower and shallower than that previously observed in ducks, which demonstrate a 90% increase in mass-specific oxidative phosphorylation capacity in thigh muscles over just a few days, a 60% increase in mass-specific oxidative phosphorylation capacity of the heart over a few days, and disproportionate growth of the heart and other organs. Our data thus support the hypothesis that these developmental changes in ducks represent mechanistic drivers for attaining endothermy. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Extreme mass ratio inspiral rates: dependence on the massive black hole mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopman, Clovis

    2009-01-01

    We study the rate at which stars spiral into a massive black hole (MBH) due to the emission of gravitational waves (GWs), as a function of the mass M . of the MBH. In the context of our model, it is shown analytically that the rate approximately depends on the MBH mass as M -1/4 . . Numerical simulations confirm this result, and show that for all MBH masses, the event rate is highest for stellar black holes, followed by white dwarfs, and lowest for neutron stars. The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is expected to see hundreds of these extreme mass ratio inspirals per year. Since the event rate derived here formally diverges as M . → 0, the model presented here cannot hold for MBHs of masses that are too low, and we discuss what the limitations of the model are.

  7. Measurement and analysis of excitation functions and observation of mass-asymmetry effect on incomplete fusion dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid M.H.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Excitation functions for sixteen evaporation residues produced in the interaction of 20Ne with 165Ho have been measured in the projectile energy range ≈88-164 MeV, using catcher foil activation technique followed by gamma-ray spectrometry. It has been found in general that the excitation functions of evaporation residues produced via xn/pxn channels satisfactorily reproduced with the statistical model code PACE-2 after subtraction of precursor decay contribution. The significant enhancement in the measured excitation functions for the residues produced in alpha emission channels over the PACE-2 predictions has been observed. These alpha emission channels are attributed to incomplete fusion reaction process. The results indicate the occurrence of incomplete fusion involving break-up of projectile 20Ne into 4He + 16O and /or 8Be + 12C followed by fusion of one of the fragments with target nucleus 165Ho. The analysis of the present data suggest that probability of incomplete fusion increases with projectile energy. The ICF fraction FICF also increases with increasing mass-asymmetry of the entrance channel.

  8. The causes of functional psychoses as seen by patients and their relatives. II. The relatives' point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeyer, M C; Klusmann, D; Walpuski, O

    1988-01-01

    The concepts of relatives of patients suffering from functional psychoses regarding the causes of the illness were investigated using the same methodological approach as with the patients. Relatives, like patients, favoured psychosocial over biological explanations. However, when compared pairwise the concordance between relatives and patients was very low. Some methodological refinements recommended for further research are proposed.

  9. Gamma Radiation from Fission Fragments Experimental Apparatus-Mass Spectrum Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higbie, Jack

    1969-08-15

    The gamma-radiation from fission fragments was studied as a function of the fragment mass. The mass was determined from the fragment energies using solid state detectors. The mass resolution which can be achieved by this method is treated in detail. The average initial fragment mass and the initial mass resolution is calculated as a function of the measured (apparent) mass yield for three different thicknesses of the fissile material deposit. This treatment gives a clear indication of those factors most important for good mass resolution work. A detailed description of the experimental apparatus is given in the appendices.

  10. Gain-of-function SOS1 mutations cause a distinctive form of noonansyndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tartaglia, Marco; Pennacchio, Len A.; Zhao, Chen; Yadav, KamleshK.; Fodale, Valentina; Sarkozy, Anna; Pandit, Bhaswati; Oishi, Kimihiko; Martinelli, Simone; Schackwitz, Wendy; Ustaszewska, Anna; Martin, Joes; Bristow, James; Carta, Claudio; Lepri, Francesca; Neri, Cinzia; Vasta,Isabella; Gibson, Kate; Curry, Cynthia J.; Lopez Siguero, Juan Pedro; Digilio, Maria Cristina; Zampino, Giuseppe; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Bar-Sagi, Dafna; Gelb, Brude D.

    2006-09-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is a developmental disordercharacterized by short stature, facial dysmorphia, congenital heartdefects and skeletal anomalies1. Increased RAS-mitogenactivated proteinkinase (MAPK) signaling due to PTPN11 and KRAS mutations cause 50 percentof NS2-6. Here, we report that 22 of 129 NS patients without PTPN11 orKRAS mutation (17 percent) have missense mutations in SOS1, which encodesa RAS-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). SOS1 mutationscluster at residues implicated in the maintenance of SOS1 in itsautoinhibited form and ectopic expression of two NS-associated mutantsinduced enhanced RAS activation. The phenotype associated with SOS1defects is distinctive, although within NS spectrum, with a highprevalence of ectodermal abnormalities but generally normal developmentand linear growth. Our findings implicate for the first timegain-of-function mutations in a RAS GEF in inherited disease and define anew mechanism by which upregulation of the RAS pathway can profoundlychange human development.

  11. Large armored bridging over fractured vertebra with intraspinal tumor mimicking bony mass caused by migrated fragments of burst cervical vertebra presenting with severe cervical myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyarthee Guru Dutta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebral body may get displaced anterior or posteror with elements of rotation. However, burst cervical spine vertebral fracture may migrate anteriorly and posteriorly simultaneously. However anterior displaced fragment forming armor like mass is very rare. Similarly, the posteriorly propelled fragments migrating caudally and posterolaterally producing a large osseous mass inside spinal canal mimicking bony tumour causing severe cervical canal stenosis and presenting with marked myelopathy is extremely rare. To the best knowledge of authors, association of such traumatic dual pathology represents first of its kind in western literature, who was neglected early medical advice and presenting with marked compressive cervical myelopathy. She underwent successful surgical decompression with gradual recovery of spastic limb weakness and recovery of sensation. Authors also highlights the importance of early resuscitation and adequate maintainace of mean arterial pressure following acute spinal cord injury. Pertinent literature is briefly reviewed.

  12. Executive function impairments in fibromyalgia syndrome: Relevance of clinical variables and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Ladrón de Guevara, Cristina; Fernández-Serrano, María José; Reyes Del Paso, Gustavo A; Duschek, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Several investigations suggest the presence of deterioration of executive function in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The study quantified executive functions in patients with FMS. A wide array of functions was assessed, including updating, shifting and inhibition, as well as decision making and mental planning. Moreover, clinical variables were investigated as possible mediators of executive dysfunction, including pain severity, psychiatric comorbidity, medication and body mass index (BMI). Fifty-two FMS patients and 32 healthy controls completed a battery of 14 neuropsychological tests. Clinical interviews were conducted and the McGill Pain Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Fatigue Severity Scale and Oviedo Quality of Sleep Questionnaire were presented. Patients performed poorer than controls on the Letter Number Sequencing, Arithmetic and Similarities subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale, an N-back task, a verbal fluency task, the Ruff Figural Fluency Test, the Inhibition score of the Stroop Test, the Inhibition and Shifting scores of the Five Digits Test, the Key Search Test and the Zoo Map Task. Moreover, patients exhibited less steep learning curves on the Iowa Gambling Task. Among clinical variables, BMI and pain severity explained the largest proportion of performance variance. This study demonstrated impairments in executive functions of updating, shifting inhibition, decision making and planning in FMS. While the mediating role of pain in cognitive impairments in FMS had been previously established, the influence of BMI is a novel finding. Overweight and obesity should be considered by FMS researchers, and in the treatment of the condition.

  13. dftools: Distribution function fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreschkow, Danail

    2018-05-01

    dftools, written in R, finds the most likely P parameters of a D-dimensional distribution function (DF) generating N objects, where each object is specified by D observables with measurement uncertainties. For instance, if the objects are galaxies, it can fit a mass function (D=1), a mass-size distribution (D=2) or the mass-spin-morphology distribution (D=3). Unlike most common fitting approaches, this method accurately accounts for measurement in uncertainties and complex selection functions.

  14. Successfully treated Mycobacterium abscessus mastitis: A rare cause of breast masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K K Yasar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly growing mycobacteria are pathogens responsible for cutaneous or subcutaneous infections especially occurring after injection, trauma or surgery. We describe a patient with Mycobacterium abscessus mastitis that presented as a mass lesion and haemorrhagical discharge. It was initially diagnosed and treated as fibrocystic disease and non-specific abscess. Full recovery was obtained with combination therapy of clarithromycin, linezolid and amikacin without surgical debridement followed by several abscess aspirations. Atypical mycobacteria should be considered in diagnosis of chronic breast lesions in endemic areas. This is the first reported case of mastitis due to M. abscessus in Turkey.

  15. A rare case of anterior mediastinal mass caused by Brucella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Faraji, Reza

    2017-03-01

    A previously healthy man, who had undergone coronary artery bypass 10 years earlier and had been diagnosed with brucellosis due to Brucella septicemia after Brucella arthritis, presented with chest pain and high fever. Anti- Brucella antibiotics were started, but after 4 weeks, his high fever remained. An infected mass was confirmed by computed tomography, and surgical intervention was performed via a median sternotomy. A large amount of thick pus gushed from an abscess in the upper mediastinum. The abscess cavity had a thick granulation wall, and cultured pus was positive for Brucella only. The patient responded well to antibiotic therapy.

  16. THE HEIGHT EVOLUTION OF THE ''TRUE'' CORONAL MASS EJECTION MASS DERIVED FROM STEREO COR1 AND COR2 OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bein, B. M.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.; Utz, D.; Vourlidas, A.

    2013-01-01

    Using combined STEREO-A and STEREO-B EUVI, COR1, and COR2 data, we derive deprojected coronal mass ejection (CME) kinematics and CME ''true'' mass evolutions for a sample of 25 events that occurred during 2007 December to 2011 April. We develop a fitting function to describe the CME mass evolution with height. The function considers both the effect of the coronagraph occulter, at the beginning of the CME evolution, and an actual mass increase. The latter becomes important at about 10-15 R ☉ and is assumed to mostly contribute up to 20 R ☉ . The mass increase ranges from 2% to 6% per R ☉ and is positively correlated to the total CME mass. Due to the combination of COR1 and COR2 mass measurements, we are able to estimate the ''true'' mass value for very low coronal heights ( ☉ ). Based on the deprojected CME kinematics and initial ejected masses, we derive the kinetic energies and propelling forces acting on the CME in the low corona ( ☉ ). The derived CME kinetic energies range between 1.0-66 × 10 23 J, and the forces range between 2.2-510 × 10 14 N.

  17. Metabolic Profiling of Impaired Cognitive Function in Patients Receiving Dialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kurella Tamura, Manjula; Chertow, Glenn M.; Depner, Thomas A.; Nissenson, Allen R.; Schiller, Brigitte; Mehta, Ravindra L.; Liu, Sai; Sirich, Tammy L.

    2016-01-01

    Retention of uremic metabolites is a proposed cause of cognitive impairment in patients with ESRD. We used metabolic profiling to identify and validate uremic metabolites associated with impairment in executive function in two cohorts of patients receiving maintenance dialysis. We performed metabolic profiling using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry applied to predialysis plasma samples from a discovery cohort of 141 patients and an independent replication cohort of 180 patients partici...

  18. Detecting rapid mass movements using electrical self-potential measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Thomas; Limbrock, Jonas; Pudasaini, Shiva P.; Kemna, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Rapid mass movements are a latent danger for lives and infrastructure in almost any part of the world. Often such mass movements are caused by increasing pore pressure, for example, landslides after heavy rainfall or dam breaking after intrusion of water in the dam. Among several other geophysical methods used to observe water movement, the electrical self-potential method has been applied to a broad range of monitoring studies, especially focusing on volcanism and dam leakage but also during hydraulic fracturing and for earthquake prediction. Electrical self-potential signals may be caused by various mechanisms. Though, the most relevant source of the self-potential field in the given context is the streaming potential, caused by a flowing electrolyte through porous media with electrically charged internal surfaces. So far, existing models focus on monitoring water flow in non-deformable porous media. However, as the self-potential is sensitive to hydraulic parameters of the soil, any change in these parameters will cause an alteration of the electric signal. Mass movement will significantly influence the hydraulic parameters of the solid as well as the pressure field, assuming that fluid movement is faster than the pressure diffusion. We will present results of laboratory experiments under drained and undrained conditions with fluid triggered as well as manually triggered mass movements, monitored with self-potential measurements. For the undrained scenarios, we observe a clear correlation between the mass movements and signals in the electric potential, which clearly differ from the underlying potential variations due to increased saturation and fluid flow. In the drained experiments, we do not observe any measurable change in the electric potential. We therefore assume that change in fluid properties and release of the load causes disturbances in flow and streaming potential. We will discuss results of numerical simulations reproducing the observed effect. Our

  19. Deriving mass-energy equivalence and mass-velocity relation without light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Youshan; Dai, Liang

    2018-04-01

    Relativity requires that a particle's momentum and energy are the same functions of the particle's velocity in all inertial frames. Using the fact that momentum and energy must transform linearly between reference frames, we present a novel derivation of the mass-energy equivalence, namely, the relation that the energy is proportional to the moving mass, with no postulate about the existence of light or its properties. We further prove the mass-velocity relation without relying on momentum and energy conservation or on the Lorentz transformation. It is demonstrated that neither conservation laws nor the Lorentz transformation are necessary to establish those relations, and that those relations have a wider scope of validity than that of the conservation laws and the invariance of the speed of light.

  20. A Dual Phenotype of Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia and Frontometaphyseal Dysplasia in One Patient Caused by a Single FLNA Mutation Leading to Two Functionally Different Aberrant Transcripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenker, Martin; Rauch, Anita; Winterpacht, Andreas; Tagariello, Andreas; Kraus, Cornelia; Rupprecht, Thomas; Sticht, Heinrich; Reis, André

    2004-01-01

    Two disorders, periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH) and a group of skeletal dysplasias belonging to the oto-palato-digital (OPD) spectrum, are caused by FLNA mutations. They are considered mutually exclusive because of the different presumed effects of the respective FLNA gene mutations, leading to loss of function (PVNH) and gain of function (OPD), respectively. We describe here the first patient manifesting PVNH in combination with frontometaphyseal dysplasia, a skeletal dysplasia of the OPD-spectrum. A novel de novo mutation, 7315C→A in exon 45 of the FLNA gene, was identified. It leads to two aberrant transcripts, one full-length transcript with the point mutation causing a substitution of a highly conserved leucine residue (L2439M) and a second shortened transcript lacking 21 bp due to the creation of an ectopic splice donor site in exon 45. We propose that the dual phenotype is caused by two functionally different, aberrant filamin A proteins and therefore represents an exceptional model case of allelic gain-of-function and loss-of-function phenotypes due to a single mutational event. PMID:14988809

  1. The FTD-like syndrome causing TREM2 T66M mutation impairs microglia function, brain perfusion, and glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberger, Gernot; Brendel, Matthias; Mracsko, Eva; Wefers, Benedikt; Groeneweg, Linda; Xiang, Xianyuan; Focke, Carola; Deußing, Maximilian; Suárez-Calvet, Marc; Mazaheri, Fargol; Parhizkar, Samira; Pettkus, Nadine; Wurst, Wolfgang; Feederle, Regina; Bartenstein, Peter; Mueggler, Thomas; Arzberger, Thomas; Knuesel, Irene; Rominger, Axel; Haass, Christian

    2017-07-03

    Genetic variants in the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) increase the risk for several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Homozygous TREM2 missense mutations, such as p.T66M, lead to the FTD-like syndrome, but how they cause pathology is unknown. Using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, we generated a knock-in mouse model for the disease-associated Trem2 p.T66M mutation. Consistent with a loss-of-function mutation, we observe an intracellular accumulation of immature mutant Trem2 and reduced generation of soluble Trem2 similar to patients with the homozygous p.T66M mutation. Trem2 p.T66M knock-in mice show delayed resolution of inflammation upon in vivo lipopolysaccharide stimulation and cultured macrophages display significantly reduced phagocytic activity. Immunohistochemistry together with in vivo TSPO small animal positron emission tomography (μPET) demonstrates an age-dependent reduction in microglial activity. Surprisingly, perfusion magnetic resonance imaging and FDG-μPET imaging reveal a significant reduction in cerebral blood flow and brain glucose metabolism. Thus, we demonstrate that a TREM2 loss-of-function mutation causes brain-wide metabolic alterations pointing toward a possible function of microglia in regulating brain glucose metabolism. © 2017 The Authors.

  2. Atom localization and center-of-mass wave-function determination via multiple simultaneous quadrature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evers, Joerg; Qamar, Shahid; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2007-01-01

    We discuss localization and center-of-mass wave-function measurement of a quantum particle using multiple simultaneous dispersive interactions of the particle with different standing-wave fields. In particular, we consider objects with an internal structure consisting of a single ground state and several excited states. The transitions between ground and the corresponding excited states are coupled to the light fields in the dispersive limit, thus giving rise to a phase shift of the light field during the interaction. We show that multiple simultaneous measurements allow both an increase in the measurement or localization precision in a single direction and the performance of multidimensional measurements or localization. Further, we show that multiple measurements may relax the experimental requirements for each individual measurement

  3. A Review of Target Mass Corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. Schienbein; V. Radescu; G. Zeller; M. E. Christy; C. E. Keppel; K. S. McFarland; W. Melnitchouk; F. I. Olness; M. H. Reno; F. Steffens; J.-Y. Yu

    2007-09-06

    With recent advances in the precision of inclusive lepton-nuclear scattering experiments, it has become apparent that comparable improvements are needed in the accuracy of the theoretical analysis tools. In particular, when extracting parton distribution functions in the large-x region, it is crucial to correct the data for effects associated with the nonzero mass of the target. We present here a comprehensive review of these target mass corrections (TMC) to structure functions data, summarizing the relevant formulas for TMCs in electromagnetic and weak processes. We include a full analysis of both hadronic and partonic masses, and trace how these effects appear in the operator product expansion and the factorized parton model formalism, as well as their limitations when applied to data in the x -> 1 limit. We evaluate the numerical effects of TMCs on various structure functions, and compare fits to data with and without these corrections.

  4. Obesity, change of body mass index and subsequent physical and mental health functioning: a 12-year follow-up study among ageing employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svärd, Anna; Lahti, Jouni; Roos, Eira; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Lallukka, Tea; Mänty, Minna

    2017-09-26

    Studies suggest an association between weight change and subsequent poor physical health functioning, whereas the association with mental health functioning is inconsistent. We aimed to examine whether obesity and change of body mass index among normal weight, overweight and obese women and men associate with changes in physical and mental health functioning. The Helsinki Health Study cohort includes Finnish municipal employees aged 40 to 60 in 2000-02 (phase 1, response rate 67%). Phase 2 mail survey (response rate 82%) took place in 2007 and phase 3 in 2012 (response rate 76%). This study included 5668 participants (82% women). Seven weight change categories were formed based on body mass index (BMI) (phase 1) and weight change (BMI change ≥5%) (phase 1-2). The Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) measured physical and mental health functioning. The change in health functioning (phase 1-3) score was examined with repeated measures analyses. Covariates were age, sociodemographic factors, health behaviours, and somatic ill-health. Weight gain was common among women (34%) and men (25%). Weight-gaining normal weight (-1.3 points), overweight (-1.3 points) and obese (-3.6 points) women showed a greater decline in physical component summary scores than weight-maintaining normal weight women. Among weight-maintainers, only obese (-1.8 points) women showed a greater decline than weight-maintaining normal weight women. The associations were similar, but statistically non-significant for obese men. No statistically significant differences in the change in mental health functioning occurred. Preventing weight gain likely helps maintaining good physical health functioning and work ability.

  5. Nutritional interventions to preserve skeletal muscle mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backx, Evelien M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Muscle mass is the main predictor for muscle strength and physical function. The amount of muscle mass can decline rapidly during periods of reduced physical activity or during periods of energy intake restriction. For athletes, it is important to maintain muscle mass, since the loss of muscle is

  6. A climate response function explaining most of the variation in the forest floor needle mass and the needle decomposition in pine forests across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurz-Besson, C.; Coûteaux, M.M.; Berg, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    The forest floor needle mass and the decomposition rates of pine needle litter in a European climate transect were studied in order to estimate the impact of climate change on forest soil carbon sequestration. Eight pine forests preserved from fire were selected along a climatic latitudinal...... gradient from 40° to 60° N, from Spain and Portugal to Sweden. The forest floor (Oi and Oe layers) was sorted into five categories of increasing decomposition level according to morphological criteria. The needle mass loss in each category was determined using a linear mass density method. The needle...... and a recalcitrant one. NF was correlated with actual evapotranspiration (AET) whereas the decomposition parameters (decomposition rate of the decomposable fraction, first year mass loss, forest floor needle mass, age of the most-decomposed category) were related to a combined response function to climate (CRF...

  7. Granulocytic sarcoma: a rare cause of sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsamis, Epaminondas Markos; Glover, Thomas Edward

    2017-02-15

    We describe a case report of a man aged 56 years with a 4-month history of right-sided sciatica-type pain with subclinical disc prolapse evident on MRI. Worsening pain together with the appearance of a tender mass in his right buttock prompted further imaging, which demonstrated an infiltrative mass engulfing the lumbosacral plexus. This was later shown to be a granulocytic sarcoma on biopsy. Intervertebral disc herniation can be an incidental finding and is not always the cause of sciatica. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. Plant cell wall proteomics: mass spectrometry data, a trove for research on protein structure/function relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albenne, Cécile; Canut, Hervé; Boudart, Georges; Zhang, Yu; San Clemente, Hélène; Pont-Lezica, Rafael; Jamet, Elisabeth

    2009-09-01

    Proteomics allows the large-scale study of protein expression either in whole organisms or in purified organelles. In particular, mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of gel-separated proteins produces data not only for protein identification, but for protein structure, location, and processing as well. An in-depth analysis was performed on MS data from etiolated hypocotyl cell wall proteomics of Arabidopsis thaliana. These analyses show that highly homologous members of multigene families can be differentiated. Two lectins presenting 93% amino acid identity were identified using peptide mass fingerprinting. Although the identification of structural proteins such as extensins or hydroxyproline/proline-rich proteins (H/PRPs) is arduous, different types of MS spectra were exploited to identify and characterize an H/PRP. Maturation events in a couple of cell wall proteins (CWPs) were analyzed using site mapping. N-glycosylation of CWPs as well as the hydroxylation or oxidation of amino acids were also explored, adding information to improve our understanding of CWP structure/function relationships. A bioinformatic tool was developed to locate by means of MS the N-terminus of mature secreted proteins and N-glycosylation.

  9. Enhancement of heat and mass transfer by cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y N; Du, X Z; Xian, H Z; Zhang, Y N

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a brief summary of effects of cavitation on the heat and mass transfer are given. The fundamental studies of cavitation bubbles, including its nonlinearity, rectified heat and mass diffusion, are initially introduced. Then selected topics of cavitation enhanced heat and mass transfer were discussed in details including whales stranding caused by active sonar activity, pool boiling heat transfer, oscillating heat pipe and high intensity focused ultrasound treatment

  10. A three-parameter neutrino mass matrix with maximal CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.; Lavoura, L.

    2009-01-01

    Using the seesaw mechanism, we construct a model for the light-neutrino Majorana mass matrix which yields trimaximal lepton mixing together with maximal CP violation and maximal atmospheric-neutrino mixing. We demonstrate that, in our model, the light-neutrino mass matrix retains its form under the one-loop renormalization-group evolution. With our neutrino mass matrix, the absolute neutrino mass scale is a function of |U e3 | and of the atmospheric mass-squared difference. We study the effective mass in neutrinoless ββ decay as a function of |U e3 |, showing that it contains a fourfold ambiguity

  11. Ages of Young Star Clusters, Massive Blue Stragglers, and the Upper Mass Limit of Stars: Analyzing Age-dependent Stellar Mass Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, F.R.N.; Izzard, R.G.; de Mink, S.E.; Langer, N.; Stolte, A.; de Koter, A.; Gvaramadze, V.V.; Huβman, B.; Liermann, A.; Sana, H.

    2014-01-01

    Massive stars rapidly change their masses through strong stellar winds and mass transfer in binary systems. The latter aspect is important for populations of massive stars as more than 70% of all O stars are expected to interact with a binary companion during their lifetime. We show that such mass

  12. Can the Discrepancy between Locally and Globally Derived Neutral Hydrogen Mass Functions be Explained by a Varying Value of M ⋆?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minchin, Robert F.

    2017-09-01

    I investigate whether it is possible to reconcile the recent Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFALFA) observation that the neutral hydrogen mass function (HIMF) across different galactic densities has the same, non-flat, faint-end slope, with observations of isolated galaxies and many galaxy groups that show their HIMFs to have flat faint-end slopes. I find that a fairly simple model in which the position of the knee in the mass function of each individual group is allowed to vary is able to account for both of these observations. If this model reflects reality, the ALFALFA results point to an interesting “conspiracy” whereby the differing group HIMFs always sum up to form global HIMFs with the same faint-end slope in different environments. More generally, this result implies that global environmental HIMFs do not necessarily reflect the HIMFs in individual groups belonging to that environment and cannot be used to directly measure variations in group-specific HIMFs with environment.

  13. Can the Discrepancy between Locally and Globally Derived Neutral Hydrogen Mass Functions be Explained by a Varying Value of M {sup *}?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minchin, Robert F., E-mail: rminchin@naic.edu [Arecibo Observatory, Universities Space Research Association, HC3 Box 53995, Arecibo, PR 00612 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    I investigate whether it is possible to reconcile the recent Arecibo Legacy Fast Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFALFA) observation that the neutral hydrogen mass function (HIMF) across different galactic densities has the same, non-flat, faint-end slope, with observations of isolated galaxies and many galaxy groups that show their HIMFs to have flat faint-end slopes. I find that a fairly simple model in which the position of the knee in the mass function of each individual group is allowed to vary is able to account for both of these observations. If this model reflects reality, the ALFALFA results point to an interesting “conspiracy” whereby the differing group HIMFs always sum up to form global HIMFs with the same faint-end slope in different environments. More generally, this result implies that global environmental HIMFs do not necessarily reflect the HIMFs in individual groups belonging to that environment and cannot be used to directly measure variations in group-specific HIMFs with environment.

  14. Fast Transverse Beam Instability Caused by Electron Cloud Trapped in Combined Function Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipov, Sergey [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Electron cloud instabilities affect the performance of many circular high-intensity particle accelerators. They usually have a fast growth rate and might lead to an increase of the transverse emittance and beam loss. A peculiar example of such an instability is observed in the Fermilab Recycler proton storage ring. Although this instability might pose a challenge for future intensity upgrades, its nature had not been completely understood. The phenomena has been studied experimentally by comparing the dynamics of stable and unstable beam, numerically by simulating the build-up of the electron cloud and its interaction with the beam, and analytically by constructing a model of an electron cloud driven instability with the electrons trapped in combined function dipoles. Stabilization of the beam by a clearing bunch reveals that the instability is caused by the electron cloud, trapped in beam optics magnets. Measurements of microwave propagation confirm the presence of the cloud in the combined function dipoles. Numerical simulations show that up to 10$^{-2}$ of the particles can be trapped by their magnetic field. Since the process of electron cloud build-up is exponential, once trapped this amount of electrons significantly increases the density of the cloud on the next revolution. In a combined function dipole this multi-turn accumulation allows the electron cloud reaching final intensities orders of magnitude greater than in a pure dipole. The estimated fast instability growth rate of about 30 revolutions and low mode frequency of 0.4 MHz are consistent with experimental observations and agree with the simulations. The created instability model allows investigating the beam stability for the future intensity upgrades.

  15. A novel selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) MK-4541 exerts anti-androgenic activity in the prostate cancer xenograft R-3327G and anabolic activity on skeletal muscle mass & function in castrated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisamore, Michael J; Gentile, Michael A; Dillon, Gregory Michael; Baran, Matthew; Gambone, Carlo; Riley, Sean; Schmidt, Azriel; Flores, Osvaldo; Wilkinson, Hilary; Alves, Stephen E

    2016-10-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor super family of transcription factors. Androgens play an essential role in the development, growth, and maintenance of male sex organs, as well as the musculoskeletal and central nervous systems. Yet with advancing age, androgens can drive the onset of prostate cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death in males within the United States. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) by pharmacologic and/or surgical castration induces apoptosis of prostate cells and subsequent shrinkage of the prostate and prostate tumors. However, ADT is associated with significant musculoskeletal and behavioral adverse effects. The unique pharmacological activity of selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) MK-4541 recently has been reported as an AR antagonist with 5α-reductase inhibitor function. The molecule inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in AR positive, androgen dependent prostate cancer cells. Importantly, MK-4541 inhibited androgen-dependent prostate growth in male rats yet maintained lean body mass and bone formation following ovariectomy in female rats. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of SARM MK-4541 in the androgen-dependent Dunning R3327-G prostate carcinoma xenograft mouse model as well as on skeletal muscle mass and function, and AR-regulated behavior in mice. MK-4541 significantly inhibited the growth of R3327-G prostate tumors, exhibited anti-androgen effects on the seminal vesicles, reduced plasma testosterone concentrations in intact males, and inhibited Ki67 expression. MK-4541 treated xenografts appeared similar to xenografts in castrated mice. Importantly, we demonstrate that MK-4541 exhibited anabolic activity in androgen deficient conditions, increasing lean body mass and muscle function in adult castrated mice. Moreover, MK-4541 treatment restored general activity levels in castrated mice. Thus, MK-4541 exhibits an optimum profile as an adjuvant therapy to ADT

  16. Muscle mass as a target to reduce fatigue in patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neefjes, Elisabeth C W; van den Hurk, Renske M; Blauwhoff-Buskermolen, Susanne; van der Vorst, Maurice J D L; Becker-Commissaris, Annemarie; de van der Schueren, Marian A E; Buffart, Laurien M; Verheul, Henk M W

    2017-08-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) reduces quality of life and the activity level of patients with cancer. Cancer related fatigue can be reduced by exercise interventions that may concurrently increase muscle mass. We hypothesized that low muscle mass is directly related to higher CRF. A total of 233 patients with advanced cancer starting palliative chemotherapy for lung, colorectal, breast, or prostate cancer were studied. The skeletal muscle index (SMI) was calculated as the patient's muscle mass on level L3 or T4 of a computed tomography scan, adjusted for height. Fatigue was assessed with the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-fatigue questionnaire (cut-off for fatigue fatigue score was 36 (interquartile range 26-44). A higher SMI on level L3 was significantly associated with less CRF for men (B 0.447, P 0.004) but not for women (B - 0.401, P 0.090). No association between SMI on level T4 and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-fatigue score was found (n = 82). The association between SMI and CRF may lead to the suggestion that male patients may be able to reduce fatigue by exercise interventions aiming at an increased muscle mass. In women with advanced cancer, CRF is more influenced by other causes, because it is not significantly related to muscle mass. To further reduce CRF in both men and women with cancer, multifactorial assessments need to be performed in order to develop effective treatment strategies. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  17. FEEDBACK EFFECTS ON LOW-MASS STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Charles E.; Klein, Richard I.; McKee, Christopher F.; Fisher, Robert T.

    2012-01-01

    Protostellar feedback, both radiation and bipolar outflows, dramatically affects the fragmentation and mass accretion from star-forming cores. We use ORION, an adaptive mesh refinement gravito-radiation-hydrodynamics code, to simulate low-mass star formation in a turbulent molecular cloud in the presence of protostellar feedback. We present results of the first simulations of a star-forming cluster that include both radiative transfer and protostellar outflows. We run four simulations to isolate the individual effects of radiation feedback and outflow feedback as well as the combination of the two. We find that outflows reduce protostellar masses and accretion rates each by a factor of three and therefore reduce protostellar luminosities by an order of magnitude. This means that, while radiation feedback suppresses fragmentation, outflows render protostellar radiation largely irrelevant for low-mass star formation above a mass scale of 0.05 M ☉ . We find initial fragmentation of our cloud at half the global Jeans length, around 0.1 pc. With insufficient protostellar radiation to stop it, these 0.1 pc cores fragment repeatedly, forming typically 10 stars each. The accretion rate in these stars scales with mass as predicted from core accretion models that include both thermal and turbulent motions; the accretion rate does not appear to be consistent with either competitive accretion or accretion from an isothermal sphere. We find that protostellar outflows do not significantly affect the overall cloud dynamics, in the absence of magnetic fields, due to their small opening angles and poor coupling to the dense gas. The outflows reduce the mass from the cores by 2/3, giving a core to star efficiency, ε core ≅ 1/3. The simulations are also able to reproduce many observation of local star-forming regions. Our simulation with radiation and outflows reproduces the observed protostellar luminosity function. All of the simulations can reproduce observed core mass

  18. Protective effect of dexmedetomidine combined with ulinastatin on cardiopulmonary function injury caused by cardiopulmonary bypass surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Zhu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the protective effect of dexmedetomidine combined with ulinastatin on cardiopulmonary function impairment caused by cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Methods: A total of 78 patients who received valve replacement under cardiopulmonary bypass were divided into observation group and control group (n=39 according to random number table. Control group received intraoperative ulinastatin intervention and observation group received intraoperative dexmedetomidine combined with ulinastatin intervention. Differences in the levels of cardiac function indexes, myocardial injury markers, pulmonary function parameters, inflammatory indexes and so on were compared between two groups of patients 24 hours after operation. Results: Cardiac function parameters LSV, RSV and RVEF values of observation group 24 hours after operation were higher than those of control group while PAP value was lower than that of control group; serum myocardial injury markers H-FABP, cTn-T, CKMB, cTnⅠ and NT-proBNP levels were lower than those of control group; lung function parameters Cs and Cd values were higher than those of control group while RI, R5-R20, X5 and Fres values were lower than those of control group; serum pro-inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNF-α levels were lower than those of control group while anti-inflammatory factors sTNF-RI, IL-4 and IL-10 levels were higher than those of control group. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine combined with ulinastatin can protect the cardiopulmonary function in patients with cardiopulmonary bypass, and help to reduce the occurrence of postoperative cardiopulmonary dysfunction and other severe complications.

  19. Management of large mediastinal masses: surgical and anesthesiological considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Wilson W. L.; van Boven, Wim Jan P.; Annema, Jouke T.; Eberl, Susanne; Klomp, Houke M.; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Large mediastinal masses are rare, and encompass a wide variety of diseases. Regardless of the diagnosis, all large mediastinal masses may cause compression or invasion of vital structures, resulting in respiratory insufficiency or hemodynamic decompensation. Detailed preoperative preparation is a

  20. A functional alternative splicing mutation in AIRE gene causes autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyu Zhang

    Full Text Available Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1 is a rare autosomal recessive disease defined by the presence of two of the three conditions: mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and Addison's disease. Loss-of-function mutations of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE gene have been linked to APS-1. Here we report mutational analysis and functional characterization of an AIRE mutation in a consanguineous Chinese family with APS-1. All exons of the AIRE gene and adjacent exon-intron sequences were amplified by PCR and subsequently sequenced. We identified a homozygous missense AIRE mutation c.463G>A (p.Gly155Ser in two siblings with different clinical features of APS-1. In silico splice-site prediction and minigene analysis were carried out to study the potential pathological consequence. Minigene splicing analysis and subsequent cDNA sequencing revealed that the AIRE mutation potentially compromised the recognition of the splice donor of intron 3, causing alternative pre-mRNA splicing by intron 3 retention. Furthermore, the aberrant AIRE transcript was identified in a heterozygous carrier of the c.463G>A mutation. The aberrant intron 3-retaining transcript generated a truncated protein (p.G155fsX203 containing the first 154 AIRE amino acids and followed by 48 aberrant amino acids. Therefore, our study represents the first functional characterization of the alternatively spliced AIRE mutation that may explain the pathogenetic role in APS-1.

  1. Spatial patterns of North Atlantic Oscillation influence on mass balance variability of European glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Marzeion

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present and validate a set of minimal models of glacier mass balance variability. The most skillful model is then applied to reconstruct 7735 individual time series of mass balance variability for all glaciers in the European Alps and Scandinavia. Subsequently, we investigate the influence of atmospheric variability associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO on the glaciers' mass balances.

    We find a spatial coherence in the glaciers' sensitivity to NAO forcing which is caused by regionally similar mechanisms relating the NAO forcing to the mass balance: in southwestern Scandinavia, winter precipitation causes a correlation of mass balances with the NAO. In northern Scandinavia, temperature anomalies outside the core winter season cause an anti-correlation between NAO and mass balances. In the western Alps, both temperature and winter precipitation anomalies lead to a weak anti-correlation of mass balances with the NAO, while in the eastern Alps, the influences of winter precipitation and temperature anomalies tend to cancel each other, and only on the southern side a slight anti-correlation of mass balances with the NAO prevails.

  2. Gain-of-function mutations in RIT1 cause Noonan syndrome, a RAS/MAPK pathway syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yoko; Niihori, Tetsuya; Banjo, Toshihiro; Okamoto, Nobuhiko; Mizuno, Seiji; Kurosawa, Kenji; Ogata, Tsutomu; Takada, Fumio; Yano, Michihiro; Ando, Toru; Hoshika, Tadataka; Barnett, Christopher; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Kawame, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Okutani, Takahiro; Nagashima, Tatsuo; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Funayama, Ryo; Nagashima, Takeshi; Nakayama, Keiko; Inoue, Shin-Ichi; Watanabe, Yusuke; Ogura, Toshihiko; Matsubara, Yoichi

    2013-07-11

    RAS GTPases mediate a wide variety of cellular functions, including cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation. Recent studies have revealed that germline mutations and mosaicism for classical RAS mutations, including those in HRAS, KRAS, and NRAS, cause a wide spectrum of genetic disorders. These include Noonan syndrome and related disorders (RAS/mitogen-activated protein kinase [RAS/MAPK] pathway syndromes, or RASopathies), nevus sebaceous, and Schimmelpenning syndrome. In the present study, we identified a total of nine missense, nonsynonymous mutations in RIT1, encoding a member of the RAS subfamily, in 17 of 180 individuals (9%) with Noonan syndrome or a related condition but with no detectable mutations in known Noonan-related genes. Clinical manifestations in the RIT1-mutation-positive individuals are consistent with those of Noonan syndrome, which is characterized by distinctive facial features, short stature, and congenital heart defects. Seventy percent of mutation-positive individuals presented with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; this frequency is high relative to the overall 20% incidence in individuals with Noonan syndrome. Luciferase assays in NIH 3T3 cells showed that five RIT1 alterations identified in children with Noonan syndrome enhanced ELK1 transactivation. The introduction of mRNAs of mutant RIT1 into 1-cell-stage zebrafish embryos was found to result in a significant increase of embryos with craniofacial abnormalities, incomplete looping, a hypoplastic chamber in the heart, and an elongated yolk sac. These results demonstrate that gain-of-function mutations in RIT1 cause Noonan syndrome and show a similar biological effect to mutations in other RASopathy-related genes. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Executive function impairments in fibromyalgia syndrome: Relevance of clinical variables and body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Several investigations suggest the presence of deterioration of executive function in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). The study quantified executive functions in patients with FMS. A wide array of functions was assessed, including updating, shifting and inhibition, as well as decision making and mental planning. Moreover, clinical variables were investigated as possible mediators of executive dysfunction, including pain severity, psychiatric comorbidity, medication and body mass index (BMI). Methods Fifty-two FMS patients and 32 healthy controls completed a battery of 14 neuropsychological tests. Clinical interviews were conducted and the McGill Pain Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Fatigue Severity Scale and Oviedo Quality of Sleep Questionnaire were presented. Results Patients performed poorer than controls on the Letter Number Sequencing, Arithmetic and Similarities subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Spatial Span subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale, an N-back task, a verbal fluency task, the Ruff Figural Fluency Test, the Inhibition score of the Stroop Test, the Inhibition and Shifting scores of the Five Digits Test, the Key Search Test and the Zoo Map Task. Moreover, patients exhibited less steep learning curves on the Iowa Gambling Task. Among clinical variables, BMI and pain severity explained the largest proportion of performance variance. Conclusions This study demonstrated impairments in executive functions of updating, shifting inhibition, decision making and planning in FMS. While the mediating role of pain in cognitive impairments in FMS had been previously established, the influence of BMI is a novel finding. Overweight and obesity should be considered by FMS researchers, and in the treatment of the condition. PMID:29694417

  4. Texture-modified diets are associated with decreased muscle mass in older adults admitted to a rehabilitation ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Akio; Maeda, Keisuke; Tanaka, Kei; Ogawa, Mei; Kayashita, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Texture-modified diets (TMD) have significantly lower energy and protein content than normal diets. Therefore, TMD can cause malnutrition and loss of muscle mass. However, few studies have reported the relationship between TMD and decreased skeletal muscle mass. The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between TMD and decreased skeletal muscle mass. We reviewed data of 188 older adult patients who were admitted to a rehabilitation hospital. TMD were defined based on the Japanese Dysphagia Diet Criteria 2013 proposed by the Japanese Society of Dysphagia Rehabilitation. The Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form was used to assess nutritional status; dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the skeletal muscle mass index, and the cut-off values for decreased skeletal muscle mass index were based on the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia; the Functional Independence Measure was used to evaluate activities of daily living. The patients' mean age was 80.6 ± 7.5 years, and 62% were women. A total of 22 patients (11.7%) consumed TMD. A total of 104 patients (55.3%) had decreased skeletal muscle mass, and approximately 90% of them consumed TMD. Decreased skeletal muscle mass index (odds ratio 7.199, 95% confidence interval 1.489-34.805, P ≤ 0.01) and Functional Independence Measure scores (odds ratio 0.972, 95% confidence interval 0.952-0.992, P ≤ 0.01) were independently related to TMD in the multivariate analysis. The TMD group was associated with decreased skeletal muscle mass. Future, prospective studies are necessary to investigate causality. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 698-704. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. A new approach for accurate mass assignment on a multi-turn time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondo, Toshinobu; Jensen, Kirk R; Aoki, Jun; Toyoda, Michisato

    2017-12-01

    A simple, effective accurate mass assignment procedure for a time-of-flight mass spectrometer is desirable. External mass calibration using a mass calibration standard together with an internal mass reference (lock mass) is a common technique for mass assignment, however, using polynomial fitting can result in mass-dependent errors. By using the multi-turn time-of-flight mass spectrometer infiTOF-UHV, we were able to obtain multiple time-of-flight data from an ion monitored under several different numbers of laps that was then used to calculate a mass calibration equation. We have developed a data acquisition system that simultaneously monitors spectra at several different lap conditions with on-the-fly centroid determination and scan law estimation, which is a function of acceleration voltage, flight path, and instrumental time delay. Less than 0.9 mDa mass errors were observed for assigned mass to charge ratios ( m/z) ranging between 4 and 134 using only 40 Ar + as a reference. It was also observed that estimating the scan law on-the-fly provides excellent mass drift compensation.

  6. Fission fragment charge and mass distributions in 239Pu(n ,f ) in the adiabatic nuclear energy density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, D.; Dubray, N.; Schunck, N.; Verrière, M.

    2016-05-01

    Background: Accurate knowledge of fission fragment yields is an essential ingredient of numerous applications ranging from the formation of elements in the r process to fuel cycle optimization for nuclear energy. The need for a predictive theory applicable where no data are available, together with the variety of potential applications, is an incentive to develop a fully microscopic approach to fission dynamics. Purpose: In this work, we calculate the pre-neutron emission charge and mass distributions of the fission fragments formed in the neutron-induced fission of 239Pu using a microscopic method based on nuclear density functional theory (DFT). Methods: Our theoretical framework is the nuclear energy density functional (EDF) method, where large-amplitude collective motion is treated adiabatically by using the time-dependent generator coordinate method (TDGCM) under the Gaussian overlap approximation (GOA). In practice, the TDGCM is implemented in two steps. First, a series of constrained EDF calculations map the configuration and potential-energy landscape of the fissioning system for a small set of collective variables (in this work, the axial quadrupole and octupole moments of the nucleus). Then, nuclear dynamics is modeled by propagating a collective wave packet on the potential-energy surface. Fission fragment distributions are extracted from the flux of the collective wave packet through the scission line. Results: We find that the main characteristics of the fission charge and mass distributions can be well reproduced by existing energy functionals even in two-dimensional collective spaces. Theory and experiment agree typically within two mass units for the position of the asymmetric peak. As expected, calculations are sensitive to the structure of the initial state and the prescription for the collective inertia. We emphasize that results are also sensitive to the continuity of the collective landscape near scission. Conclusions: Our analysis confirms

  7. Mass conservation for instantaneous sources in FEM3 simulations of material dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodean, H.C.

    1987-11-01

    This report presents the results of a systematic study in which it is shown that the numerical integration errors in determining material mass content are negligible; the material phase-change model by itself is not a cause of material mass variation; and a linear relation between fractional mass change and fractional density change at the source center for given mesh and source geometries exists over a range of values from 10 -5 to 10 -1 . This suggests that the omission of the ∂ rho/∂t term from the mass conservation equation is the cause of the observed non-conservation of mass by FEM3. It is shown that these mass variations can be minimized by minimizing the initial density gradients in the source region. 5 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Increasing mass loss from Greenland's Mittivakkat Gletscher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Bent; Mernild, S.H.; Knudsen, N.T.

    2011-01-01

    Warming in the Arctic during the past several decades has caused glaciers to thin and retreat, and recent mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet is well documented. Local glaciers peripheral to the ice sheet are also retreating, but few mass-balance observations are available to quantify that ret...... a local phenomenon, but are indicative of glacier changes in the broader region. Mass-balance observations for the MG therefore provide unique documentation of the general retreat of Southeast Greenland's local glaciers under ongoing climate warming....

  9. Assessment of left ventricular function and mass in dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Christoph J., E-mail: c.jensen@contilia.d [Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Elisabeth Hospital, Essen (Germany); Jochims, Markus [Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Elisabeth Hospital, Essen (Germany); Hunold, Peter; Forsting, Michael; Barkhausen, Joerg [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University of Essen (Germany); Sabin, Georg V.; Bruder, Oliver [Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Elisabeth Hospital, Essen (Germany); Schlosser, Thomas [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University of Essen (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify left ventricular (LV) function and mass (LVM) derived from dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) and the influence of beta-blocker administration compared to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Methods: Thirty-two patients undergoing cardiac DSCT and CMR were included, where of fifteen received metoprolol intravenously before DSCT. LV parameters were calculated by the disc-summation method (DSM) and by a segmented region-growing algorithm (RGA). All data sets were analyzed by two blinded observers. Interobserver agreement was tested by the intraclass correlation coefficient. Results.: 1. Using DSM LV parameters were not statistically different between DSCT and CMR in all patients (DSCT vs. CMR: EF 63 {+-} 8% vs. 64 {+-} 8%, p = 0.47; EDV 136 {+-} 36 ml vs. 138 {+-} 35 ml, p = 0.66; ESV 52 {+-} 21 ml vs. 52 {+-} 22 ml, p = 0.61; SV 83 {+-} 22 ml vs. 87 {+-} 19 ml, p = 0.22; CO 5.4 {+-} 0.9 l/min vs. 5.7 {+-} 1.2 l/min, p = 0.09, LVM 132 {+-} 33 g vs. 132 {+-} 33 g, p = 0.99). 2. In a subgroup of 15 patients beta-blockade prior to DSCT resulted in a lower ejection fraction (EF), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and increase in end systolic volume (ESV) in DSCT (EF 59 {+-} 8% vs. 62 {+-} 9%; SV 73 {+-} 17 ml vs. 81 {+-} 15 ml; CO 5.7 {+-} 1.2 l/min vs. 5.0 {+-} 0.8 l/min; ESV 52 {+-} 27 ml vs. 57 {+-} 24 ml, all p < 0.05). 3. Analyzing the RGA parameters LV volumes were not significantly different compared to DSM, whereas LVM was higher using RGA (177 {+-} 31 g vs. 132 {+-} 33 g, p < 0.05). Interobserver agreement was excellent comparing DSM values with best agreement between RGA calculations. Conclusion: Left ventricular volumes and mass can reliably be assessed by DSCT compared to CMR. However, beta-blocker administration leads to statistically significant reduced EF, SV and CO, whereas ESV significantly increases. DSCT RGA reliably analyzes LV function, whereas LVM is overestimated compared to DSM.

  10. Efficacy of whey protein supplementation on resistance exercise-induced changes in muscle strength, lean mass, and function in mobility-limited older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whey protein supplementation may augment resistance exercise-induced increases in muscle strength and mass. Further studies are required to determine whether this effect extends to functionally compromised older adults. The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of whey protein concent...

  11. On the Mass and Luminosity Functions of Tidal Disruption Flares: Rate Suppression due to Black Hole Event Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, S.

    2018-01-01

    The tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole is expected to yield a luminous flare of thermal emission. About two dozen of these stellar tidal disruption flares (TDFs) may have been detected in optical transient surveys. However, explaining the observed properties of these events within the tidal disruption paradigm is not yet possible. This theoretical ambiguity has led some authors to suggest that optical TDFs are due to a different process, such as a nuclear supernova or accretion disk instabilities. Here we present a test of a fundamental prediction of the tidal disruption event scenario: a suppression of the flare rate due to the direct capture of stars by the black hole. Using a recently compiled sample of candidate TDFs with black hole mass measurements, plus a careful treatment of selection effects in this flux-limited sample, we confirm that the dearth of observed TDFs from high-mass black holes is statistically significant. All the TDF impostor models we consider fail to explain the observed mass function; the only scenario that fits the data is a suppression of the rate due to direct captures. We find that this suppression can explain the low volumetric rate of the luminous TDF candidate ASASSN-15lh, thus supporting the hypothesis that this flare belongs to the TDF family. Our work is the first to present the optical TDF luminosity function. A steep power law is required to explain the observed rest-frame g-band luminosity, {dN}/{{dL}}g\\propto {L}g-2.5. The mean event rate of the flares in our sample is ≈ 1× {10}-4 galaxy‑1 yr‑1, consistent with the theoretically expected tidal disruption rate.

  12. CFD Based Added Mass Prediction in Cruise Condition of Underwater Vehicle Dynamic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agoes Moelyadi, Mochammad; Bambang Riswandi, Bagus

    2018-04-01

    One of the unsteady flow behavior on the hydrodynamic characteristics of underwater vehicle is the presence of added mass. In cruising conditions, the underwater vehicle may require the addition of speed or experience the disturbance in the form of unsteady flow so that cause the hydrodynamic interaction between the surface of the vehicle with the surrounding fluid. This leads to the rise of local velocity of flow and the great changes of hydrodynamic forces which are very influential on the stability of the underwater vehicle. One of the result is an additional force called added mass. It is very useful parameter to control underwater vehicle dynamic.This paper reports the research on the added mass coefficient of underwater vehicles obtained through the Computational Fluid Dynmaic (CFD) simulation method using CFX software. Added mass coefficient is calculated by performing an unsteady simulation or known as transient simulation. Computational simulations are based on the Reynold Average Navier- Stokes (RANS) equation solution. The simulated vehicle moves forward and backward according to the sinus function, with a frequency of 0.25 Hz, a 2 m amplitude, a cruising depth of 10 m below sea level, and Vcruise 1.54 m / s (Re = 9.000.000). Simulation result data includes velocity contour, variation of force and acceleration to frequency, and added mass coefficient.

  13. Functional Elucidation of Nemopilema nomurai and Cyanea nozakii Nematocyst Venoms' Lytic Activity Using Mass Spectrometry and Zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yang; Yu, Huahua; Li, Rongfeng; Xing, Ronge; Liu, Song; Li, Kecheng; Wang, Xueqin; Chen, Xiaolin; Li, Pengcheng

    2017-01-26

    Medusozoans utilize explosively discharging penetrant nematocysts to inject venom into prey. These venoms are composed of highly complex proteins and peptides with extensive bioactivities, as observed in vitro. Diverse enzymatic toxins have been putatively identified in the venom of jellyfish, Nemopilema nomurai and Cyanea nozakii , through examination of their proteomes and transcriptomes. However, functional examination of putative enzymatic components identified in proteomic approaches to elucidate potential bioactivities is critically needed. In this study, enzymatic toxins were functionally identified using a combined approach consisting of in gel zymography and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The potential roles of metalloproteinases and lipases in hemolytic activity were explored using specific inhibitors. Zymography indicated that nematocyst venom possessed protease-, lipase- and hyaluronidase-class activities. Further, proteomic approaches using LC-MS/MS indicated sequence homology of proteolytic bands observed in zymography to extant zinc metalloproteinase-disintegrins and astacin metalloproteinases. Moreover, pre-incubation of the metalloproteinase inhibitor batimastat with N . nomurai nematocyst venom resulted in an approximate 62% reduction of hemolysis compared to venom exposed sheep erythrocytes, suggesting that metalloproteinases contribute to hemolytic activity. Additionally, species within the molecular mass range of 14-18 kDa exhibited both egg yolk and erythrocyte lytic activities in gel overlay assays. For the first time, our findings demonstrate the contribution of jellyfish venom metalloproteinase and suggest the involvement of lipase species to hemolytic activity. Investigations of this relationship will facilitate a better understanding of the constituents and toxicity of jellyfish venom.

  14. Effects of nisoldipine and lisinopril on left ventricular mass and function in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, L; Sato, A; Ali, S

    1999-01-01

    hypertensive type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy enrolled in a 1-year, randomized, double-blind, parallel study of antihypertensive treatment with nisoldipine CC (20-40 mg/day) or lisinopril (10-20 mg/day). Ambulatory 24-h blood pressure was measured with the Takeda TM 2420 device (A & D, Tokyo......, respectively, and did not change during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Antihypertensive treatment with nisoldipine or lisinopril to bring diastolic blood pressure level within the normal target range does not hinder a rise in LVMI in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy.......OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of the calcium channel blocker, nisoldipine, and the ACE inhibitor, lisinopril, on left ventricular mass (LVM) and systolic function in type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: M-mode echocardiography was performed in 50...

  15. Possibility of faster-than-light particles with real mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schommers, W.

    1982-01-01

    The author derives a new expression for the dependence of mass on velocity without using any space-time conception. This expression is more general than the corresponding law of the special theory of relativity (STR). The deviations from the STR increase with increasing rest mass. Thus one should measure the dependence of mass on velocity for particles (or systems) with a large rest mass. The theory predicts that particles with real mass can travel with hyperlight velocities. The space-time picture discussed here is very close to Mach's conception: it is assumed that the cause for the dynamical behaviour of a particle, which is in uniform translational motion, is due to the action of all the other masses in the universe. Space-time is eliminated as an active cause and, in contrast with the STR, space-time does not form an absolute continuum within the theory discussed here. It turns out that effects based on the transformation formulas (existing between the coordinates and time in a stationary frame and the coordinates and time in a moving frame) are identical to those expected from the Lorentz transformations. (Auth.)

  16. Analysis of trafficking, stability and function of human connexin 26 gap junction channels with deafness-causing mutations in the fourth transmembrane helix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Ambrosi

    Full Text Available Human Connexin26 gene mutations cause hearing loss. These hereditary mutations are the leading cause of childhood deafness worldwide. Mutations in gap junction proteins (connexins can impair intercellular communication by eliminating protein synthesis, mis-trafficking, or inducing channels that fail to dock or have aberrant function. We previously identified a new class of mutants that form non-functional gap junction channels and hemichannels (connexons by disrupting packing and inter-helix interactions. Here we analyzed fourteen point mutations in the fourth transmembrane helix of connexin26 (Cx26 that cause non-syndromic hearing loss. Eight mutations caused mis-trafficking (K188R, F191L, V198M, S199F, G200R, I203K, L205P, T208P. Of the remaining six that formed gap junctions in mammalian cells, M195T and A197S formed stable hemichannels after isolation with a baculovirus/Sf9 protein purification system, while C202F, I203T, L205V and N206S formed hemichannels with varying degrees of instability. The function of all six gap junction-forming mutants was further assessed through measurement of dye coupling in mammalian cells and junctional conductance in paired Xenopus oocytes. Dye coupling between cell pairs was reduced by varying degrees for all six mutants. In homotypic oocyte pairings, only A197S induced measurable conductance. In heterotypic pairings with wild-type Cx26, five of the six mutants formed functional gap junction channels, albeit with reduced efficiency. None of the mutants displayed significant alterations in sensitivity to transjunctional voltage or induced conductive hemichannels in single oocytes. Intra-hemichannel interactions between mutant and wild-type proteins were assessed in rescue experiments using baculovirus expression in Sf9 insect cells. Of the four unstable mutations (C202F, I203T, L205V, N206S only C202F and N206S formed stable hemichannels when co-expressed with wild-type Cx26. Stable M195T hemichannels

  17. Primary pelvic hydatid cyst an unusual cause of cystic adnexal image

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These cases will focus on the different characteristics of the infection, and the benefit of including epidemiologic arguments in using the diagnostical approach of adnexal masses. Please note the Erratum for this article - published in 2013: Primary pelvic Hydatid Cyst: An unusual cause of cystic adnexal image (Mass)

  18. Body Mass Index and the Risk of Cardiovascular and All-Cause Mortality Among Patients With Hypertension: A Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study Among Adults in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuibao Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies on the association between body mass index (BMI and death risk among patients with hypertension are limited, and the results are inconsistent. We investigated the association between BMI and cardiovascular disease (CVD and all-cause mortality among hypertensive patients in a population of Beijing, China. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 2535 patients with hypertension aged 40 to 91 years from Beijing, China. Participants with a history of CVD at baseline were excluded from analysis. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the association of different levels of BMI stratification with CVD and allcause mortality. Results: During a mean follow-up of 8.1 years, 486 deaths were identified, including 233 cases of CVD death. The multivariable-adjusted hazards ratios for all-cause mortality associated with BMI levels ( 0.05 for all interactions. Regarding the association of BMI with CVD mortality, a U-shaped trend was also observed. Conclusions: The present study showed a U-shaped association of BMI with CVD and all-cause mortality among patients with hypertension. A lowest risk of all-cause mortality was found among hypertensive patients with BMI between 24 and 26 kg/m2.

  19. Noninvasive screening for pheochromocytoma in patients with an incidentally discovered adrenal mass. Usefulness of provocative test with metoclopramide and {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Yuji [Fukuoka Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-10-01

    Pheochromocytoma accounts for approximately 25% of incidentally discovered adrenal masses. Certain diagnostic procedures (e.g., adrenal arteriography, needle biopsy of an adrenal mass), anesthesia and abdominal surgery may cause a sudden release of catecholamines from a pheochromocytoma and induce paroxysmal attacks of hypertension. In addition, pheochromocytoma is well known to cause unsuspected operating room deaths. Therefore, we must carefully separate this functioning neoplasm from other types of adrenal masses. In this study, we compared the results of noninvasive tests including assay of urinary catecholamines and their metabolites, a provocative pharmacologic test using metoclopramide (MCP test), and {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MlBG) scintigraphy to screen for pheochromocytoma in 10 consecutive patients with an incidentally discovered adrenal mass (6 pheochromocytomas and 4 non-functioning adrenocortical adenomas). We measured the 24-hour urinary excretion of catecholamines, metanephrines and vanillyl mandelic acid in all 10 patients; 5 were positive, 4 were negative and 1 was false-negative (sensitivity=83%, specificity=100%). The MCP test was performed in 7 patients; 3 were positive, 3 were negative and 1 was false-negative (sensitivity=75%, specificity=100%). MIBG scintigraphy was performed in 7 patients; 4 were positive, 1 was negative and 2 were false-negative (sensitivity=67%, specificity=100%). According to these results, all patients with an incidentally discovered adrenal mass should undergo a determination of the 24-hour urinary excretion of catecholamines and their metabolites, including metanephrines. If this urine assay is negative, other noninvasive tests including the MCP test and MIBG scintigraphy should be considered in selected patients with radiographic characteristics of pheochromocytoma. (author)

  20. Shear viscosity of liquid mixtures: Mass dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushal, Rohan; Tankeshwar, K.

    2002-06-01

    Expressions for zeroth, second, and fourth sum rules of transverse stress autocorrelation function of two component fluid have been derived. These sum rules and Mori's memory function formalism have been used to study shear viscosity of Ar-Kr and isotopic mixtures. It has been found that theoretical result is in good agreement with the computer simulation result for the Ar-Kr mixture. The mass dependence of shear viscosity for different mole fraction shows that deviation from ideal linear model comes even from mass difference in two species of fluid mixture. At higher mass ratio shear viscosity of mixture is not explained by any of the emperical model. (author)

  1. Shear viscosity of liquid mixtures Mass dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushal, R

    2002-01-01

    Expressions for zeroth, second, and fourth sum rules of transverse stress autocorrelation function of two component fluid have been derived. These sum rules and Mori's memory function formalism have been used to study shear viscosity of Ar-Kr and isotopic mixtures. It has been found that theoretical result is in good agreement with the computer simulation result for the Ar-Kr mixture. The mass dependence of shear viscosity for different mole fraction shows that deviation from ideal linear model comes even from mass difference in two species of fluid mixture. At higher mass ratio shear viscosity of mixture is not explained by any of the emperical model.

  2. Loss-of-function mutations in CAST cause peeling skin, leukonychia, acral punctate keratoses, cheilitis, and knuckle pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhimiao; Zhao, Jiahui; Nitoiu, Daniela; Scott, Claire A; Plagnol, Vincent; Smith, Frances J D; Wilson, Neil J; Cole, Christian; Schwartz, Mary E; McLean, W H Irwin; Wang, Huijun; Feng, Cheng; Duo, Lina; Zhou, Eray Yihui; Ren, Yali; Dai, Lanlan; Chen, Yulan; Zhang, Jianguo; Xu, Xun; O'Toole, Edel A; Kelsell, David P; Yang, Yong

    2015-03-05

    Calpastatin is an endogenous specific inhibitor of calpain, a calcium-dependent cysteine protease. Here we show that loss-of-function mutations in calpastatin (CAST) are the genetic causes of an autosomal-recessive condition characterized by generalized peeling skin, leukonychia, acral punctate keratoses, cheilitis, and knuckle pads, which we propose to be given the acronym PLACK syndrome. In affected individuals with PLACK syndrome from three families of different ethnicities, we identified homozygous mutations (c.607dup, c.424A>T, and c.1750delG) in CAST, all of which were predicted to encode truncated proteins (p.Ile203Asnfs∗8, p.Lys142∗, and p.Val584Trpfs∗37). Immunohistochemistry shows that staining of calpastatin is reduced in skin from affected individuals. Transmission electron microscopy revealed widening of intercellular spaces with chromatin condensation and margination in the upper stratum spinosum in lesional skin, suggesting impaired intercellular adhesion as well as keratinocyte apoptosis. A significant increase of apoptotic keratinocytes was also observed in TUNEL assays. In vitro studies utilizing siRNA-mediated CAST knockdown revealed a role for calpastatin in keratinocyte adhesion. In summary, we describe PLACK syndrome, as a clinical entity of defective epidermal adhesion, caused by loss-of-function mutations in CAST. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hierarchical Bayesian inference of the initial mass function in composite stellar populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dries, M.; Trager, S. C.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Popping, G.; Somerville, R. S.

    2018-03-01

    The initial mass function (IMF) is a key ingredient in many studies of galaxy formation and evolution. Although the IMF is often assumed to be universal, there is continuing evidence that it is not universal. Spectroscopic studies that derive the IMF of the unresolved stellar populations of a galaxy often assume that this spectrum can be described by a single stellar population (SSP). To alleviate these limitations, in this paper we have developed a unique hierarchical Bayesian framework for modelling composite stellar populations (CSPs). Within this framework, we use a parametrized IMF prior to regulate a direct inference of the IMF. We use this new framework to determine the number of SSPs that is required to fit a set of realistic CSP mock spectra. The CSP mock spectra that we use are based on semi-analytic models and have an IMF that varies as a function of stellar velocity dispersion of the galaxy. Our results suggest that using a single SSP biases the determination of the IMF slope to a higher value than the true slope, although the trend with stellar velocity dispersion is overall recovered. If we include more SSPs in the fit, the Bayesian evidence increases significantly and the inferred IMF slopes of our mock spectra converge, within the errors, to their true values. Most of the bias is already removed by using two SSPs instead of one. We show that we can reconstruct the variable IMF of our mock spectra for signal-to-noise ratios exceeding ˜75.

  4. Pulsation, Mass Loss and the Upper Mass Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, J.; Corona-Galindo, M. G.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. La existencia de estrellas con masas en exceso de 100 M0 ha sido cuestionada por mucho tiempo. Lfmites superiores para la masa de 100 M0 han sido obtenidos de teorfas de pulsaci6n y formaci6n estelar. En este trabajo nosotros primero investigamos la estabilidad radial de estrellas masivas utilizando la aproximaci6n clasica cuasiadiabatica de Ledoux, la aproximaci6n cuasiadiabatica de Castor y un calculo completamente no-adiabatico. Hemos encontrado que los tres metodos de calculo dan resultados similares siempre y cuando una pequefia regi6n de las capas externas de la estrella sea despreciada para la aproximaci6n clasica. La masa crftica para estabilidad de estrellas masivas ha sido encontrada en acuerdo a trabajos anteriores. Explicamos Ia discrepancia entre este y trabajos anteriores por uno de los autores. Discunmos calculos no-lineales y perdida de masa con respecto a) lfmite superior de masa. The existence of stars with masses in excess of 100 M0 has been questioned for a very long time. Upper mass limits of 100 Me have been obtained from pulsation and star formation theories. In this work we first investigate the radial stability of massive stars using the classical Ledoux's quasiadiabatic approximation. the Castor quasiadiabatic approximation and a fully nonadiabatic calculation. We have found that the three methods of calculation give similar results provided that a small region in outer layers of the star be neglected for the classical approximation. The critical mass for stability of massive stars is found to be in agreement with previous work. We explain the reason for the discrepancy between this and previous work by one of the authors. We discuss non-linear calculations and mass loss with regard to the upper mass limit. Key words: STARS-MASS FUNCTION - STARS-MASS LOSS - STARS-PULSATION

  5. Structural and functional alterations of catalase induced by acriflavine, a compound causing apoptosis and necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Farnoosh; Khavari-Nejad, Sarah; Keyhani, Jacqueline; Keyhani, Ezzatollah

    2009-08-01

    Acriflavine is an antiseptic agent causing both apoptosis and necrosis in yeast. In this work, its effect on the structure and function of catalase, a vital enzyme actively involved in protection against oxidative stress, was investigated. In vitro kinetic studies showed that acriflavine inhibited the enzymatic activity in a competitive manner. The residual activity detectable after preincubation of catalase (1.5 nmol/L) with various concentrations of acriflavine went from 50% to 20% of the control value as the acriflavine concentration increased from 30 to 90 micromol/L. Correlatively with the decrease in activity, alterations in the enzyme's conformation were observed as indicated by fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and electronic absorption spectroscopy. The enzyme's intrinsic fluorescence obtained upon excitation at either 297 nm (tryptophan residues) or 280 nm (tyrosine and tryptophan residues) decreased as a function of acriflavine concentration. Circular dichroism studies showed alterations of the protein structure by acriflavine with up to 13% decrease in alpha helix, 16% increase in beta-sheet content, 17% increase in random coil, and 4% increase in beta turns. Spectrophotometric studies showed a blueshift and modifications in the chromicity of catalase at 405 nm, corresponding to an absorbance band due to the enzyme's prosthetic group. Thus, acriflavine induced in vitro a profound change in the structure of catalase so that the enzyme could no longer function. Our results showed that acriflavine, a compound producing apoptosis and necrosis, can have a direct effect on vital functions in cells by disabling key enzymes.

  6. Functional abdominal pain causing Scurvy, Pellagra, and Hypovitaminosis A [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2pr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Y. Ho

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Severe vitamin deficiency disease is rarely seen in developed countries. We present an atypical case of a young man with scurvy, pellagra, and hypovitaminosis A, caused by longstanding functional abdominal pain that severely limited his ability to eat.

  7. Potential Identification of Sublimation-Driven Downslope Mass Movement on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliband, C. C.; Conway, S. J.; Rothery, D. A.; Balme, M. R.

    2018-05-01

    We have identified a further example of mass movement, in addition to the previously identified example in the pyroclastic vent NE of Rachmaninoff. Both examples show evidence of hollow sublimation being a cause of the mass movements.

  8. THE PSEUDO-EVOLUTION OF HALO MASS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diemer, Benedikt; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; More, Surhud

    2013-01-01

    A dark matter halo is commonly defined as a spherical overdensity of matter with respect to a reference density, such as the critical density or the mean matter density of the universe. Such definitions can lead to a spurious pseudo-evolution of halo mass simply due to redshift evolution of the reference density, even if its physical density profile remains constant over time. We estimate the amount of such pseudo-evolution of mass between z = 1 and 0 for halos identified in a large N-body simulation, and show that it accounts for almost the entire mass evolution of the majority of halos with M 200ρ-bar ≲ 10 12 h -1 M ☉ and can be a significant fraction of the apparent mass growth even for cluster-sized halos. We estimate the magnitude of the pseudo-evolution assuming that halo density profiles remain static in physical coordinates, and show that this simple model predicts the pseudo-evolution of halos identified in numerical simulations to good accuracy, albeit with significant scatter. We discuss the impact of pseudo-evolution on the evolution of the halo mass function and show that the non-evolution of the low-mass end of the halo mass function is the result of a fortuitous cancellation between pseudo-evolution and the absorption of small halos into larger hosts. We also show that the evolution of the low-mass end of the concentration-mass relation observed in simulations is almost entirely due to the pseudo-evolution of mass. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for the interpretation of the evolution of various scaling relations between the observable properties of galaxies and galaxy clusters and their halo masses.

  9. Mass meta-analysis in Talairach space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup

    2004-01-01

    We provide a method for mass meta-analysis in a neuroinformatics database containing stereotaxic Talairach coordinates from neuroimaging experiments. Database labels are used to group the individual experiments, e.g., according to cognitive function, and the consistent pattern of the experiments...... of experiments, and the distances to the null hypotheses are used to sort the voxels across groups of experiments. This allows for mass meta-analysis, with the construction of a list with the most prominent associations between brain areas and group labels. Furthermore, the method can be used for functional...

  10. Mass-stiffness substructuring of an elastic metasurface for full transmission beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk; Lee, Jun Kyu; Seung, Hong Min; Kim, Yoon Young

    2018-03-01

    The metasurface concept has a significant potential due to its novel wavefront-shaping functionalities that can be critically useful for ultrasonic and solid wave-based applications. To achieve the desired functionalities, elastic metasurfaces should cover full 2π phase shift and also acquire full transmission within subwavelength scale. However, they have not been explored much with respect to the elastic regime, because the intrinsic proportionality of mass-stiffness within the continuum elastic media causes an inevitable trade-off between abrupt phase shift and sufficient transmission. Our goal is to engineer an elastic metasurface that can realize an inverse relation between (amplified) effective mass and (weakened) stiffness in order to satisfy full 2π phase shift as well as full transmission. To achieve this goal, we propose a continuum elastic metasurface unit cell that is decomposed into two substructures, namely a mass-tuning substructure with a local dipolar resonator and a stiffness-tuning substructure composed of non-resonant multiply-perforated slits. We demonstrate analytically, numerically, and experimentally that this unique substructured unit cell can satisfy the required phase shift with high transmission. The substructuring enables independent tuning of the elastic properties over a wide range of values. We use a mass-spring model of the proposed continuum unit cell to investigate the working mechanism of the proposed metasurface. With the designed metasurface consisting of substructured unit cells embedded in an aluminum plate, we demonstrate that our metasurface can successfully realize anomalous steering and focusing of in-plane longitudinal ultrasonic beams. The proposed substructuring concept is expected to provide a new principle for the design of general elastic metasurfaces that can be used to efficiently engineer arbitrary wave profiles.

  11. Organic-Chemical Clues to the Theory of Impacts as a Cause of Mass Extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, N. J.

    1988-11-01

    The reasons for the mass extinctions, which occur from time to time in Earth's history-as, e.g., the dinosaur extinction at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary 65 myr ago - are still not satisfactorily cleared up. A possible reason might be the impact of one or several comets of several kilometers in diameter. In this paper the astrophysical background of this hypothesis and organic-chemical processes during an impact will be discussed. Quantitative estimations are given, which show that the amount of organic substances brought to the Earth may be of the same order of magnitude as the normal biological production of organic material. Investigations are proposed to examine the organic-chemical composition of profiles of the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary and other boundaries, at which mass extinction had occurred, in order to find anomalies as consequences of impacts.

  12. A mass graph-based approach for the identification of modified proteoforms using top-down tandem mass spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Qiang; Wu, Si; Tolic, Nikola; Paša-Tolic, Ljiljana; Liu, Yunlong; Liu, Xiaowen

    2017-05-01

    Although proteomics has rapidly developed in the past decade, researchers are still in the early stage of exploring the world of complex proteoforms, which are protein products with various primary structure alterations resulting from gene mutations, alternative splicing, post-translational modifications, and other biological processes. Proteoform identification is essential to mapping proteoforms to their biological functions as well as discovering novel proteoforms and new protein functions. Top-down mass spectrometry is the method of choice for identifying complex proteoforms because it provides a 'bird's eye view' of intact proteoforms. The combinatorial explosion of various alterations on a protein may result in billions of possible proteoforms, making proteoform identification a challenging computational problem. We propose a new data structure, called the mass graph, for efficient representation of proteoforms and design mass graph alignment algorithms. We developed TopMG, a mass graph-based software tool for proteoform identification by top-down mass spectrometry. Experiments on top-down mass spectrometry datasets showed that TopMG outperformed existing methods in identifying complex proteoforms. http://proteomics.informatics.iupui.edu/software/topmg/. xwliu@iupui.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  13. MUSE observations of M87: radial gradients for the stellar initial-mass function and the abundance of Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarzi, Marc; Spiniello, Chiara; Barbera, Francesco La; Krajnović, Davor; Bosch, Remco van den

    2018-05-01

    Based on MUSE integral-field data we present evidence for a radial variation at the low-mass end of the stellar initial-mass function (IMF) in the central regions of the giant early-type galaxy NGC 4486 (M87). We used state-of-the-art stellar population models and the observed strength of various IMF-sensitive absorption-line features to solve for the best low-mass tapered "bimodal" form of the IMF, while accounting also for variations in stellar metallicity, the overall α-elements abundance and the abundance of individual elements such as Ti, O, Na and Ca. Our analysis reveals a strong negative IMF gradient corresponding to an exceeding fraction of low-mass sta