Sample records for mars observer camera

  1. The MARS Photon Processing Cameras for Spectral CT

    CERN Document Server

    Doesburg, Robert Michael Nicholas; Butler, APH; Renaud, PF

    This thesis is about the development of the MARS camera: a stan- dalone portable digital x-ray camera with spectral sensitivity. It is built for use in the MARS Spectral system from the Medipix2 and Medipix3 imaging chips. Photon counting detectors and Spectral CT are introduced, and Medipix is identified as a powerful new imaging device. The goals and strategy for the MARS camera are discussed. The Medipix chip physical, electronic and functional aspects, and ex- perience gained, are described. The camera hardware, firmware and supporting PC software are presented. Reports of experimental work on the process of equalisation from noise, and of tests of charge sum- ming mode, conclude the main body of the thesis. The camera has been actively used since late 2009 in pre-clinical re- search. A list of publications that derive from the use of the camera and the MARS Spectral scanner demonstrates the practical benefits already obtained from this work. Two of the publications are first- author, eight are co-authore...

  2. Mars Orbiter Camera Views the 'Face on Mars' - Best View from Viking (United States)


    Shortly after midnight Sunday morning (5 April 1998 12:39 AM PST), the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft successfully acquired a high resolution image of the 'Face on Mars' feature in the Cydonia region. The image was transmitted to Earth on Sunday, and retrieved from the mission computer data base Monday morning (6 April 1998). The image was processed at the Malin Space Science Systems (MSSS) facility 9:15 AM and the raw image immediately transferred to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for release to the Internet. The images shown here were subsequently processed at MSSS.The picture was acquired 375 seconds after the spacecraft's 220th close approach to Mars. At that time, the 'Face', located at approximately 40.8o N, 9.6o W, was 275 miles (444 km) from the spacecraft. The 'morning' sun was 25o above the horizon. The picture has a resolution of 14.1 feet (4.3 meters) per pixel, making it ten times higher resolution than the best previous image of the feature, which was taken by the Viking Mission in the mid-1970's. The full image covers an area 2.7 miles (4.4 km) wide and 25.7 miles (41.5 km) long.This Viking Orbiter image is one of the best Viking pictures of the area Cydonia where the 'Face' is located. Marked on the image are the 'footprint' of the high resolution (narrow angle) Mars Orbiter Camera image and the area seen in enlarged views (dashed box). See PIA01440-1442 for these images in raw and processed form.Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  3. An ordinary camera in an extraordinary location: Outreach with the Mars Webcam (United States)

    Ormston, T.; Denis, M.; Scuka, D.; Griebel, H.


    The European Space Agency's Mars Express mission was launched in 2003 and was Europe's first mission to Mars. On-board was a small camera designed to provide ‘visual telemetry’ of the separation of the Beagle-2 lander. After achieving its goal it was shut down while the primary science mission of Mars Express got underway. In 2007 this camera was reactivated by the flight control team of Mars Express for the purpose of providing public education and outreach—turning it into the ‘Mars Webcam’.The camera is a small, 640×480 pixel colour CMOS camera with a wide-angle 30°×40° field of view. This makes it very similar in almost every way to the average home PC webcam. The major difference is that this webcam is not in an average location but is instead in orbit around Mars. On a strict basis of non-interference with the primary science activities, the camera is turned on to provide unique wide-angle views of the planet below.A highly automated process ensures that the observations are scheduled on the spacecraft and then uploaded to the internet as rapidly as possible. There is no intermediate stage, so that visitors to the Mars Webcam blog serve as ‘citizen scientists’. Full raw datasets and processing instructions are provided along with a mechanism to allow visitors to comment on the blog. Members of the public are encouraged to use this in either a personal or an educational context and work with the images. We then take their excellent work and showcase it back on the blog. We even apply techniques developed by them to improve the data and webcam experience for others.The accessibility and simplicity of the images also makes the data ideal for educational use, especially as educational projects can then be showcased on the site as inspiration for others. The oft-neglected target audience of space enthusiasts is also important as this allows them to participate as part of an interplanetary instrument team.This paper will cover the history of the

  4. Mars Orbiter Camera Views the 'Face on Mars' - Comparison with Viking (United States)


    processed to remove the sensitivity differences between adjacent picture elements (calibrated). This removes the vertical streaking. The contrast and brightness of the image was adjusted, and 'filters' were applied to enhance detail at several scales. The image was then geometrically warped to meet the computed position information for a mercator-type map. This corrected for the left-right flip, and the non-vertical viewing angle (about 45o from vertical), but also introduced some vertical 'elongation' of the image for the same reason Greenland looks larger than Africa on a mercator map of the Earth. A section of the image, containing the 'Face' and a couple of nearly impact craters and hills, was 'cut' out of the full image and reproduced separately.See PIA01440-1442 for additional processing steps. Also see PIA01236 for the raw image.Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  5. Limb clouds and dust on Mars from images obtained by the Visual Monitoring Camera (VMC) onboard Mars Express (United States)

    Sánchez-Lavega, A.; Chen-Chen, H.; Ordoñez-Etxeberria, I.; Hueso, R.; del Río-Gaztelurrutia, T.; Garro, A.; Cardesín-Moinelo, A.; Titov, D.; Wood, S.


    The Visual Monitoring Camera (VMC) onboard the Mars Express (MEx) spacecraft is a simple camera aimed to monitor the release of the Beagle-2 lander on Mars Express and later used for public outreach. Here, we employ VMC as a scientific instrument to study and characterize high altitude aerosols events (dust and condensates) observed at the Martian limb. More than 21,000 images taken between 2007 and 2016 have been examined to detect and characterize elevated layers of dust in the limb, dust storms and clouds. We report a total of 18 events for which we give their main properties (areographic location, maximum altitude, limb projected size, Martian solar longitude and local time of occurrence). The top altitudes of these phenomena ranged from 40 to 85 km and their horizontal extent at the limb ranged from 120 to 2000 km. They mostly occurred at Equatorial and Tropical latitudes (between ∼30°N and 30°S) at morning and afternoon local times in the southern fall and northern winter seasons. None of them are related to the orographic clouds that typically form around volcanoes. Three of these events have been studied in detail using simultaneous images taken by the MARCI instrument onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) and studying the properties of the atmosphere using the predictions from the Mars Climate Database (MCD) General Circulation Model. This has allowed us to determine the three-dimensional structure and nature of these events, with one of them being a regional dust storm and the two others water ice clouds. Analyses based on MCD and/or MARCI images for the other cases studied indicate that the rest of the events correspond most probably to water ice clouds.

  6. Quantifying geological processes on Mars - Results of the high resolution stereo camera (HRSC) on Mars express

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaumann, R.; Tirsch, D.; Hauber, E.; Ansan, V.; Di Achille, G.; Erkeling, G.; Fueten, F.; Head, J.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Mangold, N.; Michael, G. G.; Neukum, G.; Pacifici, A.; Platz, T.; Pondrelli, M.; Raack, J.; Reiss, D.; Williams, D. A.; Adeli, S.; Baratoux, D.; De Villiers, G.; Foing, B.; Gupta, S.; Gwinner, K.; Hiesinger, H.; Hoffmann, H.; Deit, L. Le; Marinangeli, L.; Matz, K. D.; Mertens, V.; Muller, J. P.; Pasckert, J. H.; Roatsch, T.; Rossi, A. P.; Scholten, F.; Sowe, M.; Voigt, J.; Warner, N.


    Abstract This review summarizes the use of High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) data as an instrumental tool and its application in the analysis of geological processes and landforms on Mars during the last 10 years of operation. High-resolution digital elevations models on a local to regional scale

  7. MUSIC - Multifunctional stereo imaging camera system for wide angle and high resolution stereo and color observations on the Mars-94 mission (United States)

    Oertel, D.; Jahn, H.; Sandau, R.; Walter, I.; Driescher, H.


    Objectives of the multifunctional stereo imaging camera (MUSIC) system to be deployed on the Soviet Mars-94 mission are outlined. A high-resolution stereo camera (HRSC) and wide-angle opto-electronic stereo scanner (WAOSS) are combined in terms of hardware, software, technology aspects, and solutions. Both HRSC and WAOSS are push-button instruments containing a single optical system and focal plates with several parallel CCD line sensors. Emphasis is placed on the MUSIC system's stereo capability, its design, mass memory, and data compression. A 1-Gbit memory is divided into two parts: 80 percent for HRSC and 20 percent for WAOSS, while the selected on-line compression strategy is based on macropixel coding and real-time transform coding.

  8. Photometric Observations of Soils and Rocks at the Mars Exploration Rover Landing Sites (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Arvidson, R. A.; Bell, J. F., III; Farrand, W.; Guinness, E.; Johnson, M.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Lemmon, M.; Morris, R. V.; Seelos, F., IV


    The Panoramic Cameras (Pancam) on the Spirit and Opportunity Mars Exploration Rovers have acquired multispectral reflectance observations of rocks and soils at different incidence, emission, and phase angles that will be used for photometric modeling of surface materials. Phase angle coverage at both sites extends from approx. 0 deg. to approx. 155 deg.

  9. MAHLI on Mars: lessons learned operating a geoscience camera on a landed payload robotic arm (United States)

    Aileen Yingst, R.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian M.; McBride, Marie J.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Ravine, Michael A.; Williams, Rebecca M. E.


    The Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) is a 2-megapixel, color camera with resolution as high as 13.9 µm pixel-1. MAHLI has operated successfully on the Martian surface for over 1150 Martian days (sols) aboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity. During that time MAHLI acquired images to support science and science-enabling activities, including rock and outcrop textural analysis; sand characterization to further the understanding of global sand properties and processes; support of other instrument observations; sample extraction site documentation; range-finding for arm and instrument placement; rover hardware and instrument monitoring and safety; terrain assessment; landscape geomorphology; and support of rover robotic arm commissioning. Operation of the instrument has demonstrated that imaging fully illuminated, dust-free targets yields the best results, with complementary information obtained from shadowed images. The light-emitting diodes (LEDs) allow satisfactory night imaging but do not improve daytime shadowed imaging. MAHLI's combination of fine-scale, science-driven resolution, RGB color, the ability to focus over a large range of distances, and relatively large field of view (FOV), have maximized the return of science and science-enabling observations given the MSL mission architecture and constraints.

  10. Curiosity's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI): Inital Observations and Activities (United States)

    Edgett, K. S.; Yingst, R. A.; Minitti, M. E.; Robinson, M. L.; Kennedy, M. R.; Lipkaman, L. J.; Jensen, E. H.; Anderson, R. C.; Bean, K. M.; Beegle, L. W.; hide


    MAHLI (Mars Hand Lens Imager) is a 2-megapixel focusable macro lens color camera on the turret on Curiosity's robotic arm. The investigation centers on stratigraphy, grain-scale texture, structure, mineralogy, and morphology of geologic materials at Curiosity's Gale robotic field site. MAHLI acquires focused images at working distances of 2.1 cm to infinity; for reference, at 2.1 cm the scale is 14 microns/pixel; at 6.9 cm it is 31 microns/pixel, like the Spirit and Opportunity Microscopic Imager (MI) cameras.

  11. Feasibility of retrieving dust properties and total column water vapor from solar spectra measured using a lander camera on Mars (United States)

    Manago, Naohiro; Noguchi, Katsuyuki; Hashimoto, George L.; Senshu, Hiroki; Otobe, Naohito; Suzuki, Makoto; Kuze, Hiroaki


    Dust and water vapor are important constituents in the Martian atmosphere, exerting significant influence on the heat balance of the atmosphere and surface. We have developed a method to retrieve optical and physical properties of Martian dust from spectral intensities of direct and scattered solar radiation to be measured using a multi-wavelength environmental camera onboard a Mars lander. Martian dust is assumed to be composed of silicate-like substrate and hematite-like inclusion, having spheroidal shape with a monomodal gamma size distribution. Error analysis based on simulated data reveals that appropriate combinations of three bands centered at 450, 550, and 675 nm wavelengths and 4 scattering angles of 3°, 10°, 50°, and 120° lead to good retrieval of four dust parameters, namely, aerosol optical depth, effective radius and variance of size distribution, and volume mixing ratio of hematite. Retrieval error increases when some of the observational parameters such as color ratio or aureole are omitted from the retrieval. Also, the capability of retrieving total column water vapor is examined through observations of direct and scattered solar radiation intensities at 925, 935, and 972 nm. The simulation and error analysis presented here will be useful for designing an environmental camera that can elucidate the dust and water vapor properties in a future Mars lander mission.

  12. Aeolian sedimentary processes at the Bagnold Dunes, Mars: Implications for modern dune dynamics and sedimentary structures in the aeolian stratigraphic record of Mars (United States)

    Ewing, Ryan C.; Bridges, Nathan T.; Sullivan, Rob; Lapotre, Mathieu G. A.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Lamb, Mike P.; Rubin, David M.; Lewis, Kevin W.; Gupta, Sanjeev


    Wind-blown sand dunes are ubiquitous on the surface of Mars and are a recognized component of the martian stratigraphic record. Our current knowledge of the aeolian sedimentary processes that determine dune morphology, drive dune dynamics, and create aeolian cross-stratification are based upon orbital studies of ripple and dune morphodynamics, rover observations of stratification on Mars, Earth analogs, and experimental and theoretical studies of sand movement under Martian conditions. In-situ observations of sand dunes (informally called the Bagnold Dunes) by Curiosity Rover in Gale Crater, Mars provide the first opportunity to make observations of dunes from the grain-to-dune scale thereby filling the gap in knowledge between theory and orbital observations and refining our understanding of the martian aeolian stratigraphic record. We use the suite of cameras on Curiosity, including Navigation Camera (Navcam), Mast Camera (Mastcam) and Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), to make observations of the Bagnold Dunes. Measurements of sedimentary structures are made where stereo images are available. Observations indicate that structures generated by gravity-driven processes on the dune lee slopes, such as grainflow and grainfall, are similar to the suite of aeolian sedimentary structures observed on Earth and should be present and recognizable in Mars' aeolian stratigraphic record. Structures formed by traction-driven processes deviate significantly from those found on Earth. The dune hosts centimeter-scale wind ripples and large, meter-scale ripples, which are not found on Earth. The large ripples migrate across the depositional, lee slopes of the dune, which implies that these structures should be present in Mars' stratigraphic record and may appear similar to compound-dune stratification.The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity Rover Team is acknowledged for their support of this work.

  13. The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) of Mars Express and its approach to science analysis and mapping for Mars and its satellites (United States)

    Gwinner, K.; Jaumann, R.; Hauber, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Heipke, C.; Oberst, J.; Neukum, G.; Ansan, V.; Bostelmann, J.; Dumke, A.; Elgner, S.; Erkeling, G.; Fueten, F.; Hiesinger, H.; Hoekzema, N. M.; Kersten, E.; Loizeau, D.; Matz, K.-D.; McGuire, P. C.; Mertens, V.; Michael, G.; Pasewaldt, A.; Pinet, P.; Preusker, F.; Reiss, D.; Roatsch, T.; Schmidt, R.; Scholten, F.; Spiegel, M.; Stesky, R.; Tirsch, D.; van Gasselt, S.; Walter, S.; Wählisch, M.; Willner, K.


    The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) of ESA's Mars Express is designed to map and investigate the topography of Mars. The camera, in particular its Super Resolution Channel (SRC), also obtains images of Phobos and Deimos on a regular basis. As HRSC is a push broom scanning instrument with nine CCD line detectors mounted in parallel, its unique feature is the ability to obtain along-track stereo images and four colors during a single orbital pass. The sub-pixel accuracy of 3D points derived from stereo analysis allows producing DTMs with grid size of up to 50 m and height accuracy on the order of one image ground pixel and better, as well as corresponding orthoimages. Such data products have been produced systematically for approximately 40% of the surface of Mars so far, while global shape models and a near-global orthoimage mosaic could be produced for Phobos. HRSC is also unique because it bridges between laser altimetry and topography data derived from other stereo imaging instruments, and provides geodetic reference data and geological context to a variety of non-stereo datasets. This paper, in addition to an overview of the status and evolution of the experiment, provides a review of relevant methods applied for 3D reconstruction and mapping, and respective achievements. We will also review the methodology of specific approaches to science analysis based on joint analysis of DTM and orthoimage information, or benefitting from high accuracy of co-registration between multiple datasets, such as studies using multi-temporal or multi-angular observations, from the fields of geomorphology, structural geology, compositional mapping, and atmospheric science. Related exemplary results from analysis of HRSC data will be discussed. After 10 years of operation, HRSC covered about 70% of the surface by panchromatic images at 10-20 m/pixel, and about 97% at better than 100 m/pixel. As the areas with contiguous coverage by stereo data are increasingly abundant, we also

  14. Atypical pit craters on Mars: new insights from THEMIS, CTX and HiRISE observations (United States)

    Cushing, Glen; Okubo, Chris H.; Titus, Timothy N.


    More than 100 pit craters in the Tharsis region of Mars exhibit morphologies, diameters and thermal behaviors that diverge from the much larger bowl-shaped pit craters that occur in most regions across Mars. These Atypical Pit Craters (APCs) generally have sharp and distinct rims, vertical or overhanging walls that extend down to their floors, surface diameters of ~50-350 m, and high depth-to-diameter (d/D) ratios that are usually greater than 0.3 (which is an upper-range value for impacts and bowl-shaped pit craters), and can exceed values of 1.8. Observations by the Mars Odyssey THermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) show that APC floor temperatures are warmer at night, and fluctuate with much lower diurnal amplitudes than nearby surfaces or adjacent bowl-shaped pit craters. Kīlauea volcano, Hawai'i, hosts pit craters that formed through subsurface collapse into active volcanic dikes, resulting in pits that can appear morphologically analogous to either APCs or bowl-shaped pit craters. Partially-drained dikes are sometimes exposed within the lower walls and floors of these terrestrial APC analogs and can form extensive cave systems with unique microclimates. Similar caves in martian pit craters are of great interest for astrobiology. This study uses new observations by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) and Context Camera (CTX) to refine previous work where seven APCs were described from lower-resolution THEMIS visible-wavelength (VIS) observations. Here, we identify locations of 115 APCs, map their distribution across the Tharsis region, characterize their internal morphologies with high-resolution observations, and discuss possible formation mechanisms.

  15. Mars Aeronomy Observer: Report of the Science Working Team (United States)

    Hunten, Donald M.; Slavin, James A.; Brace, Lawrence H.; Deming, Drake; Frank, Louis A.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.; Haberle, Robert M.; Hanson, William B.; Intriligator, Devrie S.; Killeen, Timothy L.; hide


    The Mars Aeronomy Observer (MAO) is a candidate follow-on mission to Mars Observer (MO) in the Planetary Observer Program. The four Mariner and two Viking spacecraft sent to Mars between 1965 and 1976 have provided a wealth of information concerning Martian planetology. The Mars Observer, to be launched in 1990, will build on their results by further examining the elemental and mineralogical composition of the surface, the strength and multipolar composition of the planetary magnetic field, the gravitational field and topography, and the circulation of the lower atmosphere. The Mars Aeronomy Observer is intended to address the last major aspects of Martian environment which have yet to be investigated: the upper atmosphere, the ionsphere, and the solar wind interaction region.

  16. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mast cameras and Descent imager: Investigation and instrument descriptions (United States)

    Malin, Michal C.; Ravine, Michael A.; Caplinger, Michael A.; Tony Ghaemi, F.; Schaffner, Jacob A.; Maki, Justin N.; Bell, James F.; Cameron, James F.; Dietrich, William E.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Edwards, Laurence J.; Garvin, James B.; Hallet, Bernard; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Heydari, Ezat; Kah, Linda C.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Olson, Timothy S.; Parker, Timothy J.; Rowland, Scott K.; Schieber, Juergen; Sletten, Ron; Sullivan, Robert J.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Aileen Yingst, R.; Duston, Brian M.; McNair, Sean; Jensen, Elsa H.


    The Mars Science Laboratory Mast camera and Descent Imager investigations were designed, built, and operated by Malin Space Science Systems of San Diego, CA. They share common electronics and focal plane designs but have different optics. There are two Mastcams of dissimilar focal length. The Mastcam-34 has an f/8, 34 mm focal length lens, and the M-100 an f/10, 100 mm focal length lens. The M-34 field of view is about 20° × 15° with an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of 218 μrad; the M-100 field of view (FOV) is 6.8° × 5.1° with an IFOV of 74 μrad. The M-34 can focus from 0.5 m to infinity, and the M-100 from 1.6 m to infinity. All three cameras can acquire color images through a Bayer color filter array, and the Mastcams can also acquire images through seven science filters. Images are ≤1600 pixels wide by 1200 pixels tall. The Mastcams, mounted on the 2 m tall Remote Sensing Mast, have a 360° azimuth and 180° elevation field of regard. Mars Descent Imager is fixed-mounted to the bottom left front side of the rover at 66 cm above the surface. Its fixed focus lens is in focus from 2 m to infinity, but out of focus at 66 cm. The f/3 lens has a FOV of 70° by 52° across and along the direction of motion, with an IFOV of 0.76 mrad. All cameras can acquire video at 4 frames/second for full frames or 720p HD at 6 fps. Images can be processed using lossy Joint Photographic Experts Group and predictive lossless compression.

  17. A cooperative control algorithm for camera based observational systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Joseph G.


    Over the last several years, there has been considerable growth in camera based observation systems for a variety of safety, scientific, and recreational applications. In order to improve the effectiveness of these systems, we frequently desire the ability to increase the number of observed objects, but solving this problem is not as simple as adding more cameras. Quite often, there are economic or physical restrictions that prevent us from adding additional cameras to the system. As a result, we require methods that coordinate the tracking of objects between multiple cameras in an optimal way. In order to accomplish this goal, we present a new cooperative control algorithm for a camera based observational system. Specifically, we present a receding horizon control where we model the underlying optimal control problem as a mixed integer linear program. The benefit of this design is that we can coordinate the actions between each camera while simultaneously respecting its kinematics. In addition, we further improve the quality of our solution by coupling our algorithm with a Kalman filter. Through this integration, we not only add a predictive component to our control, but we use the uncertainty estimates provided by the filter to encourage the system to periodically observe any outliers in the observed area. This combined approach allows us to intelligently observe the entire region of interest in an effective and thorough manner.

  18. Hydrovolcanic features on Mars: Preliminary observations from the first Mars year of HiRISE imaging (United States)

    Keszthelyi, L.P.; Jaeger, W.L.; Dundas, C.M.; Martinez-Alonso, S.; McEwen, A.S.; Milazzo, M.P.


    We provide an overview of features indicative of the interaction between water and lava and/or magma on Mars as seen by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera during the Primary Science Phase of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission. The ability to confidently resolve meter-scale features from orbit has been extremely useful in the study of the most pristine examples. In particular, HiRISE has allowed the documentation of previously undescribed features associated with phreatovolcanic cones (formed by the interaction of lava and groundwater) on rapidly emplaced flood lavas. These include "moats" and "wakes" that indicate that the lava crust was thin and mobile, respectively [Jaeger, W.L., Keszthelyi, L.P., McEwen, A.S., Dundas, C.M., Russel, P.S., 2007. Science 317, 1709-1711]. HiRISE has also discovered entablature-style jointing in lavas that is indicative of water-cooling [Milazzo, M.P., Keszthelyi, L.P., Jaeger, W.L., Rosiek, M., Mattson, S., Verba, C., Beyer, R.A., Geissler, P.E., McEwen, A.S., and the HiRISE Team, 2009. Geology 37, 171-174]. Other observations strongly support the idea of extensive volcanic mudflows (lahars). Evidence for other forms of hydrovolcanism, including glaciovolcanic interactions, is more equivocal. This is largely because most older and high-latitude terrains have been extensively modified, masking any earlier 1-10 m scale features. Much like terrestrial fieldwork, the prerequisite for making full use of HiRISE's capabilities is finding good outcrops.

  19. 'Mars-shine' (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 'Mars-shine' Composite NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit continues to take advantage of favorable solar power conditions to conduct occasional nighttime astronomical observations from the summit region of 'Husband Hill.' Spirit has been observing the martian moons Phobos and Deimos to learn more about their orbits and surface properties. This has included observing eclipses. On Earth, a solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's orbit takes it exactly between the Sun and Earth, casting parts of Earth into shadow. A lunar eclipse occurs when the Earth is exactly between the Sun and the Moon, casting the Moon into shadow and often giving it a ghostly orange-reddish color. This color is created by sunlight reflected through Earth's atmosphere into the shadowed region. The primary difference between terrestrial and martian eclipses is that Mars' moons are too small to completely block the Sun from view during solar eclipses. Recently, Spirit observed a 'lunar' eclipse on Mars. Phobos, the larger of the two martian moons, was photographed while slipping into the shadow of Mars. Jim Bell, the astronomer in charge of the rover's panoramic camera (Pancam), suggested calling it a 'Phobal' eclipse rather than a lunar eclipse as a way of identifying which of the dozens of moons in our solar system was being cast into shadow. With the help of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's navigation team, the Pancam team planned instructions to Spirit for acquiring the views shown here of Phobos as it entered into a lunar eclipse on the evening of the rover's 639th martian day, or sol (Oct. 20, 2005) on Mars. This image is a time-lapse composite of eight Pancam images of Phobos moving across the martian sky. The entire eclipse lasted more than 26 minutes, but Spirit was able to observe only in the first 15 minutes. During the time closest to the shadow crossing, Spirit's cameras were programmed to take images every 10 seconds. In the first three

  20. Building Virtual Mars (United States)

    Abercrombie, S. P.; Menzies, A.; Goddard, C.


    Virtual and augmented reality enable scientists to visualize environments that are very difficult, or even impossible to visit, such as the surface of Mars. A useful immersive visualization begins with a high quality reconstruction of the environment under study. This presentation will discuss a photogrammetry pipeline developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to reconstruct 3D models of the surface of Mars using stereo images sent back to Earth by the Curiosity Mars rover. The resulting models are used to support a virtual reality tool (OnSight) that allows scientists and engineers to visualize the surface of Mars as if they were standing on the red planet. Images of Mars present challenges to existing scene reconstruction solutions. Surface images of Mars are sparse with minimal overlap, and are often taken from extremely different viewpoints. In addition, the specialized cameras used by Mars rovers are significantly different than consumer cameras, and GPS localization data is not available on Mars. This presentation will discuss scene reconstruction with an emphasis on coping with limited input data, and on creating models suitable for rendering in virtual reality at high frame rate.

  1. Observations of the Perseids 2012 using SPOSH cameras (United States)

    Margonis, A.; Flohrer, J.; Christou, A.; Elgner, S.; Oberst, J.


    The Perseids are one of the most prominent annual meteor showers occurring every summer when the stream of dust particles, originating from Halley-type comet 109P/Swift-Tuttle, intersects the orbital path of the Earth. The dense core of this stream passes Earth's orbit on the 12th of August producing the maximum number of meteors. The Technical University of Berlin (TUB) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) organize observing campaigns every summer monitoring the Perseids activity. The observations are carried out using the Smart Panoramic Optical Sensor Head (SPOSH) camera system [0]. The SPOSH camera has been developed by DLR and Jena-Optronik GmbH under an ESA/ESTEC contract and it is designed to image faint, short-lived phenomena on dark planetary hemispheres. The camera features a highly sensitive backilluminated 1024x1024 CCD chip and a high dynamic range of 14 bits. The custom-made fish-eye lens offers a 120°x120° field-of-view (168° over the diagonal). Figure 1: A meteor captured by the SPOSH cameras simultaneously during the last 2011 observing campaign in Greece. The horizon including surrounding mountains can be seen in the image corners as a result of the large FOV of the camera. The observations will be made on the Greek Peloponnese peninsula monitoring the post-peak activity of the Perseids during a one-week period around the August New Moon (14th to 21st). Two SPOSH cameras will be deployed in two remote sites in high altitudes for the triangulation of meteor trajectories captured at both stations simultaneously. The observations during this time interval will give us the possibility to study the poorly-observed postmaximum branch of the Perseid stream and compare the results with datasets from previous campaigns which covered different periods of this long-lived meteor shower. The acquired data will be processed using dedicated software for meteor data reduction developed at TUB and DLR. Assuming a successful campaign, statistics, trajectories

  2. 100 New Impact Crater Sites Found on Mars (United States)

    Kennedy, M. R.; Malin, M. C.


    Recent observations constrain the formation of 100 new impact sites on Mars over the past decade; 19 of these were found using the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), and the other 81 have been identified since 2006 using the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Context Camera (CTX). Every 6 meter/pixel CTX image is examined upon receipt and, where they overlap images of 0.3-240 m/pixel scale acquired by the same or other Mars-orbiting spacecraft, we look for features that may have changed. New impact sites are initially identified by the presence of a new dark spot or cluster of dark spots in a CTX image. Such spots may be new impact craters, or result from the effect of impact blasts on the dusty surface. In some (generally rare) cases, the crater is sufficiently large to be resolved in the CTX image. In most cases, however, the crater(s) cannot be seen. These are tentatively designated as “candidate” new impact sites, and the CTX team then creates an opportunity for the MRO spacecraft to point its cameras off-nadir and requests that the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) team obtain an image of ~0.3 m/pixel to confirm whether a crater or crater cluster is present. It is clear even from cursory examination that the CTX observations are areographically biased to dusty, higher albedo areas on Mars. All but 3 of the 100 new impact sites occur on surfaces with Lambert albedo values in excess of 23.5%. Our initial study of MOC images greatly benefited from the initial global observations made in one month in 1999, creating a baseline date from which we could start counting new craters. The global coverage by MRO Mars Color Imager is more than a factor of 4 poorer in resolution than the MOC Wide Angle camera and does not offer the opportunity for global analysis. Instead, we must rely on partial global coverage and global coverage that has taken years to accumulate; thus we can only treat impact rates statistically. We subdivide the total data

  3. Processing of A New Digital Orthoimage Map of The Martian Western Hemisphere Using Data Obtained From The Mars Orbiter Camera At A Resolution of 256 Pixel/deg (United States)

    Wählisch, M.; Niedermaier, G.; van Gasselt, S.; Scholten, F.; Wewel, F.; Roatsch, T.; Matz, K.-D.; Jaumann, R.

    We present a new digital orthoimage map of Mars using data obtained from the CCD line scanner Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) of the Mars Global Surveyor Mis- sion (MGS) [1,2]. The map covers the Mars surface from 0 to 180 West and from 60 South to 60 North with the MDIM2 resolution of 256 pixel/degree and size. Image data processing has been performed using multiple programs, developed by DLR, Technical University of Berlin [3], JPL, and the USGS. 4,339 Context and 183 Geodesy images [2] were included. After radiometric corrections, the images were Mars referenced [4], geometrically corrected [5] and orthoprojected using a global Martian Digital Terrain Model (DTM) with a resolution of 64 pixel/degree, developed at DLR and based on MGS Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data [6]. To elim- inate major differences in brightness between the individual images of the mosaics, high- and low-pass filter processing techniques were applied for each image. After filtering, the images were mosaicked without registering or using block adjustment techniques in order to improve the geometric quality. It turns out that the accuracy of the navigation data has such a good quality that the orthoimages fit very well to each other. When merging the MOC mosaic with the MOLA data using IHS- trans- formation, we recognized very good correspondence between these two datasets. We create a topographic image map of the Coprates region (MC­18) adding contour lines derived from the global DTM to the mosaic. These maps are used for geological and morphological interpretations in order to review and improve our current Viking-based knowledge about the Martian surface. References: [1], [2] Caplinger, M. and M. Malin, "The Mars Or- biter Camera Geodesy Campaign, JGR, in press, [3] Scholten, F., Vol XXXI, Part B2, Wien 1996, p.351-356, [4] naï, [5] R.L.Kirk. et al. (2001), "Geometric Calibration of the Mars Orbiter Cameras and Coalignment with Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter

  4. 'Endurance' Courtesy of Mars Express (United States)


    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its panoramic camera to capture this false-color image of the interior of 'Endurance Crater' on the rover's 188th martian day (Aug. 4, 2004). The image data were relayed to Earth by the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter. The image was generated from separate frames using the cameras 750-, 530- and 480-nanometer filters.

  5. Interannual and seasonal changes in the south seasonal polar cap of Mars: Observations from MY 28-31 using MARCI (United States)

    Calvin, W. M.; Cantor, B. A.; James, P. B.


    The Mars Color Imager (MARCI) camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter provides daily synoptic coverage that allows monitoring of seasonal cap retreat and interannual changes that occur between Mars Years (MY) and over the southern summer. We present the first analysis of this data for the southern seasonal cap evolution observed in MY 28, 29, 30 and 31 (2/2007 to 07/2013). Observation over multiple Mars years allows us to compare changes between years as well as longer-term evolution of the high albedo deposits at the poles. Seasonal cap retreat is similar in all years and to retreats observed in other years by both optical and thermal instruments. The cryptic terrain has a fairly consistent boundary in each year, but numerous small-scale variations occur in each MY observed. Additionally, numerous small dark deposits are identified outside the classically identified cyptic region, including Inca City and other locations not previously noted. The large water ice outlier is observed to retain seasonal frost the longest (outside the polar dome) and is also highly variable in each MY. The development of the cryptic/anti-cryptic hemispheres is inferred to occur due to albedo variations that develop after dust venting starts and may be caused by recondensation of CO2 ice on the brightest and coldest regions controlled by topographic winds. Ground ice may play a role in which regions develop cryptic terrain, as there is no elevation control on either cryptic terrain or the late season brightest deposits.

  6. Mars Global Surveyor Data Analysis Program. Origins of Small Volcanic Cones: Eruption Mechanisms and Implications for Water on Mars (United States)

    Fagents, Sarah A.; Greeley, Ronald; Thordarson, Thorvaldur


    The goal of the proposed work was to determine the origins of small volcanic cones observed in Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) data, and their implications for regolith ice stores and magma volatile contents. For this 1-year study, our approach involved a combination of: Quantitative morphologic analysis and interpretation of Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data; Numerical modeling of eruption processes responsible for producing the observed features; Fieldwork on terrestrial analogs in Iceland. Following this approach, this study succeeded in furthering our understanding of (i) the spatial and temporal distribution of near-surface water ice, as defined by the distribution and sizes of rootless volcanic cones ("pseudocraters"), and (ii) the properties, eruption conditions, and volatile contents of magmas producing primary vent cones.

  7. Sedimentological Investigations of the Martian Surface using the Mars 2001 Robotic Arm Camera and MECA Optical Microscope (United States)

    Rice, J. W., Jr.; Smith, P. H.; Marshall, J. R.


    The first microscopic sedimentological studies of the Martian surface will commence with the landing of the Mars Polar Lander (MPL) December 3, 1999. The Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) has a resolution of 25 um/p which will permit detailed micromorphological analysis of surface and subsurface materials. The Robotic Ann will be able to dig up to 50 cm below the surface. The walls of the trench will also be inspected by RAC to look for evidence of stratigraphic and / or sedimentological relationships. The 2001 Mars Lander will build upon and expand the sedimentological research begun by the RAC on MPL. This will be accomplished by: (1) Macroscopic (dm to cm): Descent Imager, Pancam, RAC; (2) Microscopic (mm to um RAC, MECA Optical Microscope (Figure 2), AFM This paper will focus on investigations that can be conducted by the RAC and MECA Optical Microscope.

  8. Microscope on Mars (United States)


    This image taken at Meridiani Planum, Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's microscopic imager (circular device in center), located on its instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The image was acquired on the ninth martian day or sol of the rover's mission.

  9. Medium-sized aperture camera for Earth observation (United States)

    Kim, Eugene D.; Choi, Young-Wan; Kang, Myung-Seok; Kim, Ee-Eul; Yang, Ho-Soon; Rasheed, Ad. Aziz Ad.; Arshad, Ahmad Sabirin


    Satrec Initiative and ATSB have been developing a medium-sized aperture camera (MAC) for an earth observation payload on a small satellite. Developed as a push-broom type high-resolution camera, the camera has one panchromatic and four multispectral channels. The panchromatic channel has 2.5m, and multispectral channels have 5m of ground sampling distances at a nominal altitude of 685km. The 300mm-aperture Cassegrain telescope contains two aspheric mirrors and two spherical correction lenses. With a philosophy of building a simple and cost-effective camera, the mirrors incorporate no light-weighting, and the linear CCDs are mounted on a single PCB with no beam splitters. MAC is the main payload of RazakSAT to be launched in 2005. RazakSAT is a 180kg satellite including MAC, designed to provide high-resolution imagery of 20km swath width on a near equatorial orbit (NEqO). The mission objective is to demonstrate the capability of a high-resolution remote sensing satellite system on a near equatorial orbit. This paper describes the overview of the MAC and RarakSAT programmes, and presents the current development status of MAC focusing on key optical aspects of Qualification Model.

  10. Observations of Mars 1950-1976 compared to ephemerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncombe, R.L.; Kubo, Y.


    The present basis for the ephemeris of Mars in the National Ephemerides is the theory of S. Newcomb (1898) as amended by the corrections of Ross (1971). These amendments by Ross, however, are empirical in nature and therefore the present ephemeris of Mars does not have a strictly gravitational basis. In order to provide a gravitationally consistent basis for the ephemeris of Mars, Clemence (1949,1961) constructed a new general perturbation theory based on the final elements of Mars as derived by Newcomb for the epoch 1850. To test the adequacy and accuracy of this new theory, Clemence compared it against 87 observations from 1802-1839 and 1931-1950. This provided provisional values of the constraints (without secular, variation) for his new theory. These provisional elements and Clemence's theory were used to produce a heliocentric ephemeris of Mars for the period 1800-2000 (Duncombe and Clemence 1960, Duncombe 1964). The authors provide a comparison from data between 1950-1976. (Auth.)

  11. MAVEN Observations of Atmospheric Loss at Mars (United States)

    Curry, Shannon; Luhmann, Janet; Jakosky, Bruce M.; Brain, David; LeBlanc, Francis; Modolo, Ronan; Halekas, Jasper S.; Schneider, Nicholas M.; Deighan, Justin; McFadden, James; Espley, Jared R.; Mitchell, David L.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Dong, Yaxue; Dong, Chuanfei; Ma, Yingjuan; Cohen, Ofer; Fränz, Markus; Holmström, Mats; Ramstad, Robin; Hara, Takuya; Lillis, Robert J.


    The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission has been making observations of the Martian upper atmosphere and its escape to space since November 2014. The subject of atmospheric loss at terrestrial planets is a subject of intense interest not only because of the implications for past and present water reservoirs, but also for its impacts on the habitability of a planet. Atmospheric escape may have been especially effective at Mars, relative to Earth or Venus, due to its smaller size as well as the lack of a global dynamo magnetic field. Not only is the atmosphere less gravitationally bound, but also the lack of global magnetic field allows the impinging solar wind to interact directly with the Martian atmosphere. When the upper atmosphere is exposed to the solar wind, planetary neutrals can be ionized and 'picked up' by the solar wind and swept away.Both neutral and ion escape have played significant roles the long term climate change of Mars, and the MAVEN mission was designed to directly measure both escaping planetary neutrals and ions with high energy, mass, and time resolution. We will present 1.5 years of observations of atmospheric loss at Mars over a variety of solar and solar wind conditions, including extreme space weather events. We will report the average ion escape rate and the spatial distribution of escaping ions as measured by MAVEN and place them in context both with previous measurements of ion loss by other spacecraft (e.g. Phobos 2 and Mars Express) and with estimates of neutral escape rates by MAVEN. We will then report on the measured variability in ion escape rates with different drivers (e.g. solar EUV, solar wind pressure, etc.) and the implications for the total ion escape from Mars over time. Additionally, we will also discuss the implications for atmospheric escape at exoplanets, particularly weakly magnetized planetary bodies orbiting M-dwarfs, and the dominant escape mechanisms that may drive atmospheric erosion in other

  12. Observation of runaway electrons by infrared camera in J-TEXT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, R. H.; Chen, Z. Y., E-mail:; Zhang, M.; Huang, D. W.; Yan, W.; Zhuang, G. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)


    When the energy of confined runaway electrons approaches several tens of MeV, the runaway electrons can emit synchrotron radiation in the range of infrared wavelength. An infrared camera working in the wavelength of 3-5 μm has been developed to study the runaway electrons in the Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak (J-TEXT). The camera is located in the equatorial plane looking tangentially into the direction of electron approach. The runaway electron beam inside the plasma has been observed at the flattop phase. With a fast acquisition of the camera, the behavior of runaway electron beam has been observed directly during the runaway current plateau following the massive gas injection triggered disruptions.

  13. Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor Outreach Compilation (United States)


    This videotape is a compilation of the best NASA JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) videos of the Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor missions. The mission is described using animation and narration as well as some actual footage of the entire sequence of mission events. Included within these animations are the spacecraft orbit insertion; descent to the Mars surface; deployment of the airbags and instruments; and exploration by Sojourner, the Mars rover. JPL activities at spacecraft control during significant mission events are also included at the end. The spacecraft cameras pan the surrounding Mars terrain and film Sojourner traversing the surface and inspecting rocks. A single, brief, processed image of the Cydonia region (Mars face) at an oblique angle from the Mars Global Surveyor is presented. A description of the Mars Pathfinder mission, instruments, landing and deployment process, Mars approach, spacecraft orbit insertion, rover operation are all described using computer animation. Actual color footage of Sojourner as well as a 360 deg pan of the Mars terrain surrounding the spacecraft is provided. Lower quality black and white photography depicting Sojourner traversing the Mars surface and inspecting Martian rocks also is included.

  14. Observations of the Perseids 2013 using SPOSH cameras (United States)

    Margonis, A.; Elgner, S.; Christou, A.; Oberst, J.; Flohrer, J.


    Earth is constantly bombard by debris, most of which disintegrates in the upper atmosphere. The collision of a dust particle, having a mass of approximately 1g or larger, with the Earth's atmosphere results into a visible streak of light in the night sky, called meteor. Comets produce new meteoroids each time they come close to the Sun due to sublimation processes. These fresh particles are moving around the Sun in orbits similar to their parent comet forming meteoroid streams. For this reason, the intersection of Earth's orbital path with different comets, gives rise to anumber of meteor showers throughout the year. The Perseids are one of the most prominent annual meteor showers occurring every summer, having its origin in Halley-type comet 109P/Swift-Tuttle. The dense core of this stream passes Earth's orbit on the 12th of August when more than 100 meteors per hour can been seen by a single observer under ideal conditions. The Technical University of Berlin (TUB) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) together with the Armagh observatory organize meteor campaigns every summer observing the activity of the Perseids meteor shower. The observations are carried out using the Smart Panoramic Optical Sensor Head (SPOSH) camera system [2] which has been developed by DLR and Jena-Optronik GmbH under an ESA/ESTEC contract. The camera was designed to image faint, short-lived phenomena on dark planetary hemispheres. The camera is equipped with a highly sensitive back-illuminated CCD chip having a pixel resolution of 1024x1024. The custom-made fish-eye lens offers a 120°x120° field-of-view (168° over the diagonal) making the monitoring of nearly the whole night sky possible (Fig. 1). This year the observations will take place between 3rd and 10th of August to cover the meteor activity of the Perseids just before their maximum. The SPOSH cameras will be deployed at two remote sites located in high altitudes in the Greek Peloponnese peninsula. The baseline of ∼50km

  15. Observational evidence of crystalline iron oxides on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.F. III; McCord, T.B.; Owensby, P.D.


    Visible to near-IR (0.4-1.0 μm) spectral reflectance observations of Mars during the 1988 opposition were performed at Mauna Kea Observatory using a circular variable filter spectrometer at a spectral resolution R = λ/Δλ ∼ 80. On August 13 and 14 1988, UT, 41 regions 500-600 km in diameter were observed on Mars. The data have been reduced both to reflectance relative to solar analog (Mars/16 Cyg B) and to relative reflectance (spot/spot). The spectra show the strong near-UV reflectance dropoff characteristic of Mars as well as absorptions at 0.62-0.72 μm and 0.81-0.94 μm both seen here clearly for the first time. These absorption features are interpreted as Fe 3+ electronic transition bands that indicate the presence of crystalline ferric oxide or hydroxide minerals on the Martian surface. Comparison of these data with laboratory spectra obtained by other workers supports the conclusion that a single iron oxide phase, most likely hematite, could account for all of the observed spectral behavior of the Martian surface soils and airborne dust in the 0.4-1.0 μm region. This possibility must be reconciled with data from other possible spectral analogs and other wavelength regions as well as geochemical and mineral stability considerations to arrive at a more complete understanding of the role of ferric minerals in Martian surface mineralogy and weathering

  16. The Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) aboard the Mars rover, Curiosity (United States)

    Edgett, K. S.; Ravine, M. A.; Caplinger, M. A.; Ghaemi, F. T.; Schaffner, J. A.; Malin, M. C.; Baker, J. M.; Dibiase, D. R.; Laramee, J.; Maki, J. N.; Willson, R. G.; Bell, J. F., III; Cameron, J. F.; Dietrich, W. E.; Edwards, L. J.; Hallet, B.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Heydari, E.; Kah, L. C.; Lemmon, M. T.; Minitti, M. E.; Olson, T. S.; Parker, T. J.; Rowland, S. K.; Schieber, J.; Sullivan, R. J.; Sumner, D. Y.; Thomas, P. C.; Yingst, R. A.


    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, is expected to land on Mars in 2012. The Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) will be used to document martian rocks and regolith with a 2-megapixel RGB color CCD camera with a focusable macro lens mounted on an instrument-bearing turret on the end of Curiosity's robotic arm. The flight MAHLI can focus on targets at working distances of 20.4 mm to infinity. At 20.4 mm, images have a pixel scale of 13.9 μm/pixel. The pixel scale at 66 mm working distance is about the same (31 μm/pixel) as that of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Microscopic Imager (MI). MAHLI camera head placement is dependent on the capabilities of the MSL robotic arm, the design for which presently has a placement uncertainty of ~20 mm in 3 dimensions; hence, acquisition of images at the minimum working distance may be challenging. The MAHLI consists of 3 parts: a camera head, a Digital Electronics Assembly (DEA), and a calibration target. The camera head and DEA are connected by a JPL-provided cable which transmits data, commands, and power. JPL is also providing a contact sensor. The camera head will be mounted on the rover's robotic arm turret, the DEA will be inside the rover body, and the calibration target will be mounted on the robotic arm azimuth motor housing. Camera Head. MAHLI uses a Kodak KAI-2020CM interline transfer CCD (1600 x 1200 active 7.4 μm square pixels with RGB filtered microlenses arranged in a Bayer pattern). The optics consist of a group of 6 fixed lens elements, a movable group of 3 elements, and a fixed sapphire window front element. Undesired near-infrared radiation is blocked using a coating deposited on the inside surface of the sapphire window. The lens is protected by a dust cover with a Lexan window through which imaging can be ac-complished if necessary, and targets can be illuminated by sunlight or two banks of two white light LEDs. Two 365 nm UV LEDs are included to search for fluores-cent materials at night. DEA

  17. Goldstone Radar Observations of the 1999 Mars Opposition and other Observing Opportunities (United States)

    Slade, M. A.


    As part of the International Mars Watch, Goldstone radar observations of Mars are planned during the 1999 Opposition ( Feb.'99-Aug'99). While some observing time is already allocated, a number of tracks could be made available for well-focused scientific objectives. Since the Deep Space Network plans far in advance, now is the time to develop your plans. During the next Mars opposition, the sub-Earth latitudes are in Mars' Northern hemisphere over the most northerly terrain accessible, which has not been previously examined with current sensitivity. The North residual ice cap is of particular interest. As a reminder to the Planetary Science community, observing proposals from any scientist with peer-reviewed planetary funding are solicited and should be forwarded to by email. Data reduction can, in principle, be carried out over the Internet. A graduate student or postdoctoral fellow resident at JPL for short period is recommended, however, to become familiar with suite of software for data analysis. Unfortunately, JPL cannot guarantee travel reimbursement due to funding limitations. We urge your consideration of becoming involved with the acquisition and analysis of Goldstone radar data. In the recent past, P.I.'s or co-I.s from Cornell, Arecibo/NAIC, Washington State University, Univ. Cal. Berkeley, Harvard -Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Univ. of Chicago, the DLR, Kashima SRC, ISAS, the Russian Academy of Science, the Russian Space Agency, and the USGS, have participated in radar experiments with Goldstone transmitting. This work is supported by the California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA.

  18. Characterization of Medipix3 with the MARS readout and software

    CERN Document Server

    Ronaldson, J P; van Leeuwen, D; Doesburg, R M N; Ballabriga, R; Butler, A P H; Donaldson, J; Walsh, M; Nik, S J; Clyne, M N


    The Medipix3 x-ray imaging detector has been characterized using the MARS camera. This x-ray camera comprises custom built readout electronics and software libraries designed for the Medipix family of detectors. The performance of the Medipix3 and MARS camera system is being studied prior to use in real-world applications such as the recently developed MARS-CT3 spectroscopic micro-CT scanner. We present the results of characterization measurements, describe methods for optimizing performance and give examples of spectroscopic images acquired with Medipix3 and the MARS camera system. A limited number of operating modes of the Medipix3 chip have been characterized and single-pixel mode has been found to give acceptable performance in terms of energy response, image quality and stability over time. Spectroscopic performance is significantly better in charge-summing mode than single-pixel mode however image quality and stability over time are compromised. There are more modes of operation to be tested and further...

  19. Initial inflight calibration for Hayabusa2 optical navigation camera (ONC) for science observations of asteroid Ryugu (United States)

    Suzuki, H.; Yamada, M.; Kouyama, T.; Tatsumi, E.; Kameda, S.; Honda, R.; Sawada, H.; Ogawa, N.; Morota, T.; Honda, C.; Sakatani, N.; Hayakawa, M.; Yokota, Y.; Yamamoto, Y.; Sugita, S.


    Hayabusa2, the first sample return mission to a C-type asteroid was launched by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) on December 3, 2014 and will arrive at the asteroid in the middle of 2018 to collect samples from its surface, which may contain both hydrated minerals and organics. The optical navigation camera (ONC) system on board the Hayabusa2 consists of three individual framing CCD cameras, ONC-T for a telescopic nadir view, ONC-W1 for a wide-angle nadir view, and ONC-W2 for a wide-angle slant view will be used to observe the surface of Ryugu. The cameras will be used to measure the global asteroid shape, local morphologies, and visible spectroscopic properties. Thus, image data obtained by ONC will provide essential information to select landing (sampling) sites on the asteroid. This study reports the results of initial inflight calibration based on observations of Earth, Mars, Moon, and stars to verify and characterize the optical performance of the ONC, such as flat-field sensitivity, spectral sensitivity, point-spread function (PSF), distortion, and stray light of ONC-T, and distortion for ONC-W1 and W2. We found some potential problems that may influence our science observations. This includes changes in sensitivity of flat fields for all bands from those that were measured in the pre-flight calibration and existence of a stray light that arises under certain conditions of spacecraft attitude with respect to the sun. The countermeasures for these problems were evaluated by using data obtained during initial in-flight calibration. The results of our inflight calibration indicate that the error of spectroscopic measurements around 0.7 μm using 0.55, 0.70, and 0.86 μm bands of the ONC-T can be lower than 0.7% after these countermeasures and pixel binning. This result suggests that our ONC-T would be able to detect typical strength (∼3%) of the serpentine absorption band often found on CM chondrites and low albedo asteroids with ≥ 4

  20. Frost on Mars Rover Opportunity (United States)


    Frost can form on surfaces if enough water is present and the temperature is sufficiently low. On each of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, the calibration target for the panoramic camera provides a good place to look for such events. A thin frost was observed by Opportunity's panoramic camera on the rover's 257th sol (Oct. 13, 2004) 11 minutes after sunrise (left image). The presence of the frost is most clearly seen on the post in the center of the target, particularly when compared with the unsegmented outer ring of the target, which is white. The post is normally black. For comparison, note the difference in appearance in the image on the right, taken about three hours later, after the frost had dissipated. Frost has not been observed at Spirit, where the amount of atmospheric water vapor is observed to be appreciably lower. Both images were taken through a filter centered at a wavelength of 440 nanometers (blue).

  1. (abstract) Tropospheric Calibration for the Mars Observer Gravity Wave Experiment (United States)

    Walter, Steven J.; Armstrong, John


    In spring 1993, microwave radiometer-based tropospheric calibration was provided for the Mars Observer gravitational wave search. The Doppler shifted X-band radio signals propagating between Earth and the Mars Observer satellite were precisely measured to determine path length variations that might signal passage of gravitational waves. Experimental sensitivity was restricted by competing sources of variability in signal transit time. Principally, fluctuations in the solar wind and ionospheric plasma density combined with fluctions in tropospheric refractivity determined the detection limit. Troposphere-induced path delay fluctions are dominated by refractive changes caused by water vapor inhomogeneities blowing through the signal path. Since passive microwave remote sensing techniques are able to determine atmospheric propagation delays, radiometer-based tropospheric calibration was provided at the Deep Space Network Uranus tracking site (DSS-15). Two microwave water vapor radiometers (WVRs), a microwave temperature profiler (MTP), and a ground based meterological station were deployed to determine line-of-sight vapor content and vertical temperature profile concurrently with Mars Observer tracking measurements. This calibration system provided the capability to correct Mars Observer Doppler data for troposphere-induced path variations. We present preliminary analysis of the Doppler and WVR data sets illustrating the utility of WVRs to calibrate Doppler data. This takes an important step toward realizing the ambitious system required to support future Ka-band Cassini satellite gravity wave tropospheric calibration system.

  2. Mesospheric CO2 ice clouds on Mars observed by Planetary Fourier Spectrometer onboard Mars Express (United States)

    Aoki, S.; Sato, Y.; Giuranna, M.; Wolkenberg, P.; Sato, T. M.; Nakagawa, H.; Kasaba, Y.


    We have investigated mesospheric CO2 ice clouds on Mars through analysis of near-infrared spectra acquired by Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS) onboard the Mars Express (MEx) from MY 27 to MY 32. With the highest spectral resolution achieved thus far in the relevant spectral range among remote-sensing experiments orbiting Mars, PFS enables precise identification of the scattering peak of CO2 ice at the bottom of the 4.3 μm CO2 band. A total of 111 occurrences of CO2 ice cloud features have been detected over the period investigated. Data from the OMEGA imaging spectrometer onboard MEx confirm all of PFS detections from times when OMEGA operated simultaneously with PFS. The spatial and seasonal distributions of the CO2 ice clouds detected by PFS are consistent with previous observations by other instruments. We find CO2 ice clouds between Ls = 0° and 140° in distinct longitudinal corridors around the equatorial region (± 20°N). Moreover, CO2 ice clouds were preferentially detected at the observational LT range between 15-16 h in MY 29. However, observational biases prevent from distinguishing local time dependency from inter-annual variation. PFS also enables us to investigate the shape of mesospheric CO2 ice cloud spectral features in detail. In all cases, peaks were found between 4.240 and 4.265 μm. Relatively small secondary peaks were occasionally observed around 4.28 μm (8 occurrences). These spectral features cannot be reproduced using our radiative transfer model, which may be because the available CO2 ice refractive indices are inappropriate for the mesospheric temperatures of Mars, or because of the assumption in our model that the CO2 ice crystals are spherical and composed by pure CO2 ice.

  3. Mars gravity field error analysis from simulated radio tracking of Mars Observer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.E.; Lerch, F.J.; Chan, J.C.; Chinn, D.S.; Iz, H.B.; Mallama, A.; Patel, G.B.


    The Mars Observer (MO) Mission, in a near-polar orbit at 360-410 km altitude for nearly a 2-year observing period, will greatly improve our understanding of the geophysics of Mars, including its gravity field. To assess the expected improvement of the gravity field, the authors have conducted an error analysis based upon the mission plan for the Mars Observer radio tracking data from the Deep Space Network. Their results indicate that it should be possible to obtain a high-resolution model (spherical harmonics complete to degree and order 50 corresponding to a 200-km horizontal resolution) for the gravitational field of the planet. This model, in combination with topography from MO altimetry, should provide for an improved determination of the broad scale density structure and stress state of the Martian crust and upper mantle. The mathematical model for the error analysis is based on the representation of doppler tracking data as a function of the Martian gravity field in spherical harmonics, solar radiation pressure, atmospheric drag, angular momentum desaturation residual acceleration (AMDRA) effects, tracking station biases, and the MO orbit parameters. Two approaches are employed. In the first case, the error covariance matrix of the gravity model is estimated including the effects from all the nongravitational parameters (noise-only case). In the second case, the gravity recovery error is computed as above but includes unmodelled systematic effects from atmospheric drag, AMDRA, and solar radiation pressure (biased case). The error spectrum of gravity shows an order of magnitude of improvement over current knowledge based on doppler data precision from a single station of 0.3 mm s -1 noise for 1-min integration intervals during three 60-day periods

  4. Observations of Crew Dynamics During Mars Analog Simulations (United States)

    Cusack, Stacy L.


    Crewmembers on Mars missions will face new and unique challenges compared to those in close communications proximity to Mission Control centers. Crews on Mars will likely become more autonomous and responsible for their day-to-day planning. These explorers will need to make frequent real time decisions without the assistance of large ground support teams. Ground-centric control will no longer be an option due to the communications delays. As a result of the new decision making model, crew dynamics and leadership styles of future astronauts may become significantly different from the demands of today. As a volunteer for the Mars Society on two Mars analog missions, this presenter will discuss observations made during isolated, surface exploration simulations. The need for careful crew selections, not just based on individual skill sets, but on overall team interactions becomes apparent very quickly when the crew is planning their own days and deciding their own priorities. Even more important is the selection of a Mission Commander who can lead a team of highly skilled individuals with strong and varied opinions in a way that promotes crew consensus, maintains fairness, and prevents unnecessary crew fatigue.

  5. An evaluation of video cameras for collecting observational data on sanctuary-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). (United States)

    Hansen, Bethany K; Fultz, Amy L; Hopper, Lydia M; Ross, Stephen R


    Video cameras are increasingly being used to monitor captive animals in zoo, laboratory, and agricultural settings. This technology may also be useful in sanctuaries with large and/or complex enclosures. However, the cost of camera equipment and a lack of formal evaluations regarding the use of cameras in sanctuary settings make it challenging for facilities to decide whether and how to implement this technology. To address this, we evaluated the feasibility of using a video camera system to monitor chimpanzees at Chimp Haven. We viewed a group of resident chimpanzees in a large forested enclosure and compared observations collected in person and with remote video cameras. We found that via camera, the observer viewed fewer chimpanzees in some outdoor locations (GLMM post hoc test: est. = 1.4503, SE = 0.1457, Z = 9.951, p sanctuaries to facilitate animal care and observational research. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Weather and atmosphere observation with the ATOM all-sky camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowsky Felix


    Full Text Available The Automatic Telescope for Optical Monitoring (ATOM for H.E.S.S. is an 75 cm optical telescope which operates fully automated. As there is no observer present during observation, an auxiliary all-sky camera serves as weather monitoring system. This device takes an all-sky image of the whole sky every three minutes. The gathered data then undergoes live-analysis by performing astrometric comparison with a theoretical night sky model, interpreting the absence of stars as cloud coverage. The sky monitor also serves as tool for a meteorological analysis of the observation site of the the upcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array. This overview covers design and benefits of the all-sky camera and additionally gives an introduction into current efforts to integrate the device into the atmosphere analysis programme of H.E.S.S.



    J. Dong; Z. Sun; W. Rao; Y. Jia; L. Meng; C. Wang; B. Chen


    An orbiter and a descent module will be delivered to Mars in the Chinese first Mars exploration mission. The descent module is composed of a landing platform and a rover. The module will be released into the atmosphere by the orbiter and make a controlled landing on Martian surface. After landing, the rover will egress from the platform to start its science mission. The rover payloads mainly include the subsurface radar, terrain camera, multispectral camera, magnetometer, anemometer to achiev...

  8. The MVACS Robotic Arm Camera (United States)

    Keller, H. U.; Hartwig, H.; Kramm, R.; Koschny, D.; Markiewicz, W. J.; Thomas, N.; Fernades, M.; Smith, P. H.; Reynolds, R.; Lemmon, M. T.; Weinberg, J.; Marcialis, R.; Tanner, R.; Boss, B. J.; Oquest, C.; Paige, D. A.


    The Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) is one of the key instruments newly developed for the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor payload of the Mars Polar Lander. This lightweight instrument employs a front lens with variable focus range and takes images at distances from 11 mm (image scale 1:1) to infinity. Color images with a resolution of better than 50 μm can be obtained to characterize the Martian soil. Spectral information of nearby objects is retrieved through illumination with blue, green, and red lamp sets. The design and performance of the camera are described in relation to the science objectives and operation. The RAC uses the same CCD detector array as the Surface Stereo Imager and shares the readout electronics with this camera. The RAC is mounted at the wrist of the Robotic Arm and can characterize the contents of the scoop, the samples of soil fed to the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer, the Martian surface in the vicinity of the lander, and the interior of trenches dug out by the Robotic Arm. It can also be used to take panoramic images and to retrieve stereo information with an effective baseline surpassing that of the Surface Stereo Imager by about a factor of 3.

  9. Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) - First Results of Pressure Observations (United States)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kemppinen, Osku; Genzer, Maria; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Haberle, Robert M.; Schmidt, Walter; Savijärvi, Hannu; Rodríquez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Rafkin, Scott; Polkko, Jouni; Richardson, Mark; Newman, Claire; de la Torre Juárez, Manuel; Martín-Torres, Javier; Paz Zorzano-Mier, Maria; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Kauhanen, Janne; Paton, Mark; Haukka, Harri


    The Mars Science laboratory (MSL) called Curiosity made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, and UV measurements. The REMS instrument suite is described at length in [1]. We concentrate on describing the first results from the REMS pressure observations and comparison of the measurements with modeling results. The REMS pressure device is provided by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. It is based on silicon micro-machined capacitive pressure sensors developed by Vaisala Inc. The pressure device makes use of two transducer electronics sections placed on a single multi-layer PCB inside the REMS Instrument Control Unit (ICU) with a filter-protected ventilation inlet to the ambient atmosphere. The absolute accuracy of the pressure device (< 3 Pa) and zero-drift (< 1 Pa/year) enables the investigations of long term and seasonal cycles of the Martian atmosphere. The relative accuracy, or repeatability, in the diurnal time scale is < 1.5 Pa, less than 2 % of the observed diurnal pressure variation at the landing site. The pressure device has special sensors with very high precision (less than 0.2 Pa) that makes it a good tool to study short-term atmospheric phenomena, e.g., dust devils and other convective vortices. The observed MSL pressure data enable us to study both the long term and short-term phenomena of the Martian atmosphere. This would add knowledge of these phenomena to that gathered by earlier Mars missions and modeling experiments [2,3]. Pressure observations are revealing new information on the local atmosphere and climate at Gale crater, and will shed light on the mesoscale and micrometeorological phenomena. Pressure observations show also

  10. TMBM: Tethered Micro-Balloons on Mars (United States)

    Sims, M. H.; Greeley, R.; Cutts, J. A.; Yavrouian, A. H.; Murbach, M.


    The use of balloons/aerobots on Mars has been under consideration for many years. Concepts include deployment during entry into the atmosphere from a carrier spacecraft, deployment from a lander, use of super-pressurized systems for long duration flights, 'hot-air' systems, etc. Principal advantages include the ability to obtain high-resolution data of the surface because balloons provide a low-altitude platform which moves relatively slowly. Work conducted within the last few years has removed many of the technical difficulties encountered in deployment and operation of balloons/aerobots on Mars. The concept proposed here (a tethered balloon released from a lander) uses a relatively simple approach which would enable aspects of Martian balloons to be tested while providing useful and potentially unique science results. Tethered Micro-Balloons on Mars (TMBM) would be carried to Mars on board a future lander as a stand-alone experiment having a total mass of one to two kilograms. It would consist of a helium balloon of up to 50 cubic meters that is inflated after landing and initially tethered to the lander. Its primary instrumentation would be a camera that would be carried to an altitude of up to tens of meters above the surface. Imaging data would be transmitted to the lander for inclusion in the mission data stream. The tether would be released in stages allowing different resolutions and coverage. In addition during this staged release a lander camera system may observe the motion of the balloon at various heights above he lander. Under some scenarios upon completion of the primary phase of TMBM operations, the tether would be cut, allowing TMBM to drift away from the landing site, during which images would be taken along the ground.

  11. Plasma Observations During the Mars Atmospheric Plume Event of March-April 2012 (United States)

    Andrews, D. J.; Barabash, S.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Gurnett, D. A.; Hall, B. E. S.; Holmstrom, M.; Lester, M.; Morgan, D. D.; Opgenoorth, H. J.; Ramstad, R.; hide


    We present initial analysis and conclusions from plasma observations made during the reported Mars Dust plume event of March - April 2012. During this period, multiple independent amateur observers detected a localized, high-altitude plume over the Martian dawn terminator [Sanchez-Lavega7 et al., Nature, 2015, doi:10.1038nature14162], the origin of which remains to be explained. We report on in-situ measurements of ionospheric plasma density and solar wind parameters throughout this interval made by Mars Express, obtained over the surface region, but at the opposing terminator. We tentatively conclude that the formation and/or transport of this plume to the altitudes where it was observed could be due in part the result of a large interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) encountering the Martian system. Interestingly, we note that a similar plume detection in May 1997 may also have been associated with a large ICME impact at Mars.

  12. Vertical distribution of Martian aerosols from SPICAM/Mars-Express limb observations (United States)

    Fedorova, A.; Korablev, O.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Rodin, A.; Perrier, S.; Moroz, V. I.

    Limb spectroscopic observations provide invaluable information about vertical distribution of main atmospheric components in the Martian atmosphere, in particular vertical distribution and structure of aerosols, which play an important role in the heat balance of the planet. Only limited set of successful limb spectroscopic observations have been carried out on Mars so far, including those by MGS/TES spectrometer and Thermoscan and Auguste experiments of Phobos mission. Currently SPICAM instrument onboard Mars-Express spacecraft has accomplished several sequences of limb observations. First analysis of limb sounding data received by SPICAM IR and UV channels, which imply the presence of fine, deep, optically thin aerosol fraction extended over broad range of altitudes, is presented.

  13. MarsSI: Martian surface data processing information system (United States)

    Quantin-Nataf, C.; Lozac'h, L.; Thollot, P.; Loizeau, D.; Bultel, B.; Fernando, J.; Allemand, P.; Dubuffet, F.; Poulet, F.; Ody, A.; Clenet, H.; Leyrat, C.; Harrisson, S.


    MarsSI (Acronym for Mars System of Information,, is a web Geographic Information System application which helps managing and processing martian orbital data. The MarsSI facility is part of the web portal called PSUP (Planetary SUrface Portal) developed by the Observatories of Paris Sud (OSUPS) and Lyon (OSUL) to provide users with efficient and easy access to data products dedicated to the martian surface. The portal proposes 1) the management and processing of data thanks to MarsSI and 2) the visualization and merging of high level (imagery, spectral, and topographic) products and catalogs via a web-based user interface (MarsVisu). The portal PSUP as well as the facility MarsVisu is detailed in a companion paper (Poulet et al., 2018). The purpose of this paper is to describe the facility MarsSI. From this application, users are able to easily and rapidly select observations, process raw data via automatic pipelines, and get back final products which can be visualized under Geographic Information Systems. Moreover, MarsSI also contains an automatic stereo-restitution pipeline in order to produce Digital Terrain Models (DTM) on demand from HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) or CTX (Context Camera) pair-images. This application is funded by the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) (ERC project eMars, No. 280168) and has been developed in the scope of Mars, but the design is applicable to any other planetary body of the solar system.

  14. One Mars year: viking lander imaging observations. (United States)

    Jones, K L; Arvidson, R E; Guinness, E A; Bragg, S L; Wall, S D; Carlston, C E; Pidek, D G


    Throughout the complete Mars year during which they have been on the planet, the imaging systems aboard the two Viking landers have documented a variety of surface changes. Surface condensates, consisting of both solid H(2)O and CO(2), formed at the Viking 2 lander site during the winter. Additional observations suggest that surface erosion rates due to dust redistribution may be substantially less than those predicted on the basis of pre-Viking observations. The Viking 1 lander will continue to acquire and transmit a predetermined sequence of imaging and meteorology data as long as it is operative.

  15. Networked web-cameras monitor congruent seasonal development of birches with phenological field observations (United States)

    Peltoniemi, Mikko; Aurela, Mika; Böttcher, Kristin; Kolari, Pasi; Loehr, John; Karhu, Jouni; Kubin, Eero; Linkosalmi, Maiju; Melih Tanis, Cemal; Nadir Arslan, Ali


    Ecosystems' potential to provide services, e.g. to sequester carbon is largely driven by the phenological cycle of vegetation. Timing of phenological events is required for understanding and predicting the influence of climate change on ecosystems and to support various analyses of ecosystem functioning. We established a network of cameras for automated monitoring of phenological activity of vegetation in boreal ecosystems of Finland. Cameras were mounted on 14 sites, each site having 1-3 cameras. In this study, we used cameras at 11 of these sites to investigate how well networked cameras detect phenological development of birches (Betula spp.) along the latitudinal gradient. Birches are interesting focal species for the analyses as they are common throughout Finland. In our cameras they often appear in smaller quantities within dominant species in the images. Here, we tested whether small scattered birch image elements allow reliable extraction of color indices and changes therein. We compared automatically derived phenological dates from these birch image elements to visually determined dates from the same image time series, and to independent observations recorded in the phenological monitoring network from the same region. Automatically extracted season start dates based on the change of green color fraction in the spring corresponded well with the visually interpreted start of season, and field observed budburst dates. During the declining season, red color fraction turned out to be superior over green color based indices in predicting leaf yellowing and fall. The latitudinal gradients derived using automated phenological date extraction corresponded well with gradients based on phenological field observations from the same region. We conclude that already small and scattered birch image elements allow reliable extraction of key phenological dates for birch species. Devising cameras for species specific analyses of phenological timing will be useful for

  16. Multi-spectral CCD camera system for ocean water color and seacoast observation (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Chen, Shiping; Wu, Yanlin; Huang, Qiaolin; Jin, Weiqi


    One of the earth observing instruments on HY-1 Satellite which will be launched in 2001, the multi-spectral CCD camera system, is developed by Beijing Institute of Space Mechanics & Electricity (BISME), Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST). In 798 km orbit, the system can provide images with 250 m ground resolution and a swath of 500 km. It is mainly used for coast zone dynamic mapping and oceanic watercolor monitoring, which include the pollution of offshore and coast zone, plant cover, watercolor, ice, terrain underwater, suspended sediment, mudflat, soil and vapor gross. The multi- spectral camera system is composed of four monocolor CCD cameras, which are line array-based, 'push-broom' scanning cameras, and responding for four spectral bands. The camera system adapts view field registration; that is, each camera scans the same region at the same moment. Each of them contains optics, focal plane assembly, electrical circuit, installation structure, calibration system, thermal control and so on. The primary features on the camera system are: (1) Offset of the central wavelength is better than 5 nm; (2) Degree of polarization is less than 0.5%; (3) Signal-to-noise ratio is about 1000; (4) Dynamic range is better than 2000:1; (5) Registration precision is better than 0.3 pixel; (6) Quantization value is 12 bit.

  17. Solar radiation for Mars power systems (United States)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Landis, Geoffrey A.


    Detailed information about the solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. A procedure and solar radiation related data from which the diurnally and daily variation of the global, direct (or beam), and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated, are presented. The radiation data are based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the Sun with a special diode on the Viking Lander cameras; and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation.

  18. Observations of the 10-micron natural laser emission from the mesospheres of Mars and Venus (United States)

    Espenak, F.; Deming, D.; Jennings, D.; Kostiuk, T.; Mumma, M.; Zipoy, D.


    Observations of the total flux and center to limb dependence of the nonthermal emission occurring in the cores of the 9.4 and 10.4 micrometers CO2 bands on Mars are compared to a theoretical model based on this mechanism. The model successfully reproduces the observed center to limb dependence of this emission, to within the limits imposed by the spatial resolution of the observations of Mars and Venus. The observed flux from Mars agrees closely with the prediction of the model; the flux observed from Venus is 74 percent of the flux predicted by the model. This emission is used to obtain the kinetic temperatures of the Martian and Venusian mesospheres. For Mars near 70 km altitude, a rotational temperature analysis using five lines gives T = 135 + or - 20 K. The frequency width of the emission is also analyzed to derive a temperature of 126 + or - 6 K. In the case of the Venusian mesosphere near 109 km, the frequency width of the emission gives T = 204 + or - 10 K.

  19. Observations of the 10 micrometer natural laser emission from the mesospheres of Mars and Venus (United States)

    Deming, D.; Espenak, F.; Jennings, D.; Kostiuk, T.; Mumma, M. J.


    Observations of the total flux and center to limb dependence of the nonthermal emission occurring in the cores of the 9.4 and 10.4 micrometers CO2 bands on Mars are compared to a theoretical model based on this mechanism. The model successfully reproduces the observed center to limb dependence of this emission, to within the limits imposed by the spatial resolution of the observations of Mars and Venus. The observed flux from Mars agrees closely with the prediction of the model; the flux observed from Venus is 74% of the flux predicted by the model. This emission is used to obtain the kinetic temperatures of the Martian and Venusian mesospheres. For Mars near 70 km altitude, a rotational temperature analysis using five lines gives T = 135 + or - 20 K. The frequency width of the emission is also analyzed to derive a temperature of 126 + or - 6 K. In the case of the Venusian mesosphere near 109 km, the frequency width of the emission gives T = 204 + or - 10 K.

  20. Observations of the 10 micrometer natural laser emission from the mesospheres of Mars and Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deming, D.; Espenak, F.; Jennings, D.; Kostiuk, T.; Mumma, M.J.


    Observations of the total flux and center to limb dependence of the nonthermal emission occurring in the cores of the 9.4 and 10.4 micrometers CO2 bands on Mars are compared to a theoretical model based on this mechanism. The model successfully reproduces the observed center to limb dependence of this emission, to within the limits imposed by the spatial resolution of the observations of Mars and Venus. The observed flux from Mars agrees closely with the prediction of the model the flux observed from Venus is 74% of the flux predicted by the model. This emission is used to obtain the kinetic temperatures of the Martian and Venusian mesospheres. For Mars near 70 km altitude, a rotational temperature analysis using five lines gives T 135 + or - 20 K. The frequency width of the emission is also analyzed to derive a temperature of 126 + or - 6 K. In the case of the Venusian mesosphere near 109 km, the frequency width of the emission gives T 204 + or - 10 K

  1. International testing of a Mars rover prototype (United States)

    Kemurjian, Alexsandr Leonovich; Linkin, V.; Friedman, L.


    Tests on a prototype engineering model of the Russian Mars 96 Rover were conducted by an international team in and near Death Valley in the United States in late May, 1992. These tests were part of a comprehensive design and testing program initiated by the three Russian groups responsible for the rover development. The specific objectives of the May tests were: (1) evaluate rover performance over different Mars-like terrains; (2) evaluate state-of-the-art teleoperation and autonomy development for Mars rover command, control and navigation; and (3) organize an international team to contribute expertise and capability on the rover development for the flight project. The range and performance that can be planned for the Mars mission is dependent on the degree of autonomy that will be possible to implement on the mission. Current plans are for limited autonomy, with Earth-based teleoperation for the nominal navigation system. Several types of television systems are being investigated for inclusion in the navigation system including panoramic camera, stereo, and framing cameras. The tests used each of these in teleoperation experiments. Experiments were included to consider use of such TV data in autonomy algorithms. Image processing and some aspects of closed-loop control software were also tested. A micro-rover was tested to help consider the value of such a device as a payload supplement to the main rover. The concept is for the micro-rover to serve like a mobile hand, with its own sensors including a television camera.

  2. Observing bodies. Camera surveillance and the significance of the body.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbeld, L.


    At the most mundane level, CCTV observes bodies, and as such attaches great importance to the specific features of the human body. At the same time, however, bodies tend to disappear, as they are represented electronically by the camera monitors and, in the case of image recording, by the computer

  3. Application of colon capsule endoscopy (CCE to evaluate the whole gastrointestinal tract: a comparative study of single-camera and dual-camera analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remes-Troche JM


    Full Text Available José María Remes-Troche,1 Victoria Alejandra Jiménez-García,2 Josefa María García-Montes,2 Pedro Hergueta-Delgado,2 Federico Roesch-Dietlen,1 Juan Manuel Herrerías-Gutiérrez2 1Digestive Physiology and Motility Lab, Medical Biological Research Institute, Universidad Veracruzana, Veracruz, México; 2Gastroenterology Service, Virgen Macarena University Hospital, Seville, Spain Background and study aims: Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE was developed for the evaluation of colorectal pathology. In this study, our aim was to assess if a dual-camera analysis using CCE allows better evaluation of the whole gastrointestinal (GI tract compared to a single-camera analysis. Patients and methods: We included 21 patients (12 males, mean age 56.20 years submitted for a CCE examination. After standard colon preparation, the colon capsule endoscope (PillCam Colon™ was swallowed after reinitiation from its “sleep” mode. Four physicians performed the analysis: two reviewed both video streams at the same time (dual-camera analysis; one analyzed images from one side of the device (“camera 1”; and the other reviewed the opposite side (“camera 2”. We compared numbers of findings from different parts of the entire GI tract and level of agreement among reviewers. Results: A complete evaluation of the GI tract was possible in all patients. Dual-camera analysis provided 16% and 5% more findings compared to camera 1 and camera 2 analysis, respectively. Overall agreement was 62.7% (kappa = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.373–0.510. Esophageal (kappa = 0.611 and colorectal (kappa = 0.595 findings had a good level of agreement, while small bowel (kappa = 0.405 showed moderate agreement. Conclusion: The use of dual-camera analysis with CCE for the evaluation of the GI tract is feasible and detects more abnormalities when compared with single-camera analysis. Keywords: capsule endoscopy, colon, gastrointestinal tract, small bowel

  4. Telescopic observations - Visual, photographic, polarimetric. [of planet Mars (United States)

    Martin, Leonard J.; James, Philip B.; Dollfus, Audouin; Iwasaki, Kyosuke; Beish, Jeffrey D.


    The paper divides the high points of telescopic observations of Mars into three time periods: historical, missions support (recent), and present. Particular attention is given to visual and photographic observations, with brief discussions of spectroscopic and polarization studies. Major topics of Martian phenomena included are albedo features, polar caps, dust storms, and white clouds. The interannual variability of the recessions of seasonal polar caps has been compared to dust storm activity, but this relationship remains uncertain. Only a very limited number of canals can be related to markings on the Viking images. The remainder are argued to be optical illusions created by observers pushing their perceived resolution beyond practical limits.

  5. Mars Infrared Spectroscopy: From Theory and the Laboratory To Field Observations (United States)

    Kirkland, Laurel (Editor); Mustard, John (Editor); McAfee, John (Editor); Hapke, Bruce (Editor); Ramsey, Michael (Editor)


    The continuity and timely implementation of the Mars exploration strategy relies heavily on the ability of the planetary community to interpret infrared spectral data. However, the increasing mission rate, data volume, and data variety, combined with the small number of spectroscopists within the planetary community, will require a coordinated community effort for effective and timely interpretation of the newly acquired and planned data sets. Relevant spectroscopic instruments include the 1996 TES, 2001 THEMIS, 2003 Pancam, 2003 Mini-TES, 2003 Mars Express OMEGA, 2003 Mars Express PFS, and 2005 CFUSM. In light of that, leaders of the Mars spectral community met June 4-6 to address the question: What terrestrial theoretical, laboratory, and field studies are most needed to best support timely interpretations of current and planned visible infrared spectrometer data sets, in light of the Mars Program goals? A primary goal of the spectral community is to provide a reservoir of information to enhance and expand the exploration of Mars. Spectroscopy has a long history of providing the fundamental compositional discoveries in the solar system, from atmospheric constituents to surface mineralogy, from earth-based to spacecraft-based observations. However, such spectroscopic compositional discoveries, especially surface mineralogies, have usually come after long periods of detailed integration of remote observations, laboratory analyses, and field measurements. Spectroscopic information of surfaces is particularly complex and often is confounded by interference of broad, overlapping absorption features as well as confusing issues of mixtures, coatings, and grain size effects. Thus some spectroscopic compositional discoveries have come only after many years of research. However, we are entering an era of Mars exploration with missions carrying sophisticated spectrometers launching about every 2 years. It is critical that each mission provide answers to relevant questions

  6. Mars Express - ESA sets ambitious goals for the first European mission to Mars (United States)


    built by group of scientific institutes from all over Europe, plus Russia, the United States, Japan and China. These instruments are a subsurface sounding radar; a high-resolution camera, several surface and atmospheric spectrometers, a plasma analyzer and a radio science experiment. The high-resolution camera will image the entire planet in full colour, in 3D, at a resolution of up to 2 metres in selected areas. One of the spectrometers will map the mineral composition of the surface with great accuracy. The missing water Data from some of the instruments will be key to finding out what happened with the water which was apparently so abundant in the past. For instance, the radar altimeter will search for subsurface water and ice, down to a depth of a few kilometres. Scientists expect to find a layer of ice or permafrost, and to measure its thickness. Other observations with the spectrometers will determine the amount of water remaining in the atmosphere. They will also tell whether there is a still a full ‘water cycle’ on Mars, for example how water is deposited in the poles and how it evaporates, depending on the seasons. "These data will determine how much water there is left. We have clear evidence for the presence of water in the past, we have seen dry river beds and sedimentary layers, and there is also evidence for water on present-day Mars. But we do not know how much water there is. Mars Express will tell us,” says Chicarro. The search for life The instruments on board Beagle 2 will investigate the geology and the climate of the landing site. But, above all, it will look for signs of life. Contrary to the Viking missions, Mars Express will search for evidence for both present and past life. Scientists are now more aware that a few biological experiments are not enough to search for life - they will combine many different types of tests to help discard contradictory results. To ‘sniff’ out direct evidence of past or present biological activity, Beagle

  7. Solar radiation on Mars: Update 1991 (United States)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Landis, Geoffrey A.


    Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. A procedure and solar radiation related data are presented from which the daily variation of the global, direct beam and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated. Given the optical depth of the Mars atmosphere, the global radiation is calculated from the normalized net flux function based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation. The direct beam was derived from the optical depth using Beer's law, and the diffuse component was obtained from the difference of the global and the direct beam radiation. The optical depths of the Mars atmosphere were derived from images taken of the Sun with a special diode on the cameras used on the two Viking Landers.

  8. In Situ Strategy of the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory to Investigate the Habitability of Ancient Mars (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.


    The ten science investigations of the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover named "Curiosity" seek to provide a quantitative assessment of habitability through chemical and geological measurements from a highly capable robotic' platform. This mission seeks to understand if the conditions for life on ancient Mars are preserved in the near-surface geochemical record. These substantial payload resources enabled by MSL's new entry descent and landing (EDL) system have allowed the inclusion of instrument types nevv to the Mars surface including those that can accept delivered sample from rocks and soils and perform a wide range of chemical, isotopic, and mineralogical analyses. The Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) experiment that is located in the interior of the rover is a powder x-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) instrument that provides elemental and mineralogical information. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite of instruments complements this experiment by analyzing the volatile component of identically processed samples and by analyzing atmospheric composition. Other MSL payload tools such as the Mast Camera (Mastcam) and the Chemistry & Camera (ChemCam) instruments are utilized to identify targets for interrogation first by the arm tools and subsequent ingestion into SAM and CheMin using the Sample Acquisition, Processing, and Handling (SA/SPaH) subsystem. The arm tools include the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) and the Chemistry and Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXX). The Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) instrument provides subsurface identification of hydrogen such as that contained in hydrated minerals

  9. Curiosity's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation (United States)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Yingst, R. Aileen; Ravine, Michael A.; Caplinger, Michael A.; Maki, Justin N.; Ghaemi, F. Tony; Schaffner, Jacob A.; Bell, James F.; Edwards, Laurence J.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Heydari, Ezat; Kah, Linda C.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Olson, Timothy S.; Parker, Timothy J.; Rowland, Scott K.; Schieber, Juergen; Sullivan, Robert J.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Thomas, Peter C.; Jensen, Elsa H.; Simmonds, John J.; Sengstacken, Aaron J.; Wilson, Reg G.; Goetz, Walter


    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) investigation will use a 2-megapixel color camera with a focusable macro lens aboard the rover, Curiosity, to investigate the stratigraphy and grain-scale texture, structure, mineralogy, and morphology of geologic materials in northwestern Gale crater. Of particular interest is the stratigraphic record of a ?5 km thick layered rock sequence exposed on the slopes of Aeolis Mons (also known as Mount Sharp). The instrument consists of three parts, a camera head mounted on the turret at the end of a robotic arm, an electronics and data storage assembly located inside the rover body, and a calibration target mounted on the robotic arm shoulder azimuth actuator housing. MAHLI can acquire in-focus images at working distances from ?2.1 cm to infinity. At the minimum working distance, image pixel scale is ?14 μm per pixel and very coarse silt grains can be resolved. At the working distance of the Mars Exploration Rover Microscopic Imager cameras aboard Spirit and Opportunity, MAHLI?s resolution is comparable at ?30 μm per pixel. Onboard capabilities include autofocus, auto-exposure, sub-framing, video imaging, Bayer pattern color interpolation, lossy and lossless compression, focus merging of up to 8 focus stack images, white light and longwave ultraviolet (365 nm) illumination of nearby subjects, and 8 gigabytes of non-volatile memory data storage.

  10. Investigation of small scale roughness properties of Martian terrains using Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter data. (United States)

    Ivanov, A. B.; Rossi, A.


    Studies of layered terrains in polar regions as well as inside craters and other areas on Mars often require knowledge of local topography at much finer resolution than global MOLA topography allows. For example, in the polar layered deposits spatial relationships are important to understand unconformities that are observed on the edges of the layered terrains [15,3]. Their formation process is not understood at this point, yet fine scale topography, joint with ground penetrating radar like SHARAD and MARSIS may shed light on their 3D structure. Landing site analysis also requires knowledge of local slopes and roughness at scales from 1 to 10 m [1,2]. Mars Orbiter Camera [13] has taken stereo images at these scales, however interpretation was difficult due to unstable behavior of the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft during image take (wobbling effect). Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is much better stabilized, since it is required for optimal operation of its high resolution camera. In this work we have utilized data from MRO sensors (CTX camera [11] and HIRISE camera [12] in order to derive digital elevation models (DEM) from images targeted as stereo pairs. We employed methods and approaches utilized for the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) stereo data [4,5]. CTX data varies in resolution and stereo pairs analyzed in this work can be derived at approximately 10m scale. HIRISE images allow DEM post spacing at around 1 meter. The latter are very big images and our computer infrastructure was only able to process either reduced resolution images, covering larger surface or working with smaller patches at the original resolution. We employed stereo matching technique described in [5,9], in conjunction with radiometric and geometric image processing in ISIS3 [16]. This technique is capable of deriving tiepoint co-registration at subpixel precision and has proven itself when used for Pathfinder and MER operations [8]. Considerable part of this work was to accommodate CTX and

  11. On-Orbit Camera Misalignment Estimation Framework and Its Application to Earth Observation Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungwoo Lee


    Full Text Available Despite the efforts for precise alignment of imaging sensors and attitude sensors before launch, the accuracy of pre-launch alignment is limited. The misalignment between attitude frame and camera frame is especially important as it is related to the localization error of the spacecraft, which is one of the essential factors of satellite image quality. In this paper, a framework for camera misalignment estimation is presented with its application to a high-resolution earth-observation satellite—Deimos-2. The framework intends to provide a solution for estimation and correction of the camera misalignment of a spacecraft, covering image acquisition planning to mathematical solution of camera misalignment. Considerations for effective image acquisition planning to obtain reliable results are discussed, followed by a detailed description on a practical method for extracting many GCPs automatically using reference ortho-photos. Patterns of localization errors that commonly occur due to the camera misalignment are also investigated. A mathematical model for camera misalignment estimation is described comprehensively. The results of simulation experiments showing the validity and accuracy of the misalignment estimation model are provided. The proposed framework was applied to Deimos-2. The real-world data and results from Deimos-2 are presented.

  12. Observations of Crew Dynamics during Mars Analog Simulations (United States)

    Cusack, Stacy L.


    This presentation reviews the crew dynamics during two simulations of Mars Missions. Using an analog of a Mars habitat in two locations, Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS) which is located on Devon Island at 75 deg North in the Canadian Arctic, and the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) which is located in the south of Utah, the presentation examines the crew dynamics in relation to the leadership style of the commander of the mission. The difference in the interaction of the two crews were shown to be related to the leadership style and the age group in the crew. As much as possible the habitats and environment was to resemble a Mars outpost. The difference between the International Space Station and a Mars missions is reviewed. The leadership styles are reviewed and the contrast between the FMARS and the MDRS leadership styles were related to crew productivity, and the personal interactions between the crew members. It became evident that leadership styles and interpersonal skill had more affect on mission success and crew dynamics than other characteristics.

  13. NASA Mars Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiber, D.B.


    Papers about Mars and Mars exploration are presented, covering topics such as Martian history, geology, volcanism, channels, moons, atmosphere, meteorology, water on the planet, and the possibility of life. The unmanned exploration of Mars is discussed, including the Phobos Mission, the Mars Observer, the Mars Aeronomy Observer, the seismic network, Mars sample return missions, and the Mars Ball, an inflatable-sectored-tire rover concept. Issues dealing with manned exploration of Mars are examined, such as the reasons for exploring Mars, mission scenarios, a transportation system for routine visits, technologies for Mars expeditions, the human factors for Mars missions, life support systems, living and working on Mars, and the report of the National Commission on Space

  14. Spiders from Mars? (United States)


    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-426, 19 July 2003No, this is not a picture of a giant, martian spider web. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a plethora of polygonal features on the floor of a northern hemisphere impact crater near 65.6oN, 327.7oW. The picture was acquired during spring, after the seasonal carbon dioxide frost cap had largely migrated through the region. At the time the picture was taken, remnants of seasonal frost remained on the crater rim and on the edges of the troughs that bound each of the polygons. Frost often provides a helpful hint as to where polygons and patterned ground occur. The polygons, if they were on Earth, would indicate the presence of freeze-thaw cycles in ground ice. Although uncertain, the same might be true of Mars. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  15. Visible/near-infrared spectral diversity from in situ observations of the Bagnold Dune Field sands in Gale Crater, Mars (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Achilles, Cherie; Bell, James F.; Bender, Steve; Cloutis, Edward; Ehlmann, Bethany; Fraeman, Abigail; Gasnault, Olivier; Hamilton, Victoria E.; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Maurice, Sylvestre; Pinet, Patrick; Thompson, Lucy; Wellington, Danika; Wiens, Roger C.


    As part of the Bagnold Dune campaign conducted by Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity, visible/near-infrared reflectance spectra of dune sands were acquired using Mast Camera (Mastcam) multispectral imaging (445-1013 nm) and Chemistry and Camera (ChemCam) passive point spectroscopy (400-840 nm). By comparing spectra from pristine and rover-disturbed ripple crests and troughs within the dune field, and through analysis of sieved grain size fractions, constraints on mineral segregation from grain sorting could be determined. In general, the dune areas exhibited low relative reflectance, a weak 530 nm absorption band, an absorption band near 620 nm, and a spectral downturn after 685 nm consistent with olivine-bearing sands. The finest grain size fractions occurred within ripple troughs and in the subsurface and typically exhibited the strongest 530 nm bands, highest relative reflectances, and weakest red/near-infrared ratios, consistent with a combination of crystalline and amorphous ferric materials. Coarser-grained samples were the darkest and bluest and exhibited weaker 530 nm bands, lower relative reflectances, and stronger downturns in the near-infrared, consistent with greater proportions of mafic minerals such as olivine and pyroxene. These grains were typically segregated along ripple crests and among the upper surfaces of grain flows in disturbed sands. Sieved dune sands exhibited progressive decreases in reflectance with increasing grain size, as observed in laboratory spectra of olivine size separates. The continuum of spectral features observed between the coarse- and fine-grained dune sands suggests that mafic grains, ferric materials, and air fall dust mix in variable proportions depending on aeolian activity and grain sorting.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. D. Putri


    Full Text Available The surface of Mars has been an object of interest for planetary research since the launch of Mariner 4 in 1964. Since then different cameras such as the Viking Visual Imaging Subsystem (VIS, Mars Global Surveyor (MGS Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO Context Camera (CTX and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE have been imaging its surface at ever higher resolution. The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC on board of the European Space Agency (ESA Mars Express, has been imaging the Martian surface, since 25th December 2003 until the present-day. HRSC has covered 100 % of the surface of Mars, about 70 % of the surface with panchromatic images at 10-20 m/pixel, and about 98 % at better than 100 m/pixel (Neukum et. al., 2004, including the polar regions of Mars. The Mars polar regions have been studied intensively recently by analysing images taken by the Mars Express and MRO missions (Plaut et al., 2007. The South Polar Residual Cap (SPRC does not change very much in volume overall but there are numerous examples of dynamic phenomena associated with seasonal changes in the atmosphere. In particular, we can examine the time variation of layers of solid carbon dioxide and water ice with dust deposition (Bibring, 2004, spider-like channels (Piqueux et al., 2003 and so-called Swiss Cheese Terrain (Titus et al., 2004. Because of seasonal changes each Martian year, due to the sublimation and deposition of water and CO2 ice on the Martian south polar region, clearly identifiable surface changes occur in otherwise permanently icy region. In this research, good quality HRSC images of the Mars South Polar region are processed based on previous identification as the optimal coverage of clear surfaces (Campbell et al., 2015. HRSC images of the Martian South Pole are categorized in terms of quality, time, and location to find overlapping areas, processed into high quality Digital Terrain Models (DTMs and

  17. An Undergraduate Endeavor: Assembling a Live Planetarium Show About Mars (United States)

    McGraw, Allison M.


    Viewing the mysterious red planet Mars goes back thousands of years with just the human eye but in more recent years the growth of telescopes, satellites and lander missions unveil unrivaled detail of the Martian surface that tells a story worth listening to. This planetarium show will go through the observations starting with the ancients to current understandings of the Martian surface, atmosphere and inner-workings through past and current Mars missions. Visual animations of its planetary motions, display of high resolution images from the Hi-RISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) and CTX (Context Camera) data imagery aboard the MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) as well as other datasets will be used to display the terrain detail and imagery of the planet Mars with a digital projection system. Local planetary scientists and Mars specialists from the Lunar and Planetary Lab at the University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ) will be interviewed and used in the show to highlight current technology and understandings of the red planet. This is an undergraduate project that is looking for collaborations and insight in order gain structure in script writing that will teach about this planetary body to all ages in the format of a live planetarium show.

  18. Viking 2 electron observations at Mars (United States)

    Johnson, Francis S.; Hanson, William B.


    An analysis of the electron mode sweeps made in Viking 2 above the ionosphere is presented. An observation of the electron energy spectrum over the range 0 to 78 eV was recorded in 1 s and observations were made at intervals of 4 or 8 s. The concentrations and temperatures were highly variable in the altitude range 14,000 to 9000 km. Evidence for two Maxwellian components were present in most of the records. The general trend of concentration and temperature for the predominant component was from 2/cu cm and 100,000 K at 15,600 km to 5/cu cm at 220,000 K and 900 km, in good agreement with the Mars 3 observations of Gringauz et al. (1974). The higher-temperature component was generally characterized by a temperature near 400,000 K and concentrations near 0.1/cu cm. The electron plasma pressures near 800 km were about a factor of 20 lower than those obtained from Viking 1, the difference being much greater than expected from the normal distribution around the stagnation point in the shocked solar wind.

  19. CO2 non-LTE limb emissions in Mars' atmosphere as observed by OMEGA/Mars Express (United States)

    Piccialli, A.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Määttänen, A.; González-Galindo, F.; Audouard, J.; Altieri, F.; Forget, F.; Drossart, P.; Gondet, B.; Bibring, J. P.


    We report on daytime limb observations of Mars upper atmosphere acquired by the OMEGA instrument on board the European spacecraft Mars Express. The strong emission observed at 4.3 μm is interpreted as due to CO2 fluorescence of solar radiation and is detected at a tangent altitude in between 60 and 110 km. The main value of OMEGA observations is that they provide simultaneously spectral information and good spatial sampling of the CO2 emission. In this study we analyzed 98 dayside limb observations spanning over more than 3 Martian years, with a very good latitudinal and longitudinal coverage. Thanks to the precise altitude sounding capabilities of OMEGA, we extracted vertical profiles of the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) emission at each wavelength and we studied their dependence on several geophysical parameters, such as the solar illumination and the tangent altitude. The dependence of the non-LTE emission on solar zenith angle and altitude follows a similar behavior to that predicted by the non-LTE model. According to our non-LTE model, the tangent altitude of the peak of the CO2 emission varies with the thermal structure, but the pressure level where the peak of the emission is found remains constant at ˜0.03 ± 0.01 Pa, . This non-LTE model prediction has been corroborated by comparing SPICAM and OMEGA observations. We have shown that the seasonal variations of the altitude of constant pressure levels in SPICAM stellar occultation retrievals correlate well with the variations of the OMEGA peak emission altitudes, although the exact pressure level cannot be defined with the spectroscopy for the investigation of the characteristics of the atmosphere of Venus (SPICAM) nighttime data. Thus, observed changes in the altitude of the peak emission provide us information on the altitude of the 0.03 Pa pressure level. Since the pressure at a given altitude is dictated by the thermal structure below, the tangent altitude of the peak emission represents

  20. Development of the Earth Observation Camera of MIRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae-Hee Lee


    Full Text Available We have designed and manufactured the Earth observation camera (EOC of multi-purpose infrared imaging system (MIRIS. MIRIS is a main payload of the STSAT-3, which will be launched in late 2012. The main objective of the EOC is to test the operation of Korean IR technology in space, so we have designed the optical and mechanical system of the EOC to fit the IR detector system. We have assembled the flight model (FM of EOC and performed environment tests successfully. The EOC is now ready to be integrated into the satellite system waiting for operation in space, as planned.

  1. Observations of CO on Mars with OMEGA/Mars Express: A Study of Local Variations over the Volcanoes (United States)

    Encrenaz, T.; Drossart, P.; Fouchet, T.; Melchiorri, R.; Lellouch, E.; Combes, M.; Bibring, J.-P.; Moroz, V.; Ignatiev, N.; Forget, F.; OMEGA Team

    Spectra of Mars recorded with the OMEGA/Mars Express experiment have been used to retrieve information on the CO mixing ratio over the planet. By using simultaneously the CO (1-0) band at 4.7 microns and a weak CO2 band at 4.85 microns, we have inferred the CO mixing ratio in all regions where the thermal emission is dominent, i.e. where the surface temperature is maximum. These observations, in particular, indicate a significant depletion of the CO/CO2 ratio over Olympus Mons. This preliminary result seems to confirm the analysis performed by the ISM imaging spectrometer aboard the Phobos mission, which suggested a possible depletion of CO over the volcanoes (Rosenqvist et al., Icarus 98, 254, 1992). Implications of this result will be discussed.

  2. Red Planet Mania: The Public Response to the 2003 Mars Opposition (United States)

    Albin, E. F.; Dundee, D. A.


    Interest in Mars is at an all time high. For many weeks leading up to and after August 27th or, the date of opposition, record crowds flocked to observatories for a look at Mars. Even after the media "dropped" the event and moved on to other stories, the public response was still unusually strong. It is suggested that such an overwhelming public enthusiasm can be taken as good reason to seek a higher level of government funding for astronomy and the exploration of the Red Planet. Our observations and impressions of the public response to the close approach of Mars were taken from the authors affiliation with the Fernbank Science Center in Atlanta, Georgia - a museum which houses a well-equipped planetarium and observatory. The 500 seat planetarium features a Zeiss Mark V projector beneath a 21 meter diameter dome. A 0.9 meter reflecting telescope, situated not far from the planetarium, provided for stunning views of the Red Planet. Fernbank staff produced an original planetarium presentation entitled "Visions of Mars." Due to overflow crowds, special extended showings were offered. After the planetarium program, members of the public were invited to the observatory for a look at Mars. An average of approximately 120 people each hour looked through the telescope. On many evenings, centered around opposition, the observatory remained open from 9:00 p.m. until 5:30 a.m. the following morning. On each of these nights, we estimate that at least 950 people saw Mars through our telescope. An important tool, an Astrovid CCD video camera, was attached to a piggybacked 11-inch telescope. This instrument proved invaluable in preparing observers for their actual observation. Features such as a Polar Ice Cap, Syrtis Major, and Tharsis were easily identified on the TV monitor and then readily spotted through the telescope.

  3. An evaluation of the effectiveness of observation camera placement within the MeerKAT radio telescope project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyns, Andries


    Full Text Available A recent development within the MeerKAT sub-project of the Square Kilometre Array radio telescope network was the placement of a network of three observation cameras in pursuit of two specific visibility objectives. In this paper, we evaluate the effectiveness of the locations of the MeerKAT observation camera network according to a novel multi-objective geographic information systems-based facility location framework. We find that the configuration chosen and implemented by the MeerKAT decision-makers is of very high quality, although we are able to uncover slightly superior alternative placement configurations. A significant amount of time and effort could, however, have been saved in the process of choosing the appropriate camera sites, had our solutions been available to the decision-makers.

  4. Two Moons and the Pleiades from Mars (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Inverted image of two moons and the Pleiades from Mars Taking advantage of extra solar energy collected during the day, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit recently settled in for an evening of stargazing, photographing the two moons of Mars as they crossed the night sky. In this view, the Pleiades, a star cluster also known as the 'Seven Sisters,' is visible in the lower left corner. The bright star Aldebaran and some of the stars in the constellation Taurus are visible on the right. Spirit acquired this image the evening of martian day, or sol, 590 (Aug. 30, 2005). The image on the right provides an enhanced-contrast view with annotation. Within the enhanced halo of light is an insert of an unsaturated view of Phobos taken a few images later in the same sequence. On Mars, Phobos would be easily visible to the naked eye at night, but would be only about one-third as large as the full Moon appears from Earth. Astronauts staring at Phobos from the surface of Mars would notice its oblong, potato-like shape and that it moves quickly against the background stars. Phobos takes only 7 hours, 39 minutes to complete one orbit of Mars. That is so fast, relative to the 24-hour-and-39-minute sol on Mars (the length of time it takes for Mars to complete one rotation), that Phobos rises in the west and sets in the east. Earth's moon, by comparison, rises in the east and sets in the west. The smaller martian moon, Deimos, takes 30 hours, 12 minutes to complete one orbit of Mars. That orbital period is longer than a martian sol, and so Deimos rises, like most solar system moons, in the east and sets in the west. Scientists will use images of the two moons to better map their orbital positions, learn more about their composition, and monitor the presence of nighttime clouds or haze. Spirit took the five images that make up this composite with the panoramic camera, using the camera's broadband filter, which was designed specifically

  5. Multi‐angular observations of vegetation indices from UAV cameras

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobejano-Paz, Veronica; Wang, Sheng; Jakobsen, Jakob

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are found as an alternative to the classical manned aerial photogrammetry, which can be used to obtain environmental data or as a complementary solution to other methods (Nex and Remondino, 2014). Although UAVs have coverage limitations, they have better resolution...... (Berni et al., 2009), hyper spectral camera (Burkart et al., 2015) and photometric elevation mapping sensor (Shahbazi et al., 2015) among others. Therefore, UAVs can be used in many fields such as agriculture, forestry, archeology, architecture, environment and traffic monitoring (Nex and Remondino, 2014......). In this study, the UAV used is a hexacopter s900 equipped with a Global Positioning System (GPS) and two cameras; a digital RGB photo camera and a multispectral camera (MCA), with a resolution of 5472 x 3648 pixels and 1280 x 1024 pixels, respectively. In terms of applications, traditional methods using...

  6. Rosetta and Mars Express observations of the influence of high solar wind pressure on the Martian plasma environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. T. Edberg


    Full Text Available We report on new simultaneous in-situ observations at Mars from Rosetta and Mars Express (MEX on how the Martian plasma environment is affected by high pressure solar wind. A significant sharp increase in solar wind density, magnetic field strength and turbulence followed by a gradual increase in solar wind velocity is observed during ~24 h in the combined data set from both spacecraft after Rosetta's closest approach to Mars on 25 February 2007. The bow shock and magnetic pileup boundary are coincidently observed by MEX to become asymmetric in their shapes. The fortunate orbit of MEX at this time allows a study of the inbound boundary crossings on one side of the planet and the outbound crossings on almost the opposite side, both very close to the terminator plane. The solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF downstream of Mars are monitored through simultaneous measurements provided by Rosetta. Possible explanations for the asymmetries are discussed, such as crustal magnetic fields and IMF direction. In the same interval, during the high solar wind pressure pulse, MEX observations show an increased amount of escaping planetary ions from the polar region of Mars. We link the high pressure solar wind with the observed simultaneous ion outflow and discuss how the pressure pulse could also be associated with the observed boundary shape asymmetry.

  7. Evidence for komatiite-type lavas on Mars from Phobos ISM data and other observations (United States)

    Reyes, David P.; Christensen, Philip R.


    Data from the Phobos 2 Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (ISM), compiled by Mustard et al. (1993), and other observations support the existence of komatiitic lavas on Mars. Mustard et al. (1993) determined from ISM data that the composition of the low-albedo materials covering the Syrtis Major plateau originally consisted of augite-bearing basalt containing both augite and pigeonite, with no appreciable amount of olivine. This description is consistent with a komatiitic basalt. Komatiite is significant for the Earth because it contains a high amount of MgO, implying generation under unique circumstances compared to more typical basaltic compositions and may be similarly important for Mars.

  8. Conceptual Design and Dynamics Testing and Modeling of a Mars Tumbleweed Rover (United States)

    Calhoun Philip C.; Harris, Steven B.; Raiszadeh, Behzad; Zaleski, Kristina D.


    The NASA Langley Research Center has been developing a novel concept for a Mars planetary rover called the Mars Tumbleweed. This concept utilizes the wind to propel the rover along the Mars surface, bringing it the potential to cover vast distances not possible with current Mars rover technology. This vehicle, in its deployed configuration, must be large and lightweight to provide the ratio of drag force to rolling resistance necessary to initiate motion from rest on the Mars surface. One Tumbleweed design concept that satisfies these considerations is called the Eggbeater-Dandelion. This paper describes the basic design considerations and a proposed dynamics model of the concept for use in simulation studies. It includes a summary of rolling/bouncing dynamics tests that used videogrammetry to better understand, characterize, and validate the dynamics model assumptions, especially the effective rolling resistance in bouncing/rolling dynamic conditions. The dynamics test used cameras to capture the motion of 32 targets affixed to a test article s outer structure. Proper placement of the cameras and alignment of their respective fields of view provided adequate image resolution of multiple targets along the trajectory as the test article proceeded down the ramp. Image processing of the frames from multiple cameras was used to determine the target positions. Position data from a set of these test runs was compared with results of a three dimensional, flexible dynamics model. Model input parameters were adjusted to match the test data for runs conducted. This process presented herein provided the means to characterize the dynamics and validate the simulation of the Eggbeater-Dandelion concept. The simulation model was used to demonstrate full scale Tumbleweed motion from a stationary condition on a flat-sloped terrain using representative Mars environment parameters.

  9. Energetic protons at Mars. Interpretation of SLED/Phobos-2 observations by a kinetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallio, E.; Alho, M.; Jarvinen, R.; Dyadechkin, S.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Afonin, V.V.


    Mars has neither a significant global intrinsic magnetic field nor a dense atmosphere. Therefore, solar energetic particles (SEPs) from the Sun can penetrate close to the planet (under some circumstances reaching the surface). On 13 March 1989 the SLED instrument aboard the Phobos- 2 spacecraft recorded the presence of SEPs near Mars while traversing a circular orbit (at 2.8RM). In the present study the response of the Martian plasma environment to SEP impingement on 13 March was simulated using a kinetic model. The electric and magnetic fields were derived using a 3- D self-consistent hybrid model (HYB-Mars) where ions are modelled as particles while electrons form a massless charge neutralizing fluid. The case study shows that the model successfully reproduced several of the observed features of the in situ observations: (1) a flux enhancement near the inbound bow shock, (2) the formation of a magnetic shadow where the energetic particle flux was decreased relative to its solar wind values, (3) the energy dependency of the flux enhancement near the bow shock and (4) how the size of the magnetic shadow depends on the incident particle energy. Overall, it is demonstrated that the Martian magnetic field environment resulting from the Mars-solar wind interaction significantly modulated the Martian energetic particle environment. (orig.)

  10. Energetic protons at Mars. Interpretation of SLED/Phobos-2 observations by a kinetic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallio, E.; Alho, M.; Jarvinen, R.; Dyadechkin, S. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland); McKenna-Lawlor, S. [Space Technology Ireland, Maynooth, Co. Kildare (Ireland); Afonin, V.V. [Space Research Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Mars has neither a significant global intrinsic magnetic field nor a dense atmosphere. Therefore, solar energetic particles (SEPs) from the Sun can penetrate close to the planet (under some circumstances reaching the surface). On 13 March 1989 the SLED instrument aboard the Phobos- 2 spacecraft recorded the presence of SEPs near Mars while traversing a circular orbit (at 2.8RM). In the present study the response of the Martian plasma environment to SEP impingement on 13 March was simulated using a kinetic model. The electric and magnetic fields were derived using a 3- D self-consistent hybrid model (HYB-Mars) where ions are modelled as particles while electrons form a massless charge neutralizing fluid. The case study shows that the model successfully reproduced several of the observed features of the in situ observations: (1) a flux enhancement near the inbound bow shock, (2) the formation of a magnetic shadow where the energetic particle flux was decreased relative to its solar wind values, (3) the energy dependency of the flux enhancement near the bow shock and (4) how the size of the magnetic shadow depends on the incident particle energy. Overall, it is demonstrated that the Martian magnetic field environment resulting from the Mars-solar wind interaction significantly modulated the Martian energetic particle environment. (orig.)

  11. X-ray streak camera for observation of tightly pinched relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.J.


    A pinhole camera is coupled with a Pilot-B scintillator and image-intensified TRW streak camera to study pinched electron beam profiles via observation of anode target bremsstrahlung. Streak intensification is achieved with an EMI image intensifier operated at a gain of up to 10 6 which allows optimizing the pinhole configuration so that resolution is simultaneously limited by photon-counting statistics and pinhole geometry. The pinhole used is one-dimensional and is fabricated by inserting uranium shims with hyperbolic curved edges between two 5-cm-thick lead blocks. The loss of spatial resolution due to the x-ray transmission through the perimeter of the pinhole is calculated and a streak photograph of a Gamble I pinched beam interacting with a brass anode is presented

  12. Plasma Clouds and Snowplows: Bulk Plasma Escape from Mars Observed by MAVEN (United States)

    Halekas, J. S.; Brain, D. A.; Ruhunusiri, S.; McFadden, J. P.; Mitchell, D. L.; Mazelle, C.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Harada, Y.; Hara, T.; Espley, J. R.; hide


    We present initial Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) observations and preliminary interpretation of bulk plasma loss from Mars. MAVEN particle and field measurements show that planetary heavy ions derived from the Martian atmosphere can escape in the form of discrete coherent structures or "clouds." The ions in these clouds are unmagnetized or weakly magnetized, have velocities well above the escape speed, and lie directly downstream from magnetic field amplifications, suggesting a "snowplow" effect. This postulated escape process, similar to that successfully used to explain the dynamics of active gas releases in the solar wind and terrestrial magnetosheath, relies on momentum transfer from the shocked solar wind protons to the planetary heavy ions, with the electrons and magnetic field acting as intermediaries. Fluxes of planetary ions on the order of 10(exp 7)/sq cm/s can escape by this process, and if it operates regularly, it could contribute 10-20% of the current ion escape from Mars.

  13. First Grinding of a Rock on Mars (United States)


    The round, shallow depression in this image resulted from history's first grinding of a rock on Mars. The rock abrasion tool on NASA's Spirit rover ground off the surface of a patch 45.5 millimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter on a rock called Adirondack during Spirit's 34th sol on Mars, Feb. 6, 2004. The hole is 2.65 millimeters (0.1 inch) deep, exposing fresh interior material of the rock for close inspection with the rover's microscopic imager and two spectrometers on the robotic arm. This image was taken by Spirit's panoramic camera, providing a quick visual check of the success of the grinding. The rock abrasion tools on both Mars Exploration Rovers were supplied by Honeybee Robotics, New York, N.Y.

  14. Candidate cave entrances on Mars (United States)

    Cushing, Glen E.


    This paper presents newly discovered candidate cave entrances into Martian near-surface lava tubes, volcano-tectonic fracture systems, and pit craters and describes their characteristics and exploration possibilities. These candidates are all collapse features that occur either intermittently along laterally continuous trench-like depressions or in the floors of sheer-walled atypical pit craters. As viewed from orbit, locations of most candidates are visibly consistent with known terrestrial features such as tube-fed lava flows, volcano-tectonic fractures, and pit craters, each of which forms by mechanisms that can produce caves. Although we cannot determine subsurface extents of the Martian features discussed here, some may continue unimpeded for many kilometers if terrestrial examples are indeed analogous. The features presented here were identified in images acquired by the Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System visible-wavelength camera, and by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Context Camera. Select candidates have since been targeted by the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment. Martian caves are promising potential sites for future human habitation and astrobiology investigations; understanding their characteristics is critical for long-term mission planning and for developing the necessary exploration technologies.

  15. My Changing Perception of Mars: A Whipple Award Lecture (United States)

    Malin, M. C.


    I have been studying Mars for 46+ years. My initial studies of the planet were mentored by Bruce Murray (my Ph.D. advisor) and Bob Sharp. My 4 years as Bruce's student were the most productive and exciting of my early career, during which I wrote or participated in a dozen published works. My early efforts on Mars, based on Mariner 9 images, culminated in my Ph.D. dissertation, the last paragraph of which, written in 1975, read: "In summary, Mars appears to have had a complex early history, complete with significant atmospheric and some fluid erosion. Just as the polar layered deposits are believed to record the recent history of Mars, so may the ancient layered deposits — the intercrater plains — record the most primitive history of Mars. Detailed studies of Martian stratigraphy in the distant future may be as intellectually rewarding as the studies of terrestrial stratigraphy are today."Welcome to the distant future! During my student years with Murray and Sharp, I concluded that images of significantly higher spatial resolution were needed to unravel the geologic story hinted at in the Mariner 9 data. For 10 years I made the case for aerial photo-like high resolution imaging, to highly skeptical science and engineering communities. With Ed Danielson (of JPL and then Caltech) and a group of young engineers he recruited, we succeeded in convincing advisory groups and a NASA selection board to fly the Mars Observer Camera, that included early 1980's innovations such as a 32-bit microprocessor, a 100 MB solid state memory, gate arrays for instrument control, and a 35 cm aperture telescope with an f/2 primary and a secondary mirror with 8-fold magnification to achieve 3.7 µrad/pixel scale (1.4 m/pxl from 378 km altitude). Although MO failed, the MOC was reflown on MGS and my colleague Ken Edgett and I found evidence for: widespread water-lain sedimentary rock, persistent surficial water flow and ponding in bodies of standing water, gullies that may indicate the

  16. HiRISE observations of Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) during southern summer on Mars (United States)

    Ojha, Lujendra; McEwen, Alfred; Dundas, Colin; Byrne, Shane; Mattson, Sarah; Wray, James; Masse, Marion; Schaefer, Ethan


    Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) are active features on Mars that might require flowing water. Most examples observed through 2011 formed on steep, equator-facing slopes in the southern mid-latitudes. They form and grow during warm seasons and fade and often completely disappear during colder seasons, but recur over multiple Mars years. They are recognizable by their incremental growth, relatively low albedo and downhill orientation. We examined all images acquired by HiRISE during Ls 250–10° (slightly longer than southern summer, Ls 270–360°) of Mars years 30–31 (03/2011–10/2011), and supplemented our results with data from previous studies to better understand the geologic context and characteristics of RSL. We also confirmed candidate and likely sites from previous studies and discovered new RSL sites. We report 13 confirmed RSL sites, including the 7 in McEwen et al. (McEwen et al. [2011]. Science 333(6043), 740–743]. The observed seasonality, latitudinal and slope orientation preferences, and THEMIS bright- ness temperatures indicate that RSL require warm temperatures to form. We conclude that RSL are a unique phenomenon on Mars, clearly distinct from other slope processes that occur at high latitudes associated with seasonal CO2 frost, and episodic mass wasting on equatorial slopes. However, only 41% (82 out of 200) of the sites that present apparently suitable conditions for RSL formation (steep, equator-facing rocky slopes with bedrock exposure) in the southern mid-latitudes (28–60°S) contain any candidate RSL, with confirmed RSL present only in 7% (13 sites) of those locations. Significant variability in abundance, size and exact location of RSL is also observed at most sites, indicating additional controls such as availability of water or salts that might be playing a crucial role.

  17. High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on Mars Express - a decade of PR/EO activities at Freie Universität Berlin (United States)

    Balthasar, Heike; Dumke, Alexander; van Gasselt, Stephan; Gross, Christoph; Michael, Gregory; Musiol, Stefanie; Neu, Dominik; Platz, Thomas; Rosenberg, Heike; Schreiner, Björn; Walter, Sebastian


    Since 2003 the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) experiment on the Mars Express mission is in orbit around Mars. First images were sent to Earth on January 14th, 2004. The goal-oriented HRSC data dissemination and the transparent representation of the associated work and results are the main aspects that contributed to the success in the public perception of the experiment. The Planetary Sciences and Remote Sensing Group at Freie Universität Berlin (FUB) offers both, an interactive web based data access, and browse/download options for HRSC press products []. Close collaborations with exhibitors as well as print and digital media representatives allows for regular and directed dissemination of, e.g., conventional imagery, orbital/synthetic surface epipolar images, video footage, and high-resolution displays. On a monthly basis we prepare press releases in close collaboration with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR) []. A release comprises panchromatic, colour, anaglyph, and perspective views of a scene taken from an HRSC image of the Martian surface. In addition, a context map and descriptive texts in English and German are provided. More sophisticated press releases include elaborate animations and simulated flights over the Martian surface, perspective views of stereo data combined with colour and high resolution, mosaics, and perspective views of data mosaics. Altogether 970 high quality PR products and 15 movies were created at FUB during the last decade and published via FUB/DLR/ESA platforms. We support educational outreach events, as well as permanent and special exhibitions. Examples for that are the yearly "Science Fair", where special programs for kids are offered, and the exhibition "Mars Mission and Vision" which is on tour until 2015 through 20 German towns, showing 3-D movies, surface models, and images of the HRSC

  18. Dedicated Low Latitude Diurnal CO2 Frost Observation Campaigns by the Mars Climate Sounder (United States)

    Piqueux, S.; Kass, D. M.; Kleinboehl, A.; Hayne, P. O.; Heavens, N. G.; McCleese, D. J.; Schofield, J. T.; Shirley, J. H.


    In December 2016 (Ls≈280, MY33) and July 2017 (Ls≈30, MY34), the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) conducted two distinct observation campaigns. The first one aimed at 1) confirming the presence of low latitude diurnal CO2 frost on Mars, and 2) refining the estimated mass of carbon dioxide condensed at the surface, whereas the second campaign was designed to 3) search for temporally and spatially varying spectral characteristics indicative of frost properties (i.e., crystal size, contamination, etc.) and relationship to the regolith. To meet these goals, MCS acquired thermal infrared observations of the surface and atmosphere at variable local times (≈1.70-3.80 h Local True Solar Time) and in the 10°-50°N latitude band where very low thermal inertia material (frost distribution and spectral properties. In addition, pre-frost deposition surface cooling rates are found to be consistent with those predicted by numerical models (i.e., 1-2K per hour). Finally, we observe buffered surface temperatures near the local frost point, indicating a surface emissivity ≈1. (i.e., optically thin frost layers, or dust contaminated frost, or slab-like ice) and no discernable frost metamorphism. We will present a detailed analysis of these new and unique observations, and elaborate on the potential relationship between the regolith and this recurring frost cycle.

  19. Interaction of the solar wind with the planet Mars: Phobos 2 magnetic field observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedler, W.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Lichtenegger, H.


    The magnetometers on board the Phobos 2 spacecraft provided the opportunity to study the magnetic environment around Mars, including regions which have never been explored before, such as at low altitudes (down to 850 km above the surface of Mars) and in the tail. The data revealed a bow shock, characterized by a distinct jump in the magnetic field strength and a boundary denoted ''planetopause'', where the level of turbulence of the magnetic field changes. Inside the planetopause the field remains quiet. Some of the main characteristics of the bow shock and the magnetosheath can be reproduced by computer simulations within the framework of a gas-dynamic model using the observed planetopause as an obstacle for the incoming solar wind. In many spacecraft orbits around Mars, reversals of the B x -component were found which are typical for tail crossings. A first analysis of the tail data from the circular orbits at a distance of 2.8 Mars radii showed several cases where the reversal of the tail lobes was controlled by the IMF. This supports the idea of an induced character of the solar wind interaction with Mars outside a distance of about 2.8 Mars radii. However, there are certain features in the magnetic field data which could be interpreted as traces of a weak Martian intrinsic field. (author)

  20. MEDA, The New Instrument for Mars Environment Analysis for the Mars 2020 Mission (United States)

    Moreno-Alvarez, Jose F.; Pena-Godino, Antonio; Rodriguez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; Cordoba, Elizabeth; MEDA Team


    The Mars 2020 rover mission is part of NASA's Mars Exploration Program, a long-term effort of robotic exploration of the red planet. Designed to advance high-priority science goals for Mars exploration, the mission will address key questions about the potential for life on Mars. The mission will also provide opportunities to gather knowledge and demonstrate technologies that address the challenges of future human expeditions to Mars.The Mars Environmental Dynamics Analyzer (MEDA) is an integrated full suite of sensors designed to address the Mars 2020 mission objectives of characterization of dust size and morphology and surface weather measurements.MEDA system consists of one control unit and 10 separated sensor enclosures distributed in different positions along the Mars 2020 rover. MEDA is composed of an ARM-based control computer with its flight software application, two wind sensors including mixed ASICs inside, five air temperature sensors, one sky pointing camera complemented with 16 photo- detectors looking up and around, one thermal infrared sensor using five measurement bands, one relative humidity sensor, one pressure sensor and the harness that interconnects all of them. It is a complex system intended to operate in one of the harshest environments possible, the Mars surface, for many years to come.This will become a short term reality thanks to the combination of a strong international science team driving the science and system requirements working together with a powerful industrial organization to design and build the instrument. The instrument is being built right now, with its Critical Design Review at the end of 2016, and the flight model to be provided in 2018.This paper summarizes the main scientific objective of the MEDA instrument, the links between the Mission and the MEDA science objectives, and the challenging environmental Mars requirements. It will then focus on the engineered definition of the instrument, showing the overall

  1. Peeling Back the Layers of Mars (United States)


    This is a 3-D model of the trench excavated by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on the 23rd day, or sol, of its mission. An oblique view of the trench from a bit above and to the right of the rover's right wheel is shown. The model was generated from images acquired by the rover's front hazard-avoidance cameras.

  2. Thermophysical properties of the MER and Beagle II landing site regions on Mars (United States)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.; Hynek, Brian M.; Pelkey, Shannon M.; Mellon, Michael T.; Martínez-Alonso, Sara; Putzig, Nathaniel E.; Murphy, Nate; Christensen, Philip R.


    We analyzed remote-sensing observations of the Isidis Basin, Gusev Crater, and Meridiani Planum landing sites for Beagle II, MER-A Spirit, and MER-B Opportunity spacecraft, respectively. We emphasized the thermophysical properties using daytime and nighttime radiance measurements from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer and Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) and thermal inertias derived from nighttime data sets. THEMIS visible images, MGS Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) narrow-angle images, and MGS Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data are incorporated as well. Additionally, the remote-sensing data were compared with ground-truth at the MER sites. The Isidis Basin surface layer has been shaped by aeolian processes and erosion by slope winds coming off of the southern highlands and funneling through notches between massifs. In the Gusev region, surface materials of contrasting thermophysical properties have been interpreted as rocks or bedrock, duricrust, and dust deposits; these are consistent with a complex geological history dominated by volcanic and aeolian processes. At Meridiani Planum the many layers having different thermophysical and erosional properties suggest periodic deposition of differing sedimentological facies possibly related to clast size, grain orientation and packing, or mineralogy.

  3. Investigations of Water-Bearing Environments on the Moon and Mars (United States)

    Mitchell, Julie

    Water is a critical resource for future human missions, and is necessary for understanding the evolution of the Solar System. The Moon and Mars have water in various forms and are therefore high-priority targets in the search for accessible extraterrestrial water. Complementary remote sensing analyses coupled with laboratory and field studies are necessary to provide a scientific context for future lunar and Mars exploration. In this thesis, I use multiple techniques to investigate the presence of water-ice at the lunar poles and the properties of martian chloride minerals, whose evolution is intricately linked with liquid water. Permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) at the lunar poles may contain substantial water ice, but radar signatures at PSRs could indicate water ice or large block populations. Mini-RF radar and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera Narrow Angle Camera (LROC NAC) products were used to assess block abundances where radar signatures indicated potential ice deposits. While the majority of PSRs in this study indicated large block populations and a low likelihood of water ice, one crater--Rozhdestvenskiy N--showed indirect indications of water ice in its interior. Chloride deposits indicate regions where the last substantial liquid water existed on Mars. Major ion abundances and expected precipitation sequences of terrestrial chloride brines could provide context for assessing the provenance of martian chloride deposits. Chloride minerals are most readily distinguished in the far-infrared (45+ microm), where their fundamental absorption features are strongest. Multiple chloride compositions and textures were characterized in far-infrared emission for the first time. Systematic variations in the spectra were observed; these variations will allow chloride mineralogy to be determined and large variations in texture to be constrained. In the present day, recurring slope lineae (RSL) may indicate water flow, but fresh water is not stable on Mars. However

  4. Correlations Between Variations in Solar EUV and Soft X-Ray Irradiance and Photoelectron Energy Spectra Observed on Mars and Earth (United States)

    Peterson, W. K.; Brain, D. A.; Mitchell, D. L.; Bailey, S. M.; Chamberlin, P. C.


    Solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV; 10-120 nm) and soft X-ray (XUV; 0-10 nm) radiation are major heat sources for the Mars thermosphere as well as the primary source of ionization that creates the ionosphere. In investigations of Mars thermospheric chemistry and dynamics, solar irradiance models are used to account for variations in this radiation. Because of limited proxies, irradiance models do a poor job of tracking the significant variations in irradiance intensity in the EUV and XUV ranges over solar rotation time scales when the Mars-Sun-Earth angle is large. Recent results from Earth observations show that variations in photoelectron energy spectra are useful monitors of EUV and XUV irradiance variability. Here we investigate photoelectron energy spectra observed by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Electron Reflectometer (ER) and the FAST satellite during the interval in 2005 when Earth, Mars, and the Sun were aligned. The Earth photoelectron data in selected bands correlate well with calculations based on 1 nm resolution observations above 27 nm supplemented by broadband observations and a solar model in the 0-27 nm range. At Mars, we find that instrumental and orbital limitations to the identifications of photoelectron energy spectra in MGS/ER data preclude their use as a monitor of solar EUV and XUV variability. However, observations with higher temporal and energy resolution obtained at lower altitudes on Mars might allow the separation of the solar wind and ionospheric components of electron energy spectra so that they could be used as reliable monitors of variations in solar EUV and XUV irradiance than the time shifted, Earth-based, F(10.7) index currently used.

  5. Correlations between variations in solar EUV and soft X-ray irradiance and photoelectron energy spectra observed on Mars and Earth (United States)

    Peterson, W. K.; Brain, D. A.; Mitchell, D. L.; Bailey, S. M.; Chamberlin, P. C.


    extreme ultraviolet (EUV; 10-120 nm) and soft X-ray (XUV; 0-10 nm) radiation are major heat sources for the Mars thermosphere as well as the primary source of ionization that creates the ionosphere. In investigations of Mars thermospheric chemistry and dynamics, solar irradiance models are used to account for variations in this radiation. Because of limited proxies, irradiance models do a poor job of tracking the significant variations in irradiance intensity in the EUV and XUV ranges over solar rotation time scales when the Mars-Sun-Earth angle is large. Recent results from Earth observations show that variations in photoelectron energy spectra are useful monitors of EUV and XUV irradiance variability. Here we investigate photoelectron energy spectra observed by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Electron Reflectometer (ER) and the FAST satellite during the interval in 2005 when Earth, Mars, and the Sun were aligned. The Earth photoelectron data in selected bands correlate well with calculations based on 1 nm resolution observations above 27 nm supplemented by broadband observations and a solar model in the 0-27 nm range. At Mars, we find that instrumental and orbital limitations to the identifications of photoelectron energy spectra in MGS/ER data preclude their use as a monitor of solar EUV and XUV variability. However, observations with higher temporal and energy resolution obtained at lower altitudes on Mars might allow the separation of the solar wind and ionospheric components of electron energy spectra so that they could be used as reliable monitors of variations in solar EUV and XUV irradiance than the time shifted, Earth-based, F10.7 index currently used.

  6. MAVEN Observation of an Obliquely Propagating Low-Frequency Wave Upstream of Mars (United States)

    Ruhunusiri, Suranga; Halekas, J. S.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J. R.; McFadden, J. P.; Mazelle, C.; Brain, D.; Collinson, G.; Harada, Y.; Larson, D. E.; hide


    We report Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission observations of a large amplitude low-frequency plasma wave that propagated oblique to the ambient magnetic field upstream of Mars along with a non-solar-wind plasma component that had a flow velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field. We consider nine possibilities for this wave that include various combinations of its propagation direction, polarization in the solar wind frame, and ion source responsible for its generation. Using the observed wave parameters and the measured plasma parameters as constraints, we uniquely identify the wave by systematically discarding these possibilities. We determine that the wave is a right-hand polarized wave that propagated upstream in the solar wind frame. We find two possibilities for the ion source that can be responsible for this wave generation. They are either newly born pickup protons or reflected solar wind protons from the bow shock.We determine that the observed non-solar-wind component is not responsible for the wave generation, and it is likely that the non-solar-wind component was merely perturbed by the passage of the wave.

  7. Simultaneous Observations of Atmospheric Tides from Combined in Situ and Remote Observations at Mars from the MAVEN Spacecraft (United States)

    England, Scott L.; Liu, Guiping; Withers, Paul; Yigit, Erdal; Lo, Daniel; Jain, Sonal; Schneider, Nicholas M. (Inventor); Deighan, Justin; McClintock, William E.; Mahaffy, Paul R.; hide


    We report the observations of longitudinal variations in the Martian thermosphere associated with nonmigrating tides. Using the Neutral Gas Ion Mass Spectrometer (NGIMS) and the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) on NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN Mission (MAVEN) spacecraft, this study presents the first combined analysis of in situ and remote observations of atmospheric tides at Mars for overlapping volumes, local times, and overlapping date ranges. From the IUVS observations, we determine the altitude and latitudinal variation of the amplitude of the nonmigrating tidal signatures, which is combined with the NGIMS, providing information on the compositional impact of these waves. Both the observations of airglow from IUVS and the CO2 density observations from NGIMS reveal a strong wave number 2 signature in a fixed local time frame. The IUVS observations reveal a strong latitudinal dependence in the amplitude of the wave number 2 signature. Combining this with the accurate CO2 density observations from NGIMS, this would suggest that the CO2 density variation is as high as 27% at 0-10 deg latitude. The IUVS observations reveal little altitudinal dependence in the amplitude of the wave number 2 signature, varying by only 20% from 160 to 200 km. Observations of five different species with NGIMS show that the amplitude of the wave number 2 signature varies in proportion to the inverse of the species scale height, giving rise to variation in composition as a function of longitude. The analysis and discussion here provide a roadmap for further analysis as additional coincident data from these two instruments become available.

  8. Sulfates on Mars: TES Observations and Thermal Inertia Data (United States)

    Cooper, C. D.; Mustard, J. F.


    The high resolution thermal emission spectra returned by the TES spectrometer on the MGS spacecraft have allowed the mapping of a variety of minerals and rock types by different sets of researchers. Recently, we have used a linear deconvolution approach to compare sulfate-palagonite soil mixtures created in the laboratory with Martian surface spectra. This approach showed that a number of areas on Mars have spectral properties that match those of sulfate-cemented soils (but neither loose powder mixtures of sulfates and soils nor sand-sized grains of disaggregated crusted soils). These features do not appear to be caused by atmospheric or instrumental effects and are thus believed to be related to surface composition and texture. The distribution and physical state of sulfate are important pieces of information for interpreting surface processes on Mars. A number of different mechanisms could have deposited sulfate in surface layers. Some of these include evaporation of standing bodies of water, aerosol deposition of volcanic gases, hydrothermal alteration from groundwater, and in situ interaction between the atmosphere and soil. The areas on Mars with cemented sulfate signatures are spread across a wide range of elevations and are generally large in spatial scale. Some of the areas are associated with volcanic regions, but many are in dark red plains that have previously been interpreted as duricrust deposits. Our current work compares the distribution of sulfate-cemented soils as mapped by the spectral deconvolution approach with thermal inertia maps produced from both Viking and MGS-TES. Duricrust regions, interpreted from intermediate thermal inertia values, are large regions thought to be sulfate-cemented soils similar to coherent, sulfate-rich materials seen at the Viking lander sites. Our observations of apparent regions of cemented sulfate are also large in spatial extent. This scale information is important for evaluating formation mechanisms for the

  9. Processing of Mars Exploration Rover Imagery for Science and Operations Planning (United States)

    Alexander, Douglass A.; Deen, Robert G.; Andres, Paul M.; Zamani, Payam; Mortensen, Helen B.; Chen, Amy C.; Cayanan, Michael K.; Hall, Jeffrey R.; Klochko, Vadim S.; Pariser, Oleg; hide


    The twin Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) delivered an unprecedented array of image sensors to the Mars surface. These cameras were essential for operations, science, and public engagement. The Multimission Image Processing Laboratory (MIPL) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was responsible for the first-order processing of all of the images returned by these cameras. This processing included reconstruction of the original images, systematic and ad hoc generation of a wide variety of products derived from those images, and delivery of the data to a variety of customers, within tight time constraints. A combination of automated and manual processes was developed to meet these requirements, with significant inheritance from prior missions. This paper describes the image products generated by MIPL for MER and the processes used to produce and deliver them.

  10. Waves in the middle and upper atmosphere of Mars as seen by the Radio Science Experiment MaRS on Mars Express (United States)

    Tellmann, S.; Paetzold, M.; Häusler, B.; Hinson, D. P.; Peter, K.; Tyler, G. L.


    Atmospheric waves play a crucial role in the Martian atmosphere. They are responsible for the redistribution of momentum, energy and dust and for the coupling of the different atmospheric regions on Mars. Almost all kinds of waves have been observed in the lower atmosphere (e.g. stationary and transient waves, baroclinic waves as well as migrating and non-migrating thermal tides, gravity waves, etc...). Atmospheric waves are also known to exist in the middle atmosphere of Mars ( 70-120 km, e.g. by the SPICAM instrument on Mars Express). In the thermosphere, thermal tides have been observed e.g. by radio occultation or accelerometer measurements on MGS. Recently, the NGIMS instrument on MAVEN reported gravity waves in the thermosphere of Mars. Radio Science profiles from the Mars Express Radio Science experiment MaRS on Mars Express can analyse the temperature, pressure and neutral number density profiles in the lower atmosphere (from a few hundred metres above the surface up to 40-50 km) and electron density profiles in the ionosphere of Mars. Wavelike structures have been detected below the main ionospheric layers (M1 & M2) and in the topside of the ionosphere. The two coherent frequencies of the MaRS experiment allow to discriminate between plasma density fluctuations in the ionosphere and Doppler related frequency shifts caused by spacecraft movement. A careful analysis of the observed electron density fluctuations in combination with sensitivity studies of the radio occultation technique will be used to classify the observed fluctuations. The MaRS experiment is funded by DLR under grant 50QM1401.

  11. Beagle 2: Seeking the signatures of life on Mars


    Gibson Jr., E. K.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Wright, Ian P.; Morse, Andy; Stewart, Jenny; Morgan, G.; Praine, Ian; Leigh, Dennis; Sims, Mark R.; Pullan, Derek


    ESA's Beagle 2 lander will land on Mars to search for signatures of present and past life. A Gas Analysis Package (GAP) with a mass spectrometer, XRF, Mossbauer, stereo cameras, microscope, environmental sensors, rock corer/grinder, and a Mole attachment are on the lander.

  12. Observations of temporal change of nighttime cloud cover from Himawari 8 and ground-based sky camera over Chiba, Japan (United States)

    Lagrosas, N.; Gacal, G. F. B.; Kuze, H.


    Detection of nighttime cloud from Himawari 8 is implemented using the difference of digital numbers from bands 13 (10.4µm) and 7 (3.9µm). The digital number difference of -1.39x104 can be used as a threshold to separate clouds from clear sky conditions. To look at observations from the ground over Chiba, a digital camera (Canon Powershot A2300) is used to take images of the sky every 5 minutes at an exposure time of 5s at the Center for Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University. From these images, cloud cover values are obtained using threshold algorithm (Gacal, et al, 2016). Ten minute nighttime cloud cover values from these two datasets are compared and analyzed from 29 May to 05 June 2017 (20:00-03:00 JST). When compared with lidar data, the camera can detect thick high level clouds up to 10km. The results show that during clear sky conditions (02-03 June), both camera and satellite cloud cover values show 0% cloud cover. During cloudy conditions (05-06 June), the camera shows almost 100% cloud cover while satellite cloud cover values range from 60 to 100%. These low values can be attributed to the presence of low-level thin clouds ( 2km above the ground) as observed from National Institute for Environmental Studies lidar located inside Chiba University. This difference of cloud cover values shows that the camera can produce accurate cloud cover values of low level clouds that are sometimes not detected by satellites. The opposite occurs when high level clouds are present (01-02 June). Derived satellite cloud cover shows almost 100% during the whole night while ground-based camera shows cloud cover values that range from 10 to 100% during the same time interval. The fluctuating values can be attributed to the presence of thin clouds located at around 6km from the ground and the presence of low level clouds ( 1km). Since the camera relies on the reflected city lights, it is possible that the high level thin clouds are not observed by the camera but is

  13. Field reconnaissance geologic mapping of the Columbia Hills, Mars, based on Mars Exploration Rover Spirit and MRO HiRISE observations (United States)

    Crumpler, L.S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.; McCoy, T.; Yingst, A.; Ruff, S.; Farrand, W.; McSween, Y.; Powell, M.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Bell, J.F.; Grant, J.; Greeley, R.; DesMarais, D.; Schmidt, M.; Cabrol, N.A.; Haldemann, A.; Lewis, K.W.; Wang, A.E.; Schroder, C.; Blaney, D.; Cohen, B.; Yen, A.; Farmer, J.; Gellert, Ralf; Guinness, E.A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Klingelhfer, G.; McEwen, A.; Rice, J.W.; Rice, M.; deSouza, P.; Hurowitz, J.


    Chemical, mineralogic, and lithologic ground truth was acquired for the first time on Mars in terrain units mapped using orbital Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (MRO HiRISE) image data. Examination of several dozen outcrops shows that Mars is geologically complex at meter length scales, the record of its geologic history is well exposed, stratigraphic units may be identified and correlated across significant areas on the ground, and outcrops and geologic relationships between materials may be analyzed with techniques commonly employed in terrestrial field geology. Despite their burial during the course of Martian geologic time by widespread epiclastic materials, mobile fines, and fall deposits, the selective exhumation of deep and well-preserved geologic units has exposed undisturbed outcrops, stratigraphic sections, and structural information much as they are preserved and exposed on Earth. A rich geologic record awaits skilled future field investigators on Mars. The correlation of ground observations and orbital images enables construction of a corresponding geologic reconnaissance map. Most of the outcrops visited are interpreted to be pyroclastic, impactite, and epiclastic deposits overlying an unexposed substrate, probably related to a modified Gusev crater central peak. Fluids have altered chemistry and mineralogy of these protoliths in degrees that vary substantially within the same map unit. Examination of the rocks exposed above and below the major unconformity between the plains lavas and the Columbia Hills directly confirms the general conclusion from remote sensing in previous studies over past years that the early history of Mars was a time of more intense deposition and modification of the surface. Although the availability of fluids and the chemical and mineral activity declined from this early period, significant later volcanism and fluid convection enabled additional, if localized, chemical activity


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dong


    Full Text Available An orbiter and a descent module will be delivered to Mars in the Chinese first Mars exploration mission. The descent module is composed of a landing platform and a rover. The module will be released into the atmosphere by the orbiter and make a controlled landing on Martian surface. After landing, the rover will egress from the platform to start its science mission. The rover payloads mainly include the subsurface radar, terrain camera, multispectral camera, magnetometer, anemometer to achieve the scientific investigation of the terrain, soil characteristics, material composition, magnetic field, atmosphere, etc. The landing process is divided into three phases (entry phase, parachute descent phase and powered descent phase, which are full of risks. There exit lots of indefinite parameters and design constrain to affect the selection of the landing sites and phase switch (mortaring the parachute, separating the heat shield and cutting off the parachute. A number of new technologies (disk-gap-band parachute, guidance and navigation, etc. need to be developed. Mars and Earth have gravity and atmosphere conditions that are significantly different from one another. Meaningful environmental conditions cannot be recreated terrestrially on earth. A full-scale flight validation on earth is difficult. Therefore the end-to-end simulation and some critical subsystem test must be considered instead. The challenges above and the corresponding design solutions are introduced in this paper, which can provide reference for the Mars exploration mission.

  15. A diagnostic model to estimate winds and small-scale drag from Mars Observer PMIRR data (United States)

    Barnes, J. R.


    Theoretical and modeling studies indicate that small-scale drag due to breaking gravity waves is likely to be of considerable importance for the circulation in the middle atmospheric region (approximately 40-100 km altitude) on Mars. Recent earth-based spectroscopic observations have provided evidence for the existence of circulation features, in particular, a warm winter polar region, associated with gravity wave drag. Since the Mars Observer PMIRR experiment will obtain temperature profiles extending from the surface up to about 80 km altitude, it will be extensively sampling middle atmospheric regions in which gravity wave drag may play a dominant role. Estimating the drag then becomes crucial to the estimation of the atmospheric winds from the PMIRR-observed temperatures. An interative diagnostic model based upon one previously developed and tested with earth satellite temperature data will be applied to the PMIRR measurements to produce estimates of the small-scale zonal drag and three-dimensional wind fields in the Mars middle atmosphere. This model is based on the primitive equations, and can allow for time dependence (the time tendencies used may be based upon those computed in a Fast Fourier Mapping procedure). The small-scale zonal drag is estimated as the residual in the zonal momentum equation; the horizontal winds having first been estimated from the meridional momentum equation and the continuity equation. The scheme estimates the vertical motions from the thermodynamic equation, and thus needs estimates of the diabatic heating based upon the observed temperatures. The latter will be generated using a radiative model. It is hoped that the diagnostic scheme will be able to produce good estimates of the zonal gravity wave drag in the Mars middle atmosphere, estimates that can then be used in other diagnostic or assimilation efforts, as well as more theoretical studies.

  16. Use of Web 2.0 Technologies for Public Outreach on a Simulated Mars Mission (United States)

    Ferrone, Kristine; Shiro, Brian; Palaia, Joseph E., IV


    Recent advances in social media and internet communications have revolutionized the ways people interact and disseminate information. Astronauts are already taking advantage of these tools by blogging and tweeting from space, and almost all NASA missions now have presences on the major social networking sites. One priotity for future human explorers on Mars will be communicating their experiences to the people back on Earth. During July 2009, a 6-member crew of volunteers carried out a simulated Mars mission at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS). The Mars Society built the mock Mars habitat in 2000-01 to help develop key knowledge and inspire the public for human Mars exploration. It is located on Devon island about 1600 km from the North Pole within the Arctic Circle. The structure is situated on the rim of Haughton Crater in an environment geologically and biologically analogous to Mars. Living in a habitat, conducting EVAs wearing spacesuits, and observing communication delays with "Earth,"the crew endured restrictions similar to those that will be faced by future human Mars explorers. Throughout the expedition, crewmembers posted daily blog entries, reports, photos, videos, and updates to their website and social media outlets Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and Picasa Web Albums. During the sixteen EVAs of thier field science research campaign, FMARS crewmembers collected GPS track information and took geotagged photos using GPS-enabled cameras. They combined their traverse GPS tracks with photo location information into KML/KMZ files that website visitors can view in Google Earth.

  17. Extreme temperature events on Greenland in observations and the MAR regional climate model (United States)

    Leeson, Amber A.; Eastoe, Emma; Fettweis, Xavier


    Meltwater from the Greenland Ice Sheet contributed 1.7-6.12 mm to global sea level between 1993 and 2010 and is expected to contribute 20-110 mm to future sea level rise by 2100. These estimates were produced by regional climate models (RCMs) which are known to be robust at the ice sheet scale but occasionally miss regional- and local-scale climate variability (e.g. Leeson et al., 2017; Medley et al., 2013). To date, the fidelity of these models in the context of short-period variability in time (i.e. intra-seasonal) has not been fully assessed, for example their ability to simulate extreme temperature events. We use an event identification algorithm commonly used in extreme value analysis, together with observations from the Greenland Climate Network (GC-Net), to assess the ability of the MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional) RCM to reproduce observed extreme positive-temperature events at 14 sites around Greenland. We find that MAR is able to accurately simulate the frequency and duration of these events but underestimates their magnitude by more than half a degree Celsius/kelvin, although this bias is much smaller than that exhibited by coarse-scale Era-Interim reanalysis data. As a result, melt energy in MAR output is underestimated by between 16 and 41 % depending on global forcing applied. Further work is needed to precisely determine the drivers of extreme temperature events, and why the model underperforms in this area, but our findings suggest that biases are passed into MAR from boundary forcing data. This is important because these forcings are common between RCMs and their range of predictions of past and future ice sheet melting. We propose that examining extreme events should become a routine part of global and regional climate model evaluation and that addressing shortcomings in this area should be a priority for model development.

  18. Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) - First Results of Relative Humidity Observations (United States)

    Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Kemppinen, Osku; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Renno, Nilton; Savijärvi, Hannu; Schmidt, Walter; Polkko, Jouni; Rodríquez-Manfredi, Jose Antonio; de la Torre Juárez, Manuel; Mischna, Michael; Martín-Torres, Javier; Haukka, Harri; Paz Zorzano-Mier, Maria; Rafkin, Scott; Paton, Mark; MSL Science Team


    The Mars Science laboratory (MSL) called Curiosity made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, and UV measurements. The REMS instrument suite is described at length in [1]. We concentrate on describing the first results from the REMS relative humidity observations and comparison of the measurements with modeling results. The REMS humidity device is provided by the Finnish Meteorological Institute. It is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc. The humidity device makes use of one transducer electronics section placed in the vicinity of the three (3) humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom 2 providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The absolute accuracy of the humidity device is temperature dependent, and is of the order of 2% at the temperature range of -30 to -10 °C, and of the order of 10% at the temperature range of -80 to -60 °C. This enables the investigations of atmospheric humidity variations of both diurnal and seasonal scale. The humidity device measurements will have a lag, when a step-wise change in humidity is taking place. This lag effect is increasing with decreasing temperature, and it is of the order of a few hours at the temperature of -75 °C. To compensate for the lag effect we used an algorithm developed by Mäkinen [2]. The humidity observations were validated after tedious efforts. This was needed to compensate for the artifacts of the transducer electronics. The compensation process includes an assumption that the relative humidity at Mars in the temperature range of 0 to -30 °C is about zero. The

  19. Quantitative analysis of digital outcrop data obtained from stereo-imagery using an emulator for the PanCam camera system for the ExoMars 2020 rover (United States)

    Barnes, Robert; Gupta, Sanjeev; Gunn, Matt; Paar, Gerhard; Balme, Matt; Huber, Ben; Bauer, Arnold; Furya, Komyo; Caballo-Perucha, Maria del Pilar; Traxler, Chris; Hesina, Gerd; Ortner, Thomas; Banham, Steven; Harris, Jennifer; Muller, Jan-Peter; Tao, Yu


    A key focus of planetary rover missions is to use panoramic camera systems to image outcrops along rover traverses, in order to characterise their geology in search of ancient life. This data can be processed to create 3D point clouds of rock outcrops to be quantitatively analysed. The Mars Utah Rover Field Investigation (MURFI 2016) is a Mars Rover field analogue mission run by the UK Space Agency (UKSA) in collaboration with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). It took place between 22nd October and 13th November 2016 and consisted of a science team based in Harwell, UK, and a field team including an instrumented Rover platform at the field site near Hanksville (Utah, USA). The Aberystwyth University PanCam Emulator 3 (AUPE3) camera system was used to collect stereo panoramas of the terrain the rover encountered during the field trials. Stereo-imagery processed in PRoViP is rendered as Ordered Point Clouds (OPCs) in PRo3D, enabling the user to zoom, rotate and translate the 3D outcrop model. Interpretations can be digitised directly onto the 3D surface, and simple measurements can be taken of the dimensions of the outcrop and sedimentary features, including grain size. Dip and strike of bedding planes, stratigraphic and sedimentological boundaries and fractures is calculated within PRo3D from mapped bedding contacts and fracture traces. Merging of rover-derived imagery with UAV and orbital datasets, to build semi-regional multi-resolution 3D models of the area of operations for immersive analysis and contextual understanding. In-simulation, AUPE3 was mounted onto the rover mast, collecting 16 stereo panoramas over 9 'sols'. 5 out-of-simulation datasets were collected in the Hanksville-Burpee Quarry. Stereo panoramas were processed using an automated pipeline and data transfer through an ftp server. PRo3D has been used for visualisation and analysis of this stereo data. Features of interest in the area could be annotated, and their distances between to the rover

  20. Mars MetNet Mission - Martian Atmospheric Observational Post Network (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Haukka, H.; Aleksashkin, S.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Siikonen, T.; Palin, M.


    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  1. Observations of Phobos by the Mars Express radar MARSIS: Description of the detection techniques and preliminary results (United States)

    Cicchetti, A.; Nenna, C.; Plaut, J. J.; Plettemeier, D.; Noschese, R.; Cartacci, M.; Orosei, R.


    The Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) (Picardi et al., 2005) is a synthetic aperture low frequency radar altimeter, onboard the ESA Mars Express orbiter, launched in June 2003. It is the first and so far the only spaceborne radar that has observed the Martian moon Phobos. Radar echoes were collected on different flyby trajectories. The primary aim of sounding Phobos is to prove the feasibility of deep sounding, into its subsurface. MARSIS is optimized for deep penetration investigations and is capable of transmitting at four different bands between 1.3 MHz and 5.5 MHz with a 1 MHz bandwidth. Unfortunately the instrument was originally designed to operate exclusively on Mars, assuming that Phobos would not be observed. Following this assumption, a protection mechanism was implemented in the hardware (HW) to maintain a minimum time separation between transmission and reception phases of the radar. This limitation does not have any impact on Mars observation but it prevented the observation of Phobos. In order to successfully operate the instrument at Phobos, a particular configuration of the MARSIS onboard software (SW) parameters, called ;Range Ambiguity,; was implemented to override the HW protection zone, ensuring at the same time a high level of safety of the instrument. This paper describes the principles of MARSIS onboard processing, and the procedure through which the parameters of the processing software were tuned to observe targets below the minimum distance allowed by hardware. Some preliminary results of data analysis will be shown, with the support of radar echo simulations. A qualitative comparison between the simulated results and the actual data, does not support the detection of subsurface reflectors.

  2. SUV Tracks On Mars? The 'Devil' is in the Details (United States)


    rises into the spinning air, giving the appearance of a tornado-like column that moves across the landscape. As the column of air moves, its ability to pick up dust varies--sometimes they hold a lot of dust and are nearly opaque; sometimes you cannot even see them. Dust-devils rarely last long, since their very motion changes the conditions that allowed them to form in the first place.Mars Pathfinder detected the passage of several dust devils during its 83 days of operation on Mars in 1997. Mariner 9 and the Viking landers and orbiters of the 1970s also found evidence that dust devils occur on Mars; indeed, some Viking Orbiter images actually show dust devil clouds. MOC image 26403 is the latest entry in the body of evidence for the work of wind in the modern martian environment. The MOC Science Team is continuing to study these and other streaks caused by wind interacting with the martian surface.Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  3. On the Origins of Mars' Exospheric Nonthermal Oxygen Component as Observed by MAVEN and Modeled by HELIOSARES (United States)

    Leblanc, F.; Chaufray, J. Y.; Modolo, R.; Leclercq, L.; Curry, S.; Luhmann, J.; Lillis, R.; Hara, T.; McFadden, J.; Halekas, J.; Schneider, N.; Deighan, J.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Benna, M.; Johnson, R. E.; Gonzalez-Galindo, F.; Forget, F.; Lopez-Valverde, M. A.; Eparvier, F. G.; Jakosky, B.


    The first measurements of the emission brightness of the oxygen atomic exosphere by Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission have clearly shown that it is composed of a thermal component produced by the extension of the upper atmosphere and of a nonthermal component. Modeling these measurements allows us to constrain the origins of the exospheric O and, as a consequence, to estimate Mars' present oxygen escape rate. We here propose an analysis of three periods of MAVEN observations based on a set of three coupled models: a hybrid magnetospheric model (LATmos HYbrid Simulation (LatHyS)), an Exospheric General Model (EGM), and the Global Martian Circulation model of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD-GCM), which provide a description of Mars' environment from the surface up to the solar wind. The simulated magnetosphere by LatHyS is in good agreement with MAVEN Plasma and Field Package instruments data. The LMD-GCM modeled upper atmospheric profiles for the main neutral and ion species are compared to Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer/MAVEN data showing that the LMD-GCM can provide a satisfactory global view of Mars' upper atmosphere. Finally, we were able to reconstruct the expected emission brightness intensity from the oxygen exosphere using EGM. The good agreement with the averaged measured profiles by Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph during these three periods suggests that Mars' exospheric nonthermal component can be fully explained by the reactions of dissociative recombination of the O2+ ion in Mars' ionosphere, limiting significantly our ability to extract information from MAVEN observations of the O exosphere on other nonthermal processes, such as sputtering.

  4. Farewell to the Earth and the Moon -ESA's Mars Express successfully tests its instruments (United States)


    The routine check-outs of Mars Express's instruments and of the Beagle-2 lander, performed during the last weeks, have been very successful. "As in all space missions little problems have arisen, but they have been carefully evaluated and solved. Mars Express continues on its way to Mars performing beautifully", comments Chicarro. The views of the Earth/Moon system were taken on 3 July 2003 by Mars Express's High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), when the spacecraft was 8 million kilometres from Earth. The image taken shows true colours; the Pacific Ocean appears in blue, and the clouds near the Equator and in mid to northern latitudes in white to light grey. The image was processed by the Instrument Team at the Institute of Planetary Research of DLR, Berlin (Germany). It was built by combining a super resolution black and white HRSC snap-shot image of the Earth and the Moon with colour information obtained by the blue, green, and red sensors of the instrument. “The pictures and the information provided by the data prove the camera is working very well. They provide a good indication of what to expect once the spacecraft is in its orbit around Mars, at altitudes of only 250-300 kilometres: very high resolution images with brilliant true colour and in 3D,” says the Principal Investigator of the HRSC, Gerhard Neukum, of the Freie Universität of Berlin (Germany). This camera will be able to distinguish details of up to 2 metres on the Martian surface. Another striking demonstration of Mars Express's instruments high performance are the data taken by the OMEGA spectrometer. Once at Mars, this instrument will provide the best map of the molecular and mineralogical composition of the whole planet, with 5% of the planetary surface in high resolution. Minerals and other compounds such as water will be charted as never before. As the Red Planet is still too far away, the OMEGA team devised an ingenious test for their instrument: to detect the Earth’s surface

  5. Airborne hyperspectral observations of surface and cloud directional reflectivity using a commercial digital camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ehrlich


    Full Text Available Spectral radiance measurements by a digital single-lens reflex camera were used to derive the directional reflectivity of clouds and different surfaces in the Arctic. The camera has been calibrated radiometrically and spectrally to provide accurate radiance measurements with high angular resolution. A comparison with spectral radiance measurements with the Spectral Modular Airborne Radiation measurement sysTem (SMART-Albedometer showed an agreement within the uncertainties of both instruments (6% for both. The directional reflectivity in terms of the hemispherical directional reflectance factor (HDRF was obtained for sea ice, ice-free ocean and clouds. The sea ice, with an albedo of ρ = 0.96 (at 530 nm wavelength, showed an almost isotropic HDRF, while sun glint was observed for the ocean HDRF (ρ = 0.12. For the cloud observations with ρ = 0.62, the cloudbow – a backscatter feature typically for scattering by liquid water droplets – was covered by the camera. For measurements above heterogeneous stratocumulus clouds, the required number of images to obtain a mean HDRF that clearly exhibits the cloudbow has been estimated at about 50 images (10 min flight time. A representation of the HDRF as a function of the scattering angle only reduces the image number to about 10 (2 min flight time.

    The measured cloud and ocean HDRF have been compared to radiative transfer simulations. The ocean HDRF simulated with the observed surface wind speed of 9 m s−1 agreed best with the measurements. For the cloud HDRF, the best agreement was obtained by a broad and weak cloudbow simulated with a cloud droplet effective radius of Reff = 4 μm. This value agrees with the particle sizes derived from in situ measurements and retrieved from the spectral radiance of the SMART-Albedometer.

  6. Use of Web 2.0 Technologies for Public Outreach on a Simulated Mars Mission (United States)

    Shiro, B.; Palaia, J.; Ferrone, K.


    Recent advances in social media and internet communications have revolutionized the ways people interact and disseminate information. Astronauts are already starting to take advantage of these tools by blogging and tweeting from space, and almost all NASA missions now have presences on the major social networking sites. One priority for future human explorers on Mars will be communicating their experiences to the people back on Earth. During July 2009, a six-member crew of volunteers carried out a simulated Mars mission at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS) on Devon Island in the Canadian Arctic. Living in a habitat, conducting EVAs wearing spacesuits, and observing communication delays with “Earth,” the crew endured restrictions similar to those that will be faced by future human Mars explorers. Throughout the expedition, crewmembers posted regular blog entries, reports, photos, videos, and updates to their website and social media outlets Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and Picasa Web Albums. During the sixteen EVAs of their field science research campaign, FMARS crewmembers collected GPS track information and took geotagged photos using GPS-enabled cameras. They combined their traverse GPS tracks with photo location information into KML/KMZ files that website visitors can view in Google Maps or Google Earth. Although the crew observed a strict 20-minute communication delay with “Earth” to simulate a real Mars mission, they broke this rule to conduct four very successful live webcasts with student groups using Skype since education and public outreach were important objectives of the endeavor. This presentation will highlight the use of Web 2.0 technologies for public outreach during the simulated Mars expedition and the implications for other remote scientific journeys. The author embarks on a "rover" to carry out an EVA near the FMARS Habitat. The satellite dish to the right of the structure was used for all communications with the remote

  7. Mars Science Laboratory relative humidity observations: Initial results. (United States)

    Harri, A-M; Genzer, M; Kemppinen, O; Gomez-Elvira, J; Haberle, R; Polkko, J; Savijärvi, H; Rennó, N; Rodriguez-Manfredi, J A; Schmidt, W; Richardson, M; Siili, T; Paton, M; Torre-Juarez, M De La; Mäkinen, T; Newman, C; Rafkin, S; Mischna, M; Merikallio, S; Haukka, H; Martin-Torres, J; Komu, M; Zorzano, M-P; Peinado, V; Vazquez, L; Urqui, R


    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) made a successful landing at Gale crater early August 2012. MSL has an environmental instrument package called the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) as a part of its scientific payload. REMS comprises instrumentation for the observation of atmospheric pressure, temperature of the air, ground temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity (REMS-H), and UV measurements. We concentrate on describing the REMS-H measurement performance and initial observations during the first 100 MSL sols as well as constraining the REMS-H results by comparing them with earlier observations and modeling results. The REMS-H device is based on polymeric capacitive humidity sensors developed by Vaisala Inc., and it makes use of transducer electronics section placed in the vicinity of the three humidity sensor heads. The humidity device is mounted on the REMS boom providing ventilation with the ambient atmosphere through a filter protecting the device from airborne dust. The final relative humidity results appear to be convincing and are aligned with earlier indirect observations of the total atmospheric precipitable water content. The water mixing ratio in the atmospheric surface layer appears to vary between 30 and 75 ppm. When assuming uniform mixing, the precipitable water content of the atmosphere is ranging from a few to six precipitable micrometers. Atmospheric water mixing ratio at Gale crater varies from 30 to 140 ppmMSL relative humidity observation provides good dataHighest detected relative humidity reading during first MSL 100 sols is RH75.

  8. Energetic protons at Mars: interpretation of SLED/Phobos-2 observations by a kinetic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kallio


    Full Text Available Mars has neither a significant global intrinsic magnetic field nor a dense atmosphere. Therefore, solar energetic particles (SEPs from the Sun can penetrate close to the planet (under some circumstances reaching the surface. On 13 March 1989 the SLED instrument aboard the Phobos-2 spacecraft recorded the presence of SEPs near Mars while traversing a circular orbit (at 2.8 RM. In the present study the response of the Martian plasma environment to SEP impingement on 13 March was simulated using a kinetic model. The electric and magnetic fields were derived using a 3-D self-consistent hybrid model (HYB-Mars where ions are modelled as particles while electrons form a massless charge neutralizing fluid. The case study shows that the model successfully reproduced several of the observed features of the in situ observations: (1 a flux enhancement near the inbound bow shock, (2 the formation of a magnetic shadow where the energetic particle flux was decreased relative to its solar wind values, (3 the energy dependency of the flux enhancement near the bow shock and (4 how the size of the magnetic shadow depends on the incident particle energy. Overall, it is demonstrated that the Martian magnetic field environment resulting from the Mars–solar wind interaction significantly modulated the Martian energetic particle environment.

  9. A simulation of the OMEGA/Mars Express observations: Analysis of the atmospheric contribution (United States)

    Melchiorri, R.; Drossart, P.; Fouchet, T.; Bézard, B.; Forget, F.; Gendrin, A.; Bibring, J. P.; Manaud, N.; OMEGA Team; Berthé, M.; Bibring, J.-P.; Langevin, Y.; Forni, O.; Gendrin, A.; Gondet, B.; Manaud, N.; Poulet, F.; Poulleau, G.; Soufflot, A.; Mangold, N.; Bonello, G.; Forget, F.; Bezard, B.; Combes, M.; Drossart, P.; Encrenaz, T.; Fouchet, T.; Melchiorri, R.; Erard, S.; Bellucci, G.; Altieri, F.; Formisano, V.; Fonti, S.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Coradini, A.; Kottsov, V.; Ignatiev, N.; Moroz, V.; Titov, D.; Zasova, L.; Pinet, P.; Schmitt, B.; Sotin, C.; Hauber, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Keller, U.; Arvidson, R.; Mustard, J.; Duxbary, T.


    Spectral images of Mars obtained by the Mars Express/OMEGA experiment in the near infrared are the result of a complex combination of atmospheric, aerosol and ground features. Retrieving the atmospheric information from the data is important, not only to decorrelate mineralogical against atmospheric features, but also to retrieve the atmospheric variability. Once the illumination conditions have been taken into account, the main source of variation on the CO2 absorption is due to the altitude of the surface, which governs atmospheric pressure variation by more than an order of magnitude between the summit of Olympus Mons down to the bottom of Valles Marineris. In this article we present a simplified atmospheric spectral model without scattering, specially developed for the OMEGA observations, which is used to retrieve the local topography through the analysis of the 2.0μmCO2 band. OMEGA atmospheric observations increase the horizontal resolution compared to MOLA altimetry measurements, and therefore complement the mineralogical studies from the same instrument. Finally, residual variations of the pressure can be related to atmospheric structure variation.

  10. The Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm (United States)

    Bonitz, Robert; Shiraishi, Lori; Robinson, Matthew; Carsten, Joseph; Volpe, Richard; Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Chu, P. C.; Wilson, J. J.; Davis, K. R.


    The Phoenix Mars Lander Robotic Arm (RA) has operated for over 150 sols since the Lander touched down on the north polar region of Mars on May 25, 2008. During its mission it has dug numerous trenches in the Martian regolith, acquired samples of Martian dry and icy soil, and delivered them to the Thermal Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) and the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA). The RA inserted the Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) into the Martian regolith and positioned it at various heights above the surface for relative humidity measurements. The RA was used to point the Robotic Arm Camera to take images of the surface, trenches, samples within the scoop, and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace. Data from the RA sensors during trenching, scraping, and trench cave-in experiments have been used to infer mechanical properties of the Martian soil. This paper describes the design and operations of the RA as a critical component of the Phoenix Mars Lander necessary to achieve the scientific goals of the mission.

  11. Surface of Mars: the view from the Viking 1 lander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutch, T.A.; Binder, A.B.; Huck, F.O.; Levinthal, E.C.; Liebes, S. Jr.; Morris, E.C.; Patterson, W.R.; Pollack, J.B.; Sagan, C.; Taylor, G.R.


    The first photographs ever returned from the surface of Mars were obtained by two facsimile cameras aboard the Viking 1 lander, including black-and-white and color, 0.12 0 and 0.04 0 resolution, and monoscopic and stereoscopic images. The surface, on the western slopes of Chryse Planitia, is a boulder-strewn deeply reddish desert, with distant eminences--some of which may be the rims of impact craters--surmounted by a pink sky. Both impact and aeolian processes are evident. After dissipation of a small dust cloud stirred by the landing maneuvers, no subsequent signs of movement were detected on the landscape, and nothing has been observed that is indicative of macroscopic biology at this time and place

  12. Moon/Mars Landing Commemorative Release: Gusev Crater and Ma'adim Vallis (United States)


    On July 20, 1969, the first human beings landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1976, the first robotic lander touched down on Mars. This July 20th-- 29 years after Apollo 11 and 22 years since the Viking 1 Mars landing-- we take a look forward toward one possible future exploration site on the red planet.One of the advantages of the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) over its predecessors on the Viking and Mariner spacecraft is resolution. The ability to see-- resolve--fine details on the martian surface is key to planning future landing sites for robotic and, perhaps, human explorers that may one day visit the planet.At present, NASA is studying potential landing sites for the Mars Surveyor landers, rovers, and sample return vehicles that are scheduled to be launched in 2001, 2003, and 2005. Among the types of sites being considered for these early 21st Century landings are those with 'exobiologic potential'--that is, locations on Mars that are in some way related to the past presence of water.For more than a decade, two of the prime candidates suggested by various Mars research scientists are Gusev Crater and Ma'adim Vallis. Located in the martian southern cratered highlands at 14.7o S, 184.5o W, Gusev Crater is a large, ancient, meteor impact basin that--after it formed--was breached by Ma'adim Vallis.Viking Orbiter observations provided some evidence to suggest that a fluid--most likely, water--once flowed through Ma'adim Vallis and into Gusev Crater. Some scientists have suggested that there were many episodes of flow into Gusev Crater (as well as flow out of Gusev through its topographically-lower northwestern rim). Some have also indicated that there were times when Ma'adim Vallis, also, was full of water such that it formed a long, narrow lake.The possibility that water flowed into Gusev Crater and formed a lake has led to the suggestion that the materials seen on the floor of this crater--smooth-surfaced deposits, buried craters, and huge mesas near

  13. Thermophysical Properties of Mars' North Polar Layered Deposits and Related Materials from Mars Odyssey THEMIS (United States)

    Vasavada, A. R.; Richardson, M. I.; Byrne, S.; Ivanov, A. B.; Christensen, P. R.


    The presence of a thick sequence of horizontal layers of ice-rich material at Mars north pole, dissected by troughs and eroding at its margins, is undoubtedly telling us something about the evolution of Mars climate [1,2] we just don t know what yet. The North Polar Layered Deposits (NPLD) most likely formed as astronomically driven climate variations led to the deposition of conformable, areally extensive layers of ice and dust over the polar region. More recently, the balance seems to have fundamentally shifted to net erosion, as evidenced by the many troughs within the NPLD and the steep, arcuate scarps present near its margins, both of which expose layering. We defined a number of Regions of Interest ROI) for THEMIS to target as part of the Mars Odyssey Participating Scientist program. We use these THEMIS data in order to understand the morphology and color/thermal properties of the NPLD and related materials over relevant (i.e., m to km) spatial scales. We have assembled color mosaics of our ROIs in order to map the distribution of ices, the different layered units, dark material, and underlying basement. The color information from THEMIS is crucial for distinguishing these different units which are less distinct on Mars Orbiter Camera images. We wish to understand the nature of the marginal scarps and their relationship to the dark material. Our next, more ambitious goal is to derive the thermophysical properties of the different geologic materials using THEMIS and Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer TES) data.

  14. Onboard calibration igneous targets for the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Chemistry Camera laser induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabre, C., E-mail: [G2R, Nancy Universite (France); Maurice, S.; Cousin, A. [IRAP, Toulouse (France); Wiens, R.C. [LANL, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Forni, O. [IRAP, Toulouse (France); Sautter, V. [MNHN, Paris (France); Guillaume, D. [GET, Toulouse (France)


    Accurate characterization of the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on-board composition targets is of prime importance for the ChemCam instrument. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) science and operations teams expect ChemCam to provide the first compositional results at remote distances (1.5-7 m) during the in situ analyses of the Martian surface starting in 2012. Thus, establishing LIBS reference spectra from appropriate calibration standards must be undertaken diligently. Considering the global mineralogy of the Martian surface, and the possible landing sites, three specific compositions of igneous targets have been determined. Picritic, noritic, and shergottic glasses have been produced, along with a Macusanite natural glass. A sample of each target will fly on the MSL Curiosity rover deck, 1.56 m from the ChemCam instrument, and duplicates are available on the ground. Duplicates are considered to be identical, as the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the composition dispersion is around 8%. Electronic microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) analyses give evidence that the chemical composition of the four silicate targets is very homogeneous at microscopic scales larger than the instrument spot size, with RSD < 5% for concentration variations > 0.1 wt.% using electronic microprobe, and < 10% for concentration variations > 0.01 wt.% using LA ICP-MS. The LIBS campaign on the igneous targets performed under flight-like Mars conditions establishes reference spectra for the entire mission. The LIBS spectra between 240 and 900 nm are extremely rich, hundreds of lines with high signal-to-noise, and a dynamical range sufficient to identify unambiguously major, minor and trace elements. For instance, a first LIBS calibration curve has been established for strontium from [Sr] = 284 ppm to [Sr] = 1480 ppm, showing the potential for the future calibrations for other major or minor

  15. Onboard calibration igneous targets for the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Chemistry Camera laser induced breakdown spectroscopy instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabre, C.; Maurice, S.; Cousin, A.; Wiens, R.C.; Forni, O.; Sautter, V.; Guillaume, D.


    Accurate characterization of the Chemistry Camera (ChemCam) laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) on-board composition targets is of prime importance for the ChemCam instrument. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) science and operations teams expect ChemCam to provide the first compositional results at remote distances (1.5-7 m) during the in situ analyses of the Martian surface starting in 2012. Thus, establishing LIBS reference spectra from appropriate calibration standards must be undertaken diligently. Considering the global mineralogy of the Martian surface, and the possible landing sites, three specific compositions of igneous targets have been determined. Picritic, noritic, and shergottic glasses have been produced, along with a Macusanite natural glass. A sample of each target will fly on the MSL Curiosity rover deck, 1.56 m from the ChemCam instrument, and duplicates are available on the ground. Duplicates are considered to be identical, as the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the composition dispersion is around 8%. Electronic microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA ICP-MS) analyses give evidence that the chemical composition of the four silicate targets is very homogeneous at microscopic scales larger than the instrument spot size, with RSD 0.1 wt.% using electronic microprobe, and 0.01 wt.% using LA ICP-MS. The LIBS campaign on the igneous targets performed under flight-like Mars conditions establishes reference spectra for the entire mission. The LIBS spectra between 240 and 900 nm are extremely rich, hundreds of lines with high signal-to-noise, and a dynamical range sufficient to identify unambiguously major, minor and trace elements. For instance, a first LIBS calibration curve has been established for strontium from [Sr] = 284 ppm to [Sr] = 1480 ppm, showing the potential for the future calibrations for other major or minor elements.

  16. History of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.S.


    The origin and early history of Mars and the relationship between Mars and the other planets are reviewed. The solar system formation and planetary differentiation are examined using data from planetary missions. Different views of Mars are presented, showing how ideas about the planet have changed as the amount of available observational data has increased. Viking aerography and surface characterization are discussed, including the nature of specific atmospheric components and the implications of surface phenomena. Models for the planetary formation and accretion processes are considered. The value of future missions to Mars is stressed

  17. Mars At Opposition (United States)


    These NASA Hubble Space Telescope views provide the most detailed complete global coverage of the red planet Mars ever seen from Earth. The pictures were taken on February 25, 1995, when Mars was at a distance of 65 million miles (103 million km).To the surprise of researchers, Mars is cloudier than seen in previous years. This means the planet is cooler and drier, because water vapor in the atmosphere freezes out to form ice-crystal clouds. Hubble resolves Martian surface features with a level of detail only exceeded by planetary probes, such as impact craters and other features as small as 30 miles (50 kilometers) across.[Tharsis region] - A crescent-shaped cloud just right of center identifies the immense shield volcano Olympus Mons, which is 340 miles (550 km) across at its base. Warm afternoon air pushed up over the summit forms ice-crystal clouds downwind from the volcano. Farther to the east (right) a line of clouds forms over a row of three extinct volcanoes which are from north to south: Ascraeus Mons, Pavonis Mons, Arsia Mons. It's part of an unusual, recurring 'W'-shaped cloud formation that once mystified earlier ground-based observers.[Valles Marineris region] - The 16 mile-high volcano Ascraeus Mons pokes through the cloud deck along the western (left) limb of the planet. Other interesting geologic features include (lower left) Valles Marineris, an immense rift valley the length of the continental United States. Near the image center lies the Chryse basin made up of cratered and chaotic terrain. The oval-looking Argyre impact basin (bottom) appears white due to clouds or frost.[Syrtis Major region] - The dark 'shark fin' feature left of center is Syrtis Major. Below it the giant impact basin Hellas. Clouds cover several great volcanos in the Elysium region near the eastern (right) limb. As clearly seen in the Hubble images, past dust storms in Mars' southern hemisphere have scoured the plains of fine light dust and transported the dust northward. This

  18. Ground Truthing Orbital Clay Mineral Observations with the APXS Onboard Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity (United States)

    Schroeder, C.; Gellert, R.; VanBommel, S.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. S.; Yen, A. S.


    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been exploring approximately 22 km diameter Endeavour crater since 2011. Its rim segments predate the Hesperian-age Burns formation and expose Noachian-age material, which is associated with orbital Fe3+-Mg-rich clay mineral observations [1,2]. Moving to an orders of magnitude smaller instrumental field of view on the ground, the clay minerals were challenging to pinpoint on the basis of geochemical data because they appear to be the result of near-isochemical weathering of the local bedrock [3,4]. However, the APXS revealed a more complex mineral story as fracture fills and so-called red zones appear to contain more Al-rich clay minerals [5,6], which had not been observed from orbit. These observations are important to constrain clay mineral formation processes. More detail will be added as Opportunity is heading into her 10th extended mission, during which she will investigate Noachian bedrock that predates Endeavour crater, study sedimentary rocks inside Endeavour crater, and explore a fluid-carved gully. ESA's ExoMars rover will land on Noachian-age Oxia Planum where abundant Fe3+-Mg-rich clay minerals have been observed from orbit, but the story will undoubtedly become more complex once seen from the ground.

  19. A Comet Engulfs Mars: MAVEN Observations of Comet Siding Spring's Influence on the Martian Magnetosphere (United States)

    Espley, Jared R.; Dibraccio, Gina A.; Connerney, John E. P.; Brain, David; Gruesbeck, Jacob; Soobiah, Yasir; Halekas, Jasper S.; Combi, Michael; Luhmann, Janet; Ma, Yingjuan


    The nucleus of comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) passed within 141,000?km of Mars on 19 October 2014. Thus, the cometary coma and the plasma it produces washed over Mars for several hours producing significant effects in the Martian magnetosphere and upper atmosphere. We present observations from Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN's (MAVEN's) particles and field's instruments that show the Martian magnetosphere was severely distorted during the comet's passage. We note four specific major effects: (1) a variable induced magnetospheric boundary, (2) a strong rotation of the magnetic field as the comet approached, (3) severely distorted and disordered ionospheric magnetic fields during the comet's closest approach, and (4) unusually strong magnetosheath turbulence lasting hours after the comet left. We argue that the comet produced effects comparable to that of a large solar storm (in terms of incident energy) and that our results are therefore important for future studies of atmospheric escape, MAVEN's primary science objective.

  20. Curiosity’s robotic arm-mounted Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI): Characterization and calibration status (United States)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Caplinger, Michael A.; Maki, Justin N.; Ravine, Michael A.; Ghaemi, F. Tony; McNair, Sean; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Duston, Brian M.; Wilson, Reg G.; Yingst, R. Aileen; Kennedy, Megan R.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Sengstacken, Aaron J.; Supulver, Kimberley D.; Lipkaman, Leslie J.; Krezoski, Gillian M.; McBride, Marie J.; Jones, Tessa L.; Nixon, Brian E.; Van Beek, Jason K.; Krysak, Daniel J.; Kirk, Randolph L.


    MAHLI (Mars Hand Lens Imager) is a 2-megapixel, Bayer pattern color CCD camera with a macro lens mounted on a rotatable turret at the end of the 2-meters-long robotic arm aboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity. The camera includes white and longwave ultraviolet LEDs to illuminate targets at night. Onboard data processing services include focus stack merging and data compression. Here we report on the results and status of MAHLI characterization and calibration, covering the pre-launch period from August 2008 through the early months of the extended surface mission through February 2015. Since landing in Gale crater in August 2012, MAHLI has been used for a wide range of science and engineering applications, including distinction among a variety of mafic, siliciclastic sedimentary rocks; investigation of grain-scale rock, regolith, and eolian sediment textures and structures; imaging of the landscape; inspection and monitoring of rover and science instrument hardware concerns; and supporting geologic sample selection, extraction, analysis, delivery, and documentation. The camera has a dust cover and focus mechanism actuated by a single stepper motor. The transparent cover was coated with a thin film of dust during landing, thus MAHLI is usually operated with the cover open. The camera focuses over a range from a working distance of 2.04 cm to infinity; the highest resolution images are at 13.9 µm per pixel; images acquired from 6.9 cm show features at the same scale as the Mars Exploration Rover Microscopic Imagers at 31 µm/pixel; and 100 µm/pixel is achieved at a working distance of ~26.5 cm. The very highest resolution images returned from Mars permit distinction of high contrast silt grains in the 30–40 µm size range. MAHLI has performed well; the images need no calibration in order to achieve most of the investigation’s science and engineering goals. The positioning and repeatability of robotic arm placement of the MAHLI camera head have

  1. VUV testing of science cameras at MSFC: QE measurement of the CLASP flight cameras (United States)

    Champey, P.; Kobayashi, K.; Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Hyde, D.; Robertson, B.; Beabout, B.; Beabout, D.; Stewart, M.


    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a science camera suitable for sub-orbital missions for observations in the UV, EUV and soft X-ray. Six cameras were built and tested for the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP), a joint MSFC, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC) and Institut D'Astrophysique Spatiale (IAS) sounding rocket mission. The CLASP camera design includes a frame-transfer e2v CCD57-10 512 × 512 detector, dual channel analog readout and an internally mounted cold block. At the flight CCD temperature of -20C, the CLASP cameras exceeded the low-noise performance requirements (UV, EUV and X-ray science cameras at MSFC.

  2. Automatic Detection of Changes on Mars Surface from High-Resolution Orbital Images (United States)

    Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Muller, Jan-Peter


    Over the last 40 years Mars has been extensively mapped by several NASA and ESA orbital missions, generating a large image dataset comprised of approximately 500,000 high-resolution images (of citizen science can be employed for training and verification it is unsuitable for planetwide systematic change detection. In this work, we introduce a novel approach in planetary image change detection, which involves a batch-mode automatic change detection pipeline that identifies regions that have changed. This is tested in anger, on tens of thousands of high-resolution images over the MC11 quadrangle [5], acquired by CTX, HRSC, THEMIS-VIS and MOC-NA instruments [1]. We will present results which indicate a substantial level of activity in this region of Mars, including instances of dynamic natural phenomena that haven't been cataloged in the planetary science literature before. We will demonstrate the potential and usefulness of such an automatic approach in planetary science change detection. Acknowledgments: The research leading to these results has received funding from the STFC "MSSL Consolidated Grant" ST/K000977/1 and partial support from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under iMars grant agreement n° 607379. References: [1] P. Sidiropoulos and J. - P. Muller (2015) On the status of orbital high-resolution repeat imaging of Mars for the observation of dynamic surface processes. Planetary and Space Science, 117: 207-222. [2] O. Aharonson, et al. (2003) Slope streak formation and dust deposition rates on Mars. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 108(E12):5138 [3] A. McEwen, et al. (2011) Seasonal flows on warm martian slopes. Science, 333 (6043): 740-743. [4] S. Byrne, et al. (2009) Distribution of mid-latitude ground ice on mars from new impact craters. Science, 325(5948):1674-1676. [5] K. Gwinner, et al (2016) The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) of Mars Express and its approach to science analysis and mapping for Mars and

  3. Solar wind modulation of the Martian ionosphere observed by Mars Global Surveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-S. Wang


    Full Text Available Electron density profiles in the Martian ionosphere observed by the radio occultation experiment on board Mars Global Surveyor have been analyzed to determine if the densities are influenced by the solar wind. Evidence is presented that the altitude of the maximum ionospheric electron density shows a positive correlation to the energetic proton flux in the solar wind. The solar wind modulation of the Martian ionosphere can be attributed to heating of the neutral atmosphere by the solar wind energetic proton precipitation. The modulation is observed to be most prominent at high solar zenith angles. It is argued that this is consistent with the proposed modulation mechanism.

  4. Comparison of accelerated ion populations observed upstream of the bow shocks at Venus and Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yamauchi


    Full Text Available Foreshock ions are compared between Venus and Mars at energies of 0.6~20 keV using the same ion instrument, the Ion Mass Analyser, on board both Venus Express and Mars Express. Venus Express often observes accelerated protons (2~6 times the solar wind energy that travel away from the Venus bow shock when the spacecraft location is magnetically connected to the bow shock. The observed ions have a large field-aligned velocity compared to the perpendicular velocity in the solar wind frame, and are similar to the field-aligned beams and intermediate gyrating component of the foreshock ions in the terrestrial upstream region. Mars Express does not observe similar foreshock ions as does Venus Express, indicating that the Martian foreshock does not possess the intermediate gyrating component in the upstream region on the dayside of the planet. Instead, two types of gyrating protons in the solar wind frame are observed very close to the Martian quasi-perpendicular bow shock within a proton gyroradius distance. The first type is observed only within the region which is about 400 km from the bow shock and flows tailward nearly along the bow shock with a similar velocity as the solar wind. The second type is observed up to about 700 km from the bow shock and has a bundled structure in the energy domain. A traversal on 12 July 2005, in which the energy-bunching came from bundling in the magnetic field direction, is further examined. The observed velocities of the latter population are consistent with multiple specular reflections of the solar wind at the bow shock, and the ions after the second reflection have a field-aligned velocity larger than that of the de Hoffman-Teller velocity frame, i.e., their guiding center has moved toward interplanetary space out from the bow shock. To account for the observed peculiarity of the Martian upstream region, finite gyroradius effects of the solar wind protons compared to the radius of the bow shock curvature and

  5. Comparing orbiter and rover image-based mapping of an ancient sedimentary environment, Aeolis Palus, Gale crater, Mars (United States)

    Stack, Kathryn M.; Edwards, Christopher; Grotzinger, J. P.; Gupta, S.; Sumner, D.; Edgar, Lauren; Fraeman, A.; Jacob, S.; LeDeit, L.; Lewis, K.W.; Rice, M.S.; Rubin, D.; Calef, F.; Edgett, K.; Williams, R.M.E.; Williford, K.H.


    This study provides the first systematic comparison of orbital facies maps with detailed ground-based geology observations from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover to examine the validity of geologic interpretations derived from orbital image data. Orbital facies maps were constructed for the Darwin, Cooperstown, and Kimberley waypoints visited by the Curiosity rover using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images. These maps, which represent the most detailed orbital analysis of these areas to date, were compared with rover image-based geologic maps and stratigraphic columns derived from Curiosity’s Mast Camera (Mastcam) and Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI). Results show that bedrock outcrops can generally be distinguished from unconsolidated surficial deposits in high-resolution orbital images and that orbital facies mapping can be used to recognize geologic contacts between well-exposed bedrock units. However, process-based interpretations derived from orbital image mapping are difficult to infer without known regional context or observable paleogeomorphic indicators, and layer-cake models of stratigraphy derived from orbital maps oversimplify depositional relationships as revealed from a rover perspective. This study also shows that fine-scale orbital image-based mapping of current and future Mars landing sites is essential for optimizing the efficiency and science return of rover surface operations.

  6. Environment of Mars, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.I.


    A compilation of scientific knowledge about the planet Mars is provided. Information is divided into three categories: atmospheric data, surface data, and astrodynamic data. The discussion of atmospheric data includes the presentation of nine different models of the Mars atmosphere. Also discussed are Martian atmospheric constituents, winds, clouds, and solar irradiance. The great dust storms of Mars are presented. The section on Mars surface data provides an in-depth examination of the physical and chemical properties observed at the two Viking landing sites. Bulk densities, dielectric constants, and thermal inertias across the planet are then described and related back to those specific features found at the Viking landing sites. The astrodynamic materials provide the astronomical constants, time scales, and reference coordinate frames necessary to perform flightpath analysis, navigation design, and science observation design

  7. Digital Elevation Models of Patterned Ground in the Canadian Arctic and Implications for the Study of Mars (United States)

    Knightly, P.; Murakami, Y.; Clarke, J.; Sizemore, H.; Siegler, M.; Rupert, S.; Chevrier, V.


    Patterned ground forms in periglacial zones from both expansion and contraction of permafrost by freeze-thaw and sub-freezing temperature changes and has been observed on both Earth and Mars from orbital and the surface at the Phoneix and Viking 2 landing sites. The Phoenix mission to Mars studied patterned ground in the vicinity of the spacecraft including the excavation of a trench revealing water permafrost beneath the surface. A study of patterned ground at the Haughton Impact structure on Devon Island used stereo-pair imaging and three-dimensional photographic models to catalog the type and occurrence of patterned ground in the study area. This image catalog was then used to provide new insight into photographic observations gathered by Phoenix. Stereo-pair imagery has been a valuable geoscience tool for decades and it is an ideal tool for comparative planetary geology studies. Stereo-pair images captured on Devon Island were turned into digital elevation models (DEMs) and comparisons were noted between the permafrost and patterned ground environment of Earth and Mars including variations in grain sorting, active layer thickness, and ice table depth. Recent advances in 360° cameras also enabled the creation of a detailed, immersive site models of patterned ground at selected sites in Haughton crater on Devon Island. The information from this ground truth study will enable the development and refinement of existing models to better evaluate patterned ground on Mars and predict its evolution.

  8. The Annual Cycle of Water Vapor on Mars as Observed by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)


    Spectra taken by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) have been used to monitor the latitude, longitude, and seasonal dependence of water vapor for over one full Martian year (March 1999-March 2001). A maximum in water vapor abundance is observed at high latitudes during mid-summer in both hemispheres, reaching a maximum value of approximately 100 pr-micrometer in the north and approximately 50 pr-micrometer in the south. Low water vapor abundance (water vapor. The latitudinal and seasonal dependence of the decay of the northern summer water vapor maximum implies cross-equatorial transport of water to the southern hemisphere, while there is little or no corresponding transport during the decay of the southern hemisphere summer maximum. The latitude-longitude dependence of annually-averaged water vapor (corrected for topography) has a significant positive correlation with albedo and significant negative correlations with thermal inertia and surface pressure. Comparison of TES results with those retrieved from the Viking Orbiter Mars Atmospheric Water Detectors (MAWD) experiments shows some similar features, but also many significant differences. The southern hemisphere maximum observed by TES was not observed by MAWD and the large latitudinal gradient in annually-averaged water vapor observed by MAWD does not appear in the TES results.

  9. Smectites on Cape York, Matijevic Hill, Mars, Observed and Characterized by Crism and Opportunity (United States)

    Arvidson, R.; Bennett, K.; Catalano, J.; Fraeman, A.; Gellert, R.; Guinness, E.; Morris, R.; Murchie, S.; Smith, M.; Squyres, S.; hide


    Opportunity has conducted an extensive "walk-about" and set of in-situ measurements on strata exposed on the inboard side of Cape York, a segment of the dissected rim of the Noachian-age approx.22 km wide Endeavour crater [1] (Fig. 1). The specific region for the observations (Matijevic Hill) was chosen based on along track oversampled (ATO) CRISM hyperspectral observations (processed to 5 m/pixel) that showed the presence of exposures of Fe/Mg smectite phyllosilicates. We describe the first ground-based observations of phyllosilicates on Mars and discuss implications based on the combined CRISM and Opportunity measurements.

  10. Nighttime Near Infrared Observations of Augustine Volcano Jan-Apr, 2006 Recorded With a Small Astronomical CCD Camera (United States)

    Sentman, D.; McNutt, S.; Reyes, C.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H.; Deroin, N.


    Nighttime observations of Augustine Volcano were made during Jan-Apr, 2006 using a small, unfiltered, astronomical CCD camera operating from Homer, Alaska. Time-lapse images of the volcano were made looking across the open water of the Cook Inlet over a slant range of ~105 km. A variety of volcano activities were observed that originated in near-infrared (NIR) 0.9-1.1 micron emissions, which were detectable at the upper limit of the camera passband but were otherwise invisible to the naked eye. These activities included various types of steam releases, pyroclastic flows, rockfalls and debris flows that were correlated very closely with seismic measurements made from instruments located within 4 km on the volcanic island. Specifically, flow events to the east (towards the camera) produced high amplitudes on the eastern seismic stations and events presumably to the west were stronger on western stations. The ability to detect nighttime volcanic emissions in the NIR over large horizontal distances using standard silicon CCD technology, even in the presence of weak intervening fog, came as a surprise, and is due to a confluence of several mutually reinforcing factors: (1) Hot enough (~1000K) thermal emissions from the volcano that the short wavelength portion of the Planck radiation curve overlaps the upper portions (0.9-1.1 micron) of the sensitivity of the silicon CCD detectors, and could thus be detected, (2) The existence of several atmospheric transmission windows within the NIR passband of the camera for the emissions to propagate with relatively small attenuation through more than 10 atmospheres, and (3) in the case of fog, forward Mie scattering.

  11. Thermal infrared sounding observations of lower atmospheric variances at Mars and their implications for gravity wave activity: a preliminary examination (United States)

    Heavens, N. G.


    It has been recognized for over two decades that the mesoscale statistical variance observed by Earth-observing satellites at temperature-sensitive frequencies above the instrumental noise floor is a measure of gravity wave activity. These types of observation have been made by a variety of satellite instruments have been an important validation tool for gravity wave parameterizations in global and mesoscale models. At Mars, the importance of topographic and non-topographic sources of gravity waves for the general circulation is now widely recognized and the target of recent modeling efforts. However, despite several ingenious studies, gravity wave activity near hypothetical lower atmospheric sources has been poorly and unsystematically characterized, partly because of the difficulty of separating the gravity wave activity from baroclinic wave activity and the thermal tides. Here will be presented a preliminary analysis of calibrated radiance variance at 15.4 microns (635-665 cm-1) from nadir, off-nadir, and limb observations by the Mars Climate Sounder on board Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The overarching methodology follows Wu and Waters (1996, 1997). Nadir, off-nadir, and lowest detector limb observations should sample variability with vertical weighting functions centered high in the lower atmosphere (20-30 km altitude) and full width half maximum (FWHM) 20 km but be sensitive to gravity waves with different horizontal wavelengths and slightly different vertical wavelengths. This work is supported by NASA's Mars Data Analysis Program (NNX14AM32G). References Wu, D.L. and J.W. Waters, 1996, Satellite observations of atmospheric variances: A possible indication of gravity waves, GRL, 23, 3631-3634. Wu D.L. and J.W. Waters, 1997, Observations of Gravity Waves with the UARS Microwave Limb Sounder. In: Hamilton K. (eds) Gravity Wave Processes. NATO ASI Series (Series I: Environmental Change), vol 50. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

  12. Spectral Evidence for Hydrated Salts in Seasonal Brine Flows on Mars (United States)

    Ojha, L.


    Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL) are narrow, low-reflectance features forming on present-day Mars that have been hypothesized to be due to the transient flow of liquid water. RSL extend incrementally downslope on steep, warm slopes, fade when inactive, and reappear annually over multiple Mars years as monitored by the HiRISE camera on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). In the southern mid-latitudes of Mars, RSL are observed to form most commonly on equator facing slopes, but in equatorial regions RSL often "follow the sun", forming and growing on slopes that receive the greatest insolation during a particular season. The temperature on slopes where RSL are active typically exceeds 250 K and often but not always exceeds 273 K, although sub-surface temperatures would be colder. These characteristics suggest a possible role of salts in lowering the freezing point of water, allowing briny solutions to flow. Confirmation of this wet origin hypothesis for RSL would require either (i) detection of liquid water absorptions on the surface, or (ii) detection of hydrated salts precipitated from that water. The mineralogical composition of RSL and their surroundings can be investigated using orbital data acquired by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) also on board MRO, which acquires spectral cubes with 544 spectral channels in the visible to near-infrared range of ~0.36 μm to 3.92 μm [13], within which both liquid water and hydrated salts have diagnostic absorption bands at ~1.4 μm, ~1.9 μm, ~3.0 μm. Additionally, hydrated salts may have combination of overtones at other wavelengths from 1.7 μm to 2.4 μm. We present results from examination of individual pixels containing RSL at four different sites that confirm the hypothesis that RSL are due to present-day activity of briny water.

  13. EU-FP7-iMARS: Analysis of Mars Multi-Resolution Images Using Auto-Coregistration Data Mining and Crowd Source Techniques: Processed Results - a First Look (United States)

    Muller, Jan-Peter; Tao, Yu; Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Gwinner, Klaus; Willner, Konrad; Fanara, Lida; Waehlisch, Marita; van Gasselt, Stephan; Walter, Sebastian; Steikert, Ralf; Schreiner, Bjoern; Ivanov, Anton; Cantini, Federico; Wardlaw, Jessica; Morley, Jeremy; Sprinks, James; Giordano, Michele; Marsh, Stuart; Kim, Jungrack; Houghton, Robert; Bamford, Steven


    Understanding planetary atmosphere-surface exchange and extra-terrestrial-surface formation processes within our Solar System is one of the fundamental goals of planetary science research. There has been a revolution in planetary surface observations over the last 15 years, especially in 3D imaging of surface shape. This has led to the ability to overlay image data and derived information from different epochs, back in time to the mid 1970s, to examine changes through time, such as the recent discovery of mass movement, tracking inter-year seasonal changes and looking for occurrences of fresh craters. Within the EU FP-7 iMars project, we have developed a fully automated multi-resolution DTM processing chain, called the Coregistration ASP-Gotcha Optimised (CASP-GO), based on the open source NASA Ames Stereo Pipeline (ASP) [Tao et al., this conference], which is being applied to the production of planetwide DTMs and ORIs (OrthoRectified Images) from CTX and HiRISE. Alongside the production of individual strip CTX & HiRISE DTMs & ORIs, DLR [Gwinner et al., 2015] have processed HRSC mosaics of ORIs and DTMs for complete areas in a consistent manner using photogrammetric bundle block adjustment techniques. A novel automated co-registration and orthorectification chain has been developed by [Sidiropoulos & Muller, this conference]. Using the HRSC map products (both mosaics and orbital strips) as a map-base it is being applied to many of the 400,000 level-1 EDR images taken by the 4 NASA orbital cameras. In particular, the NASA Viking Orbiter camera (VO), Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), Context Camera (CTX) as well as the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) back to 1976. A webGIS has been developed [van Gasselt et al., this conference] for displaying this time sequence of imagery and will be demonstrated showing an example from one of the HRSC quadrangle map-sheets. Automated quality control [Sidiropoulos & Muller, 2015] techniques are applied to screen for

  14. Unique Spectroscopy and Imaging of Mars with the James Webb Space Telescope (United States)

    Villanueva, Geronimo L.; Altieri, Francesca; Clancy, R. Todd; Encrenaz, Therese; Fouchet, Thierry; Hartogh, Paul; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Lopez-Valverde, Miguel A.; Mumma, Michael J.; Novak, Robert E.; hide


    In this paper, we summarize the main capabilities of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) for performing observations of Mars. The distinctive vantage point of JWST at the Sun-Earth Lagrange point (L2) will allow sampling the full observable disk, permitting the study of short-term phenomena, diurnal processes (across the east-west axis), and latitudinal processes between the hemispheres (including seasonal effects) with excellent spatial resolutions (0.''07 at 2 micron). Spectroscopic observations will be achievable in the 0.7-5 micron spectral region with NIRSpec at a maximum resolving power of 2700 and with 8000 in the 1-1.25 micron range. Imaging will be attainable with the Near-Infrared Camera at 4.3 micrometers and with two narrow filters near 2 micron, while the nightside will be accessible with several filters in 0.5 to 2 micron. Such a powerful suite of instruments will be a major asset for the exploration and characterization of Mars. Some science cases include the mapping of the water D/H ratio, investigations of the Martian mesosphere via the characterization of the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium CO2 emission at 4.3 micron, studies of chemical transport via observations of the O2 nightglow at 1.27 micron, high-cadence mapping of the variability dust and water-ice clouds, and sensitive searches for trace species and hydrated features on the Martian surface. In-flight characterization of the instruments may allow for additional science opportunities.

  15. Evidence for Basinwide Mud Volcanism in Acidalia Planitia, Mars (United States)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.


    High-albedo mounds in Acidalia Planitia occur in enormous numbers. They have been variously interpreted as pseudocraters, cinder cones, tuff cones, pingos, ice disintegration features, or mud volcanoes. Our work uses regional mapping, basin analysis, and new data from the Context Camera (CTX), High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), and Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) to re-assess the origin and significance of these structures.

  16. Estimating the Grain Size Distribution of Mars based on Fragmentation Theory and Observations (United States)

    Charalambous, C.; Pike, W. T.; Golombek, M.


    We present here a fundamental extension to the fragmentation theory [1] which yields estimates of the distribution of particle sizes of a planetary surface. The model is valid within the size regimes of surfaces whose genesis is best reflected by the evolution of fragmentation phenomena governed by either the process of meteoritic impacts, or by a mixture with aeolian transportation at the smaller sizes. The key parameter of the model, the regolith maturity index, can be estimated as an average of that observed at a local site using cratering size-frequency measurements, orbital and surface image-detected rock counts and observations of sub-mm particles at landing sites. Through validation of ground truth from previous landed missions, the basis of this approach has been used at the InSight landing ellipse on Mars to extrapolate rock size distributions in HiRISE images down to 5 cm rock size, both to determine the landing safety risk and the subsequent probability of obstruction by a rock of the deployed heat flow mole down to 3-5 m depth [2]. Here we focus on a continuous extrapolation down to 600 µm coarse sand particles, the upper size limit that may be present through aeolian processes [3]. The parameters of the model are first derived for the fragmentation process that has produced the observable rocks via meteorite impacts over time, and therefore extrapolation into a size regime that is affected by aeolian processes has limited justification without further refinement. Incorporating thermal inertia estimates, size distributions observed by the Spirit and Opportunity Microscopic Imager [4] and Atomic Force and Optical Microscopy from the Phoenix Lander [5], the model's parameters in combination with synthesis methods are quantitatively refined further to allow transition within the aeolian transportation size regime. In addition, due to the nature of the model emerging in fractional mass abundance, the percentage of material by volume or mass that resides

  17. Mars atmosphere studies with the SPICAM IR emission phase function observations (United States)

    Trokhimovskiy, Alexander; Fedorova, Anna; Montmessin, Franck; Korablev, Oleg; Bertaux, Jean-Loup

    Emission Phase Function (EPF) observations is a powerful tool for characterization of atmosphere and surface. EPF sequence provides the extensive coverage of scattering angles above the targeted surface location which allow to separate the surface and aerosol scattering, study a vertical distribution of minor species and aerosol properties. SPICAM IR instrument on Mars Express mission provides continuous atmospheric observations in near IR (1-1.7 mu) in nadir and limb starting from 2004. For the first years of SPICAM operation only a very limited number of EPFs was performed. But from the mid 2013 (Ls=225, MY31) SPICAM EPF observations become rather regular. Based on the multiple-scattering radiative transfer model SHDOM, we analyze equivalent depths of carbon dioxide (1,43 mu) and water vapour (1,38 mu) absorption bands and their dependence on airmass during observation sequence to get aerosol optical depths and properties. The derived seasonal dust opacities from near IR can be used to retrieve the size distribution from comparison with simultaneous results of other instruments in different spectral ranges. Moreover, the EPF observations of water vapour band allow to access poorly known H2O vertical distribution for different season and locations.

  18. Exploring Regolith Depth and Cycling on Mars (United States)

    Fassett, C.; Needham, D. H.; Watters, W. A.; Hundal, C.


    Regolith or loose sediment is ubiquitous on the surface of Mars, but our understanding of how this fragmental layer forms and evolves with time is limited. In particular, how regolith thickness varies spatially on Mars is not well known. A common perspective is to start from the canonical model for lunar regolith, which is not unreasonable, given that both Mars and the Moon are heavily cratered surfaces. However, this lunar-like paradigm is not supported by observations of Mars from recent missions. On Mars, bedrock exposures are more common and bedrock is generally closer to the surface than on the Moon, and the processes modifying the regolith differ substantially on the two bodies. Moreover, boulders on the Moon have much shorter lifetimes than on Mars, so boulders are much less common on the lunar surface. The sediment transport processes infilling craters differs dramatically on these two bodies as well. On Mars, fine-grained sediment is efficiently transported (advectively) by wind and trapped in craters rapidly after they form. Lateral transport of lunar regolith is comparatively inefficient and dominated by slow impact-driven (diffusive) transport of regolith. The goal of this contribution is to discuss observational constraints on Mars' regolith depth, and to place observations into a model for Mars landform evolution and regolith cycle. Our operating hypothesis is that the inter-crater surface on Mars is comparatively starved of fine-grained sediment (compared to the Moon), because transport and trapping of fines in craters out-competes physical weathering. Moreover, thick sedimentary bodies on Mars often get (weakly) cemented and lithified due to interactions with fluids, even in the most recent, Amazonian epoch. This is consistent with what is observed at the MER and MSL landing sites and what is known from the SNC meteorites.

  19. A telescopic cinema sound camera for observing high altitude aerospace vehicles (United States)

    Slater, Dan


    Rockets and other high altitude aerospace vehicles produce interesting visual and aural phenomena that can be remotely observed from long distances. This paper describes a compact, passive and covert remote sensing system that can produce high resolution sound movies at >100 km viewing distances. The telescopic high resolution camera is capable of resolving and quantifying space launch vehicle dynamics including plume formation, staging events and payload fairing jettison. Flight vehicles produce sounds and vibrations that modulate the local electromagnetic environment. These audio frequency modulations can be remotely sensed by passive optical and radio wave detectors. Acousto-optic sensing methods were primarily used but an experimental radioacoustic sensor using passive micro-Doppler radar techniques was also tested. The synchronized combination of high resolution flight vehicle imagery with the associated vehicle sounds produces a cinema like experience that that is useful in both an aerospace engineering and a Hollywood film production context. Examples of visual, aural and radar observations of the first SpaceX Falcon 9 v1.1 rocket launch are shown and discussed.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, Steve B.; Everett, Mark E.; Sherry, William; Horch, Elliott; Ciardi, David R.


    We present the first results from a speckle imaging survey of stars classified as candidate exoplanet host stars discovered by the Kepler mission. We use speckle imaging to search for faint companions or closely aligned background stars that could contribute flux to the Kepler light curves of their brighter neighbors. Background stars are expected to contribute significantly to the pool of false positive candidate transiting exoplanets discovered by the Kepler mission, especially in the case that the faint neighbors are eclipsing binary stars. Here, we describe our Kepler follow-up observing program, the speckle imaging camera used, our data reduction, and astrometric and photometric performance. Kepler stars range from R = 8 to 16 and our observations attempt to provide background non-detection limits 5-6 mag fainter and binary separations of ∼0.05-2.0 arcsec. We present data describing the relative brightness, separation, and position angles for secondary sources, as well as relative plate limits for non-detection of faint nearby stars around each of 156 target stars. Faint neighbors were found near 10 of the stars.

  1. Photogrammetric portrayal of Mars topography. (United States)

    Wu, S.S.C.


    Special photogrammetric techniques have been developed to portray Mars topography, using Mariner and Viking imaging and nonimaging topographic information and earth-based radar data. Topography is represented by the compilation of maps at three scales: global, intermediate, and very large scale. The global map is a synthesis of topographic information obtained from Mariner 9 and earth-based radar, compiled at a scale of 1:25,000,000 with a contour interval of 1 km; it gives a broad quantitative view of the planet. At intermediate scales, Viking Orbiter photographs of various resolutions are used to compile detailed contour maps of a broad spectrum of prominent geologic features; a contour interval as small as 20 m has been obtained from very high resolution orbital photography. Imagery from the Viking lander facsimile cameras permits construction of detailed, very large scale (1:10) topographic maps of the terrain surrounding the two landers; these maps have a contour interval of 1 cm. This paper presents several new detailed topographic maps of Mars.-Author

  2. A method of camera calibration in the measurement process with reference mark for approaching observation space target (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Zeng, Luan


    Binocular stereoscopic vision can be used for space-based space targets near observation. In order to solve the problem that the traditional binocular vision system cannot work normally after interference, an online calibration method of binocular stereo measuring camera with self-reference is proposed. The method uses an auxiliary optical imaging device to insert the image of the standard reference object into the edge of the main optical path and image with the target on the same focal plane, which is equivalent to a standard reference in the binocular imaging optical system; When the position of the system and the imaging device parameters are disturbed, the image of the standard reference will change accordingly in the imaging plane, and the position of the standard reference object does not change. The camera's external parameters can be re-calibrated by the visual relationship of the standard reference object. The experimental results show that the maximum mean square error of the same object can be reduced from the original 72.88mm to 1.65mm when the right camera is deflected by 0.4 degrees and the left camera is high and low with 0.2° rotation. This method can realize the online calibration of binocular stereoscopic vision measurement system, which can effectively improve the anti - jamming ability of the system.

  3. MOC's Highest Resolution View of Mars Pathfinder Landing Site (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (A) Mars Pathfinder site, left: April 1998; right: January 2000. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (B) top: April 1998; bottom: January 2000.Can Mars Global Surveyor's 1.5 meter (5 ft) per pixel camera be used to find any evidence as to the fate of the Mars Polar Lander that was lost on December 3, 1999? One way to find out is to look for one of the other Mars landers and determine what, if anything, can be seen. There have been three successful Mars lander missions: Viking 1 (July 1976), Viking 2 (September 1976), and Mars Pathfinder (July 1997). Of these, the location of Mars Pathfinder is known the best because there are several distinct landmarks visible in the lander's images that help in locating the spacecraft. The MGS MOC Operations Team at Malin Space Science Systems has been tasked since mid-December 1999 with looking for the lost Polar Lander. Part of this effort has been to test the capabilities of MOC by taking a picture of the landing site of Mars Pathfinder.An attempt to photograph the Pathfinder site was made once before, in April 1998, by turning the entire MGS spacecraft so that the camera could point at the known location of the Mars Pathfinder lander. Turning the MGS spacecraft like this is not a normal operation--it takes considerable planning, and disrupts the on-going, normal acquisition of science data. It took 3 attempts to succeed, but on April 22, 1998, MOC acquired the picture seen on the left side of Figure A, above. The three near-by major landmarks that were visible to the Pathfinder's cameras are labeled here (North Peak, Big Crater, Twin Peaks). It was known at the time that this image was not adequate to see the Pathfinder lander because the camera was not in focus and had a resolution of only 3.3 meters (11 ft) per pixel. In this and all other images shown here, north is up. All views of the 1998 MOC image are illuminated from the lower right, all views of the 2000 MOC

  4. Exploration of Mars with the ChemCam LIBS Instrument and the Curiosity Rover (United States)

    Newsom, Horton E.


    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover landed on Mars in August 2012, and has been exploring the planet ever since. Dr. Horton E. Newsom will discuss the MSL's design and main goal, which is to characterize past environments that may have been conducive to the evolution and sustainability of life. He will also discuss Curiosity's science payload, and remote sensing, analytical capabilities, and direct discoveries of the Chemistry & Camera (ChemCam) instrument, which is the first Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometer (LIBS) to operate on another planetary surface and determine the chemistry of the rocks and soils.

  5. About possibility of temperature trace observing on the human skin using commercially available IR camera (United States)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Shestakov, Ivan L.; Blednov, Roman G.


    One of urgent security problems is a detection of objects placed inside the human body. Obviously, for safety reasons one cannot use X-rays for such object detection widely and often. Three years ago, we have demonstrated principal possibility to see a temperature trace, induced by food eating or water drinking, on the human body skin by using a passive THz camera. However, this camera is very expensive. Therefore, for practice it will be very convenient if one can use the IR camera for this purpose. In contrast to passive THz camera using, the IR camera does not allow to see the object under clothing, if an image, produced by this camera, is used directly. Of course, this is a big disadvantage for a security problem solution based on the IR camera using. To overcome this disadvantage we develop novel approach for computer processing of IR camera images. It allows us to increase a temperature resolution of IR camera as well as increasing of human year effective susceptibility. As a consequence of this, a possibility for seeing of a human body temperature changing through clothing appears. We analyze IR images of a person, which drinks water and eats chocolate. We follow a temperature trace on human body skin, caused by changing of temperature inside the human body. Some experiments were made with measurements of a body temperature covered by T-shirt. Shown results are very important for the detection of forbidden objects, cancelled inside the human body, by using non-destructive control without using X-rays.

  6. An ebCMOS camera system for marine bioluminescence observation: The LuSEApher prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominjon, A., E-mail: [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Ageron, M. [CNRS/IN2P3, Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Marseille, F-13288 (France); Barbier, R. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon F-69003 (France); Billault, M.; Brunner, J. [CNRS/IN2P3, Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Marseille, F-13288 (France); Cajgfinger, T. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon F-69003 (France); Calabria, P. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Chabanat, E. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Lyon F-69003 (France); Chaize, D.; Doan, Q.T.; Guerin, C.; Houles, J.; Vagneron, L. [CNRS/IN2P3, Institut de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France)


    The ebCMOS camera, called LuSEApher, is a marine bioluminescence recorder device adapted to extreme low light level. This prototype is based on the skeleton of the LUSIPHER camera system originally developed for fluorescence imaging. It has been installed at 2500 m depth off the Mediterranean shore on the site of the ANTARES neutrino telescope. The LuSEApher camera is mounted on the Instrumented Interface Module connected to the ANTARES network for environmental science purposes (European Seas Observatory Network). The LuSEApher is a self-triggered photo detection system with photon counting ability. The presentation of the device is given and its performances such as the single photon reconstruction, noise performances and trigger strategy are presented. The first recorded movies of bioluminescence are analyzed. To our knowledge, those types of events have never been obtained with such a sensitivity and such a frame rate. We believe that this camera concept could open a new window on bioluminescence studies in the deep sea.

  7. HiRISE: The People's Camera (United States)

    McEwen, A. S.; Eliason, E.; Gulick, V. C.; Spinoza, Y.; Beyer, R. A.; HiRISE Team


    The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera, orbiting Mars since 2006 on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), has returned more than 17,000 large images with scales as small as 25 cm/pixel. From it’s beginning, the HiRISE team has followed “The People’s Camera” concept, with rapid release of useful images, explanations, and tools, and facilitating public image suggestions. The camera includes 14 CCDs, each read out into 2 data channels, so compressed images are returned from MRO as 28 long (up to 120,000 line) images that are 1024 pixels wide (or binned 2x2 to 512 pixels, etc.). This raw data is very difficult to use, especially for the public. At the HiRISE operations center the raw data are calibrated and processed into a series of B&W and color products, including browse images and JPEG2000-compressed images and tools to make it easy for everyone to explore these enormous images (see Automated pipelines do all of this processing, so we can keep up with the high data rate; images go directly to the format of the Planetary Data System (PDS). After students visually check each image product for errors, they are fully released just 1 month after receipt; captioned images (written by science team members) may be released sooner. These processed HiRISE images have been incorporated into tools such as Google Mars and World Wide Telescope for even greater accessibility. 51 Digital Terrain Models derived from HiRISE stereo pairs have been released, resulting in some spectacular flyover movies produced by members of the public and viewed up to 50,000 times according to YouTube. Public targeting began in 2007 via NASA Quest ( and more than 200 images have been acquired, mostly by students and educators. At the beginning of 2010 we released HiWish (, opening HiRISE targeting to anyone in the world with Internet access, and already more

  8. Valles Marineris, Mars: High-Resolution Digital Terrain Model on the basis of Mars-Express HRSC data (United States)

    Dumke, A.; Spiegel, M.; van Gasselt, S.; Neukum, G.


    Introduction: Since December 2003, the European Space Agency's (ESA) Mars Express (MEX) orbiter has been investigating Mars. The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), one of the scientific experiments onboard MEX, is a pushbroom stereo color scanning instrument with nine line detectors, each equipped with 5176 CCD sensor elements. Five CCD lines operate with panchromatic filters and four lines with red, green, blue and infrared filters at different observation angles [1]. MEX has a highly elliptical near-polar orbit and reaches a distance of 270 km at periapsis. Ground resolution of image data predominantly varies with respect to spacecraft altitude and the chosen macro-pixel format. Usually, although not exclusively, the nadir channel provides full resolution of up to 10 m per pixel. Stereo-, photometry and color channels generally have a coarser resolution. One of the goals for MEX HRSC is to cover Mars globally in color and stereoscopically at high-resolution. So far, HRSC has covered almost half of the surface of Mars at a resolution better than 20 meters per pixel. Such data are utilized to derive high resolution digital terrain models (DTM), ortho-image mosaics and additionally higher-level 3D data products such as 3D views. Standardized high-resolution single-strip digital terrain models (using improved orientation data) have been derived at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Berlin-Adlershof [2]. Those datasets, i.e. high-resolution digital terrain models as well as ortho-image data, are distributed as Vicar image files ( via the HRSCview web-interface [3], accessible at A systematic processing workflow is described in detail in [4,5]. In consideration of the scientific interest, the processing of the Valles Marineris region will be discussed in this paper. The DTM mosaic was derived from 82 HRSC orbits at approximately -22° S to 1° N and 250° to 311° E. Methods: Apart from

  9. DuOCam: A Two-Channel Camera for Simultaneous Photometric Observations of Stellar Clusters (United States)

    Maier, Erin R.; Witt, Emily; Depoy, Darren L.; Schmidt, Luke M.


    We have designed the Dual Observation Camera (DuOCam), which uses commercial, off-the-shelf optics to perform simultaneous photometric observations of astronomical objects at red and blue wavelengths. Collected light enters DuOCam’s optical assembly, where it is collimated by a negative doublet lens. It is then separated by a 45 degree blue dichroic filter (transmission bandpass: 530 - 800 nm, reflection bandpass: 400 - 475 nm). Finally, the separated light is focused by two identical positive doublet lenses onto two independent charge-coupled devices (CCDs), the SBIG ST-8300M and the SBIG STF-8300M. This optical assembly converts the observing telescope to an f/11 system, which balances maximum field of view with optimum focus. DuOCam was commissioned on the McDonald Observatory 0.9m, f/13.5 telescope from July 21st - 24th, 2016. Observations of three globular and three open stellar clusters were carried out. The resulting data were used to construct R vs. B-R color magnitude diagrams for a selection of the observed clusters. The diagrams display the characteristic evolutionary track for a stellar cluster, including the main sequence and main sequence turn-off.

  10. Mars MetNet Mission - Martian Atmospheric Observational Post Network (United States)

    Hari, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Siikonen, Timo; Palin, Matti


    accelerometer combined with a 3-axis gyrometer. The data will be sent via auxiliary beacon antenna throughout the descent phase starting shortly after separation from the spacecraft. MetNet Mission payload instruments are specially designed to operate under very low power conditions. MNL flexible solar panels provides a total of approximately 0.7-0.8 W of electric power during the daylight time. As the provided power output is insufficient to operate all instruments simultaneously they are activated sequentially according to a specially designed cyclogram table which adapts itself to the different environmental constraints. 3. Mission Status he eventual goal is to create a network of atmospheric observational posts around the Martian surface. Even if the MetNet mission is focused on the atmospheric science, the mission payload will also include additional kinds of geophysical instrumentation. The next step is the MetNet Precursor Mission that will demonstrate the technical robustness and scientific capabilities of the MetNet type of landing vehicle. Definition of the Precursor Mission and discussions on launch opportunities are currently under way. The first MetNet Science Payload Precursors have already been successfully completed, e,g, the REMS/MSL and DREAMS/Exomars-2016. The next MetNet Payload Precursors will be METEO/Exomars-2018 and MEDA/Mars-2020. The baseline program development funding exists for the next seven years. Flight unit manufacture of the payload bay takes about 18 months, and it will be commenced after the Precursor Mission has been defined. References [1]

  11. Soft Rock Yields Clues to Mars' Past (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rock outcrop dubbed 'Clovis.' The rock was discovered to be softer than other rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater after the rover easily ground a hole into it with its rock abrasion tool. Spirit's solar panels can be seen in the foreground. This image was taken by the rover's navigation camera on sol 205 (July 31, 2004). Elemental Trio Found in 'Clovis' Figure 1 above shows that the interior of the rock dubbed 'Clovis' contains higher concentrations of sulfur, bromine and chlorine than basaltic, or volcanic, rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater. The data were taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer after the rover dug into Clovis with its rock abrasion tool. The findings might indicate that this rock was chemically altered, and that fluids once flowed through the rock depositing these elements.

  12. Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE): An Experimental Demonstration of Key Technologies for Searching for Life on Mars (United States)

    Stoker, Carol


    The discovery of near surface ground ice by the Mars Odyssey mission and the abundant evidence for recent Gulley features observed by the Mars Global Surveyor mission support longstanding theoretical arguments for subsurface liquid water on Mars. Thus, implementing the Mars program goal to search for life points to drilling on Mars to reach liquid water, collecting samples and analyzing them with instrumentation to detect in situ organisms and biomarker compounds. Searching for life in the subsurface of Mars will require drilling, sample extraction and handling, and new technologies to find and identify biomarker compounds and search for living organisms.

  13. The imaging performance of the SRC on Mars Express (United States)

    Oberst, J.; Schwarz, G.; Behnke, T.; Hoffmann, H.; Matz, K.-D.; Flohrer, J.; Hirsch, H.; Roatsch, T.; Scholten, F.; Hauber, E.; Brinkmann, B.; Jaumann, R.; Williams, D.; Kirk, R.; Duxbury, T.; Leu, C.; Neukum, G.


    The Mars Express spacecraft carries the pushbroom scanner high-resolution stereo camera (HRSC) and its added imaging subsystem super resolution channel (SRC). The SRC is equipped with its own optical system and a 1024??1024 framing sensor. SRC produces snapshots with 2.3 m ground pixel size from the nominal spacecraft pericenter height of 250 km, which are typically embedded in the central part of the large HRSC scenes. The salient features of the SRC are its light-weight optics, a reliable CCD detector, and high-speed read-out electronics. The quality and effective visibility of details in the SRC images unfortunately falls short of what has been expected. In cases where thermal balance cannot be reached, artifacts, such as blurring and "ghost features" are observed in the images. In addition, images show large numbers of blemish pixels and are plagued by electronic noise. As a consequence, we have developed various image improving algorithms, which are discussed in this paper. While results are encouraging, further studies of image restoration by dedicated processing appear worthwhile. The SRC has obtained more than 6940 images at the time of writing (1 September 2007), which often show fascinating details in surface morphology. SRC images are highly useful for a variety of applications in planetary geology, for studies of the Mars atmosphere, and for astrometric observations of the Martian satellites. This paper will give a full account of the design philosophy, technical concept, calibration, operation, integration with HRSC, and performance, as well as science accomplishments of the SRC. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. VUV Testing of Science Cameras at MSFC: QE Measurement of the CLASP Flight Cameras (United States)

    Champey, Patrick R.; Kobayashi, Ken; Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Hyde, D.; Robertson, B.; Beabout, B.; Beabout, D.; Stewart, M.


    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has developed a science camera suitable for sub-orbital missions for observations in the UV, EUV and soft X-ray. Six cameras were built and tested for the Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha Spectro-Polarimeter (CLASP), a joint National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) and MSFC sounding rocket mission. The CLASP camera design includes a frame-transfer e2v CCD57-10 512x512 detector, dual channel analog readout electronics and an internally mounted cold block. At the flight operating temperature of -20 C, the CLASP cameras achieved the low-noise performance requirements (less than or equal to 25 e- read noise and greater than or equal to 10 e-/sec/pix dark current), in addition to maintaining a stable gain of approximately equal to 2.0 e-/DN. The e2v CCD57-10 detectors were coated with Lumogen-E to improve quantum efficiency (QE) at the Lyman- wavelength. A vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) monochromator and a NIST calibrated photodiode were employed to measure the QE of each camera. Four flight-like cameras were tested in a high-vacuum chamber, which was configured to operate several tests intended to verify the QE, gain, read noise, dark current and residual non-linearity of the CCD. We present and discuss the QE measurements performed on the CLASP cameras. We also discuss the high-vacuum system outfitted for testing of UV and EUV science cameras at MSFC.

  15. Mutual event observations of solar system objects by SRC on Mars Express. Analysis and release of observations (United States)

    Ziese, R.; Willner, K.


    Context. Both Martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, have been observed during several imaging campaigns by the Super Resolution Channel (SRC) on the Mars Express probe. Several tens of images are obtained during mutual event observations - when the Martian moons are both observed or together with another solar system body. These observations provide new opportunities to determine the bodies' positions in their orbits. Aims: A method was sought to automate the observation of the positions of the imaged bodies. Within one image sequence a similarly accurate localization of the objects in all images should be possible. Methods: Shape models of Phobos and Deimos are applied to simulate the appearance of the bodies in the images. Matching the illuminated simulation against the observation provides a reliable determination of the bodies' location within the image. To enhance the matching confidence several corrections need to be applied to the simulation to closely reconstruct the observation. Results: A list of 884 relative positions between the different objects is provided through the Centre de Données astronomiques de Strasbourg (CDS). Tables A.1-A.4 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  16. Mars Mapping Technology Brings Main Street to Life (United States)


    The Red Planet has long held a particular hold on the human psyche. From the Roman god of war to Orson Welles infamous Halloween broadcast, our nearest planetary neighbor has been viewed with curiosity, suspicion, and awe. Pictures of Mars from 1965 to the present reveal familiar landscapes while also challenging our perceptions and revising our understanding of the processes at work in planets. Frequent discoveries have forced significant revisions to previous theories. Although Mars shares many familiar features with Earth, such as mountains, plains, valleys, and polar ice, the conditions on Mars can vary wildly from those with which we are familiar. The apparently cold, rocky, and dusty wasteland seen through the eyes of spacecraft and Martian probes hints at a dynamic past of volcanic activity, cataclysmic meteors, and raging waters. New discoveries continue to revise our view of our next-door neighbor, and further exploration is now paving the way for a human sortie to the fourth stone from the Sun. NASA s Mars Exploration Program, a long-term effort of robotic exploration, utilizes wide-angle stereo cameras mounted on NASA s twin robot geologists, the Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs), launched in 2003. The rovers, named "Spirit" and "Opportunity," celebrated 4 Earth years of exploration on January 3, 2008, and have sent back a wealth of information on the terrain and composition of the Martian surface. Their marathon performance has far outlasted the intended 90 days of operation, and the two intrepid explorers promise more images and data.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Valverde, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, IAA/CSIC, Granada (Spain); Montabone, L. [Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO (United States); Sornig, M.; Sonnabend, G., E-mail: [University of Cologne, KOSMA, Köln (Germany)


    A detailed analysis is presented of ground-based observations of atmospheric emissions on Mars and Venus under non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) conditions at high spectral resolution. Our first goal is to comprehend the difficulties behind the derivation of wind speeds from ground-based observations. A second goal is to set a framework to permit comparisons with other observations and with atmospheric models. A forward model including non-LTE radiative transfer is used to evaluate the information content within the telescopic beam, and is later convolved with the beam function and a typical wind field to discern the major contributions to the measured radiance, including limb and nadir views. The emission mostly arises from the non-LTE limb around altitudes of 75 km on Mars and 110 km on Venus. We propose a parameterization of the limb emission using few geophysical parameters which can be extended to other hypothetical CO{sub 2} planetary atmospheres. The tropospheric or LTE component of the emission varies with the temperature and is important at low solar illumination but only for the emerging radiance, not for the wind determinations since these are derived from the Doppler shift at the non-LTE line cores. We evaluated the sources of uncertainty and found that the forward model errors amount to approximately 12% of the measured winds, which is normally smaller than the instrumental errors. We applied this study to revise a set of measurements extending for three Martian years and confirmed previous results suggesting winds that are too large simulated by current Martian circulation models at equatorial latitudes during solstice. We encourage new observational campaigns, particularly for the strong jet at mid–high latitudes on Mars, and propose general guidelines and recommendations for future observations.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Valverde, M. A.; Montabone, L.; Sornig, M.; Sonnabend, G.


    A detailed analysis is presented of ground-based observations of atmospheric emissions on Mars and Venus under non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE) conditions at high spectral resolution. Our first goal is to comprehend the difficulties behind the derivation of wind speeds from ground-based observations. A second goal is to set a framework to permit comparisons with other observations and with atmospheric models. A forward model including non-LTE radiative transfer is used to evaluate the information content within the telescopic beam, and is later convolved with the beam function and a typical wind field to discern the major contributions to the measured radiance, including limb and nadir views. The emission mostly arises from the non-LTE limb around altitudes of 75 km on Mars and 110 km on Venus. We propose a parameterization of the limb emission using few geophysical parameters which can be extended to other hypothetical CO 2 planetary atmospheres. The tropospheric or LTE component of the emission varies with the temperature and is important at low solar illumination but only for the emerging radiance, not for the wind determinations since these are derived from the Doppler shift at the non-LTE line cores. We evaluated the sources of uncertainty and found that the forward model errors amount to approximately 12% of the measured winds, which is normally smaller than the instrumental errors. We applied this study to revise a set of measurements extending for three Martian years and confirmed previous results suggesting winds that are too large simulated by current Martian circulation models at equatorial latitudes during solstice. We encourage new observational campaigns, particularly for the strong jet at mid–high latitudes on Mars, and propose general guidelines and recommendations for future observations

  19. SGTR assessment using MARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raines, J.C.; Dawson, S.M.; Deitke, B.; Henry, R.E.


    During the course of a plant accident, a consistent understanding of the plant response is vital to support an accident manager's decision making process. One tool that can provide assistance to the plant staff in assessing conditions in the plant during accident conditions is the MAAP Accident Response System (MARS) software. During an accident, MARS utilizes the on-line data from the plant instrumentation to initialize the Modular Accident Analysis Program (MAAP) code. Once initialized, MARS tracks and characterizes the plant behavior through the use of integrated logic modules. These logic modules provide the user with important information about the status of systems and the possible cause of the accident. The MARS logic modules evaluate relevant available plant instrumentation and the observations of the operating staff using fuzzy logic. The fuzzy logic is applied to provide a transition between areas where one is absolutely sure that a situation has not occurred to a condition where one is absolutely certain that a situation has occurred. One example of the use of logic modules in MARS is illustrated by that used to assess if a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) event has occurred. Each piece of relevant plant data is evaluated to determine if it is consistent with the symptoms of a SGTR. Each of the evaluations for the individual plant instruments and the operating staff observations are assembled to determine an overall confidence which characterizes the likelihood that a SGTR is occurring. Additional MARS logic modules are used to determine confidence levels for other types of accident events. The conclusions arrived at by each individual logic module are expressed as confidence levels. The logic module confidence levels can be graphically displayed using the MARS Graphical Users Interface (GUI), to indicate the confidence level MARS has assessed for each accident type. The GUI shows the identification of the possible accident types, but is not limited

  20. Panoramic 3d Vision on the ExoMars Rover (United States)

    Paar, G.; Griffiths, A. D.; Barnes, D. P.; Coates, A. J.; Jaumann, R.; Oberst, J.; Gao, Y.; Ellery, A.; Li, R.

    The Pasteur payload on the ESA ExoMars Rover 2011/2013 is designed to search for evidence of extant or extinct life either on or up to ˜2 m below the surface of Mars. The rover will be equipped by a panoramic imaging system to be developed by a UK, German, Austrian, Swiss, Italian and French team for visual characterization of the rover's surroundings and (in conjunction with an infrared imaging spectrometer) remote detection of potential sample sites. The Panoramic Camera system consists of a wide angle multispectral stereo pair with 65° field-of-view (WAC; 1.1 mrad/pixel) and a high resolution monoscopic camera (HRC; current design having 59.7 µrad/pixel with 3.5° field-of-view) . Its scientific goals and operational requirements can be summarized as follows: • Determination of objects to be investigated in situ by other instruments for operations planning • Backup and Support for the rover visual navigation system (path planning, determination of subsequent rover positions and orientation/tilt within the 3d environment), and localization of the landing site (by stellar navigation or by combination of orbiter and ground panoramic images) • Geological characterization (using narrow band geology filters) and cartography of the local environments (local Digital Terrain Model or DTM). • Study of atmospheric properties and variable phenomena near the Martian surface (e.g. aerosol opacity, water vapour column density, clouds, dust devils, meteors, surface frosts,) 1 • Geodetic studies (observations of Sun, bright stars, Phobos/Deimos). The performance of 3d data processing is a key element of mission planning and scientific data analysis. The 3d Vision Team within the Panoramic Camera development Consortium reports on the current status of development, consisting of the following items: • Hardware Layout & Engineering: The geometric setup of the system (location on the mast & viewing angles, mutual mounting between WAC and HRC) needs to be optimized w

  1. Atmospheric Modeling of the Martian Polar Regions: One Mars Year of CRISM EPF Observations of the South Pole (United States)

    Brown, A. J.; Wolff, M. J.


    We have used CRISM Emission Phase Function gimballed observations to investigate atmospheric dust/ice opacity and surface albedo in the south polar region for the first Mars year of MRO operations. This covers the MY28 "dust event" and cap recession.

  2. Photometric data from some photographs of Mars obtained with the Automatic Interplanetary Station 'Mars 3'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botvinova, V.V.; Bugaenko, O.I.; Koval, I.K.; Narajeva, M.K.; Selivanov, A.S.


    The results of detailed photometric treatment of Mars photographs obtained with the Automatic Interplanetary Station 'Mars 3' in three wavelengths are given. Photometric maps of the Martian surface have been constructed; a thin layer observed near the limb has been investigated. (Auth.)

  3. The Athena Mars Rover Science Payload (United States)

    Squyes, S. W.; Arvidson, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Carr, M.; Christensen, P.; DesMarais, D.; Economou, T.; Gorevan, S.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Haskin, L.


    The Mars Surveyor missions that will be launched in April of 2001 will include a highly capable rover that is a successor to the Mars Pathfinder mission's Sojourner rover. The design goals for this rover are a total traverse distance of at least 10 km and a total lifetime of at least one Earth year. The rover's job will be to explore a site in Mars' ancient terrain, searching for materials likely to preserve a record of ancient martian water, climate, and possibly biology. The rover will collect rock and soil samples, and will store them for return to Earth by a subsequent Mars Surveyor mission in 2005. The Athena Mars rover science payload is the suite of scientific instruments and sample collection tools that will be used to perform this job. The specific science objectives that NASA has identified for the '01 rover payload are to: (1) Provide color stereo imaging of martian surface environments, and remotely-sensed point discrimination of mineralogical composition. (2) Determine the elemental and mineralogical composition of martian surface materials. (3) Determine the fine-scale textural properties of these materials. (4) Collect and store samples. The Athena payload has been designed to meet these objectives. The focus of the design is on field operations: making sure the rover can locate, characterize, and collect scientifically important samples in a dusty, dirty, real-world environment. The topography, morphology, and mineralogy of the scene around the rover will be revealed by Pancam/Mini-TES, an integrated imager and IR spectrometer. Pancam views the surface around the rover in stereo and color. It uses two high-resolution cameras that are identical in most respects to the rover's navigation cameras. The detectors are low-power, low-mass active pixel sensors with on-chip 12-bit analog-to-digital conversion. Filters provide 8-12 color spectral bandpasses over the spectral region from 0.4 to 1.1 micron Narrow-angle optics provide an angular resolution of 0

  4. Automatic inference of geometric camera parameters and inter-camera topology in uncalibrated disjoint surveillance cameras (United States)

    den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Bouma, Henri; Baan, Jan; Eendebak, Pieter T.; van Rest, Jeroen H. C.


    Person tracking across non-overlapping cameras and other types of video analytics benefit from spatial calibration information that allows an estimation of the distance between cameras and a relation between pixel coordinates and world coordinates within a camera. In a large environment with many cameras, or for frequent ad-hoc deployments of cameras, the cost of this calibration is high. This creates a barrier for the use of video analytics. Automating the calibration allows for a short configuration time, and the use of video analytics in a wider range of scenarios, including ad-hoc crisis situations and large scale surveillance systems. We show an autocalibration method entirely based on pedestrian detections in surveillance video in multiple non-overlapping cameras. In this paper, we show the two main components of automatic calibration. The first shows the intra-camera geometry estimation that leads to an estimate of the tilt angle, focal length and camera height, which is important for the conversion from pixels to meters and vice versa. The second component shows the inter-camera topology inference that leads to an estimate of the distance between cameras, which is important for spatio-temporal analysis of multi-camera tracking. This paper describes each of these methods and provides results on realistic video data.

  5. Compact Micro-Imaging Spectrometer (CMIS): Investigation of Imaging Spectroscopy and Its Application to Mars Geology and Astrobiology (United States)

    Staten, Paul W.


    Future missions to Mars will attempt to answer questions about Mars' geological and biological history. The goal of the CMIS project is to design, construct, and test a capable, multi-spectral micro-imaging spectrometer use in such missions. A breadboard instrument has been constructed with a micro-imaging camera and Several multi-wavelength LED illumination rings. Test samples have been chosen for their interest to spectroscopists, geologists and astrobiologists. Preliminary analysis has demonstrated the advantages of isotropic illumination and micro-imaging spectroscopy over spot spectroscopy.

  6. Maps of the Martian Landing Sites and Rover Traverses: Viking 1 and 2, Mars Pathfinder, and Phoenix Landers, and the Mars Exploration Rovers. (United States)

    Parker, T. J.; Calef, F. J., III; Deen, R. G.; Gengl, H.


    The traverse maps produced tactically for the MER and MSL rover missions are the first step in placing the observations made by each vehicle into a local and regional geologic context. For the MER, Phoenix and MSL missions, 25cm/pixel HiRISE data is available for accurately localizing the vehicles. Viking and Mars Pathfinder, however, relied on Viking Orbiter images of several tens of m/pixel to triangulate to horizon features visible both from the ground and from orbit. After Pathfinder, MGS MOC images became available for these landing sites, enabling much better correlations to horizon features and localization predictions to be made, that were then corroborated with HiRISE images beginning 9 years ago. By combining topography data from MGS, Mars Express, and stereo processing of MRO CTX and HiRISE images into orthomosaics (ORRs) and digital elevation models (DEMs), it is possible to localize all the landers and rover positions to an accuracy of a few tens of meters with respect to the Mars global control net, and to better than half a meter with respect to other features within a HiRISE orthomosaic. JPL's MIPL produces point clouds of the MER Navcam stereo images that can be processed into 1cm/pixel ORR/DEMs that are then georeferenced to a HiRISE/CTX base map and DEM. This allows compilation of seamless mosaics of the lander and rover camera-based ORR/DEMs with the HiRISE ORR/DEM that can be viewed in 3 dimensions with GIS programs with that capability. We are re-processing the Viking Lander, Mars Pathfinder, and Phoenix lander data to allow similar ORR/DEM products to be made for those missions. For the fixed landers and Spirit, we will compile merged surface/CTX/HiRISE ORR/DEMs, that will enable accurate local and regional mapping of these landing sites, and allow comparisons of the results from these missions to be made with current and future surface missions.

  7. MMPM - Mars MetNet Precursor Mission (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Pichkhadze, K.; Linkin, V.; Vazquez, L.; Uspensky, M.; Polkko, J.; Genzer, M.; Lipatov, A.; Guerrero, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Haukka, H.; Savijarvi, H.; Kauhanen, J.


    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2009/2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatology cycles, require simultaneous in-situ measurements by a network of observation posts on the Martian surface. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe technologies have been developed and the critical subsystems have been qualified to meet the Martian environmental and functional conditions. Prototyping of the payload instrumentation with final dimensions was carried out in 2003-2006.This huge development effort has been fulfilled in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Russian Lavoschkin Association (LA) and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) since August 2001. Currently the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain is also participating in the MetNet payload development. To understand the behavior and dynamics of the Martian atmosphere, a wealth of simultaneous in situ observations are needed on varying types of Martian orography, terrain and altitude spanning all latitudes and longitudes. This will be performed by the Mars MetNet Mission. In addition to the science aspects the

  8. Camera Layout Design for the Upper Stage Thrust Cone (United States)

    Wooten, Tevin; Fowler, Bart


    Engineers in the Integrated Design and Analysis Division (EV30) use a variety of different tools to aid in the design and analysis of the Ares I vehicle. One primary tool in use is Pro-Engineer. Pro-Engineer is a computer-aided design (CAD) software that allows designers to create computer generated structural models of vehicle structures. For the Upper State thrust cone, Pro-Engineer was used to assist in the design of a layout for two camera housings. These cameras observe the separation between the first and second stage of the Ares I vehicle. For the Ares I-X, one standard speed camera was used. The Ares I design calls for two separate housings, three cameras, and a lighting system. With previous design concepts and verification strategies in mind, a new layout for the two camera design concept was developed with members of the EV32 team. With the new design, Pro-Engineer was used to draw the layout to observe how the two camera housings fit with the thrust cone assembly. Future analysis of the camera housing design will verify the stability and clearance of the camera with other hardware present on the thrust cone.

  9. Mars Global Digital Dune Database; MC-1 (United States)

    Hayward, R.K.; Fenton, L.K.; Tanaka, K.L.; Titus, T.N.; Colaprete, A.; Christensen, P.R.


    The Mars Global Digital Dune Database presents data and describes the methodology used in creating the global database of moderate- to large-size dune fields on Mars. The database is being released in a series of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File Reports. The first release (Hayward and others, 2007) included dune fields from 65 degrees N to 65 degrees S ( The current release encompasses ~ 845,000 km2 of mapped dune fields from 65 degrees N to 90 degrees N latitude. Dune fields between 65 degrees S and 90 degrees S will be released in a future USGS Open-File Report. Although we have attempted to include all dune fields, some have likely been excluded for two reasons: (1) incomplete THEMIS IR (daytime) coverage may have caused us to exclude some moderate- to large-size dune fields or (2) resolution of THEMIS IR coverage (100m/pixel) certainly caused us to exclude smaller dune fields. The smallest dune fields in the database are ~ 1 km2 in area. While the moderate to large dune fields are likely to constitute the largest compilation of sediment on the planet, smaller stores of sediment of dunes are likely to be found elsewhere via higher resolution data. Thus, it should be noted that our database excludes all small dune fields and some moderate to large dune fields as well. Therefore, the absence of mapped dune fields does not mean that such dune fields do not exist and is not intended to imply a lack of saltating sand in other areas. Where availability and quality of THEMIS visible (VIS), Mars Orbiter Camera narrow angle (MOC NA), or Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) images allowed, we classified dunes and included some dune slipface measurements, which were derived from gross dune morphology and represent the prevailing wind direction at the last time of significant dune modification. It was beyond the scope of this report to look at the detail needed to discern subtle dune modification. It was also

  10. Global Calibration of Multiple Cameras Based on Sphere Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Sun


    Full Text Available Global calibration methods for multi-camera system are critical to the accuracy of vision measurement. Proposed in this paper is such a method based on several groups of sphere targets and a precision auxiliary camera. Each camera to be calibrated observes a group of spheres (at least three, while the auxiliary camera observes all the spheres. The global calibration can be achieved after each camera reconstructs the sphere centers in its field of view. In the process of reconstructing a sphere center, a parameter equation is used to describe the sphere projection model. Theoretical analysis and computer simulation are carried out to analyze the factors that affect the calibration accuracy. Simulation results show that the parameter equation can largely improve the reconstruction accuracy. In the experiments, a two-camera system calibrated by our method is used to measure a distance about 578 mm, and the root mean squared error is within 0.14 mm. Furthermore, the experiments indicate that the method has simple operation and good flexibility, especially for the onsite multiple cameras without common field of view.

  11. State of art in radiation tolerant camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi; Young Soo; Kim, Seong Ho; Cho, Jae Wan; Kim, Chang Hoi; Seo, Young Chil


    Working in radiation environment such as nuclear power plant, RI facility, nuclear fuel fabrication facility, medical center has to be considered radiation exposure, and we can implement these job by remote observation and operation. However the camera used for general industry is weakened at radiation, so radiation-tolerant camera is needed for radiation environment. The application of radiation-tolerant camera system is nuclear industry, radio-active medical, aerospace, and so on. Specially nuclear industry, the demand is continuous in the inspection of nuclear boiler, exchange of pellet, inspection of nuclear waste. In the nuclear developed countries have been an effort to develop radiation-tolerant cameras. Now they have many kinds of radiation-tolerant cameras which can tolerate to 10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} rad total dose. In this report, we examine into the state-of-art about radiation-tolerant cameras, and analyze these technology. We want to grow up the concern of developing radiation-tolerant camera by this paper, and upgrade the level of domestic technology.

  12. Mars Recent Climate Change Workshop (United States)

    Haberle, Robert M.; Owen, Sandra J.


    Mars Recent Climate Change Workshop NASA/Ames Research Center May 15-17, 2012 Climate change on Mars has been a subject of great interest to planetary scientists since the 1970's when orbiting spacecraft first discovered fluvial landforms on its ancient surfaces and layered terrains in its polar regions. By far most of the attention has been directed toward understanding how "Early Mars" (i.e., Mars >~3.5 Gya) could have produced environmental conditions favorable for the flow of liquid water on its surface. Unfortunately, in spite of the considerable body of work performed on this subject, no clear consensus has emerged on the nature of the early Martian climate system because of the difficulty in distinguishing between competing ideas given the ambiguities in the available geological, mineralogical, and isotopic records. For several reasons, however, the situation is more tractable for "Recent Mars" (i.e., Mars during past 20 My or so). First, the geologic record is better preserved and evidence for climate change on this time scale has been building since the rejuvenation of the Mars Exploration Program in the late 1990's. The increasing coverage of the planet from orbit and the surface, coupled with accurate measurements of surface topography, increasing spatial resolution of imaging cameras, improved spectral resolution of infrared sensors, and the ability to probe the subsurface with radar, gamma rays, and neutron spectroscopy, has not only improved the characterization of previously known climate features such as polar layered terrains and glacier-related landforms, but has also revealed the existence of many new features related to recent climate change such as polygons, gullies, concentric crater fill, and a latitude dependent mantle. Second, the likely cause of climate change - spin axis/orbital variations - is more pronounced on Mars compared to Earth. Spin axis/orbital variations alter the seasonal and latitudinal distribution of sunlight, which can

  13. Study and use of an infrared camera optimized for ground based observations in the 10 micron wavelength range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remy, Sophie


    Astronomical observations in the 10 micron atmospheric window provide very important information for many of astrophysical topics. But because of the very large terrestrial photon background at that wavelength, ground based observations have been impeded. On the other band, the ground based telescopes offer a greater angular resolution than the spatially based telescopes. The recent development of detector arrays for the mid infrared range made easier the development of infrared cameras with optimized detectors for astronomical observations from the ground. The CAMIRAS infrared camera, built by the 'Service d'Astrophysique' in Saclay is the instrument we have studied and we present its performances. Its sensitivity, given for an integration time of one minute on source and a signal to noise ratio of 3, is 0.15 Jy for punctual sources, and 20 mJy arcs"-"2 for extended sources. But we need to get rid of the enormous photon background so we have to find a better way of observation based on modulation techniques as 'chopping' or 'nodding'. Thus we show that a modulation about 1 Hz is satisfactory with our detectors arrays without perturbing the signal to noise ratio. As we have a good instrument and because we are able to get rid of the photon background, we can study astronomical objects. Results from a comet, dusty stellar disks, and an ultra-luminous galaxy are presented. (author) [fr

  14. Dual cameras acquisition and display system of retina-like sensor camera and rectangular sensor camera (United States)

    Cao, Nan; Cao, Fengmei; Lin, Yabin; Bai, Tingzhu; Song, Shengyu


    For a new kind of retina-like senor camera and a traditional rectangular sensor camera, dual cameras acquisition and display system need to be built. We introduce the principle and the development of retina-like senor. Image coordinates transformation and interpolation based on sub-pixel interpolation need to be realized for our retina-like sensor's special pixels distribution. The hardware platform is composed of retina-like senor camera, rectangular sensor camera, image grabber and PC. Combined the MIL and OpenCV library, the software program is composed in VC++ on VS 2010. Experience results show that the system can realizes two cameras' acquisition and display.

  15. Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS) 2009 Expedition Crew Perspectives (United States)

    Cusack, Stacy; Ferrone, Kristine; Garvin, Christy; Kramer, W. Vernon; Palaia, Joseph, IV; Shiro, Brian


    The Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS), located on the rim of the Haughton Crater on Devon Island in the Canadian Arctic, is a simulated Mars habitat that provides operational constraints similar to those which will be faced by future human explorers on Mars. In July 2009, a six-member crew inhabited the isolated habitation module and conducted the twelfth FMARS mission. The crew members conducted frequent EVA operations wearing mock space suits to conduct field experiments under realistic Mars-like conditions. Their scientific campaign spanned a wide range of disciplines and included many firsts for Mars analog research. Among these are the first use of a Class IV medical laser during a Mars simulation, helping to relieve crew stress injuries during the mission. Also employed for the first time in a Mars simulation at FMARS, a UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) was used by the space-suited explorers, aiding them in their search for mineral resources. Sites identified by the UAV were then visited by geologists who conducted physical geologic sampling. For the first time, explorers in spacesuits deployed passive seismic equipment to monitor earthquake activity and characterize the planet's interior. They also conducted the first geophysical electromagnetic survey as analog Mars pioneers to search for water and characterize geological features under the surface. The crew collected hydrated minerals and attempted to produce drinkable water from the rocks. A variety of equipment was field tested as well, including new cameras that automatically geotag photos, data-recording GPS units, a tele-presence rover (operated from Florida), as well as MIT-developed mission planning software. As plans develop to return to the Moon and go on to Mars, analog facilities like FMARS can provide significant benefit to NASA and other organizations as they prepare for robust human space exploration. The authors will present preliminary results from these studies as well as their

  16. Optimisation of the Future Routine Orbit for Mars Express (United States)

    Carranza, Manuel; Companys, Vincente


    Mars Express (MEX), the first planetary mission of the European Space Agency (ESA), reached Mars on December 25th 2003. Since then it is performing routine operations. Its operational phase had to cover one Martian year, with the possibility of an extension for a second Martian year (i.e. until November 2007). The end of the mission extension is approaching but, given the good health of the payload instruments and the high science return of the mission, there is a strong will to achieve further extensions. Mars Express is also seen as an important asset, capable to provide relay functions for future Martian missions. The ESA Science Program Committee has recently approved a second extension of the MEX mission until May 2009 and even further extensions are possible. Mars Express has an eccentric quasi-polar orbit with a period of approximately 6.72 hours and a pericentre height of about 300 km. Science observations are mainly performed at pericentre (but not only). In addition the orbit has a resonance of 11 revolutions per 3 Martian days. This means that ground tracks corresponding to orbits separated by 11 revolutions are adjacent, such that a given area can be covered by the on-board camera without leaving gaps. The J2 effect of Mars causes a drift of both ascending node and argument of pericentre. The drift of argument of pericentre makes it possible to observe periodically all Mars latitudes from close distance. Illumination conditions at pericentre are influenced by both the drift of the argument of pericentre and the drift of ascending node, as well as by the rotation of Mars around the Sun. The original MEX routine orbit was optimized for the duration of the nominal mission and extension, such that it produced a balanced share of day-side observations (for the optical instruments) and night-side observations (for the radar). The orbit was thus not optimized for the time beyond the assumed extension. Indeed, the evolution of the ascending node and argument of

  17. Laser scanning camera inspects hazardous area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryatt, A.; Miprode, C.


    Main operational characteristics of a new laser scanning camera are presented. The camera is intended primarily for low level high resolution viewing inside nuclear reactors. It uses a He-Ne laser beam raster; by detecting the reflected light by means of a phomultiplier, the subject under observation can be reconstructed in an electronic video store and reviewed on a conventional monitor screen

  18. Ultra fast x-ray streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, L.W.; McConaghy, C.F.


    A unique ultrafast x-ray sensitive streak camera, with a time resolution of 50psec, has been built and operated. A 100A thick gold photocathode on a beryllium vacuum window is used in a modified commerical image converter tube. The X-ray streak camera has been used in experiments to observe time resolved emission from laser-produced plasmas. (author)

  19. Improving Photometric Calibration of Meteor Video Camera Systems (United States)

    Ehlert, Steven; Kingery, Aaron; Suggs, Robert


    We present the results of new calibration tests performed by the NASA Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) designed to help quantify and minimize systematic uncertainties in meteor photometry from video camera observations. These systematic uncertainties can be categorized by two main sources: an imperfect understanding of the linearity correction for the MEO's Watec 902H2 Ultimate video cameras and uncertainties in meteor magnitudes arising from transformations between the Watec camera's Sony EX-View HAD bandpass and the bandpasses used to determine reference star magnitudes. To address the first point, we have measured the linearity response of the MEO's standard meteor video cameras using two independent laboratory tests on eight cameras. Our empirically determined linearity correction is critical for performing accurate photometry at low camera intensity levels. With regards to the second point, we have calculated synthetic magnitudes in the EX bandpass for reference stars. These synthetic magnitudes enable direct calculations of the meteor's photometric flux within the camera bandpass without requiring any assumptions of its spectral energy distribution. Systematic uncertainties in the synthetic magnitudes of individual reference stars are estimated at approx. 0.20 mag, and are limited by the available spectral information in the reference catalogs. These two improvements allow for zero-points accurate to 0.05 - 0.10 mag in both filtered and unfiltered camera observations with no evidence for lingering systematics. These improvements are essential to accurately measuring photometric masses of individual meteors and source mass indexes.

  20. The 1990 MB: The first Mars Trojan (United States)

    Bowell, Edward


    Asteroid 1990 MB was discovered during the course of the Mars and Earth-crossing Asteroid and Comet Survey. An orbit based on a 9-day arc and the asteroid's location near Mars L5 longitude led to speculation that it might be in 1:1 resonance with Mars, analogous to the Trojan asteroids of Jupiter. Subsequent observations strengthened the possibility, and later calculations confirmed it. The most recent orbit shows that the asteroid's semimajor axis is very similar to that of Mars.

  1. The Effect of Gamma Radiation on Mars Mineral Matrices: Implications for Perchlorate Formation on Mars (United States)

    Fox, A. C.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Pavlov, A.; Lewis, J.


    Observations by the Phoenix Wet Chemistry Lab of the Martian surface indicate the presence of perchlorate in high concentrations. Additional observations by the Sample Analysis at Mars and the Viking Landers indirectly support the presence of perchlorate at other localities on Mars. The evidence for perchlorate at several localities on Mars coupled with its detection in Martian meteorite EETA79001 suggests that perchlorate is present globally on Mars. The presence of perchlorate on Mars further complicates the search for organic molecules indicative of past life. While perchlorate is kinetically limited in Martian conditions, the intermediate species associated with its formation or decomposition, such as chlorate or chlorite, could oxidize Martian organic species. As a result, it is vital to understand the mechanism of perchlorate formation on Mars in order to determine its role in the degradation of organics. Here, we explore an alternate mechanism of formation of perchlorate by bombarding Cl-salts and Mars-relevant mineral mixtures with gamma radiation both with and without the presence of liquid water, under vacuum. Previous work has shown that OClO can form from both UV radiation and energetic electrons bombardment of Cl-ices or Cl-salts, which then reacts with either OH- or O-radicals to produce perchlorate. Past research has suggested that liquid water or ice is the source of these hydroxyl and oxygen radicals, which limits the location of perchlorate formation on Mars. We demonstrate that trace amounts of perchlorate are potentially formed in samples containing silica dioxide or iron oxide and Cl-salts both with and without liquid water. Perchlorate was also detected in a portion of samples that were not irradiated, suggesting possible contamination. We did not detect perchlorate in samples that contained sulfate minerals. If perchlorate was formed without liquid water, it is possible that oxide minerals could be a potential source of oxygen radicals

  2. Evidence for Neutrals-Foreshock Electrons Impact at Mars (United States)

    Mazelle, C. X.; Meziane, K.; Mitchell, D. L.; Garnier, P.; Espley, J. R.; Hamza, A. M.; Halekas, J.; Jakosky, B. M.


    Backstreaming electrons emanating from the bow shock of Mars reported from the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN/Solar Wind Electron Analyzer observations show a flux fall off with the distance from the shock. This feature is not observed at the terrestrial foreshock. The flux decay is observed only for electron energy E ≥ 29 eV. A reported recent study indicates that Mars foreshock electrons are produced at the shock in a mirror reflection of a portion of the solar wind electrons. In this context, and given that the electrons are sufficiently energetic to not be affected by the interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations, the observed flux decrease appears problematic. We investigate the possibility that the flux fall off with distance results from the impact of backstreaming electrons with Mars exospheric neutral hydrogen. We demonstrate that the flux fall off is consistent with the electron-atomic hydrogen impact cross section for a large range of energy. A better agreement is obtained for energy where the impact cross section is the highest. One important consequence is that foreshock electrons can play an important role in the production of pickup ions at Mars far exosphere.

  3. Mert Davies: Pioneer in the Use of Spacecraft to Map Earth and Mars (United States)

    Murray, B.; Augenstein, B.


    Mert Davies was one of the founding employees of the RAND Corporation in 1946, and continued that relationship until his death in 2001. He began his involvement in satellite imaging at Rand as one of about 100 researchers in Project Feedback in 1954, provided the basis for the initial US military space program. In 1957, in response to the Soviet launch of Sputnik, Mert and a small group of Rand cohorts proposed a family of recoverable reconnaissance satellites featuring spin stabilized cameras, for which he later received a patent. This work, now declassified, was for a short time considered as a basis for the Corona, America's first reconnaissance satellite Corona, although ultimately alternative technologies were employed. In addition he was looking beyond Earth quite early and in May, 1958 published an analysis of a lunar mapping satellite. The 1957 work at Rand spurred considerations of space-based geodesy and mapping. These and other early contributions were recognized in 1999 by the National Reconnaissance Office which honored him as one of the founders of national reconnaissance. He was so enthused by the opportunity developing in the mid 1960?s to explore photographically the planets that he changed careers and joined the Television Team of the Mariner probes being developed to flyby Mars in 1969 (Mariner's 6&7). His abilities and accomplishments there led directly to central roles later in the Mariner 9 Mars Orbiter mission (1971-72) as well as Mariner 10 to Mercury (1973-75) and Voyagers 1&2 (1979-89) These early flights to Mars represented unprecedented technical challenges, especially to radio communications. As a consequence, analog television systems, like that carried on the Ranger impact probe in 1964-65 or film readout technology like that used on Lunar Orbiter in 1965-66 to send back high-resolution images from the Moon were not feasible from planetary distances. In order to exploit the remarkable communication potential of the DSN, JPL

  4. Inverted stream channels in the Western Desert of Egypt: Synergistic remote, field observations and laboratory analysis on Earth with applications to Mars (United States)

    Zaki, Abdallah S.; Pain, Colin F.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Giegengack, Robert


    Inverted relief landforms occur in numerous regions on Mars, ranging in age from Noachian to more recent Amazonian periods (channel features on Earth form, and the geologic records they preserve in arid settings, can yield insights into the development of inverted landforms on Mars. Inverted channel landforms in the Western Desert of Egypt are well represented across an area of ∼27,000 km2. We investigated inverted channel features at seven sites using remotely-sensed data, field observations, and lab analysis. Inverted channel features in the Western Desert record fluvial environments of differing scales and ages. They developed mainly via inversion of cemented valley floor sediment, but there is a possibility that inverted fluvial landforms in the Dakhla Depression might have been buried, lithified, and exhumed. A few examples, in the southeastern part of the Western Desert, record, instead, a resistance to erosion caused by surface armouring of uncemented valley floor sediment. We show that the grain-size distribution for investigated and reviewed inverted channels is highly variable, with boulders that are commonly 0.35 - 1 m in size; large particles provide high porosity that influences the cementation mechanism. The studied inverted channel sediments are mainly cemented with ferricrete, calcrete, gypcrete, and silcrete. Inverted channels are valuable for the reconstruction of paleoclimate cycles or episodes on Earth and Mars; observations from the Western Desert, when offered as analogs, add to the growing list of Earth examples that provide suites of observables relevant to reconstruction of paleoenvironmental conditions on Mars.

  5. The fly's eye camera system (United States)

    Mészáros, L.; Pál, A.; Csépány, G.; Jaskó, A.; Vida, K.; Oláh, K.; Mezö, G.


    We introduce the Fly's Eye Camera System, an all-sky monitoring device intended to perform time domain astronomy. This camera system design will provide complementary data sets for other synoptic sky surveys such as LSST or Pan-STARRS. The effective field of view is obtained by 19 cameras arranged in a spherical mosaic form. These individual cameras of the device stand on a hexapod mount that is fully capable of achieving sidereal tracking for the subsequent exposures. This platform has many advantages. First of all it requires only one type of moving component and does not include unique parts. Hence this design not only eliminates problems implied by unique elements, but the redundancy of the hexapod allows smooth operations even if one or two of the legs are stuck. In addition, it can calibrate itself by observed stars independently from both the geographical location (including northen and southern hemisphere) and the polar alignment of the full mount. All mechanical elements and electronics are designed within the confines of our institute Konkoly Observatory. Currently, our instrument is in testing phase with an operating hexapod and reduced number of cameras.

  6. Video content analysis on body-worn cameras for retrospective investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, H.; Baan, J.; Haar, F.B. ter; Eendebak, P.T.; Hollander, R.J.M. den; Burghouts, G.J.; Wijn, R.; Broek, S.P. van den; Rest, J.H.C. van


    In the security domain, cameras are important to assess critical situations. Apart from fixed surveillance cameras we observe an increasing number of sensors on mobile platforms, such as drones, vehicles and persons. Mobile cameras allow rapid and local deployment, enabling many novel applications

  7. The GEM-Mars general circulation model for Mars: Description and evaluation (United States)

    Neary, L.; Daerden, F.


    GEM-Mars is a gridpoint-based three-dimensional general circulation model (GCM) of the Mars atmosphere extending from the surface to approximately 150 km based on the GEM (Global Environmental Multiscale) model, part of the operational weather forecasting and data assimilation system for Canada. After the initial modification for Mars, the model has undergone considerable changes. GEM-Mars is now based on GEM 4.2.0 and many physical parameterizations have been added for Mars-specific atmospheric processes and surface-atmosphere exchange. The model simulates interactive carbon dioxide-, dust-, water- and atmospheric chemistry cycles. Dust and water ice clouds are radiatively active. Size distributed dust is lifted by saltation and dust devils. The model includes 16 chemical species (CO2, Argon, N2, O2, CO, H2O, CH4, O3, O(1D), O, H, H2, OH, HO2, H2O2 and O2(a1Δg)) and has fully interactive photochemistry (15 reactions) and gas-phase chemistry (31 reactions). GEM-Mars provides a good simulation of the water and ozone cycles. A variety of other passive tracers can be included for dedicated studies, such as the emission of methane. The model has both a hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic formulation, and together with a flexible grid definition provides a single platform for simulations on a variety of horizontal scales. The model code is fully parallelized using OMP and MPI. Model results are evaluated by comparison to a selection of observations from instruments on the surface and in orbit, relating to atmosphere and surface temperature and pressure, dust and ice content, polar ice mass, polar argon, and global water and ozone vertical columns. GEM-Mars will play an integral part in the analysis and interpretation of data that is received by the NOMAD spectrometer on the ESA-Roskosmos ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter. The present paper provides an overview of the current status and capabilities of the GEM-Mars model and lays the foundations for more in-depth studies in support

  8. System Configuration and Operation Plan of Hayabusa2 DCAM3-D Camera System for Scientific Observation During SCI Impact Experiment (United States)

    Ogawa, Kazunori; Shirai, Kei; Sawada, Hirotaka; Arakawa, Masahiko; Honda, Rie; Wada, Koji; Ishibashi, Ko; Iijima, Yu-ichi; Sakatani, Naoya; Nakazawa, Satoru; Hayakawa, Hajime


    An artificial impact experiment is scheduled for 2018-2019 in which an impactor will collide with asteroid 162137 Ryugu (1999 JU3) during the asteroid rendezvous phase of the Hayabusa2 spacecraft. The small carry-on impactor (SCI) will shoot a 2-kg projectile at 2 km/s to create a crater 1-10 m in diameter with an expected subsequent ejecta curtain of a 100-m scale on an ideal sandy surface. A miniaturized deployable camera (DCAM3) unit will separate from the spacecraft at about 1 km from impact, and simultaneously conduct optical observations of the experiment. We designed and developed a camera system (DCAM3-D) in the DCAM3, specialized for scientific observations of impact phenomenon, in order to clarify the subsurface structure, construct theories of impact applicable in a microgravity environment, and identify the impact point on the asteroid. The DCAM3-D system consists of a miniaturized camera with a wide-angle and high-focusing performance, high-speed radio communication devices, and control units with large data storage on both the DCAM3 unit and the spacecraft. These components were successfully developed under severe constraints of size, mass and power, and the whole DCAM3-D system has passed all tests verifying functions, performance, and environmental tolerance. Results indicated sufficient potential to conduct the scientific observations during the SCI impact experiment. An operation plan was carefully considered along with the configuration and a time schedule of the impact experiment, and pre-programed into the control unit before the launch. In this paper, we describe details of the system design concept, specifications, and the operating plan of the DCAM3-D system, focusing on the feasibility of scientific observations.

  9. Mars' Surface Radiation Environment Measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity Rover (United States)

    Hassler, Donald M.; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Brinza, David E.; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A.; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P.; MSL Science Team; Kemppinen, Osku; Cremers, David; Bell, James F.; Edgar, Lauren; Farmer, Jack; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; King, Penelope; Blank, Jennifer; Schmidt, Mariek; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Ehlmann, Bethany; Farley, Kenneth; Griffes, Jennifer; Miller, Hayden; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Rice, Melissa; Siebach, Kirsten; Stack, Katie; Stolper, Edward; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Léveillé, Richard; Marchand, Geneviève; Sánchez, Pablo Sobrón; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Steele, Andrew; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Rodríguez, Javier Caride; Blázquez, Isaías Carrasco; Gómez, Felipe Gómez; Hettrich, Sebastian; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Jiménez, Mercedes Marín; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Jurado, Antonio Molina; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Caro, Guillermo Muñoz; López, Sara Navarro; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pla-García, Jorge; Manfredi, José Antonio Rodriguez; Romeral-Planelló, Julio José; Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans; Martinez, Eduardo Sebastian; Redondo, Josefina Torres; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Mier, María-Paz Zorzano; Chipera, Steve; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Mauchien, Patrick; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Manning, Heidi; Fairén, Alberto; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Squyres, Steven; Sullivan, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Berger, Thomas; Matthia, Daniel; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Kemppinen, Osku; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Fabre, Cécile; Wray, James; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Gupta, Sanjeev; Bish, David; Schieber, Juergen; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Berger, Gilles; Cros, Alain; d'Uston, Claude; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Lasue, Jérémie; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Maurice, Sylvestre; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Pinet, Patrick; Schröder, Susanne; Toplis, Mike; Lewin, Éric; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Sutter, Brad; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Israël, Guy; Szopa, Cyril; Dromart, Gilles; Robert, François; Sautter, Violaine; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Nachon, Marion; Buch, Arnaud; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; François, Pascaline; Raulin, François; Teinturier, Samuel; Cameron, James; Clegg, Sam; Cousin, Agnès; DeLapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Lanza, Nina; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Wiens, Roger C.; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Treiman, Allan; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Edgett, Kenneth; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; Malin, Michael; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Dyar, M. Darby; Fassett, Caleb; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas; DesMarais, David; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William; Choi, David; Conrad, Pamela; Dworkin, Jason P.; Floyd, Melissa; Freissinet, Caroline; Garvin, James; Glavin, Daniel; Harpold, Daniel; Jones, Andrea; Mahaffy, Paul; Martin, David K.; McAdam, Amy; Pavlov, Alexander; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Stern, Jennifer; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Meyer, Michael; Voytek, Mary; Anderson, Robert C.; Aubrey, Andrew; Beegle, Luther W.; Behar, Alberto; Blaney, Diana; Calef, Fred; Christensen, Lance; Crisp, Joy A.; DeFlores, Lauren; Ehlmann, Bethany; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Flesch, Gregory; Hurowitz, Joel; Jun, Insoo; Keymeulen, Didier; Maki, Justin; Mischna, Michael; Morookian, John Michael; Parker, Timothy; Pavri, Betina; Schoppers, Marcel; Sengstacken, Aaron; Simmonds, John J.; Spanovich, Nicole; Juarez, Manuel de la Torre; Webster, Christopher R.; Yen, Albert; Archer, Paul Douglas; Jones, John H.; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard V.; Niles, Paul; Rampe, Elizabeth; Nolan, Thomas; Fisk, Martin; Radziemski, Leon; Barraclough, Bruce; Bender, Steve; Berman, Daniel; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Tokar, Robert; Vaniman, David; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Yingst, Aileen; Lewis, Kevin; Leshin, Laurie; Cleghorn, Timothy; Huntress, Wesley; Manhès, Gérard; Hudgins, Judy; Olson, Timothy; Stewart, Noel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Grant, John; Vicenzi, Edward; Wilson, Sharon A.; Hamilton, Victoria; Peterson, Joseph; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Prokhorov, Vasily; Sanin, Anton; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Clark, Benton; Wolff, Michael; McLennan, Scott; Botta, Oliver; Drake, Darrell; Bean, Keri; Lemmon, Mark; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Anderson, Ryan B.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Lee, Ella Mae; Sucharski, Robert; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Ávalos, Juan José Blanco; Ramos, Miguel; Malespin, Charles; Plante, Ianik; Muller, Jan-Peter; Navarro-González, Rafael; Ewing, Ryan; Boynton, William; Downs, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Harshman, Karl; Morrison, Shaunna; Dietrich, William; Kortmann, Onno; Palucis, Marisa; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Williams, Amy; Lugmair, Günter; Wilson, Michael A.; Rubin, David; Jakosky, Bruce; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Frydenvang, Jens; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Kinch, Kjartan; Koefoed, Asmus; Madsen, Morten Bo; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Boyd, Nick; Campbell, John L.; Gellert, Ralf; Perrett, Glynis; Pradler, Irina; VanBommel, Scott; Jacob, Samantha; Owen, Tobias; Rowland, Scott; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Savijärvi, Hannu; García, César Martín; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Bridges, John C.; McConnochie, Timothy; Benna, Mehdi; Franz, Heather; Bower, Hannah; Brunner, Anna; Blau, Hannah; Boucher, Thomas; Carmosino, Marco; Atreya, Sushil; Elliott, Harvey; Halleaux, Douglas; Rennó, Nilton; Wong, Michael; Pepin, Robert; Elliott, Beverley; Spray, John; Thompson, Lucy; Gordon, Suzanne; Newsom, Horton; Ollila, Ann; Williams, Joshua; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Bentz, Jennifer; Nealson, Kenneth; Popa, Radu; Kah, Linda C.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Tate, Christopher; Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary; Hallet, Bernard; Sletten, Ronald; Francis, Raymond; McCullough, Emily; Cloutis, Ed; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Arvidson, Raymond; Fraeman, Abigail; Scholes, Daniel; Slavney, Susan; Stein, Thomas; Ward, Jennifer; Berger, Jeffrey; Moores, John E.


    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment.

  10. Mars' surface radiation environment measured with the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover. (United States)

    Hassler, Donald M; Zeitlin, Cary; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F; Ehresmann, Bent; Rafkin, Scot; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L; Brinza, David E; Weigle, Gerald; Böttcher, Stephan; Böhm, Eckart; Burmeister, Soenke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; Martin, Cesar; Reitz, Guenther; Cucinotta, Francis A; Kim, Myung-Hee; Grinspoon, David; Bullock, Mark A; Posner, Arik; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Vasavada, Ashwin; Grotzinger, John P


    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover began making detailed measurements of the cosmic ray and energetic particle radiation environment on the surface of Mars on 7 August 2012. We report and discuss measurements of the absorbed dose and dose equivalent from galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the martian surface for ~300 days of observations during the current solar maximum. These measurements provide insight into the radiation hazards associated with a human mission to the surface of Mars and provide an anchor point with which to model the subsurface radiation environment, with implications for microbial survival times of any possible extant or past life, as well as for the preservation of potential organic biosignatures of the ancient martian environment.

  11. Planned Products of the Mars Structure Service for the InSight Mission to Mars (United States)

    Panning, Mark P.; Lognonné, Philippe; Bruce Banerdt, W.; Garcia, Raphaël; Golombek, Matthew; Kedar, Sharon; Knapmeyer-Endrun, Brigitte; Mocquet, Antoine; Teanby, Nick A.; Tromp, Jeroen; Weber, Renee; Beucler, Eric; Blanchette-Guertin, Jean-Francois; Bozdağ, Ebru; Drilleau, Mélanie; Gudkova, Tamara; Hempel, Stefanie; Khan, Amir; Lekić, Vedran; Murdoch, Naomi; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Rivoldini, Atillio; Schmerr, Nicholas; Ruan, Youyi; Verhoeven, Olivier; Gao, Chao; Christensen, Ulrich; Clinton, John; Dehant, Veronique; Giardini, Domenico; Mimoun, David; Thomas Pike, W.; Smrekar, Sue; Wieczorek, Mark; Knapmeyer, Martin; Wookey, James


    The InSight lander will deliver geophysical instruments to Mars in 2018, including seismometers installed directly on the surface (Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure, SEIS). Routine operations will be split into two services, the Mars Structure Service (MSS) and Marsquake Service (MQS), which will be responsible, respectively, for defining the structure models and seismicity catalogs from the mission. The MSS will deliver a series of products before the landing, during the operations, and finally to the Planetary Data System (PDS) archive. Prior to the mission, we assembled a suite of a priori models of Mars, based on estimates of bulk composition and thermal profiles. Initial models during the mission will rely on modeling surface waves and impact-generated body waves independent of prior knowledge of structure. Later modeling will include simultaneous inversion of seismic observations for source and structural parameters. We use Bayesian inversion techniques to obtain robust probability distribution functions of interior structure parameters. Shallow structure will be characterized using the hammering of the heatflow probe mole, as well as measurements of surface wave ellipticity. Crustal scale structure will be constrained by measurements of receiver function and broadband Rayleigh wave ellipticity measurements. Core interacting body wave phases should be observable above modeled martian noise levels, allowing us to constrain deep structure. Normal modes of Mars should also be observable and can be used to estimate the globally averaged 1D structure, while combination with results from the InSight radio science mission and orbital observations will allow for constraint of deeper structure.

  12. Field Reconnaissance Geologic Mapping of the Columbia Hills, Mars: Results from MER Spirit and MRO HiRISE Observations (United States)

    Crumpler, L.S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.; McCoy, T.; Yingst, A.; Ruff, S.; Farrand, W.; McSween, Y.; Powell, M.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Bell, J.F.; Grant, J.; Greeley, R.; DesMarais, D.; Schmidt, M.; Cabrol, N.A.; Haldemann, A.; Lewis, Kevin W.; Wang, A.E.; Schroder, C.; Blaney, D.; Cohen, B.; Yen, A.; Farmer, J.; Gellert, Ralf; Guinness, E.A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Klingelhofer, G.; McEwen, A.; Rice, J. W.; Rice, M.; deSouza, P.; Hurowitz, J.


    Chemical, mineralogic, and lithologic ground truth was acquired for the first time on Mars in terrain units mapped using orbital Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (MRO HiRISE) image data. Examination of several dozen outcrops shows that Mars is geologically complex at meter length scales, the record of its geologic history is well exposed, stratigraphic units may be identified and correlated across significant areas on the ground, and outcrops and geologic relationships between materials may be analyzed with techniques commonly employed in terrestrial field geology. Despite their burial during the course of Martian geologic time by widespread epiclastic materials, mobile fines, and fall deposits, the selective exhumation of deep and well-preserved geologic units has exposed undisturbed outcrops, stratigraphic sections, and structural information much as they are preserved and exposed on Earth. A rich geologic record awaits skilled future field investigators on Mars. The correlation of ground observations and orbital images enables construction of a corresponding geologic reconnaissance map. Most of the outcrops visited are interpreted to be pyroclastic, impactite, and epiclastic deposits overlying an unexposed substrate, probably related to a modified Gusev crater central peak. Fluids have altered chemistry and mineralogy of these protoliths in degrees that vary substantially within the same map unit. Examination of the rocks exposed above and below the major unconformity between the plains lavas and the Columbia Hills directly confirms the general conclusion from remote sensing in previous studies over past years that the early history of Mars was a time of more intense deposition and modification of the surface. Although the availability of fluids and the chemical and mineral activity declined from this early period, significant later volcanism and fluid convection enabled additional, if localized, chemical activity.

  13. Characterization of SWIR cameras by MRC measurements (United States)

    Gerken, M.; Schlemmer, H.; Haan, Hubertus A.; Siemens, Christofer; Münzberg, M.


    Cameras for the SWIR wavelength range are becoming more and more important because of the better observation range for day-light operation under adverse weather conditions (haze, fog, rain). In order to choose the best suitable SWIR camera or to qualify a camera for a given application, characterization of the camera by means of the Minimum Resolvable Contrast MRC concept is favorable as the MRC comprises all relevant properties of the instrument. With the MRC known for a given camera device the achievable observation range can be calculated for every combination of target size, illumination level or weather conditions. MRC measurements in the SWIR wavelength band can be performed widely along the guidelines of the MRC measurements of a visual camera. Typically measurements are performed with a set of resolution targets (e.g. USAF 1951 target) manufactured with different contrast values from 50% down to less than 1%. For a given illumination level the achievable spatial resolution is then measured for each target. The resulting curve is showing the minimum contrast that is necessary to resolve the structure of a target as a function of spatial frequency. To perform MRC measurements for SWIR cameras at first the irradiation parameters have to be given in radiometric instead of photometric units which are limited in their use to the visible range. In order to do so, SWIR illumination levels for typical daylight and twilight conditions have to be defined. At second, a radiation source is necessary with appropriate emission in the SWIR range (e.g. incandescent lamp) and the irradiance has to be measured in W/m2 instead of Lux = Lumen/m2. At third, the contrast values of the targets have to be calibrated newly for the SWIR range because they typically differ from the values determined for the visual range. Measured MRC values of three cameras are compared to the specified performance data of the devices and the results of a multi-band in-house designed Vis-SWIR camera

  14. Space Weather at Mars: MAVEN and MSL/RAD Observations of CME and SEP Events (United States)

    Lee, C. O.; Ehresmann, B.; Lillis, R. J.; Dunn, P.; Rahmati, A.; Larson, D. E.; Guo, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Luhmann, J. G.; Halekas, J. S.; Espley, J. R.; Thiemann, E.; Hassler, D.


    While MAVEN have been observing the space weather conditions driven by ICMEs and SEPs in orbit around Mars, MSL/RAD have been measuring the surface radiation environment due to E > 150 MeV/nuc SEPs and the higher-energy galactic cosmic rays. The suite of MAVEN instruments measuring the particles (SEP), plasma (SWIA) and fields (MAG) information provides detailed local space weather information regarding the solar activity-related fluctuations in the measured surface dose rates. At the same time, the related enhancements in the RAD surface dose rates indicate the degree to which the SEPs affect the lower atmosphere and surface. We will present an overview of the MAVEN observations together with the MSL/RAD measurements and focus our discussion on a number of space weather events driven by CMEs and SEPs. During the March 2015 solar storm period, a succession of CMEs produced intense SEP proton fluxes that were detected by MAVEN/SEP in the 20 keV to 6 MeV detected energy channels. At higher energies, MAVEN/SEP record `FTO' SEP events that were triggered by > 13 MeV energetic protons passing through all three silicon detector layers (Front, Thick, and Open). Using the detector response matrix for an FTO event (incident energy vs detected energy), the minimum incident energy of the SEP protons observed in March 2015 was inferred to be > 40 MeV. The lack of any notable enhancements in the surface dose rate by MSL/RAD suggests that the highest incident energies of the SEP protons were 150 MeV SEP protons impacted the Martian atmosphere and surface. The source of the October 2015 SEP event was probably the CME that erupted near the solar west limb with respect to the Sun-Mars line. As part of the discussion, we will also show solar-heliospheric observations from near-Earth assets together with WSA-Enlil-cone results for some global heliospheric context.

  15. Prism-based single-camera system for stereo display (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Cui, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhiguo; Chen, Hongsheng; Fan, Heyu; Wu, Teresa


    This paper combines the prism and single camera and puts forward a method of stereo imaging with low cost. First of all, according to the principle of geometrical optics, we can deduce the relationship between the prism single-camera system and dual-camera system, and according to the principle of binocular vision we can deduce the relationship between binoculars and dual camera. Thus we can establish the relationship between the prism single-camera system and binoculars and get the positional relation of prism, camera, and object with the best effect of stereo display. Finally, using the active shutter stereo glasses of NVIDIA Company, we can realize the three-dimensional (3-D) display of the object. The experimental results show that the proposed approach can make use of the prism single-camera system to simulate the various observation manners of eyes. The stereo imaging system, which is designed by the method proposed by this paper, can restore the 3-D shape of the object being photographed factually.

  16. Reflectance Spectra Diversity of Silica-Rich Materials: Sensitivity to Environment and Implications for Detections on Mars (United States)

    Rice, M. S.; Cloutis, E. A.; Bell, J. F., III; Bish, D. L.; Horgan, B. H.; Mertzman, S. A.; Craig, M. A.; Renault, R. W.; Gautason, B.; Mountain, B.


    compositional diversity of silica-bearing deposits on Mars. We also discuss how these results can aid in the interpretation of silica detections on Mars made by the MER Panoramic Camera (Pancam) and Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mast-mounted Camera (Mastcam) instruments.

  17. Bringing a Chemical Laboratory Named Sam to Mars on the 2011 Curiosity Rover (United States)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Bleacher, L.; Jones, A.; Conrad, P. G.; Cabane, M.; Webster, C. R.; Atreya, S. A.; Manning, H.


    An important goal of upcoming missions to Mars is to understand if life could have developed there. The task of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite of instruments [1] and the other Curiosity investigations [2] is to move us steadily toward that goal with an assessment of the habitability of our neighboring planet through a series of chemical and geological measurements. SAM is designed to search for organic compounds and inorganic volatiles and measure isotope ratios. Other instruments on Curiosity will provide elemental analysis and identify minerals. SAM will analyze both atmospheric samples and gases evolved from powdered rocks that may have formed billions of years ago with Curiosity providing access to interesting sites scouted by orbiting cameras and spectrometers.

  18. Network science landers for Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harri, A.M.; Marsal, O.; Lognonne, P.


    by the Mars Express Orbiter that is expected to be functional during the NetLander Mission's operational phase. Communication between the landers and the Earth would take place via a data relay onboard the Mars Express Orbiter. (C) 1999 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.......The NetLander Mission will deploy four landers to the Martian surface. Each lander includes a network science payload with instrumentation for studying the interior of Mars, the atmosphere and the subsurface, as well as the ionospheric structure and geodesy. The NetLander Mission is the first......, ionospheric, geodetic measurements and ground penetrating radar mapping supported by panoramic images. The payloads also include entry phase measurements of the atmospheric vertical structure. The scientific data could be combined with simultaneous observations of the atmosphere and surface of Mars...

  19. Autonomous Multicamera Tracking on Embedded Smart Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bischof Horst


    Full Text Available There is currently a strong trend towards the deployment of advanced computer vision methods on embedded systems. This deployment is very challenging since embedded platforms often provide limited resources such as computing performance, memory, and power. In this paper we present a multicamera tracking method on distributed, embedded smart cameras. Smart cameras combine video sensing, processing, and communication on a single embedded device which is equipped with a multiprocessor computation and communication infrastructure. Our multicamera tracking approach focuses on a fully decentralized handover procedure between adjacent cameras. The basic idea is to initiate a single tracking instance in the multicamera system for each object of interest. The tracker follows the supervised object over the camera network, migrating to the camera which observes the object. Thus, no central coordination is required resulting in an autonomous and scalable tracking approach. We have fully implemented this novel multicamera tracking approach on our embedded smart cameras. Tracking is achieved by the well-known CamShift algorithm; the handover procedure is realized using a mobile agent system available on the smart camera network. Our approach has been successfully evaluated on tracking persons at our campus.

  20. The status of MUSIC: the multiwavelength sub-millimeter inductance camera (United States)

    Sayers, Jack; Bockstiegel, Clint; Brugger, Spencer; Czakon, Nicole G.; Day, Peter K.; Downes, Thomas P.; Duan, Ran P.; Gao, Jiansong; Gill, Amandeep K.; Glenn, Jason; Golwala, Sunil R.; Hollister, Matthew I.; Lam, Albert; LeDuc, Henry G.; Maloney, Philip R.; Mazin, Benjamin A.; McHugh, Sean G.; Miller, David A.; Mroczkowski, Anthony K.; Noroozian, Omid; Nguyen, Hien Trong; Schlaerth, James A.; Siegel, Seth R.; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Wilson, Philip R.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas


    The Multiwavelength Sub/millimeter Inductance Camera (MUSIC) is a four-band photometric imaging camera operating from the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). MUSIC is designed to utilize 2304 microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs), with 576 MKIDs for each observing band centered on 150, 230, 290, and 350 GHz. MUSIC's field of view (FOV) is 14' square, and the point-spread functions (PSFs) in the four observing bands have 45'', 31'', 25'', and 22'' full-widths at half maximum (FWHM). The camera was installed in April 2012 with 25% of its nominal detector count in each band, and has subsequently completed three short sets of engineering observations and one longer duration set of early science observations. Recent results from on-sky characterization of the instrument during these observing runs are presented, including achieved map- based sensitivities from deep integrations, along with results from lab-based measurements made during the same period. In addition, recent upgrades to MUSIC, which are expected to significantly improve the sensitivity of the camera, are described.

  1. Examining Mars with SPICE (United States)

    Acton, Charles H.; Bachman, Nathaniel J.; Bytof, Jeff A.; Semenov, Boris V.; Taber, William; Turner, F. Scott; Wright, Edward D.


    The International Mars Conference highlights the wealth of scientific data now and soon to be acquired from an international armada of Mars-bound robotic spacecraft. Underlying the planning and interpretation of these scientific observations around and upon Mars are ancillary data and associated software needed to deal with trajectories or locations, instrument pointing, timing and Mars cartographic models. The NASA planetary community has adopted the SPICE system of ancillary data standards and allied tools to fill the need for consistent, reliable access to these basic data and a near limitless range of derived parameters. After substantial rapid growth in its formative years, the SPICE system continues to evolve today to meet new needs and improve ease of use. Adaptations to handle landers and rovers were prototyped on the Mars pathfinder mission and will next be used on Mars '01-'05. Incorporation of new methods to readily handle non-inertial reference frames has vastly extended the capability and simplified many computations. A translation of the SPICE Toolkit software suite to the C language has just been announced. To further support cartographic calculations associated with Mars exploration the SPICE developers at JPL have recently been asked by NASA to work with cartographers to develop standards and allied software for storing and accessing control net and shape model data sets; these will be highly integrated with existing SPICE components. NASA specifically supports the widest possible utilization of SPICE capabilities throughout the international space science community. With NASA backing the Russian Space Agency and Russian Academy of Science adopted the SPICE standards for the Mars 96 mission. The SPICE ephemeris component will shortly become the international standard for agencies using the Deep Space Network. U.S. and European scientists hope that ESA will employ SPICE standards on the Mars Express mission. SPICE is an open set of standards, and

  2. The Use of Camera Traps in Wildlife

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Uçarlı


    Full Text Available Camera traps are increasingly used in the abundance and density estimates of wildlife species. Camera traps are very good alternative for direct observation in case, particularly, steep terrain, dense vegetation covered areas or nocturnal species. The main reason for the use of camera traps is eliminated that the economic, personnel and time loss in a continuous manner at the same time in different points. Camera traps, motion and heat sensitive, can take a photo or video according to the models. Crossover points and feeding or mating areas of the focal species are addressed as a priority camera trap set locations. The population size can be finding out by the images combined with Capture-Recapture methods. The population density came out the population size divided to effective sampling area size. Mating and breeding season, habitat choice, group structures and survival rates of the focal species can be achieved from the images. Camera traps are very useful to obtain the necessary data about the particularly mysterious species with economically in planning and conservation efforts.

  3. Continuous monitoring of Hawaiian volcanoes with thermal cameras (United States)

    Patrick, Matthew R.; Orr, Tim R.; Antolik, Loren; Lee, Robert Lopaka; Kamibayashi, Kevan P.


    Continuously operating thermal cameras are becoming more common around the world for volcano monitoring, and offer distinct advantages over conventional visual webcams for observing volcanic activity. Thermal cameras can sometimes “see” through volcanic fume that obscures views to visual webcams and the naked eye, and often provide a much clearer view of the extent of high temperature areas and activity levels. We describe a thermal camera network recently installed by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory to monitor Kīlauea’s summit and east rift zone eruptions (at Halema‘uma‘u and Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō craters, respectively) and to keep watch on Mauna Loa’s summit caldera. The cameras are long-wave, temperature-calibrated models protected in custom enclosures, and often positioned on crater rims close to active vents. Images are transmitted back to the observatory in real-time, and numerous Matlab scripts manage the data and provide automated analyses and alarms. The cameras have greatly improved HVO’s observations of surface eruptive activity, which includes highly dynamic lava lake activity at Halema‘uma‘u, major disruptions to Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō crater and several fissure eruptions.

  4. An origin of life on Mars. (United States)

    McKay, Christopher P


    Evidence of past liquid water on the surface of Mars suggests that this world once had habitable conditions and leads to the question of life. If there was life on Mars, it would be interesting to determine if it represented a separate origin from life on Earth. To determine the biochemistry and genetics of life on Mars requires that we have access to an organism or the biological remains of one-possibly preserved in ancient permafrost. A way to determine if organic material found on Mars represents the remains of an alien biological system could be based on the observation that biological systems select certain organic molecules over others that are chemically similar (e.g., chirality in amino acids).

  5. Mars @ ASDC (United States)

    Carraro, Francesco

    "Mars @ ASDC" is a project born with the goal of using the new web technologies to assist researches involved in the study of Mars. This project employs Mars map and javascript APIs provided by Google to visualize data acquired by space missions on the planet. So far, visualization of tracks acquired by MARSIS and regions observed by VIRTIS-Rosetta has been implemented. The main reason for the creation of this kind of tool is the difficulty in handling hundreds or thousands of acquisitions, like the ones from MARSIS, and the consequent difficulty in finding observations related to a particular region. This led to the development of a tool which allows to search for acquisitions either by defining the region of interest through a set of geometrical parameters or by manually selecting the region on the map through a few mouse clicks The system allows the visualization of tracks (acquired by MARSIS) or regions (acquired by VIRTIS-Rosetta) which intersect the user defined region. MARSIS tracks can be visualized both in Mercator and polar projections while the regions observed by VIRTIS can presently be visualized only in Mercator projection. The Mercator projection is the standard map provided by Google. The polar projections are provided by NASA and have been developed to be used in combination with APIs provided by Google The whole project has been developed following the "open source" philosophy: the client-side code which handles the functioning of the web page is written in javascript; the server-side code which executes the searches for tracks or regions is written in PHP and the DB which undergoes the system is MySQL.

  6. Atmosphere Assessment for MARS Science Laboratory Entry, Descent and Landing Operations (United States)

    Cianciolo, Alicia D.; Cantor, Bruce; Barnes, Jeff; Tyler, Daniel, Jr.; Rafkin, Scot; Chen, Allen; Kass, David; Mischna, Michael; Vasavada, Ashwin R.


    On August 6, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, successfully landed on the surface of Mars. The Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) sequence was designed using atmospheric conditions estimated from mesoscale numerical models. The models, developed by two independent organizations (Oregon State University and the Southwest Research Institute), were validated against observations at Mars from three prior years. In the weeks and days before entry, the MSL "Council of Atmospheres" (CoA), a group of atmospheric scientists and modelers, instrument experts and EDL simulation engineers, evaluated the latest Mars data from orbiting assets including the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Mars Color Imager (MARCI) and Mars Climate Sounder (MCS), as well as Mars Odyssey's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The observations were compared to the mesoscale models developed for EDL performance simulation to determine if a spacecraft parameter update was necessary prior to entry. This paper summarizes the daily atmosphere observations and comparison to the performance simulation atmosphere models. Options to modify the atmosphere model in the simulation to compensate for atmosphere effects are also presented. Finally, a summary of the CoA decisions and recommendations to the MSL project in the days leading up to EDL is provided.

  7. Wet Mars, Dry Mars (United States)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brain, D. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K. W.; Thrall, L.


    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This poster highlights the third in a series of presentations that target school-age audiences with the overall goal of helping the audience visualize planetary magnetic field and understand how they can impact the climatic evolution of a planet. Our first presentation, "Goldilocks and the Three Planets," targeted to elementary school age audiences, focuses on the differences in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars and the causes of the differences. The second presentation, "Lost on Mars (and Venus)," geared toward a middle school age audience, highlights the differences in the magnetic fields of these planets and what we can learn from these differences. Finally, in the third presentation, "Wet Mars, Dry Mars," targeted to high school age audiences and the focus of this poster, the emphasis is on the long term climatic affects of the presence or absence of a magnetic field using the contrasts between Earth and Mars. These presentations are given using visually engaging spherical displays in conjunction with hands-on activities and scientifically accurate 3D models of planetary magnetic fields. We will summarize the content of our presentations, discuss our lessons learned from evaluations, and show (pictures of) our hands-on activities and 3D models.

  8. The Viking mission search for life on Mars (United States)

    Klein, H. P.; Lederberg, J.; Rich, A.; Horowitz, N. H.; Oyama, V. I.; Levin, G. V.


    The scientific payload on the Viking Mars landers is described. Shortly after landing, two facsimile cameras capable of stereoscopic imaging will scan the landing site area in black and white, color, and infrared to reveal gross evidence of past or present living systems. A wide range mass spectrometer will record a complete mass spectrum for soil samples from mass 12 to mass 200 every 10.3 sec. Three experiments based on different assumptions on the nature of life on Mars, if it exists, will be carried out by the bio-lab. A pyrolytic release experiment is designed to measure photosynthetic or dark fixation of carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide into organic compounds. A labelled release experiment will test for metabolic activity during incubation of a surface sample moistened with a solution of radioactively labelled simple organic compounds. A gas exchange experiment will detect changes in the gaseous medium surrounding a soil sample as the result of metabolic activity. The hardware, function, and terrestrial test results of the bio-lab experiments are discussed.

  9. Toe of Ganges Chasma Landslide ( 8.0 S, 44.4W) (United States)


    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows shear striations, dark dunes banked up against the toe of the slide and over-riding light-toned ripples and boulders on surface of slide. These features can be used to determine quantitative aspects of surface processes.Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  10. Underwater television camera for monitoring inner side of pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Kazuhiko.


    An underwater television support device equipped with a rotatable and vertically movable underwater television camera and an underwater television camera controlling device for monitoring images of the inside of the reactor core photographed by the underwater television camera to control the position of the underwater television camera and the underwater light are disposed on an upper lattice plate of a reactor pressure vessel. Both of them are electrically connected with each other by way of a cable to rapidly observe the inside of the reactor core by the underwater television camera. The reproducibility is extremely satisfactory by efficiently concentrating the position of the camera and image information upon inspection and observation. As a result, the steps for periodical inspection can be reduced to shorten the days for the periodical inspection. Since there is no requirement to withdraw fuel assemblies over a wide reactor core region, and the device can be used with the fuel assemblies being left as they are in the reactor, it is suitable for inspection of detectors for nuclear instrumentation. (N.H.)

  11. Development of underwater camera using high-definition camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kenji; Watanabe, Masato; Takashima, Masanobu; Kawamura, Shingo; Tanaka, Hiroyuki


    In order to reduce the time for core verification or visual inspection of BWR fuels, the underwater camera using a High-Definition camera has been developed. As a result of this development, the underwater camera has 2 lights and 370 x 400 x 328mm dimensions and 20.5kg weight. Using the camera, 6 or so spent-fuel IDs are identified at 1 or 1.5m distance at a time, and 0.3mmφ pin-hole is recognized at 1.5m distance and 20 times zoom-up. Noises caused by radiation less than 15 Gy/h are not affected the images. (author)

  12. A synthesis of Martian aqueous mineralogy after 1 Mars year of observations from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (United States)

    Murchie, S.L.; Mustard, J.F.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Milliken, R.E.; Bishop, J.L.; McKeown, N.K.; Noe Dobrea, E.Z.; Seelos, F.P.; Buczkowski, D.L.; Wiseman, S.M.; Arvidson, R. E.; Wray, J.J.; Swayze, G.; Clark, R.N.; Des Marais, D.J.; McEwen, A.S.; Bibring, J.-P.


    Martian aqueous mineral deposits have been examined and characterized using data acquired during Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's (MRO) primary science phase, including Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars hyperspectral images covering the 0.4-3.9 ??m wavelength range, coordinated with higher-spatial resolution HiRISE and Context Imager images. MRO's new high-resolution measurements, combined with earlier data from Thermal Emission Spectrometer; Thermal Emission Imaging System; and Observatoire pour la Min??ralogie, L'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activiti?? on Mars Express, indicate that aqueous minerals are both diverse and widespread on the Martian surface. The aqueous minerals occur in 9-10 classes of deposits characterized by distinct mineral assemblages, morphologies, and geologic settings. Phyllosilicates occur in several settings: in compositionally layered blankets hundreds of meters thick, superposed on eroded Noachian terrains; in lower layers of intracrater depositional fans; in layers with potential chlorides in sediments on intercrater plains; and as thousands of deep exposures in craters and escarpments. Carbonate-bearing rocks form a thin unit surrounding the Isidis basin. Hydrated silica occurs with hydrated sulfates in thin stratified deposits surrounding Valles Marineris. Hydrated sulfates also occur together with crystalline ferric minerals in thick, layered deposits in Terra Meridiani and in Valles Marineris and together with kaolinite in deposits that partially infill some highland craters. In this paper we describe each of the classes of deposits, review hypotheses for their origins, identify new questions posed by existing measurements, and consider their implications for ancient habitable environments. On the basis of current data, two to five classes of Noachian-aged deposits containing phyllosilicates and carbonates may have formed in aqueous environments with pH and water activities suitable for life. Copyright 2009 by the American

  13. An Origin of Life on Mars (United States)

    McKay, Christopher P.


    Evidence of past liquid water on the surface of Mars suggests that this world once had habitable conditions and leads to the question of life. If there was life on Mars, it would be interesting to determine if it represented a separate origin from life on Earth. To determine the biochemistry and genetics of life on Mars requires that we have access to an organism or the biological remains of one—possibly preserved in ancient permafrost. A way to determine if organic material found on Mars represents the remains of an alien biological system could be based on the observation that biological systems select certain organic molecules over others that are chemically similar (e.g., chirality in amino acids). PMID:20452949

  14. The Topography of Mars: Understanding the Surface of Mars Through the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (United States)

    Derby, C. A.; Neumann, G. A.; Sakimoto, S. E.


    The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter has been orbiting Mars since 1997 and has measured the topography of Mars with a meter of vertical accuracy. This new information has improved our understanding of both the surface and the interior of Mars. The topographic globe and the labeled topographic map of Mars illustrate these new data in a format that can be used in a classroom setting. The map is color shaded to show differences in elevation on Mars, presenting Mars with a different perspective than traditional geological and geographic maps. Through the differences in color, students can see Mars as a three-dimensional surface and will be able to recognize features that are invisible in imagery. The accompanying lesson plans are designed for middle school science students and can be used both to teach information about Mars as a planet and Mars in comparison to Earth, fitting both the solar system unit and the Earth science unit in a middle school curriculum. The lessons are referenced to the National Benchmark standards for students in grades 6-8 and cover topics such as Mars exploration, the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, resolution and powers of 10, gravity, craters, seismic waves and the interior structure of a planet, isostasy, and volcanoes. Each lesson is written in the 5 E format and includes a student content activity and an extension showing current applications of Mars and MOLA data. These activities can be found at Funding for this project was provided by the Maryland Space Grant Consortium and the MOLA Science Team, Goddard Space Flight Center.

  15. Overview of the Atmosphere and Environment within Gale Crater on Mars (United States)

    Vasavada, A. R.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Crisp, J. A.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Webster, C. R.


    Curiosity's mission at Gale Crater places a number of highly capable atmospheric and environmental sensors within a dynamic setting: next to a 5-km mountain within a 150-km diameter impact crater whose floor is -4.5 km. Curiosity's scientific payload was chosen primarily to allow a geologic and geochemical investigation of Mars' environmental history and habitability, as preserved in the layered sediments on the crater floor and mound. Atmospheric and environmental sensors will contribute by measuring the bulk atmospheric chemical and isotopic composition, the flux of high-energy particle and ultraviolet radiation after modification by the atmosphere, and modern processes related to meteorology and climate over at least one Mars year. The Sample Analysis at Mars instrument will analyze the atmosphere with its mass spectrometer and tunable laser spectrometer. The former is capable of providing bulk composition and isotopic ratios of relevance to planetary evolution, such as nitrogen and noble gases. The latter is designed to acquire high-precision measurements of atmospheric species including CH4, CO2, and H2O, and key isotope ratios in H, C, and O. An important goal will be to compare CH4 abundance and time variability over the mission with the reported detections from the Mars Express orbiter and ground-based observations. The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) measures a broad spectrum of high-energy radiation incident at the surface, including secondary particles created via interactions of galactic cosmic rays and solar protons with Mars' atmospheric constituents. Curiosity's Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) carries six ultraviolet sensors, spanning 200-380 nm. For the first time, both the high-energy and ultraviolet radiation measured at the surface can be compared with measurements above the atmosphere, acquired by other platforms. Modern meteorology and the climatology of dust and water will be studied using the rover's cameras and REMS

  16. Spectral heterogeneity on Phobos and Deimos: HiRISE observations and comparisons to Mars Pathfinder results (United States)

    Thomas, N.; Stelter, R.; Ivanov, A.; Bridges, N.T.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; McEwen, A.S.


    The High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) has been used to observe Phobos and Deimos at spatial scales of around 6 and 20 m/px, respectively. HiRISE (McEwen et al.; JGR, 112, CiteID E05S02, DOI: 10.1029/2005JE002605, 2007) has provided, for the first time, high-resolution colour images of the surfaces of the Martian moons. When processed, by the production of colour ratio images for example, the data show considerable small-scale heterogeneity, which might be attributable to fresh impacts exposing different materials otherwise largely hidden by a homogenous regolith. The bluer material that is draped over the south-eastern rim of the largest crater on Phobos, Stickney, has been perforated by an impact to reveal redder material and must therefore be relatively thin. A fresh impact with dark crater rays has been identified. Previously identified mass-wasting features in Stickney and Limtoc craters stand out strongly in colour. The interior deposits in Stickney appear more inhomogeneous than previously suspected. Several other local colour variations are also evident. Deimos is more uniform in colour but does show some small-scale inhomogeneity. The bright streamers (Thomas et al.; Icarus, 123, 536556,1996) are relatively blue. One crater to the south-west of Voltaire and its surroundings appear quite strongly reddened with respect to the rest of the surface. The reddening of the surroundings may be the result of ejecta from this impact. The spectral gradients at optical wavelengths observed for both Phobos and Deimos are quantitatively in good agreement with those found by unresolved photometric observations made by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP; Thomas et al.; JGR, 104, 90559068, 1999). The spectral gradients of the blue and red units on Phobos bracket the results from IMP. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sub-Camera Calibration of a Penta-Camera (United States)

    Jacobsen, K.; Gerke, M.


    Penta cameras consisting of a nadir and four inclined cameras are becoming more and more popular, having the advantage of imaging also facades in built up areas from four directions. Such system cameras require a boresight calibration of the geometric relation of the cameras to each other, but also a calibration of the sub-cameras. Based on data sets of the ISPRS/EuroSDR benchmark for multi platform photogrammetry the inner orientation of the used IGI Penta DigiCAM has been analyzed. The required image coordinates of the blocks Dortmund and Zeche Zollern have been determined by Pix4Dmapper and have been independently adjusted and analyzed by program system BLUH. With 4.1 million image points in 314 images respectively 3.9 million image points in 248 images a dense matching was provided by Pix4Dmapper. With up to 19 respectively 29 images per object point the images are well connected, nevertheless the high number of images per object point are concentrated to the block centres while the inclined images outside the block centre are satisfying but not very strongly connected. This leads to very high values for the Student test (T-test) of the finally used additional parameters or in other words, additional parameters are highly significant. The estimated radial symmetric distortion of the nadir sub-camera corresponds to the laboratory calibration of IGI, but there are still radial symmetric distortions also for the inclined cameras with a size exceeding 5μm even if mentioned as negligible based on the laboratory calibration. Radial and tangential effects of the image corners are limited but still available. Remarkable angular affine systematic image errors can be seen especially in the block Zeche Zollern. Such deformations are unusual for digital matrix cameras, but it can be caused by the correlation between inner and exterior orientation if only parallel flight lines are used. With exception of the angular affinity the systematic image errors for corresponding

  18. Relative camera localisation in non-overlapping camera networks using multiple trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    John, V.; Englebienne, G.; Kröse, B.J.A.


    In this article we present an automatic camera calibration algorithm using multiple trajectories in a multiple camera network with non-overlapping field-of-views (FOV). Visible trajectories within a camera FOV are assumed to be measured with respect to the camera local co-ordinate system.

  19. Real-time vehicle matching for multi-camera tunnel surveillance (United States)

    Jelača, Vedran; Niño Castañeda, Jorge Oswaldo; Frías-Velázquez, Andrés; Pižurica, Aleksandra; Philips, Wilfried


    Tracking multiple vehicles with multiple cameras is a challenging problem of great importance in tunnel surveillance. One of the main challenges is accurate vehicle matching across the cameras with non-overlapping fields of view. Since systems dedicated to this task can contain hundreds of cameras which observe dozens of vehicles each, for a real-time performance computational efficiency is essential. In this paper, we propose a low complexity, yet highly accurate method for vehicle matching using vehicle signatures composed of Radon transform like projection profiles of the vehicle image. The proposed signatures can be calculated by a simple scan-line algorithm, by the camera software itself and transmitted to the central server or to the other cameras in a smart camera environment. The amount of data is drastically reduced compared to the whole image, which relaxes the data link capacity requirements. Experiments on real vehicle images, extracted from video sequences recorded in a tunnel by two distant security cameras, validate our approach.

  20. Modeling the hydrological cycle on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Machtoub


    Full Text Available The study provides a detailed analysis of the hydrological cycle on Mars simulated with a newly developed microphysical model, incorporated in a spectral Mars General Circulation Model. The modeled hydrological cycle is compared well with simulations of other global climate models. The simulated seasonal migration ofwater vapor, circulation instability, and the high degree of temporal variability of localized water vapor outbursts are shown closely consistent with recent observations. The microphysical parameterization provides a significant improvement in the modeling of ice clouds evolved over the tropics and major ancient volcanoes on Mars. The most significant difference between the simulations presented here and other GCM results is the level at which the water ice clouds are found. The model findings also support interpretation of observed thermal anomalies in the Martian tropics during northern spring and summer seasons.

  1. Mars Science Laboratory Heatshield Flight Data Analysis (United States)

    Mahzari, Milad; White, Todd


    NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), which landed the Curiosity rover on the surface of Mars on August 5th, 2012, was the largest and heaviest Mars entry vehicle representing a significant advancement in planetary entry, descent and landing capability. Hypersonic flight performance data was collected using MSLs on-board sensors called Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Instrumentation (MEDLI). This talk will give an overview of MSL entry and a description of MEDLI sensors. Observations from flight data will be examined followed by a discussion of analysis efforts to reconstruct surface heating from heatshields in-depth temperature measurements. Finally, a brief overview of MEDLI2 instrumentation, which will fly on NASAs Mars2020 mission, will be presented with a discussion on how lessons learned from MEDLI data affected the design of MEDLI2 instrumentation.

  2. Viking orbiter imaging observations of dust in the Martian atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, G.A.; Baum, W.A.; Barnes, J.


    More than 20 local Martian dust clouds and two global dust storms were observed with the Viking orbiter camera. Sixteen of the local clouds were imaged in two colors or were observed with other instruments confirming their identification as dust clouds. These Viking results are compared with earth-based observations of Martian dust storms and with Mariner 9 data. Most of the dust activity seen by Viking occurred during southern hemisphere spring and early summer, when Mars was near perihelion and isolation was near maximum. About half the local clouds occurred near the edge of the southern polar cap, where winds are presumably enhanced by a strong regional temperature gradient. The other half occurred mainly in the southern hemisphere near regions where circulation models incorporating topography predict positive vertical velocities. Although dust clouds observed from earth show a similar partial correlation with models, some ambiguity exists concerning interpretation of regions near Hellespontus that have spawned the most spectacular Martian dust storms on record

  3. EU-FP7-iMARS: analysis of Mars multi-resolution images using auto-coregistration, data mining and crowd source techniques (United States)

    Ivanov, Anton; Muller, Jan-Peter; Tao, Yu; Kim, Jung-Rack; Gwinner, Klaus; Van Gasselt, Stephan; Morley, Jeremy; Houghton, Robert; Bamford, Steven; Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Fanara, Lida; Waenlish, Marita; Walter, Sebastian; Steinkert, Ralf; Schreiner, Bjorn; Cantini, Federico; Wardlaw, Jessica; Sprinks, James; Giordano, Michele; Marsh, Stuart


    Understanding planetary atmosphere-surface and extra-terrestrial-surface formation processes within our Solar System is one of the fundamental goals of planetary science research. There has been a revolution in planetary surface observations over the last 15 years, especially in 3D imaging of surface shape. This has led to the ability to be able to overlay different epochs back in time to the mid 1970s, to examine time-varying changes, such as the recent discovery of mass movement, tracking inter-year seasonal changes and looking for occurrences of fresh craters. Within the EU FP-7 iMars project, UCL have developed a fully automated multi-resolution DTM processing chain, called the Co-registration ASP-Gotcha Optimised (CASP-GO), based on the open source NASA Ames Stereo Pipeline (ASP), which is being applied to the production of planetwide DTMs and ORIs (OrthoRectified Images) from CTX and HiRISE. Alongside the production of individual strip CTX & HiRISE DTMs & ORIs, DLR have processed HRSC mosaics of ORIs and DTMs for complete areas in a consistent manner using photogrammetric bundle block adjustment techniques. A novel automated co-registration and orthorectification chain has been developed and is being applied to level-1 EDR images taken by the 4 NASA orbital cameras since 1976 using the HRSC map products (both mosaics and orbital strips) as a map-base. The project has also included Mars Radar profiles from Mars Express and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter missions. A webGIS has been developed for displaying this time sequence of imagery and a demonstration will be shown applied to one of the map-sheets. Automated quality control techniques are applied to screen for suitable images and these are extended to detect temporal changes in features on the surface such as mass movements, streaks, spiders, impact craters, CO2 geysers and Swiss Cheese terrain. These data mining techniques are then being employed within a citizen science project within the Zooniverse family

  4. Visual Positioning Indoors: Human Eyes vs. Smartphone Cameras. (United States)

    Wu, Dewen; Chen, Ruizhi; Chen, Liang


    Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies and their related applications are now developing at a rapid pace. Indoor positioning will be one of the core technologies that enable AI applications because people spend 80% of their time indoors. Humans can locate themselves related to a visually well-defined object, e.g., a door, based on their visual observations. Can a smartphone camera do a similar job when it points to an object? In this paper, a visual positioning solution was developed based on a single image captured from a smartphone camera pointing to a well-defined object. The smartphone camera simulates the process of human eyes for the purpose of relatively locating themselves against a well-defined object. Extensive experiments were conducted with five types of smartphones on three different indoor settings, including a meeting room, a library, and a reading room. Experimental results shown that the average positioning accuracy of the solution based on five smartphone cameras is 30.6 cm, while that for the human-observed solution with 300 samples from 10 different people is 73.1 cm.

  5. Development and setting of a time-lapse video camera system for the Antarctic lake observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakae Kudoh


    Full Text Available A submersible video camera system, which aimed to record the growth image of aquatic vegetation in Antarctic lakes for one year, was manufactured. The system consisted of a video camera, a programmable controller unit, a lens-cleaning wiper with a submersible motor, LED lights, and a lithium ion battery unit. Changes of video camera (High Vision System and modification of the lens-cleaning wiper allowed higher sensitivity and clearer recording images compared to the previous submersible video without increasing the power consumption. This system was set on the lake floor in Lake Naga Ike (a tentative name in Skarvsnes in Soya Coast, during the summer activity of the 51th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition. Interval record of underwater visual image for one year have been started by our diving operation.

  6. First results of the observations of trace gases in the Martian atmosphere by the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer onboard the Mars Express (United States)

    Titov, D. V.; Ignatiev, N.; Formisano, V.; Grassi, D.; Giuranna, M.; Maturilli, A.; Piccioni, G.; Moroz, V. I.; Lellouch, E.; Encrenaz, T.; Pfs Team

    High spectral resolution observations of Mars by the PFS/Mars Express provide new insight into the atmospheric composition. Spectral features of atmospheric CO2 and its isotopes at 15, 4.3, 2.7, 1.4 μ m, CO at 4.7 and 2.35 μ m, and H2O at 40, 2.56, and 1.38 μ m as well as solar spectral features are clearly identified in the PFS spectra. HDO spectral details at 3.7 μ m were also tentatively detected. The paper will present qualitative and quantitative analysis of the PFS spectra in the regions of spectral bands of trace gases. Abundance of minor constituents will be determined using complete radiative transfer modeling including possible non-LTE effects. We will also present results of search for other minor species with emphasis on the limb observations that provide higher air mass factor.

  7. An improved gravity model for Mars: Goddard Mars Model 1 (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Zuber, M. T.; Patel, G. B.; Fricke, S. K.; Lemoine, F. G.


    Doppler tracking data of three orbiting spacecraft have been reanalyzed to develop a new gravitational field model for the planet Mars, Goddard Mars Model 1 (GMM-1). This model employs nearly all available data, consisting of approximately 1100 days of S band tracking data collected by NASA's Deep Space Network from the Mariner 9 and Viking 1 and Viking 2 spacecraft, in seven different orbits, between 1971 and 1979. GMM-1 is complete to spherical harmonic degree and order 50, which corresponds to a half-wavelength spatial resolution of 200-300 km where the data permit. GMM-1 represents satellite orbits with considerably better accuracy than previous Mars gravity models and shows greater resolution of identifiable geological structures. The notable improvement in GMM-1 over previous models is a consequence of several factors: improved computational capabilities, the use of otpimum weighting and least squares collocation solution techniques which stabilized the behavior of the solution at high degree and order, and the use of longer satellite arcs than employed in previous solutions that were made possible by improved force and measurement models. The inclusion of X band tracking data from the 379-km altitude, nnear-polar orbiting Mars Observer spacecraft should provide a significant improvement over GMM-1, particularly at high latitudes where current data poorly resolve the gravitational signature of the planet.

  8. The Electrostatic Environments of Mars: Atmospheric Discharges (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.; Mackey, Paul J.; Johansen, Michael R.; Hogue, Michael D.; Phillips, James, III; Cox, Rachel E.


    The electrostatic environment on Mars is controlled by its ever present atmospheric dust. Dust devils and dust storms tribocharge this dust. Theoretical studies predict that lightning and/or glow discharges should be present on Mars, but none have been directly observed. Experiments are planned to shed light on this issue.

  9. Using a slit lamp-mounted digital high-speed camera for dynamic observation of phakic lenses during eye movements: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leitritz MA


    Full Text Available Martin Alexander Leitritz, Focke Ziemssen, Karl Ulrich Bartz-Schmidt, Bogomil Voykov Centre for Ophthalmology, University Eye Hospital, Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany Purpose: To evaluate a digital high-speed camera combined with digital morphometry software for dynamic measurements of phakic intraocular lens movements to observe kinetic influences, particularly in fast direction changes and at lateral end points. Materials and methods: A high-speed camera taking 300 frames per second observed movements of eight iris-claw intraocular lenses and two angle-supported intraocular lenses. Standardized saccades were performed by the patients to trigger mass inertia with lens position changes. Freeze images with maximum deviation were used for digital software-based morphometry analysis with ImageJ.Results: Two eyes from each of five patients (median age 32 years, range 28–45 years without findings other than refractive errors were included. The high-speed images showed sufficient usability for further morphometric processing. In the primary eye position, the median decentrations downward and in a lateral direction were -0.32 mm (range -0.69 to 0.024 and 0.175 mm (range -0.37 to 0.45, respectively. Despite the small sample size of asymptomatic patients, we found a considerable amount of lens dislocation. The median distance amplitude during eye movements was 0.158 mm (range 0.02–0.84. There was a slight positive corrlation (r=0.39, P<0.001 between the grade of deviation in the primary position and the distance increase triggered by movements.Conclusion: With the use of a slit lamp-mounted high-speed camera system and morphometry software, observation and objective measurements of iris-claw intraocular lenses and angle-supported intraocular lenses movements seem to be possible. Slight decentration in the primary position might be an indicator of increased lens mobility during kinetic stress during eye movements

  10. Vibration and Acoustic Testing for Mars Micromission Spacecraft (United States)

    Kern, Dennis L.; Scharton, Terry D.


    The objective of the Mars Micromission program being managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for NASA is to develop a common spacecraft that can carry telecommunications equipment and a variety of science payloads for exploration of Mars. The spacecraft will be capable of carrying robot landers and rovers, cameras, probes, balloons, gliders or aircraft, and telecommunications equipment to Mars at much lower cost than recent NASA Mars missions. The lightweight spacecraft (about 220 Kg mass) will be launched in a cooperative venture with CNES as a TWIN auxiliary payload on the Ariane 5 launch vehicle. Two or more Mars Micromission launches are planned for each Mars launch opportunity, which occur every 26 months. The Mars launch window for the first mission is November 1, 2002 through April 2003, which is planned to be a Mars airplane technology demonstration mission to coincide with the 100 year anniversary of the Kittyhawk flight. Several subsequent launches will create a telecommunications network orbiting Mars, which will provide for continuous communication with lenders and rovers on the Martian surface. Dedicated science payload flights to Mars are slated to start in 2005. This new cheaper and faster approach to Mars exploration calls for innovative approaches to the qualification of the Mars Micromission spacecraft for the Ariane 5 launch vibration and acoustic environments. JPL has in recent years implemented new approaches to spacecraft testing that may be effectively applied to the Mars Micromission. These include 1) force limited vibration testing, 2) combined loads, vibration and modal testing, and 3) direct acoustic testing. JPL has performed nearly 200 force limited vibration tests in the past 9 years; several of the tests were on spacecraft and large instruments, including the Cassini and Deep Space One spacecraft. Force limiting, which measures and limits the spacecraft base reaction force using triaxial force gages sandwiched between the

  11. Thermal Analysis of MIRIS Space Observation Camera for Verification of Passive Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duk-Hang Lee


    Full Text Available We conducted thermal analyses and cooling tests of the space observation camera (SOC of the multi-purpose infrared imaging system (MIRIS to verify passive cooling. The thermal analyses were conducted with NX 7.0 TMG for two cases of attitude of the MIRIS: for the worst hot case and normal case. Through the thermal analyses of the flight model, it was found that even in the worst case the telescope could be cooled to less than 206°K. This is similar to the results of the passive cooling test (~200.2°K. For the normal attitude case of the analysis, on the other hand, the SOC telescope was cooled to about 160°K in 10 days. Based on the results of these analyses and the test, it was determined that the telescope of the MIRIS SOC could be successfully cooled to below 200°K with passive cooling. The SOC is, therefore, expected to have optimal performance under cooled conditions in orbit.

  12. Interactive 3D Mars Visualization (United States)

    Powell, Mark W.


    The Interactive 3D Mars Visualization system provides high-performance, immersive visualization of satellite and surface vehicle imagery of Mars. The software can be used in mission operations to provide the most accurate position information for the Mars rovers to date. When integrated into the mission data pipeline, this system allows mission planners to view the location of the rover on Mars to 0.01-meter accuracy with respect to satellite imagery, with dynamic updates to incorporate the latest position information. Given this information so early in the planning process, rover drivers are able to plan more accurate drive activities for the rover than ever before, increasing the execution of science activities significantly. Scientifically, this 3D mapping information puts all of the science analyses to date into geologic context on a daily basis instead of weeks or months, as was the norm prior to this contribution. This allows the science planners to judge the efficacy of their previously executed science observations much more efficiently, and achieve greater science return as a result. The Interactive 3D Mars surface view is a Mars terrain browsing software interface that encompasses the entire region of exploration for a Mars surface exploration mission. The view is interactive, allowing the user to pan in any direction by clicking and dragging, or to zoom in or out by scrolling the mouse or touchpad. This set currently includes tools for selecting a point of interest, and a ruler tool for displaying the distance between and positions of two points of interest. The mapping information can be harvested and shared through ubiquitous online mapping tools like Google Mars, NASA WorldWind, and Worldwide Telescope.

  13. Invariant Observer-Based State Estimation for Micro-Aerial Vehicles in GPS-Denied Indoor Environments Using an RGB-D Camera and MEMS Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dachuan Li


    Full Text Available This paper presents a non-linear state observer-based integrated navigation scheme for estimating the attitude, position and velocity of micro aerial vehicles (MAV operating in GPS-denied indoor environments, using the measurements from low-cost MEMS (micro electro-mechanical systems inertial sensors and an RGB-D camera. A robust RGB-D visual odometry (VO approach was developed to estimate the MAV’s relative motion by extracting and matching features captured by the RGB-D camera from the environment. The state observer of the RGB-D visual-aided inertial navigation was then designed based on the invariant observer theory for systems possessing symmetries. The motion estimates from the RGB-D VO were fused with inertial and magnetic measurements from the onboard MEMS sensors via the state observer, providing the MAV with accurate estimates of its full six degree-of-freedom states. Implementations on a quadrotor MAV and indoor flight test results demonstrate that the resulting state observer is effective in estimating the MAV’s states without relying on external navigation aids such as GPS. The properties of computational efficiency and simplicity in gain tuning make the proposed invariant observer-based navigation scheme appealing for actual MAV applications in indoor environments.

  14. Observation of Possible Lava Tube Skylights by SELENE cameras (United States)

    Haruyama, Junichi; Hiesinger, Harald; van der Bogert, Carolyn

    We have discovered three deep hole-structures on the Moon in the Terrain Camera and Multi-band Imager on the SELENE. These holes are large depth to diameter ratios: Marius Hills Hole (MHH) is 65 m in diameter and 88-90 m in depth, Mare Tranquillitatis Hole (MTH) is 120 x 110 m in diameter and 180 m in depth, and Mare Ingenii Hole (MIH) is 140 x 110 m in diameter and deeper than 90 m. No volcanic material from the holes nor dike-relating pit craters is seen around the holes. They are possible lava tube skylights. These holes and possibly connected tubes have a lot of scientific interests and high potentialities as lunar bases.

  15. Thermal inertia and surface heterogeneity on Mars (United States)

    Putzig, Nathaniel E.

    Thermal inertia derived from temperature observations is critical for understanding surface geology and assessing potential landing sites on Mars. Derivation methods generally assume uniform surface properties for any given observation. Consequently, horizontal heterogeneity and near-surface layering may yield apparent thermal inertia that varies with time of day and season. To evaluate the effects of horizontal heterogeneity, I modeled the thermal behavior of surfaces containing idealized material mixtures (dust, sand, duricrust, and rocks) and differing slope facets. These surfaces exhibit diurnal and seasonal variability in apparent thermal inertia of several 100 tiu, 1 even for components with moderately contrasting thermal properties. To isolate surface effects on the derived thermal inertia of Mars, I mapped inter- annual and seasonal changes in albedo and atmospheric dust opacity, accounting for their effects in a modified derivation algorithm. Global analysis of three Mars years of MGS-TES 2 data reveals diurnal and seasonal variations of ~200 tiu in the mid-latitudes and 600 tiu or greater in the polar regions. Correlation of TES results and modeled apparent thermal inertia of heterogeneous surfaces indicates pervasive surface heterogeneity on Mars. At TES resolution, the near-surface thermal response is broadly dominated by layering and is consistent with the presence of duricrusts over fines in the mid-latitudes and dry soils over ground ice in the polar regions. Horizontal surface mixtures also play a role and may dominate at higher resolution. In general, thermal inertia obtained from single observations or annually averaged maps may misrepresent surface properties. In lieu of a robust heterogeneous- surface derivation technique, repeat coverage can be used together with forward-modeling results to constrain the near-surface heterogeneity of Mars. 1 tiu == J m -2 K -1 s - 2 Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer

  16. Mobile phone camera benchmarking: combination of camera speed and image quality (United States)

    Peltoketo, Veli-Tapani


    When a mobile phone camera is tested and benchmarked, the significance of quality metrics is widely acknowledged. There are also existing methods to evaluate the camera speed. For example, ISO 15781 defines several measurements to evaluate various camera system delays. However, the speed or rapidity metrics of the mobile phone's camera system have not been used with the quality metrics even if the camera speed has become more and more important camera performance feature. There are several tasks in this work. Firstly, the most important image quality metrics are collected from the standards and papers. Secondly, the speed related metrics of a mobile phone's camera system are collected from the standards and papers and also novel speed metrics are identified. Thirdly, combinations of the quality and speed metrics are validated using mobile phones in the market. The measurements are done towards application programming interface of different operating system. Finally, the results are evaluated and conclusions are made. The result of this work gives detailed benchmarking results of mobile phone camera systems in the market. The paper defines also a proposal of combined benchmarking metrics, which includes both quality and speed parameters.

  17. Modeling and observational occurrences of near-surface drainage in Utopia Planitia, Mars (United States)

    Costard, F.; Sejourne, A.; Kargel, J.; Godin, E.


    During the past 15 years, evidence for an ice-rich planet Mars has rapidly mounted, become increasingly varied in terms of types of deposits and types of observational data, and has become more widespread across the surface. The mid-latitudes of Mars, especially Utopia Planitia, show many types of interesting landforms similar to those in periglacial landscapes on Earth that suggest the presence of ice-rich permafrost. These include thermal contraction polygonal networks, scalloped terrains similar to thermokarst pits, debris flows, small mounds like pingos and rock glaciers. Here, we address questions concerning the influence of meltwater in the Utopia Planitia (UP) landscape using analogs of near-surface melting and drainage along ice-wedge troughs on Bylot Island, northern Canada. In Utopia Planitia, based on the identification of sinuous channel-like pits within polygonal networks, we suggest that episodic underground melting was possible under severe periglacial climate conditions. In UP, the collapse pattern and morphology of unconnected sinuous elongated pits that follow the polygon crack are similar to underground melting in Bylot Island (Nunavut, Canada). Based on this terrestrial analogue, we develop a thermal model that consists of a thick insulating dusty layer over ice-saturated dust during a period of slight climatic warming relative to today's climate. In the model, the melting point is reached at depths down to 150 m. We suggest that small-scale melting could have occurred below ground within ground-ice polygonal fractures and pooled in underground cavities. Then the water may have been released episodically causing mechanical erosion as well as undermining and collapse. After melting, the dry surface dusty layer might have been blown away, thus exposing the degraded terrain of the substrate layer.

  18. High-Altitude Closed Magnetic Loops at Mars Observed by MAVEN (United States)

    Xu, Shaosui; Mitchell, David; Luhmann, Janet; Ma, Yingjuan; Fang, Xiaohua; Harada, Yuki; Hara, Takuya; Brain, David; Weber, Tristan; Mazelle, Christian; DiBraccio, Gina A.


    With electron and magnetic field data obtained by the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft, we have identified closed magnetic field lines, with both foot points embedded in the dayside ionosphere, extending up to 6,200 km altitude into the Martian tail. This topology is deduced from photoelectrons produced in the dayside ionosphere being observed traveling both parallel and antiparallel to the magnetic field. At trapped-zone pitch angles (within a range centered on 90° where electrons magnetically reflect before interacting with the atmosphere), cases with either solar wind electrons or photoelectrons have been found, indicating different formation mechanisms for these closed loops. These large closed loops are present in MHD simulations. The case with field-aligned photoelectrons mixed with solar wind electrons having trapped-zone pitch angles is likely to be associated with reconnection, while the case with photoelectrons at all pitch angles is probably due to closed field lines being pulled tailward by the surrounding plasma flow. By utilizing an algorithm for distinguishing photoelectrons from solar wind electrons in pitch angle-resolved energy spectra, we systematically map the spatial distribution and occurrence rate of these closed magnetic loops over the region sampled by the MAVEN orbit. We find that the occurrence rate ranges from a few percent to a few tens of percent outside of the optical shadow and less than one percent within the shadow. These observations can be used to investigate the general magnetic topology in the tail, which is relevant to cold ion escape, reconnection, and flux ropes.

  19. ChemCam activities and discoveries during the nominal mission of the Mars Science Laboratory in Gale crater, Mars (United States)

    Maurice, Sylvestre; Clegg, Samuel M.; Wiens, Roger C.; Gasnault, O.; Rapin, W.; Forni, O.; Cousin, Agnes; Sautter, V.; Mangold, Nicolas; Le Deit, L.; Nachon, Marion; Anderson, Ryan; Lanza, Nina; Fabre, Cecile; Payre, Valerie; Lasue, Jeremie; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; LeVeille, Richard A.; Barraclough, Bruce; Beck, Pierre; Bender, Steven C.; Berger, Gilles; Bridges, John C.; Bridges, Nathan; Dromert, Gilles; Dyar, M. Darby; Francis, Raymond; Frydenvang, Jens; Gondet, B.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Langevin, Yves; Madsen Morten B.,; Melikechi, N.; Lacour, J.-L.; Le Mouelic, Stephane; Lewin, Eric; Newsom, Horton E.; Ollila, Ann M.; Pinet, Patrick; Schroder, S.; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Tokar, Robert L.; Toplis, M.J.; d'Uston, Claude; Vaniman, David; Vasavada, Ashwin R.


    At Gale crater, Mars, ChemCam acquired its first laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) target on Sol 13 of the landed portion of the mission (a Sol is a Mars day). Up to Sol 800, more than 188000 LIBS spectra were acquired on more than 5800 points distributed over about 650 individual targets. We present a comprehensive review of ChemCam scientific accomplishments during that period, together with a focus on the lessons learned from the first use of LIBS in space. For data processing, we describe new tools that had to be developed to account for the uniqueness of Mars data. With regard to chemistry, we present a summary of the composition range measured on Mars for major-element oxides (SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, FeOT, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O) based on various multivariate models, with associated precisions. ChemCam also observed H, and the non-metallic elements C, O, P, and S, which are usually difficult to quantify with LIBS. F and Cl are observed through their molecular lines. We discuss the most relevant LIBS lines for detection of minor and trace elements (Li, Rb, Sr, Ba, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Zn). These results were obtained thanks to comprehensive ground reference datasets, which are set to mimic the expected mineralogy and chemistry on Mars. With regard to the first use of LIBS in space, we analyze and quantify, often for the first time, each of the advantages of using stand-off LIBS in space: no sample preparation, analysis within its petrological context, dust removal, sub-millimeter scale investigation, multi-point analysis, the ability to carry out statistical surveys and whole-rock analyses, and rapid data acquisition. We conclude with a discussion of ChemCam performance to survey the geochemistry of Mars, and its valuable support of decisions about selecting where and whether to make observations with more time and resource-intensive tools in the rover's instrument suite. In the end, we present a bird's-eye view of the many scientific results: discovery of felsic

  20. Present Status and Near Term Activities for the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter. (United States)

    Svedhem, H.; Vago, J. L.


    The ExoMars 2016 mission was launched on a Proton rocket from Baikonur, Kazakhstan, on 14 March 2016 and arrived at Mars on 19 October 2016. The spacecraft is now performing aerobraking to reduce its orbital period from initial post-insertion orbital period of one Sol to the final science orbit with a 2 hours period. The orbital inclination will be 74 degrees. During the aerobraking a wealth of data has been acquired on the state of the atmosphere along the tracks between 140km and the lowest altitude at about 105 km. These data are now being analysed and compared with existing models. In average TGO measures a lower atmospheric density than predicted, but the numbers lay within the expected variability. ExoMars is a joint programme of the European Space Agency (ESA) and Roscosmos, Russia. It consists of the ExoMars 2016 mission with the Trace Gas Orbiter, TGO, and the Entry Descent and Landing Demonstrator, EDM, named Schiaparelli, and the ExoMars 2020 mission, which carries a lander and a rover. The TGO scientific payload consists of four instruments: ACS and NOMAD, both infrared spectrometers for atmospheric measurements in solar occultation mode and in nadir mode, CASSIS, a multichannel camera with stereo imaging capability, and FREND, an epithermal neutron detector to search for subsurface hydrogen (as proxy for water ice and hydrated minerals). The launch mass of the TGO was 3700 kg, including fuel. In addition to its scientific measurements TGO will act as a relay orbiter for NASA's landers on Mars and as from 2021 for the ESA-Roscosmos Rover and Surface Station.

  1. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Emission (L.I.F.E.): searching for Mars organics with a UV-enhanced PanCam. (United States)

    Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C; Muller, Jan-Peter; Fisk, Martin R; Cousins, Claire; Sattler, Birgit; Griffiths, Andrew D; Coates, Andrew J


    The European Space Agency will launch the ExoMars mission in 2016 with a primary goal of surveying the martian subsurface for evidence of organic material. We have recently investigated the utility of including either a 365 nm light-emitting diode or a 375 nm laser light source in the ExoMars rover panoramic camera (PanCam). Such a modification would make it feasible to monitor rover drill cuttings optically for the fluorescence signatures of aromatic organic molecules and map the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as a function of depth to the 2 m limit of the ExoMars drill. The technique described requires no sample preparation, does not consume irreplaceable resources, and would allow mission control to prioritize deployment of organic detection experiments that require sample destruction, expenditure of non-replaceable consumables, or both. We report here for the first time laser-induced fluorescence emission (L.I.F.E.) imaging detection limits for anthracene, pyrene, and perylene targets doped onto a Mars analog granular peridotite with a 375 nm Nichia laser diode in optically uncorrected wide-angle mode. Data were collected via the Beagle 2 PanCam backup filter wheel fitted with original blue (440 nm), green (530 nm), and red (670 nm) filters. All three PAH species can be detected with the PanCam green (530 nm) filter. Detection limits in the green band for signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) > 10 are 49 parts per million (ppm) for anthracene, 145 ppm for pyrene, and 20 ppm for perylene. The anthracene detection limit improves to 7 ppm with use of the PanCam blue filter. We discuss soil-dependent detection limit constraints; use of UV excitation with other rover cameras, which provides higher spatial resolution; and the advantages of focused and wide-angle laser modes. Finally, we discuss application of L.I.F.E. techniques at multiple wavelengths for exploration of Mars analog extreme environments on Earth, including Icelandic hydrothermally

  2. Infrared Spectrometer for ExoMars: A Mast-Mounted Instrument for the Rover (United States)

    Korablev, Oleg I.; Dobrolensky, Yurii; Evdokimova, Nadezhda; Fedorova, Anna A.; Kuzmin, Ruslan O.; Mantsevich, Sergei N.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Carter, John; Poulet, Francois; Flahaut, Jessica; Griffiths, Andrew; Gunn, Matthew; Schmitz, Nicole; Martín-Torres, Javier; Zorzano, Maria-Paz; Rodionov, Daniil S.; Vago, Jorge L.; Stepanov, Alexander V.; Titov, Andrei Yu.; Vyazovetsky, Nikita A.; Trokhimovskiy, Alexander Yu.; Sapgir, Alexander G.; Kalinnikov, Yurii K.; Ivanov, Yurii S.; Shapkin, Alexei A.; Ivanov, Andrei Yu.


    ISEM (Infrared Spectrometer for ExoMars) is a pencil-beam infrared spectrometer that will measure reflected solar radiation in the near infrared range for context assessment of the surface mineralogy in the vicinity of the ExoMars rover. The instrument will be accommodated on the mast of the rover and will be operated together with the panoramic camera (PanCam), high-resolution camera (HRC). ISEM will study the mineralogical and petrographic composition of the martian surface in the vicinity of the rover, and in combination with the other remote sensing instruments, it will aid in the selection of potential targets for close-up investigations and drilling sites. Of particular scientific interest are water-bearing minerals, such as phyllosilicates, sulfates, carbonates, and minerals indicative of astrobiological potential, such as borates, nitrates, and ammonium-bearing minerals. The instrument has an ˜1° field of view and covers the spectral range between 1.15 and 3.30 μm with a spectral resolution varying from 3.3 nm at 1.15 μm to 28 nm at 3.30 μm. The ISEM optical head is mounted on the mast, and its electronics box is located inside the rover's body. The spectrometer uses an acousto-optic tunable filter and a Peltier-cooled InAs detector. The mass of ISEM is 1.74 kg, including the electronics and harness. The science objectives of the experiment, the instrument design, and operational scenarios are described.

  3. Engineering task plan for flammable gas atmosphere mobile color video camera systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlman, E.H.


    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) describes the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of the mobile video camera systems. The color video camera systems will be used to observe and record the activities within the vapor space of a tank on a limited exposure basis. The units will be fully mobile and designed for operation in the single-shell flammable gas producing tanks. The objective of this tank is to provide two mobile camera systems for use in flammable gas producing single-shell tanks (SSTs) for the Flammable Gas Tank Safety Program. The camera systems will provide observation, video recording, and monitoring of the activities that occur in the vapor space of applied tanks. The camera systems will be designed to be totally mobile, capable of deployment up to 6.1 meters into a 4 inch (minimum) riser

  4. The CheMin XRD on the Mars Science Laboratory Rover Curiosity: Construction, Operation, and Quantitative Mineralogical Results from the Surface of Mars (United States)

    Blake, David F.


    The Mars Science Laboratory mission was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida on Nov. 26, 2011 and landed in Gale crater, Mars on Aug. 6, 2012. MSL's mission is to identify and characterize ancient "habitable" environments on Mars. MSL's precision landing system placed the Curiosity rover within 2 km of the center of its 20 X 6 km landing ellipse, next to Gale's central mound, a 5,000 meter high pile of laminated sediment which may contain 1 billion years of Mars history. Curiosity carries with it a full suite of analytical instruments, including the CheMin X-ray diffractometer, the first XRD flown in space. CheMin is essentially a transmission X-ray pinhole camera. A fine-focus Co source and collimator transmits a 50µm beam through a powdered sample held between X-ray transparent plastic windows. The sample holder is shaken by a piezoelectric actuator such that the powder flows like a liquid, each grain passing in random orientation through the beam over time. Forward-diffracted and fluoresced X-ray photons from the sample are detected by an X-ray sensitive Charge Coupled Device (CCD) operated in single photon counting mode. When operated in this way, both the x,y position and the energy of each photon are detected. The resulting energy-selected Co Kalpha Debye-Scherrer pattern is used to determine the identities and amounts of minerals present via Rietveld refinement, and a histogram of all X-ray events constitutes an X-ray fluorescence analysis of the sample.The key role that definitive mineralogy plays in understanding the Martian surface is a consequence of the fact that minerals are thermodynamic phases, having known and specific ranges of temperature, pressure and composition within which they are stable. More than simple compositional analysis, definitive mineralogical analysis can provide information about pressure/temperature conditions of formation, past climate, water activity and the like. Definitive mineralogical analyses are necessary to establish

  5. Comparative evaluation of consumer grade cameras and mobile phone cameras for close range photogrammetry (United States)

    Chikatsu, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Yoji


    The authors have been concentrating on developing convenient 3D measurement methods using consumer grade digital cameras, and it was concluded that consumer grade digital cameras are expected to become a useful photogrammetric device for the various close range application fields. On the other hand, mobile phone cameras which have 10 mega pixels were appeared on the market in Japan. In these circumstances, we are faced with alternative epoch-making problem whether mobile phone cameras are able to take the place of consumer grade digital cameras in close range photogrammetric applications. In order to evaluate potentials of mobile phone cameras in close range photogrammetry, comparative evaluation between mobile phone cameras and consumer grade digital cameras are investigated in this paper with respect to lens distortion, reliability, stability and robustness. The calibration tests for 16 mobile phone cameras and 50 consumer grade digital cameras were conducted indoors using test target. Furthermore, practability of mobile phone camera for close range photogrammetry was evaluated outdoors. This paper presents that mobile phone cameras have ability to take the place of consumer grade digital cameras, and develop the market in digital photogrammetric fields.

  6. Mars Express en route for the Red Planet (United States)


    trajectory with Mars, on 20 December. It will enter the Martian atmosphere on Christmas day, after five days’ ballistic flight. As it descends, the lander will be protected in the first instance by a heat-shield; two parachutes will then open to provide further deceleration. With its weight down to 30 kg at most, it will land in an equatorial region known as Isidis Planitia. Three airbags will soften the final impact. This crucial phase in the mission will last just ten minutes, from entry into the atmosphere to landing. Meanwhile, the Mars Express probe proper will have performed a series of manœuvres through to a capture orbit. At this point its main motor will fire, providing the deceleration needed to acquire a highly elliptical transition orbit. Attaining the final operational orbit will call for four more firings. This 7.5 hour quasi-polar orbit will take the probe to within 250 km of the planet. Getting to know Mars - inside and out Having landed on Mars, Beagle 2 - named after HMS Beagle, on which Charles Darwin voyaged round the world, developing his evolutionary theory - will deploy its solar panels and the payload adjustable workbench, a set of instruments (two cameras, a microscope and two spectrometers) mounted on the end of a robot arm. It will proceed to explore its new environment, gathering geological and mineralogical data that should, for the first time, allow rock samples to be dated with absolute accuracy. Using a grinder and corer, and the “mole”, a wire-guided mini-robot able to borrow its way under rocks and dig the ground to a depth of 2 m, samples will be collected and then examined in the GAP automated mini-laboratory, equipped with 12 furnaces and a mass spectrometer. The spectrometer will have the job of detecting possible signs of life and dating rock samples. The Mars Express orbiter will carry out a detailed investigation of the planet, pointing its instruments at Mars for between half-an-hour and an hour per orbit and then, for the

  7. Dust-gas interaction deduced from Halley multicolour camera observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebner, W.F.; Delamere, W.A.; Keller, H.U.; Reitsema, H.J.; Schmidt, H.U.; Whipple, F.L.; Wilhelm, K.


    The dust and gas productions of Comet Halley were measured by the dust counter and the mass spectrometers on the Giotto spacecraft. These instruments give only little information about the spatial asymmetry of the activity. The asymmetry in the dust production is clearly evident from the dust jets seen in the Halley Multicolour Camera images. Since the dust is entrained by the gas, production must be similarly asymmetric. The intensity profiles along and across several dust jets are related to their source regions on the nucleus. Properties of the dust jets are investigated. A few compact, but highly active source regions on the nucleus produce most of the visible dust and can account for most of the gas produced by the comet. 2 refs

  8. Plateaus and sinuous ridges as the fingerprints of lava flow inflation in the Eastern Tharsis Plains of Mars (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Orr, Tim R.; de Wet, Andrew P.; Zimbelman, James R.; Hamilton, Christopher W.; Brent Garry, W.; Crumpler, Larry S.; Williams, David A.


    The Tharsis Montes rift aprons are composed of outpourings of lava from chaotic terrains to the northeast and southwest flank of each volcano. Sinuous and branching channel networks that are present on the rift aprons suggest the possibility of fluvial processes in their development, or erosion by rapidly emplaced lavas, but the style of lava flow emplacement throughout rift apron development is not clearly understood. To better characterize the style of lava emplacement and role of fluvial processes in rift apron development, we conducted morphological mapping of the Pavonis Mons southwest rift apron and the eastern Tharsis plains using images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE), Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), Context Camera (CTX), Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), and High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) along with the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Precision Experiment Data Records (PEDRs) and gridded data. Our approach was to: (1) search for depositional fans at the slope break between the rift apron and adjacent low slope plains; (2) determine if there is evidence that previously formed deposits might have been buried by plains units; (3) characterize the Tharsis plains morphologies east of Pavonis Mons; and (4) assess their relationship to the rift apron units. We have not identified topographically significant depositional fans, nor did we observe evidence to suggest that plains units have buried older rift apron units. Flow features associated with the rift apron are observed to continue across the slope break onto the plains. In this area, the plains are composed of a variety of small fissures and low shield vents around which broad channel-fed and tube-fed flows have been identified. We also find broad, flat-topped plateaus and sinuous ridges mixed among the channels, tubes and vents. Flat-topped plateaus and sinuous ridges are morphologies that are analogous to those observed on the coastal plain of Hawai'i, where lava

  9. Mars Science Laboratory Mission and Science Investigation (United States)

    Grotzinger, John P.; Crisp, Joy; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Anderson, Robert C.; Baker, Charles J.; Barry, Robert; Blake, David F.; Conrad, Pamela; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Ferdowski, Bobak; Gellert, Ralf; Gilbert, John B.; Golombek, Matt; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Hassler, Donald M.; Jandura, Louise; Litvak, Maxim; Mahaffy, Paul; Maki, Justin; Meyer, Michael; Malin, Michael C.; Mitrofanov, Igor; Simmonds, John J.; Vaniman, David; Welch, Richard V.; Wiens, Roger C.


    Scheduled to land in August of 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission was initiated to explore the habitability of Mars. This includes both modern environments as well as ancient environments recorded by the stratigraphic rock record preserved at the Gale crater landing site. The Curiosity rover has a designed lifetime of at least one Mars year (˜23 months), and drive capability of at least 20 km. Curiosity's science payload was specifically assembled to assess habitability and includes a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and gas analyzer that will search for organic carbon in rocks, regolith fines, and the atmosphere (SAM instrument); an x-ray diffractometer that will determine mineralogical diversity (CheMin instrument); focusable cameras that can image landscapes and rock/regolith textures in natural color (MAHLI, MARDI, and Mastcam instruments); an alpha-particle x-ray spectrometer for in situ determination of rock and soil chemistry (APXS instrument); a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer to remotely sense the chemical composition of rocks and minerals (ChemCam instrument); an active neutron spectrometer designed to search for water in rocks/regolith (DAN instrument); a weather station to measure modern-day environmental variables (REMS instrument); and a sensor designed for continuous monitoring of background solar and cosmic radiation (RAD instrument). The various payload elements will work together to detect and study potential sampling targets with remote and in situ measurements; to acquire samples of rock, soil, and atmosphere and analyze them in onboard analytical instruments; and to observe the environment around the rover. The 155-km diameter Gale crater was chosen as Curiosity's field site based on several attributes: an interior mountain of ancient flat-lying strata extending almost 5 km above the elevation of the landing site; the lower few hundred meters of the mountain show a progression with relative age from clay-bearing to sulfate

  10. Spectral analysis of amazon canopy phenology during the dry season using a tower hyperspectral camera and modis observations (United States)

    de Moura, Yhasmin Mendes; Galvão, Lênio Soares; Hilker, Thomas; Wu, Jin; Saleska, Scott; do Amaral, Cibele Hummel; Nelson, Bruce Walker; Lopes, Aline Pontes; Wiedeman, Kenia K.; Prohaska, Neill; de Oliveira, Raimundo Cosme; Machado, Carolyne Bueno; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.


    The association between spectral reflectance and canopy processes remains challenging for quantifying large-scale canopy phenological cycles in tropical forests. In this study, we used a tower-mounted hyperspectral camera in an eastern Amazon forest to assess how canopy spectral signals of three species are linked with phenological processes in the 2012 dry season. We explored different approaches to disentangle the spectral components of canopy phenology processes and analyze their variations over time using 17 images acquired by the camera. The methods included linear spectral mixture analysis (SMA); principal component analysis (PCA); continuum removal (CR); and first-order derivative analysis. In addition, three vegetation indices potentially sensitive to leaf flushing, leaf loss and leaf area index (LAI) were calculated: the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the entitled Green-Red Normalized Difference (GRND) index. We inspected also the consistency of the camera observations using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and available phenological data on new leaf production and LAI of young, mature and old leaves simulated by a leaf demography-ontogeny model. The results showed a diversity of phenological responses during the 2012 dry season with related changes in canopy structure and greenness values. Because of the differences in timing and intensity of leaf flushing and leaf shedding, Erisma uncinatum, Manilkara huberi and Chamaecrista xinguensis presented different green vegetation (GV) and non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) SMA fractions; distinct PCA scores; changes in depth, width and area of the 681-nm chlorophyll absorption band; and variations over time in the EVI, GRND and NDVI. At the end of dry season, GV increased for Erisma uncinatum, while NPV increased for Chamaecrista xinguensis. For Manilkara huberi, the NPV first increased in the beginning of August and then decreased toward

  11. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschunt, E.; Platz, W.; Baer, U.; Heinz, L.


    A gamma camera has a plurality of exchangeable collimators, one of which is mounted in the ray inlet opening of the camera, while the others are placed on separate supports. The supports are swingably mounted upon a column one above the other through about 90 0 to a collimator exchange position. Each of the separate supports is swingable to a vertically aligned position, with limiting of the swinging movement and positioning of the support at the desired exchange position. The collimators are carried on the supports by means of a series of vertically disposed coil springs. Projections on the camera are movable from above into grooves of the collimator at the exchange position, whereupon the collimator is turned so that it is securely prevented from falling out of the camera head

  12. Seven Possible Cave Skylights on Mars (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Seven very dark holes on the north slope of a Martian volcano have been proposed as possible cave skylights, based on day-night temperature patterns suggesting they are openings to subsurface spaces. These six excerpts of images taken in visible-wavelength light by the Thermal Emission Imaging System camera on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter show the seven openings. Solar illumination comes from the left in each frame. The volcano is Arsia Mons, at 9 degrees south latitude, 239 degrees east longitude. The features have been given informal names to aid comparative discussion (see figure 1). They range in diameter from about 100 meters (328 feet) to about 225 meters (738 feet). The candidate cave skylights are (A) 'Dena,' (B) 'Chloe,' (C) 'Wendy,' (D) 'Annie,' (E) 'Abby' (left) and 'Nikki,' and (F) 'Jeanne.' Arrows signify north and the direction of illumination. Mars Odyssey is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The orbiter's Thermal Emission Imaging System was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing, Santa Barbara, Calif., and is operated by Arizona State University.

  13. Mars ionopause during solar minimum: A lesson from Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahajan, K.K.; Mayr, H.G.


    The ion densities measured by the Viking landers (Hanson et al., 1977) do not show an abrupt falloff with height, giving the false impression that Mars has no ionopause. On the basis of knowledge gained from the solar wind interaction at Venus during solar minimum, they demonstrate that the observed O 2 + profile above about 160 km on Mars is a distributed photodynamical ionosphere and can produce an ionopause at around 325 km, similar to that observed on Venus during solar minimum. They conclude that the solar wind interacts directly with the Mars ionosphere, suggesting that the planet does not have an intrinsic magnetic field of any consequence

  14. Dosimetry of a Deep-Space (Mars) Mission using Measurements from RAD on the Mars Science Laboratory (United States)

    Hassler, D.; Zeitlin, C.; Ehresmann, B.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Guo, J.; Matthiae, D.; Reitz, G.


    The space radiation environment is one of the outstanding challenges of a manned deep-space mission to Mars. To improve our understanding and take us one step closer to enabling a human Mars to mission, the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) has been characterizing the radiation environment, both during cruise and on the surface of Mars for the past 5 years. Perhaps the most significant difference between space radiation and radiation exposures from terrestrial exposures is that space radiation includes a significant component of heavy ions from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs). Acute exposures from Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) are possible during and around solar maximum, but the energies from SEPs are generally lower and more easily shielded. Thus the greater concern for long duration deep-space missions is the GCR exposure. In this presentation, I will review the the past 5 years of MSL RAD observations and discuss current approaches to radiation risk estimation used by NASA and other space agencies.

  15. LAMOST CCD camera-control system based on RTS2 (United States)

    Tian, Yuan; Wang, Zheng; Li, Jian; Cao, Zi-Huang; Dai, Wei; Wei, Shou-Lin; Zhao, Yong-Heng


    The Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) is the largest existing spectroscopic survey telescope, having 32 scientific charge-coupled-device (CCD) cameras for acquiring spectra. Stability and automation of the camera-control software are essential, but cannot be provided by the existing system. The Remote Telescope System 2nd Version (RTS2) is an open-source and automatic observatory-control system. However, all previous RTS2 applications were developed for small telescopes. This paper focuses on implementation of an RTS2-based camera-control system for the 32 CCDs of LAMOST. A virtual camera module inherited from the RTS2 camera module is built as a device component working on the RTS2 framework. To improve the controllability and robustness, a virtualized layer is designed using the master-slave software paradigm, and the virtual camera module is mapped to the 32 real cameras of LAMOST. The new system is deployed in the actual environment and experimentally tested. Finally, multiple observations are conducted using this new RTS2-framework-based control system. The new camera-control system is found to satisfy the requirements for automatic camera control in LAMOST. This is the first time that RTS2 has been applied to a large telescope, and provides a referential solution for full RTS2 introduction to the LAMOST observatory control system.

  16. Mars, High-Resolution Digital Terrain Model Quadrangles on the Basis of Mars-Express HRSC Data (United States)

    Dumke, A.; Spiegel, M.; van Gasselt, S.; Neu, D.; Neukum, G.


    Introduction: Since December 2003, the European Space Agency's (ESA) Mars Express (MEX) orbiter has been investigating Mars. The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), one of the scientific experiments onboard MEX, is a pushbroom stereo color scanning instrument with nine line detectors, each equipped with 5176 CCD sensor elements [1,2]. One of the goals for MEX HRSC is to cover Mars globally in color and stereoscopically at high-resolution. So far, HRSC has covered half of the surface of Mars at a resolution better than 20 meters per pixel. HRSC data allows to derive high-resolution digital terrain models (DTM), color-orthoimage mosaics and additionally higher-level 3D data products. Past work concentrated on producing regional data mosaics for areas of scientific interest in a single strip and/or bundle block adjustment and deriving DTMs [3]. The next logical step, based on substantially the same procedure, is to systematically expand the derivation of DTMs and orthoimage data to the 140 map quadrangle scheme (Q-DTM). Methods: The division of the Mars surface into 140 quadrangles is briefly described in Greeley and Batson [4] and based upon the standard MC 30 (Mars Chart) system. The quadrangles are named by alpha-numerical labels. The workflow for the determination of new orientation data for the derivation of digital terrain models takes place in two steps. First, for each HRSC orbits covering a quadrangle, new exterior orientation parameters are determined [5,6]. The successfully classified exterior orientation parameters become the input for the next step in which the exterior orientation parameters are determined together in a bundle block adjustment. Only those orbit strips which have a sufficient overlap area and a certain number of tie points can be used in a common bundle block adjustment. For the automated determination of tie points, software provided by the Leibniz Universität Hannover [7] is used. Results: For the derivation of Q-DTMs and ortho

  17. Mars: Atmosphere (United States)

    Moroz, V.; Murdin, P.


    The atmosphere of MARS is much thinner than the terrestrial one. However, even the simplest visual telescopic observations show a set of atmospheric events such as seasonal exchange of material between polar caps, temporal appearance of clouds and changes of visibility of dark regions on the disk of the planet. In 1947 the prominent CO2 bands in the near-infrared part of the Martian spectrum were...

  18. Observed diurnal variations in Mars Science Laboratory Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons passive mode data (United States)

    Tate, C. G.; Moersch, J.; Jun, I.; Mitrofanov, I.; Litvak, M.; Boynton, W. V.; Drake, D.; Fedosov, F.; Golovin, D.; Hardgrove, C.; Harshman, K.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Kuzmin, R.; Lisov, D.; Maclennan, E.; Malakhov, A.; Mischna, M.; Mokrousov, M.; Nikiforov, S.; Sanin, A. B.; Starr, R.; Vostrukhin, A.


    The Mars Science Laboratory Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) experiment measures the martian neutron leakage flux in order to estimate the amount of water equivalent hydrogen present in the shallow regolith. When DAN is operating in passive mode, it is sensitive to neutrons produced through the interactions of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) with the regolith and atmosphere and neutrons produced by the rover's Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). During the mission, DAN passive mode data were collected over the full diurnal cycle at the locations known as Rocknest (sols 60-100) and John Klein (sols 166-272). A weak, but unexpected, diurnal variation was observed in the neutron count rates reported at these locations. We investigate different hypotheses that could be causing these observed variations. These hypotheses are variations in subsurface temperature, atmospheric pressure, the exchange of water vapor between the atmosphere and regolith, and instrumental effects on the neutron count rates. Our investigation suggests the most likely factors contributing to the observed diurnal variations in DAN passive data are instrumental effects and time-variable preferential shielding of alpha particles, with other environmental effects only having small contributions.

  19. Mars Infrared Spectroscopy: From Theory and the Laboratory to Field Observations (United States)

    Kirkland, L.; Mustard, J.; McAfee, J.; Hapke, B.; Ramsey, M.


    Visible-infrared spectroscopy has a long history of providing compositional discoveries in the solar system. A primary goal of the Mars visible-infrared spectral community is to provide information to enhance the exploration of Mars. We are entering an era of Mars exploration with missions every ~2 years. It is critical that each mission provide information to optimize the success of the next mission. That will not occur effectively unless the data can be analyzed on a ~2-year rate. Our current knowledge of spectral properties of materials and effects of the natural environment are not sufficient for the accurate interpretations needed for such time critical objectives. Relevant instruments include the 1996 TES, 2001 THEMIS, 2003 Mars Express OMEGA and PFS, 2003 MER Pancam and Mini-TES, and the 2005 CRISM. Two critical gaps that cannot be filled by individual researchers alone exist in moving toward the goal of rapid and accurate analysis. These are in coordinated "end-to-end" field testing and public spectral libraries. Three related gaps are in data from terrestrial sites to aid interpretations of the orbited spectrometers, lack of high quality development data to support landers, and delays in funding non-flight team members owing to lack of coordination between research and analysis proposal dues dates and mission data releases. A detailed discussion of the each of these areas is in a workshop report through the web site below. The two critical gaps are summarized below. Field Testing. Field/rover, airborne/satellite, and telescopic measurements are sensitive to very different effects, and these differ from those present in the lab. Thus a convincing determination of uncertainties requires demonstration through coordinated "end-to-end" field testing, using: (1) Data sets of appropriate terrestrial analog sites that are measured with both geometric and spectral fidelity as close as possible to flight instruments; (2) Interpretation as applied to data of Mars; (3

  20. TIFR Near Infrared Imaging Camera-II on the 3.6 m Devasthal Optical Telescope (United States)

    Baug, T.; Ojha, D. K.; Ghosh, S. K.; Sharma, S.; Pandey, A. K.; Kumar, Brijesh; Ghosh, Arpan; Ninan, J. P.; Naik, M. B.; D’Costa, S. L. A.; Poojary, S. S.; Sandimani, P. R.; Shah, H.; Krishna Reddy, B.; Pandey, S. B.; Chand, H.

    Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) Near Infrared Imaging Camera-II (TIRCAM2) is a closed-cycle Helium cryo-cooled imaging camera equipped with a Raytheon 512×512 pixels InSb Aladdin III Quadrant focal plane array (FPA) having sensitivity to photons in the 1-5μm wavelength band. In this paper, we present the performance of the camera on the newly installed 3.6m Devasthal Optical Telescope (DOT) based on the calibration observations carried out during 2017 May 11-14 and 2017 October 7-31. After the preliminary characterization, the camera has been released to the Indian and Belgian astronomical community for science observations since 2017 May. The camera offers a field-of-view (FoV) of ˜86.5‧‧×86.5‧‧ on the DOT with a pixel scale of 0.169‧‧. The seeing at the telescope site in the near-infrared (NIR) bands is typically sub-arcsecond with the best seeing of ˜0.45‧‧ realized in the NIR K-band on 2017 October 16. The camera is found to be capable of deep observations in the J, H and K bands comparable to other 4m class telescopes available world-wide. Another highlight of this camera is the observational capability for sources up to Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) W1-band (3.4μm) magnitudes of 9.2 in the narrow L-band (nbL; λcen˜ 3.59μm). Hence, the camera could be a good complementary instrument to observe the bright nbL-band sources that are saturated in the Spitzer-Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) ([3.6] ≲ 7.92 mag) and the WISE W1-band ([3.4] ≲ 8.1 mag). Sources with strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission at 3.3μm are also detected. Details of the observations and estimated parameters are presented in this paper.

  1. Implementing a Science-driven Mars Exploration Program (United States)

    Garvin, J. B.


    NASA's newly restructured Mars Exploration Program (MEP) was developed on the basis of the goals, objectives, investigations, and prioritizations established by the Mars Exploration Payload Analysis Group (as summarized previously by Greeley et al., 2001). The underlying scientific strategy is linked to common threads which include the many roles water has played on and within Mars as a "system". The implementation strategy that has been adopted relies heavily on an ever-sharpening program of reconnaissance, beginning with the legacy of the Mars Global Surveyor, continuing with the multispectral and compositional observations of the Mars Odyssey orbiter, and extending to a first step in surface-based reconnaissance with the 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers. The results of MGS and Odyssey will serve to focus the trade space of localities where the record, for example, of persistent surface water may have been preserved in a mineralogical sense. The 2005 Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will further downselect the subset of sites on Mars where evidence of depositional patterns and aqueous mineralogies (i.e., diagenetic minerals) are most striking at scales as fine as tens to hundreds of meters. Reconnaissance will move to the surface and shallow subsurface in 2007 with the Mars "Smart Lander" (MSL), at which time an extensive array of mobile scientific exploration tools will be used to examine a locality at 10km traverse scales, ultimately asking scientific questions which can be classed as paleobiological (i.e., life inference). Further orbital reconnaissance may be undertaken in 2009, perhaps involving targeted multi-wavelength SAR imaging, in anticipation of a precisely targeted Mars Sample Return mission as early as 2011. This sequence of core program MEP missions will be amplified by the selection of PI-led SCOUT missions, starting in 2007, and continuing every other Mars launch opportunity.

  2. Mars bevares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Hendricks, Elbert


    2009 er femåret for Mission Mars. I den anledning opridser de to kronikører, far og søn, hvorfor man bør lade planer om en bemandet tur til Mars forblive i skrivebordsskuffen......2009 er femåret for Mission Mars. I den anledning opridser de to kronikører, far og søn, hvorfor man bør lade planer om en bemandet tur til Mars forblive i skrivebordsskuffen...

  3. Russian contribution to the ExoMars project (United States)

    Zelenyi, L.; Korablev, O.; Rodionov, D.; Khartov, V.; Martynov, M.; Lukyanchikov, A.


    The ExoMars ESA-led mission is dedicated to study of Mars and in particular its habitability. It consists of two launches, one planned in 2016 to deliver to Mars a telecommunication and science orbiter Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and a demonstrator of entry into the atmosphere and landing on the Mars surface, Entry, Descent and Landing Demonstrator Module (EDM). In 2018 a rover with drilling capability will be delivered to the surface of Mars. Since 2012 this mission, previously planned in cooperation with NASA is being developed in cooperation with Roscosmos. Both launches are planned with Proton-Breeze. In 2016 Russia contributes a significant part of the TGO science payload. In 2018 the landing will be provided by a joint effort capitalizing on the EDM technology. Russia contributes few science instruments for the rover, and leads the development of a long-living geophysical platform on the surface of Mars. Russian science instruments for TGO, the Atmospheric Chemistry Suite (ACS) and the Fine Resolution Epithermal Neutrons Detector (FREND) constituent a half of its scientific payload, European instrument being NOMAD for mapping and detection of trace species, and CASSIS camera for high-resolution mapping of target areas. The ACS package consists of three spectrometers covering spectral range from 0.7 to 17 μm with spectral resolving power reaching 50000. It is dedicated to studies of the composition of the Martian atmosphere and the Martian climate. FREND is a neutron detector with a collimation module, which significantly narrows the field of view of the instrument, allowing to create higher resolution maps of hydrogen-abundant regions on Mars. The spatial resolution of FREND will be ~40 km from the 400- km TGO orbit that is ~10 times better than HEND on Mars-Odyssey. Additionally, FREND includes a dosimeter module for monitoring radiation levels in orbit around Mars. In the 2018 mission, Russia takes the major responsibility of the descent module. The primary

  4. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschunt, E.; Platz, W.; Baer, Ul; Heinz, L.


    A gamma camera has a plurality of exchangeable collimators, one of which is replaceably mounted in the ray inlet opening of the camera, while the others are placed on separate supports. Supports are swingably mounted upon a column one above the other

  5. An improved gravity model for Mars: Goddard Mars Model-1 (GMM-1) (United States)

    Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Zuber, M. T.; Patel, G. B.; Fricke, S. K.; Lemoine, F. G.


    Doppler tracking data of three orbiting spacecraft have been reanalyzed to develop a new gravitational field model for the planet Mars, GMM-1 (Goddard Mars Model-1). This model employs nearly all available data, consisting of approximately 1100 days of S-bank tracking data collected by NASA's Deep Space Network from the Mariner 9, and Viking 1 and Viking 2 spacecraft, in seven different orbits, between 1971 and 1979. GMM-1 is complete to spherical harmonic degree and order 50, which corresponds to a half-wavelength spatial resolution of 200-300 km where the data permit. GMM-1 represents satellite orbits with considerably better accuracy than previous Mars gravity models and shows greater resolution of identifiable geological structures. The notable improvement in GMM-1 over previous models is a consequence of several factors: improved computational capabilities, the use of optimum weighting and least-squares collocation solution techniques which stabilized the behavior of the solution at high degree and order, and the use of longer satellite arcs than employed in previous solutions that were made possible by improved force and measurement models. The inclusion of X-band tracking data from the 379-km altitude, near-polar orbiting Mars Observer spacecraft should provide a significant improvement over GMM-1, particularly at high latitudes where current data poorly resolves the gravitational signature of the planet.

  6. The Effect of Solar Wind Variations on the Escape of Oxygen Ions From Mars Through Different Channels: MAVEN Observations (United States)

    Dubinin, E.; Fraenz, M.; Pätzold, M.; McFadden, J.; Halekas, J. S.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Eparvier, F.; Brain, D.; Jakosky, B. M.; Vaisberg, O.; Zelenyi, L.


    We present multi-instrument observations of the effects of solar wind on ion escape fluxes on Mars based on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) data from 1 November 2014 to 15 May 2016. Losses of oxygen ions through different channels (plasma sheet, magnetic lobes, boundary layer, and ion plume) as a function of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field variations were studied. We have utilized the modified Mars Solar Electric (MSE) coordinate system for separation of the different escape routes. Fluxes of the low-energy (≤30 eV) and high-energy (≥30 eV) ions reveal different trends with changes in the solar wind dynamic pressure, the solar wind flux, and the motional electric field. Major oxygen fluxes occur through the tail of the induced magnetosphere. The solar wind motional electric field produces an asymmetry in the ion fluxes and leads to different relations between ion fluxes supplying the tail from the different hemispheres and the solar wind dynamic pressure (or flux) and the motional electric field. The main driver for escape of the high-energy oxygen ions is the solar wind flux (or dynamic pressure). On the other hand, the low-energy ion component shows the opposite trend: ion flux decreases with increasing solar wind flux. As a result, the averaged total oxygen ion fluxes reveal a low variability with the solar wind strength. The large standard deviations from the averages values of the escape fluxes indicate the existence of mechanisms which can enhance or suppress the efficiency of the ion escape. It is shown that the Martian magnetosphere possesses the properties of a combined magnetosphere which contains different classes of field lines. The existence of the closed magnetic field lines in the near-Mars tail might be responsible for suppression of the ion escape fluxes.

  7. Development of the science instrument CLUPI: the close-up imager on board the ExoMars rover (United States)

    Josset, J.-L.; Beauvivre, S.; Cessa, V.; Martin, P.


    First mission of the Aurora Exploration Programme of ESA, ExoMars will demonstrate key flight and in situ enabling technologies, and will pursue fundamental scientific investigations. Planned for launch in 2013, ExoMars will send a robotic rover to the surface of Mars. The Close-UP Imager (CLUPI) instrument is part of the Pasteur Payload of the rover fixed on the robotic arm. It is a robotic replacement of one of the most useful instruments of the field geologist: the hand lens. Imaging of surfaces of rocks, soils and wind drift deposits at high resolution is crucial for the understanding of the geological context of any site where the Pasteur rover may be active on Mars. At the resolution provided by CLUPI (approx. 15 micrometer/pixel), rocks show a plethora of surface and internal structures, to name just a few: crystals in igneous rocks, sedimentary structures such as bedding, fracture mineralization, secondary minerals, details of the surface morphology, sedimentary bedding, sediment components, surface marks in sediments, soil particles. It is conceivable that even textures resulting from ancient biological activity can be visualized, such as fine lamination due to microbial mats (stromatolites) and textures resulting from colonies of filamentous microbes, potentially present in sediments and in palaeocavitites in any rock type. CLUPI is a complete imaging system, consisting of an APS (Active Pixel Sensor) camera with 27° FOV optics. The sensor is sensitive to light between 400 and 900 nm with 12 bits digitization. The fixed focus optics provides well focused images of 4 cm x 2.4 cm rock area at a distance of about 10 cm. This challenging camera system, less than 200g, is an independent scientific instrument linked to the rover on board computer via a SpaceWire interface. After the science goals and specifications presentation, the development of this complex high performance miniaturized imaging system will be described.

  8. Radiation-resistant camera tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahata, Takao; Manabe, Sohei; Makishima, Yasuhiro


    It was a long time ago that Toshiba launched on manufacturing black-and-white radiation-resistant camera tubes employing nonbrowning face-plate glass for ITV cameras used in nuclear power plants. Now in compliance with the increasing demand in nuclear power field, the Company is at grips with the development of radiation-resistant single color-camera tubes incorporating a color-stripe filter for color ITV cameras used under radiation environment. Herein represented are the results of experiments on characteristics of materials for single color-camera tubes and prospects for commercialization of the tubes. (author)

  9. Data-Acquisition Software for PSP/TSP Wind-Tunnel Cameras (United States)

    Amer, Tahani R.; Goad, William K.


    Wing-Viewer is a computer program for acquisition and reduction of image data acquired by any of five different scientificgrade commercial electronic cameras used at Langley Research center to observe wind-tunnel models coated with pressure or temperature-sensitive paints (PSP/TSP). Wing-Viewer provides full automation of camera operation and acquisition of image data, and has limited data-preprocessing capability for quick viewing of the results of PSP/TSP test images. Wing- Viewer satisfies a requirement for a standard interface between all the cameras and a single personal computer: Written by use of Microsoft Visual C++ and the Microsoft Foundation Class Library as a framework, Wing-Viewer has the ability to communicate with the C/C++ software libraries that run on the controller circuit cards of all five cameras.

  10. GRACE star camera noise (United States)

    Harvey, Nate


    Extending results from previous work by Bandikova et al. (2012) and Inacio et al. (2015), this paper analyzes Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) star camera attitude measurement noise by processing inter-camera quaternions from 2003 to 2015. We describe a correction to star camera data, which will eliminate a several-arcsec twice-per-rev error with daily modulation, currently visible in the auto-covariance function of the inter-camera quaternion, from future GRACE Level-1B product releases. We also present evidence supporting the argument that thermal conditions/settings affect long-term inter-camera attitude biases by at least tens-of-arcsecs, and that several-to-tens-of-arcsecs per-rev star camera errors depend largely on field-of-view.

  11. [Evaluation of Iris Morphology Viewed through Stromal Edematous Corneas by Infrared Camera]. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masaaki; Morishige, Naoyuki; Morita, Yukiko; Yamada, Naoyuki; Kobayashi, Motomi; Sonoda, Koh-Hei


    We reported that the application of infrared camera enables us to observe iris morphology in Peters' anomaly through edematous corneas. To observe the iris morphology in bullous keratopathy or failure grafts with an infrared camera. Eleven bullous keratopathy or failure grafts subjects (6 men and 5 women, mean age ± SD; 72.7 ± 13.0 years old) were enrolled in this study. The iris morphology was observed by applying visible light mode and near infrared light mode of infrared camera (MeibomPen). The detectability of pupil shapes, iris patterns and presence of iridectomy was evaluated. Infrared mode observation enabled us to detect the pupil shapes in 11 out of 11 cases, iris patterns in 3 out of 11 cases, and presence of iridetomy in 9 out of 11 cases although visible light mode observation could not detect any iris morphological changes. Applying infrared optics was valuable for observation of the iris morphology through stromal edematous corneas.

  12. A new high-speed IR camera system (United States)

    Travis, Jeffrey W.; Shu, Peter K.; Jhabvala, Murzy D.; Kasten, Michael S.; Moseley, Samuel H.; Casey, Sean C.; Mcgovern, Lawrence K.; Luers, Philip J.; Dabney, Philip W.; Kaipa, Ravi C.


    A multi-organizational team at the Goddard Space Flight Center is developing a new far infrared (FIR) camera system which furthers the state of the art for this type of instrument by the incorporating recent advances in several technological disciplines. All aspects of the camera system are optimized for operation at the high data rates required for astronomical observations in the far infrared. The instrument is built around a Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) detector array which exhibits responsivity over a broad wavelength band and which is capable of operating at 1000 frames/sec, and consists of a focal plane dewar, a compact camera head electronics package, and a Digital Signal Processor (DSP)-based data system residing in a standard 486 personal computer. In this paper we discuss the overall system architecture, the focal plane dewar, and advanced features and design considerations for the electronics. This system, or one derived from it, may prove useful for many commercial and/or industrial infrared imaging or spectroscopic applications, including thermal machine vision for robotic manufacturing, photographic observation of short-duration thermal events such as combustion or chemical reactions, and high-resolution surveillance imaging.

  13. Radioactive sampler observation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Norihiko; Saito, Norihisa.


    When an object of observation is a fuel rod and if a specimen in a fuel pool is small, it takes much labor for the observation and micro-observation images at a high ratio can not be displayed. A pipe for containing an observing camera in a water-sealed state, a jack capable of adjusting the focus of the observation camera by remote control and a horizontal bed capable of controlling the position of the observation camera for observing the specimen are disposed on a rail formed on lead block shielding walls. The magnification ratio for the observation can be increased by exchanging a die for securing the specimen and a lens, and a transparent acrylic resin plate, or a transparent lead-incorporated glass plate is joined to the bottom of the pipe. Since the sampled specimen can be observed as it is irrespective of the shape or the size of the specimen to be observed, danger of radiation exposure caused such as upon cutting, transportation or fabrication of the radioactive specimen can be reduced. Further, observation underwater can be conducted by the water sealing treatment of the pipe for the observing camera. (N.H.)

  14. NSTX Tangential Divertor Camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquemore, A.L.; Ted Biewer; Johnson, D.; Zweben, S.J.; Nobuhiro Nishino; Soukhanovskii, V.A.


    Strong magnetic field shear around the divertor x-point is numerically predicted to lead to strong spatial asymmetries in turbulence driven particle fluxes. To visualize the turbulence and associated impurity line emission near the lower x-point region, a new tangential observation port has been recently installed on NSTX. A reentrant sapphire window with a moveable in-vessel mirror images the divertor region from the center stack out to R 80 cm and views the x-point for most plasma configurations. A coherent fiber optic bundle transmits the image through a remotely selected filter to a fast camera, for example a 40500 frames/sec Photron CCD camera. A gas puffer located in the lower inboard divertor will localize the turbulence in the region near the x-point. Edge fluid and turbulent codes UEDGE and BOUT will be used to interpret impurity and deuterium emission fluctuation measurements in the divertor

  15. Surface navigation on Mars with a Navigation Satellite (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, A.; Thurman, Sam W.; Kahn, Robert D.; Hastrup, Rolf C.

    Radiometric navigation data from the Deep Space Network (DSN) stations on the earth to transponders and other surface elements such as rovers and landers on Mars, can determine their positions to only within a kilometer in inertial space. The positional error is mostly in the z-component of the surface element parallel to the Martian spin-axis. However, with Doppler and differenced-Doppler data from a Navigation Satellite in orbit around Mars to two or more of such transponders on the planetary surface, their positions can be determined to within 15 meters (or 20 meters for one-way Doppler beacons on Mars) in inertial space. In this case, the transponders (or other vehicles) on Mars need not even be capable of directly communicating to the earth. When the Navigation Satellite data is complemented by radiometric observations from the DSN stations also, directly to the surface elements on Mars, their positions can be determined to within 3 meters in inertial space. The relative positions of such surface elements on Mars (relative to one another) in Mars-fixed coordinates, however, can be determined to within 5 meters from simply range and Doppler data from the DSN stations to the surface elements. These results are obtained from covariance studies assuming X-band data noise levels and data-arcs not exceeding 10 days. They are significant in the planning and deployment of a Mars-based navigation network necessary to support real-time operations during critical phases of manned exploration of Mars.

  16. OCAMS: The OSIRIS-REx Camera Suite (United States)

    Rizk, B.; Drouet d'Aubigny, C.; Golish, D.; Fellows, C.; Merrill, C.; Smith, P.; Walker, M. S.; Hendershot, J. E.; Hancock, J.; Bailey, S. H.; DellaGiustina, D. N.; Lauretta, D. S.; Tanner, R.; Williams, M.; Harshman, K.; Fitzgibbon, M.; Verts, W.; Chen, J.; Connors, T.; Hamara, D.; Dowd, A.; Lowman, A.; Dubin, M.; Burt, R.; Whiteley, M.; Watson, M.; McMahon, T.; Ward, M.; Booher, D.; Read, M.; Williams, B.; Hunten, M.; Little, E.; Saltzman, T.; Alfred, D.; O'Dougherty, S.; Walthall, M.; Kenagy, K.; Peterson, S.; Crowther, B.; Perry, M. L.; See, C.; Selznick, S.; Sauve, C.; Beiser, M.; Black, W.; Pfisterer, R. N.; Lancaster, A.; Oliver, S.; Oquest, C.; Crowley, D.; Morgan, C.; Castle, C.; Dominguez, R.; Sullivan, M.


    The OSIRIS-REx Camera Suite (OCAMS) will acquire images essential to collecting a sample from the surface of Bennu. During proximity operations, these images will document the presence of satellites and plumes, record spin state, enable an accurate model of the asteroid's shape, and identify any surface hazards. They will confirm the presence of sampleable regolith on the surface, observe the sampling event itself, and image the sample head in order to verify its readiness to be stowed. They will document Bennu's history as an example of early solar system material, as a microgravity body with a planetesimal size-scale, and as a carbonaceous object. OCAMS is fitted with three cameras. The MapCam will record color images of Bennu as a point source on approach to the asteroid in order to connect Bennu's ground-based point-source observational record to later higher-resolution surface spectral imaging. The SamCam will document the sample site before, during, and after it is disturbed by the sample mechanism. The PolyCam, using its focus mechanism, will observe the sample site at sub-centimeter resolutions, revealing surface texture and morphology. While their imaging requirements divide naturally between the three cameras, they preserve a strong degree of functional overlap. OCAMS and the other spacecraft instruments will allow the OSIRIS-REx mission to collect a sample from a microgravity body on the same visit during which it was first optically acquired from long range, a useful capability as humanity reaches out to explore near-Earth, Main-Belt and Jupiter Trojan asteroids.

  17. Design and Construction of an X-ray Lightning Camera (United States)

    Schaal, M.; Dwyer, J. R.; Rassoul, H. K.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Hill, J. D.


    A pinhole-type camera was designed and built for the purpose of producing high-speed images of the x-ray emissions from rocket-and-wire-triggered lightning. The camera consists of 30 7.62-cm diameter NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors, each sampling at 10 million frames per second. The steel structure of the camera is encased in 1.27-cm thick lead, which blocks x-rays that are less than 400 keV, except through a 7.62-cm diameter “pinhole” aperture located at the front of the camera. The lead and steel structure is covered in 0.16-cm thick aluminum to block RF noise, water and light. All together, the camera weighs about 550-kg and is approximately 1.2-m x 0.6-m x 0.6-m. The image plane, which is adjustable, was placed 32-cm behind the pinhole aperture, giving a field of view of about ±38° in both the vertical and horizontal directions. The elevation of the camera is adjustable between 0 and 50° from horizontal and the camera may be pointed in any azimuthal direction. In its current configuration, the camera’s angular resolution is about 14°. During the summer of 2010, the x-ray camera was located 44-m from the rocket-launch tower at the UF/Florida Tech International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, FL and several rocket-triggered lightning flashes were observed. In this presentation, I will discuss the design, construction and operation of this x-ray camera.

  18. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, P.A.; Steidley, J.W.


    The design of a collimation system for a gamma camera for use in nuclear medicine is described. When used with a 2-dimensional position sensitive radiation detector, the novel system can produce superior images than conventional cameras. The optimal thickness and positions of the collimators are derived mathematically. (U.K.)

  19. Picosecond camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decroisette, Michel

    A Kerr cell activated by infrared pulses of a model locked Nd glass laser, acts as an ultra-fast and periodic shutter, with a few p.s. opening time. Associated with a S.T.L. camera, it gives rise to a picosecond camera allowing us to study very fast effects [fr

  20. Determination of frequencies of oscillations of cloud cavitation on a 2-D hydrofoil from high-speed camera observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zima, Patrik; Fürst, T.; Sedlář, M.; Komárek, M.; Huzlík, R.


    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2016), s. 369-378 ISSN 1001-6058 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23550S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : unsteady cavitation * oscillation frequency * high-speed camera observation Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.174, year: 2016

  1. Camera-cinematography of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.E.; Meyer, G.; Bitter, F.; Kampmann, H.; Bargon, G.; Stauch, M.; Ulm Univ.


    By 'camera-cinematography' of the heart, we mean an isotope method which permits detailed observation of cardiac mechanics without the use of a catheter. All that is necessary is an intravenous injection of 10 to 15 mCisup(99m)Tc human serum albumin followed after ten minutes by a five to ten minute period of observation with a scintillation camera. At this time the isotope has become distributed in the blood. Variations in the precordial impulses correspond with intra-cardiac changes of blood volume during a cardiac cycle. Analysis of the R-wave provides adequate information of cyclical volume changes in limited portions of the heart. This is achieved by a monitor with a pseudo-3-dimensional display; contraction and relaxation of the myocardium can be shown for any chosen longitudinal or horizontal diameter of the heart. Our programme allows simultaneous presentation of the movement of any point on the myocardium as a time-activity curve. The method is recommended as an addition to chest radiography, heart screening or cardiac kymography before carrying out cardiac catheterisation. (orig.) [de

  2. Remote Sensing Mars Landing Sites: An Out-of-School Time Planetary Science Education Activity for Middle School Students (United States)

    Anderson, R. B.; Gaither, T. A.; Edgar, L. A.; Milazzo, M. P.; Vaughan, R. G.; Rubino-Hare, L.; Clark, J.; Ryan, S.


    As part of the Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science (PLANETS) project, we have developed an out-of-school time unit for middle school students focused on planetary remote sensing. The activity is divided into two exercises, with the goal of choosing a scientifically interesting and safe landing site for a future Mars mission. Students are introduced to NASA data from several actual and proposed landing sites and must use what they learn about remote sensing to choose a site that satisfies scientific and engineering criteria. The activity also includes background information for educators, including a summary of how landing on Mars helps answer major scientific questions, brief overviews of the data sets that the students will use, summaries of the site geology, and a list of relevant vocabulary. The first exercise introduces students to the concept of reflectance spectroscopy and how it can be used to identify the "fingerprints" of different minerals on the surface of Mars. Students are provided with simplified maps of mineral spectra at the four sites, based on Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer (CRISM) observations, as well as a reference sheet with the spectra of common minerals on Mars. They can use this information to determine which sites have hydrated minerals, mafic minerals, or both. The second exercise adds data from the Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter (MOLA), and high resolution visible data from the Context Camera (CTX) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Students learn about laser altimetry and how to interpret topographic contours to assess whether a landing site is too rough. The CTX data allow students to study the sites at higher resolution, with annotations that indicate key landforms of interest. These data, along with the spectroscopy data, allow students to rank the sites based on science and engineering criteria. This activity was developed as a collaboration between subject matter experts at

  3. Cars on Mars (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.


    Mars is one of the most fascinating planets in the solar system, featuring an atmosphere, water, and enormous volcanoes and canyons. The Mars Pathfinder, Global Surveyor, and Odyssey missions mark the first wave of the Planet Earth's coming invasion of the red planet, changing our views of the past and future of the planet and the possibilities of life. Scientist and science-fiction writer Geoffrey A. Landis will present experiences on the Pathfinder mission, the challenges of using solar power on the surface of Mars, and present future missions to Mars such as the upcoming Mars Twin Rovers, which will launch two highly-capable vehicles in 2003 to explore the surface of Mars.

  4. A fast framing camera system for observation of acceleration and ablation of cryogenic hydrogen pellet in ASDEX Upgrade plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocsis, G.; Kalvin, S.; Veres, G.; Cierpka, P.; Lang, P.T.; Neuhauser, J.; Wittman, C.; ASDEX Upgrade Team


    An observation system using fast digital cameras was developed to measure a cryogenic hydrogen pellet's cloud structure, trajectory, and velocity changes during its ablation in ASDEX Upgrade plasmas. In this article the system, the applied numerical methods, and the results are presented. The three-dimensional pellet trajectory and velocity components were reconstructed from images of observations from two different directions. Pellet acceleration both in the radial and toroidal directions was detected. The pellet cloud distribution was measured with high spatio-temporal resolution. The cloud surrounding the pellet was found to be elongated along the magnetic field lines. Its typical size is 5-7 cm along the field lines and 2 cm in the perpendicular directions. A cloud extension in the poloidal direction was also observed which may be related to the drift of the detached part of the cloud

  5. The turbulent life of juvenile icebergs: Observations from an array of high-rate time-lapse cameras in LeConte Bay, Alaska (United States)

    Kienholz, C.; Amundson, J. M.; Jackson, R. H.; Motyka, R. J.; Nash, J. D.; Sutherland, D.


    Tidewater glacier behavior is driven by poorly understood processes occurring at the ice-ocean interface, including sedimentation and erosion, iceberg calving, and submarine melting. These processes are inherently difficult to observe, calling for innovative field techniques and numerical models. As part of a multi-year field effort to constrain ocean-glacier heat and mass exchange, we deployed an array of high-rate time-lapse cameras (sampling intervals between 15 seconds and 2 minutes) to monitor the terminus of LeConte Glacier and its proglacial fjord. The camera array has operated continuously for more than a year. Our high sampling rates enable tracking of iceberg motion with optical flow algorithms, which have been used widely in computer vision but less so in glaciology and oceanography. Such algorithms track individual features (e.g., corners of icebergs), which is ideal for iceberg-rich fjords, where motion can vary substantially over short temporal and spatial scales (e.g., due to complex surface currents or different iceberg sizes). We process our data to quantify subdaily to seasonal patterns in surface currents and relate them to forcing from tides, wind, and glacier runoff. Flow is most variable close to the glacier terminus due to frequent calving events and turbulent plume dynamics. Farther down fjord, more consistent patterns emerge, driven by tides, wind, and runoff and altered by fjord geometry. Our tracking results compare favorably to and complement our Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler measurements from boats and moorings. Given their high spatial and temporal resolution, our observations will place important surface constraints on forthcoming hydrodynamic modeling efforts. The deployment of the cameras in a harsh environment and the corresponding image processing provided an opportunity to test hardware and software thoroughly, which will prove useful for similar systems at other glaciers.

  6. Reducing the Variance of Intrinsic Camera Calibration Results in the ROS Camera_Calibration Package (United States)

    Chiou, Geoffrey Nelson

    The intrinsic calibration of a camera is the process in which the internal optical and geometric characteristics of the camera are determined. If accurate intrinsic parameters of a camera are known, the ray in 3D space that every point in the image lies on can be determined. Pairing with another camera allows for the position of the points in the image to be calculated by intersection of the rays. Accurate intrinsics also allow for the position and orientation of a camera relative to some world coordinate system to be calculated. These two reasons for having accurate intrinsic calibration for a camera are especially important in the field of industrial robotics where 3D cameras are frequently mounted on the ends of manipulators. In the ROS (Robot Operating System) ecosystem, the camera_calibration package is the default standard for intrinsic camera calibration. Several researchers from the Industrial Robotics & Automation division at Southwest Research Institute have noted that this package results in large variances in the intrinsic parameters of the camera when calibrating across multiple attempts. There are also open issues on this matter in their public repository that have not been addressed by the developers. In this thesis, we confirm that the camera_calibration package does indeed return different results across multiple attempts, test out several possible hypothesizes as to why, identify the reason, and provide simple solution to fix the cause of the issue.

  7. Commercialization of radiation tolerant camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Choi, Young Soo; Kim, Sun Ku; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Bung Hun; Lee, Nam Ho; Byun, Eiy Gyo; Yoo, Seun Wook; Choi, Bum Ki; Yoon, Sung Up; Kim, Hyun Gun; Sin, Jeong Hun; So, Suk Il


    In this project, radiation tolerant camera which tolerates 10{sup 6} - 10{sup 8} rad total dose is developed. In order to develop radiation tolerant camera, radiation effect of camera components was examined and evaluated, and camera configuration was studied. By the result of evaluation, the components were decided and design was performed. Vidicon tube was selected to use by image sensor and non-browning optics and camera driving circuit were applied. The controller needed for CCTV camera system, lens, light, pan/tilt controller, was designed by the concept of remote control. And two type of radiation tolerant camera were fabricated consider to use in underwater environment or normal environment. (author)

  8. Commercialization of radiation tolerant camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Choi, Young Soo; Kim, Sun Ku; Lee, Jong Min; Cha, Bung Hun; Lee, Nam Ho; Byun, Eiy Gyo; Yoo, Seun Wook; Choi, Bum Ki; Yoon, Sung Up; Kim, Hyun Gun; Sin, Jeong Hun; So, Suk Il


    In this project, radiation tolerant camera which tolerates 10 6 - 10 8 rad total dose is developed. In order to develop radiation tolerant camera, radiation effect of camera components was examined and evaluated, and camera configuration was studied. By the result of evaluation, the components were decided and design was performed. Vidicon tube was selected to use by image sensor and non-browning optics and camera driving circuit were applied. The controller needed for CCTV camera system, lens, light, pan/tilt controller, was designed by the concept of remote control. And two type of radiation tolerant camera were fabricated consider to use in underwater environment or normal environment. (author)

  9. Mars atmosphere studies with the OMEGA/Mars Express experiment: I. Overview and detection of lfuorescent emission by CO2 (United States)

    Drossart, P.; Combes, M.; Encrenaz, T.; Melchiorri, R.; Fouchet, T.; Forget, F.; Moroz, V.; Ignatiev, N.; Bibring, J.-P.; Langevin, Y.; OMEGA Team

    Observations of Mars by the OMEGA/Mars Express experiment provide extended maps of the martian disk at all latitudes, and with various conditions of illumination, between 0.4 to 5 micron. The atmospheric investigations so far conducted by our team are focussed on the infrared part of the spectrum (1-5 micron), and include: the development of a correction algorithm for atmospheric gaseous absorption, to give access to fine mineralogic studies, largely decorrelated from atmospheric effects the study of dust opacity effects in the near infrared, with the aim to correct also the rough spectra from dust opacity perturbation the study of minor constituents like CO, to search for regional or global variations the study of CO2 emission at 4.3 micron related to fluorescent emission This last effect is prominently detected in limb observations obtained in 3-axis stabilized mode of Mars Express, with high altitude emission in the CO2 fundamental at 4.3 micron, usually seen in absorption in nadir observations. These emissions are related to non-LTE atmospheric layers, well above the solid surface in the mesosphere. Such emissions are also present in Earth and Venus limb observations. They are present also in nadir observations, but are reinforced in limb viewing geometry due to the tangential view. A numerical model of these emission will be presented.

  10. Cameras in mobile phones (United States)

    Nummela, Ville; Viinikanoja, Jarkko; Alakarhu, Juha


    One of the fastest growing markets in consumer markets today are camera phones. During past few years total volume has been growing fast and today millions of mobile phones with camera will be sold. At the same time resolution and functionality of the cameras has been growing from CIF towards DSC level. From camera point of view the mobile world is an extremely challenging field. Cameras should have good image quality but in small size. They also need to be reliable and their construction should be suitable for mass manufacturing. All components of the imaging chain should be well optimized in this environment. Image quality and usability are the most important parameters to user. The current trend of adding more megapixels to cameras and at the same time using smaller pixels is affecting both. On the other hand reliability and miniaturization are key drivers for product development as well as the cost. In optimized solution all parameters are in balance but the process of finding the right trade-offs is not an easy task. In this paper trade-offs related to optics and their effects to image quality and usability of cameras are discussed. Key development areas from mobile phone camera point of view are also listed.

  11. Geologic context of recurring slope lineae in Melas and Coprates Chasmata, Mars (United States)

    Chojnacki, Matthew; McEwen, Alfred; Dundas, Colin M.; Ojha, Lujendra; Urso, Anna; Sutton, Sarah


    One of the major Mars discoveries of recent years is the existence of recurring slope lineae (RSL), which suggests that liquid water occurs on or near the surface of Mars today. These dark and narrow features emerge from steep, rocky exposures and incrementally grow, fade, and reform on a seasonal basis and are detected in images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera. RSL are known to occur at scattered midlatitude and equatorial sites with little spatial connection to one another. One major exception is the steep, low-albedo slopes of Melas and Coprates Chasmata, in Valles Marineris where RSL are detected among diverse geologic surfaces (e.g., bedrock and talus) and landforms (e.g., inselbergs and landslides). New images show topographic changes including sediment deposition on active RSL slopes. Midwall locations in Coprates and Melas appear to have more areally extensively abundant RSL and related fans as compared with other RSL sites found on Mars. Water budget estimates for regional RSL are on the order of 105 to 106 m3 of fluid, for depths of 10 to 100mm, and suggest that a significant amount of near-surface watermight be present. Many RSL are concentrated near local topographic highs, such as ridge crests or peaks, which is challenging to explain via groundwater or ice without a recharge mechanism. Collectively, results provide additional support for the notion that significant amounts of near-surface water can be found on Mars today and suggest that a widespread mechanism, possibly related to the atmosphere, is recharging RSL sources.

  12. Large wind ripples on Mars: A record of atmospheric evolution


    Lapotre, M. G. A.; Ewing, R. C.; Lamb, M. P.; Fischer, W. W.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Rubin, D. M.; Lewis, K. W.; Ballard, M. J.; Daybell, M.; Gupta, S.; Banham, S. G.; Bridges, N. T.; Des Marais, D. J.; Fraeman, A. A.; Grant, J. A.


    Wind blowing over sand on Earth produces decimeter-wavelength ripples and hundred-meter– to kilometer-wavelength dunes: bedforms of two distinct size modes. Observations from the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reveal that Mars hosts a third stable wind-driven bedform, with meter-scale wavelengths. These bedforms are spatially uniform in size and typically have asymmetric profiles with angle-of-repose lee slopes and sinuous crest lines, making them ...

  13. The magnetic field of Mars according to data of Mars-3 and Mars-5 space vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolginov, Sh.Sh.; Eroshenko, E.G.; Zhuzgov, L.N.


    Magnitograms obtained by the space probe ''Mars-5'' on the evening and day sides as well as those from the ''Mars-3'' obtained earlier suggest the following: In the vicinity of Mars there exists a shock front and its disposition is tracked at various angles to the direction to the sun. Magnetometers have registered a region in space where magnetic field features the properties of a magnetosphere field in its topology and action on plasma. The magnetic field in the region of the ''magnitosphere'' does not change its sign when the interplanetary field does shile in adjacent boundary regions the regular part of the field changes its sign when that of the interplanetary field does. The configuration and dimensions of the ''magnitosphere'' depend on thesolar wind intensity. On the day side (''Mars-3'') the magnitospheric field ceases to be registered at an altitude of 2200km, whereas on the night side (''Mars-5'') the regular field is traced up to 7500-9500km from the planet surface. All the above unambiguously suggests that the planet Mars has its own magnetic field. Under the influence of the solar wind the field takes the characteristic form: it is limited on the day side and elongated on the night one. The topology oif force lines is explicable if one assumes that the axis of the Mars magnetic dipole is inclined to the rotation axis at an abgle of 15-20deg. The northern magnetic pole of the dipole is licated in the northern hemisphere, i.e. the Mars fields in their regularity are opposite to the geomagnetic field. The magnetic moment of the Mars dipole is equal to M=2.5x10 22 3 . (author)

  14. Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Payment, Simone


    This curriculum-based, fun, and approachable book offers everything young readers need to know to begin their study of the Red Planet. They will learn about the fundamental aspects of the Mars, including its size, mass, surface features, interior, orbit, and spin. Further, they will learn about the history of the missions to Mars, including the Viking spacecraft and the Curiosity and MAVEN rovers. Finally, readers will learn about why scientists think there's a chance that Mars is or was suitable for life. With stunning imagery from NASA itself, readers will have a front seat-view of the missi

  15. Advantages of computer cameras over video cameras/frame grabbers for high-speed vision applications (United States)

    Olson, Gaylord G.; Walker, Jo N.


    Cameras designed to work specifically with computers can have certain advantages in comparison to the use of cameras loosely defined as 'video' cameras. In recent years the camera type distinctions have become somewhat blurred, with a great presence of 'digital cameras' aimed more at the home markets. This latter category is not considered here. The term 'computer camera' herein is intended to mean one which has low level computer (and software) control of the CCD clocking. These can often be used to satisfy some of the more demanding machine vision tasks, and in some cases with a higher rate of measurements than video cameras. Several of these specific applications are described here, including some which use recently designed CCDs which offer good combinations of parameters such as noise, speed, and resolution. Among the considerations for the choice of camera type in any given application would be such effects as 'pixel jitter,' and 'anti-aliasing.' Some of these effects may only be relevant if there is a mismatch between the number of pixels per line in the camera CCD and the number of analog to digital (A/D) sampling points along a video scan line. For the computer camera case these numbers are guaranteed to match, which alleviates some measurement inaccuracies and leads to higher effective resolution.

  16. The humanation of Mars (United States)

    David, L. W.

    Early developments related to human excursions to Mars are examined, taking into account plans considered by von Braun, and the 'ambitious goal of a manned flight to Mars by the end of the century', proposed at the launch of Apollo 11. In response to public reaction, plans for manned flights to Mars in the immediate future were given up, and unmanned reconnaissance of Mars was continued. An investigation is conducted concerning the advantages of manned exploration of Mars in comparison to a study by unmanned space probes, and arguments regarding a justification for interplanetary flight to Mars are discussed. Attention is given to the possibility to consider Mars as a 'back-up' planet for preserving earth life, an international Mars expedition as a world peace project, the role of Mars in connection with resource utilization considerations, and questions of exploration ethics.

  17. Mars Drilling Status (United States)

    Mandell, Humboldt, C., Jr.


    This slide presentation reviews the current status of work to explore Mars beneath the surface of planet. One of the objective of this work is to enable further exploration of Mars by humans. One of the requirements for this is to find water on Mars. The presences of water is critical for Human Exploration and a permanent presence on Mars. If water is present beneath the surface it is the best chance of finding life on Mars. The presentation includes a timeline showing the robotic missions, those that have already been on Mars, and planned missions, an explanation of why do we want to drill on Mars, and some of the challenges, Also include are reviews of a missions that would drill 200 and 4,000 to 6,000 meters into the Martian bedrock, and a overview description of the drill. There is a view of some places where we have hopes of finding water.

  18. The design and engineering of curiosity how the Mars Rover performs its job

    CERN Document Server

    Lakdawalla, Emily


    This book describes the most complex machine ever sent to another planet: Curiosity. It is a one-ton robot with two brains, seventeen cameras, six wheels, nuclear power, and a laser beam on its head. No one human understands how all of its systems and instruments work. This essential reference to the Curiosity mission explains the engineering behind every system on the rover, from its rocket-powered jetpack to its radioisotope thermoelectric generator to its fiendishly complex sample handling system. Its lavishly illustrated text explains how all the instruments work -- its cameras, spectrometers, sample-cooking oven, and weather station -- and describes the instruments' abilities and limitations. It tells you how the systems have functioned on Mars, and how scientists and engineers have worked around problems developed on a faraway planet: holey wheels and broken focus lasers. And it explains the grueling mission operations schedule that keeps the rover working day in and day out.   .

  19. Divergence-ratio axi-vision camera (Divcam): A distance mapping camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Keigo


    A novel distance mapping camera the divergence-ratio axi-vision camera (Divcam) is proposed. The decay rate of the illuminating light with distance due to the divergence of the light is used as means of mapping the distance. Resolutions of 10 mm over a range of meters and 0.5 mm over a range of decimeters were achieved. The special features of this camera are its high resolution real-time operation, simplicity, compactness, light weight, portability, and yet low fabrication cost. The feasibility of various potential applications is also included

  20. Ground-based observations of Mars and Venus water vapor during 1972 and 1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, E.S.


    The Venus water vapor line at 8197.71 A has been monitored at several positions on the disk of Venus and at phase angles between 22 0 and 91 0 . Variations in the abundance have been found with both position and time. The total two-way transmission has varied from less than 5 to 77 μ of water vapor. Comparisons are made between water vapor abundance, presence of UV features and the CO 2 abundance determined from near simultaneous observations of CO 2 bands at the same position on the disk of Venus. The amount of Martian atmospheric water vapor has been monitored during the past two years at McDonald Observatory using the echelle coude scanner of the 272cm reflector. Two periods of the Martain year have been monitored. The first period was during and after the great 1971 dust storm (Lsub(s)=290 0 to 20 0 or summer in the southern hemisphere). The results obtained are compared to the Mariner 9 IRIS and Mars 3 observations made during the same period. During the second period (Lsub(s)=124 0 to 266 0 ) observations were made to follow the seasonal latitudinal and diurnal changes in the water abundance in the Martian atmosphere. Studies of the latitudinal and diurnal vapor distributions indicate the location of maximum and minimum abundances for this season are positively correlated with surface temperature variations. (Auth.)

  1. Thermal Cameras and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.


    Thermal cameras are passive sensors that capture the infrared radiation emitted by all objects with a temperature above absolute zero. This type of camera was originally developed as a surveillance and night vision tool for the military, but recently the price has dropped, significantly opening up...... a broader field of applications. Deploying this type of sensor in vision systems eliminates the illumination problems of normal greyscale and RGB cameras. This survey provides an overview of the current applications of thermal cameras. Applications include animals, agriculture, buildings, gas detection......, industrial, and military applications, as well as detection, tracking, and recognition of humans. Moreover, this survey describes the nature of thermal radiation and the technology of thermal cameras....

  2. Small-Scale Polygons and the History of Ground Ice on Mars (United States)

    Mellon, Michael T.


    This research has laid a foundation for continued study of permafrost polygons on Mars using the models and understanding discussed here. Further study of polygonal patterns on Mars is proceeding (under new funding) which is expected to reveal more results about the origin of observed martian polygons and what information they contain regarding the recent history of tile martian climate and of water ice on Mars.

  3. The Regulatory Small RNA MarS Supports Virulence of Streptococcus pyogenes. (United States)

    Pappesch, Roberto; Warnke, Philipp; Mikkat, Stefan; Normann, Jana; Wisniewska-Kucper, Aleksandra; Huschka, Franziska; Wittmann, Maja; Khani, Afsaneh; Schwengers, Oliver; Oehmcke-Hecht, Sonja; Hain, Torsten; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Patenge, Nadja


    Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) play a role in the control of bacterial virulence gene expression. In this study, we investigated an sRNA that was identified in Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus, GAS) but is conserved throughout various streptococci. In a deletion strain, expression of mga, the gene encoding the multiple virulence gene regulator, was reduced. Accordingly, transcript and proteome analyses revealed decreased expression of several Mga-activated genes. Therefore, and because the sRNA was shown to interact with the 5' UTR of the mga transcript in a gel-shift assay, we designated it MarS for m ga-activating regulatory sRNA. Down-regulation of important virulence factors, including the antiphagocytic M-protein, led to increased susceptibility of the deletion strain to phagocytosis and reduced adherence to human keratinocytes. In a mouse infection model, the marS deletion mutant showed reduced dissemination to the liver, kidney, and spleen. Additionally, deletion of marS led to increased tolerance towards oxidative stress. Our in vitro and in vivo results indicate a modulating effect of MarS on virulence gene expression and on the pathogenic potential of GAS.

  4. Radiation camera exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martone, R.J.; Yarsawich, M.; Wolczek, W.


    A system and method for governing the exposure of an image generated by a radiation camera to an image sensing camera is disclosed. The exposure is terminated in response to the accumulation of a predetermined quantity of radiation, defining a radiation density, occurring in a predetermined area. An index is produced which represents the value of that quantity of radiation whose accumulation causes the exposure termination. The value of the predetermined radiation quantity represented by the index is sensed so that the radiation camera image intensity can be calibrated to compensate for changes in exposure amounts due to desired variations in radiation density of the exposure, to maintain the detectability of the image by the image sensing camera notwithstanding such variations. Provision is also made for calibrating the image intensity in accordance with the sensitivity of the image sensing camera, and for locating the index for maintaining its detectability and causing the proper centering of the radiation camera image

  5. Celestial Navigation on the Surface of Mars (United States)

    Malay, Benjamin P.


    A simple, accurate, and autonomous method of finding position on the surface of Mars currently does not exist. The goal of this project is to develop a celestial navigation process that will fix a position on Mars with 100-meter accuracy. This method requires knowing the position of the stars and planets referenced to the Martian surface with one arcsecond accuracy. This information is contained in an ephemeris known as the Aeronautical Almanac (from Ares, the god of war) . Naval Observatory Vector Astrometry Subroutines (NOVAS) form the basis of the code used to generate the almanac. Planetary position data come the JPL DE405 Planetary Ephemeris. The theoretical accuracy of the almanac is determined mathematically and compared with the Ephemeris for Physical Observations of Mars contained in the Astronautical Almanac. A preliminary design of an autonomous celestial navigation system is presented. Recommendations of how to integrate celestial navigation into NASA=s current Mars exploration program are also discussed. This project is a useful and much-needed first step towards establishing celestial navigation as a practical way to find position on the surface of Mars.

  6. Lander Radioscience LaRa, a Space Geodesy Experiment to Mars within the ExoMars 2020 mission. (United States)

    Dehant, V. M. A.; Le Maistre, S.; Yseboodt, M.; Peters, M. J.; Karatekin, O.; Van Hove, B.; Rivoldini, A.; Baland, R. M.; Van Hoolst, T.


    The LaRa (Lander Radioscience) experiment is designed to obtain coherent two-way Doppler measurements from the radio link between the 2020 ExoMars lander and Earth over at least one Martian year. The LaRa instrument consists of a coherent transponder with up- and downlinks at X-band radio frequencies. The signal received from Earth is a pure carrier at 7.178 GHz; it is transponded back to Earth at a frequency of 8.434 GHz. The transponder is designed to maintain its lock and coherency over its planed one-hour observation sessions. The transponder mass is at the one-kg level. There are one uplink antenna and two downlink antennas. They are small patch antennas covered by a radome of 130gr for the downlink ones and of 200gr for the uplink. The signals will be generated and received by Earth-based radio antennas belonging to the NASA deep space network (DSN), the ESA tracking station network, or the Russian ground stations network. The instrument lifetime is more than twice the nominal mission duration of one Earth year. The Doppler measurements will be used to observe the orientation and rotation of Mars in space (precession, nutations, and length-of-day variations), as well as polar motion. The ultimate objective is to obtain information/constraints on the Martian interior, and on the sublimation/condensation cycle of atmospheric CO2. Orientation and rotational variations will allow us to constrain the moment of inertia of the entire planet, the moment of inertia of the core, and seasonal mass transfer between the atmosphere and the ice caps. The LaRa experiment will be combined with other previous radio science experiments such as the InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) RISE experiment (Rotation and Interior Structure Experiment) with radio science data of the NASA Viking landers, Mars Pathfinder and Mars Exploration Rovers. In addition, other ExoMars2020 and TGO (Trace Gas Orbiter) experiments providing

  7. Adapting Virtual Camera Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo


    In a three-dimensional virtual environment aspects such as narrative and interaction completely depend on the camera since the camera defines the player’s point of view. Most research works in automatic camera control aim to take the control of this aspect from the player to automatically gen- er...

  8. Applications of Surface Penetrating Radar for Mars Exploration (United States)

    Li, H.; Li, C.; Ran, S.; Feng, J.; Zuo, W.


    Surface Penetrating Radar (SPR) is a geophysical method that uses electromagnetic field probe the interior structure and lithological variations of a lossy dielectric materials, it performs quite well in dry, icy and shallow-soil environments. The first radar sounding of the subsurface of planet was carried out by Apollo Lunar Sounder Experiment (ALSE) of the Apollo 17 in 1972. ALSE provided very precise information about the moon's topography and revealed structures beneath the surface in both Mare Crisium and Mare Serenitatis. Russian Mars'92 was the first Mars exploration mission that tried to use SPR to explore martian surface, subsurface and ionosphere. Although Mars'96 launch failed in 1996, Russia(Mars'98, cancelled in 1998; Phobos-Grunt, launch failed in 2011), ESA(Mars Express, succeeded in 2003; Netlander, cancelled in 2003; ExoMars 2018) and NASA(MRO, succeeded in 2005; MARS 2020) have been making great effects to send SPR to Mars, trying to search for the existence of groundwater and life in the past 20 years. So far, no Ground Penetrating Radar(GPR) has yet provided in situ observations on the surface of Mars. In December 2013, China's CE-3 lunar rover (Yuto) equipped with a GPR made the first direct measurement of the structure and depth of the lunar soil, and investigation of the lunar crust structure along the rover path. China's Mars Exploration Program also plans to carry the orbiting radar sounder and rover GPR to characterize the nature of subsurface water or ices and the layered structure of shallow subsurface of Mars. SPR can provide diversity of applications for Mars exploration , that are: to map the distribution of solid and liquid water in the upper portions of the Mars' crust; to characterize the subsurface geologic environment; to investigate the planet's subsurface to better understand the evolution and habitability of Mars; to perform the martain ionosphere sounding. Based on SPR's history and achievements, combined with the

  9. Exploring Mars (United States)

    Breuil, Stéphanie


    Mars is our neighbour planet and has always fascinated humans as it has been seen as a potential abode for life. Knowledge about Mars is huge and was constructed step by step through numerous missions. It could be difficult to describe these missions, the associated technology, the results, the questions they raise, that's why an activity is proposed, that directly interests students. Their production is presented in the poster. Step 1: The main Mars feature and the first Mars explorations using telescope are presented to students. It should be really interesting to present "Mars Canals" from Percival Lowell as it should also warn students against flawed interpretation. Moreover, this study has raised the big question about extra-terrestrial life on Mars for the first time. Using Google Mars is then a good way to show the huge knowledge we have on the planet and to introduce modern missions. Step 2: Students have to choose and describe one of the Mars mission from ESA and NASA. They should work in pairs. Web sites from ESA and NASA are available and the teacher makes sure the main missions will be studied. Step 3: Students have to collect different pieces of information about the mission - When? Which technology? What were the main results? What type of questions does it raise? They prepare an oral presentation in the form they want (role play, academic presentation, using a poster, PowerPoint). They also have to produce playing cards about the mission that could be put on a timeline. Step 4: As a conclusion, the different cards concerning different missions are mixed. Groups of students receive cards and they have to put them on a timeline as fast as possible. It is also possible to play the game "timeline".

  10. Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Day, Trevor


    Discusses the fundamental facts concerning this mysterious planet, including its mass, size, and atmosphere, as well as the various missions that helped planetary scientists document the geological history of Mars. This volume also describes Mars'' seasons with their surface effects on the planet and how they have changed over time.

  11. Automated Meteor Detection by All-Sky Digital Camera Systems (United States)

    Suk, Tomáš; Šimberová, Stanislava


    We have developed a set of methods to detect meteor light traces captured by all-sky CCD cameras. Operating at small automatic observatories (stations), these cameras create a network spread over a large territory. Image data coming from these stations are merged in one central node. Since a vast amount of data is collected by the stations in a single night, robotic storage and analysis are essential to processing. The proposed methodology is adapted to data from a network of automatic stations equipped with digital fish-eye cameras and includes data capturing, preparation, pre-processing, analysis, and finally recognition of objects in time sequences. In our experiments we utilized real observed data from two stations.

  12. (Nearly) Seven Years on Mars: Adventure, Adversity, and Achievements with the NASA Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity (United States)

    Bell, J. F.; Mars Exploration Rover Science; Engineering Teams


    NASA successfully landed twin rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, on Mars in January 2004, in the most ambitious mission of robotic exploration attempted to that time. Each rover is outfitted as a robot field geologist with an impressive array of scientific instruments--cameras, spectrometers, other sensors--designed to investigate the composition and geologic history of two distinctly-different landing sites. The sites were chosen because of their potential to reveal clues about the past history of water and climate on Mars, and thus to provide tests of the hypothesis that the planet may once have been an abode for life. In this presentation I will review the images, spectra, and chemical/mineralogic information that the rover team has been acquiring from the landing sites and along the rovers' 7.7 and 22.7 km traverse paths, respectively. The data and interpretations have been widely shared with the public and the scientific community through web sites, frequent press releases, and scientific publications, and they provide quantitative evidence that liquid water has played a role in the modification of the Martian surface during the earliest part of the planet's history. At the Spirit site in Gusev Crater, the role of water appears to have been relatively minor in general, although the recent discovery of enigmatic hydrated sulfate salt and amorphous silica deposits suggests that locally there may have been significant water-rock interactions, and perhaps even sustained hydrothermal activity. At the Opportunity site in Meridiani Planum, geologic and mineralogic evidence suggests that liquid water was stable at the surface and shallow subsurface for significant periods of early Martian geologic history. An exciting implication from both missions is that localized environments on early Mars may have been "habitable" by some terrestrial standards. As of early September 2010, the rovers had operated for 2210 and 2347 Martian days (sols), respectively, with the Spirit

  13. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 Observations of Neptune (United States)


    Two groups have recently used the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC 2) to acquire new high-resolution images of the planet Neptune. Members of the WFPC-2 Science Team, lead by John Trauger, acquired the first series of images on 27 through 29 June 1994. These were the highest resolution images of Neptune taken since the Voyager-2 flyby in August of 1989. A more comprehensive program is currently being conducted by Heidi Hammel and Wes Lockwood. These two sets of observations are providing a wealth of new information about the structure, composition, and meteorology of this distant planet's atmosphere.Neptune is currently the most distant planet from the sun, with an orbital radius of 4.5 billion kilometers (2.8 billion miles, or 30 Astronomical Units). Even though its diameter is about four times that of the Earth (49,420 vs. 12,742 km), ground-based telescopes reveal a tiny blue disk that subtends less than 1/1200 of a degree (2.3 arc-seconds). Neptune has therefore been a particularly challenging object to study from the ground because its disk is badly blurred by the Earth's atmosphere. In spite of this, ground-based astronomers had learned a great deal about this planet since its position was first predicted by John C. Adams and Urbain Leverrier in 1845. For example, they had determined that Neptune was composed primarily of hydrogen and helium gas, and that its blue color caused by the presence of trace amounts of the gas methane, which absorbs red light. They had also detected bright cloud features whose brightness changed with time, and tracked these clouds to infer a rotation period between 17 and 22 hours.When the Voyager-2 spacecraft flew past the Neptune in 1989, its instruments revealed a surprising array of meteorological phenomena, including strong winds, bright, high-altitude clouds, and two large dark spots attributed to long-lived giant storm systems. These bright clouds and dark spots were tracked as they moved

  14. Geology of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderblom, L.A.


    The geology of Mars and the results of the Mariner 4, 6/7, and 9 missions and the Viking mission are reviewed. The Mars chronology and geologic modification are examined, including chronological models for the inactive planet, the active planet, and crater flux. The importance of surface materials is discussed and a multispectral map of Mars is presented. Suggestions are given for further studies of the geology of Mars using the Viking data. 5 references

  15. Mars atmosphere. Mars methane detection and variability at Gale crater. (United States)

    Webster, Christopher R; Mahaffy, Paul R; Atreya, Sushil K; Flesch, Gregory J; Mischna, Michael A; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Farley, Kenneth A; Conrad, Pamela G; Christensen, Lance E; Pavlov, Alexander A; Martín-Torres, Javier; Zorzano, María-Paz; McConnochie, Timothy H; Owen, Tobias; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L; Glavin, Daniel P; Steele, Andrew; Malespin, Charles A; Archer, P Douglas; Sutter, Brad; Coll, Patrice; Freissinet, Caroline; McKay, Christopher P; Moores, John E; Schwenzer, Susanne P; Bridges, John C; Navarro-Gonzalez, Rafael; Gellert, Ralf; Lemmon, Mark T


    Reports of plumes or patches of methane in the martian atmosphere that vary over monthly time scales have defied explanation to date. From in situ measurements made over a 20-month period by the tunable laser spectrometer of the Sample Analysis at Mars instrument suite on Curiosity at Gale crater, we report detection of background levels of atmospheric methane of mean value 0.69 ± 0.25 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) at the 95% confidence interval (CI). This abundance is lower than model estimates of ultraviolet degradation of accreted interplanetary dust particles or carbonaceous chondrite material. Additionally, in four sequential measurements spanning a 60-sol period (where 1 sol is a martian day), we observed elevated levels of methane of 7.2 ± 2.1 ppbv (95% CI), implying that Mars is episodically producing methane from an additional unknown source. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Automatic fog detection for public safety by using camera images (United States)

    Pagani, Giuliano Andrea; Roth, Martin; Wauben, Wiel


    Fog and reduced visibility have considerable impact on the performance of road, maritime, and aeronautical transportation networks. The impact ranges from minor delays to more serious congestions or unavailability of the infrastructure and can even lead to damage or loss of lives. Visibility is traditionally measured manually by meteorological observers using landmarks at known distances in the vicinity of the observation site. Nowadays, distributed cameras facilitate inspection of more locations from one remote monitoring center. The main idea is, however, still deriving the visibility or presence of fog by an operator judging the scenery and the presence of landmarks. Visibility sensors are also used, but they are rather costly and require regular maintenance. Moreover, observers, and in particular sensors, give only visibility information that is representative for a limited area. Hence the current density of visibility observations is insufficient to give detailed information on the presence of fog. Cameras are more and more deployed for surveillance and security reasons in cities and for monitoring traffic along main transportation ways. In addition to this primary use of cameras, we consider cameras as potential sensors to automatically identify low visibility conditions. The approach that we follow is to use machine learning techniques to determine the presence of fog and/or to make an estimation of the visibility. For that purpose a set of features are extracted from the camera images such as the number of edges, brightness, transmission of the image dark channel, fractal dimension. In addition to these image features, we also consider meteorological variables such as wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, and dew point as additional features to feed the machine learning model. The results obtained with a training and evaluation set consisting of 10-minute sampled images for two KNMI locations over a period of 1.5 years by using decision trees methods

  17. Making Ceramic Cameras (United States)

    Squibb, Matt


    This article describes how to make a clay camera. This idea of creating functional cameras from clay allows students to experience ceramics, photography, and painting all in one unit. (Contains 1 resource and 3 online resources.)

  18. The Variability of Atmospheric Deuterium Brightness at Mars: Evidence for Seasonal Dependence (United States)

    Mayyasi, Majd; Clarke, John; Bhattacharyya, Dolon; Deighan, Justin; Jain, Sonal; Chaffin, Michael; Thiemann, Edward; Schneider, Nick; Jakosky, Bruce


    The enhanced ratio of deuterium to hydrogen on Mars has been widely interpreted as indicating the loss of a large column of water into space, and the hydrogen content of the upper atmosphere is now known to be highly variable. The variation in the properties of both deuterium and hydrogen in the upper atmosphere of Mars is indicative of the dynamical processes that produce these species and propagate them to altitudes where they can escape the planet. Understanding the seasonal variability of D is key to understanding the variability of the escape rate of water from Mars. Data from a 15 month observing campaign, made by the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph high-resolution echelle channel, are used to determine the brightness of deuterium as observed at the limb of Mars. The D emission is highly variable, with a peak in brightness just after southern summer solstice. The trends of D brightness are examined against extrinsic as well as intrinsic sources. It is found that the fluctuations in deuterium brightness in the upper atmosphere of Mars (up to 400 km), corrected for periodic solar variations, vary on timescales that are similar to those of water vapor fluctuations lower in the atmosphere (20-80 km). The observed variability in deuterium may be attributed to seasonal factors such as regional dust storm activity and subsequent circulation lower in the atmosphere.

  19. Influence of Fault-Controlled Topography on Fluvio-Deltaic Sedimentary Systems in Eberswalde Crater, Mars (United States)

    Rice, Melissa S.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Bell, James F., III; Warner, Nicholas H.


    Eberswalde crater was selected as a candidate landing site for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission based on the presence of a fan-shaped sedimentary deposit interpreted as a delta. We have identified and mapped five other candidate fluvio -deltaic systems in the crater, using images and digital terrain models (DTMs) derived from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) and Context Camera (CTX). All of these systems consist of the same three stratigraphic units: (1) an upper layered unit, conformable with (2) a subpolygonally fractured unit, unconformably overlying (3) a pitted unit. We have also mapped a system of NNE-trending scarps interpreted as dip-slip faults that pre-date the fluvial -lacustrine deposits. The post-impact regional faulting may have generated the large-scale topography within the crater, which consists of a Western Basin, an Eastern Basin, and a central high. This topography subsequently provided depositional sinks for sediment entering the crater and controlled the geomorphic pattern of delta development.

  20. MarsSedEx I and II: Experimental investigation of gravity effects on sedimentation on Mars (United States)

    Kuhn, N. J.; Kuhn, B.; Gartmann, A.


    Sorting of sedimentary rocks is a proxy for the environmental conditions at the time of deposition, in particular the runoff that moved and deposited the material forming the rocks. Settling of sediment is strongly influenced by the gravity of a planetary body. As a consequence, sorting of a sedimentary rock varies with gravity for a given depth and velocity of surface runoff. Theoretical considerations for spheres indicate that sorting is less uniform on Mars than on Earth for runoff of identical depth. The effects of gravity on flow hydraulics limit the use of common, semi-empirical models developed to simulate particle settling in terrestrial environments, on Mars. Assessing sedimentation patterns on Mars, aimed at identifying strata potentially hosting traces of life, is potentially affected by such uncertainties. Using first-principle approaches, e.g. through Computational Fluid Dynamics, for calculating settling velocities on other planetary bodies requires a large effort and is limited by the values of boundary conditions, e.g. the shape of the particle. The degree of uncertainty resulting from the differences in gravity on Earth and Mars was therefore tested during three reduced-gravity flights, the MarsSedEx I and II missions, conducted in November 2012 and 2013. Nine types of sediment, ranging in size, shape and density were tested in custom-designed settling tubes during parabolas of Martian gravity lasting 20 to 25 seconds. Based on the observed settling velocities, the uncertainties of empirical relationships developed on Earth to assess particle settling on Mars are discussed. In addition, the potential effects of reduced gravity on patterns of erosion, transport and sorting of sediment, including the implications for identifying strata bearing traces of past life on are examined.

  1. Gravity Waves in the Atmosphere of Mars as seen by the Radio Science Experiment MaRS on Mars Express (United States)

    Tellmann, S.; Paetzold, M.; Häusler, B.; Bird, M. K.; Tyler, G. L.; Hinson, D. P.


    Gravity waves are atmospheric waves whose restoring force is the buoyancy. They are known to play an essential role in the redistribution of energy, momentum and atmospheric constituents in all stably stratified planetary atmospheres. Possible excitation mechanisms comprise convection in an adjacent atmospheric layer, other atmospheric instabilities like wind shear instabilities, or air flow over orographic obstacles especially in combination with the strong winter jets on Mars. Gravity waves on Mars were observed in the lower atmosphere [1,2] but are also expected to play a major role in the cooling of the thermosphere [3] and the polar warming [4]. A fundamental understanding of the possible source mechanisms is required to reveal the influence of small scale gravity waves on the global atmospheric circulation. Radio occultation profiles from the MaRS experiment on Mars Express [5] with their exceptionally high vertical resolution can be used to study small-scale vertical gravity waves and their global distribution in the lower atmosphere from the planetary boundary layer up to 40 km altitude. Atmospheric instabilities, which are clearly identified in the data, are used to gain further insight into possible atmospheric processes contributing to the excitation of gravity waves. [1] Creasey, J. E., et al.,(2006), Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L01803, doi:10.1029/2005GL024037. [2]Tellmann, S., et al.(2013), J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 118, 306-320, doi:10.1002/jgre.20058. [3]Medvedev, A. S., et al.(2015), J. Geophys. Res. Planets, 120, 913-927. doi:10.1002/2015JE004802.[4] Barnes, J. R. (1990), J. Geophys. Res., 95, B2, 1401-1421. [5] Pätzold, M., et al. (2016), Planet. Space Sci., 127, 44 - 90.

  2. Camera Movement in Narrative Cinema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak


    section unearths what characterizes the literature on camera movement. The second section of the dissertation delineates the history of camera movement itself within narrative cinema. Several organizational principles subtending the on-screen effect of camera movement are revealed in section two...... but they are not organized into a coherent framework. This is the task that section three meets in proposing a functional taxonomy for camera movement in narrative cinema. Two presumptions subtend the taxonomy: That camera movement actively contributes to the way in which we understand the sound and images on the screen......, commentative or valuative manner. 4) Focalization: associating the movement of the camera with the viewpoints of characters or entities in the story world. 5) Reflexive: inviting spectators to engage with the artifice of camera movement. 6) Abstract: visualizing abstract ideas and concepts. In order...

  3. Mars for Earthlings: an analog approach to Mars in undergraduate education. (United States)

    Chan, Marjorie; Kahmann-Robinson, Julia


    Mars for Earthlings (MFE) is a terrestrial Earth analog pedagogical approach to teaching undergraduate geology, planetary science, and astrobiology. MFE utilizes Earth analogs to teach Mars planetary concepts, with a foundational backbone in Earth science principles. The field of planetary science is rapidly changing with new technologies and higher-resolution data sets. Thus, it is increasingly important to understand geological concepts and processes for interpreting Mars data. MFE curriculum is topically driven to facilitate easy integration of content into new or existing courses. The Earth-Mars systems approach explores planetary origins, Mars missions, rocks and minerals, active driving forces/tectonics, surface sculpting processes, astrobiology, future explorations, and hot topics in an inquiry-driven environment. Curriculum leverages heavily upon multimedia resources, software programs such as Google Mars and JMARS, as well as NASA mission data such as THEMIS, HiRISE, CRISM, and rover images. Two years of MFE class evaluation data suggest that science literacy and general interest in Mars geology and astrobiology topics increased after participation in the MFE curriculum. Students also used newly developed skills to create a Mars mission team presentation. The MFE curriculum, learning modules, and resources are available online at

  4. Is Mars Sample Return Required Prior to Sending Humans to Mars? (United States)

    Carr, Michael; Abell, Paul; Allwood, Abigail; Baker, John; Barnes, Jeff; Bass, Deborah; Beaty, David; Boston, Penny; Brinkerhoff, Will; Budney, Charles; hide


    Prior to potentially sending humans to the surface of Mars, it is fundamentally important to return samples from Mars. Analysis in Earth's extensive scientific laboratories would significantly reduce the risk of human Mars exploration and would also support the science and engineering decisions relating to the Mars human flight architecture. The importance of measurements of any returned Mars samples range from critical to desirable, and in all cases these samples will would enhance our understanding of the Martian environment before potentially sending humans to that alien locale. For example, Mars sample return (MSR) could yield information that would enable human exploration related to 1) enabling forward and back planetary protection, 2) characterizing properties of Martian materials relevant for in situ resource utilization (ISRU), 3) assessing any toxicity of Martian materials with respect to human health and performance, and 4) identifying information related to engineering surface hazards such as the corrosive effect of the Martian environment. In addition, MSR would be engineering 'proof of concept' for a potential round trip human mission to the planet, and a potential model for international Mars exploration.

  5. Meteor Film Recording with Digital Film Cameras with large CMOS Sensors (United States)

    Slansky, P. C.


    In this article the author combines his professional know-how about cameras for film and television production with his amateur astronomy activities. Professional digital film cameras with high sensitivity are still quite rare in astronomy. One reason for this may be their costs of up to 20 000 and more (camera body only). In the interim, however,consumer photo cameras with film mode and very high sensitivity have come to the market for about 2 000 EUR. In addition, ultra-high sensitive professional film cameras, that are very interesting for meteor observation, have been introduced to the market. The particular benefits of digital film cameras with large CMOS sensors, including photo cameras with film recording function, for meteor recording are presented by three examples: a 2014 Camelopardalid, shot with a Canon EOS C 300, an exploding 2014 Aurigid, shot with a Sony alpha7S, and the 2016 Perseids, shot with a Canon ME20F-SH. All three cameras use large CMOS sensors; "large" meaning Super-35 mm, the classic 35 mm film format (24x13.5 mm, similar to APS-C size), or full format (36x24 mm), the classic 135 photo camera format. Comparisons are made to the widely used cameras with small CCD sensors, such as Mintron or Watec; "small" meaning 12" (6.4x4.8 mm) or less. Additionally, special photographic image processing of meteor film recordings is discussed.

  6. Scientific Payload Of The Emirates Mars Mission: Emirates Mars Infrared Spectrometer (Emirs) Overview. (United States)

    Altunaiji, E. S.; Edwards, C. S.; Christensen, P. R.; Smith, M. D.; Badri, K. M., Sr.


    The Emirates Mars Mission (EMM) will launch in 2020 to explore the dynamics in the atmosphere of Mars on a global scale. EMM has three scientific instruments to an improved understanding of circulation and weather in the Martian lower and middle atmosphere. Two of the EMM's instruments, which are the Emirates eXploration Imager (EXI) and Emirates Mars Infrared Spectrometer (EMIRS) will focus on the lower atmosphere observing dust, ice clouds, water vapor and ozone. On the other hand, the third instrument Emirates Mars Ultraviolet Spectrometer (EMUS) will focus on both the thermosphere of the planet and its exosphere. The EMIRS instrument, shown in Figure 1, is an interferometric thermal infrared spectrometer that is jointly developed by Arizona State University (ASU) and Mohammed Bin Rashid Space Centre (MBRSC). It builds on a long heritage of thermal infrared spectrometers designed, built, and managed, by ASU's Mars Space Flight Facility, including the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES), and the OSIRIS-REx Thermal Emission Spectrometer (OTES). EMIRS operates in the 6-40+ µm range with 5 cm-1 spectral sampling, enabled by a Chemical Vapor-Deposited (CVD) diamond beamsplitter and state of the art electronics. This instrument utilizes a 3×3 detector array and a scan mirror to make high-precision infrared radiance measurements over most of a Martian hemisphere. The EMIRS instrument is optimized to capture the integrated, lower-middle atmosphere dynamics over a Martian hemisphere and will capture 60 global images per week ( 20 images per orbit) at a resolution of 100-300 km/pixel. After processing through an atmospheric retrieval algorithm, EMIRS will determine the vertical temperature profiles to 50km altitude and measure the column integrated global distribution and abundances of key atmospheric parameters (e.g. dust, water ice (clouds) and water vapor) over the Martian day, seasons and year.

  7. Water Uptake By Mars Salt Analogs: An Investigation Of Stable Aqueous Solutions On Mars Using Raman Microscopy (United States)

    Nuding, D.; Gough, R. V.; Jorgensen, S. K.; Tolbert, M. A.


    To understand the formation of briny aqueous solutions on Mars, a salt analog was developed to closely match the individual cation and anion concentrations as reported by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory aboard the Phoenix Lander. ';Instant Mars' is a salt analog developed to fully encompass the correct concentrations of magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, perchlorate, chloride, and sulfate ions. Using environmental Raman microscopy, we have studied the water uptake by the Instant Mars analog as a function of temperature and relative humidity. Water uptake was monitored using Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical microscopy. A MicroJet droplet generator was used to generate 30 μm diameter particles that were deposited onto a quartz disc. The particles undergo visual transformations as the relative humidity (RH) is increased and the presence of water uptake is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. At -30° C, water uptake begins at ~ 35% RH as humidity is increased. The water uptake is marked by the growth of a sulfate peak at 990 cm-1, an indicator that sulfate has undergone a phase transition into an aqueous state. As the RH continues to increase, the peak in the O-H region (~3500 cm-1) broadens as more liquid water accumulates in the particles. The Instant Mars particles achieve complete deliquescence at 68% RH, indicated both visually and with Raman spectroscopy. The gradual water uptake observed suggests that deliquescence of the Instant Mars particles is not an immediate process, but that it occurs in steps marked by the deliquescence of the individual salts. Perhaps of even more significance is the tendency for the Instant Mars particles to remain aqueous at low humidity as RH is decreased. Raman spectra indicate that liquid water is present as low as 2% RH at -30° C. Ongoing work will examine the phase of Instant Mars particles under simulated Martian surface and subsurface conditions to gain insight into the possibility for aqueous solutions on Mars

  8. Mars Navigator: An Interactive Multimedia Program about Mars, Aerospace Engineering, Astronomy, and the JPL Mars Missions. [CD-ROM (United States)

    Gramoll, Kurt

    This CD-ROM introduces basic astronomy and aerospace engineering by examining the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor missions to Mars. It contains numerous animations and narrations in addition to detailed graphics and text. Six interactive laboratories are included to help understand topics such as the…

  9. Telecommunications Relay Support of the Mars Phoenix Lander Mission (United States)

    Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Erickson, James K.; Gladden, Roy E.; Guinn, Joseph R.; Ilott, Peter A.; Jai, Benhan; Johnston, Martin D.; Kornfeld, Richard P.; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; McSmith, Gaylon W.; hide


    The Phoenix Lander, first of NASA's Mars Scout missions, arrived at the Red Planet on May 25, 2008. From the moment the lander separated from its interplanetary cruise stage shortly before entry, the spacecraft could no longer communicate directly with Earth, and was instead entirely dependent on UHF relay communications via an international network of orbiting Mars spacecraft, including NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey (ODY) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft, as well as ESA's Mars Express (MEX) spacecraft. All three orbiters captured critical event telemetry and/or tracking data during Phoenix Entry, Descent and Landing. During the Phoenix surface mission, ODY and MRO provided command and telemetry services, far surpassing the original data return requirements. The availability of MEX as a backup relay asset enhanced the robustness of the surface relay plan. In addition to telecommunications services, Doppler tracking observables acquired on the UHF link yielded an accurate position for the Phoenix landing site.

  10. The CanMars Analogue Mission: Lessons Learned for Mars Sample Return (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Beaty, D.; Battler, M.; Caudill, C.; Francis, R.; Haltigin, T.; Hipkin, V.; Pilles, E.


    We present an overview and lessons learned for Mars Sample Return from CanMars — an analogue mission that simulated a Mars 2020-like cache mission. Data from 39 sols of operations conducted in the Utah desert in 2015 and 2016 are presented.

  11. Preliminary Geological Map of the Peace Vallis Fan Integrated with In Situ Mosaics From the Curiosity Rover, Gale Crater, Mars (United States)

    Sumner, D. Y.; Palucis, M.; Dietrich, B.; Calef, F.; Stack, K. M.; Ehlmann, B.; Bridges, J.; Dromart, J.; Eigenbrode, J.; Farmer, J.; hide


    A geomorphically defined alluvial fan extends from Peace Vallis on the NW wall of Gale Crater, Mars into the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover landing ellipse. Prior to landing, the MSL team mapped the ellipse and surrounding areas, including the Peace Vallis fan. Map relationships suggest that bedded rocks east of the landing site are likely associated with the fan, which led to the decision to send Curiosity east. Curiosity's mast camera (Mastcam) color images are being used to refine local map relationships. Results from regional mapping and the first 100 sols of the mission demonstrate that the area has a rich geological history. Understanding this history will be critical for assessing ancient habitability and potential organic matter preservation at Gale Crater.

  12. Mars Mission Concepts: SAR and Solar Electric Propulsion (United States)

    Elsperman, M.; Klaus, K.; Smith, D. B.; Clifford, S. M.; Lawrence, S. J.


    observation spacecraft platform like the high power (~5Kw) 702SP at Mars also enables the use of a SAR instrument to reveal new insights and understanding of the Mars regolith for both science and future manned exploration and utilization.

  13. Study of ice-related flow features around Tanaica Montes, Mars: Implications for late amazonian debris-covered glaciation (United States)

    Sinha, Rishitosh K.; Vijayan, S.; Bharti, Rajiv R.


    Lobate debris aprons (LDA) and lineated valley fill (LVF) have been broadly recognized in the mid-latitudes of Mars and their subsequent analyses using data from the SHAllow RADar (SHARAD) instrument has suggested evidence for contemporary ice preserved beneath these features. In this study, we conduct detailed characterization of newly identified LDA flow units within the Tanaica Montes region (39.55˚ N, 269.17˚ E) of Mars to assess and understand the similarities in their emplacement with respect to LDA flow units mapped in other regions of Mars. We utilize the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) images and SHAllow RADar (SHARAD) datasets for geomorphic and subsurface analysis and Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) point tracks for topographic analysis. Geomorphic observation of LDA flow units surrounding the montes flanks and massif walls reveal integrated pattern of convergence and divergence and evidence of bending and deflection within the flow lines that resulted in concentric, loop-like flow patterns in the downslope. Brain-terrain texture and craters with varying morphological characteristics (ring-mold type) is suggestive that LDAs may be similar to ice-rich, debris-covered glaciers. MOLA point track based convex-up topographic profiles of LDAs suggest that their thickness vary in the range of ∼100-200 m in both the northwestern and southeastern portions of study region. Further, the slope values of mapped LDA surfaces within the study region are within ∼0.1˚-4˚. The extent of mapped LDAs within the study region is such that some of the low elevation (∼0.8-1.3 km) portions of montes flanks are surrounded by relatively less extent (up to ∼0.5-0.8 km) of LDA flow units. Geomorphic and topographic evidence for flow units that appear to be superposed on the main LDA body collectively suggest the possibility of episodic glacial activity in the region. Furthermore, based on the alignment of subsurface

  14. Europe is going to Mars (United States)


    The Agency's Science Programme Committee (SPC) approved Mars Express after ESA's Council, meeting at ministerial level in Brussels on 11 and 12 May, had agreed the level of the science budget for the next 4 years, just enough to make the mission affordable. "Mars Express is a mission of opportunity and we felt we just had to jump in and do it. We are convinced it will produce first-rate science", says Hans Balsiger, SPC chairman. As well as being a first for Europe in Mars exploration, Mars Express will pioneer new, cheaper ways of doing space science missions. "With a total cost of just 150 million euros, Mars Express will be the cheapest Mars mission ever undertaken", says Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science. Mars Express will be launched in June 2003. When it arrives at the red planet six months later, it will begin to search for water and life. Seven instruments, provided by space research institutes throughout Europe, will make observations from the main spacecraft as it orbits the planet. Just before the spacecraft arrives, it will release a small lander, provided by research institutes in the UK, that will journey on to the surface to look for signs of life. The lander is called Beagle 2 after the ship in which Charles Darwin sailed round the world in search of evidence supporting his theory of evolution. But just as Darwin had to raise the money for his trip, so the search is on for public and private finance for Beagle 2. "Beagle 2 is an extremely important element of the mission", says Bonnet. Europe's space scientists have envisaged a mission to Mars for over fifteen years. But limited funding has prevented previous proposals from going ahead. The positioning of the planets in 2003, however, offers a particularly favourable passage to the red planet - an opportunity not to be missed. Mars Express will be joined by an international flotilla of spacecraft that will also be using this opportunity to work together on scientific questions and pave the way

  15. Mars north polar deposits: stratigraphy, age, and geodynamical response. (United States)

    Phillips, Roger J; Zuber, Maria T; Smrekar, Suzanne E; Mellon, Michael T; Head, James W; Tanaka, Kenneth L; Putzig, Nathaniel E; Milkovich, Sarah M; Campbell, Bruce A; Plaut, Jeffrey J; Safaeinili, Ali; Seu, Roberto; Biccari, Daniela; Carter, Lynn M; Picardi, Giovanni; Orosei, Roberto; Mohit, P Surdas; Heggy, Essam; Zurek, Richard W; Egan, Anthony F; Giacomoni, Emanuele; Russo, Federica; Cutigni, Marco; Pettinelli, Elena; Holt, John W; Leuschen, Carl J; Marinangeli, Lucia


    The Shallow Radar (SHARAD) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has imaged the internal stratigraphy of the north polar layered deposits of Mars. Radar reflections within the deposits reveal a laterally continuous deposition of layers, which typically consist of four packets of finely spaced reflectors separated by homogeneous interpacket regions of nearly pure ice. The packet/interpacket structure can be explained by approximately million-year periodicities in Mars' obliquity or orbital eccentricity. The observed approximately 100-meter maximum deflection of the underlying substrate in response to the ice load implies that the present-day thickness of an equilibrium elastic lithosphere is greater than 300 kilometers. Alternatively, the response to the load may be in a transient state controlled by mantle viscosity. Both scenarios probably require that Mars has a subchondritic abundance of heat-producing elements.

  16. Mixel camera--a new push-broom camera concept for high spatial resolution keystone-free hyperspectral imaging. (United States)

    Høye, Gudrun; Fridman, Andrei


    Current high-resolution push-broom hyperspectral cameras introduce keystone errors to the captured data. Efforts to correct these errors in hardware severely limit the optical design, in particular with respect to light throughput and spatial resolution, while at the same time the residual keystone often remains large. The mixel camera solves this problem by combining a hardware component--an array of light mixing chambers--with a mathematical method that restores the hyperspectral data to its keystone-free form, based on the data that was recorded onto the sensor with large keystone. A Virtual Camera software, that was developed specifically for this purpose, was used to compare the performance of the mixel camera to traditional cameras that correct keystone in hardware. The mixel camera can collect at least four times more light than most current high-resolution hyperspectral cameras, and simulations have shown that the mixel camera will be photon-noise limited--even in bright light--with a significantly improved signal-to-noise ratio compared to traditional cameras. A prototype has been built and is being tested.

  17. Lessons Learned from Crime Caught on Camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz; Bernasco, Wim


    Objectives: The widespread use of camera surveillance in public places offers criminologists the opportunity to systematically and unobtrusively observe crime, their main subject matter. The purpose of this essay is to inform the reader of current developments in research on crimes caught on came...

  18. Neutron cameras for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.C.; Barnes, C.W.; Batistoni, P.


    Neutron cameras with horizontal and vertical views have been designed for ITER, based on systems used on JET and TFTR. The cameras consist of fan-shaped arrays of collimated flight tubes, with suitably chosen detectors situated outside the biological shield. The sight lines view the ITER plasma through slots in the shield blanket and penetrate the vacuum vessel, cryostat, and biological shield through stainless steel windows. This paper analyzes the expected performance of several neutron camera arrangements for ITER. In addition to the reference designs, the authors examine proposed compact cameras, in which neutron fluxes are inferred from 16 N decay gammas in dedicated flowing water loops, and conventional cameras with fewer sight lines and more limited fields of view than in the reference designs. It is shown that the spatial sampling provided by the reference designs is sufficient to satisfy target measurement requirements and that some reduction in field of view may be permissible. The accuracy of measurements with 16 N-based compact cameras is not yet established, and they fail to satisfy requirements for parameter range and time resolution by large margins

  19. Automatic inference of geometric camera parameters and intercamera topology in uncalibrated disjoint surveillance cameras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, R.J.M. den; Bouma, H.; Baan, J.; Eendebak, P.T.; Rest, J.H.C. van


    Person tracking across non-overlapping cameras and other types of video analytics benefit from spatial calibration information that allows an estimation of the distance between cameras and a relation between pixel coordinates and world coordinates within a camera. In a large environment with many

  20. Radiometric calibration of digital cameras using neural networks (United States)

    Grunwald, Michael; Laube, Pascal; Schall, Martin; Umlauf, Georg; Franz, Matthias O.


    Digital cameras are used in a large variety of scientific and industrial applications. For most applications, the acquired data should represent the real light intensity per pixel as accurately as possible. However, digital cameras are subject to physical, electronic and optical effects that lead to errors and noise in the raw image. Temperature- dependent dark current, read noise, optical vignetting or different sensitivities of individual pixels are examples of such effects. The purpose of radiometric calibration is to improve the quality of the resulting images by reducing the influence of the various types of errors on the measured data and thus improving the quality of the overall application. In this context, we present a specialized neural network architecture for radiometric calibration of digital cameras. Neural networks are used to learn a temperature- and exposure-dependent mapping from observed gray-scale values to true light intensities for each pixel. In contrast to classical at-fielding, neural networks have the potential to model nonlinear mappings which allows for accurately capturing the temperature dependence of the dark current and for modeling cameras with nonlinear sensitivities. Both scenarios are highly relevant in industrial applications. The experimental comparison of our network approach to classical at-fielding shows a consistently higher reconstruction quality, also for linear cameras. In addition, the calibration is faster than previous machine learning approaches based on Gaussian processes.

  1. Special section introduction on MicroMars to MegaMars (United States)

    Bridges, Nathan T.; Dundas, Colin M.; Edgar, Lauren


    The study of Earth's surface and atmosphere evolved from local investigations to the incorporation of remote sensing on a global scale. The study of Mars has followed the opposite progression, beginning with telescopic observations, followed by flyby and orbital missions, landers, and finally rover missions in the last ∼20 years. This varied fleet of spacecraft (seven of which are currently operating as of this writing) provides a rich variety of datasets at spatial scales ranging from microscopic images to synoptic orbital remote sensing.

  2. Evaluation of mobile phone camera benchmarking using objective camera speed and image quality metrics (United States)

    Peltoketo, Veli-Tapani


    When a mobile phone camera is tested and benchmarked, the significance of image quality metrics is widely acknowledged. There are also existing methods to evaluate the camera speed. However, the speed or rapidity metrics of the mobile phone's camera system has not been used with the quality metrics even if the camera speed has become a more and more important camera performance feature. There are several tasks in this work. First, the most important image quality and speed-related metrics of a mobile phone's camera system are collected from the standards and papers and, also, novel speed metrics are identified. Second, combinations of the quality and speed metrics are validated using mobile phones on the market. The measurements are done toward application programming interface of different operating systems. Finally, the results are evaluated and conclusions are made. The paper defines a solution to combine different image quality and speed metrics to a single benchmarking score. A proposal of the combined benchmarking metric is evaluated using measurements of 25 mobile phone cameras on the market. The paper is a continuation of a previous benchmarking work expanded with visual noise measurement and updates of the latest mobile phone versions.

  3. Field Simulation of a Drilling Mission to Mars to Search for Subsurface Life (United States)

    Stoker, C. R.; Lemke, L. G.; Cannon, H.; Glass, B.; Dunagan, S.; Zavaleta, J.; Miller, D.; Gomez-Elvira, J.


    The discovery of near surface ground ice by the Mars Odyssey mission and the abundant evidence for recent Gulley features observed by the Mars Global Surveyor mission support longstanding theoretical arguments for subsurface liquid water on Mars. Thus, implementing the Mars program goal to search for life points to drilling on Mars to reach liquid water, collecting samples and analyzing them with instrumentation to detect in situ organisms and biomarker compounds. Searching for life in the subsurface of Mars will require drilling, sample extraction and handling, and new technologies to find and identify biomarker compounds and search for living organisms. In spite of its obvious advantages, robotic drilling for Mars exploration is in its technological infancy and has yet to be demonstrated in even a terrestrial field environment.

  4. Transportation-Driven Mars Surface Operations Supporting an Evolvable Mars Campaign (United States)

    Toups, Larry; Brown, Kendall; Hoffman, Stephen J.


    This paper describes the results of a study evaluating options for supporting a series of human missions to a single Mars surface destination. In this scenario the infrastructure emplaced during previous visits to this site is leveraged in following missions. The goal of this single site approach to Mars surface infrastructure is to enable "Steady State" operations by at least 4 crew for up to 500 sols at this site. These characteristics, along with the transportation system used to deliver crew and equipment to and from Mars, are collectively known as the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC). Information in this paper is presented in the sequence in which it was accomplished. First, a logical buildup sequence of surface infrastructure was developed to achieve the desired "Steady State" operations on the Mars surface. This was based on a concept of operations that met objectives of the EMC. Second, infrastructure capabilities were identified to carry out this concept of operations. Third, systems (in the form of conceptual elements) were identified to provide these capabilities. This included top-level mass, power and volume estimates for these elements. Fourth, the results were then used in analyses to evaluate three options (18t, 27t, and 40t landed mass) of Mars Lander delivery capability to the surface. Finally, Mars arrival mass estimates were generated based upon the entry, descent, and landing requirements for inclusion in separate assessments of in-space transportation capabilities for the EMC.

  5. Life on Mars (United States)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)


    Although the Viking results may indicate that Mars has no life today, the possibility exists that Mars may hold the best record of the events that led to the origin of life. There is direct geomorphological evidence that in the past Mars had large amounts of liquid water on its surface. Atmospheric models would suggest that this early period of hydrological activity was due to the presence of a thick atmosphere and the resulting warmer temperatures. From a biological perspective the existence of liquid water, by itself motivates the question of the origin of life on Mars. From studies of the Earth's earliest biosphere we know that by 3.5 Gyr. ago, life had originated on Earth and reached a fair degree of biological sophistication. Surface activity and erosion on Earth make it difficult to trace the history of life before the 3.5 Gyr timeframe. If Mars did maintain a clement environment for longer than it took for life to originate on Earth, then the question of the origin of life on Mars follows naturally.

  6. Improving Situational Awareness in camera surveillance by combining top-view maps with camera images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.; Zeeders, R.


    The goal of the experiment described is to improve today's camera surveillance in public spaces. Three designs with the camera images combined on a top-view map were compared to each other and to the current situation in camera surveillance. The goal was to test which design makes spatial

  7. Realistic camera noise modeling with application to improved HDR synthesis (United States)

    Goossens, Bart; Luong, Hiêp; Aelterman, Jan; Pižurica, Aleksandra; Philips, Wilfried


    Due to the ongoing miniaturization of digital camera sensors and the steady increase of the "number of megapixels", individual sensor elements of the camera become more sensitive to noise, even deteriorating the final image quality. To go around this problem, sophisticated processing algorithms in the devices, can help to maximally exploit the knowledge on the sensor characteristics (e.g., in terms of noise), and offer a better image reconstruction. Although a lot of research focuses on rather simplistic noise models, such as stationary additive white Gaussian noise, only limited attention has gone to more realistic digital camera noise models. In this article, we first present a digital camera noise model that takes several processing steps in the camera into account, such as sensor signal amplification, clipping, post-processing,.. We then apply this noise model to the reconstruction problem of high dynamic range (HDR) images from a small set of low dynamic range (LDR) exposures of a static scene. In literature, HDR reconstruction is mostly performed by computing a weighted average, in which the weights are directly related to the observer pixel intensities of the LDR image. In this work, we derive a Bayesian probabilistic formulation of a weighting function that is near-optimal in the MSE sense (or SNR sense) of the reconstructed HDR image, by assuming exponentially distributed irradiance values. We define the weighting function as the probability that the observed pixel intensity is approximately unbiased. The weighting function can be directly computed based on the noise model parameters, which gives rise to different symmetric and asymmetric shapes when electronic noise or photon noise is dominant. We also explain how to deal with the case that some of the noise model parameters are unknown and explain how the camera response function can be estimated using the presented noise model. Finally, experimental results are provided to support our findings.

  8. Camera Trajectory fromWide Baseline Images (United States)

    Havlena, M.; Torii, A.; Pajdla, T.


    suggested in to draw 5-tuples from the list of tentative matches ordered ascendingly by the distance of their descriptors which may help to reduce the number of samples in RANSAC. From each 5-tuple, relative orientation is computed by solving the 5-point minimal relative orientation problem for calibrated cameras. Often, there are more models which are supported by a large number of matches. Thus the chance that the correct model, even if it has the largest support, will be found by running a single RANSAC is small. Work suggested to generate models by randomized sampling as in RANSAC but to use soft (kernel) voting for a parameter instead of looking for the maximal support. The best model is then selected as the one with the parameter closest to the maximum in the accumulator space. In our case, we vote in a two-dimensional accumulator for the estimated camera motion direction. However, unlike in, we do not cast votes directly by each sampled epipolar geometry but by the best epipolar geometries recovered by ordered sampling of RANSAC. With our technique, we could go up to the 98.5 % contamination of mismatches with comparable effort as simple RANSAC does for the contamination by 84 %. The relative camera orientation with the motion direction closest to the maximum in the voting space is finally selected. As already mentioned in the first paragraph, the use of camera trajectory estimates is quite wide. In we have introduced a technique for measuring the size of camera translation relatively to the observed scene which uses the dominant apical angle computed at the reconstructed scene points and is robust against mismatches. The experiments demonstrated that the measure can be used to improve the robustness of camera path computation and object recognition for methods which use a geometric, e.g. the ground plane, constraint such as does for the detection of pedestrians. Using the camera trajectories, perspective cutouts with stabilized horizon are constructed and an

  9. Arsia Mons Spiral Cloud (United States)


    One of the benefits of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) Extended Mission is the opportunity to observe how the planet's weather changes during a second full martian year. This picture of Arsia Mons was taken June 19, 2001; southern spring equinox occurred the same day. Arsia Mons is a volcano nearly large enough to cover the state of New Mexico. On this particular day (the first day of Spring), the MOC wide angle cameras documented an unusual spiral-shaped cloud within the 110 km (68 mi) diameter caldera--the summit crater--of the giant volcano. Because the cloud is bright both in the red and blue images acquired by the wide angle cameras, it probably consisted mostly of fine dust grains. The cloud's spin may have been induced by winds off the inner slopes of the volcano's caldera walls resulting from the temperature differences between the walls and the caldera floor, or by a vortex as winds blew up and over the caldera. Similar spiral clouds were seen inside the caldera for several days; we don't know if this was a single cloud that persisted throughout that time or one that regenerated each afternoon. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the left/upper left.Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  10. Mars Express radar collects first surface data (United States)


    the middle of August, when the night-time portion of the observations will have almost ended. After that, observation priority will be given to other Mars Express instruments that are best suited to operating in daytime, such as the HRSC camera and Omega mapping spectrometer. However, Marsis will continue its surface and ionospheric investigations in daytime, with ionospheric sounding being reserved for more than 20% of all Mars Express orbits, under all possible Sun illumination conditions. In December, the Mars Express orbit pericentre will enter night-time again. By then, the pericentre will have moved closer to the south pole, allowing Marsis to carry out optimal probing of the subsurface once again, this time in the southern hemisphere. Note to editors The first commissioning phase was given over to testing the Marsis electronics and software and the two 20m-long antennas (dipole). The second commissioning phase, lasting about ten days, will be spent calibrating the 7m ‘monopole’ antenna. This antenna is to be used in conjunction with the Marsis dipole to correct any surface roughness effects caused by the radio waves emitted by the dipole and reflected by an irregular surface. The monopole will find its best use during investigations of areas where surface roughness is greater. The Marsis instrument was developed within the framework of a Memorandum of Understanding between the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and NASA. It was developed by Alenia Spazio under ASI management and the scientific supervision of University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’, in partnership with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the University of Iowa. JPL provided the antenna manufactured by Astro Aerospace. It is the first instrument designed to actually look below the surface of Mars. Its major goals are to characterise the subsurface layers of sediments and possibly detect underground water or ice, conduct large-scale altimetry mapping and provide data on the planet’s ionosphere. For

  11. Advanced CCD camera developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condor, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    Two charge coupled device (CCD) camera systems are introduced and discussed, describing briefly the hardware involved, and the data obtained in their various applications. The Advanced Development Group Defense Sciences Engineering Division has been actively designing, manufacturing, fielding state-of-the-art CCD camera systems for over a decade. These systems were originally developed for the nuclear test program to record data from underground nuclear tests. Today, new and interesting application for these systems have surfaced and development is continuing in the area of advanced CCD camera systems, with the new CCD camera that will allow experimenters to replace film for x-ray imaging at the JANUS, USP, and NOVA laser facilities.

  12. Ionospheric Irregularities at Mars Probed by MARSIS Topside Sounding (United States)

    Harada, Y.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kopf, A. J.; Halekas, J. S.; Ruhunusiri, S.


    The upper ionosphere of Mars contains a variety of perturbations driven by solar wind forcing from above and upward propagating atmospheric waves from below. Here we explore the global distribution and variability of ionospheric irregularities around the exobase at Mars by analyzing topside sounding data from the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) instrument on board Mars Express. As irregular structure gives rise to off-vertical echoes with excess propagation time, the diffuseness of ionospheric echo traces can be used as a diagnostic tool for perturbed reflection surfaces. The observed properties of diffuse echoes above unmagnetized regions suggest that ionospheric irregularities with horizontal wavelengths of tens to hundreds of kilometers are particularly enhanced in the winter hemisphere and at high solar zenith angles. Given the known inverse dependence of neutral gravity wave amplitudes on the background atmospheric temperature, the ionospheric irregularities probed by MARSIS are most likely associated with plasma perturbations driven by atmospheric gravity waves. Though extreme events with unusually diffuse echoes are more frequently observed for high solar wind dynamic pressures during some time intervals, the vast majority of the diffuse echo events are unaffected by varying solar wind conditions, implying limited influence of solar wind forcing on the generation of ionospheric irregularities. Combination of remote and in situ measurements of ionospheric irregularities would offer the opportunity for a better understanding of the ionospheric dynamics at Mars.

  13. Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) and Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) as Critical In Situ Investigation for Targeting Mars Returned Samples (United States)

    Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Szopa, C.; Buch, A.; Goesmann, F.; Goetz, W.; Raulin, F.; SAM Science Team; MOMA Science Team


    SAM (Curiosity) and MOMA (ExoMars) Mars instruments, seeking for organics and biosignatures, are essential to establish taphonomic windows of preservation of molecules, in order to target the most interesting samples to return from Mars.

  14. ChemCam passive reflectance spectroscopy of surface materials at the Curiosity landing site, Mars (United States)

    Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Bell, J. F.; Bender, S.; Blaney, D.; Cloutis, E.; DeFlores, L.; Ehlmann, B.; Gasnault, O.; Gondet, B.; Kinch, K.; Lemmon, M.; Le Mouélic, S.; Maurice, S.; Rice, M.; Wiens, R. C.


    The spectrometers on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) ChemCam instrument were used in passive mode to record visible/near-infrared (400-840 nm) radiance from the martian surface. Using the onboard ChemCam calibration targets' housing as a reflectance standard, we developed methods to collect, calibrate, and reduce radiance observations to relative reflectance. Such measurements accurately reproduce the known reflectance spectra of other calibration targets on the rover, and represent the highest spatial resolution (0.65 mrad) and spectral sampling (rocks and soils match those from orbital observations and multispectral data from the MSL Mastcam camera. Preliminary analyses of the band depths, spectral slopes, and reflectance ratios of the more than 2000 spectra taken during the first year of MSL operations demonstrate at least six spectral classes of materials distinguished by variations in ferrous and ferric components. Initial comparisons of ChemCam spectra to laboratory spectra of minerals and Mars analog materials demonstrate similarities with palagonitic soils and indications of orthopyroxene in some dark rocks. Magnesium-rich "raised ridges" tend to exhibit distinct near-infrared slopes. The ferric absorption downturn typically found for martian materials at rocks and drill tailings, consistent with their more ferrous nature. Calcium-sulfate veins exhibit the highest relative reflectances observed, but are still relatively red owing to the effects of residual dust. Such dust is overall less prominent on rocks sampled within the "blast zone" immediately surrounding the landing site. These samples were likely affected by the landing thrusters, which partially removed the ubiquitous dust coatings. Increased dust coatings on the calibration targets during the first year of the mission were documented by the ChemCam passive measurements as well. Ongoing efforts to model and correct for this dust component should improve calibration of the relative reflectance

  15. The upgrade of the H.E.S.S. cameras (United States)

    Giavitto, Gianluca; Ashton, Terry; Balzer, Arnim; Berge, David; Brun, Francois; Chaminade, Thomas; Delagnes, Eric; Fontaine, Gerard; Füßling, Matthias; Giebels, Berrie; Glicenstein, Jean-Francois; Gräber, Tobias; Hinton, Jim; Jahnke, Albert; Klepser, Stefan; Kossatz, Marko; Kretzschmann, Axel; Lefranc, Valentin; Leich, Holger; Lüdecke, Hartmut; Lypova, Iryna; Manigot, Pascal; Marandon, Vincent; Moulin, Emmanuel; Naurois, Mathieu de; Nayman, Patrick; Ohm, Stefan; Penno, Marek; Ross, Duncan; Salek, David; Schade, Markus; Schwab, Thomas; Simoni, Rachel; Stegmann, Christian; Steppa, Constantin; Thornhill, Julian; Toussnel, Francois


    The High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) is an array of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) located in the Khomas highland in Namibia. It was built to detect Very High Energy (VHE > 100 GeV) cosmic gamma rays. Since 2003, HESS has discovered the majority of the known astrophysical VHE gamma-ray sources, opening a new observational window on the extreme non-thermal processes at work in our universe. HESS consists of four 12-m diameter Cherenkov telescopes (CT1-4), which started data taking in 2002, and a larger 28-m telescope (CT5), built in 2012, which lowers the energy threshold of the array to 30 GeV . The cameras of CT1-4 are currently undergoing an extensive upgrade, with the goals of reducing their failure rate, reducing their readout dead time and improving the overall performance of the array. The entire camera electronics has been renewed from ground-up, as well as the power, ventilation and pneumatics systems, and the control and data acquisition software. Only the PMTs and their HV supplies have been kept from the original cameras. Novel technical solutions have been introduced, which will find their way into some of the Cherenkov cameras foreseen for the next-generation Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory. In particular, the camera readout system is the first large-scale system based on the analog memory chip NECTAr, which was designed for CTA cameras. The camera control subsystems and the control software framework also pursue an innovative design, exploiting cutting-edge hardware and software solutions which excel in performance, robustness and flexibility. The CT1 camera has been upgraded in July 2015 and is currently taking data; CT2-4 have been upgraded in fall 2016. Together they will assure continuous operation of HESS at its full sensitivity until and possibly beyond the advent of CTA. This contribution describes the design, the testing and the in-lab and on-site performance of all components of the newly upgraded HESS

  16. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y


    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  17. Multiple Sensor Camera for Enhanced Video Capturing (United States)

    Nagahara, Hajime; Kanki, Yoshinori; Iwai, Yoshio; Yachida, Masahiko

    A resolution of camera has been drastically improved under a current request for high-quality digital images. For example, digital still camera has several mega pixels. Although a video camera has the higher frame-rate, the resolution of a video camera is lower than that of still camera. Thus, the high-resolution is incompatible with the high frame rate of ordinary cameras in market. It is difficult to solve this problem by a single sensor, since it comes from physical limitation of the pixel transfer rate. In this paper, we propose a multi-sensor camera for capturing a resolution and frame-rate enhanced video. Common multi-CCDs camera, such as 3CCD color camera, has same CCD for capturing different spectral information. Our approach is to use different spatio-temporal resolution sensors in a single camera cabinet for capturing higher resolution and frame-rate information separately. We build a prototype camera which can capture high-resolution (2588×1958 pixels, 3.75 fps) and high frame-rate (500×500, 90 fps) videos. We also proposed the calibration method for the camera. As one of the application of the camera, we demonstrate an enhanced video (2128×1952 pixels, 90 fps) generated from the captured videos for showing the utility of the camera.

  18. Using DSLR cameras in digital holography (United States)

    Hincapié-Zuluaga, Diego; Herrera-Ramírez, Jorge; García-Sucerquia, Jorge


    In Digital Holography (DH), the size of the bidimensional image sensor to record the digital hologram, plays a key role on the performance of this imaging technique; the larger the size of the camera sensor, the better the quality of the final reconstructed image. Scientific cameras with large formats are offered in the market, but their cost and availability limit their use as a first option when implementing DH. Nowadays, DSLR cameras provide an easy-access alternative that is worthwhile to be explored. The DSLR cameras are a wide, commercial, and available option that in comparison with traditional scientific cameras, offer a much lower cost per effective pixel over a large sensing area. However, in the DSLR cameras, with their RGB pixel distribution, the sampling of information is different to the sampling in monochrome cameras usually employed in DH. This fact has implications in their performance. In this work, we discuss why DSLR cameras are not extensively used for DH, taking into account the problem reported by different authors of object replication. Simulations of DH using monochromatic and DSLR cameras are presented and a theoretical deduction for the replication problem using the Fourier theory is also shown. Experimental results of DH implementation using a DSLR camera show the replication problem.

  19. A vision system for a Mars rover (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Gennery, Donald B.; Mishkin, Andrew H.; Cooper, Brian K.; Lawton, Teri B.; Lay, N. Keith; Katzmann, Steven P.


    A Mars rover must be able to sense its local environment with sufficient resolution and accuracy to avoid local obstacles and hazards while moving a significant distance each day. Power efficiency and reliability are extremely important considerations, making stereo correlation an attractive method of range sensing compared to laser scanning, if the computational load and correspondence errors can be handled. Techniques for treatment of these problems, including the use of more than two cameras to reduce correspondence errors and possibly to limit the computational burden of stereo processing, have been tested at JPL. Once a reliable range map is obtained, it must be transformed to a plan view and compared to a stored terrain database, in order to refine the estimated position of the rover and to improve the database. The slope and roughness of each terrain region are computed, which form the basis for a traversability map allowing local path planning. Ongoing research and field testing of such a system is described.

  20. Quick trips to Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornung, R.


    The design of a Mars Mission Vehicle that would have to be launched by two very heavy lift launch vehicles is described along with plans for a mission to Mars. The vehicle has three nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) boosters with a fourth in the center that acts as a dual mode system. The fourth generates electrical power while in route, but it also helps lift the vehicle out of earth orbit. A Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), a Mars transfer vehicle stage, and a Mars Excursion Vehicle (MEV) are located on the front end of this vehicle. Other aspects of this research including aerobraking, heat shielding, nuclear thermal rocket engines, a mars mission summary, closed Brayton cycle with and without regeneration, liquid hydrogen propellant storage, etc. are addressed

  1. World's fastest and most sensitive astronomical camera (United States)


    The next generation of instruments for ground-based telescopes took a leap forward with the development of a new ultra-fast camera that can take 1500 finely exposed images per second even when observing extremely faint objects. The first 240x240 pixel images with the world's fastest high precision faint light camera were obtained through a collaborative effort between ESO and three French laboratories from the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers (CNRS/INSU). Cameras such as this are key components of the next generation of adaptive optics instruments of Europe's ground-based astronomy flagship facility, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). ESO PR Photo 22a/09 The CCD220 detector ESO PR Photo 22b/09 The OCam camera ESO PR Video 22a/09 OCam images "The performance of this breakthrough camera is without an equivalent anywhere in the world. The camera will enable great leaps forward in many areas of the study of the Universe," says Norbert Hubin, head of the Adaptive Optics department at ESO. OCam will be part of the second-generation VLT instrument SPHERE. To be installed in 2011, SPHERE will take images of giant exoplanets orbiting nearby stars. A fast camera such as this is needed as an essential component for the modern adaptive optics instruments used on the largest ground-based telescopes. Telescopes on the ground suffer from the blurring effect induced by atmospheric turbulence. This turbulence causes the stars to twinkle in a way that delights poets, but frustrates astronomers, since it blurs the finest details of the images. Adaptive optics techniques overcome this major drawback, so that ground-based telescopes can produce images that are as sharp as if taken from space. Adaptive optics is based on real-time corrections computed from images obtained by a special camera working at very high speeds. Nowadays, this means many hundreds of times each second. The new generation instruments require these

  2. Striped aeolian bedforms: a novel longitudinal pattern observed in ripples and megaripples on Earth and Mars (United States)

    Gough, T. R.; Hugenholtz, C.; Barchyn, T.; Martin, R. L.


    Striped aeolian bedforms (SABs) are a previously undocumented longitudinal pattern consisting of streamwise corridors of ripples or megaripples separated by corridors containing smaller bedforms. Similar patterns of spanwise variations in bed texture and/or bed topography are observed in water flumes. SABs have been observed in satellite imagery at sites in Peru, Iran, California, the Puna region of northwestern Argentina, and on Mars. The spanwise periodicity varies from automated image-based grain size analysis, we found that median grain size was larger on the ripples and megaripples than on the intervening corridors containing smaller bedforms. This result is consistent with fluvial stripes, for which it is suggested that instability-driven streamwise vortices produce lateral sediment transport and sorting. We found no consistent evidence upwind of the SAB patterns to indicate topographic seeding is necessary. Therefore, we hypothesize that SABs are a self-organized bedform pattern that develops from secondary (lateral) transport of sediment in mixed sediment deposits. We also hypothesize that the development and maintenance of SABs requires unimodal wind regimes.

  3. Selecting a digital camera for telemedicine. (United States)

    Patricoski, Chris; Ferguson, A Stewart


    The digital camera is an essential component of store-and-forward telemedicine (electronic consultation). There are numerous makes and models of digital cameras on the market, and selecting a suitable consumer-grade camera can be complicated. Evaluation of digital cameras includes investigating the features and analyzing image quality. Important features include the camera settings, ease of use, macro capabilities, method of image transfer, and power recharging. Consideration needs to be given to image quality, especially as it relates to color (skin tones) and detail. It is important to know the level of the photographer and the intended application. The goal is to match the characteristics of the camera with the telemedicine program requirements. In the end, selecting a digital camera is a combination of qualitative (subjective) and quantitative (objective) analysis. For the telemedicine program in Alaska in 2008, the camera evaluation and decision process resulted in a specific selection based on the criteria developed for our environment.

  4. Mars Stratigraphy Mission (United States)

    Budney, C. J.; Miller, S. L.; Cutts, J. A.


    The Mars Stratigraphy Mission lands a rover on the surface of Mars which descends down a cliff in Valles Marineris to study the stratigraphy. The rover carries a unique complement of instruments to analyze and age-date materials encountered during descent past 2 km of strata. The science objective for the Mars Stratigraphy Mission is to identify the geologic history of the layered deposits in the Valles Marineris region of Mars. This includes constraining the time interval for formation of these deposits by measuring the ages of various layers and determining the origin of the deposits (volcanic or sedimentary) by measuring their composition and imaging their morphology.

  5. Mars at Opposition (United States)

    Riddle, Bob


    On January 29, Mars will reach opposition, a point along its orbit around the Sun where Mars will be directly opposite from the Sun in a two-planet and Sun line-up with the Earth in between. At this opposition, the Earth and Mars will be separated by nearly 100 million km. An opposition is similar to a full Moon in that the planet at opposition…

  6. Adaptation Computing Parameters of Pan-Tilt-Zoom Cameras for Traffic Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Lin WU


    Full Text Available The Closed- CIRCUIT television (CCTV cameras have been widely used in recent years for traffic monitoring and surveillance applications. We can use CCTV cameras to extract automatically real-time traffic parameters according to the image processing and tracking technologies. Especially, the pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ cameras can provide flexible view selection as well as a wider observation range, and this makes the traffic parameters can be accurately calculated. Therefore, that the parameters of PTZ cameras are calibrated plays an important role in vision-based traffic applications. However, in the specific traffic environment, which is that the license plate number of the illegal parking is located, the parameters of PTZ cameras have to be updated according to the position and distance of illegal parking. In proposed traffic monitoring systems, we use the ordinary webcam and PTZ camera. We get vanishing-point of traffic lane lines in the pixel-based coordinate system by fixed webcam. The parameters of PTZ camera can be initialized by distance of the traffic monitoring and specific objectives and vanishing-point. And then we can use the coordinate position of the illegally parked car to update the parameters of PTZ camera and then get the real word coordinate position of the illegally parked car and use it to compute the distance. The result shows the error of the tested distance and real distance is only 0.2064 meter.

  7. A technician works on the Mars Climate Orbiter in SAEF-2 (United States)


    In the Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF-2), a technician works on the Mars Climate Orbiter which is scheduled to launch on Dec. 10, 1998, aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket. The Mars Climate Orbiter is heading for Mars where it will primarily support its companion Mars Polar Lander spacecraft, planned for launch on Jan. 3, 1999. After that, the Mars Climate Orbiter's instruments will monitor the Martian atmosphere and image the planet's surface on a daily basis for one Martian year (two Earth years). It will observe the appearance and movement of atmospheric dust and water vapor, as well as characterize seasonal changes on the surface. The detailed images of the surface features will provide important clues to the planet's early climate history and give scientists more information about possible liquid water reserves beneath the surface.

  8. Methanogens and Martian natural resources: Investigations regarding the possibility of biogenic methane on Mars (United States)

    Chastain, Brendon Kelly

    Archaeal methanogens were suggested as terrestrial models of possible subsurface martian microbial life prior to the actual detection of methane in Mars' atmosphere. This idea gained even more interest after the methane on Mars was observed. However, the amount of methane detected was very small, and release of methane was localized and episodic. This led some scientists to doubt that an active or ancient biosphere could be the source of the methane. Moreover, even extremophilic methanogens have not been shown to metabolize in conditions exactly analogous to those known to be available on Mars. The following chapters present a realistic and viable mechanism that allows a large or ancient biosphere to be the original source of the observed methane, and they detail experimental work that was done in order to systematically investigate nutritional and conditional variables related to those that might be available in the martian subsurface. The results of the experimental work indicate that some components of Mars' regolith can support methanogenic metabolism without being detrimental to the organisms, and that certain known components of Mars' regolith can promote periods of methanogenic dormancy without being lethal to the methanogens. The results of the experimental studies also show that material known to exist at and near Mars' surface has the potential to supply electrons for biological methanogenesis and that methanogenic metabolism can occur even when artificial media, buffers, and reductants are omitted in order to create more Mars-relevant conditions. These findings may have implications regarding the viability of methanogenic organisms as a source of the observed methane and should assist future efforts to study methanogenic metabolism in conditions exactly analogous to those available in niches on Mars.

  9. Measurement of Mars Analog Soil Dielectric Properties for Mars 2020 Radar Science Applications (United States)

    Decrossas, E.; Bell, D. J.; Jin, C.; Steinfeld, D.; Batres, J.


    On multiple solar system missions, radar instruments have been used to probe subsurface geomorphology and to infer chemical composition based on the dielectric signature derived from the reflected signal. One important planetary application is the identification of subsurface water ice at Mars. Low frequency, 15 MHz to 25 MHz, instruments like SHARAD have been used from Mars orbit to investigate subsurface features from 10's to 1000's of meters below the surface of Mars with a vertical resolution of 15m and a horizontal resolution of 300 to 3000 meters. SHARAD has been able to identify vast layers of CO2 and water ice. The ground-penetrating RIMFAX instrument that will ride on the back of the Mars 2020 rover will operate over the 150 MHz to 1200 MHz band and penetrate to a depth of 10 meters with a vertical resolution of 15 to 30 cm. RIMFAX will be able to identify near surface water ice if it exists below the travel path of the Mars 2020 rover. Identification of near surface water ice has science application to current and past Mars hydrologic processes and to the potential for finding remnants of past Mars biologic activity. Identification of near surface water ice also has application to future human missions that would benefit from access to a Mars local water source. Recently, JPL investigators have been pursuing a secondary use of telecom signals to capture bistatic radar signatures from subsurface areas surrounding the rover but away from its travel path. A particularly promising potential source would be the telecom signal from a proposed Mars Helicopter back to the Mars 2020 rover. The Mars 2020 rover will be equipped with up to three telecom subsystems. The Rover Relay telecom subsystem operates at UHF receiving at 435 MHz frequency. Anticipating opportunistic collection of near-surface bistatic radar signatures from telecom signals received at the rover, it is valuable to understand the dielectric properties of the Martian soil in each of these three

  10. Improvement of MARS code reflood model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moonkyu; Chung, Bub-Dong


    A specifically designed heat transfer model for the reflood process which normally occurs at low flow and low pressure was originally incorporated in the MARS code. The model is essentially identical to that of the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. The model, however, is known to have under-estimated the peak cladding temperature (PCT) with earlier turn-over. In this study, the original MARS code reflood model is improved. Based on the extensive sensitivity studies for both hydraulic and wall heat transfer models, it is found that the dispersed flow film boiling (DFFB) wall heat transfer is the most influential process determining the PCT, whereas the interfacial drag model most affects the quenching time through the liquid carryover phenomenon. The model proposed by Bajorek and Young is incorporated for the DFFB wall heat transfer. Both space grid and droplet enhancement models are incorporated. Inverted annular film boiling (IAFB) is modeled by using the original PSI model of the code. The flow transition between the DFFB and IABF, is modeled using the TRACE code interpolation. A gas velocity threshold is also added to limit the top-down quenching effect. Assessment calculations are performed for the original and modified MARS codes for the Flecht-Seaset test and RBHT test. Improvements are observed in terms of the PCT and quenching time predictions in the Flecht-Seaset assessment. In case of the RBHT assessment, the improvement over the original MARS code is found marginal. A space grid effect, however, is clearly seen from the modified version of the MARS code. (author)

  11. Guidelines for 2008 MARS exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department


    Full details of the Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS) are available via the HR Department’s homepage or directly on the Department’s MARS web page: You will find on these pages: MARS procedures including the MARS timetable for proposals and decisions; Regulations with links to the scheme’s statutory basis; Frequently Asked Questions; Useful documents with links to relevant documentation; e.g. mandate of the Senior Staff Advisory Committee (SSAC); Related links and contacts. HR Department Tel. 73566

  12. Evidence for a Large Natural Nuclear Reactor in Mars Past (United States)

    Brandenburg, J. E.


    It has long been known that The isotopic ratios 129 Xe/132Xe and 40Ar/36Ar are very high in Mars atmosphere relative to Earth or meteoritic backgrounds. This fact has allowed the SNC meteorites to be identified as Martian based on their trapped gases (1). However, while the isotopic anomalies explained one mystery, the origin of the SNC meteorites, they created a new mystery: the rock samples from Mars show no evidence of the large amounts of Iodine or Potassium that would give naturally give rise to the Xenon and Argon isotopic anomalies (2). In fact, the Martian meteorites are depleted in Potassium relative to earth rocks. This is added to the fact that for other isotopic systems such as 80Kr, Mars rock samples must be irradiated by neutrons at fluences of 1015 /cm2 to explain observed abundances (1) . Compounding the mystery is the fact that Mars surface layer has elevated levels of Uranium and Thorium relative to Earth and even its own rocks, as determined from SNCs (3). These anomalies can be explained if some large nuclear energy release, such as by natural nuclear reactors known to have operated on Earth (4) in in some concentrated ore body, occurred with perhaps a large volcano like explosion that spread residues over the planets surface. Based on gamma ray observations from orbit (3), and the correlations of normally uncorrelated Th and K deposits , the approximate location of this event would appear to have been in the north of Mars in a region in Acidalia Planitia centered at 45N Latitude and 15W Longitude (5). The possibility of such a large radiological event in Mars past adds impetus to Mars exploration efforts and particularly to a human mission to Mars to learn more about this possible occurrence. (1) Swindle, T. D. , Caffee, M. W., and Hohenberg, C. M., (1986) "Xenon and other Noble Gases in Shergottites" Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 50, pp 1001-1015. (2) Banin, A., Clark, B.C., and Wanke, H. "Surface Chemistry and Mineralogy" (1992) in "Mars

  13. Deployment of the MARSIS Radar Antennas On-Board Mars Express (United States)

    Denis, Michel; Moorhouse, A.; Smith, A.; McKay, Mike; Fischer, J.; Jayaraman, P.; Mounzer, Z.; Schmidt, R.; Reddy, J.; Ecale, E.; hide


    On the first European planetary mission, the deployment of the two 20-meter long MARSIS antennas onboard the ESA Mars Express spacecraft has represented an unprecedented technological challenge, in the middle of a successful science mission. While Mars Express was already performing regular observations at Mars, a complex process has been performed on Earth, involving the ESA Project, coordination between ESA, NASA and ASI, the Mars Science community, the spacecraft manufacturer EADS Astrium and the Mission Control Centre at ESOC. This paper describes the steps that led from an initial nogo in 2004 to deployment one year later, as well as the conditions and difficulties encountered during the actual deployment. It provides insights in the technical and managerial processes that made it a success, and analyses the rationale behind the decisions.

  14. Europe goes to Mars - preparations are well under way (United States)


    -mail: HRSC (High/Super Resolution Stereo Camera), Gerhard Neukum, DLR, Institut für Planetenerkundung, Berlin, Germany, tel. +49 30 67055 300, fax. +49 30 67055 303, e-mail: MaRS (Radio Science Experiment), Martin Pätzold, University of Cologne, Germany, tel. +49 221 4703385, fax. +49 221 4705198, e-mail: MARSIS (Subsurface Sounding Radar/Altimeter), Giovanni Picardi, University of Rome, Italy, tel. +39 06 44585455, fax. +39 06 4873300, e-mail: OMEGA (IR Mineralogical Mapping Spectrometer), Jean-Pierre Bibring, Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, Orsay, France, tel. +33 1 69858686, fax. +33 1 69858675, e-mail: PFS (Planetary Fourier Spectrometer), Vittorio Formisano, Istituto Fisica Spazio Interplanetario, Rome, Italy, tel. +39 6 49934362, fax. +39 6 49934383, e-mail: SPICAM (UV and IR Atmospheric Spectrometer), Jean-Loup Bertaux, Service d'Aéronomie, Verrières-le-Buisson, France, tel. +33 1 64474251, fax. +33 1 6920299, e-mail: Additional contact: Christian Muller, Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy. B.USOC earth observations coordination, Avenue Circulaire, 3, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium, tel. +32-2-3730372, fax: +32-2-3748423, e- mail:

  15. Mars Science Laboratory: Mission, Landing Site, and Initial Results (United States)

    Grotzinger, John; Blake, D.; Crisp, J.; Edgett, K.; Gellert, R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Hassler, D.; Mahaffy, P.; Malin, M.; Meyer, M.; Mitrofanov, I.; Vasavada, A.; Wiens, R.


    Scheduled to land on August 5, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, will conduct an investigation of modern and ancient environments. Recent mission results will be discussed. Curiosity has a lifetime of at least one Mars year ( 23 months), and drive capability of at least 20 km. The MSL science payload was specifically assembled to assess habitability and includes a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and gas analyzer that will search for organic carbon in rocks, regolith fines, and the atmosphere; an x-ray diffractometer that will determine mineralogical diversity; focusable cameras that can image landscapes and rock/regolith textures in natural color; an alpha-particle x-ray spectrometer for in situ determination of rock and soil chemistry; a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer to remotely sense the chemical composition of rocks and minerals; an active neutron spectrometer designed to search for water in rocks/regolith; a weather station to measure modern-day environmental variables; and a sensor designed for continuous monitoring of background solar and cosmic radiation. The 155-km diameter Gale Crater was chosen as Curiosity’s field site based on several attributes: an interior mound of ancient flat-lying strata extending almost 5 km above the elevation of the landing site; the lower few hundred meters of the mound show a progression with relative age from clay-bearing to sulfate-bearing strata, separated by an unconformity from overlying likely anhydrous strata; the landing ellipse is characterized by a mixture of alluvial fan and high thermal inertia/high albedo stratified deposits; and a number of stratigraphically/geomorphically distinct fluvial features. Gale’s regional context and strong evidence for a progression through multiple potentially habitable environments, represented by a stratigraphic record of extraordinary extent, insure preservation of a rich record of the environmental history of early Mars.

  16. The REM Observing Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Stefanon


    Together they grant the system safety, automatically schedule and perform observations with two simultaneous cameras of user-defined targets, and drive fast reaction to satellite alerts. Subsequent data reduction is left to pipelines managed by each camera.

  17. Magnetic storms on Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne


    and typical time profile of such periods is investigated and compared to solar wind measurements at Earth. Typical durations of the events are 20–40h, and there is a tendency for large events to last longer, but a large spread in duration and intensity are found. The large and medium intensity events at Mars......Based on data from the Mars Global Surveyor magnetometer we examine periods of significantly enhanced magnetic disturbances in the martian space environment. Using almost seven years of observations during the maximum and early declining phase of the previous solar cycle the occurrence pattern...... are found to occur predominantly in association with interplanetary sector boundaries, with solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements being the most likely interplanetary driver. In addition it is found that, on time scales of months to several years, the dominant cause of global variability of the magnetic...

  18. A mathematical model for camera calibration based on straight lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio M. G. Tommaselli


    Full Text Available In other to facilitate the automation of camera calibration process, a mathematical model using straight lines was developed, which is based on the equivalent planes mathematical model. Parameter estimation of the developed model is achieved by the Least Squares Method with Conditions and Observations. The same method of adjustment was used to implement camera calibration with bundles, which is based on points. Experiments using simulated and real data have shown that the developed model based on straight lines gives results comparable to the conventional method with points. Details concerning the mathematical development of the model and experiments with simulated and real data will be presented and the results with both methods of camera calibration, with straight lines and with points, will be compared.

  19. Distributing functionality in the Drift Scan Camera System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicinski, T.; Constanta-Fanourakis, P.; MacKinnon, B.; Petravick, D.; Pluquet, C.; Rechenmacher, R.; Sergey, G.


    The Drift Scan Camera (DSC) System acquires image data from a CCD camera. The DSC is divided physically into two subsystems which are tightly coupled to each other. Functionality is split between these two subsystems: the front-end performs data acquisition while the host subsystem performs near real-time data analysis and control. Yet, through the use of backplane-based Remote Procedure Calls, the feel of one coherent system is preserved. Observers can control data acquisition, archiving to tape, and other functions from the host, but, the front-end can accept these same commands and operate independently. The DSC meets the needs for such robustness and cost-effective computing

  20. Automatic locking radioisotope camera lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosauer, P.J.


    The lock of the present invention secures the isotope source in a stored shielded condition in the camera until a positive effort has been made to open the lock and take the source outside of the camera and prevents disconnection of the source pigtail unless the source is locked in a shielded condition in the camera. It also gives a visual indication of the locked or possible exposed condition of the isotope source and prevents the source pigtail from being completely pushed out of the camera, even when the lock is released. (author)

  1. Web Camera Based Eye Tracking to Assess Visual Memory on a Visual Paired Comparison Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas T. Bott


    Full Text Available Background: Web cameras are increasingly part of the standard hardware of most smart devices. Eye movements can often provide a noninvasive “window on the brain,” and the recording of eye movements using web cameras is a burgeoning area of research.Objective: This study investigated a novel methodology for administering a visual paired comparison (VPC decisional task using a web camera.To further assess this method, we examined the correlation between a standard eye-tracking camera automated scoring procedure [obtaining images at 60 frames per second (FPS] and a manually scored procedure using a built-in laptop web camera (obtaining images at 3 FPS.Methods: This was an observational study of 54 clinically normal older adults.Subjects completed three in-clinic visits with simultaneous recording of eye movements on a VPC decision task by a standard eye tracker camera and a built-in laptop-based web camera. Inter-rater reliability was analyzed using Siegel and Castellan's kappa formula. Pearson correlations were used to investigate the correlation between VPC performance using a standard eye tracker camera and a built-in web camera.Results: Strong associations were observed on VPC mean novelty preference score between the 60 FPS eye tracker and 3 FPS built-in web camera at each of the three visits (r = 0.88–0.92. Inter-rater agreement of web camera scoring at each time point was high (κ = 0.81–0.88. There were strong relationships on VPC mean novelty preference score between 10, 5, and 3 FPS training sets (r = 0.88–0.94. Significantly fewer data quality issues were encountered using the built-in web camera.Conclusions: Human scoring of a VPC decisional task using a built-in laptop web camera correlated strongly with automated scoring of the same task using a standard high frame rate eye tracker camera.While this method is not suitable for eye tracking paradigms requiring the collection and analysis of fine-grained metrics, such as

  2. Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Efforts and Observations at the Rocknest Eolian Sand Shadow in Curiosity's Gale Crater Field Site (United States)

    Edgett, K. S.; Yingst, R. A.; Minitti, M. E.; Goetz, W.; Kah, L. C.; Kennedy, M. R.; Lipkaman, L. J.; Jensen, E. H.; Anderson, R. C.; Beegle, L. W.; hide


    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission is focused on assessing the past or present habitability of Mars, through interrogation of environment and environmental records at the Curiosity rover field site in Gale crater. The MSL team has two methods available to collect, process and deliver samples to onboard analytical laboratories, the Chemistry and Mineralogy instrument (CheMin) and the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite. One approach obtains samples by drilling into a rock, the other uses a scoop to collect loose regolith fines. Scooping was planned to be first method performed on Mars because materials could be readily scooped multiple times and used to remove any remaining, minute terrestrial contaminants from the sample processing system, the Collection and Handling for In-Situ Martian Rock Analysis (CHIMRA). Because of this cleaning effort, the ideal first material to be scooped would consist of fine to very fine sand, like the interior of the Serpent Dune studied by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit team in 2004 [1]. The MSL team selected a linear eolian deposit in the lee of a group of cobbles they named Rocknest (Fig. 1) as likely to be similar to Serpent Dune. Following the definitions in Chapter 13 of Bagnold [2], the deposit is termed a sand shadow. The scooping campaign occurred over approximately 6 weeks in October and November 2012. To support these activities, the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) acquired images for engineering support/assessment and scientific inquiry.

  3. Acceptance/Operational Test Report for Tank 241-AN-104 camera and camera purge control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castleberry, J.L.


    This Acceptance/Operational Test Procedure (ATP/OTP) will document the satisfactory operation of the camera purge panel, purge control panel, color camera system and associated control components destined for installation. The final acceptance of the complete system will be performed in the field. The purge panel and purge control panel will be tested for its safety interlock which shuts down the camera and pan-and-tilt inside the tank vapor space during loss of purge pressure and that the correct purge volume exchanges are performed as required by NFPA 496. This procedure is separated into seven sections. This Acceptance/Operational Test Report documents the successful acceptance and operability testing of the 241-AN-104 camera system and camera purge control system

  4. Payload topography camera of Chang'e-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Guo-Bin; Liu, En-Hai; Zhao, Ru-Jin; Zhong, Jie; Zhou, Xiang-Dong; Zhou, Wu-Lin; Wang, Jin; Chen, Yuan-Pei; Hao, Yong-Jie


    Chang'e-3 was China's first soft-landing lunar probe that achieved a successful roving exploration on the Moon. A topography camera functioning as the lander's “eye” was one of the main scientific payloads installed on the lander. It was composed of a camera probe, an electronic component that performed image compression, and a cable assembly. Its exploration mission was to obtain optical images of the lunar topography in the landing zone for investigation and research. It also observed rover movement on the lunar surface and finished taking pictures of the lander and rover. After starting up successfully, the topography camera obtained static images and video of rover movement from different directions, 360° panoramic pictures of the lunar surface around the lander from multiple angles, and numerous pictures of the Earth. All images of the rover, lunar surface, and the Earth were clear, and those of the Chinese national flag were recorded in true color. This paper describes the exploration mission, system design, working principle, quality assessment of image compression, and color correction of the topography camera. Finally, test results from the lunar surface are provided to serve as a reference for scientific data processing and application. (paper)

  5. Mars Trek: An Interactive Web Portal for Current and Future Missions to Mars (United States)

    Law, E.; Day, B.


    NASA's Mars Trek ( provides a web-based Portal and a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable mission planners, lunar scientists, and engineers to access mapped data products from past and current missions to Mars. During the past year, the capabilities and data served by Mars Trek have been significantly expanded beyond its original design as a public outreach tool. At the request of NASA's Science Mission Directorate and Human Exploration Operations Mission Directorate, Mars Trek's technology and capabilities are now being extended to support site selection and analysis activities for the first human missions to Mars.

  6. Mars Trek: An Interactive Web Portal for Current and Future Missions to Mars (United States)

    Law, E.; Day, B.


    NASA's Mars Trek ( provides a web-based Portal and a suite of interactive visualization and analysis tools to enable mission planners, lunar scientists, and engineers to access mapped data products from past and current missions to Mars. During the past year, the capabilities and data served by Mars Trek have been significantly expanded beyond its original design as a public outreach tool. At the request of NASA's Science Mission Directorate and Human Exploration Operations Mission Directorate, Mars Trek's technology and capabilities are now being extended to support site selection and analysis activities for the first human missions to Mars.

  7. Iterative metal artefact reduction (MAR) in postsurgical chest CT: comparison of three iMAR-algorithms. (United States)

    Aissa, Joel; Boos, Johannes; Sawicki, Lino Morris; Heinzler, Niklas; Krzymyk, Karl; Sedlmair, Martin; Kröpil, Patric; Antoch, Gerald; Thomas, Christoph


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of three novel iterative metal artefact (iMAR) algorithms on image quality and artefact degree in chest CT of patients with a variety of thoracic metallic implants. 27 postsurgical patients with thoracic implants who underwent clinical chest CT between March and May 2015 in clinical routine were retrospectively included. Images were retrospectively reconstructed with standard weighted filtered back projection (WFBP) and with three iMAR algorithms (iMAR-Algo1 = Cardiac algorithm, iMAR-Algo2 = Pacemaker algorithm and iMAR-Algo3 = ThoracicCoils algorithm). The subjective and objective image quality was assessed. Averaged over all artefacts, artefact degree was significantly lower for the iMAR-Algo1 (58.9 ± 48.5 HU), iMAR-Algo2 (52.7 ± 46.8 HU) and the iMAR-Algo3 (51.9 ± 46.1 HU) compared with WFBP (91.6 ± 81.6 HU, p algorithms, respectively. iMAR-Algo2 and iMAR-Algo3 reconstructions decreased mild and moderate artefacts compared with WFBP and iMAR-Algo1 (p algorithms led to a significant reduction of metal artefacts and increase in overall image quality compared with WFBP in chest CT of patients with metallic implants in subjective and objective analysis. The iMARAlgo2 and iMARAlgo3 were best for mild artefacts. IMARAlgo1 was superior for severe artefacts. Advances in knowledge: Iterative MAR led to significant artefact reduction and increase image-quality compared with WFBP in CT after implementation of thoracic devices. Adjusting iMAR-algorithms to patients' metallic implants can help to improve image quality in CT.

  8. Did Viking discover life on Mars? (United States)

    Klein, H. P.


    A major argument in the claim that life had been discovered during the Viking mission to Mars is that the results obtained in the Labeled Release (LR) experiment are analogous to those observed with terrestrial microorganisms. This assertion is critically examined and found to be implausible.

  9. Development of high-speed video cameras (United States)

    Etoh, Takeharu G.; Takehara, Kohsei; Okinaka, Tomoo; Takano, Yasuhide; Ruckelshausen, Arno; Poggemann, Dirk


    Presented in this paper is an outline of the R and D activities on high-speed video cameras, which have been done in Kinki University since more than ten years ago, and are currently proceeded as an international cooperative project with University of Applied Sciences Osnabruck and other organizations. Extensive marketing researches have been done, (1) on user's requirements on high-speed multi-framing and video cameras by questionnaires and hearings, and (2) on current availability of the cameras of this sort by search of journals and websites. Both of them support necessity of development of a high-speed video camera of more than 1 million fps. A video camera of 4,500 fps with parallel readout was developed in 1991. A video camera with triple sensors was developed in 1996. The sensor is the same one as developed for the previous camera. The frame rate is 50 million fps for triple-framing and 4,500 fps for triple-light-wave framing, including color image capturing. Idea on a video camera of 1 million fps with an ISIS, In-situ Storage Image Sensor, was proposed in 1993 at first, and has been continuously improved. A test sensor was developed in early 2000, and successfully captured images at 62,500 fps. Currently, design of a prototype ISIS is going on, and, hopefully, will be fabricated in near future. Epoch-making cameras in history of development of high-speed video cameras by other persons are also briefly reviewed.

  10. A radar-echo model for Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, T.W.; Moore, H.J.


    Researchers developed a radar-echo model for Mars based on 12.6 cm continuous wave radio transmissions backscattered from the planet. The model broadly matches the variations in depolarized and polarized total radar cross sections with longitude observed by Goldstone in 1986 along 7 degrees S. and yields echo spectra that are generally similiar to the observed spectra. Radar map units in the model include an extensive cratered uplands unit with weak depolarized echo cross sections, average thermal inertias, moderate normal refelectivities, and moderate rms slopes; the volcanic units of Tharsis, Elysium, and Amazonis regions with strong depolarized echo cross sections, low thermal inertia, low normal reflectivities, and large rms slopes; and the northern planes units with moderate to strong depolarized echo cross sections, moderate to very high thermal inertias, moderate to large normal reflectivities, and moderate rms slopes. The relevance of the model to the interpretation of radar echoes from Mars is discussed

  11. Habitability & Astrobiology Research in Mars Terrestrial Analogues (United States)

    Foing, Bernard


    We performed a series of field research campaigns (ILEWG EuroMoonMars) in the extreme Utah desert relevant to Mars environments, and in order to help in the interpretation of Mars missions measurements from orbit (MEX, MRO) or from the surface (MER, MSL), or Moon geochemistry (SMART-1, LRO). We shall give an update on the sample analysis in the context of habitability and astrobiology. Methods & Results: In the frame of ILEWG EuroMoonMars campaigns (2009 to 2013) we deployed at Mars Desert Research station, near Hanksville Utah, a suite of instruments and techniques [A, 1, 2, 9-11] including sample collection, context imaging from remote to local and microscale, drilling, spectrometers and life sensors. We analyzed how geological and geochemical evolution affected local parameters (mineralogy, organics content, environment variations) and the habitability and signature of organics and biota. Among the important findings are the diversity in the composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable PAHs and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with significant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles was observed [3,4,9]. A dominant factor seems to be soil porosity and lower clay-sized particle content [6-8]. A protocol was developed for sterile sampling, contamination issues, and the diagnostics of biodiversity via PCR and DGGE analysis in soils and rocks samples [10, 11]. We compare the 2009 campaign results [1-9] to new measurements from 2010-2013 campaigns [10-12] relevant to: comparison between remote sensing and in-situ measurements; the study of minerals; the detection of organics and signs of life. Keywords: field analogue research, astrobiology, habitability, life detection, Earth-Moon-Mars, organics References [A] Foing, Stoker & Ehrenfreund (Editors, 2011) "Astrobiology field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments", Special Issue of International

  12. Analysis of the three-dimensional trajectories of dusts observed with a stereoscopic fast framing camera in the Large Helical Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, M., E-mail: [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Masuzaki, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Tanaka, Y. [Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Pigarov, A.Yu.; Smirnov, R.D. [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Kawamura, G.; Uesugi, Y.; Yamada, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan)


    The three-dimensional trajectories of dusts have been observed with two stereoscopic fast framing cameras installed in upper and outer viewports in the Large Helical Device (LHD). It shows that the dust trajectories locate in divertor legs and an ergodic layer around the main plasma confinement region. While it is found that most of the dusts approximately move along the magnetic field lines with acceleration, there are some dusts which have sharply curved trajectories crossing over the magnetic field lines. A dust transport simulation code was modified to investigate the dust trajectories in fully three dimensional geometries such as LHD plasmas. It can explain the general trend of most of observed dust trajectories by the effect of the plasma flow in the peripheral plasma. However, the behavior of the some dusts with sharply curved trajectories is not consistent with the simulations.

  13. Mineralogical, chemical, organic and microbial properties of subsurface soil cores from Mars Desert Research Station (Utah, USA): Phyllosilicate and sulfate analogues to Mars mission landing sites (United States)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Clarke, Jonathan; Direito, Susana O. L.; Blake, David; Martin, Kevin R.; Zavaleta, Jhony; Foing, Bernard


    We collected and analysed soil cores from four geologic units surrounding Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) Utah, USA, including Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison formation (Brushy Basin member) and Summerville formation. The area is an important geochemical and morphological analogue to terrains on Mars. Soils were analysed for mineralogy by a Terra X-ray diffractometer (XRD), a field version of the CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission (2012 landing). Soluble ion chemistry, total organic content and identity and distribution of microbial populations were also determined. The Terra data reveal that Mancos and Morrison soils are rich in phyllosilicates similar to those observed on Mars from orbital measurements (montmorillonite, nontronite and illite). Evaporite minerals observed include gypsum, thenardite, polyhalite and calcite. Soil chemical analysis shows sulfate the dominant anion in all soils and SO4>>CO3, as on Mars. The cation pattern Na>Ca>Mg is seen in all soils except for the Summerville where Ca>Na. In all soils, SO4 correlates with Na, suggesting sodium sulfates are the dominant phase. Oxidizable organics are low in all soils and range from a high of 0.7% in the Mancos samples to undetectable at a detection limit of 0.1% in the Morrison soils. Minerals rich in chromium and vanadium were identified in Morrison soils that result from diagenetic replacement of organic compounds. Depositional environment, geologic history and mineralogy all affect the ability to preserve and detect organic compounds. Subsurface biosphere populations were revealed to contain organisms from all three domains (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya) with cell density between 3.0×106 and 1.8×107 cells ml-1 at the deepest depth. These measurements are analogous to data that could be obtained on future robotic or human Mars missions and results are relevant to the MSL mission that will investigate phyllosilicates on Mars.

  14. Video camera use at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estabrook, M.L.; Langan, M.O.; Owen, D.E.


    A survey of US nuclear power plants was conducted to evaluate video camera use in plant operations, and determine equipment used and the benefits realized. Basic closed circuit television camera (CCTV) systems are described and video camera operation principles are reviewed. Plant approaches for implementing video camera use are discussed, as are equipment selection issues such as setting task objectives, radiation effects on cameras, and the use of disposal cameras. Specific plant applications are presented and the video equipment used is described. The benefits of video camera use --- mainly reduced radiation exposure and increased productivity --- are discussed and quantified. 15 refs., 6 figs

  15. The cloud monitor by an infrared camera at the Telescope Array experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, F.


    The mesurement of the extensive air shower using the fluorescence detectors (FDs) is affected by the condition of the atmosphere. In particular, FD aperture is limited by cloudiness. If cloud exists on the light path from extensive air shower to FDs, fluorescence photons will be absorbed drastically. Therefore cloudiness of FD's field of view (FOV) is one of important quality cut condition in FD analysis. In the Telescope Array (TA), an infrared (IR) camera with 320x236 pixels and a filed of view of 25.8 deg. x19.5 deg. has been installed at an observation site for cloud monitoring during FD observations. This IR camera measures temperature of the sky every 30 min during FD observation. IR camera is mounted on steering table, which can be changed in elevation and azimuthal direction. Clouds can be seen at a higher temperature than areas of cloudless sky from these temperature maps. In this paper, we discuss the quality of the cloud monitoring data, the analysis method, and current quality cut condition of cloudiness in FD analysis.

  16. The development of large-aperture test system of infrared camera and visible CCD camera (United States)

    Li, Yingwen; Geng, Anbing; Wang, Bo; Wang, Haitao; Wu, Yanying


    Infrared camera and CCD camera dual-band imaging system is used in many equipment and application widely. If it is tested using the traditional infrared camera test system and visible CCD test system, 2 times of installation and alignment are needed in the test procedure. The large-aperture test system of infrared camera and visible CCD camera uses the common large-aperture reflection collimator, target wheel, frame-grabber, computer which reduces the cost and the time of installation and alignment. Multiple-frame averaging algorithm is used to reduce the influence of random noise. Athermal optical design is adopted to reduce the change of focal length location change of collimator when the environmental temperature is changing, and the image quality of the collimator of large field of view and test accuracy are also improved. Its performance is the same as that of the exotic congener and is much cheaper. It will have a good market.

  17. Joint US-USSR Long duration Antarctic Mars calibration Balloon (LAMB) mission (United States)

    Floyd, S. R.; Trombka, J. I.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R.; Squyres, S. W.; Surkov, Iu. A.; Moskaleva, L. P.; Shcheglov, O.; Mitugov, A. G.; Rester, A. C.


    The Long duration Antarctic Mars calibration Balloon (LAMB) project has been established at Goddard Space Flight Center for the evaluation and cross calibration of U.S. and USSR remote sensing gamma-ray and neutron detectors. These detectors are analogs of those flown on the Soviet Phobos mission around Mars and those to be flown on the upcoming U.S. Mars Observer mission. Cosmic rays, which are normally filtered out by the atmosphere, and the earth's magnetic field, will induce gamma-ray and neutron emissions from about a half ton of simulated Mars soil aboard the gondola. The cross calibration of these instruments should greatly facilitate the data analysis from both missions and play a role in U.S.-USSR cooperation in space.

  18. Use of camera drive in stereoscopic display of learning contents of introductory physics (United States)

    Matsuura, Shu


    Simple 3D physics simulations with stereoscopic display were created for a part of introductory physics e-Learning. First, cameras to see the 3D world can be made controllable by the user. This enabled to observe the system and motions of objects from any position in the 3D world. Second, cameras were made attachable to one of the moving object in the simulation so as to observe the relative motion of other objects. By this option, it was found that users perceive the velocity and acceleration more sensibly on stereoscopic display than on non-stereoscopic 3D display. Simulations were made using Adobe Flash ActionScript, and Papervison 3D library was used to render the 3D models in the flash web pages. To display the stereogram, two viewports from virtual cameras were displayed in parallel in the same web page. For observation of stereogram, the images of two viewports were superimposed by using 3D stereogram projection box (T&TS CO., LTD.), and projected on an 80-inch screen. The virtual cameras were controlled by keyboard and also by Nintendo Wii remote controller buttons. In conclusion, stereoscopic display offers learners more opportunities to play with the simulated models, and to perceive the characteristics of motion better.

  19. Stable carbon isotope fractionation in the search for life on early Mars (United States)

    Rothschild, L. J.; Desmarais, D.


    The utility of measurements of C-13/C-12 ratios in organic vs inorganic deposits for searching for signs of life on early Mars is considered. It is suggested that three assumptions are necessary. First, if there was life on Mars, it caused the fractionation of carbon isotopes in analogy with past biological activity on earth. Second, the fractionation would be detectable. Third, if a fractionation would be observed, there exist no abiotic explanations for the observed fractionation pattern.

  20. Fog camera to visualize ionizing charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trujillo A, L.; Rodriguez R, N. I.; Vega C, H. R.


    The human being can not perceive the different types of ionizing radiation, natural or artificial, present in the nature, for what appropriate detection systems have been developed according to the sensibility to certain radiation type and certain energy type. The objective of this work was to build a fog camera to visualize the traces, and to identify the trajectories, produced by charged particles with high energy, coming mainly of the cosmic rays. The origin of the cosmic rays comes from the solar radiation generated by solar eruptions where the protons compose most of this radiation. It also comes, of the galactic radiation which is composed mainly of charged particles and gamma rays that comes from outside of the solar system. These radiation types have energy time millions higher that those detected in the earth surface, being more important as the height on the sea level increases. These particles in their interaction produce secondary particles that are detectable by means of this cameras type. The camera operates by means of a saturated atmosphere of alcohol vapor. In the moment in that a charged particle crosses the cold area of the atmosphere, the medium is ionized and the particle acts like a condensation nucleus of the alcohol vapor, leaving a visible trace of its trajectory. The built camera was very stable, allowing the detection in continuous form and the observation of diverse events. (Author)

  1. Wave phenomena comparison between Mars and Titan upper atmospheres (United States)

    Elrod, Meredith K.; Bell, J. M.


    We will examine the presence of waves in the neutral atmospheres of two terrestrial bodies: Mars and Titan. We will examine the aerobraking datasets from both the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Odyssey (ODY) missions, analyzing the neutral densities to characterize the planetary tides and/or smaller-scale internal gravity waves present in the data. While several studies have examined these features before at Mars (e.g., Forbes et al. [2002] and Fritts and Tolson [2006]), we will be focusing on examining whether or not the wave features observed in the thermosphere could be explained primarily with planetary tides, as posted recently in Klienbohl et al. [2013]. In addition to this, we will also examine the neutral densities obtained by the Cassini Ion-Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) in order to determine if planetary tides can explain the numerous wave-like features that have been interpreted as gravity waves propagating vertically (cf., Mueller-Wodarg et al. [2008], Cui et al. [2013], and Snowden et al. [2013]).

  2. Mars Science Laboratory Entry Guidance Improvements for Mars 2018 (DRAFT) (United States)

    Garcia-Llama, Eduardo; Winski, Richard G.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Ivanov, Mark C.; Grover, Myron R.; Prakash, Ravi


    In 2011, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will be launched in a mission to deliver the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. A follow on MSL-derived mission, referred to as Mars 2018, is planned for 2018. Mars 2018 goals include performance enhancements of the Entry, Descent and Landing over that of its predecessor MSL mission of 2011. This paper will discuss the main elements of the modified 2018 EDL preliminary design that will increase performance on the entry phase of the mission. In particular, these elements will increase the parachute deploy altitude to allow for more time margin during the subsequent descent and landing phases and reduce the delivery ellipse size at parachute deploy through modifications in the entry reference trajectory design, guidance trigger logic design, and the effect of additional navigation hardware.

  3. Poás volcano in Costa Rica as a hydrothermal analog for Mars (United States)

    Elmaarry, M. R.; Hynek, B. M.


    Mars has experienced intensive volcanic and impact activity early in its history, coinciding with a similarly extensive hydrologic activity on a global scale. These activities constitute the main ingredients of hydrothermal activity. Data acquired from the study of Martian meteorites, remote sensing spectral observations, and robotic rovers has shown the surface of Mars to be mineralogically diverse including mineral assemblages that resemble those of analogous hydrothermal systems on Earth. In particular, evidence for extensive acid-sulfate weathering has been observed by the MERs at Gusev and Meridiani, as well as by MSL at Gale crater. Furthermore, there is growing evidence for silicic volcanism on Mars as indicated by the detection of silica-rich mudstone at Gale containing tridymite and cristobalite coupled with spectral observations indicative of felsic rocks in geographically disparate locations on Mars. For that, the Poás volcano in Costa Rica offers a geologic setting that can be analogous to similar environments on Mars. The Poás volcano is a basaltic andesite stratovolcano in central Costa Rica. Its caldera houses a highly acidic lake inside the caldera 130 m below the crater rim. The volcano has been active in recent historical times, and is currently displaying intensive activity since Apr 2017. Unaltered andesitic basalts collected from the 1953-1955 magmatic activity are mainly composed of plagioclase and minor amounts of orthopyroxene and olivine. We collected samples during our fieldwork in March 2017 (few weeks before its eruption) from fumaroles inside the caldera. The fumaroles were emitting gases at 92°C, and the acidic lake minor abundances of hematite, anatase, and amorphous silica. Most of these minerals have been observed on Mars under potentially similar settings. We plan to continue our investigation by carrying out additional analyses and compare to samples collected from earlier campaigns to gain a better understanding of how the

  4. [Camera-cinematography of the heart (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Adam, W E; Meyer, G; Bitter, F; Kampmann, H; Bargon, G; Stauch, M


    By "camera-cinematography" of the heart, we mean an isotope method which permits detailed observation of cardiac mechanics without the use of a catheter. All that is necessary is an intravenous injection of 10 to 15 mCi 99mTc human serum albumen followed after ten minutes by a five to ten minute period of observation with a scintilation camera. At this time the isotope has become distributed in the blood. Variations in the precordial impulses correspond with intra-cardiac changes of blood volume during a cardiac cycle. Analysis of the R-wave provides adequate information of cyclical volume changes in limited portions of the heart. This is achieved by a monitor with a pseudo-3-dimensional display; contraction and relaxation of the myocardium can be shown for any chosen longitudinal or horizontal diameter of the heart. Our programme allows simultaneous presentation of the movement of any point on the myocardium as a time-activity curve. The method is recommended as an addition to chest radiography, heart screening or cardiac kymography before carrying out cardiac catheterisation.

  5. Human tracking over camera networks: a review (United States)

    Hou, Li; Wan, Wanggen; Hwang, Jenq-Neng; Muhammad, Rizwan; Yang, Mingyang; Han, Kang


    In recent years, automated human tracking over camera networks is getting essential for video surveillance. The tasks of tracking human over camera networks are not only inherently challenging due to changing human appearance, but also have enormous potentials for a wide range of practical applications, ranging from security surveillance to retail and health care. This review paper surveys the most widely used techniques and recent advances for human tracking over camera networks. Two important functional modules for the human tracking over camera networks are addressed, including human tracking within a camera and human tracking across non-overlapping cameras. The core techniques of human tracking within a camera are discussed based on two aspects, i.e., generative trackers and discriminative trackers. The core techniques of human tracking across non-overlapping cameras are then discussed based on the aspects of human re-identification, camera-link model-based tracking and graph model-based tracking. Our survey aims to address existing problems, challenges, and future research directions based on the analyses of the current progress made toward human tracking techniques over camera networks.

  6. Large wind ripples on Mars: A record of atmospheric evolution (United States)

    Lapotre, M G; Ewing, R C; Lamb, M P; Fischer, W W; Grotzinger, J P; Rubin, D M; Lewis, K W; Ballard, M; Day, Mitch D.; Gupta, S.; Banham, S G; Bridges, N T; Des Marais, D J; Fraeman, A A; Grant, J A; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Ming, D W; Mischna, M A; Rice, M S; Sumner, D A; Vasavada, A R; Yingst, R A


    Wind blowing over sand on Earth produces decimeter-wavelength ripples and hundred-meter– to kilometer-wavelength dunes: bedforms of two distinct size modes. Observations from the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reveal that Mars hosts a third stable wind-driven bedform, with meter-scale wavelengths. These bedforms are spatially uniform in size and typically have asymmetric profiles with angle-of-repose lee slopes and sinuous crest lines, making them unlike terrestrial wind ripples. Rather, these structures resemble fluid-drag ripples, which on Earth include water-worked current ripples, but on Mars instead form by wind because of the higher kinematic viscosity of the low-density atmosphere. A reevaluation of the wind-deposited strata in the Burns formation (about 3.7 billion years old or younger) identifies potential wind-drag ripple stratification formed under a thin atmosphere.

  7. Large wind ripples on Mars: A record of atmospheric evolution (United States)

    Lapotre, M. G. A.; Ewing, R. C.; Lamb, M. P.; Fischer, W. W.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Rubin, D. M.; Lewis, K. W.; Ballard, M. J.; Day, M.; Gupta, S.; Banham, S. G.; Bridges, N. T.; Des Marais, D. J.; Fraeman, A. A.; Grant, J. A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Ming, D. W.; Mischna, M. A.; Rice, M. S.; Sumner, D. A.; Vasavada, A. R.; Yingst, R. A.


    Wind blowing over sand on Earth produces decimeter-wavelength ripples and hundred-meter- to kilometer-wavelength dunes: bedforms of two distinct size modes. Observations from the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reveal that Mars hosts a third stable wind-driven bedform, with meter-scale wavelengths. These bedforms are spatially uniform in size and typically have asymmetric profiles with angle-of-repose lee slopes and sinuous crest lines, making them unlike terrestrial wind ripples. Rather, these structures resemble fluid-drag ripples, which on Earth include water-worked current ripples, but on Mars instead form by wind because of the higher kinematic viscosity of the low-density atmosphere. A reevaluation of the wind-deposited strata in the Burns formation (about 3.7 billion years old or younger) identifies potential wind-drag ripple stratification formed under a thin atmosphere.

  8. Microprocessor-controlled wide-range streak camera (United States)

    Lewis, Amy E.; Hollabaugh, Craig


    Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The camera's user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized.

  9. Microprocessor-controlled, wide-range streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amy E. Lewis; Craig Hollabaugh


    Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The camera's user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized

  10. Comparison of Mars Northern Cap Edge Advance and Recession Rates over the Last 6 Mars Years (United States)

    Titus, T. N.; Cushing, G. E.; Langevin, Y.; Brown, A. J.; Themis Science Team; CRISM Science Team


    The most observable parameter that describes the Mars polar seasonal caps is their size, which has been measured since the days of Herschel. The advance and retreat of the polar cap from year to year may exhibit many clues to help elucidate little understood physical processes. For example, summertime heat storage in the regolith could delay the onset of seasonal CO2 cap formation. The evolution of the seasonal cap could also be directly affected by the thermal inertia of the near-surface regolith and place constraints on the depth of the ice table. Parameterizations of the seasonal cap edges provide useful constraints on atmospheric GCMs and mesoscale models. Longitudinally resolving the cap edges as they advance and retreat constrains the times when zonal means are appropriate and when longitudinal asymmetries make zonal means invalid. These same kinds of parameterizations can also be used when modeling other data that have low spatial resolutions, such as Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS )and Neutron Spectrometer (NS) data. By knowing where the cap edge should be, coarse spatial data can correct for subpixel mixing caused by large point-spread functions including both frosted and frost-free areas. The northern cap exhibits a near symmetric retreat, which has been well characterized at visible wavelengths by both telescopic and spacecraft observations. However, the advance of the cap has not been well characterized until the 21st century. Kieffer and Titus (2001) have used zonal means to observe surface temperature and visible bolometric albedo variations with season using MGS/TES. The TES thermal observations show an almost perfectly symmetrical advance; i.e., condensation at consistent latitude across all longitudes, with the most northern edge of the seasonal cap occurring between longitudes 245°E to 265°E and the most southern edge of the seasonal cap occurring between 280°E and 30°E. The advance of the northern cap typically leads the advance of the edge of

  11. Slope streaks on Mars: A new “wet” mechanism (United States)

    Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.


    Slope steaks are one of the most intriguing modern phenomena observed on Mars. They have been mostly interpreted as some specific type of granular flow. We propose another mechanism for slope streak formation on Mars. It involves natural seasonal formation of a modest amount of highly concentrated chloride brines within a seasonal thermal skin, and runaway propagation of percolation fronts. Given the current state of knowledge of temperature regimes and the composition and structure of the surface layer in the slope streak regions, this mechanism is consistent with the observational constraints; it requires an assumption that a significant part of the observed chlorine to be in form of calcium and ferric chloride, and a small part of the observed hydrogen to be in form of water ice. This "wet" mechanism has a number of appealing advantages in comparison to the widely accepted "dry" granular flow mechanism. Potential tests for the "wet" mechanism include better modeling of the temperature regime and observations of the seasonality of streak formation.

  12. Multipoint observations of coronal mass ejection and solar energetic particle events on Mars and Earth during November 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Thea Vilstrup; Vennerstrøm, Susanne; Brain, D. A.


    and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data to study ICMEs and SEPs at Earth, we present a detailed study of three CMEs and flares in late November 2001. In this period, Mars trailed Earth by 56 degrees solar longitude so that the two planets occupied interplanetary magnetic field lines...... not only ICME events but also SEP events at Mars, with good results providing a consistent picture of the events when combined with near-Earth data....

  13. The Solar Wind-Mars Interaction Boundaries in Three Dimensions (United States)

    Gruesbeck, J.; Espley, J. R.; Connerney, J. E. P.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Soobiah, Y. I. J.


    The Martian magnetosphere is a product of the interaction of Mars with the interplanetary magnetic field and the supersonic solar wind. A bow shock forms upstream of the planet as the solar wind is diverted around the planet. Closer to the planet another boundary is located that separates the shock-heated solar wind plasma from the planetary plasma in the Martian magnetosphere. The Martian magnetosphere is induced by the pile-up of the interplanetary magnetic field. This induced magnetospheric boundary (IMB) has been referred to by different names, in part due to the observations available at the time. The location of these boundaries have been previously analyzed using data from Phobos 2, Mars Global Surveyor, and Mars Express resulting in models describing their average shapes. Observations of individual transitions demonstrate that it is a boundary with a finite thickness. The MAVEN spacecraft has been in orbit about Mars since November 2014 resulting in many encounters of the spacecraft with the boundaries. Using data from the Particle and Fields Package (PFP), we identify over 1000 bow shock crossings and over 4000 IMB crossings that we use to model the average locations. We model the boundaries as a 3-dimensional surface allowing observations of asymmetry. The average location of the bow shock and IMB lies further from the planet in the southern hemisphere, where stronger crustal fields are present. The MAVEN PFP dataset allows concurrent observations of the magnetic field and plasma environment to investigate the nature of the IMB and the relationship of the boundary to the different plasma signatures. Finally, we model the upstream and downstream encounters of the boundaries separately to produce shell models that quantify the finite thicknesses of the boundaries.

  14. Using Imagers for Scaling Ecological Observations


    Graham, Eric; Hicks, John; Riordan, Erin; Wang, Eric; Yuen, Eric


    Stationary and mobile ground-based cameras can be used to scale ecological observations, relating pixel information in images to in situ measurements. Currently there are four CENS projects that involve using cameras for scaling ecological observations: 1. Scaling from one individual to the landscape. Pan-Tilt-Zoom cameras can be zoomed in on a tight focus on individual plants and parts of individuals and then zoomed out to get a landscape view, composed of the same and similar species. 2...

  15. Flat-field response and geometric distortion measurements of optical streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.S.; Drake, R.P.; Jones, B.A.; Wiedwald, J.D.


    To accurately measure pulse amplitude, shape, and relative time histories of optical signals with an optical streak camera, it is necessary to correct each recorded image for spatially-dependent gain nonuniformity and geometric distortion. Gain nonuniformities arise from sensitivity variations in the streak-tube photocathode, phosphor screen, image-intensifier tube, and image recording system. These nonuniformities may be severe, and have been observed to be on the order of 100% for some LLNL optical streak cameras. Geometric distortion due to optical couplings, electron-optics, and sweep nonlinearity not only affects pulse position and timing measurements, but affects pulse amplitude and shape measurements as well. By using a 1.053-μm, long-pulse, high-power laser to generate a spatially and temporally uniform source as input to the streak camera, the combined effects of flat-field response and geometric distortion can be measured under the normal dynamic operation of cameras with S-1 photocathodes. Additionally, by using the same laser system to generate a train of short pulses that can be spatially modulated at the input of the streak camera, we can effectively create a two-dimensional grid of equally-spaced pulses. This allows a dynamic measurement of the geometric distortion of the streak camera. We will discuss the techniques involved in performing these calibrations, will present some of the measured results for LLNL optical streak cameras, and will discuss software methods to correct for these effects. 6 refs., 6 figs

  16. Towards Adaptive Virtual Camera Control In Computer Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.


    Automatic camera control aims to define a framework to control virtual camera movements in dynamic and unpredictable virtual environments while ensuring a set of desired visual properties. We inves- tigate the relationship between camera placement and playing behaviour in games and build a user...... model of the camera behaviour that can be used to control camera movements based on player preferences. For this purpose, we collect eye gaze, camera and game-play data from subjects playing a 3D platform game, we cluster gaze and camera information to identify camera behaviour profiles and we employ...... camera control in games is discussed....

  17. Dynamic gamma camera scintigraphy in primary hypoovarism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peshev, N.; Mladenov, B.; Topalov, I.; Tsanev, Ts.


    Twenty-seven patients with primary hypoovarism and 10 controls were examined. After intravenous injection of 111 to 175 MBq 99m Tc pertechnetate, dynamic gamma camera scintigraphy for 15 minutes was carried out. In the patients with primary amenorrhea no functioning ovarial tissue was visualized or the ovaries were diminished in size, strongly reduced and non-homogenous accumulation of the radionuclide with unclear and uneven delineation were observed. In the patients with primary infertility, the gamma camera investigation gave information not only about the presence of ovarial parenchyma, but about the extent of the inflammatory process, too. In the patients after surgical intervention, the dynamic radioisotope investigation gave information about the volume and the site of the surgical intervention, as well as about the conditions of the residual parenchyma

  18. Hardware Middleware for Person Tracking on Embedded Distributed Smart Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Zarezadeh


    Full Text Available Tracking individuals is a prominent application in such domains like surveillance or smart environments. This paper provides a development of a multiple camera setup with jointed view that observes moving persons in a site. It focuses on a geometry-based approach to establish correspondence among different views. The expensive computational parts of the tracker are hardware accelerated via a novel system-on-chip (SoC design. In conjunction with this vision application, a hardware object request broker (ORB middleware is presented as the underlying communication system. The hardware ORB provides a hardware/software architecture to achieve real-time intercommunication among multiple smart cameras. Via a probing mechanism, a performance analysis is performed to measure network latencies, that is, time traversing the TCP/IP stack, in both software and hardware ORB approaches on the same smart camera platform. The empirical results show that using the proposed hardware ORB as client and server in separate smart camera nodes will considerably reduce the network latency up to 100 times compared to the software ORB.

  19. An assessment of the effectiveness of high definition cameras as remote monitoring tools for dolphin ecology studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estênio Guimarães Paiva

    Full Text Available Research involving marine mammals often requires costly field programs. This paper assessed whether the benefits of using cameras outweighs the implications of having personnel performing marine mammal detection in the field. The efficacy of video and still cameras to detect Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus in the Fremantle Harbour (Western Australia was evaluated, with consideration on how environmental conditions affect detectability. The cameras were set on a tower in the Fremantle Port channel and videos were perused at 1.75 times the normal speed. Images from the cameras were used to estimate position of dolphins at the water's surface. Dolphin detections ranged from 5.6 m to 463.3 m for the video camera, and from 10.8 m to 347.8 m for the still camera. Detection range showed to be satisfactory when compared to distances at which dolphins would be detected by field observers. The relative effect of environmental conditions on detectability was considered by fitting a Generalised Estimation Equations (GEEs model with Beaufort, level of glare and their interactions as predictors and a temporal auto-correlation structure. The best fit model indicated level of glare had an effect, with more intense periods of glare corresponding to lower occurrences of observed dolphins. However this effect was not large (-0.264 and the parameter estimate was associated with a large standard error (0.113. The limited field of view was the main restraint in that cameras can be only applied to detections of animals observed rather than counts of individuals. However, the use of cameras was effective for long term monitoring of occurrence of dolphins, outweighing the costs and reducing the health and safety risks to field personal. This study showed that cameras could be effectively implemented onshore for research such as studying changes in habitat use in response to development and construction activities.

  20. On-Line High Dose-Rate Gamma Ray Irradiation Test of the CCD/CMOS Cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Jeong, Kyung Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    dose rate of about 150 Gy/h till these cameras failed. A high dose-rate gamma ray radiation induced speckles in the camera image were heavily observed. In this paper we describe the evolution of their basic characteristics with high dose rate gamma irradiation and shortly explain the observed phenomena

  1. Mars astronomy: observations concerning Ares myth. (Italian Title: L'astronomia di Marte: osservazioni celate nel mito di Ares) (United States)

    Colona, P.


    We show that the myth of Ares defeated by the giants Aloads is a description of how the planet Mars appears in the sky during its synodic revolution. This criptoscientific myth reported by Homer holds enough astronomical information to make sound this archaeoastronomical interpretation.The tale accounts for the length of the semiperiod of the Martian revolution and presents the notion that Mercury is the only planet which is always visible when Mars recovers after the solar conjunction.

  2. Surface-based 3D measurements of small aeolian bedforms on Mars and implications for estimating ExoMars rover traversability hazards (United States)

    Balme, Matt; Robson, Ellen; Barnes, Rob; Butcher, Frances; Fawdon, Peter; Huber, Ben; Ortner, Thomas; Paar, Gerhard; Traxler, Christoph; Bridges, John; Gupta, Sanjeev; Vago, Jorge L.


    Recent aeolian bedforms comprising loose sand are common on the martian surface and provide a mobility hazard to Mars rovers. The ExoMars rover will launch in 2020 to one of two candidate sites: Mawrth Vallis or Oxia Planum. Both sites contain numerous aeolian bedforms with simple ripple-like morphologies. The larger examples are 'Transverse Aeolian Ridges' (TARs), which stereo imaging analyses have shown to be a few metres high and up to a few tens of metres across. Where they occur, TARs therefore present a serious, but recognized and avoidable, rover mobility hazard. There also exists a population of smaller bedforms of similar morphology, but it is unknown whether these bedforms will be traversable by the ExoMars rover. We informally refer to these bedforms as "mini-TARs", as they are about an order of magnitude smaller than most TARs observed to date. They are more abundant than TARs in the Oxia Planum site, and can be pervasive in areas. The aim of this paper is to estimate the heights of these features, which are too small to measured using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), from orbital data alone. Thereby, we aim to increase our knowledge of the hazards in the proposed ExoMars landing sites. We propose a methodology to infer the height of these mini-TARs based on comparisons with similar features observed by previous Mars rovers. We use rover-based stereo imaging from the NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity and PRo3D software, a 3D visualisation and analysis tool, to measure the size and height of mini-TARs in the Meridiani Planum region of Mars. These are good analogues for the smaller bedforms at the ExoMars rover candidate landing sites. We show that bedform height scales linearly with length (as measured across the bedform, perpendicular to the crest ridge) with a ratio of about 1:15. We also measured the lengths of many of the smaller aeolian bedforms in the ExoMars rover Oxia Planum

  3. Energy storage considerations for a robotic Mars surface sampler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, P.M.; Cataldo, R.L.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O.D.


    Manned exploration of Mars is being proposed by the National Commission on Space for the next century. To accomplish this task with minimal resupply cost for extended stay times, use of Mars' resources is essential. Methods must be developed to manufacture or extract water and oxygen from elements indigenous to Mars before they send explorers to the planet. Therefore, they must send precursor surveying equipment to determine Mars' resources to a greater extent than is now known from Viking 1 and Viking 2 data. A 1992 launch is planned for the Mars Observer that will contribute greater mapping resolution and expand the scientific data base. The proposed rover will provide scientists with the necessary information about abundant resources that would guide the required technology development needed to support a manned Mars infrastructure. The actual rover operations plan for both the sample return and extended mission will have a large impact on rover capabilities and the power system supplying power for traversing and scientific instrumentation. POWER SOURCE AND CONVERSION. Several power source/conversion options for the rover have been identified. These include power generation on the lander, Entry Vehicle (EV), Mars Orbiter Vehicle (MOV) and on the rover itself. Power from the lander would require the rover to return to landing site to recharge the energy storage systems, which limits rover excursions to one-half the range of the storage capacity. For on-board rover power, a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) has been considered with the appropriate energy storage to handle peak power demands

  4. New Model for Ionospheric Irregularities at Mars (United States)

    Keskinen, M. J.


    A new model for ionospheric irregularities at Mars is presented. It is shown that wind-driven currents in the dynamo region of the Martian ionosphere can be unstable to the electromagnetic gradient drift instability. This plasma instability can generate ionospheric density and magnetic field irregularities with scale sizes of approximately 15-20 km down to a few kilometers. We show that the instability-driven magnetic field fluctuation amplitudes relative to background are correlated with the ionospheric density fluctuation amplitudes relative to background. Our results can explain recent observations made by the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN spacecraft in the Martian ionosphere dynamo region.

  5. Water clouds and dust aerosols observations with PFS MEX at Mars (United States)

    Zasova, L.; Formisano, V.; Moroz, V.; Grassi, D.; Ignatiev, N.; Giuranna, M.; Hansen, G.; Blecka, M.; Ekonomov, A.; Lellouch, E.; Fonti, S.; Grigoriev, A.; Hirsch, H.; Khatuntsev, I.; Mattana, A.; Maturilli, A.; Moshkin, B.; Patsaev, D.; Piccioni, G.; Rataj, M.; Saggin, B.


    Observations of water ice clouds and dust are among the main scientific goals of the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer (PFS), a payload instrument of the European Mars Express mission. We report some results, obtained in three orbits: 37, 41 and 68. The temperature profile, and dust and water ice cloud opacities are retrieved from the thermal infrared (long-wavelength channel of PFS) in a self-consistent way using the same spectrum. Orographic ice clouds are identified above Olympus (orbit 37) and Ascraeus Mons (orbit 68). Both volcanoes were observed near noon at Ls=337° and 342°, respectively. The effective radius of ice particles is preliminary estimated as 1-3 μm, changing along the flanks. The corresponding visual opacity changes in the interval 0.2-0.4 above Olympus and 0.1-0.6 above Ascraeus Mons. In the case of Ascraeus Mons, the ice clouds were observed mainly above the Southern flank of the volcano with maximum opacity near the summit. In the case of Olympus, the clouds were found above both sides of the top. A different type of ice cloud is observed at latitudes above 50°N (orbit 68) in the polar hood: the effective particle radius is estimated to be 4 μm. Below the 1 mb level an inversion in the temperature profiles is found with maximum temperature at around 0.6 mb. Along orbit 68 it appears above Alba Patera, then it increases to the north and decreases above the CO 2 polar cap. Beginning from latitude 20°S above Tharsis (orbit 68), the ice clouds and dust contribute equally to the spectral shape. Further on, the ice clouds are found everywhere along orbit 68 up to the Northern polar cap, except the areas between the Northern flank of Ascraeus Mons (below 10 km) and the edge of Alba Patera. Orbit 41 is shifted from the orbit 68 by roughly 180° longitude and passes through Hellas. Ice clouds are not visible in this orbit at latitudes below 80°S. The dust opacity is anticorrelated with the surface altitude. From 70°S to 25°N latitude the vertical

  6. Automatic camera tracking for remote manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoughton, R.S.; Martin, H.L.; Bentz, R.R.


    The problem of automatic camera tracking of mobile objects is addressed with specific reference to remote manipulators and using either fixed or mobile cameras. The technique uses a kinematic approach employing 4 x 4 coordinate transformation matrices to solve for the needed camera PAN and TILT angles. No vision feedback systems are used, as the required input data are obtained entirely from position sensors from the manipulator and the camera-positioning system. All hardware requirements are generally satisfied by currently available remote manipulator systems with a supervisory computer. The system discussed here implements linear plus on/off (bang-bang) closed-loop control with a +-2-deg deadband. The deadband area is desirable to avoid operator seasickness caused by continuous camera movement. Programming considerations for camera control, including operator interface options, are discussed. The example problem presented is based on an actual implementation using a PDP 11/34 computer, a TeleOperator Systems SM-229 manipulator, and an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) camera-positioning system. 3 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  7. Automatic camera tracking for remote manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoughton, R.S.; Martin, H.L.; Bentz, R.R.


    The problem of automatic camera tracking of mobile objects is addressed with specific reference to remote manipulators and using either fixed or mobile cameras. The technique uses a kinematic approach employing 4 x 4 coordinate transformation matrices to solve for the needed camera PAN and TILT angles. No vision feedback systems are used, as the required input data are obtained entirely from position sensors from the manipulator and the camera-positioning system. All hardware requirements are generally satisfied by currently available remote manipulator systems with a supervisory computer. The system discussed here implements linear plus on/off (bang-bang) closed-loop control with a +-2 0 deadband. The deadband area is desirable to avoid operator seasickness caused by continuous camera movement. Programming considerations for camera control, including operator interface options, are discussed. The example problem presented is based on an actual implementation using a PDP 11/34 computer, a TeleOperator Systems SM-229 manipulator, and an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) camera-positioning system. 3 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  8. Rapid objective measurement of gamma camera resolution using statistical moments. (United States)

    Hander, T A; Lancaster, J L; Kopp, D T; Lasher, J C; Blumhardt, R; Fox, P T


    An easy and rapid method for the measurement of the intrinsic spatial resolution of a gamma camera was developed. The measurement is based on the first and second statistical moments of regions of interest (ROIs) applied to bar phantom images. This leads to an estimate of the modulation transfer function (MTF) and the full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of a line spread function (LSF). Bar phantom images were acquired using four large field-of-view (LFOV) gamma cameras (Scintronix, Picker, Searle, Siemens). The following factors important for routine measurements of gamma camera resolution with this method were tested: ROI placement and shape, phantom orientation, spatial sampling, and procedural consistency. A 0.2% coefficient of variation (CV) between repeat measurements of MTF was observed for a circular ROI. The CVs of less than 2% were observed for measured MTF values for bar orientations ranging from -10 degrees to +10 degrees with respect to the x and y axes of the camera acquisition matrix. A 256 x 256 matrix (1.6 mm pixel spacing) was judged sufficient for routine measurements, giving an estimate of the FWHM to within 0.1 mm of manufacturer-specified values (3% difference). Under simulated clinical conditions, the variation in measurements attributable to procedural effects yielded a CV of less than 2% in newer generation cameras. The moments method for determining MTF correlated well with a peak-valley method, with an average difference of 0.03 across the range of spatial frequencies tested (0.11-0.17 line pairs/mm, corresponding to 4.5-3.0 mm bars). When compared with the NEMA method for measuring intrinsic spatial resolution, the moments method was found to be within 4% of the expected FWHM.

  9. Accessing Information on the Mars Exploration Rovers Mission (United States)

    Walton, J. D.; Schreiner, J. A.


    In January 2004, the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) mission successfully deployed two robotic geologists - Spirit and Opportunity - to opposite sides of the red planet. Onboard each rover is an array of cameras and scientific instruments that send data back to Earth, where ground-based systems process and store the information. During the height of the mission, a team of about 250 scientists and engineers worked around the clock to analyze the collected data, determine a strategy and activities for the next day and then carefully compose the command sequences that would instruct the rovers in how to perform their tasks. The scientists and engineers had to work closely together to balance the science objectives with the engineering constraints so that the mission achieved its goals safely and quickly. To accomplish this coordinated effort, they adhered to a tightly orchestrated schedule of meetings and processes. To keep on time, it was critical that all team members were aware of what was happening, knew how much time they had to complete their tasks, and could easily access the information they need to do their jobs. Computer scientists and software engineers at NASA Ames Research Center worked closely with the mission managers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to create applications that support the mission. One such application, the Collaborative Information Portal (CIP), helps mission personnel perform their daily tasks, whether they work inside mission control or the science areas at JPL, or in their homes, schools, or offices. With a three-tiered, service-oriented architecture (SOA) - client, middleware, and data repository - built using Java and commercial software, CIP provides secure access to mission schedules and to data and images transmitted from the Mars rovers. This services-based approach proved highly effective for building distributed, flexible applications, and is forming the basis for the design of future mission software systems. Almost two

  10. Characterization of phyllosilicates observed in the central Mawrth Vallis region, Mars, their potential formational processes, and implications for past climate (United States)

    McKeown, N.K.; Bishop, J.L.; Noe Dobrea, E.Z.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Parente, M.; Mustard, J.F.; Murchie, S.L.; Swayze, G.A.; Bibring, J.-P.; Silver, E.A.


    Mawrth Vallis contains one of the largest exposures of phyllosilicates on Mars. Nontronite, montmorillonite, kaolinite, and hydrated silica have been identified throughout the region using data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). In addition, saponite has been identified in one observation within a crater. These individual minerals are identified and distinguished by features at 1.38-1.42, ???1.91, and 2.17-2.41 ??m. There are two main phyllosilicate units in the Mawrth Vallis region. The lowermost unit is nontronite bearing, unconformably overlain by an Al-phyllosilicate unit containing montmorillonite plus hydrated silica, with a thin layer of kaolinite plus hydrated silica at the top of the unit. These two units are draped by a spectrally unremarkable capping unit. Smectites generally form in neutral to alkaline environments, while kaolinite and hydrated silica typically form in slightly acidic conditions; thus, the observed phyllosilicates may reflect a change in aqueous chemistry. Spectra retrieved near the boundary between the nontronite and Al-phyllosilicate units exhibit a strong positive slope from 1 to 2 ??m, likely from a ferrous component within the rock. This ferrous component indicates either rapid deposition in an oxidizing environment or reducing conditions. Formation of each of the phyllosilicate minerals identified requires liquid wa