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Sample records for mars analogue rocks

  1. VNIR spectral modeling of Mars analogue rocks: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompilio, L.; Roush, T.; Pedrazzi, G.; Sgavetti, M.

    Knowledge regarding the surface composition of Mars and other bodies of the inner solar system is fundamental to understanding of their origin, evolution, and internal structures. Technological improvements of remote sensors and associated implications for planetary studies have encouraged increased laboratory and field spectroscopy research to model the spectral behavior of terrestrial analogues for planetary surfaces. This approach has proven useful during Martian surface and orbital missions, and petrologic studies of Martian SNC meteorites. Thermal emission data were used to suggest two lithologies occurring on Mars surface: basalt with abundant plagioclase and clinopyroxene and andesite, dominated by plagioclase and volcanic glass [1,2]. Weathered basalt has been suggested as an alternative to the andesite interpretation [3,4]. Orbital VNIR spectral imaging data also suggest the crust is dominantly basaltic, chiefly feldspar and pyroxene [5,6]. A few outcrops of ancient crust have higher concentrations of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene, and have been interpreted as cumulates [6]. Based upon these orbital observations future lander/rover missions can be expected to encounter particulate soils, rocks, and rock outcrops. Approaches to qualitative and quantitative analysis of remotely-acquired spectra have been successfully used to infer the presence and abundance of minerals and to discover compositionally associated spectral trends [7-9]. Both empirical [10] and mathematical [e.g. 11-13] methods have been applied, typically with full compositional knowledge, to chiefly particulate samples and as a result cannot be considered as objective techniques for predicting the compositional information, especially for understanding the spectral behavior of rocks. Extending the compositional modeling efforts to include more rocks and developing objective criteria in the modeling are the next required steps. This is the focus of the present investigation. We present results of

  2. Habitability & Astrobiology Research in Mars Terrestrial Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    We performed a series of field research campaigns (ILEWG EuroMoonMars) in the extreme Utah desert relevant to Mars environments, and in order to help in the interpretation of Mars missions measurements from orbit (MEX, MRO) or from the surface (MER, MSL), or Moon geochemistry (SMART-1, LRO). We shall give an update on the sample analysis in the context of habitability and astrobiology. Methods & Results: In the frame of ILEWG EuroMoonMars campaigns (2009 to 2013) we deployed at Mars Desert Research station, near Hanksville Utah, a suite of instruments and techniques [A, 1, 2, 9-11] including sample collection, context imaging from remote to local and microscale, drilling, spectrometers and life sensors. We analyzed how geological and geochemical evolution affected local parameters (mineralogy, organics content, environment variations) and the habitability and signature of organics and biota. Among the important findings are the diversity in the composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable PAHs and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with significant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles was observed [3,4,9]. A dominant factor seems to be soil porosity and lower clay-sized particle content [6-8]. A protocol was developed for sterile sampling, contamination issues, and the diagnostics of biodiversity via PCR and DGGE analysis in soils and rocks samples [10, 11]. We compare the 2009 campaign results [1-9] to new measurements from 2010-2013 campaigns [10-12] relevant to: comparison between remote sensing and in-situ measurements; the study of minerals; the detection of organics and signs of life. Keywords: field analogue research, astrobiology, habitability, life detection, Earth-Moon-Mars, organics References [A] Foing, Stoker & Ehrenfreund (Editors, 2011) "Astrobiology field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments", Special Issue of International

  3. 'Mister Badger' Pushing Mars Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Viking's soil sampler collector arm successfully pushed a rock on the surface of Mars during the afternoon of Friday, October 8. The irregular-shaped rock was pushed several inches by the Lander's collector arm, which displaced the rock to the left of its original position, leaving it cocked slightly upward. Photographs and other information verified the successful rock push. Photo at left shows the soil sampler's collector head pushing against the rock, named 'Mister Badger' by flight controllers. Photo at right shows the displaced rock and the depression whence it came. Part of the soil displacement was caused by the collector s backhoe. A soil sample will be taken from the site Monday night, October 11. It will then be delivered to Viking s organic chemistry instrument for a series of analyses during the next few weeks. The sample is being sought from beneath a rock because scientists believe that, if there are life forms on Mars, they may seek rocks as shelter from the Sun s intense ultraviolet radiation.

  4. Conducting Rock Mass Rating for tunnel construction on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemer, Heidi D.; Worrells, D. Scott

    2017-10-01

    Mars analogue missions provide researchers, scientists, and engineers the opportunity to establish protocols prior to sending human explorers to another planet. This paper investigated the complexity of a team of simulation astronauts conducting a Rock Mass Rating task during Analogue Mars missions. This study was conducted at the Mars Desert Research Station in Hanksville, UT, during field season 2015/2016 and with crews 167,168, and 169. During the experiment, three-person teams completed a Rock Mass Rating task during a three hour Extra Vehicular Activity on day six of their two-week simulation mission. This geological test is used during design and construction of excavations in rock on Earth. On Mars, this test could be conducted by astronauts to determine suitable rock layers for tunnel construction which would provide explorers a permanent habitat and radiation shielding while living for long periods of time on the surface. The Rock Mass Rating system derives quantitative data for engineering designs that can easily be communicated between engineers and geologists. Conclusions from this research demonstrated that it is feasible for astronauts to conduct the Rock Mass Rating task in a Mars simulated environment. However, it was also concluded that Rock Mass Rating task orientation and training will be required to ensure that accurate results are obtained.

  5. Soft Rock Yields Clues to Mars' Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rock outcrop dubbed 'Clovis.' The rock was discovered to be softer than other rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater after the rover easily ground a hole into it with its rock abrasion tool. Spirit's solar panels can be seen in the foreground. This image was taken by the rover's navigation camera on sol 205 (July 31, 2004). Elemental Trio Found in 'Clovis' Figure 1 above shows that the interior of the rock dubbed 'Clovis' contains higher concentrations of sulfur, bromine and chlorine than basaltic, or volcanic, rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater. The data were taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer after the rover dug into Clovis with its rock abrasion tool. The findings might indicate that this rock was chemically altered, and that fluids once flowed through the rock depositing these elements.

  6. First Grinding of a Rock on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The round, shallow depression in this image resulted from history's first grinding of a rock on Mars. The rock abrasion tool on NASA's Spirit rover ground off the surface of a patch 45.5 millimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter on a rock called Adirondack during Spirit's 34th sol on Mars, Feb. 6, 2004. The hole is 2.65 millimeters (0.1 inch) deep, exposing fresh interior material of the rock for close inspection with the rover's microscopic imager and two spectrometers on the robotic arm. This image was taken by Spirit's panoramic camera, providing a quick visual check of the success of the grinding. The rock abrasion tools on both Mars Exploration Rovers were supplied by Honeybee Robotics, New York, N.Y.

  7. Astrobiology Field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments: Preface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, B. H.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2011-01-01

    Extreme environments on Earth often provide similar terrain conditions to landing/operation sites on Moon and Mars. Several field campaigns (EuroGeoMars2009 and DOMMEX/ILEWG EuroMoonMars from November 2009 to March 2010) were conducted at the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah. Some of the key astrobiology results are presented in this special issue on Astrobiology field research in Moon/Mars analogue environments relevant to investigate the link between geology, minerals, organics and biota. Preliminary results from a multidisciplinary field campaign at Rio Tinto in Spain are presented.

  8. The CanMars Analogue Mission: Lessons Learned for Mars Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Beaty, D.; Battler, M.; Caudill, C.; Francis, R.; Haltigin, T.; Hipkin, V.; Pilles, E.

    2018-04-01

    We present an overview and lessons learned for Mars Sample Return from CanMars — an analogue mission that simulated a Mars 2020-like cache mission. Data from 39 sols of operations conducted in the Utah desert in 2015 and 2016 are presented.

  9. Finding the right rocks on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargraves, R. B.; Knudsen, J. M.; Madsen, M. B.; Bertelsen, P.

    Locating a rock on the surface of Mars that bears unambiguous evidence of the existence—prior or present—of life on that planet is, understandably, the “Holy Grail” of NASAs sample return missions. Remote recognition of such a rock on Mars will not be easy. We do know, however, that present in the Martian crust—especially in the “Southern highlands”—is rock carrying strong natural remanent magnetization (NRM). Characterization of such magnetized rock has profound implications for adding to our knowledge about the origin and early evolution of the Martian interior, lithosphere, atmosphere, and possibly even Martian life forms [Ward and Brownlee, 2000]. Moreover, it should be possible to recognize such rocks by use of a simple magnetic compass mounted on a Rover.

  10. Rock pushing and sampling under rocks on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, H.J.; Liebes, S.; Crouch, D.S.; Clark, L.V.

    1978-01-01

    Viking Lander 2 acquired samples on Mars from beneath two rocks, where living organisms and organic molecules would be protected from ultraviolet radiation. Selection of rocks to be moved was based on scientific and engineering considerations, including rock size, rock shape, burial depth, and location in a sample field. Rock locations and topography were established using the computerized interactive video-stereophotogrammetric system and plotted on vertical profiles and in plan view. Sampler commands were developed and tested on Earth using a full-size lander and surface mock-up. The use of power by the sampler motor correlates with rock movements, which were by plowing, skidding, and rolling. Provenance of the samples was determined by measurements and interpretation of pictures and positions of the sampler arm. Analytical results demonstrate that the samples were, in fact, from beneath the rocks. Results from the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer of the Molecular Analysis experiment and the Gas Exchange instrument of the Biology experiment indicate that more adsorbed(?) water occurs in samples under rocks than in samples exposed to the sun. This is consistent with terrestrial arid environments, where more moisture occurs in near-surface soil un- der rocks than in surrounding soil because the net heat flow is toward the soil beneath the rock and the rock cap inhibits evaporation. Inorganic analyses show that samples of soil from under the rocks have significantly less iron than soil exposed to the sun. The scientific significance of analyses of samples under the rocks is only partly evaluated, but some facts are clear. Detectable quantities of martian organic molecules were not found in the sample from under a rock by the Molecular Analysis experiment. The Biology experiments did not find definitive evidence for Earth-like living organisms in their sample. Significant amounts of adsorbed water may be present in the martian regolith. The response of the soil

  11. Rock Moved by Mars Lander Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The robotic arm on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander slid a rock out of the way during the mission's 117th Martian day (Sept. 22, 2008) to gain access to soil that had been underneath the rock.The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took the two images for this stereo view later the same day, showing the rock, called 'Headless,' after the arm pushed it about 40 centimeters (16 inches) from its previous location. 'The rock ended up exactly where we intended it to,' said Matt Robinson of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, robotic arm flight software lead for the Phoenix team. The arm had enlarged the trench near Headless two days earlier in preparation for sliding the rock into the trench. The trench was dug to about 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) deep. The ground surface between the rock's prior position and the lip of the trench had a slope of about 3 degrees downward toward the trench. Headless is about the size and shape of a VHS videotape. The Phoenix science team sought to move the rock in order to study the soil and the depth to subsurface ice underneath where the rock had been. This image was taken at about 12:30 p.m., local solar time on Mars. The view is to the north northeast of the lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. The Mojave vadose zone: a subsurface biosphere analogue for Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbey, William; Salas, Everett; Bhartia, Rohit; Beegle, Luther W

    2013-07-01

    If life ever evolved on the surface of Mars, it is unlikely that it would still survive there today, but as Mars evolved from a wet planet to an arid one, the subsurface environment may have presented a refuge from increasingly hostile surface conditions. Since the last glacial maximum, the Mojave Desert has experienced a similar shift from a wet to a dry environment, giving us the opportunity to study here on Earth how subsurface ecosystems in an arid environment adapt to increasingly barren surface conditions. In this paper, we advocate studying the vadose zone ecosystem of the Mojave Desert as an analogue for possible subsurface biospheres on Mars. We also describe several examples of Mars-like terrain found in the Mojave region and discuss ecological insights that might be gained by a thorough examination of the vadose zone in these specific terrains. Examples described include distributary fans (deltas, alluvial fans, etc.), paleosols overlain by basaltic lava flows, and evaporite deposits.

  13. Moon-Mars Analogue Mission (EuroMoonMars 1 at the Mars Desert Research Station)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lia Schlacht, Irene; Voute, Sara; Irwin, Stacy; Foing, Bernard H.; Stoker, Carol R.; Westenberg, Artemis

    The Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) is situated in an analogue habitat-based Martian environment, designed for missions to determine the knowledge and equipment necessary for successful future planetary exploration. For this purpose, a crew of six people worked and lived together in a closed-system environment. They performed habitability experiments within the dwelling and conducted Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) for two weeks (20 Feb to 6 Mar 2010) and were guided externally by mission support, called "Earth" within the simulation. Crew 91, an international, mixed-gender, and multidisciplinary group, has completed several studies during the first mission of the EuroMoonMars campaign. The crew is composed of an Italian designer and human factors specialist, a Dutch geologist, an American physicist, and three French aerospace engineering students from Ecole de l'Air, all with ages between 21 and 31. Each crewmember worked on personal research and fulfilled a unique role within the group: commander, executive officer, engineer, health and safety officer, scientist, and journalist. The expedition focused on human factors, performance, communication, health and safety pro-tocols, and EVA procedures. The engineers' projects aimed to improve rover manoeuvrability, far-field communication, and data exchanges between the base and the rover or astronaut. The crew physicist evaluated dust control methods inside and outside the habitat. The geologist tested planetary geological sampling procedures. The crew designer investigated performance and overall habitability in the context of the Mars Habitability Experiment from the Extreme-Design group. During the mission the crew also participated in the Food Study and in the Ethospace study, managed by external groups. The poster will present crew dynamics, scientific results and daily schedule from a Human Factors perspective. Main co-sponsors and collaborators: ILEWG, ESA ESTEC, NASA Ames, Ecole de l'Air, SKOR, Extreme

  14. Scientific results and lessons learned from an integrated crewed Mars exploration simulation at the Rio Tinto Mars analogue site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgel, Csilla; Kereszturi, Ákos; Váczi, Tamás; Groemer, Gernot; Sattler, Birgit

    2014-02-01

    Between 15 and 25 April 2011 in the framework of the PolAres programme of the Austrian Space Forum, a five-day field test of the Aouda.X spacesuit simulator was conducted at the Rio Tinto Mars-analogue site in southern Spain. The field crew was supported by a full-scale Mission Control Center (MCC) in Innsbruck, Austria. The field telemetry data were relayed to the MCC, enabling a Remote Science Support (RSS) team to study field data in near-real-time and adjust the flight planning in a flexible manner. We report on the experiences in the field of robotics, geophysics (Ground Penetrating Radar) and geology as well as life sciences in a simulated spaceflight operational environment. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) maps had been prepared using Google Earth and aerial images. The Rio Tinto mining area offers an excellent location for Mars analogue simulations. It is recognised as a terrestrial Mars analogue site because of the presence of jarosite and related sulphates, which have been identified by the NASA Mars Exploration Rover "Opportunity" in the El Capitan region of Meridiani Planum on Mars. The acidic, high ferric-sulphate content water of Rio Tinto is also considered as a possible analogue in astrobiology regarding the analysis of ferric sulphate related biochemical pathways and produced biomarkers. During our Mars simulation, 18 different types of soil and rock samples were collected by the spacesuit tester. The Raman results confirm the presence of minerals expected, such as jarosite, different Fe oxides and oxi-hydroxides, pyrite and complex Mg and Ca sulphates. Eight science experiments were conducted in the field. In this contribution first we list the important findings during the management and realisation of tests, and also a first summary of the scientific results. Based on these experiences suggestions for future analogue work are also summarised. We finish with recommendations for future field missions, including the preparation of the experiments

  15. The Lost City Hydrothermal Field: A Spectroscopic and Astrobiological Analogue for Nili Fossae, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador, Elena S; Bandfield, Joshua L; Brazelton, William J; Kelley, Deborah

    2017-11-01

    Low-temperature serpentinization is a critical process with respect to Earth's habitability and the Solar System. Exothermic serpentinization reactions commonly produce hydrogen as a direct by-product and typically produce short-chained organic compounds indirectly. Here, we present the spectral and mineralogical variability in rocks from the serpentine-driven Lost City Hydrothermal Field on Earth and the olivine-rich region of Nili Fossae on Mars. Near- and thermal-infrared spectral measurements were made from a suite of Lost City rocks at wavelengths similar to those for instruments collecting measurements of the martian surface. Results from Lost City show a spectrally distinguishable suite of Mg-rich serpentine, Ca carbonates, talc, and amphibole minerals. Aggregated detections of low-grade metamorphic minerals in rocks from Nili Fossae were mapped and yielded a previously undetected serpentine exposure in the region. Direct comparison of the two spectral suites indicates similar mineralogy at both Lost City and in the Noachian (4-3.7 Ga) bedrock of Nili Fossae, Mars. Based on mapping of these spectral phases, the implied mineralogical suite appears to be extensive across the region. These results suggest that serpentinization was once an active process, indicating that water and energy sources were available, as well as a means for prebiotic chemistry during a time period when life was first emerging on Earth. Although the mineralogical assemblages identified on Mars are unlikely to be directly analogous to rocks that underlie the Lost City Hydrothermal Field, related geochemical processes (and associated sources of biologically accessible energy) were once present in the subsurface, making Nili Fossae a compelling candidate for a once-habitable environment on Mars. Key Words: Mars-Habitability-Serpentinization-Analogue. Astrobiology 17, 1138-1160.

  16. From the Canadian High Arctic to Mars by Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, R. J.; Pollard, W. H.

    2002-12-01

    Planetary scientists are limited in their understanding of physical bodies in the solar system by the lack of primary data or knowledge. Analogue science is science practised in absentia, precisely in those instances when a non-terrestrial physical environment lies beyond one's direct, empirical grasp. Recognising that some environments on Earth may mirror present or past conditions on Mars, planetary scientists have invoked terrestrial analogues with increasing regularity over the last thirty years as fonts of putative understanding. Notwithstanding its ubiquity in planetary science, analogical reasoning has stood, by and large, unconstrained by rules or guidelines of usage. In order to redress this imbalance we propose to take two steps: 1. introduce primary data on newly discovered pingos at Axel Heiberg Island in the Canadian High Arctic, and 2. coalesce these and related data on Martian glacial, peri-glacial and fluvio-glacial landforms as a model with which to evaluate the meaningfulness of analogical reasoning in planetary science.

  17. Emotions and Habitability study in Moon Mars Analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Alexandre; Lia Schlacht, Irene

    Euro Moon Mars mission have been conducted by students and field researchers in the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) a habitat installed by the Mars Society (MS) in the Utah desert. The campaign was supported by ILEWG International Lunar Exploration Working Group, ESTEC, NASA Ames, and partners. It investigated human aspects of isolation in a Mars analogue base. The project is in line with the ILEWG which coordinates several MDRS missions, and contributes to the preparation of future Mars sample return missions. The objective is to study and improve the habitat dynamics in a closed and small environment. Investigation cover different fields as emotional, sociological and psychological aspects and a food study but also habitability aspects. The study has been conducted by asking to the crew members to perform task and fill in questionnaires before, during and after the simulation. Video recovering, pictures and heart rate counting will also be used. One of the main study subject, conducted by Bernard Rimé, concerns the sharing of emotions in an isolated environ-e ment. Another is "Mars Habitability Experiment", which responsible is Irene Schlacht, will try to determine whether humans need variability of stimuli such as it happens in the natural environment -e.g. seasonal changing -to gain efficiency, reliability and well-being. This study have been conducted from February 19 to April 19 on two crews presenting different aspects that could lead to various behaviours. The first crew is made of people from different countries that don't know each other very well. On the opposite, the second crew members have the same cultural background -they come from the same country, university -and they know each other for at least six months. This allow studying how the extreme conditions of the isolation affect the crew efficiency, creativity and sanity according to its homogeneity. Report on the science and technical results, and implications for Earth-Mars comparative stud

  18. Río Tinto: A Geochemical and Mineralogical Terrestrial Analogue of Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Amils

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The geomicrobiological characterization of the water column and sediments of Río Tinto (Huelva, Southwestern Spain have proven the importance of the iron and the sulfur cycles, not only in generating the extreme conditions of the habitat (low pH, high concentration of toxic heavy metals, but also in maintaining the high level of microbial diversity detected in the basin. It has been proven that the extreme acidic conditions of Río Tinto basin are not the product of 5000 years of mining activity in the area, but the consequence of an active underground bioreactor that obtains its energy from the massive sulfidic minerals existing in the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Two drilling projects, MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (2003–2006 and IPBSL (Iberian Pyrite Belt Subsurface Life Detection (2011–2015, were developed and carried out to provide evidence of subsurface microbial activity and the potential resources that support these activities. The reduced substrates and the oxidants that drive the system appear to come from the rock matrix. These resources need only groundwater to launch diverse microbial metabolisms. The similarities between the vast sulfate and iron oxide deposits on Mars and the main sulfide bioleaching products found in the Tinto basin have given Río Tinto the status of a geochemical and mineralogical Mars terrestrial analogue.

  19. Bridging a High School Science Fair Experience with First Year Undergraduate Research: Using the E-SPART Analyzer to Determine Electrostatic Charge Properties of Compositionally Varied Rock Dust Particles as Terrestrial Analogues to Mars Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, A. G.; Williams, W. J. W.; Mazumder, M. K.; Biris, A.; Srirama, P. K.

    2005-01-01

    NASA missions to Mars confirm presence of surficial particles, as well as dramatic periods of aeolian reworking. Dust deposition on, or infiltration into, exploration equipment such as spacecraft, robotic explorers, solar panel power supplies, and even spacesuits, can pose significant problems such as diminished power collection, short circuits / discharges, and added weight. We report results conducted initially as a science fair project and a study now part of a first year University undergraduate research experience.

  20. Astrobiology field research in Moon/Mars Analogue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foing, B.H.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2011-01-01

    Extreme environments on Earth often provide similar terrain conditions to landing/operation sites on Moon and Mars. Several field campaigns (EuroGeoMars2009 and DOMMEX/ILEWG EuroMoonMars from November 2009 to March 2010) were conducted at the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah. Some of the

  1. Astrobiology Results from ILEWG EuroMoonMars Analogue Field Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We give an update on the astrobiology results from a series of field research campaigns (ILEWG EuroMoonMars) in the extreme environment of the Utah desert. These are relevant to prepare future lunar landers and polar sample return missions, interpret Moon-Mars data (eg SMART1, LRO, Mars Express, MRO, MER, MSL), study habitability and astrobiology in Moon-Mars environments, or to test human-robotic surface EVA or base operations. In the frame of ILEWG EuroMoonMars campaigns (2009 to 2013) we deployed at Mars Desert Research station near Hanksville Utah, a suite of instruments and techniques [0, 1, 2, 9-11] including sample collection, context imaging from re-mote to local and microscale, drilling, spectrometers and life sensors. We analyzed how geological and geo-chemical evolution affected local parameters (mineralogy, organics content, environment variations) and the habitability and signature of organics and biota. Results: Among the important findings are the diversity in the composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable PAHs and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with significant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles was observed [3,4,9]. A dominant factor seems to be soil porosity and lower clay-sized particle content [6-8]. A protocol was developed for sterile sampling, contamination issues, and the diagnostics of biodiversity via PCR and DGGE analysis in soils and rocks samples [10, 11]. We compare the 2009 campaign results [0-9] to new measurements from 2010-2013 campaigns relevant to: comparison between remote sensing and in-situ measurements; the study of minerals; the detection of organics and signs of life. We acknowledge team members and supporting institutes: B.H. Foing (1, 2, 6), C. Stoker (3), P. Ehrenfreund (4, 5), I. Rammos (2), L. Rodrigues (2), A. Svendsen (2), D. Oltheten (2), I. Schlacht (2), K. Nebergall (6), M. Battler (6, 7), H

  2. Synthetic Rock Analogue for Permeability Studies of Rock Salt with Mudstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwu Yin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the permeability of surrounding rock (salt rock and mudstone interlayer is an important topic, which acts as a key parameter to characterize the tightness of gas storage. The goal of experiments that test the permeability of gas storage facilities in rock salt is to develop a synthetic analogue to use as a permeability model. To address the permeability of a mudstone/salt layered and mixed rock mass in Jintan, Jiangsu Province, synthetic mixed and layered specimens using the mudstone and the salt were fabricated for permeability testing. Because of the gas “slippage effect”, test results are corrected by the Klinkenberg method, and the permeability of specimens is obtained by regression fitting. The results show that the permeability of synthetic pure rock salt is 6.9 × 10−20 m2, and its porosity is 3.8%. The permeability of synthetic mudstone rock is 2.97 × 10−18 m2, with a porosity 17.8%. These results are close to those obtained from intact natural specimens. We also find that with the same mudstone content, the permeability of mixed specimens is about 40% higher than for the layered specimens, and with an increase in the mudstone content, the Klinkenberg permeability increases for both types of specimens. The permeability and mudstone content have a strong exponential relationship. When the mudstone content is below 40%, the permeability increases only slightly with mudstone content, whereas above this threshold, the permeability increases rapidly with mudstone content. The results of the study are of use in the assessment of the tightness of natural gas storage facilities in mudstone-rich rock salt formations in China.

  3. Uniaxial Compressive Strengths of Rocks Drilled at Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, G. H.; Carey, E. M.; Anderson, R. C.; Abbey, W. J.; Kinnett, R.; Watkins, J. A.; Schemel, M.; Lashore, M. O.; Chasek, M. D.; Green, W.; Beegle, L. W.; Vasavada, A. R.

    2018-01-01

    Measuring the physical properties of geological materials is important for understanding geologic history. Yet there has never been an instrument with the purpose of measuring mechanical properties of rocks sent to another planet. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover employs the Powder Acquisition Drill System (PADS), which provides direct mechanical interaction with Martian outcrops. While the objective of the drill system is not to make scientific measurements, the drill's performance is directly influenced by the mechanical properties of the rocks it drills into. We have developed a methodology that uses the drill to indicate the uniaxial compressive strengths of rocks through comparison with performance of an identically assembled drill system in terrestrial samples of comparable sedimentary class. During this investigation, we utilize engineering data collected on Mars to calculate the percussive energy needed to maintain a prescribed rate of penetration and correlate that to rock strength.

  4. Evaluation of meteorites as habitats for terrestrial microorganisms: Results from the Nullarbor Plain, Australia, a Mars analogue site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Alastair W.; Wilson, Siobhan A.; Tomkins, Andrew G.; Gagen, Emma J.; Fallon, Stewart J.; Southam, Gordon

    2017-10-01

    Unambiguous identification of biosignatures on Mars requires access to well-characterized, long-lasting geochemical standards at the planet's surface that can be modified by theoretical martian life. Ordinary chondrites, which are ancient meteorites that commonly fall to the surface of Mars and Earth, have well-characterized, narrow ranges in trace element and isotope geochemistry compared to martian rocks. Given that their mineralogy is more attractive to known chemolithotrophic life than the basaltic rocks that dominate the martian surface, exogenic rocks (e.g., chondritic meteorites) may be good places to look for signs of prior life endemic to Mars. In this study, we show that ordinary chondrites, collected from the arid Australian Nullarbor Plain, are commonly colonized and inhabited by terrestrial microorganisms that are endemic to this Mars analogue site. These terrestrial endolithic and chasmolithic microbial contaminants are commonly found in close association with hygroscopic veins of gypsum and Mg-calcite, which have formed within cracks penetrating deep into the meteorites. Terrestrial bacteria are observed within corrosion cavities, where troilite (FeS) oxidation has produced jarosite [KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6]. Where terrestrial microorganisms have colonized primary silicate minerals and secondary calcite, these mineral surfaces are heavily etched. Our results show that inhabitation of meteorites by terrestrial microorganisms in arid environments relies upon humidity and pH regulation by minerals. Furthermore, microbial colonization affects the weathering of meteorites and production of sulfate, carbonate, Fe-oxide and smectite minerals that can preserve chemical and isotopic biosignatures for thousands to millions of years on Earth. Meteorites are thus habitable by terrestrial microorganisms, even under highly desiccating environmental conditions of relevance to Mars. They may therefore be useful as chemical and isotopic ;standards; that preserve evidence of

  5. Quantifying Cyclic Thermal Stresses Due to Solar Exposure in Rock Fragments in Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallet, B.; Mackenzie-Helnwein, P.; Sletten, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    Curiosity and earlier rovers on Mars have revealed in detail rocky landscapes with decaying outcrops, rubble, stone-littered regolith, and bedrock exposures that reflect the weathering processes operating on rock exposed to Mars' cold and hyperarid environment. Evidence from diverse sources points to the importance of thermal stresses driven by cyclic solar exposure in contributing to the mechanical weathering of exposed rock and generation of regolith in various settings on Earth [1,2,3], and even more so on extraterrestrial bodies where large, rapid cyclic temperature variations are frequent (e.g. Mars [4], as well as comets [5], asteroids [6] and other airless bodies [7]). To study these thermal stresses, we use a 3d finite element (FE) model constrained by ground-based surface temperature measurements from Curiosity's Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS). The numerical model couples radiation and conduction with elastic response to determine the temperature and stress fields in individual rocks on the surface of Mars based on rock size and thermo-mechanical properties. We provide specific quantitative results for boulder-size basalt rocks resting on the ground using a realistic thermal forcing that closely matches the REMS temperature observations, and related thermal inertia data. Moreover, we introduce analytical studies showing that these numerical results can readily be generalized. They are quite universal, informing us about thermal stresses due to cyclic solar exposure in general, for rock fragments of different sizes, lithologies, and fracture- thermal- and mechanical-properties. Using Earth-analogue studies to gain insight, we also consider how the shapes, fractures, and surface details of rock fragments imaged by Curiosity likely reflect the importance of rock breakdown due to thermal stresses relative to wind-driven rock erosion and other surface processes on Mars. References:[1] McFadden L et al. (2005) Geol. Soc.Am. Bull. 117(1-2): 161-173 [2

  6. Preparation, Characterization, and UV Irradiation of Mars Soil Analogues Under Simulated Martian Conditions to Support Detection of Molecular Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, T.; Brucato, J. R.; ten Kate, I. L.; Siljeström, S.; Steele, A.; Cody, G. D.; Hazen, R. M.

    2018-04-01

    We present laboratory activities of preparation, characterization, and UV irradiation processing of Mars soil analogues, which are key to support both in situ exploration and sample return missions devoted to detection of molecular biomarkers on Mars.

  7. Rock Moved by Mars Lander Arm, Stereo View

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The robotic arm on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander slid a rock out of the way during the mission's 117th Martian day (Sept. 22, 2008) to gain access to soil that had been underneath the rock.The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took the two images for this stereo view later the same day, showing the rock, called 'Headless,' after the arm pushed it about 40 centimeters (16 inches) from its previous location. 'The rock ended up exactly where we intended it to,' said Matt Robinson of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, robotic arm flight software lead for the Phoenix team. The arm had enlarged the trench near Headless two days earlier in preparation for sliding the rock into the trench. The trench was dug to about 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) deep. The ground surface between the rock's prior position and the lip of the trench had a slope of about 3 degrees downward toward the trench. Headless is about the size and shape of a VHS videotape. The Phoenix science team sought to move the rock in order to study the soil and the depth to subsurface ice underneath where the rock had been. This left-eye and right-eye images for this stereo view were taken at about 12:30 p.m., local solar time on Mars. The scene appears three-dimensional when seen through blue-red glasses.The view is to the north northeast of the lander. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Iberian Pyrite Belt Subsurface Life (IPBSL), a drilling project in a geochemical Mars terrestrial analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amils, R.; Fernández-Remolar, D. C.; Parro, V.; Manfredi, J. A.; Timmis, K.; Oggerin, M.; Sánchez-Román, M.; López, F. J.; Fernández, J. P.; Omoregie, E.; Gómez-Ortiz, D.; Briones, C.; Gómez, F.; García, M.; Rodríguez, N.; Sanz, J. L.

    2012-09-01

    Iberian Pyrite Belt Subsurface Life (IPBSL) is a drilling project specifically designed to characterize the subsurface ecosystems operating in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), in the area of Peña de Hierro, and responsible of the extreme acidic conditions existing in the Rio Tinto basin [1]. Rio Tinto is considered a good geochemical terrestrial analogue of Mars [2, 3]. A dedicated geophysical characterization of the area selected two drilling sites (4) due to the possible existence of water with high ionic content (low resistivity). Two wells have been drilled in the selected area, BH11 and BH10, of depths of 340 and 620 meters respectively, with recovery of cores and generation of samples in anaerobic and sterile conditions. Preliminary results showed an important alteration of mineral structures associated with the presence of water, with production of expected products from the bacterial oxidation of pyrite (sulfates and ferric iron). Ion chromatography of water soluble compounds from uncontaminated samples showed the existence of putative electron donors (ferrous iron, nitrite in addition of the metal sulfides), electron acceptors (sulfate, nitrate, ferric iron) as well as variable concentration of metabolic organic acids (mainly acetate, formate, propionate and oxalate), which are strong signals of the presence of active subsurface ecosystem associated to the high sulfidic mineral content of the IPB. The system is driven by oxidants that appear to be provided by the rock matrix, only groundwater is needed to launch microbial metabolism. The geological, geomicrobiological and molecular biology analysis which are under way, should allow the characterization of this ecosystem of paramount interest in the design of an astrobiological underground Mars exploration mission in the near future.

  9. Burfellshraun - a terrestrial analogue to recent volcanism on mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Henning; Dall, Jørgen; Rossi, Matti

    2004-01-01

    The up to 2000 km long and very young lava flows from Elysium Planitia to Amazonis Planitia on Mars often include km-sized rafting plates. We have studied the unique Burfellshraun lava field east of lake Myvatn in Iceland that, although on a much smaller scale, share many characteristics of the M...... of the formation of Burfellshraun provides new constraints and insight into the extensive recent volcanic activity on Mars....... of the Martian flows. Up to km-sized plates have flowed several km downsteam from the vent area. Our remote sensing studies and field work suggest that the type of eruption seen in Burfellshraun can be found nowhere else on Earth. The only similar lava flows that we have found are those on Mars. Our study...

  10. Natural analogue for storage of radwaste in crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookins, D.G.; Abashian, M.S.; Cohen, L.H.; Wollenberg, H.A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Bryan-Eldora stock (Colorado) intruded the Precambrian Idaho Springs Formation metamorphic rocks 58 million years ago. Geochronologic-geochemical work by Hart et al. [S.R. Hart et al., in Radiometric Dating for Geologists, E.I. Hamilton, R.S. Farquhar, eds. (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1968) pp. 73-110] has demonstrated that the heat from the cooling intrusive rocks was sufficient to affect mineral isotopic systematics up to 2000 m from the contact, and the nature of these isotopic perturbations can be explained by a simple diffusion model in turn based on various heat flow models. Our new studies are focused on elemental exchange between stock and intruded rock as a function of distance from the contact; the assumption is made that the stock is a very large, high heat source analogous to a waste form emplaced in the metamorphic rocks without benefit of canister or engineered backfill. Data for U, Th and the REE indicate actinide and lanthanide immobility except perhaps in the 0 to 2m contact zone where some infiltration of the country rocks by stock-derived fluids occurred. Beyond 4m no stock-derived U, Th, REE or *Pb are noted. Further, whole rock Rb-Sr and stable O isotopic data indicate conductive cooling as opposed to convective, water-induced cooling. The intruded rocks possess low porosity and permeability; this helped prevent elemental migration during the 10 5 to 10 6 years of stock crystallization. The petrographic and geochemical studies show that the Idaho Springs (or equivalent) metamorphic rocks are well suited for radwaste storage. 1 figure, 1 table

  11. Geological trainings for analogue astronauts: Lessons learned from MARS2013 expedition, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgel, C.; Achorner, I.; Losiak, A.; Gołębiowska, I.; Rampey, M.; Groemer, G.

    2013-09-01

    The Austrian Space Forum (OeWF) is a national organisation for space professionals and space enthusiasts. In collaboration with internal partner organisations, the OeWF focuses on Mars analogue research with their space volunteers and organises space-related outreach/education activities and conducts field tests with the Aouda.X and Aouda.S spacesuit simulators in Mars analogue environment. The main project of OeWF is called "PolAres" [1]. As the result of lessons learned from the Río Tinto 2011 expedition [4], we started to organise geological training sessions for the analogue astronauts. The idea was to give them basic geological background to perform more efficiently in the field. This was done in close imitation of the Apollo astronaut trainings that included theoretical lectures (between Jan. 1963-Nov. 1972) about impact geology, igneous petrology of the Moon, geophysics and geochemistry as well as several field trips to make them capable to collect useful samples for the geoscientists on Earth [3] [5]. In the last year the OeWF has organised three geoscience workshops for analogue astronauts as the part of their "astronaut" training. The aim was to educate the participants to make them understand the fundamentals in geology in theory and in the field (Fig. 1.). We proposed the "Geological Experiment Sampling Usefulness" (GESU) experiment for the MARS2013 simulation to improve the efficiency of the geological trainings. This simulation was conducted during February 2013, a one month Mars analogue research was conducted in the desert of Morocco [2] (Fig. 2.).

  12. Luminescence dating on Mars: OSL characteristics of Martian analogue materials and GCR dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, M.; Andersen, C.E.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    2006-01-01

    , and sedimentary precipitates such as sulphates and chlorides. We present here a preliminary investigation of the luminescence characteristics (sensitivity, dose response, fading) of some Martian analogue mineral and rock samples. These materials are likely to be zeroed by the solar UV light (200-300nm) under sub...

  13. The Fate of Lipid Biosignatures in a Mars-Analogue Sulfur Stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jonathan; Lewis, James M T; Sephton, Mark A

    2018-05-15

    Past life on Mars will have generated organic remains that may be preserved in present day Mars rocks. The most recent period in the history of Mars that retained widespread surface waters was the late Noachian and early Hesperian and thus possessed the potential to sustain the most evolved and widely distributed martian life. Guidance for investigating late Noachian and early Hesperian rocks is provided by studies of analogous acidic and sulfur-rich environments on Earth. Here we report organic responses for an acid stream containing acidophilic organisms whose post-mortem remains are entombed in iron sulphates and iron oxides. We find that, if life was present in the Hesperian, martian organic records will comprise microbial lipids. Lipids are a potential sizeable reservoir of fossil carbon on Mars, and can be used to distinguish between different domains of life. Concentrations of lipids, and particularly alkanoic or "fatty" acids, are highest in goethite layers that reflect high water-to-rock ratios and thus a greater potential for habitability. Goethite can dehydrate to hematite, which is widespread on Mars. Mars missions should seek to detect fatty acids or their diagenetic products in the oxides and hydroxides of iron associated with sulphur-rich environments.

  14. Pressurized brines in continental Antarctica as a possible analogue of Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Forte, Emanuele; Dalle Fratte, Michele; Azzaro, Maurizio; Guglielmin, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Interest in brines in extreme and cold environments has recently increased after they have been found on Mars. Those brines can be potential new subsurface habitats for peculiar ecosystems. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of the Antarctic, the best analogue for Mars conditions, only a few cases of brines have been identified in some perennially frozen lakes and in one case in an underground aquifer. Here, we present the occurrence of pressurized brines in a shallow perennially ice-covered lake sou...

  15. Hydrothermal Alteration Products as Key to Formation of Duricrust and Rock Coatings on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J. L.

    1999-03-01

    A model is presented for the formation of duricrust and rock coatings on Mars. Hydrothermal alteration of volcanic tephra may produce a corrosive agent that attacks rock surfaces and binds dust particles to form duricrust.

  16. Nuclear interactions of cosmic rays with the Mars atmosphere and rocks according to data of the Mars-5 space vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surkov, Yu A; Moskaleva, L P; Kharyukova, V P; Borodin, A M [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Geokhimii i Analiticheskoj Khimii

    1976-03-01

    Gamma-spectra of Mars have been analyzed measured by the ''Mars-5'' interplanetary station at the altitude of approximately 200 km over the planet. A model spectrum of the Mars atmosphere gamma-radiation obtained earlier has been employed for obtaining cosmo-chemical information of the Mars rocks. In the energy range of gamma radiation Esub(..gamma..)(>=)2.6 MeV, in which no contribution of gamma radiation of natural radioisotopes is present, the best agreement has been obtained for the spectrum of gamma-radiation induced by cosmic rays in rocks of the type of earthly basalts.

  17. Pressurized brines in continental Antarctica as a possible analogue of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Emanuele; Dalle Fratte, Michele; Azzaro, Maurizio; Guglielmin, Mauro

    2016-09-12

    Interest in brines in extreme and cold environments has recently increased after they have been found on Mars. Those brines can be potential new subsurface habitats for peculiar ecosystems. In the McMurdo Dry Valleys of the Antarctic, the best analogue for Mars conditions, only a few cases of brines have been identified in some perennially frozen lakes and in one case in an underground aquifer. Here, we present the occurrence of pressurized brines in a shallow perennially ice-covered lake south of 70°S in an ice-free area of Victoria Land, Antarctica. For the first time, we also imaged, by means of ground penetrating radar data, the existence of a pingo-like-feature (PLF) formed by the extrusion of brines, which has also been confirmed by borehole evidence. Those brines are fed by an underground talik external to the lake basin, enhancing the possibility of unexploited ecosystems that could find an analogue in Martian environments.

  18. Volcanic lake systems as terrestrial analogue for sulphate-rich terrains on Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, A.

    2016-01-01

    Remote-sensing observations and rover missions have documented the abundant presence of sulphate-rich mineral associations on the surface of Mars. Together with widespread occurrences of silica and frequent enrichments of chlorine and bromine in soils and rocks, the sulphate associations are

  19. Astrobiology through the ages of Mars: the study of terrestrial analogues to understand the habitability of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairén, Alberto G; Davila, Alfonso F; Lim, Darlene; Bramall, Nathan; Bonaccorsi, Rosalba; Zavaleta, Jhony; Uceda, Esther R; Stoker, Carol; Wierzchos, Jacek; Dohm, James M; Amils, Ricardo; Andersen, Dale; McKay, Christopher P

    2010-10-01

    Mars has undergone three main climatic stages throughout its geological history, beginning with a water-rich epoch, followed by a cold and semi-arid era, and transitioning into present-day arid and very cold desert conditions. These global climatic eras also represent three different stages of planetary habitability: an early, potentially habitable stage when the basic requisites for life as we know it were present (liquid water and energy); an intermediate extreme stage, when liquid solutions became scarce or very challenging for life; and the most recent stage during which conditions on the surface have been largely uninhabitable, except perhaps in some isolated niches. Our understanding of the evolution of Mars is now sufficient to assign specific terrestrial environments to each of these periods. Through the study of Mars terrestrial analogues, we have assessed and constrained the habitability conditions for each of these stages, the geochemistry of the surface, and the likelihood for the preservation of organic and inorganic biosignatures. The study of these analog environments provides important information to better understand past and current mission results as well as to support the design and selection of instruments and the planning for future exploratory missions to Mars.

  20. Salt Attack on Rocks and Expansion of Soils on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Carey, J. W.

    2004-12-01

    Salt-rich sediments observed by the MER rover Opportunity at Meridiani Planum show that brines have been present on Mars in the past, but a role for groundwater in widespread rock weathering and soil formation is uncertain. Experiments by several groups suggest instead the action of acid fog over long time spans, with episodic input of volcanic gases, as a more significant agent of Mars weathering. Salt minerals formed in these acid weathering experiments consistently include gypsum and alunogen, with epsomite or hexahydrite forming where olivine provides a source of Mg. Analogous to the martian acid fog scenario are terrestrial acid rain or acid fog attacks on building and monument stone by chemical action and mechanical wedging through growth of gypsum, anhydrite, epsomite, hexahydrite, kieserite, and other sulfate minerals. Physical effects can be aggressive, operating by both primary salt growth and hydration of anhydrous or less-hydrous primary salts. In contrast, soils evolve to states where chemical attack is lessened and salt mineral growth leads to expansion with cementation; in this situation the process becomes constructive rather than destructive. We have made synthetic salt-cemented soils (duricrusts) from clays, zeolites, palagonites and other media mixed with ultrapure Mg-sulfate solutions. Although near-neutral in pH, these solutions still exchange or leach Ca from the solids to form cements containing gypsum as well as hexahydrite. At low total P (1 torr) and low RH (duricrust expands by formation of a complex mixture of Mg-sulfate phases with various hydration states. The expanded form is retained even if the duricrust is again dehydrated, suggesting that soil porosity thus formed is difficult to destroy. These processes can be considered in the context of Viking, Pathfinder, and MER evidence for differing salt components in the weathered surfaces of rocks versus duricrust-like materials in soils. The divergent chemical trends indicate that soil

  1. Mineralogy of Rocks and Sediments at Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, Cherie; Downs, Robert; Blake, David; Vaniman, David; Ming, Doug; Rampe, Elizabeth; Morris, Dick; Morrison, Shaunna; Treiman, Allan; Chipera, Steve; Yen, Albert; Bristow, Thomas; Craig, Patricia; Hazen, Robert; Crisp, Joy; Grotzinger, John; Des Marias, David; Farmer, Jack; Sarrazin, Philippe; Morookian, John Michael

    2017-04-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, is providing in situ mineralogical, geochemical, and sedimentological assessments of rocks and soils in Gale crater. Since landing in 2012, Curiosity has traveled over 15 km, providing analyses of mudstones and sandstones to build a stratigraphic history of the region. The CheMin X-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument is the first instrument on Mars to provide quantitative mineralogical analyses of drilled powders and scooped sediment based on X-ray crystallography. CheMin identifies and determines mineral abundances and unit-cell parameters of major crystalline phases, and identifies minor phases at abundances >1 wt%. In conjunction with elemental analyses, CheMin-derived crystal chemistry allows for the first calculations of crystalline and amorphous material compositions. These mineralogy, crystal chemistry, and amorphous chemistry datasets are playing central roles in the characterization of Gale crater paleoenvironments. CheMin has analyzed 17 rock and sediment samples. In the first phase of the mission, Curiosity explored the sedimentary units of Aeolis Palus (Bradbury group), including two mudstones from Yellowknife Bay. CheMin analyses of the Yellowknife Bay mudstones identified clay minerals among an overall basaltic mineral assemblage. These mineralogical results, along with imaging and geochemical analyses, were used to characterize an ancient lacustrine setting that is thought to have once been a habitable environment. Following the investigations of the Bradbury group, Curiosity arrived at the lower reaches of Aeolis Mons, commonly called Mt. Sharp. A strategic sample campaign was initiated, drilling bedrock at X-ray amorphous phases. Adjacent to fractures, light-toned, halo-like zones are thought to result from significant aqueous alteration of the primary sandstone and show decreased abundances of feldspar and pyroxene, and an increase in the amorphous component, specifically high-silica phases. The Murray

  2. Astrobiology Training in Lava Tubes (ATiLT): Characterizing coralloid speleothems in basaltic lava tubes as a Mars analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, J.; Leveille, R. J.; Douglas, P.

    2017-12-01

    Coralloid speleothems or cave corals are small mineralised nodes that can take a variety of forms, and which develop through groundwater seepage and water-rock interaction in caves. They are found commonly on Earth in a plethora of caves, including lava tubes. Since lava tubes have been identified on the surface of Mars from remotely sensed images, there has been interest in studying Earth's lava tube systems as an analogue for understanding Martian lava environments. If cave minerals were found on Mars, they could indicate past or present water-rock interaction in the Martian subsurface. Martian lava tubes could also provide insights into habitable subsurface environments as well as conditions favourable for the synthesis and preservation of biosignatures. One of the aims of the Astrobiology Training in Lava Tubes (ATiLT) project is to analyze biosignatures and paleoenvironmental indicators in secondary cave minerals, which will be looked at in-situ and compared to collected field samples. In this study, secondary mineralization in lava cave systems from Lava Beds National Monument, CA is examined. In the field, coralloid speleothems have been observed growing on all surfaces of the caves, including cave ceilings, floors, walls and overhangs. They are also observed growing adjacent to biofilms, which sometimes fill in the cracks of the coralloid nodes. Preliminary results show the presence of opal, calcite, quartz and other minor minerals in the speleothems. This study seeks to understand the formation mechanism and source of these secondary minerals, as well as determine their possible relation to the biofilms. This will be done through the analysis of the water chemistry, isotope geochemistry and microscale mineralogy.

  3. Radiation-Driven Formation of Reactive Oxygen Species in Oxychlorine-Containing Mars Surface Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Christos D.; Zisimopoulos, Dimitrios; Kalaitzopoulou, Electra; Quinn, Richard C.

    2017-04-01

    The present study demonstrates that γ-radiolyzed perchlorate-containing Mars soil salt analogues (in a CO2 atmosphere) generate upon H2O wetting the reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide radical (O2•-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals (•OH). This study also validates that analogue radiolysis forms oxychlorine species that, in turn, can UV-photolyze to •OH upon UV photolysis. This investigation was made possible by the development of a new assay for inorganic-origin O2•- and H2O2 determination and by the modification of a previous assay for soil •OH. Results show that radiolyzed Mg(ClO4)2 generates H2O2 and •OH; and when included as part of a mixture analogous to the salt composition of samples analyzed at the Mars Phoenix site, the analogue generated O2•-, H2O2, and •OH, with •OH levels 150-fold higher than in the radiolyzed Mg(ClO4)2 samples. Radiolyzed Mars Phoenix site salt analogue that did not contain Mg(ClO4)2 generated only •OH also at 150-fold higher concentration than Mg(ClO4)2 alone. Additionally, UV photolysis of the perchlorate γ radiolysis product chlorite (ClO2-) generated the oxychlorine products trihalide (Cl3-), chlorine dioxide (ClO2•), and hypochlorite (ClO-), with the formation of •OH by UV photolysis of ClO-. While the generation of ROS may have contributed in part to 14CO2 production in the Viking Labeled Release (LR) experiment and O2 (g) release in the Viking Gas Exchange (GEx) experiment, our results indicate that they are not likely to be the major contributor to the LR and GEx results. However, due to their highly reactive nature, they are expected to play a significant role in the alteration of organics on Mars. Additionally, experiments with hypochlorite show that the thermal stability of NaClO is in the range of the thermal stability observed for thermally liable oxidant responsible for the Viking LR results.

  4. Weathering Profiles in Phosphorus-Rich Rocks at Gusev Crater, Mars, Suggest Dissolution of Phosphate Minerals into Potentially Habitable Near-Neutral Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, Christopher T; Hausrath, Elisabeth M

    2015-12-01

    Abundant evidence indicates that significant surface and near-surface liquid water has existed on Mars in the past. Evaluating the potential for habitable environments on Mars requires an understanding of the chemical and physical conditions that prevailed in such aqueous environments. Among the geological features that may hold evidence of past environmental conditions on Mars are weathering profiles, such as those in the phosphorus-rich Wishstone-class rocks in Gusev Crater. The weathering profiles in these rocks indicate that a Ca-phosphate mineral has been lost during past aqueous interactions. The high phosphorus content of these rocks and potential release of phosphorus during aqueous interactions also make them of astrobiological interest, as phosphorus is among the elements required for all known life. In this work, we used Mars mission data, laboratory-derived kinetic and thermodynamic data, and data from terrestrial analogues, including phosphorus-rich basalts from Idaho, to model a conceptualized Wishstone-class rock using the reactive transport code CrunchFlow. Modeling results most consistent with the weathering profiles in Wishstone-class rocks suggest a combination of chemical and physical erosion and past aqueous interactions with near-neutral waters. The modeling results also indicate that multiple Ca-phosphate minerals are likely in Wishstone-class rocks, consistent with observations of martian meteorites. These findings suggest that Gusev Crater experienced a near-neutral phosphate-bearing aqueous environment that may have been conducive to life on Mars in the past. Mars-Gusev Crater-Wishstone-Reactive transport modeling-CrunchFlow-Aqueous interactions-Neutral pH-Habitability.

  5. Mineralogical, chemical, organic and microbial properties of subsurface soil cores from Mars Desert Research Station (Utah, USA): Phyllosilicate and sulfate analogues to Mars mission landing sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoker, C.R.; Clarke, J.; Oliveira Lebre Direito, M.S.; Martin, K.; Zavaleta, J.; Blake, D.; Foing, B.H.

    2011-01-01

    We collected and analysed soil cores from four geologic units surrounding Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) Utah, USA, including Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison formation (Brushy Basin member) and Summerville formation. The area is an important geochemical and morphological analogue to

  6. Developing an Experimental Simulation Method for Rock Avalanches: Fragmentation Behavior of Brittle Analogue Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thordén Haug, Øystein; Rosenau, Matthias; Leever, Karen; Oncken, Onno

    2013-04-01

    Gravitational mass movement on earth and other planets show a scale dependent behavior, of which the physics is not fully understood. In particular, the runout distance for small to medium sized landslides (volume dynamics control small and large landslides/rock avalanches. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this scale dependent behavior, but no consensus has been reached. Experimental simulations of rock avalanches usually involve transport of loose granular material down a chute. Though such granular avalanche models provide important insights into avalanche dynamics, they imply that the material fully disintegrate instantaneously. Observations from nature, however, suggests that a transition from solid to "liquid" occurs over some finite distance downhill, critically controlling the mobility and energy budget of the avalanche. Few experimental studies simulated more realistically the material failing during sliding and those were realized in a labscale centrifuge, where the range of volumes/scales is limited. To develop a new modeling technique to study the scale dependent runout behavior of rock avalanches, we designed, tested and verified several brittle materials allowing fragmentation to occur under normal gravity conditions. According to the model similarity theory, the analogue material must behave dynamically similar to the rocks in natural rock avalanches. Ideally, the material should therefore deform in a brittle manner with limited elastic and ductile strains up to a certain critical stress, beyond which the material breaks and deforms irreversibly. According to scaling relations derived from dimensional analysis and for a model-to-prototype length ratio of 1/1000, the appropriate yield strength for an analogue material is in the order of 10 kPa, friction coefficient around 0.8 and stiffness in the order of MPa. We used different sand (garnet, quartz) in combination with different matrix materials (sugar, salt, starch, plaster) to cement

  7. The Search for Life on Mars - Current Knowledge, Earth Analogues, and Principal Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    For centuries, the planet Mars has been imagined as a possible abode for life. Serious searches for life's signatures began in the 19th century via ground-based visual astronomy that stimulated a vibrant fantasy literature but little lasting scientific knowledge. Modern scientific inquiry has emphasized the search for chemical signatures of life in the soil and rocks at the planet's surface, and via biomarker gases in the atmosphere. Today, investigations are based on high-resolution spectroscopy at Earth's largest telescopes along with planet orbiting and landed space missions. Methane has assumed central importance in these searches. Living systems produce more than 900/0 of Earth's atmospheric methane; the balance is of geochemical origin. Abundant methane is not expected in an oxidizing atmosphere such as Mars', and its presence would imply recent release - whether biological or geochemical. F or that reason, the quest for methane on Mars has been a continuing thread in the fabric of searches conducted since 1969. I will review aspects of the discovery and distribution of methane on Mars, and will mention ongoing extended searches for clues to its origin and destruction. On Earth, hydrogen (generated via serpentinization or radiolysis of water) provides an important 'fuel' for carbonate-reducing and sulphate-reducing biota (CH4 and H2S producers, respectively). Several such communities are known to reside at depth in continental domains (e.g., Lidy Hot Springs, Idaho; Witwatersrand Basin, S. Africa). If similar conditions exist in favourable locations on Mars, organisms similar to these could likely prosper there. Geologic (abiotic) production will also be mentioned, especially abiotic methane production associated with low-temperature serpentinization (e.g., terrestrial ophiolites). It is vitally important to pursue evidence for geochemical and biological production with equal vigour and intellectual weight lest unwanted and unintended bias contaminate the

  8. Modeling aluminum-silicon chemistries and application to Australian acidic playa lakes as analogues for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, G. M.; Crowley, J. K.; Thomson, B. J.; Kargel, J. S.; Bridges, N. T.; Hook, S. J.; Baldridge, A.; Brown, A. J.; Ribeiro da Luz, B.; de Souza Filho, C. R.

    2009-06-01

    Recent Mars missions have stimulated considerable thinking about the surficial geochemical evolution of Mars. Among the major relevant findings are the presence in Meridiani Planum sediments of the mineral jarosite (a ferric sulfate salt) and related minerals that require formation from an acid-salt brine and oxidizing environment. Similar mineralogies have been observed in acidic saline lake sediments in Western Australia (WA), and these lakes have been proposed as analogues for acidic sedimentary environments on Mars. The prior version of the equilibrium chemical thermodynamic FREZCHEM model lacked Al and Si chemistries that are needed to appropriately model acidic aqueous geochemistries on Earth and Mars. The objectives of this work were to (1) add Al and Si chemistries to the FREZCHEM model, (2) extend these chemistries to low temperatures (enthalpy data. New aluminum and silicon parameterizations added 12 new aluminum/silicon minerals to this Na-K-Mg-Ca-Fe(II)-Fe(III)-Al-H-Cl-Br-SO 4-NO 3-OH-HCO 3-CO 3-CO 2-O 2-CH 4-Si-H 2O system that now contain 95 solid phases. There were similarities, differences, and uncertainties between Australian acidic, saline playa lakes and waters that likely led to the Burns formation salt accumulations on Mars. Both systems are similar in that they are dominated by (1) acidic, saline ground waters and sediments, (2) Ca and/or Mg sulfates, and (3) iron precipitates such as jarosite and hematite. Differences include: (1) the dominance of NaCl in many WA lakes, versus the dominance of Fe-Mg-Ca-SO 4 in Meridiani Planum, (2) excessively low K + concentrations in Meridiani Planum due to jarosite precipitation, (3) higher acid production in the presence of high iron concentrations in Meridiani Planum, and probably lower rates of acid neutralization and hence, higher acidities on Mars owing to colder temperatures, and (4) lateral salt patterns in WA lakes. The WA playa lakes display significant lateral variations in mineralogy and water

  9. Where on Earth can we find Mars? Characterization of an Aeolian Analogue in Northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favaro, E. A.; Hugenholtz, C.; Barchyn, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Puna Plateau of northwestern Argentina is as a promising analogue for Martian aeolian processes owing to its altitude, low atmospheric pressure, aridity, and widespread granular and bedrock aeolian features. The study was conducted in and surrounding the area known as the Campo de Piedra Pómez - a prominent expanse of wind-carved ignimbrite in Argentina's Catamarca Province. To interpret the evolution of this unique laboratory, which is limited by its isolated location and dearth of in situ measurements, we investigated contemporary aeolian sediment transport through a combination of modeled meteorological data, satellite imagery, field measurements, and sediment traps. Our objective is to utilize modeled meteorological data, satellite imagery, and field measurements and samples to characterize the aeolian environment here to base analogue studies. Satellite imagery from Terra MODIS, GeoEye, and Ikonos indicate recent large-scale aeolian sediment transport events and migration of gravel in the region. A prominent, region-wide sediment transport event on 14 August 2015 coincided with synoptic-scale pressure patterns indicating a strong Zonda (Foehn) winds. Sediment traps and marbles provide additional evidence of wind-driven transport of sand and gravel. Yet, despite the body of evidence for sediment transport on the Puna Plateau, modeled wind data from the European Center for Midrange Weather Forecasting suggest wind rarely attains the speeds necessary to initiate sediment transport. This disconnect is reminiscent of the Martian Saltation Paradox which suggested winds on Mars were incapable of mobilizing sediment, despite widespread evidence from rover, lander, and satellite observations. This raises questions about: (i) the suitability of modeled wind data for characterizing aeolian processes on both planets, and (ii) the possibility that most geomorphic work is conducted in extreme, but infrequent events in this region (possibly analogous to Mars). We

  10. Martian Feeling: An Analogue Study to Simulate a Round-Trip to Mars using the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, C. V.; Gini, A.

    When talking about human space exploration, Mars missions are always present. It is clear that sooner or later, humanity will take this adventure. Arguably the most important aspect to consider for the success of such an endeavour is the human element. The safety of the crew throughout a Martian mission is a top priority for all space agencies. Therefore, such a mission should not take place until all the risks have been fully understood and mitigated. A mission to Mars presents unique human and technological challenges in terms of isolation, confinement, autonomy, reliance on mission control, communication delays and adaptation to different gravity levels. Analogue environments provide the safest way to simulate these conditions, mitigate the risks and evaluate the effects of long-term space travel on the crew. Martian Feeling is one of nine analogue studies, from the Mars Analogue Path (MAP) report [1], proposed by the TP Analogue group of ISU Masters class 2010. It is an integrated analogue study which simulates the psychological, physiological and operational conditions that an international, six-person, mixed gender crew would experience on a mission to Mars. Set both onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and on Earth, the Martian Feeling study will perform a ``dress rehearsal'' of a mission to Mars. The study proposes to test both human performance and operational procedures in a cost-effective manner. Since Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is more accessible than other space-based locations, an analogue studies in LEO would provide the required level of realism to a simulated transit mission to Mars. The sustained presence of microgravity and other elements of true spaceflight are features of LEO that are neither currently feasible nor possible to study in terrestrial analogue sites. International collaboration, economics, legal and ethical issues were considered when the study was proposed. As an example of international collaboration, the ISS would

  11. Alteration of immature sedimentary rocks on Earth and Mars. Recording Aqueous and Surface-atmosphere Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, Kenneth M. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Mustard, John F. [Brown Univ., Providence, RI (United States); Salvatore, Mark R. [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2015-03-05

    The rock alteration and rind formation in analog environments like Antarctica may provide clues to rock alteration and therefore paleoclimates on Mars. Clastic sedimentary rocks derived from basaltic sources have been studied in situ by martian rovers and are likely abundant on the surface of Mars. Moreover, how such rock types undergo alteration when exposed to different environmental conditions is poorly understood compared with alteration of intact basaltic flows. Here we characterize alteration in the chemically immature Carapace Sandstone from Antarctica, a terrestrial analog for martian sedimentary rocks. We employ a variety of measurements similar to those used on previous and current Mars missions. Laboratory techniques included bulk chemistry, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), hyperspectral imaging and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Through these methods we find that primary basaltic material in the Carapace Sandstone is pervasively altered to hydrated clay minerals and palagonite as a result of water–rock interaction. A thick orange rind is forming in current Antarctic conditions, superimposing this previous aqueous alteration signature. The rind exhibits a higher reflectance at visible-near infrared wavelengths than the rock interior, with an enhanced ferric absorption edge likely due to an increase in Fe3+ of existing phases or the formation of minor iron (oxy)hydroxides. This alteration sequence in the Carapace Sandstone results from decreased water–rock interaction over time, and weathering in a cold, dry environment, mimicking a similar transition early in martian history. This transition may be recorded in sedimentary rocks on Mars through a similar superimposition mechanism, capturing past climate changes at the hand sample scale. These results also suggest that basalt-derived sediments could have sourced significant volumes of hydrated minerals on early Mars due to their greater permeability compared with intact igneous rocks.

  12. Analogue Simulation of human and psychosocial factors for MoonMars bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidová, Lucie; Foing, Bernard

    2017-04-01

    Several courageous plans regarding future human space exploration have been proposed. Both main future targets, ESA's Moon village, as well as journey to Mars represent huge challenge for humans. Appropriate research on psychological aspects of humans in extreme conditions is needed. Analogue simulations represent valuable source of information that help us to understand how to provide an adequate support to astronauts in specific conditions of isolation and limited resources. The psychosocial investigation was designed to builds on combination of several methods based on subjective as well as objective assessments, namely observation, sociomapping, content analysis of interviews etc. Research on several simulations provided lessons learned and various insights. The attention was paid particularly to the interpersonal interactions among crew members, intragroup as well as intergroup communication, cooperation, and performance. This comprehensive approach enables early detection of hidden structures and potential insufficiencies of an astronaut team. The sociomapping of interpersonal communication as well as analysis of interviews with participants revealed insufficiencies especially in communication between the analogue astronauts and mission control. Another important finding was gain by investigation of the relationship between the astronaut crew and mission control. Astronauts low trust to mission control can have a great negative impact to the performance and well-being of astronauts. The findings of the psychosocial studies are very important for designing astronaut training and planning future mission.

  13. Sedimentary processes of the Bagnold Dunes: Implications for the eolian rock record of Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Ewing, R. C.; Lapotre, M. G. A.; Lewis, K. W.; Day, M.; Stein, N.; Rubin, D. M.; Sullivan, R.; Banham, S.; Lamb, M. P.; Bridges, N. T.; Gupta, S.; Fischer, W. W.

    2017-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity visited two active wind-blown sand dunes within Gale crater, Mars, which provided the first ground-based opportunity to compare Martian and terrestrial eolian dune sedimentary processes and study a modern analog for the Martian eolian rock record. Orbital and rover images of these dunes reveal terrestrial-like and uniquely Martian processes. The presence of grainfall, grainflow, and impact ripples resembled terrestrial dunes. Impact ripples were pre...

  14. Sedimentary processes of the Bagnold Dunes: Implications for the eolian rock record of Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Ewing, R. C.; Lapotre, M. G. A.; Lewis, K. W.; Day, M.; Stein, N.; Rubin, D. M.; Sullivan, R.; Banham, S.; Lamb, M. P.; Bridges, N. T.; Gupta, S.; Fischer, W. W.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity visited two active wind‐blown sand dunes within Gale crater, Mars, which provided the first ground‐based opportunity to compare Martian and terrestrial eolian dune sedimentary processes and study a modern analog for the Martian eolian rock record. Orbital and rover images of these dunes reveal terrestrial‐like and uniquely Martian processes. The presence of grainfall, grainflow, and impact ripples resembled terrestrial dunes. Impact ripples...

  15. Variation of Geochemical Signatures and Correlation of Biomarkers in Icelandic Mars Analogue Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, D.; Amador, E. S.; Cable, M. L.; Cantrell, T.; Chaudry, N.; Cullen, T.; Duca, Z. A.; Jacobsen, M. B.; McCaig, H. C.; Murukesan, G.; Rennie, V.; Schwieterman, E. W.; Stevens, A. H.; Tan, G.; Yin, C.; Stockton, A.; Cullen, D.; Geppert, W.

    2015-12-01

    Exploration missions to Mars rely on rovers to perform deep analyses over small sampling areas; however, landing site selection is done using large-scale but low-resolution remote sensing data. Using Earth analogue environments to estimate the small-scale spatial and temporal distributions of key geochemical signatures and (for habitability studies) biomarkers helps ensure that the chosen sampling strategies meet mission science goals. We conducted two rounds of analogue expeditions to recent Icelandic lava fields. In July 2013, we tested correlation between three common biomarker assays: cell quantification via fluorescence microscopy, ATP quantification via bioluminescence, and quantitative PCR with universal primer sets. Sample sites were nested at four spatial scales (1 m, 10 m, 100 m, and > 1 km) and homogeneous at 'remote imaging' resolution (overall temperature, apparent moisture content, and regolith grain size). All spatial scales were highly diverse in ATP, bacterial 16S, and archaeal 16S DNA content; nearly half of sites were statistically different in ATP content at α = 0.05. Cell counts showed significant variation at the 10 m and 100 m scale; at the > 1 km scale, the mean counts were not distinguishable, but the median counts were, indicating differences in underlying distribution. Fungal 18S DNA content similarly varied at 1 m, 10 m, and 100 m scales only. Cell counts were not correlated with ATP or DNA content at any scale. ATP concentration and DNA content for all three primer sets were positively correlated. Bacterial DNA content was positively correlated with archaeal and fungal DNA content, though archaeal correlation was weak. Fungal and archaeal correlation was borderline. In July 2015, we repeated the sampling strategy, with the addition of a smaller-scale sampling grid of 10 cm and a third > 1 km location. This expedition also measured reflectance of the tephra cover and preserved mineral samples for future Raman spectroscopy in order to

  16. Field Exploration and Life Detection Sampling for Planetary Analogue Research (FELDSPAR): Variability and Correlation in Biomarker and Mineralogy Measurements from Icelandic Mars Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, D.; Amador, E.; Cable, M. L.; Cantrell, T.; Chaudry, N.; Cullen, T.; Duca, Z.; Jacobsen, M.; Kirby, J.; McCaig, H.; hide

    2018-01-01

    In situ exploration of planetary environments allows biochemical analysis of sub-centimeter-scale samples; however, landing sites are selected a priori based on measurable meter- to kilometer-scale geological features. Optimizing life detection mission science return requires both understanding the expected biomarker distributions across sample sites at different scales and efficiently using first-stage in situ geochemical instruments to justify later-stage biological or chemical analysis. Icelandic volcanic regions have an extensive history as Mars analogue sites due to desiccation, low nutrient availability, and temperature extremes, in addition to the advantages of geological youth and isolation from anthropogenic contamination. Many Icelandic analogue sites are also rugged and remote enough to create the same type of instrumentation and sampling constraints typically faced by robotic exploration.

  17. Classification and Distribution of Mars Pathfinder Rocks Using Quantitative Morphologic Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R. A.; Biederman, K. L.; Monhead, A. M.; Haldemann, A. F. C.; Kowalczyk, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder (MPF) landing site was predicted to contain a broad sampling of rock types varying in mineralogical, physical, mechanical and geochemical characteristics. Although rocks have been divided into several spectral categories based on Imager for Mars Pathfinder visible/near-infrared spectra, it has not been fully determined which of these stem from intrinsic mineralogical differences between rocks or rock surfaces, and which result from factors such as physical or chemical weathering. This has made isolation of unique mineralogy's difficult. Efforts in isolating and classifying spectral units among MPF rocks and soils have met with varying degrees of success, and the current understanding is such that many factors influencing spectral signatures cannot be quantified to a sufficient level so they may be removed. The result is that fundamental questions regarding information needed to reveal the present and past interactions between the rocks and rock surfaces and the Martian environment remain unanswered. But it is possible to approach the issue of identifying distinct rock and rock surface types from a different angle.

  18. U/Th-isotopes as natural analogues for the mobility of actinides in granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengel, K.; Gerdes, A.

    2001-01-01

    The short-lived decay products of 238 U ( 234 U and 230 Th) can be used as natural analogues for actinides in a hard rock repository. Their mobility in the past may serve as a key for understanding actinide migration in the future. For generally old calcites of the HRL Aespoethe age of disturbance of 238 U/ 234 U and 234 U/ 230 Th activity ratios ranges from 30 000 to 436 000 years at degrees of disturbance ranging from 0.5 to 6.7. The results obtained imply that during the past 440 000 years U was mobile throughout the tunnel sections of the HRL Aespoeinvestigated here. For the FL Grimsel, the disequilibrium states of the 234 U/ 238 U and 230 Th/ 234 U activity ratios in fracture minerals (calcites silicates) also imply that the reactions causing isotopic disturbances have occurred within the past 500 000 years. The U/Th-isotope data of both the samples from the HRL Aespoeand the FL Grimsel have in common the mobilization of U in secondary fracture minerals by migrating solutions within the past 500 000 years. As for the question of a final disposal of radioactive waste in granite host rocks, the transport of U - and thus of similarly behaving actinides - in migrating underground solutions can therefore not be ruled out, if suitable hydraulic systems are considered. (orig.)

  19. Photometric Observations of Soils and Rocks at the Mars Exploration Rover Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Arvidson, R. A.; Bell, J. F., III; Farrand, W.; Guinness, E.; Johnson, M.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Lemmon, M.; Morris, R. V.; Seelos, F., IV

    2005-01-01

    The Panoramic Cameras (Pancam) on the Spirit and Opportunity Mars Exploration Rovers have acquired multispectral reflectance observations of rocks and soils at different incidence, emission, and phase angles that will be used for photometric modeling of surface materials. Phase angle coverage at both sites extends from approx. 0 deg. to approx. 155 deg.

  20. Elemental geochemistry of sedimentary rocks at Yellowknife Bay, Gale crater, Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLennan, S.M.; Anderson, R.B.; Bell III, J.F.; Bridges, J.C.; Calef III, F.; Campbell, J.L.; Clark, B.C.; Clegg, S.; Conrad, P.; Cousin, A.; Des Marais, D.J.; Dromart, G.; Dyar, M.D.; Edgar, L.A.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Fabre, C.; Forni, O.; Gasnault, O.; Gellert, R.; Gordon, S.; Grant, J.A.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Gupta, S.; Herkenhoff, K.E.; Hurowitz, J.A.; King, P.L.; Mouélic, S.L.; Leshin, L.A.; Léveillé, R.; Lewis, K.W.; Mangold, N.; Maurice, S.; Ming, D.W.; Morris, R.V.; Nachon, M.; Newsom, H.E.; Ollila, A.M.; Perrett, G.M.; Rice, M.S.; Schmidt, M.E.; Schwenzer, S.P.; Stack, K.; Stolper, E.M.; Sumner, D.Y.; Treiman, A.H.; VanBommel, S.; Vaniman, D.T.; Vasavada, A.; Wiens, R.C.; Yingst, R.A.; ten Kate, Inge Loes|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/292012217

    2014-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks examined by the Curiosity rover at Yellowknife Bay, Mars, were derived from sources that evolved from an approximately average martian crustal composition to one influenced by alkaline basalts. No evidence of chemical weathering is preserved, indicating arid, possibly cold,

  1. Rock Abrasion and Ventifact Formation on Mars from Field Analog, Theoretical, and Experimental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, N. T.; Laity, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    Rocks observed by the Viking Landers and Pathfinder Lander/Sojourner rover exhibit a suite of perplexing rock textures. Among these are pits, spongy textures, penetrative flutes, lineaments, crusts, and knobs Fluvial, impact, chemical alteration, and aeolian mechanisms have been proposed for many of these. In an effort to better understand the origin and characteristics of Martian rock textures, abraded rocks in the Mojave Desert and other regions have been studied. We find that most Martian rock textures, as opposed to just a few, bear close resemblance to terrestrial aeolian textures and can most easily be explained by wind, not other, processes. Flutes, grooves, and some pits on Mars are consistent with abrasion by saltating particles, as described previously. However, many other rock textures probably also have an aeolian origin. Sills at the base of rocks that generally lie at high elevations, such as Half Dome, are consistent with such features on Earth that are related to moats or soil ramps that shield the basal part of the rock from erosion. Crusts consisting of fluted fabrics, such as those on Stimpy and Chimp, are similar to fluted crusts on Earth that spall off over time. Knobby and lineated rocks are similar to terrestrial examples of heterogeneous rocks that differentially erode. The location of specific rock textures on Mars also gives insight into their origin. Many of the most diagnostic ventifacts found at the Pathfinder site are located on rocks that lie near the crests or the upper slopes of ridges. On Earth, the most active ventifact formation occurs on sloped or elevated topography, where windflow is accelerated and particle kinetic energy and flux are increased. Integrated 0 together, these observations point to significant aeolian 0 modification of rocks on Mars and cast doubt on whether many primary textures resulting from other processes are preserved. Experimental simulations of abrasion in the presence of abundant sand indicate that

  2. Characterization of Rock Types at Meridiani Planum, Mars using MER 13-Filter Pancam Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuding, D. L.; Cohen, B. A.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has traversed more than 13 km across Meridiani Planum, finding evidence of ancient aqueous environments that, in the past, may have been suitable for life. Meridiani bedrock along the rover traverse is a mixture in composition and bulk mineralogy between a sulfate-rich sedimentary rock and hematite spherules ("blueberries"). On top of the bedrock, numerous loose rocks exist. These rocks consist of both local bedrock and "cobbles" of foreign origin. The cobbles provide a window into lithologic diversity and a chance to understand other types of martian rocks and meteorites. This study was also an attempt to establish a method to expand upon those of Mini-TES to remotely identify rocks of interest to make efficient use of the rover s current resources.

  3. Elemental Geochemistry of Sedimentary Rocks at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, S. M.; Anderson, R. B.; Bell, J. F.; Bridges, J. C.; Calef, F.; Campbell, J. L.; Clark, B. C.; Clegg, S.; Conrad, P.; Cousin, A.; Des Marais, D. J.; Dromart, G.; Dyar, M. D.; Edgar, L. A.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Fabre, C.; Forni, O.; Gasnault, O.; Gellert, R.; Gordon, S.; Grant, J. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Gupta, S.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Hurowitz, J. A.; King, P. L.; Le Mouélic, S.; Leshin, L. A.; Léveillé, R.; Lewis, K. W.; Mangold, N.; Maurice, S.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Nachon, M.; Newsom, H. E.; Ollila, A. M.; Perrett, G. M.; Rice, M. S.; Schmidt, M. E.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Stack, K.; Stolper, E. M.; Sumner, D. Y.; Treiman, A. H.; VanBommel, S.; Vaniman, D. T.; Vasavada, A.; Wiens, R. C.; Yingst, R. A.; Kemppinen, Osku; Bridges, Nathan; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Minitti, Michelle; Cremers, David; Farmer, Jack; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; Blank, Jennifer; Weigle, Gerald; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Farley, Kenneth; Griffes, Jennifer; Miller, Hayden; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Siebach, Kirsten; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Marchand, Geneviève; Sánchez, Pablo Sobrón; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Steele, Andrew; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Rodríguez, Javier Caride; Blázquez, Isaías Carrasco; Gómez, Felipe Gómez; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Hettrich, Sebastian; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Jiménez, Mercedes Marín; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Jurado, Antonio Molina; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Caro, Guillermo Muñoz; López, Sara Navarro; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pla-García, Jorge; Manfredi, José Antonio Rodriguez; Romeral-Planelló, Julio José; Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans; Martinez, Eduardo Sebastian; Redondo, Josefina Torres; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Mier, María-Paz Zorzano; Chipera, Steve; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Mauchien, Patrick; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Manning, Heidi; Fairén, Alberto; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Squyres, Steven; Sullivan, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; DeMarines, Julia; Grinspoon, David; Reitz, Günther; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Kemppinen, Osku; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Wray, James; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Bish, David; Schieber, Juergen; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Berger, Gilles; Cros, Alain; d'Uston, Claude; Lasue, Jérémie; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Pinet, Patrick; Schröder, Susanne; Toplis, Mike; Lewin, Éric; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Sutter, Brad; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Israël, Guy; Szopa, Cyril; Robert, François; Sautter, Violaine; Buch, Arnaud; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; François, Pascaline; Raulin, François; Teinturier, Samuel; Cameron, James; DeLapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Lanza, Nina; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Edgett, Kenneth; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; Malin, Michael; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Fassett, Caleb; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William; Choi, David; Dworkin, Jason P.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Floyd, Melissa; Freissinet, Caroline; Garvin, James; Glavin, Daniel; Harpold, Daniel; Jones, Andrea; Mahaffy, Paul; Martin, David K.; McAdam, Amy; Pavlov, Alexander; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Stern, Jennifer; Tan, Florence; Trainer, Melissa; Meyer, Michael; Posner, Arik; Voytek, Mary; Anderson, Robert C.; Aubrey, Andrew; Beegle, Luther W.; Behar, Alberto; Blaney, Diana; Brinza, David; Christensen, Lance; Crisp, Joy A.; DeFlores, Lauren; Ehlmann, Bethany; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Flesch, Gregory; Jun, Insoo; Keymeulen, Didier; Maki, Justin; Mischna, Michael; Morookian, John Michael; Parker, Timothy; Pavri, Betina; Schoppers, Marcel; Sengstacken, Aaron; Simmonds, John J.; Spanovich, Nicole; Juarez, Manuel de la Torre; Webster, Christopher R.; Yen, Albert; Archer, Paul Douglas; Cucinotta, Francis; Jones, John H.; Niles, Paul; Rampe, Elizabeth; Nolan, Thomas; Fisk, Martin; Radziemski, Leon; Barraclough, Bruce; Bender, Steve; Berman, Daniel; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Tokar, Robert; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Cleghorn, Timothy; Huntress, Wesley; Manhès, Gérard; Hudgins, Judy; Olson, Timothy; Stewart, Noel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Vicenzi, Edward; Wilson, Sharon A.; Bullock, Mark; Ehresmann, Bent; Hamilton, Victoria; Hassler, Donald; Peterson, Joseph; Rafkin, Scot; Zeitlin, Cary; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Prokhorov, Vasily; Sanin, Anton; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Wolff, Michael; Botta, Oliver; Drake, Darrell; Bean, Keri; Lemmon, Mark; Lee, Ella Mae; Sucharski, Robert; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Ávalos, Juan José Blanco; Ramos, Miguel; Kim, Myung-Hee; Malespin, Charles; Plante, Ianik; Muller, Jan-Peter; Navarro-González, Rafael; Ewing, Ryan; Boynton, William; Downs, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Harshman, Karl; Morrison, Shaunna; Dietrich, William; Kortmann, Onno; Palucis, Marisa; Williams, Amy; Lugmair, Günter; Wilson, Michael A.; Rubin, David; Jakosky, Bruce; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Frydenvang, Jens; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Kinch, Kjartan; Koefoed, Asmus; Madsen, Morten Bo; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Boyd, Nick; Pradler, Irina; Jacob, Samantha; Owen, Tobias; Rowland, Scott; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Savijärvi, Hannu; Boehm, Eckart; Böttcher, Stephan; Burmeister, Sönke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; García, César Martín; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; McConnochie, Timothy; Benna, Mehdi; Franz, Heather; Bower, Hannah; Brunner, Anna; Blau, Hannah; Boucher, Thomas; Carmosino, Marco; Atreya, Sushil; Elliott, Harvey; Halleaux, Douglas; Rennó, Nilton; Wong, Michael; Pepin, Robert; Elliott, Beverley; Spray, John; Thompson, Lucy; Williams, Joshua; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Bentz, Jennifer; Nealson, Kenneth; Popa, Radu; Kah, Linda C.; Moersch, Jeffrey; Tate, Christopher; Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary; Hallet, Bernard; Sletten, Ronald; Francis, Raymond; McCullough, Emily; Cloutis, Ed; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Arvidson, Raymond; Fraeman, Abigail; Scholes, Daniel; Slavney, Susan; Stein, Thomas; Ward, Jennifer; Berger, Jeffrey; Moores, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks examined by the Curiosity rover at Yellowknife Bay, Mars, were derived from sources that evolved from an approximately average martian crustal composition to one influenced by alkaline basalts. No evidence of chemical weathering is preserved, indicating arid, possibly cold, paleoclimates and rapid erosion and deposition. The absence of predicted geochemical variations indicates that magnetite and phyllosilicates formed by diagenesis under low-temperature, circumneutral pH, rock-dominated aqueous conditions. Analyses of diagenetic features (including concretions, raised ridges, and fractures) at high spatial resolution indicate that they are composed of iron- and halogen-rich components, magnesium-iron-chlorine-rich components, and hydrated calcium sulfates, respectively. Composition of a cross-cutting dike-like feature is consistent with sedimentary intrusion. The geochemistry of these sedimentary rocks provides further evidence for diverse depositional and diagenetic sedimentary environments during the early history of Mars.

  4. Elemental geochemistry of sedimentary rocks at Yellowknife Bay, Gale crater, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, S M; Anderson, R B; Bell, J F; Bridges, J C; Calef, F; Campbell, J L; Clark, B C; Clegg, S; Conrad, P; Cousin, A; Des Marais, D J; Dromart, G; Dyar, M D; Edgar, L A; Ehlmann, B L; Fabre, C; Forni, O; Gasnault, O; Gellert, R; Gordon, S; Grant, J A; Grotzinger, J P; Gupta, S; Herkenhoff, K E; Hurowitz, J A; King, P L; Le Mouélic, S; Leshin, L A; Léveillé, R; Lewis, K W; Mangold, N; Maurice, S; Ming, D W; Morris, R V; Nachon, M; Newsom, H E; Ollila, A M; Perrett, G M; Rice, M S; Schmidt, M E; Schwenzer, S P; Stack, K; Stolper, E M; Sumner, D Y; Treiman, A H; VanBommel, S; Vaniman, D T; Vasavada, A; Wiens, R C; Yingst, R A

    2014-01-24

    Sedimentary rocks examined by the Curiosity rover at Yellowknife Bay, Mars, were derived from sources that evolved from an approximately average martian crustal composition to one influenced by alkaline basalts. No evidence of chemical weathering is preserved, indicating arid, possibly cold, paleoclimates and rapid erosion and deposition. The absence of predicted geochemical variations indicates that magnetite and phyllosilicates formed by diagenesis under low-temperature, circumneutral pH, rock-dominated aqueous conditions. Analyses of diagenetic features (including concretions, raised ridges, and fractures) at high spatial resolution indicate that they are composed of iron- and halogen-rich components, magnesium-iron-chlorine-rich components, and hydrated calcium sulfates, respectively. Composition of a cross-cutting dike-like feature is consistent with sedimentary intrusion. The geochemistry of these sedimentary rocks provides further evidence for diverse depositional and diagenetic sedimentary environments during the early history of Mars.

  5. Mineralogical, chemical, organic and microbial properties of subsurface soil cores from Mars Desert Research Station (Utah, USA): Phyllosilicate and sulfate analogues to Mars mission landing sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Clarke, Jonathan; Direito, Susana O. L.; Blake, David; Martin, Kevin R.; Zavaleta, Jhony; Foing, Bernard

    2011-07-01

    We collected and analysed soil cores from four geologic units surrounding Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) Utah, USA, including Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison formation (Brushy Basin member) and Summerville formation. The area is an important geochemical and morphological analogue to terrains on Mars. Soils were analysed for mineralogy by a Terra X-ray diffractometer (XRD), a field version of the CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission (2012 landing). Soluble ion chemistry, total organic content and identity and distribution of microbial populations were also determined. The Terra data reveal that Mancos and Morrison soils are rich in phyllosilicates similar to those observed on Mars from orbital measurements (montmorillonite, nontronite and illite). Evaporite minerals observed include gypsum, thenardite, polyhalite and calcite. Soil chemical analysis shows sulfate the dominant anion in all soils and SO4>>CO3, as on Mars. The cation pattern Na>Ca>Mg is seen in all soils except for the Summerville where Ca>Na. In all soils, SO4 correlates with Na, suggesting sodium sulfates are the dominant phase. Oxidizable organics are low in all soils and range from a high of 0.7% in the Mancos samples to undetectable at a detection limit of 0.1% in the Morrison soils. Minerals rich in chromium and vanadium were identified in Morrison soils that result from diagenetic replacement of organic compounds. Depositional environment, geologic history and mineralogy all affect the ability to preserve and detect organic compounds. Subsurface biosphere populations were revealed to contain organisms from all three domains (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya) with cell density between 3.0×106 and 1.8×107 cells ml-1 at the deepest depth. These measurements are analogous to data that could be obtained on future robotic or human Mars missions and results are relevant to the MSL mission that will investigate phyllosilicates on Mars.

  6. Mars analogue alluvial fans along the Hilina Pali fault system, Island of Hawaíi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, A. M.; Craddock, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    Alluvial fans across the martian surface act as a testament to the planet's wetter past, but the magnitude and duration of runoff events and their formative environment remain poorly constrained. Here we describe the geomorphology and interpreted formative sedimentary processes of a series of coarse grained alluvial fans along the Hilina Pali fault system at the south end of the Island of Hawaíi. The Hilina Pali is a 500m fault scarp similar in slope to the interior of a crater rim, the preferential location for fan formation on Mars. Channels feeding the fans drain the Káū Desert on the leeward side of the Kilauea volcano. These channels take advantage of lava tubes and depressions in lava flows, and subsequent lava flows preferentially flow within channels. This creates a complicated stratigraphy that is difficult to interpret solely from remote sensing data. From measured channel cross sections and woody debris we calculate feeder channel discharges of 1.6-11.4 m3/s, implying runoff production rates of up to 4cm/hour. This value is in the range of rainfall that can be delivered during large cold core winter cyclones, locally known as `Kona storms', which can generate precipitation in excess of 1m/24h. While fluid is sourced from a broad area throughout the southern Káū Desert, interpolation-derived volumes of the fans and eroded alcoves above the fans suggest that fan sediment primarily is sourced directly from edge of the pali itself. We find that similar to fans on Mars, the Hilina Pali fans are relatively large relative to their contributing basin areas. However, the Hawaiian fans vary widely in their individual relations between area, slope, and grain size. We hypothesize this is due to variations in fine grained sediment supply. The fines required for increased suspension during debris flows are sourced from sand dunes and sand sheets consisting of volcanic tephra located several hundred meters north of the pali, and these dunes are unevenly

  7. Bacterial Presence in Layered Rock Varnish-Possible Mars Analog?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinsley, D.; Rusk, B. G.

    2000-08-01

    Rock varnish from locations in Death Valley, California; Peru; Antarctica; and Hawaii reveal nanometer scale layering (less than 1 nm to about 75 nm) when studied with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Parallel layers of clay minerals containing evidence of presumed bacteria were present in all samples. Samples range in age from a few thousand years to perhaps a million years. Diagenesis is relatively limited, as chemical composition is variable, both from top to bottom and along layers in these varnish samples. Also, occasional exotic minerals occur randomly in most varnish sections, and vary in size and hardness, again suggesting relative lack of diagenetic alteration. Additional information can be found in the original extended abstract.

  8. Hydrothermal alterations as natural analogues of radionuclide migration in granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piantone, P.

    1989-01-01

    The document is the final report of the project Hydrothermal alteration systems as analogues of nuclear waste repositories in granitic rocks which was the subject of contract n 0 F1 1 W/0072-F (CD) performed at shared cost between the Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique and the Commission of the European Communities as part of the MIRAGE programme. This study is the continuation of a preliminary study made by BRGM in 1986 and which concerned the same programme. The data given in this report were obtained from the study of the infilling and hydrothermalized walls of a mineralized vein located at Fombillou, Lot Department, in the French Massif Central. A satisfactory model of the processes generated by hydrothermal alteration then by climatic weathering such as formation of new minerals, flow of elements and variations in volume, was thus built. The mobility of elements displaying physical and chemical properties similar to those of radionuclides present in high-level radioactive waste was studied. A preliminary thermodynamic simulation of mineral transformations and transfers of matter during hydrothermal alteration was performed using the calculation code CEQCSY (Chemical EQuilibrium in Complex SYstem). This simulation is based on the values of the main physical and chemical parameters deduced from the analysis of the natural system. On the basis of the results obtained from Fombillou, an appraisal was made of the response of the granitic environment which has been disturbed by a hydrothermal system produced by heat emitted by the storage of high-level radio-active waste as well as its potential capacities of retention in case of possible leakage

  9. Field astrobiology research instruments and methods in moon-mars analogue site.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foing, B.H.; Stoker, C.; Zavaleta, J.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D.; Page, J.; Pletser, V.; Hendrikse, J.; Oliveira Lebre Direito, M.S.; Kotler, M.; Martins, Z.; Orzechowska, G.; Thiel, C.S.; Clarke, J.; Gross, J.; Wendt, L.; Borst, A.; Peters, S.; Wilhelm, M.-B.; Davies, G.R.; EuroGeoMars 2009 Team, ILEWG

    2011-01-01

    We describe the field demonstration of astrobiology instruments and research methods conducted in and from the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) in Utah during the EuroGeoMars campaign 2009 coordinated by ILEWG, ESA/ESTEC and NASA Ames, with the contribution of academic partners. We discuss the

  10. The potassic sedimentary rocks in Gale Crater, Mars, as seen by ChemCam Onboard Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Deit, Laetitia; Mangold, Nicolas; Forni, Olivier; Cousin, Agnes; Lasue, Jeremie; Schröder, Susanne; Wiens, Roger C.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Fabre, Cecile; Stack, Katherine M.; Anderson, Ryan; Blaney, Diana L.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Dromart, Gilles; Fisk, Martin; Gasnault, Olivier; Grotzinger, John P.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Lanza, Nina; Le Mouélic, Stephane; Maurice, Sylvestre; McLennan, Scott M.; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Nachon, Marion; Newsom, Horton E.; Payre, Valerie; Rapin, William; Rice, Melissa; Sautter, Violaine; Treiman, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity encountered potassium-rich clastic sedimentary rocks at two sites in Gale Crater, the waypoints Cooperstown and Kimberley. These rocks include several distinct meters thick sedimentary outcrops ranging from fine sandstone to conglomerate, interpreted to record an ancient fluvial or fluvio-deltaic depositional system. From ChemCam Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) chemical analyses, this suite of sedimentary rocks has an overall mean K2O abundance that is more than 5 times higher than that of the average Martian crust. The combined analysis of ChemCam data with stratigraphic and geographic locations reveals that the mean K2O abundance increases upward through the stratigraphic section. Chemical analyses across each unit can be represented as mixtures of several distinct chemical components, i.e., mineral phases, including K-bearing minerals, mafic silicates, Fe-oxides, and Fe-hydroxide/oxyhydroxides. Possible K-bearing minerals include alkali feldspar (including anorthoclase and sanidine) and K-bearing phyllosilicate such as illite. Mixtures of different source rocks, including a potassium-rich rock located on the rim and walls of Gale Crater, are the likely origin of observed chemical variations within each unit. Physical sorting may have also played a role in the enrichment in K in the Kimberley formation. The occurrence of these potassic sedimentary rocks provides additional evidence for the chemical diversity of the crust exposed at Gale Crater.

  11. Potential Cement Phases in Sedimentary Rocks Drilled by Curiosity at Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Morris, R. V.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Ming, D. W.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Bristow, T. F.; Cavanagh, P.; Farmer, J. D.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity has encountered a variety of sedimentary rocks in Gale crater with different grain sizes, diagenetic features, sedimentary structures, and varying degrees of resistance to erosion. Curiosity has drilled three rocks to date and has analyzed the mineralogy, chemical composition, and textures of the samples with the science payload. The drilled rocks are the Sheepbed mudstone at Yellowknife Bay on the plains of Gale crater (John Klein and Cumberland targets), the Dillinger sandstone at the Kimberley on the plains of Gale crater (Windjana target), and a sedimentary unit in the Pahrump Hills in the lowermost rocks at the base of Mt. Sharp (Confidence Hills target). CheMin is the Xray diffractometer on Curiosity, and its data are used to identify and determine the abundance of mineral phases. Secondary phases can tell us about aqueous alteration processes and, thus, can help to elucidate past aqueous environments. Here, we present the secondary mineralogy of the rocks drilled to date as seen by CheMin and discuss past aqueous environments in Gale crater, the potential cementing agents in each rock, and how amorphous materials may play a role in cementing the sediments.

  12. Astrobiological Field Campaign to a Volcanosedimentary Mars Analogue Methane Producing Subsurface Protected Ecosystem: Imuruk Lake (Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gómez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Viking missions reported adverse conditions for life in Mars surface. High hydrogen signal obtained by Mars orbiters has increased the interest in subsurface prospection as putative protected Mars environment with life potential. Permafrost has attracted considerable interest from an astrobiological point of view due to the recently reported results from the Mars exploration rovers. Considerable studies have been developed on extreme ecosystems and permafrost in particular, to evaluate the possibility of life on Mars and to test specific automated life detection instruments for space missions. The biodiversity of permafrost located on the Bering Land Bridge National Preserve has been studied as an example of subsurface protected niche of astrobiological interest. Different conventional (enrichment and isolation and molecular ecology techniques (cloning, fluorescence “in situ” probe hybridization, FISH have been used for isolation and bacterial identification.

  13. Experimental Acid Weathering of Fe-Bearing Mars Analog Minerals and Rocks: Implications for Aqueous Origin of Hematite-Bearing Sediments in Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, D. C.; Koster, A. M.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Mertzman, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    A working hypothesis for Meridiani evaporite formation involves the evaporation of fluids derived from acid weathering of Martian basalts and subsequent diagenesis [1, 2]. However, there are no reported experimental studies for the formation of jarosite and gray hematite (spherules), which are characteristic of Meridiani rocks from Mars analog precursor minerals. A terrestrial analog for hematite spherule formation from basaltic rocks under acidic hydrothermal conditions has been reported [3], and we have previously shown that the hematite spherules and jarosite can be synthetically produced in the laboratory using Fe3+ -bearing sulfate brines under hydrothermal conditions [4]. Here we expand and extend these studies by reacting Mars analog minerals with sulfuric acid to form Meridiani-like rock-mineral compositions. The objective of this study is to provide environmental constraints on past aqueous weathering of basaltic materials on Mars.

  14. Characterization of the acidic cold seep emplaced jarositic Golden Deposit, NWT, Canada, as an analogue for jarosite deposition on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battler, Melissa M.; Osinski, Gordon R.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Davila, Alfonso F.; Michel, Frederick A.; Craig, Michael A.; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Leoni, Lisa; Slater, Gregory F.; Fairén, Alberto G.; Preston, Louisa J.; Banerjee, Neil R.

    2013-06-01

    deposits on Mars. Most terrestrial analogues for Mars jarosites have been identified in temperate environments, where evaporation rates are very high and jarosites form along with other sulfates due to rapid evaporation (e.g. Rio Tinto, Spain; Western Australian acidic saline lake deposits). The GD is a rare example of an analogue site where jarosite precipitates under dominant freezing processes similar to those which could have prevailed on early Mars. Thus, the GD offers a new perspective on jarosite deposition by the upwelling of acidic waters through permafrost at Meridiani Planum and Mawrth Vallis, Mars. The GD also demonstrates that martian deposits may show considerably more chemical and mineral variability than indicated by the current remote sensing data sets.

  15. Astrobiology in the Field: Studying Mars by Analogue Expeditions on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela G.

    2011-01-01

    We will present a strategy for how one prepares to engage in fieldwork on another planets by practicing in analogous environments on the Earth, including at Mono Lake. As an example, we will address the problem of how to study the habitability of an environment when you have no idea what kind of life might be there to exploit it. This will all be related to the upcoming launch of the Mars Science Laboratory to Mars in late November this year.

  16. Volatile and siderophile trace elements in anorthositic rocks from Fiskenaesset, West Greenland: comparison with lunar and meteoritic analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.W.; Ganapathy, R.; Higuchi, H.; Kraehenbuehl, U.

    1976-01-01

    Seventeen trace elements (Ag, Au, Bi, Br, Cd, Cs, Ge, Ir, Ni, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, U, Zn) were analysed by radiochemical neutron activation and 13 other elements (Ce, Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Na, Sc, Sm, Tb, Yb) by instrumental neutron activation in a total of 12 rocks from the layered anorthositic complex at Fiskenaesset, West Greenland, and in the plagioclase-rich unbrecciated eucrite, Serra de Mage. The results are discussed and compared with lunar and meteoritic analogues. (author)

  17. Basic investigation and analysis for preferred host rocks and natural analogue study area with reference to high level radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Ryul; Park, J. K.; Hwang, D. H.; Lee, J. H.; Yun, H. S.; Kim, D. Y.; Park, H. S.; Koo, S. B.; Cho, J. D.; Kim, K. E. [Korea Inst. of Geology, Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this study is basic investigation and analysis for preferred host rocks and natural analogue study area to develope underground disposal technique of high level radioactive waste in future. The study has been done for the crystalline rocks(especially granitic rocks) with emphasis of abandoned metallic mines and uranium ore deposits, and for the geological structure study by using gravity and aeromagnetic data. 138 refs., 54 tabs., 130 figs. (author)

  18. Investigating Natural Analogues for Co{sub 2} Sequestration in Ultra Mafic Rocks: A Reactive Transport Modelling Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gherardi, F. [Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pisa (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    Serpentinites of Ligurian ophiolites are studied as natural analogues for CO{sub 2} mineral sequestration in Italy. Mineralogical and geochemical observations indicate that silicification and carbonation are typical alteration processes induced by the interaction of CO{sub 2} charged fluids with pristine ultramafic rocks. Multicomponent reactive transport models have been applied to reproduce natural patterns and investigate carbon sequestration efficiency under high P{sub CO2} conditions. Temporal changes in porosity and permeability are predicted to affect the spatial and temporal occurrence of secondary minerals. The feedback between mineralogical transformations and transport properties of the geological media emerges as a key factor controlling the mineral carbonation potential of the investigated ultramafic rocks. (author)

  19. Natural analogue and microstructural studies in relation to radionuclide retardation by rock matrix diffusion in granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoto, M.; Rodriguez Rey, A.; Ruiz de Argandona, V.G.; Calleja, L.; Menendez, B.

    1992-01-01

    The possibility that radionuclide retardation by rock matrix diffusion will be limited in granitic rocks by geological factors is studied, as well as the possibility that diffusion will be confined to a narrow zone from water-conducting fractures. Petrophysical measurements, uranium series and geochemical analyses in the rock adjacent to fractures, have been performed to establish the extent of fracture-related microstructural changes that might influence the potential for diffusion and whether or not there is any record of diffusion of uranium, its daughters, or other elements. The results obtained from El Berrocal (Spain), Stripa (Sweden) and White-shell (Canada) granites, suggest that: (a) there is a zone adjacent to the fractures (generally less than 100 mm) where microstructural changes and enhanced uranium mobility exist; (b) the evidence for diffusion having taken place in the rock is confined largely to this zone. So, it appears that diffusivity determinations on rock collected away from the influence of fractures will not give representative data for diffusion modelling, in addition to the effect of distressing after removing rocks from depth. It is suggested that diffusion will be of limited effectiveness as a retardation mechanism in many granitic rocks, particularly in water movement confined to narrow channels where access by nuclides to the fracture walls is restricted. 51 refs., 56 figs., 9 tabs., 9 appendices

  20. Analysis of Mars Analogue Soil Samples Using Solid-Phase Microextraction, Organic Solvent Extraction and Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzechowska, G. E.; Kidd, R. D.; Foing, B. H.; Kanik, I.; Stoker, C.; Ehrenfreund, P.

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are robust and abundant molecules in extraterrestrial environments. They are found ubiquitously in the interstellar medium and have been identified in extracts of meteorites collected on Earth. PAHs are important target molecules for planetary exploration missions that investigate the organic inventory of planets, moons and small bodies. This study is part of an interdisciplinary preparation phase to search for organic molecules and life on Mars. We have investigated PAH compounds in desert soils to determine their composition, distribution and stability. Soil samples (Mars analogue soils) were collected at desert areas of Utah in the vicinity of the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), in the Arequipa region in Peru and from the Jutland region of Denmark. The aim of this study was to optimize the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method for fast screening and determination of PAHs in soil samples. This method minimizes sample handling and preserves the chemical integrity of the sample. Complementary liquid extraction was used to obtain information on five- and six-ring PAH compounds. The measured concentrations of PAHs are, in general, very low, ranging from 1 to 60 ng g(sup -1). The texture of soils is mostly sandy loam with few samples being 100% silt. Collected soils are moderately basic with pH values of 8-9 except for the Salten Skov soil, which is slightly acidic. Although the diverse and variable microbial populations of the samples at the sample sites might have affected the levels and variety of PAHs detected, SPME appears to be a rapid, viable field sampling technique with implications for use on planetary missions.

  1. Mars analogue glaciovolcanic hydrothermal environments in Iceland : detection and implications for astrobiology

    OpenAIRE

    Cousins, Claire Rachel; Crawford, Ian; Carrivick, Jonathan; Gunn, Matthew; Harris, Jennifer; Kee, Terence; Karlsson, Magnus; Carmody, Laura; Cockell, Charles; Herschy, Barry; Joy, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This work was funded by the Leverhulme Trust, and the Science and Technology Facility Council. Volcanism has been a dominant process on Mars, along with a pervasive global cryosphere. Therefore, the interaction between these two is considered likely. Terrestrial glaciovolcanism produces distinctive lithologies and alteration terrains, as well as hydrothermal environments that can be inhabited by microorganisms. Here, we provide a framework for identifying evidence of such glaciovolcanic en...

  2. Mechanical Aqueous Alteration Dominates Textures of Gale Crater Rocks: Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aileen Yingst, R.; Minitti, Michelle; Edgett, Kenneth; McBride, Marie; Stack, Kathryn

    2015-04-01

    The Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) acquired sub-mm/pixel scale color images of over 70 individual rocks and outcrops during Curiosity's first year on Mars, permitting the study of textures down to the distinction between silt and very fine sand. We group imaged rock textures into classes based on their grain size, sorting, matrix characteristics, and abundance of pores. Because the recent campaign at Pahrump Hills acquired many more MAHLI images than elsewhere along the rover traverse [6], textural analysis there is more detailed and thus types observed there are sub-divided. Mudstones: These rocks contain framework grains smaller than the highest resolution MAHLI images (16 μm/pixel), and thus are interpreted to consist of grains that are silt-sized or smaller. Some rocks contain nodules, sulfate veins, and Mg-enriched erosionally-resistant ridges. The Pahrump Hills region contains mudstones of at least four different sub-textures: recessive massive, recessive parallel-laminated, resistant laminated-to-massive, and resistant cross-stratified. Recessive mudstones are slope-forming; parallel-laminated recessive mudstones display mm-scale parallel (and in some cases rhythmic) lamination that extends laterally for many meters, and are interbedded with recessive massive mudstones. Coarse cm- to mm-scale laminae appear within resistant mudstones though some portions are more massive; laminae tend to be traceable for cm to meters. Well-sorted sandstones: Rocks in this class are made of gray, fine-to-medium sand and exhibit little to no porosity. Two examples of this class show fine lineations with sub-mm spacing. Aillik, a target in the Shaler outcrop, shows abundant cross-lamination. The Pahrump Hills region contains a sub-texture of well-sorted, very fine to fine-grained cross-stratified sandstone at the dune and ripple-scale. Poorly-sorted sandstones. This class is subdivided into two sub-classes: rounded, coarse-to-very coarse sand grains of variable colors and

  3. Size-Frequency Distributions of Rocks on Mars and Earth Analog Sites: Implications for Future Landed Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombeck, M.; Rapp, D.

    1996-01-01

    The size-frequency distribution of rocks and the Vicking landing sites and a variety of rocky locations on the Earth that formed from a number of geologic processes all have the general shape of simple exponential curves, which have been combined with remote sensing data and models on rock abundance to predict the frequency of boulders potentially hazardous to future Mars landers and rovers.

  4. Sedimentary processes of the Bagnold Dunes: Implications for the eolian rock record of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R. C.; Lapotre, M. G. A.; Lewis, K. W.; Day, M.; Stein, N.; Rubin, D. M.; Sullivan, R.; Banham, S.; Lamb, M. P.; Bridges, N. T.; Gupta, S.; Fischer, W. W.

    2017-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity visited two active wind-blown sand dunes within Gale crater, Mars, which provided the first ground-based opportunity to compare Martian and terrestrial eolian dune sedimentary processes and study a modern analog for the Martian eolian rock record. Orbital and rover images of these dunes reveal terrestrial-like and uniquely Martian processes. The presence of grainfall, grainflow, and impact ripples resembled terrestrial dunes. Impact ripples were present on all dune slopes and had a size and shape similar to their terrestrial counterpart. Grainfall and grainflow occurred on dune and large-ripple lee slopes. Lee slopes were 29° where grainflows were present and 33° where grainfall was present. These slopes are interpreted as the dynamic and static angles of repose, respectively. Grain size measured on an undisturbed impact ripple ranges between 50 μm and 350 μm with an intermediate axis mean size of 113 μm (median: 103 μm). Dissimilar to dune eolian processes on Earth, large, meter-scale ripples were present on all dune slopes. Large ripples had nearly symmetric to strongly asymmetric topographic profiles and heights ranging between 12 cm and 28 cm. The composite observations of the modern sedimentary processes highlight that the Martian eolian rock record is likely different from its terrestrial counterpart because of the large ripples, which are expected to engender a unique scale of cross stratification. More broadly, however, in the Bagnold Dune Field as on Earth, dune-field pattern dynamics and basin-scale boundary conditions will dictate the style and distribution of sedimentary processes.

  5. Dust coatings on basaltic rocks and implications for thermal infrared spectroscopy of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J. R.; Christensen, P.R.; Lucey, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Thin coatings of atmospherically deposited dust can mask the spectral characteristics of underlying surfaces on Mars from the visible to thermal infrared wavelengths, making identification of substrate and coating mineralogy difficult from lander and orbiter spectrometer data. To study the spectral effects of dust coatings, we acquired thermal emission and hemispherical reflectance spectra (5-25 μm; 2000-400 cm-1) of basaltic andesite coated with different thicknesses of air fall-deposited palagonitic soils, fine-grained ceramic clay powders, and terrestrial loess. The results show that thin coatings (10-20 μm) reduce the spectral contrast of the rock substrate substantially, consistent with previous work. This contrast reduction continues linearly with increasing coating thickness until a "saturation thickness" is reached, after which little further change is observed. The saturation thickness of the spectrally flat palagonite coatings is ~100-120 μm, whereas that for coatings with higher spectral contrast is only ~50-75 μm. Spectral differences among coated and uncoated samples correlate with measured coating thicknesses in a quadratic manner, whereas correlations with estimated surface area coverage are better fit by linear functions. Linear mixture modeling of coated samples using the rock substrate and coating materials as end-members is also consistent with their measured coating thicknesses and areal coverage. A comparison of ratios of Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) spectra of dark and bright intracrater and windstreak deposits associated with Radau crater suggests that the dark windstreak material may be coated with as much as 90% areal coverage of palagonitic dust. The data presented here also will help improve interpretations of upcoming mini-TES and Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) observations of coated Mars surface materials.

  6. Rock Formation and Cosmic Radiation Exposure Ages in Gale Crater Mudstones from the Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul; Farley, Ken; Malespin, Charles; Gellert, Ralph; Grotzinger, John

    2014-05-01

    The quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) in the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) has been utilized to secure abundances of 3He, 21Ne, 36Ar, and 40Ar thermally evolved from the mudstone in the stratified Yellowknife Bay formation in Gale Crater. As reported by Farley et al. [1] these measurements of cosmogenic and radiogenic noble gases together with Cl and K abundances measured by MSL's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer enable a K-Ar rock formation age of 4.21+0.35 Ga to be established as well as a surface exposure age to cosmic radiation of 78+30 Ma. Understanding surface exposures to cosmic radiation is relevant to the MSL search for organic compounds since even the limited set of studies carried out, to date, indicate that even 10's to 100's of millions of years of near surface (1-3 meter) exposure may transform a significant fraction of the organic compounds exposed to this radiation [2,3,4]. Transformation of potential biosignatures and even loss of molecular structural information in compounds that could point to exogenous or endogenous sources suggests a new paradigm in the search for near surface organics that incorporates a search for the most recently exposed outcrops through erosional processes. The K-Ar rock formation age determination shows promise for more precise in situ measurements that may help calibrate the martian cratering record that currently relies on extrapolation from the lunar record with its ground truth chronology with returned samples. We will discuss the protocol for the in situ noble gas measurements secured with SAM and ongoing studies to optimize these measurements using the SAM testbed. References: [1] Farley, K.A.M Science Magazine, 342, (2013). [2] G. Kminek et al., Earth Planet Sc Lett 245, 1 (2006). [3] Dartnell, L.R., Biogeosciences 4, 545 (2007). [4] Pavlov, A. A., et al. Geophys Res Lett 39, 13202 (2012).

  7. Sedimentary processes of the Bagnold Dunes: Implications for the eolian rock record of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R C; Lapotre, M G A; Lewis, K W; Day, M; Stein, N; Rubin, D M; Sullivan, R; Banham, S; Lamb, M P; Bridges, N T; Gupta, S; Fischer, W W

    2017-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity visited two active wind-blown sand dunes within Gale crater, Mars, which provided the first ground-based opportunity to compare Martian and terrestrial eolian dune sedimentary processes and study a modern analog for the Martian eolian rock record. Orbital and rover images of these dunes reveal terrestrial-like and uniquely Martian processes. The presence of grainfall, grainflow, and impact ripples resembled terrestrial dunes. Impact ripples were present on all dune slopes and had a size and shape similar to their terrestrial counterpart. Grainfall and grainflow occurred on dune and large-ripple lee slopes. Lee slopes were ~29° where grainflows were present and ~33° where grainfall was present. These slopes are interpreted as the dynamic and static angles of repose, respectively. Grain size measured on an undisturbed impact ripple ranges between 50 μm and 350 μm with an intermediate axis mean size of 113 μm (median: 103 μm). Dissimilar to dune eolian processes on Earth, large, meter-scale ripples were present on all dune slopes. Large ripples had nearly symmetric to strongly asymmetric topographic profiles and heights ranging between 12 cm and 28 cm. The composite observations of the modern sedimentary processes highlight that the Martian eolian rock record is likely different from its terrestrial counterpart because of the large ripples, which are expected to engender a unique scale of cross stratification. More broadly, however, in the Bagnold Dune Field as on Earth, dune-field pattern dynamics and basin-scale boundary conditions will dictate the style and distribution of sedimentary processes.

  8. Raman-Mössbauer-XRD studies of selected samples from "Los Azulejos" outcrop: A possible analogue for assessing the alteration processes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalla, E. A.; Sanz-Arranz, A.; Lopez-Reyes, G.; Sansano, A.; Medina, J.; Schmanke, D.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Rodríguez-Losada, J. A.; Martínez-Frías, J.; Rull, F.

    2016-06-01

    The outcrop of "Los Azulejos" is visible at the interior of the Cañadas Caldera in Tenerife Island (Spain). It exhibits a great variety of alteration processes that could be considered as terrestrial analogue for several geological processes on Mars. This outcrop is particularly interesting due to the content of clays, zeolite, iron oxides, and sulfates corresponding to a hydrothermal alteration catalogued as "Azulejos" type alteration. A detailed analysis by portable and laboratory Raman systems as well as other different techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy has been carried out (using twin-instruments from Martian lander missions: Mössbauer spectrometer MIMOS-II from the NASA-MER mission of 2001 and the XRD diffractometer from the NASA-MSL Curiosity mission of 2012). The mineral identification presents the following mineral species: magnetite, goethite, hematite, anatase, rutile, quartz, gregoryite, sulfate (thenardite and hexahydrite), diopside, feldspar, analcime, kaolinite and muscovite. Moreover, the in-situ Raman and Micro-Raman measurements have been performed in order to compare the capabilities of the portable system specially focused for the next ESA Exo-Mars mission. The mineral detection confirms the sub-aerial alteration on the surface and the hydrothermal processes by the volcanic fluid circulations in the fresh part. Therefore, the secondary more abundant mineralization acts as the color agent of the rocks. Thus, the zeolite-illite group is the responsible for the bluish coloration, as well as the feldspars and carbonates for the whitish and the iron oxide for the redish parts. The XRD system was capable to detect a minor proportion of pyroxene, which is not visible by Raman and Mössbauer spectroscopy due to the "Azulejos" alteration of the parent material on the outcrop. On the other hand, Mössbauer spectroscopy was capable of detecting different types of iron-oxides (Fe3+/2+-oxide phases). These analyses

  9. Chemical, multispectral, and textural constraints on the composition and origin of rocks at the Mars Pathfinder landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSween, H.Y.; Murchie, S.L.; Crisp, J.A.; Bridges, N.T.; Anderson, R.C.; Bell, J.F.; Britt, D.T.; Brückner, J.; Dreibus, G.; Economou, T.; Ghosh, A.; Golombek, M.P.; Greenwood, J.P.; Johnson, J. R.; Moore, H.J.; Morris, R.V.; Parker, T.J.; Rieder, R.; Singer, R.; Wänke, H.

    1999-01-01

    Rocks at the Mars Pathfinder site are probably locally derived. Textures on rock surfaces may indicate volcanic, sedimentary, or impact-generated rocks, but aeolian abration and dust coatings prevent unambiguous interpretation. Multispectral imaging has resolved four spectral classes of rocks: gray and red, which occur on different surfaces of the same rocks; pink, which is probably soil crusts; and maroon, which occurs as large boulders, mostly in the far field. Rocks are assigned to two spectral trends based on the position of peak reflectance: the primary spectral trend contains gray, red, and pink rocks; maroon rocks constitute the secondary spectral trend. The spatial pattern of spectral variations observed is oriented along the prevailing wind direction. The primary spectral trend arises from thin ferric coatings of aeolian dust on darker rocks. The secondary spectral trend is apparently due to coating by a different mineral, probably maghemite or ferrihydrite. A chronology based on rock spectra suggests that rounded maroon boulders constitute the oldest petrologic unit (a flood deposit), succeeded by smaller cobbles possibly deposited by impact, and followed by aeolian erosion and deposition. Nearly linear chemical trends in alpha proton X-ray spectrometer rock compositions are interpreted as mixing lines between rock and adhering dust, a conclusion supported by a correlation between sulfur abundance and red/blue spectral ratio. Extrapolations of regression lines to zero sulfur give the composition of a presumed igneous rock. The chemistry and normative mineralogy of the sulfur-free rock resemble common terrestrial volcanic rocks, and its classification corresponds to andesite. Igneous rocks of this composition may occur with clastic sedimentary rocks or impact melts and breccias. However, the spectral mottling expected on conglomerates or breccias is not observed in any APXS-analyzed rocks. Interpretation of the rocks as andesites is complicated by absence

  10. Structural and petrophysical characterization: from outcrop rock analogue to reservoir model of deep geothermal prospect in Eastern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Lionel; Géraud, Yves; Diraison, Marc; Damy, Pierre-Clément

    2017-04-01

    The Scientific Interest Group (GIS) GEODENERGIES with the REFLET project aims to develop a geological and reservoir model for fault zones that are the main targets for deep geothermal prospects in the West European Rift system. In this project, several areas are studied with an integrated methodology combining field studies, boreholes and geophysical data acquisition and 3D modelling. In this study, we present the results of reservoir rock analogues characterization of one of these prospects in the Valence Graben (Eastern France). The approach used is a structural and petrophysical characterization of the rocks outcropping at the shoulders of the rift in order to model the buried targeted fault zone. The reservoir rocks are composed of fractured granites, gneiss and schists of the Hercynian basement of the graben. The matrix porosity, permeability, P-waves velocities and thermal conductivities have been characterized on hand samples coming from fault zones at the outcrop. Furthermore, fault organization has been mapped with the aim to identify the characteristic fault orientation, spacing and width. The fractures statistics like the orientation, density, and length have been identified in the damaged zones and unfaulted blocks regarding the regional fault pattern. All theses data have been included in a reservoir model with a double porosity model. The field study shows that the fault pattern in the outcrop area can be classified in different fault orders, with first order scale, larger faults distribution controls the first order structural and lithological organization. Between theses faults, the first order blocks are divided in second and third order faults, smaller structures, with characteristic spacing and width. Third order fault zones in granitic rocks show a significant porosity development in the fault cores until 25 % in the most locally altered material, as the damaged zones develop mostly fractures permeabilities. In the gneiss and schists units, the

  11. Quantitative Mineralogical Analysis of Mars Analogues Using CHEMIN Data and Rietveld Refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bish, D. L.; Sarrazin, P.; Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Blake, D.

    2004-01-01

    Mineralogical analysis is a critical component of planetary surface exploration. Chemical data alone leave serious gaps in our understanding of the surfaces of planets where complex minerals may form in combination with H, S, and halogens. On such planets (e.g., Mars) a single chemical composition may represent a range of mineral assemblages. For example, Viking chemical analyses of excavated duricrust indicate that Mg and S are correlated and 10% MgSO4 (anhydrous weight) is a likely cementing agent. Pathfinder chemical data support a similar abundance of MgSO4 in the most altered materials. However, there are many possible Mg-sulfates with widely varying hydration states (including dehydrated and 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7-hydrates). In addition, other sulfate minerals such as gypsum (CaSO4 .2H2O) and other salts containing Cl may also exist. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has the ability to decipher mixtures of these phases that would be difficult, if not impossible to unravel using only chemical or spectral data.

  12. Diffusion-controlled cementation experiments in porous rock analogues using potash alum and halite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hufe, A.; Hilgers, C. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Reservoir-Petrology; Stanjek, H. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Interface and Clay Mineralogy

    2013-08-01

    A good understanding of cementation is critical for reservoir quality predictions. However, studies of core material have shown that cementation may be driven by variations in pore size of the host rock. To better understand the underlying process, we developed a transparent microreactor for diffusion-controlled cementation experiments under the microscope. We studied the effect of different pore sizes and surface charges of solid material at different pH, using rock analogs. High-resolution videos allowed to analyze the nucleation from solution, pore cementation and growth rates of cements. Diffusion - considered the major mass transport during burial diagenesis - was driven along a temperature gradient across the microreactor. Pores were cemented with salt, which is well known to form pore-size dependent seals in silicilastic reservoirs. While halite precipitated primarily in pores bigger than 200 {mu}m, alum nucleated in smaller pores. The growth rate of alum (10{sup -5} mm/s) was one order of magnitude higher than that of halite. However, the dissolution rates of both minerals was similar at about 10{sup -6} mm/s. Authigenic euhdral halite migrated against the bulk diffusion transport and towards the higher-temperature reservoir. Halite growth rates increased by one order of magnitude to 1.8 x 10{sup -5} mm/s, if the phase boundary was vapor-liquid. A comparison nucleation in a 2-phase porous rock analog showed no difference in cementation pattern at a pH 7. However, at a pH of 10.5 the surface energies of the two different solids are altered, and porosity was reduced 60% more by cements in the phase-1 porous layers. Our experiments showed that pore size dependent nucleation and cementation is a process, which may also take place in complex reservoirs. With the successful pore clogging of halite we can now bring our experimental setup to reservoir conditions and establish the processes at elevated p-T conditions. (orig.)

  13. Field Comparisons of Three Biomarker Detection Methods in Icelandic Mars Analogue Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, D.; Amador, E. S.; Cable, M. L.; Chaudry, N.; Cullen, T.; Jacobsen, M.; Murusekan, G.; Schwieterman, E.; Stevens, A.; Stockton, A.; Yin, C.; Cullen, D.; Geppert, W.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to estimate the spatial and temporal distributions of biomarkers has been identified as a key need for planning life detection strategies. In a typical planetary exploration scenario, sampling site selection will be informed only by remote sensing data; however, if a difference of a few tens of meters, or centimeters, makes a significant difference in the results, science objectives may not be met. We conducted an analogue planetary expedition to test the correlation of three common biomarker detection methods -- cell counts through fluorescence microscopy, ATP quantification, and quantitative PCR with universal primer sets (bacteria, archaea, and fungi) -- and their spatial scale representativeness. Sampling sites in recent Icelandic lava fields (Fimmvörđuháls and Eldfell) spanned four nested spatial scales: 1 m, 10 m, 100 m, and > 1 km. Each site was homogeneous at typical 'remote sampling' resolution (overall temperature, apparent moisture content, and regolith grain size). No correlation between cell counts and either ATP or qPCR data was significant at any distance scale; ATP quantification and the archaeal and fungal qPCR data showed a marginal negative correlation at the 1 m level. Visible cell count data was statistically site-dependent for sites 10 m and 100 m apart, but not for sites > 1 km apart, whereas ATP results and qPCR data showed site dependence at all four scales. Distance had no significant effect on variability in cell counts and qPCR data, but was positively correlated with ATP variability. These results highlight the difficulty of choosing a 'good' biomarker: not only may different methods yield conflicting results, but they may also be differentially representative of the overall area. We intend to expand on this work with a follow-up campaign using comprehensive assays of physicochemical site properties to better distinguish between effects of environmental variability and intrinsic biomarker variability.

  14. Subsurface geomicrobiology in a Mars terrestrial analogue, Río Tinto (SW, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amils, R.; Fernández-Remolar, D.; Gómez, F.; González-Toril, E.; Rodríguez, N.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Sanz, J. L.; Díaz, E.; Stoker, C.

    2008-09-01

    Since its discovery, only few years ago, subsurface geomicrobiology is a matter of growing interest [1]. From a fundamental point of view, it seeks to determine whether life can be sustained in the absence of radiation. From an astrobiological point of view, it is an interesting model for life in other planetary bodies, e.g., Mars, as well as early life on Earth. Río Tinto is an unusual extreme acidic environment due to its size (around 100 km), constant acidic pH (mean pH 2.3), high concentrations of heavy metals and high level of microbial diversity [2]. Río Tinto rises in the core of the Iberian Pyritic Belt, one of the biggest sulfidic ore deposits in the world [3]. Today it is well stablished that the extreme characteristics of Río Tinto are not due to acid mine drainage from mining activity, as has been suggested in the past. To explore the hypothesis that a continuous underground reactor of chemolithotrophic microorganisms thriving in the rich sulfidic minerals of the Iberian Pyritic Belt is responsible for the extreme conditions found in the system, a drilling project has been developed to detect evidence of subsurface microbial activity and potential resources to support these microbial communities in situ (MARTE project) [4]. Here we report a search for subsurface life in volcanically hosted massive sulfidic deposits from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. Aseptic core samples were obtained within and down-gradient from the massive sulfide deposits and formation water was sampled within the resulting bore holes. Microbial activity was detected in un-contaminated samples by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Aerobic iron- and sulfide- oxidizing bacteria, and anaerobic denitrifying thiosulfate-oxidizing bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea have been identified. Potential energy fluxes detected in the system include oxidation of reduced iron and sulfur, or hydrogen gas coupled to nitrite, sulfate, ferric iron, inorganic

  15. Quantifying Variability and Correlation in Biomarker and Mineralogical Measurements: Lessons from Five Astrobiological Mars Analogue Expeditions in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, D.; Amador, E. S.; Cable, M. L.; Cantrell, T.; Chaudry, N.; Duca, Z. A.; Jacobsen, M. B.; Kirby, J.; McCaig, H. C.; Murukesan, G.; Rader, E.; Cullen, T.; Rennie, V.; Schwieterman, E. W.; Stevens, A. H.; Sutton, S. A.; Tan, G.; Yin, C.; Cullen, D.; Geppert, W.; Stockton, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Studies in planetary analogue sites correlating remote imagery, mineralogy, and biomarker assay results help predict biomarker distribution and preservation. The FELDSPAR team has conducted five expeditions (2012-2017) to Icelandic Mars analogue sites with an increasingly refined battery of physicochemical measurements and biomarker assays. Two additional expeditions are planned; here we report intermediate results.The biomarker assays performed represent a diversity of potential biomarker types: ATP, cell counts, qPCR with domain-level primers, and DNA content. Mineralogical, chemical, and physical measurements and observations include temperature, pH, moisture content, and Raman, near-IR reflectance, and X-ray fluorescence spectra. Sites are geologically recent basaltic lava flows (Fimmvörðuháls, Eldfell, Holuhraun) and barren basaltic sand plains (Mælifellssandur, Dyngjusandur). All samples were 'homogeneous' at the 1 m to 1 km scale in apparent color, morphology, and grain size.[1]Sample locations were arranged in hierarchically nested grids at 10 cm, 1 m, 10 m, 100 m, and >1 km scales. Several measures of spatial distribution and variability were derived: unbiased sample variance, F- and pairwise t-tests with Bonferroni correction, and the non-parametric H- and u-tests. All assay results, including preliminary mineralogical information in the form of notable spectral bands, were then tested for correlation using the non-parametric Spearman's rank test.[2] For Fimmvörðuháls, four years of data were also examined for temporal trends.Biomarker quantification (other than cell count) was generally well correlated, although all assays showed notable variability even at the smallest examined spatial scale. Pairwise comparisons proved to be the most intuitive measure of variability; non-parametric characterization indicated trends at the >100 m scale, but required more replicates than were feasible at smaller scales. Future work will integrate additional

  16. Multi-isotope tracing of CO2 leakage and water-rock interaction in a natural CCS analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloppmann, Wolfram; Gemeni, Vasiliki; Lions, Julie; Koukouzas, Nikolaos; Humez, Pauline; Vasilatos, Charalampos; Millot, Romain; Pauwels, Hélène

    2015-04-01

    Natural analogues of CO2 accumulation and, potentially, leakage, provide a highly valuable opportunity to study (1) geochemical processes within a CO2-reservoir and the overlying aquifers or aquicludes, i.e. gas-water-rock interactions, (2) geology and tightness of reservoirs over geological timescales, (3) potential or real leakage pathways, (3) impact of leakage on shallow groundwater resources quality, and (4) direct and indirect geochemical indicators of gas leakage (Lions et al., 2014, Humez et al., 2014). The Florina Basin in NW Macedonia, Greece, contains a deep CO2-rich aquifer within a graben structure. The graben filling consists of highly heterogeneous Neogene clastic sediments constituted by components from the adjacent massifs including carbonates, schists, gneiss as well as some ultramafic volcanic rocks. Clay layers are observed that isolate hydraulically the deep, partly artesian aquifer. Organic matter, in form of lignite accumulations, is abundant in the Neogene series. The underlying bedrocks are metamorphic carbonates and silicate rocks. The origin of the CO2 accumulation is controversial (deep, partially mantle-derived D'Allessandro et al., 2008 or resulting from thermal decomposition of carbonates, Hatziyannis and Arvanitis, 2011). Groundwaters have been sampled from springs and borewells over 3 years at different depths. First results on major, minor and trace elements give evidence of water-rock interaction, mainly with carbonates but also with ultramafic components but do not indicate that CO2-seepage is the principal driver of those processes (Gemeni et al., submitted). Here we present isotope data on a selection of groundwaters (δ2H , δ18O, δ13CTDIC, 87Sr/86Sr, δ11B, δ7Li). Stable isotopes of water indicate paleo-recharge for some of the groundwaters, limited exchange with gaseous CO2 and, in one case, possibly thermal exchange processes with silicates. Sr isotope ratios vary between marine ratios and radiogenic values indicating

  17. Sandstone uranium deposits: analogues for surf disposal in some sedimentary rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookins, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    Sandstone uranium deposits are well suited as analogs for SURF. These deposits typically occur as tabular or lensoid masses of uraniferous sandstone, commonly where the argillaceous mineral and organic content is high. Primary minerals consist of pitchblende and/or coffinite, with possibly some urano-organic phases as well. The ore is usually associated with authigenic ferromagnesian clay minerals, such as chlorite and/or authigenic illite and/or mixed layer smectite-illite; and with pyrite ± jordisite ± seleniferrous species ± calcite. Organic matter is usually associated with the ore. The clay minerals in the ore zones are commonly vanadiferrous. The genesis of the sandstone uranium deposits is now fairly well understood and allows semi-quantitative estimates to be placed on behaviour of analog-elements for many constituents of SURF (or HLW). Prior to mineralization, oxidized species of U, V, Se, Mo, As are carried together as oxyanions; these species precipitate in a restricted range of Eh-pH when reducing conditions are met. Concomitant with removal of these species, due to formation of reduced, insoluble species, several other elements of interest are concentrated in the ore zones as well. Chalcophile elements, such as Cu, Co, Mn, Zn, Cd, Sb, and others are fixed in authigenic sulfide phases, and the alkalis Rb, K, and Cs are fixed in the authigenic illite and illitic mixed layer clays. The alkaline earth elements Sr and Ba are commonly fixed in sulfate-rich rock. The rare earth elements (REE) are incorporated into authigenic clay minerals or into oxy-hydroxide phases. (author)

  18. Bacterial communities and the nitrogen cycle in the gypsum soils of Cuatro Ciénegas Basin, coahuila: a Mars analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Lozano, Nguyen E; Eguiarte, Luis E; Bonilla-Rosso, Germán; García-Oliva, Felipe; Martínez-Piedragil, Celeste; Rooks, Christine; Souza, Valeria

    2012-07-01

    The OMEGA/Mars Express hyperspectral imager identified gypsum at several sites on Mars in 2005. These minerals constitute a direct record of past aqueous activity and are important with regard to the search of extraterrestrial life. Gale Crater was chosen as Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity's landing site because it is rich in gypsum, as are some desert soils of the Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) (Chihuahuan Desert, Mexico). The gypsum of the CCB, which is overlain by minimal carbonate deposits, was the product of magmatic activity that occurred under the Tethys Sea. To examine this Mars analogue, we retrieved gypsum-rich soil samples from two contrasting sites with different humidity in the CCB. To characterize the site, we obtained nutrient data and analyzed the genes related to the N cycle (nifH, nirS, and nirK) and the bacterial community composition by using 16S rRNA clone libraries. As expected, the soil content for almost all measured forms of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus were higher at the more humid site than at the drier site. What was unexpected is the presence of a rich and divergent community at both sites, with higher taxonomic diversity at the humid site and almost no taxonomic overlap. Our results suggest that the gypsum-rich soils of the CCB host a unique microbial ecosystem that includes novel microbial assemblies.

  19. Aseptically Sampled Organics in Subsurface Rocks From the Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment: An Analog For The Search for Deep Subsurface Life on Mars.}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Stoker, C. R.

    2005-12-01

    The subsurface is the key environment for searching for life on planets lacking surface life. Subsurface ecosystems are of great relevance to astrobiology including the search for past/present life on Mars. The surface of Mars has conditions preventing current life but the subsurface might preserve organics and even host some life [1]. The Mars-Analog-Rio-Tinto-Experiment (MARTE) is performing a simulation of a Mars drilling experiment. This comprises conventional and robotic drilling of cores in a volcanically-hosted-massive-pyrite deposit [2] from the Iberian Pyritic Belt (IBP) and life detection experiments applying anti-contamination protocols (e.g., ATP Luminometry assay). The RT is considered an important analog of the Sinus Meridiani site on Mars and an ideal model analog for a deep subsurface Martian environment. Former results from MARTE suggest the existence of a relatively complex subsurface life including aerobic and anaerobic chemoautotrophs and strict anaerobic methanogens sustained by Fe and S minerals in anoxic conditions. A key requirement for the analysis of a subsurface sample on Mars is a set of simple tests that can help determine if the sample contains organic material of biological origin, and its potential for retaining definitive biosignatures. We report here on the presence of bulk organic matter Corg (0.03-0.05 Wt%), and Ntot (0.01-0.04 Wt%) and amount of measured ATP (Lightning MVP, Biocontrol) in weathered rocks (tuffs, gossan, pyrite stockwork from Borehole #8; >166m). This provides key insight on the type of trophic system sustaining the subsurface biosphere (i.e., heterotrophs vs. autotrophs) at RT. ATP data (Relative-Luminosity-Units, RLU) provide information on possible contamination and distribution of viable biomass with core depth (BH#8, and BH#7, ~3m). Avg. 153 RLU, i.e., surface vs. center of core, suggest that cleaness/sterility can be maintained when using a simple sterile protocol under field conditions. Results from this

  20. Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Day, Trevor

    2006-01-01

    Discusses the fundamental facts concerning this mysterious planet, including its mass, size, and atmosphere, as well as the various missions that helped planetary scientists document the geological history of Mars. This volume also describes Mars'' seasons with their surface effects on the planet and how they have changed over time.

  1. Chemical variations in Yellowknife Bay formation sedimentary rocks analyzed by ChemCam on board the Curiosity rover on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Nicolas; Forni, Olivier; Dromart, G.; Stack, K.M.; Wiens, Roger C.; Gasnault, Olivier; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Nachon, Marion; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Anderson, Ryan B.; Barraclough, Bruce; Bell, J.F.; Berger, G.; Blaney, D.L.; Bridges, J.C.; Calef, F.; Clark, Brian R.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Cousin, Agnes; Edgar, L.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Fabre, Cecile; Fisk, M.; Grotzinger, John P.; Gupta, S.C.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Johnson, J. R.; Kah, Linda C.; Lanza, Nina L.; Lasue, Jeremie; Le Mouélic, S.; Lewin, Eric; Malin, Michael; McLennan, Scott M.; Maurice, S.; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Milliken, Ralph E.; Newsome, H.L.; Ollila, A.; Rowland, Scott K.; Sautter, Violaine; Schmidt, M.E.; Schroder, S.; D'Uston, C.; Vaniman, Dave; Williams, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    The Yellowknife Bay formation represents a ~5 m thick stratigraphic section of lithified fluvial and lacustrine sediments analyzed by the Curiosity rover in Gale crater, Mars. Previous works have mainly focused on the mudstones that were drilled by the rover at two locations. The present study focuses on the sedimentary rocks stratigraphically above the mudstones by studying their chemical variations in parallel with rock textures. Results show that differences in composition correlate with textures and both manifest subtle but significant variations through the stratigraphic column. Though the chemistry of the sediments does not vary much in the lower part of the stratigraphy, the variations in alkali elements indicate variations in the source material and/or physical sorting, as shown by the identification of alkali feldspars. The sandstones contain similar relative proportions of hydrogen to the mudstones below, suggesting the presence of hydrous minerals that may have contributed to their cementation. Slight variations in magnesium correlate with changes in textures suggesting that diagenesis through cementation and dissolution modified the initial rock composition and texture simultaneously. The upper part of the stratigraphy (~1 m thick) displays rocks with different compositions suggesting a strong change in the depositional system. The presence of float rocks with similar compositions found along the rover traverse suggests that some of these outcrops extend further away in the nearby hummocky plains.

  2. Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Payment, Simone

    2017-01-01

    This curriculum-based, fun, and approachable book offers everything young readers need to know to begin their study of the Red Planet. They will learn about the fundamental aspects of the Mars, including its size, mass, surface features, interior, orbit, and spin. Further, they will learn about the history of the missions to Mars, including the Viking spacecraft and the Curiosity and MAVEN rovers. Finally, readers will learn about why scientists think there's a chance that Mars is or was suitable for life. With stunning imagery from NASA itself, readers will have a front seat-view of the missi

  3. The alkaline volcanic rocks of Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho and the Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neakrase, L. D.; Lim, D. S. S.; Haberle, C. W.; Hughes, S. S.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Christensen, P. R.

    2016-12-01

    Idaho's Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) is host to extensive expressions of basaltic volcanism dominated by non evolved olivine tholeiites (NEOT) with localized occurrences of evolved lavas. Craters of the Moon National Monument (COTM) is a polygenetic lava field comprised of more than 60 lava flows emplaced during 8 eruptive periods spanning the last 15 kyrs. The most recent eruptive period (period A; 2500-2000 yr B.P.) produced flows with total alkali vs. silica classifications spanning basalt to trachyte. Coeval with the emplacement of the COTM period A volcanic pile was the emplacement of the Wapi and King's Bowl NEOT 70 km SSE of COTM along the Great Rift. Previous investigations have determined a genetic link between these two compositionally distinct volcanic centers where COTM compositions can be generated from NEOT melts through complex ascent paths and variable degrees of fractionation and assimilation of lower-middle crustal materials. The Mars Exploration Rover, Spirit, conducted a robotic investigation of Gusev crater from 2004-2010. Spirit was equipped with the Athena science payload enabling the determination of mineralogy (mini-Thermal Emission Spectrometer, Pancam multispectral camera, and Mössbauer spectrometer), bulk chemistry (Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer) and context (Pancam and Microscopic Imager). During sol 32 Spirit investigated an olivine basalt named Adirondack, the type specimen for a class of rock that composes much of the plains material within Gusev Crater and embays the Columbia Hills. Following the characterization of the plains material, Spirit departed the plains targeting the Columbia Hills and ascending at Husband Hill. During Spirit's ascent of Husband Hill three additional classes of volcanic rock were identified as distinct by their mini-TES spectra; Wishstone, Backstay and Irvine. These rocks are classified as tephrite, trachy-basalt and basalt, respectively, and are the first alkaline rocks observed on Mars. These

  4. Prospecting for Diverse Igneous Rock Types on Mars: PIXL on "Black Beauty" NWA 7533

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Flannery, David T.; Allwood, Abigail; Thompson, David R.; Hodyss, Robert; Clark, Benton C.; Elam, W. Timothy; Hurowitz, Joel A.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of elemental chemistry are fundamental for exploring geology Almost every mars surface mission has had this capability But previous instruments have not been able to accurately correlate chemistry with texture.

  5. Beagle I and II Voyages: Charles Darwin's rocks and the quest for Mars rock; the Open University's virtual microscope has both

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenzer, S. P.; Tindle, A. G.; Anand, M.; Gibson, E. K.; Pearson, V. K.; Pemberton, D.; Pillinger, C.; Smith, C. L.; Whalley, P.; Kelley, S. P.

    2011-12-01

    Exploration is in itself a fascinating subject, and a strong draw to engaging the public in understanding science. Nearly two hundred years ago Charles Darwin took part in an exploration of the Earth, and more recently we have begun to explore the solar system and in particular the surface of Mars. The engagement is made easier if an element of exploration is involved in the public engagement, using modern internet and even mobile technologies. The Open University combines all those aspects in a series of virtual microscopes for Earth science that are freely available on the web, installed in museums, or built into its teaching material. The basis of the virtual microscope is a mosaic of several hundred microscopic images of each thin section taken in plane polarised light, between crossed polars and in reflected light, which are then assembled into three high resolution images. Rotation movies for selected points in the thin section illustrate changing optical properties such as birefringence. The user is able to pan and zoom around to explore the section, studying the mineralogy and rock texture, and view the rotation movies linked to points in the section to see the changing birefringence colours. We have created several collections of terrestrial rocks, mainly for teaching purposes, and outreach directly linked to exploration: Charles Darwin returned from the Voyage of the Beagle with a large variety of rock samples, and although thin sections were not being made at that time, they were created from his rocks in the late 19th century. The historic material is part of the "Darwin the Geologist" exhibition at the Sedgwick Museum in Cambridge. Our Darwin virtual microscope includes hand specimen illustrations and thin sections together with documentation and an interactive map allow internet users and museum visitors alike to have a close look at Darwin's rocks and study the petrology of them. Charles Darwin explored distant horizons on Earth in the 19th century

  6. Areally Extensive Surface Bedrock Exposures on Mars: Many Are Clastic Rocks, Not Lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A. Deanne; Warner, Nicholas H.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Head, James W.; Cowart, Justin C.

    2018-02-01

    Areally extensive exposures of intact olivine/pyroxene-enriched rock, as well as feldspar-enriched rock, are found in isolated locations throughout the Martian highlands. The petrogenetic origin(s) of these rock units are not well understood, but some previous studies favored an effusive volcanic origin partly on the basis of distinctive composition and relatively high thermal inertia. Here we show that the regolith development, crater retention, and morphological characteristics for many of these "bedrock plains" are not consistent with competent lavas and reinterpret the high thermal inertia orbital signatures to represent friable materials that are more easily kept free of comminution products through eolian activity. Candidate origins include pyroclastic rocks, impact-generated materials, or detrital sedimentary rocks. Olivine/pyroxene enrichments in bedrock plains relative to surrounding materials could have potentially formed through deflation and preferential removal of plagioclase.

  7. Fatty Acid Detection in Mars-Analogous Rock Samples with the TMAH Wet Chemistry Experiment on the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A. J.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Wilhelm, M. B.; Johnson, S. S.; Craft, K.; O'Reilly, S.; Lewis, J. M. T.; Williams, R.; Summons, R. E.; Benison, K. C.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2017-12-01

    The Curiosity rover is exploring sedimentary rock sequences in Gale Crater for evidence of habitability and searching for organic compounds using the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite. SAM includes a gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and pyrolysis ovens. SAM has the ability to perform wet chemistry experiments, one of which uses tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) thermochemolysis to liberate bound lipids, making them sufficiently volatile for detection by GC-MS. To determine the effectiveness of the SAM-like TMAH experiment on fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biomarker identification, rock and sediment samples were collected from a variety of Mars analog environments including iron oxides from a modern mineral precipitate and older surface gossan at Iron Mountain, CA, as well as modern acid salt and neutral lake sediments with mixed iron oxides and clays from Western Australia; siliceous sinter from recently inactive and modern near-vent Icelandic hot springs deposits; modern carbonate ooids from The Bahamas, and organic-rich shale from Germany. Samples underwent pyrolysis with TMAH. Fatty acids were analyzed by pyro-GC-MS using a SAM-like heating ramp (35°C/min) as well as a 500°C flash on a Frontier pyrolyzer and Agilent GC-MS instrument. Results reveal that FAMEs were detectable with the TMAH experiment in nearly all samples. Low molecular weight (MW) C6:0-C10:0 FAMEs were present in all samples, medium MW C11:0-C18:2 FAMEs were present in select samples, and high MW (HMW) C20:0-C30:0 FAMEs were present in the shale sample. Many of these samples exhibited an even-over-odd carbon number preference, indicating biological production. These experiments demonstrate that TMAH thermochemolysis with SAM-like pyro-GC-MS is effective in fatty acid analysis from natural Mars-analog samples that vary in mineralogy, age, and microbial community input. HMW FAMEs are not detected in iron-dominated samples, and may not be detectable at low

  8. Analysis of Organic Molecules Extracted from Mars Analogues and Influence of Their Mineralogy Using N-Methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)Trifluoroacetamide Derivatization Coupled with Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry in Preparation for the Sample Analysis at Mars Derivatization Experiment on the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalport, F.; Glavin, D. P.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Bish, D.; Blake, D.; Coll, P.; Szopa, C.; Buch, A.; McAdam, A.; Dworkin, J. P.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The search for complex organic molecules on Mars, including important biomolecules such as amino acids and carboxylic acids will require a chemical extraction and derivatization step to transform these organic compounds into species that are sufficiently volatile to be detected by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). We have developed, a one-pot extraction and chemical derivatization protocol using N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) and dimethylformamide (DMF) for the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). The temperature and duration the derivatization reaction, pre-concentration of chemical derivatives, and gas chromatographic separation parameters have been optimized under SAM instrument design constraints. MTBSTFA/DMF extraction and derivatization at 300 C for several minutes of a variety of terrestrial Mars analogue materials facilitated the detection of amino acids and carboxylic acids in a surface soil sample collected from the Atacama Desert and a carbonate-rich stromatolite sample from Svalbard. However, the rapid reaction of MTBSTFA with water in several analogue materials that contained high abundances of hydrated minerals and the possible deactivation of derivatized compounds by iron oxides, as detected by XRD/XRF using the CheMin field unit Terra, proved to be highly problematic for the direct extraction of organics using MTBSTFA, The combination of pyrolysis and two different chemical derivatization methods employed by SAM should enable a wide range of organic compounds to be detected by GCMS if present on Mars,

  9. Definitive Mineralogical Analysis of Mars Analog Rocks Using the CheMin XRD/XRF Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, D. F.; Sarrazin, P.; Bish, D. L.; Feldman, S.; Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Collins, S.

    2004-01-01

    Mineral identification is a critical component of Mars Astrobiological missions. Chemical or elemental data alone are not definitive because a single elemental or chemical composition or even a single bonding type can represent a range of substances or mineral assemblages. Minerals are defined as unique structural and compositional phases that occur naturally. There are about 15,000 minerals that have been described on Earth, all uniquely identifiable via diffraction methods. There are likely many minerals yet undiscovered on Earth, and likewise on Mars. If an unknown phase is identified on Mars, it can be fully characterized by structural (X-ray Diffraction, XRD) and elemental analysis (X-ray Fluorescence, XRF) without recourse to other data because XRD relies on the principles of atomic arrangement for its determinations. XRD is the principal means of identification and characterization of minerals on Earth.

  10. Volatile and organic compositions of sedimentary rocks in Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ming, D.W.; Archer Jr., P.D.; Glavin, D.P.; Eigenbrode, J.L.; Franz, H.B.; Sutter, B.; Brunner, A.E.; Stern, J.C.; Freissinet, C.; McAdam, A.C.; Mahaffy, P.R.; Cabane, M.; Coll, P.; Campbell, J.L.; Atreya, S.K.; Niles, P.B.; Bell III, J.F.; Bish, D.L.; Brinckerhoff, W.B.; Buch, A.; Conrad, P.G.; Des Marais, D.J.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Fairén, A.G.; Farley, K.; Flesch, G.J.; Francois, P.; Gellert, R.; Grant, J.A.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Gupta, S.; Herkenhoff, K.E.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Leshin, L.A.; Lewis, K.W.; McLennan, S.M.; Miller, K.E.; Moersch, J.; Morris, R.V.; Navarro-González, R.; Pavlov, A.A.; Perrett, G.M.; Pradler, I.; Squyres, S.W.; Summons, R.E.; Steele, A.; Stolper, E.M.; Sumner, D.Y.; Szopa, C.; Teinturier, S.; Trainer, M.G.; Treiman, A.H.; Vaniman, D.T.; Vasavada, A.R.; Webster, C.R.; Wray, J.J.; Yingst, R.A.; MSL Science Team, the|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/292012217

    2014-01-01

    H2O, CO2, SO2, O2, H2, H2S, HCl, chlorinated hydrocarbons, NO, and other trace gases were evolved during pyrolysis of two mudstone samples acquired by the Curiosity rover at Yellowknife Bay within Gale crater, Mars. H2O/OH-bearing phases included 2:1 phyllosilicate(s), bassanite, akaganeite, and

  11. An analogue of long-term stability of flow-path structure in crystalline rocks distributed in the orogenic belt, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, H. [Nagoya University, University Museum Material Research Section, 464-8601, Chikusa, Nagoya, 464-8601 (Japan)]. E-mail: dora@num.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Takeuchi, M. E-mail: takeuchi@eps.nagoya-u.ac.jp

    2004-07-01

    In the orogenic belt, in the Japanese islands, crystalline rocks from the youngest to older ages and of different orders have been identified which have formed massive areas. The fracture system observed within these rock masses implies that the groundwater and solute can be conducted through the fracture's network. It is expected that the nuclides can be retarded due to chemical sorption and/or physical retardation by the fracture fillings and fracture open pore geometry. Most of the evaluation framework of the nuclides retardation process in the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste (HLW) is, however, basically taken into account in the present geological state, without changes of structural and mineralogical features, and in its influence on the groundwater flow system over a long period of time. This paper seeks analogous evidence that can provide the confidence of such evaluation methodology and its long-term applicability. Here, we describe the fracture system developed in the crystalline rock with the different ages intruded in the orogenic belt in order to build the long-term fracturing and its 'stability' model. In particular, comparisons with the rock of 1.9-0.8 Ma Takidani Granodiorite (the youngest pluton in the world), ca. 67 Ma of Toki Granite and ca. 117 Ma Kurihashi Granodiorite located in central to northwest Japan suggest a unique characteristic of the fracture forming process and their relatively stable geometrical changing. This analogue enables us to provide a model to build the confidence of a safety context applicable for the geological setting under the orogenic field with a long-term scale. The model may also be useful for other stable tectonic settings as well as for a site characterisation methodology of crystalline rock for HLW geological disposal. (author)

  12. Biomarker Analysis of Samples Visually Identified as Microbial in the Eocene Green River Formation: An Analogue for Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olcott Marshall, Alison; Cestari, Nicholas A

    2015-09-01

    One of the major exploration targets for current and future Mars missions are lithofacies suggestive of biotic activity. Although such lithofacies are not confirmation of biotic activity, they provide a way to identify samples for further analyses. To test the efficacy of this approach, we identified carbonate samples from the Eocene Green River Formation as "microbial" or "non-microbial" based on the macroscale morphology of their laminations. These samples were then crushed and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) to determine their lipid biomarker composition. GC/MS analysis revealed that carbonates visually identified as "microbial" contained a higher concentration of more diverse biomarkers than those identified as "non-microbial," suggesting that this could be a viable detection strategy for selecting samples for further analysis or caching on Mars.

  13. Onboard autonomous mineral detectors for Mars rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, M. S.; Bornstein, B.; Castano, R.; Merrill, M.; Greenwood, J.

    2005-12-01

    Mars rovers and orbiters currently collect far more data than can be downlinked to Earth, which reduces mission science return; this problem will be exacerbated by future rovers of enhanced capabilities and lifetimes. We are developing onboard intelligence sufficient to extract geologically meaningful data from spectrometer measurements of soil and rock samples, and thus to guide the selection, measurement and return of these data from significant targets at Mars. Here we report on techniques to construct mineral detectors capable of running on current and future rover and orbital hardware. We focus on carbonate and sulfate minerals which are of particular geologic importance because they can signal the presence of water and possibly life. Sulfates have also been discovered at the Eagle and Endurance craters in Meridiani Planum by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity and at other regions on Mars by the OMEGA instrument aboard Mars Express. We have developed highly accurate artificial neural network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) based detectors capable of identifying calcite (CaCO3) and jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6) in the visible/NIR (350-2500 nm) spectra of both laboratory specimens and rocks in Mars analogue field environments. To train the detectors, we used a generative model to create 1000s of linear mixtures of library end-member spectra in geologically realistic percentages. We have also augmented the model to include nonlinear mixing based on Hapke's models of bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy. Both detectors perform well on the spectra of real rocks that contain intimate mixtures of minerals, rocks in natural field environments, calcite covered by Mars analogue dust, and AVIRIS hyperspectral cubes. We will discuss the comparison of ANN and SVM classifiers for this task, technical challenges (weathering rinds, atmospheric compositions, and computational complexity), and plans for integration of these detectors into both the Coupled Layer

  14. Evaluation of host rocks and background lithologies as secondary contributors to the uranium and rare-earth element source-term at the Needle's Eye natural analogue site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyslop, E.K.

    1993-01-01

    HMIP has a research programme investigating some naturally radioactive sites in the UK as geochemical analogues of radionuclide migration. The objective is to test thermodynamic database and computer codes used for modelling radionuclide migration under environmental conditions. This report describes a study of the distributions of uranium (U) and the rare-earth elements (REE) in the vicinity of pitchblende veins outcropping in the cliff at Needle's Eye on the Solway Coats, SW Scotland. This report improves the information available on the secondary source-terms of U and REE. The minerals in the country rocks are thought to be supplying only minor amounts of these elements to the groundwaters flowing into the Merse silts within the detailed study area close to the mineralisation in the cliff. The pitchblende veins are the principal source-term for U migrating into the Merse silts at the foot of the cliff. (author)

  15. Natural analogue studies in crystalline rock: the influence of water-bearing fractures on radionuclide immobilisation in a granitic rock repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, W.R.; MacKenzie, A.B.; Scott, R.D.; McKinley, I.G.

    1990-06-01

    Current Swiss concepts for the disposal of radioactive waste involve disposal in deep mined repositories to ensure that only insignificant quantities of radionuclides will ever reach the surface and so enter the biosphere. The rock formations presently considered as potential candidates for hosting radwaste repositories have thus been selected on the basis of their capacity to isolate radionuclides from the biosphere. An important factor in ensuring such containment is a very low solute transport rate through the host formation. However, it is considered likely that, in the formations of interest in the Swiss programme (eg. granites, argillaceous sediments, anhydrite), the rocks will be fractured to some extent even at repository depth. In the instance of the cumulative failure of near-field barriers in the repository, these hydraulically connected fractures in the host formation could be very important far-field routes of migration (and possible sites of retardation) of radionuclides dissolved in the groundwaters. In this context, the so-called 'matrix diffusion' mechanism is potentially very important for radionuclide retardation. This report is the culmination of a programme which has attempted to assess the potential influence of these water-bearing fractures on radionuclide transport in a crystalline rock radwaste repository. 162 refs., 36 figs., 16 tabs

  16. The Astrobiology of the Subsurface: Caves and Rock Fracture Habitats on Earth, Mars and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Penelope J.

    2017-01-01

    The Astrobiology of the Subsurface: Exploring Cave Habitats on Earth, Mars and Beyond. We are using the spectacular underground landscapes of Earth caves as models for the subsurfaces of other planets. Caves have been detected on the Moon and Mars and are strongly suspected for other bodies in the Solar System including some of the ice covered Ocean Worlds that orbit gas giant planets. The caves we explore and study include many extreme conditions of relevance to planetary astrobiology exploration including high and low temperatures, gas atmospheres poisonous to humans but where exotic microbes can fluorish, highly acidic or salty fluids, heavy metals, and high background radiation levels. Some cave microorganisms eat their way through bedrock, some live in battery acid conditions, some produce unusual biominerals and rare cave formations, and many produce compounds of potential pharmaceutical and industrial significance. We study these unique lifeforms and the physical and chemical biosignatures that they leave behind. Such traces can be used to provide a Field Guide to Unknown Organisms for developing life detection space missions.

  17. Soil and crop management experiments in the Laboratory Biosphere: An analogue system for the Mars on Earth ® facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstone, S.; Nelson, M.; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.

    During the years 2002 and 2003, three closed system experiments were carried out in the "Laboratory Biosphere" facility located in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The program involved experimentation of "Hoyt" Soy Beans, (experiment #1) USU Apogee Wheat (experiment #2) and TU-82-155 sweet potato (experiment #3) using a 5.37 m 2 soil planting bed which was 30 cm deep. The soil texture, 40% clay, 31% sand and 28% silt (a clay loam), was collected from an organic farm in New Mexico to avoid chemical residues. Soil management practices involved minimal tillage, mulching, returning crop residues to the soil after each experiment and increasing soil biota by introducing worms, soil bacteria and mycorrhizae fungi. High soil pH of the original soil appeared to be a factor affecting the first two experiments. Hence, between experiments #2 and #3, the top 15 cm of the soil was amended using a mix of peat moss, green sand, humates and pumice to improve soil texture, lower soil pH and increase nutrient availability. This resulted in lowering the initial pH of 8.0-6.7 at the start of experiment #3. At the end of the experiment, the pH was 7.6. Soil nitrogen and phosphorus has been adequate, but some chlorosis was evident in the first two experiments. Aphid infestation was the only crop pest problem during the three experiments and was handled using an introduction of Hyppodamia convergens. Experimentation showed there were environmental differences even in this 1200 cubic foot ecological system facility, such as temperature and humidity gradients because of ventilation and airflow patterns which resulted in consequent variations in plant growth and yield. Additional humidifiers were added to counteract low humidity and helped optimize conditions for the sweet potato experiment. The experience and information gained from these experiments are being applied to the future design of the Mars On Earth ® facility (Silverstone et al., Development and research program for a soil

  18. Cryoseism Vibrational Movement and Sorting of Detritus of Mars' Regolith Bedforms (E.G., ~ Streaks, Gullies): a New, Dry, Midsummer Antarctic Analogue Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, A. B.

    2015-12-01

    "SNAP!, CRACK!, POP!" The sounds reverberated across newly shaded permafrost of unusual talus aprons (Ford & Andersen, 1967; J. Geol., 75, 722-732) of interior Antarctica (lats. >84°S; Thiel, Pensacola mtns.), coming from ice cracking under tensile failure (cryoseisms). Apron regoliths show conspicuously reversed downslope particle-size sorting and downslope-oriented lineations (debris-cleared tracts; stone stripes) formed by vibrational movement of detritus by midsummer, diurnal cracking of ice. Moving laterally by vibrations away from cracks, with downslope component by gravity, finer detritus becomes concentrated downslope from coarser debris of initial cliff fall — winnowed, as if on a gigantic vibrating shaking table. Slopes outside shade zones remain free of cracking. Diurnal midday shading of solar-warmed, debris-mantled permafrost- and glacier-surface ice at low ambient midsummer temperatures produces high strain-loading rates that exceed tensile toughness of inhomogeneous, polycrystalline ice containing zones of older but sealed cracks. This dry, mechanical, cryoseism mechanism is here proposed also for now waterless Mars and other icy Solar System bodies. Regolith features of Mars' cryosphere may appear different from anrarctic analogues owing to likely operation over tens if not hundreds of millions of years longer than on Earth. The strain distributions in tensile failure of ice better explain a common spacing uniformity of many martian linear features than others' proposed origins, and for some "active" streaks and gully channels, TARS, RSL and dune-slipface channels, as well as for dune orthogonality, diurnal moonquakes and asteroid-regolith detrital sorting (e.g., "rubble-pile" 25143-Itokawa). Because periodic shade from topography (canyons, craters, etc.) is needed, the mechanism is not expected on flattish terrains where more normal annual cooling rates produce the common polygonal tensile fracturing of ice

  19. MAVEN-Measured Meteoritic Ions on Mars - Tracers of Lower Ionosphere Processes With and Without Analogues On Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benna, M.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Collinson, G.; Plane, J. M. C.; Mitchell, D.; Srivastava, N.

    2017-12-01

    MAVEN observations of meteoritic metal ion populations during "deep dip" campaigns at Mars have revealed unique non-Earth like behavior that are not yet understood. These deep dip campaigns (6 so far) consisted each of more than a score of repeated orbits through the Martian molecular-ion-dominated lower ionosphere, whose terrestrial parallel (Earth's E-region) has been rather sparcely surveyed in situ by sounding rockets. In regions of weak Mars magnetic fields, MAVEN found ordered exponentially decreasing metal ion concentrations above the altitude of peak meteor ablation. Such an ordered trend has never been observed on Earth. Isolated anomalous high-altitude layers in the metal ion are also encountered, typically on deep dip campaigns in the southern hemisphere where large localized surface remanent magnetic fields prevail. The source of these anomalous layers is not yet evident, although the occurrences of some high-altitude metal ion enhancements were in regions with measured perturbed magnetic fields, indicative of localized electrical currents. Further investigation shows that those currents are also sometimes associated with superthermal/energetic electron bursts offering evidence that that impact ionization of neutral metal populations persisting at high altitudes are the source of metal ion enhancement - a rather difficult assumption to accept far above the ablation region where the metal neutrals are deposited. The relationship of the anomalous layers to the coincident electron populations as well as to the orientation of the magnetic fields which can play a role in the neutral wind generated ion convergences as on Earth is investigated.

  20. Volatile and Organic Compositions of Sedimentary Rocks in Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Archer, P. D.; Glavin, D. P.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Franz, H. B.; Sutter, B.; Brunner, A. E.; Stern, J. C.; Freissinet, C.; McAdam, A. C.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Cabane, M.; Coll, P.; Campbell, J. L.; Atreya, S. K.; Niles, P. B.; Bell, J. F.; Bish, D. L.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Buch, A.; Conrad, P. G.; Des Marais, D. J.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Fairén, A. G.; Farley, K.; Flesch, G. J.; Francois, P.; Gellert, R.; Grant, J. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Gupta, S.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Leshin, L. A.; Lewis, K. W.; McLennan, S. M.; Miller, K. E.; Moersch, J.; Morris, R. V.; Navarro-González, R.; Pavlov, A. A.; Perrett, G. M.; Pradler, I.; Squyres, S. W.; Summons, R. E.; Steele, A.; Stolper, E. M.; Sumner, D. Y.; Szopa, C.; Teinturier, S.; Trainer, M. G.; Treiman, A. H.; Vaniman, D. T.; Vasavada, A. R.; Webster, C. R.; Wray, J. J.; Yingst, R. A.; Kemppinen, Osku; Bridges, Nathan; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Minitti, Michelle; Cremers, David; Edgar, Lauren; Farmer, Jack; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; King, Penelope; Blank, Jennifer; Weigle, Gerald; Schmidt, Mariek; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Ehlmann, Bethany; Griffes, Jennifer; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Rice, Melissa; Siebach, Kirsten; Stack, Katie; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Léveillé, Richard; Marchand, Geneviève; Sánchez, Pablo Sobrón; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Rodríguez, Javier Caride; Blázquez, Isaías Carrasco; Gómez, Felipe Gómez; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Hettrich, Sebastian; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Jiménez, Mercedes Marín; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Jurado, Antonio Molina; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Caro, Guillermo Muñoz; López, Sara Navarro; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pla-García, Jorge; Manfredi, José Antonio Rodriguez; Romeral-Planelló, Julio José; Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans; Martinez, Eduardo Sebastian; Redondo, Josefina Torres; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Mier, María-Paz Zorzano; Chipera, Steve; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Mauchien, Patrick; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Manning, Heidi; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Sullivan, Robert; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; DeMarines, Julia; Grinspoon, David; Reitz, Günther; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Kemppinen, Osku; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Fabre, Cécile; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Schieber, Juergen; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Berger, Gilles; Cros, Alain; d'Uston, Claude; Forni, Olivier; Gasnault, Olivier; Lasue, Jérémie; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Maurice, Sylvestre; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Pinet, Patrick; Schröder, Susanne; Toplis, Mike; Lewin, Éric; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Coscia, David; Israël, Guy; Dromart, Gilles; Robert, François; Sautter, Violaine; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Mangold, Nicolas; Nachon, Marion; Stalport, Fabien; Raulin, François; Cameron, James; Clegg, Sam; Cousin, Agnès; DeLapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Lanza, Nina; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Wiens, Roger C.; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Edgett, Kenneth; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; Malin, Michael; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Dyar, M. Darby; Fassett, Caleb; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Bleacher, Lora; Choi, David; Dworkin, Jason P.; Floyd, Melissa; Garvin, James; Harpold, Daniel; Jones, Andrea; Martin, David K.; Raaen, Eric; Smith, Michael D.; Tan, Florence; Meyer, Michael; Posner, Arik; Voytek, Mary; Anderson, Robert C.; Aubrey, Andrew; Beegle, Luther W.; Behar, Alberto; Blaney, Diana; Brinza, David; Calef, Fred; Christensen, Lance; Crisp, Joy A.; DeFlores, Lauren; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Jun, Insoo; Keymeulen, Didier; Maki, Justin; Mischna, Michael; Morookian, John Michael; Parker, Timothy; Pavri, Betina; Schoppers, Marcel; Sengstacken, Aaron; Simmonds, John J.; Spanovich, Nicole; Juarez, Manuel de la Torre; Yen, Albert; Cucinotta, Francis; Jones, John H.; Rampe, Elizabeth; Nolan, Thomas; Fisk, Martin; Radziemski, Leon; Barraclough, Bruce; Bender, Steve; Berman, Daniel; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Tokar, Robert; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Cleghorn, Timothy; Huntress, Wesley; Manhès, Gérard; Hudgins, Judy; Olson, Timothy; Stewart, Noel; Sarrazin, Philippe; Vicenzi, Edward; Wilson, Sharon A.; Bullock, Mark; Ehresmann, Bent; Hamilton, Victoria; Hassler, Donald; Peterson, Joseph; Rafkin, Scot; Zeitlin, Cary; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kozyrev, Alexander; Litvak, Maxim; Malakhov, Alexey; Mitrofanov, Igor; Mokrousov, Maxim; Nikiforov, Sergey; Prokhorov, Vasily; Sanin, Anton; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Varenikov, Alexey; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Clark, Benton; Wolff, Michael; Botta, Oliver; Drake, Darrell; Bean, Keri; Lemmon, Mark; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Anderson, Ryan B.; Lee, Ella Mae; Sucharski, Robert; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Ávalos, Juan José Blanco; Ramos, Miguel; Kim, Myung-Hee; Malespin, Charles; Plante, Ianik; Muller, Jan-Peter; Ewing, Ryan; Boynton, William; Downs, Robert; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Harshman, Karl; Morrison, Shaunna; Dietrich, William; Kortmann, Onno; Palucis, Marisa; Williams, Amy; Lugmair, Günter; Wilson, Michael A.; Rubin, David; Jakosky, Bruce; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Frydenvang, Jens; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Kinch, Kjartan; Koefoed, Asmus; Madsen, Morten Bo; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Boyd, Nick; VanBommel, Scott; Jacob, Samantha; Owen, Tobias; Rowland, Scott; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Savijärvi, Hannu; Boehm, Eckart; Böttcher, Stephan; Burmeister, Sönke; Guo, Jingnan; Köhler, Jan; García, César Martín; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Bridges, John C.; McConnochie, Timothy; Benna, Mehdi; Bower, Hannah; Blau, Hannah; Boucher, Thomas; Carmosino, Marco; Elliott, Harvey; Halleaux, Douglas; Rennó, Nilton; Wong, Michael; Pepin, Robert; Elliott, Beverley; Spray, John; Thompson, Lucy; Gordon, Suzanne; Newsom, Horton; Ollila, Ann; Williams, Joshua; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Bentz, Jennifer; Nealson, Kenneth; Popa, Radu; Kah, Linda C.; Tate, Christopher; Day, Mackenzie; Kocurek, Gary; Hallet, Bernard; Sletten, Ronald; Francis, Raymond; McCullough, Emily; Cloutis, Ed; ten Kate, Inge Loes; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Arvidson, Raymond; Fraeman, Abigail; Scholes, Daniel; Slavney, Susan; Stein, Thomas; Ward, Jennifer; Berger, Jeffrey; Moores, John E.

    2014-01-01

    H2O, CO2, SO2, O2, H2, H2S, HCl, chlorinated hydrocarbons, NO, and other trace gases were evolved during pyrolysis of two mudstone samples acquired by the Curiosity rover at Yellowknife Bay within Gale crater, Mars. H2O/OH-bearing phases included 2:1 phyllosilicate(s), bassanite, akaganeite, and amorphous materials. Thermal decomposition of carbonates and combustion of organic materials are candidate sources for the CO2. Concurrent evolution of O2 and chlorinated hydrocarbons suggests the presence of oxychlorine phase(s). Sulfides are likely sources for sulfur-bearing species. Higher abundances of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the mudstone compared with Rocknest windblown materials previously analyzed by Curiosity suggest that indigenous martian or meteoritic organic carbon sources may be preserved in the mudstone; however, the carbon source for the chlorinated hydrocarbons is not definitively of martian origin.

  1. Volatile and organic compositions of sedimentary rocks in Yellowknife Bay, Gale crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Archer, P.D.; Glavin, D.P.; Eigenbrode, J.L.; Franz, H.B.; Sutter, B.; Brunner, A.E.; Stern, J.C.; Freissinet, C.; McAdam, A.C.; Mahaffy, P.R.; Cabane, M.; Coll, P.; Campbell, J.L.; Atreya, S.K.; Niles, P.B.; Bell, J.F.; Bish, D.L.; Brinckerhoff, W.B.; Buch, A.; Conrad, P.G.; Des Marais, D.J.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Fairén, A.G.; Farley, K.; Flesch, G.J.; Francois, P.; Gellert, Ralf; Grant, J. A.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Gupta, S.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Leshin, L.A.; Lewis, K.W.; McLennan, S.M.; Miller, Karl E.; Moersch, J.; Morris, R.V.; Navarro- González, R.; Pavlov, A.A.; Perrett, G.M.; Pradler, I.; Squyres, S. W.; Summons, Roger E.; Steele, A.; Stolper, E.M.; Sumner, D.Y.; Szopa, C.; Teinturier, S.; Trainer, M.G.; Treiman, A.H.; Vaniman, D.T.; Vasavada, A.R.; Webster, C.R.; Wray, J.J.; Yingst, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    H2O, CO2, SO2, O2, H2, H2S, HCl, chlorinated hydrocarbons, NO, and other trace gases were evolved during pyrolysis of two mudstone samples acquired by the Curiosity rover at Yellowknife Bay within Gale crater, Mars. H2O/OH-bearing phases included 2:1 phyllosilicate(s), bassanite, akaganeite, and amorphous materials. Thermal decomposition of carbonates and combustion of organic materials are candidate sources for the CO2. Concurrent evolution of O2 and chlorinated hydrocarbons suggests the presence of oxychlorine phase(s). Sulfides are likely sources for sulfur-bearing species. Higher abundances of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the mudstone compared with Rocknest windblown materials previously analyzed by Curiosity suggest that indigenous martian or meteoritic organic carbon sources may be preserved in the mudstone; however, the carbon source for the chlorinated hydrocarbons is not definitively of martian origin.

  2. Volatile and organic compositions of sedimentary rocks in Yellowknife Bay, Gale crater, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D W; Archer, P D; Glavin, D P; Eigenbrode, J L; Franz, H B; Sutter, B; Brunner, A E; Stern, J C; Freissinet, C; McAdam, A C; Mahaffy, P R; Cabane, M; Coll, P; Campbell, J L; Atreya, S K; Niles, P B; Bell, J F; Bish, D L; Brinckerhoff, W B; Buch, A; Conrad, P G; Des Marais, D J; Ehlmann, B L; Fairén, A G; Farley, K; Flesch, G J; Francois, P; Gellert, R; Grant, J A; Grotzinger, J P; Gupta, S; Herkenhoff, K E; Hurowitz, J A; Leshin, L A; Lewis, K W; McLennan, S M; Miller, K E; Moersch, J; Morris, R V; Navarro-González, R; Pavlov, A A; Perrett, G M; Pradler, I; Squyres, S W; Summons, R E; Steele, A; Stolper, E M; Sumner, D Y; Szopa, C; Teinturier, S; Trainer, M G; Treiman, A H; Vaniman, D T; Vasavada, A R; Webster, C R; Wray, J J; Yingst, R A

    2014-01-24

    H2O, CO2, SO2, O2, H2, H2S, HCl, chlorinated hydrocarbons, NO, and other trace gases were evolved during pyrolysis of two mudstone samples acquired by the Curiosity rover at Yellowknife Bay within Gale crater, Mars. H2O/OH-bearing phases included 2:1 phyllosilicate(s), bassanite, akaganeite, and amorphous materials. Thermal decomposition of carbonates and combustion of organic materials are candidate sources for the CO2. Concurrent evolution of O2 and chlorinated hydrocarbons suggests the presence of oxychlorine phase(s). Sulfides are likely sources for sulfur-bearing species. Higher abundances of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the mudstone compared with Rocknest windblown materials previously analyzed by Curiosity suggest that indigenous martian or meteoritic organic carbon sources may be preserved in the mudstone; however, the carbon source for the chlorinated hydrocarbons is not definitively of martian origin.

  3. Geochemical modelling of water-rock interactions at the Osamu Utsumi mine and Morro do Ferro analogue study sites, Pocos de Caldas, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordstrom, D.K.; Puigdomenech, I.; McNutt, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    Geochemical processes involving water-rock interactions have been modelled using groundwater composition, mineralogical data, ion plots and computations of speciation, non-thermodynamic mass balance and thermodynamic mass transfer for two natural analogue sites near Pocos de Caldas, Brazil: the Osamu Utsumi mine and Morro do Ferro. The main rock type is an alkaline igneous complex composed of volcanic and sub-volcanic phonolites that have been hydrothermally altered and highly weathered. This altered rock mass grades from a laterite at the surface to a saprolite and finally to unweathered, hydrothermally altered bedrock at depth. The mine site contains high concentrations of uranium and Morro do Ferro contains high concentrations of thorium and rare-earths. The reaction models can reproduce the water chemistry and mineral occurences and they were validated by predicting the masses of minerals precipitated and the pH of the final water. The model computations can also reproduce the pH and iron concentrations of the water samples during CO 2 degassing and iron(II) oxidation from exposure to air. The results from the geochemical reaction models reveal that the dominant processes are production of CO 2 in the soil zone through aerobic decay of organic matter, dissolution of fluorite, calcite, K-feldspar, albite and manganese oxides, oxidation of pyrite and sphalerite and precipitation of ferric oxides, silica and kaolinite. Recharge waters are undersaturated with respect to barite and discharging waters and deeper groundwaters are saturated to supersaturated with respect to barite, demonstrating a strong equilibrium solubility control. Strontium isotope data demonstrate that sources other than calcium-bearing minerals are required to account for the dissolved strontium in the ground. These may include K-feldspar, smectite-chlorite mixed-layer clays and goyazite. (author) 24 figs., 4 tabs., 18 refs

  4. High-Temperature, Perhaps Silicic, Volcanism on Mars Evidenced by Tridymite Detection in High-SiO2 Sedimentary Rock at Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Vaniman, D. T.; Blake, D. F.; Gellert, R.; Chipera, S. J.; Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Treiman, A. H.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, has been exploring sedimentary rocks within Gale crater since landing in August, 2012. On the lower slopes of Aeolis Mons (a.k.a. Mount Sharp), drill powder was collected from a high-silica (74 wt% SiO2) outcrop named Buckskin (BK). It was a surprise to find that the Buckskin sample contained significant amounts of the relatively rare silica polymorph tridymite. We describe the setting of the Buckskin sample, the detection of tridymite by the MSL Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) X-ray diffraction instrument, and detection implications. Geologic setting: The Buckskin outcrop is part of the Murray formation exposed in the Marias Pass area. The formation was previously studied by CheMin in the Pahrump Hills member [1] where three samples of drill fines were analyzed (Confidence Hills (CH), Mojave2 (MJ) and Telegraph Peak (TP) [2]). Assuming approximately horizontal bedding, the Buckskin outcrop is approx.15 m stratigraphically above the bottom of the Pahrump Hills member. Mudstone, generally characterized by fine lamination, is the dominant depositional facies [1]. Buckskin Mineralogical and Chemical Composition: The CheMin instrument and XRD pattern analysis procedures have been previously discussed [3-6]. The diffraction pattern used for quantitative XRD analysis (Fig. 1) is the sum of the first 4 of 45 diffraction images. The remaining images are all characterized by both on-ring and off-ring diffraction spots that we attributed to poor grain motion and particle clumping. Coincident with particle clumping was a significant decrease in the intensity of the tridymite diffraction peaks (Fig. 2a). The derived mineralogical composition of the crystalline component (derived from the first 4 diffraction images) is given in Table 1. The tridymite is well-crystalline and its pattern is refined as monoclinic tridymite (Fig 1). Mineral chemical compositions were derived from XRD unit cell parameters or obtained from

  5. The location of uranium in source rocks and sites of secondary deposition at the Needle's Eye natural analogue site, Dumfries and Galloway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basham, I.R.; Hyslop, E.K.; Milodowski, A.E.; Pearce, J.M.

    1989-08-01

    The British Geological Survey has been conducting a co-ordinated research programme at the natural analogue site of Needle's Eye at Southwick on the Solway coast in SW Scotland. This study of a naturally radioactive geochemical system has been carried out with the aim of improving our confidence in using predictive models of radionuclide migration in the geosphere. This report describes results of integrated mineralogical techniques which have been applied to the study of both the 'source-term' and sites of secondary accumulation of uranium. Pitchblende in a polymetallic-carbonate breccia vein exposed in ancient sea-cliffs is the main source of labile uranium although other uranium-bearing minerals present in the granodiorite and hornfelsed siltstone host-rocks present probable ancillary leachable sites. In keeping with the complex chemistry of the primary sulphide-rich mineralization, a large variety of secondary U minerals has been recorded among which arsenates and hydrous silicates appear to predominate. Uranium transported in groundwaters draining the cliffs has accumulated in organic-rich estuarine/intertidal mudflat sediments of Quaternary age. Charged particle track registration techniques have demonstrated convincingly the effectiveness of humidified organic matter in retarding uranium transport and, coupled with scanning electron microscopy, have indicated an important role of living plants and bacteria in uranium uptake and concentration. (author)

  6. The location of uranium in source rocks and sites of secondary deposition at the Needle's Eye natural analogue site, Dumfries and Galloway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basham, I.R.; Hyslop, E.K.; Milodowski, A.E.; Pearce, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The British Geological Survey has been conducting a coordinated research programme at the natural analogue site of Needle's Eye at Southwick on the Solway coast in south-west Scotland. This study of a naturally radioactive geochemical system has been carried out with the aim of improving our confidence in using predictive models of radionuclide migration in the geosphere. This report describes results of integrated mineralogical techniques which have been applied to the study of both the source-term and sites of secondary accumulation of uranium. Pitchblende in a polymetallic-carbonate breccia vein exposed in ancient sea-cliffs is the main source of labile uranium although other uranium-bearing minerals present in the granodiorite and hornfelsed siltstone host-rocks present probable ancillary leachable sites. In keeping with the complex chemistry of the primary sulphide-rich mineralization, a large variety of secondary U minerals has been recorded among which arsenates and hydrous silicates appear to predominate. Uranium transported in groundwaters draining the cliffs has accumulated in organic-rich estuarine/intertidal mudflat sediments of Quaternary age. Charged particle track registration techniques have demonstrated convincingly the effectiveness of humified organic matter in retarding uranium transport and, coupled with scanning electron microscopy, have indicated the important role of living plants and bacteria in uranium uptake and concentration. Computer codes used: CHEMVAL; CHEMTARD 5 figs.; 64 plates; 37 refs

  7. Rapid degradation of the complex organic molecules in Martian surface rocks due to exposure to cosmic rays. Implications to the search of 'extinct' life on Mars by MSL and ExoMars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Glavin, D. P.; Floyd, M.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    Until recently, long-term exposure to cosmic rays has not been recognized as a major environmental factor, which can alter and destroy organic molecules in the Martian surface rocks. Recent modeling studies (e.g. Pavlov et al., 2012) suggested that organic molecules with masses >100 amu would be degraded in less than 1 billion years in the top 5 cm of the Martian rocks. That poses a serious challenge to the search of ancient molecules in the shallow subsurface of Mars. However, Pavlov et al. calculated the fraction of the survived organic molecules using conservative radiolysis constants derived from the gamma irradiation experiments on pure dry amino acid mixtures (Kminek and Bada, 2006). In this study we conducted a series of gamma irradiations of amino acids and carboxylic acids mixed with silica powder. We report that the addition of silicates dramatically increased the rate of organic degradation under gamma radiation. Using the newly derived radiolysis constants for amino acids and carboxylic acids in mineral mixtures, we recalculated the rate of organic degradation in the Martian rocks as a function of rocks' depth, chemical composition and weathering rates. Our results suggest that isolated organic molecules (acids) are likely to be altered or fully degraded in the surface rocks on Mars by cosmic rays in less than 10 million years unless some additional protective mechanisms are in place. We will discuss possible strategies for the MSL's search of the elusive ancient organic molecules to overcome the adverse effects of cosmic rays in the surface Martian rocks. References. Pavlov et al., 2012 GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH LETTERS, doi:10.1029/2012GL052166 Kminek, G., and J. Bada (2006), Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 245, 1-5, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2006.03.008.

  8. U-series in Fe(III)-U(VI) rich fracture infill-materials from the oxidised cap of the U-ore deposit of Mina Fe (Salamanca, Spain): Implications for water/rock interaction processes affecting and analogue site (Matrix II project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez del Villar, L.; Grespo, M. T.; Quejido, A. J.

    2002-01-01

    In the frame of the ENRESA natural analogue programme. The U-ore deposit of Mina Fe being studied as a natural analogue of radioactive spent fuel behaviour. In this context the knowledge of the role played by fracture minerals as scavengers of certain analogue elements. Mainly U, and the establishment of the time scale of the rock-water interaction processes controlling the uptakes or losses of U in the system are two relevant objectives

  9. Thermal Inertia of Rocks and Rock Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Mellon, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    The effective thermal inertia of rock populations on Mars and Earth is derived from a model of effective inertia versus rock diameter. Results allow a parameterization of the effective rock inertia versus rock abundance and bulk and fine component inertia. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  10. Mutnovsky and Gorely Volcanoes, Kamchatka as Planetary Analogue Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evdokimova, N.; Izbekov, P. E.; Krupskaya, V.; Muratov, A.

    2016-12-01

    Recent advances in Mars studies suggest that volcanic rocks, which dominated Martian surface in the past, have been exposed to alteration processes in a water-bearing environment during Noachian, before 3.7 Gy. Active volcanoes on Earth are natural laboratories, where volcanic processes and their associated products can be studied directly. This is particularly important for studying of alteration of juvenile volcanic products in aqueous environment because of the transient nature of some of the alteration products, as well as the environment itself. Terrestrial analogues help us to better understand processes on Mars; they are particularly useful as a test sites for preparation to future Mars missions. In this presentation we describe planetary analogue sites at Mutnovsky and Gorely Volcanoes in Kamchatka, which might be helpful for comparative studies and preparation to future Mars missions. Mutnovsky and Gorely Volcanoes are located 75 km south of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, in the southern part of the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The modern volcanic landscape in the area was shaped in Holocene (recent 10,000 years) through intermittent eruption of magmas ranging in composition from basalts to dacites and rhyodacites, with basaltic andesite lavas dominating in the modern relief. Two localities could be of a particular interest: (1) Mutnovsky NW thermal field featuring processes of active hydrothermal alteration of lavas of basaltic andesite and (2) dry lake at the bottom of Gorely caldera featuring products of mechanical disintegration of basaltic andesite lavas by eolian processes with short seasonal sedimentation in aqueous environment.

  11. Mars Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    First of NASA's Discovery missions. Launched in December 1996 and arrived at Mars on 4 July 1997. Mainly intended as a technology demonstration mission. Used airbags to cushion the landing on Mars. The Carl Sagan Memorial station returned images of an ancient flood plain in Ares Vallis. The 10 kg Sojourner rover used an x-ray spectrometer to study the composition of rocks and travelled about 100 ...

  12. Chemical and isotopic characterization of water-rock interactions in shales induced by the intrusion of a basaltic dike: A natural analogue for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techer, Isabelle; Rousset, Davy; Clauer, Norbert; Lancelot, Joel; Boisson, Jean-Yves

    2006-01-01

    Disposal of nuclear waste in deep geological formations is expected to induce thermal fluxes for hundreds of years with maximum temperature reaching about 100-150 deg. C in the nearfield argillaceous environment. The long-term behavior of clays subjected to such thermal gradients needs to be perfectly understood in safety assessment considerations. In this respect, a Toarcian argillaceous unit thermally disturbed by the intrusion of a 1.1-m wide basaltic dike at the Perthus pass (Herault, France), was studied in detail as a natural analogue. The thermal imprint induced by the dike was evaluated by a mineralogical, chemical and K-Ar study of the <2 μm clay fraction of shale samples collected at increasing distance from the basalt. The data suggest that the mineral composition of the shales was not significantly disturbed when the temperature was below 100-150 deg. C. Closer to the dike at 150-300 deg. C, changes such as progressive dissolution of chlorite and kaolinite, increased content of the mixed layers illite-smectite with more illite layers, complete decalcification and subsequent increased content of quartz, were found. At the eastern contact with the dike, the mineral and chemical compositions of both the shales and the basalt suggest water-rock interactions subsequent to the intrusion with precipitation of palagonite and renewed but discrete deposition of carbonate. A pencil cleavage developed in the shales during the dike emplacement probably favored water circulation along the contact. Strontium isotopic data suggest that the fluids of probable meteoric origin, reacted with Bathonian and Bajocian limestones before entering the underlying Toarcian shales. By analogy with deep geological radioactive waste repositories, the results report discrete mineralogical variations of the clays when subjected to temperatures of 100-150 deg. C that are expected in deep storage conditions. Beyond 150 deg. C, significant mineralogical changes may alter the physical and

  13. Mineral Fractionation during Sediment Comminution and Transport in Fluvio-Deltaic and Lacustrine Rocks of the Bradbury Group, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebach, K. L.; Baker, M. B.; Grotzinger, J. P.; McLennan, S. M.; Gellert, R.; Thompson, L. M.; Hurowitz, J.

    2017-12-01

    Mineral distribution patterns in sediments of the Bradbury group in Gale crater, interpreted from observations by the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity, show the importance of transport mechanics in source-to-sink processes on Mars. The Bradbury group is comprised of basalt-derived mudstones to conglomerates exposed along the modern floor of Gale crater and analyzed along a 9-km traverse of the Curiosity rover. Over 110 bulk chemistry analyses of the rocks were acquired, along with two XRD mineralogical analyses of the mudstone. These rocks are uniquely suited for analysis of source-to-sink processes because they exhibit a wide range of compositions, but (based on multiple chemical weathering proxies) they appear to have experienced negligible cation-loss during weathering and erosion. Chemical variations between analyses correlate with sediment grain sizes, with coarser-grained rocks enriched in plagioclase components SiO2, Al2O3, and Na2O, and finer-grained rocks enriched in components of mafic minerals, consistent with grain-size sorting of mineral fractions during sediment transport. Further geochemical and mineralogical modeling supports the importance of mineral fractionation: even though the limited XRD data suggests that some fraction (if not all) of the rocks contain clays and an amorphous component, models show that 90% of the compositions measured are consistent with sorting of primary igneous minerals from a plagioclase-phyric subalkaline basalt (i.e., no corrections for cation-loss are required). The distribution of K2O, modeled as a potassium feldspar component, is an exception to the major-element trends because it does not correlate with grain size, but has an elevation-dependent signal likely correlated with the introduction of a second source material. However, the dominant compositional trends within the Bradbury group sedimentary rocks are correlated with grain size and consistent with mineral fractionation of minimally

  14. Redox front penetration in the fractured Toki Granite, central Japan: An analogue for redox reactions and redox buffering in fractured crystalline host rocks for repositories of long-lived radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Koshi; Yoshida, Hidekazu; Akagawa, Fuminori; Nishimoto, Shoji; Metcalfe, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Deep redox front developed in orogenic granitic rock have been studied. • The process was controlled by the buffering capacity of minerals. • This is an analogue of redox front penetration into HLW repositories in Japan. - Abstract: Redox buffering is one important factor to be considered when assessing the barrier function of potential host rocks for a deep geological repository for long-lived radioactive waste. If such a repository is to be sited in fractured crystalline host rock it must be demonstrated that waste will be emplaced deeper than the maximum depth to which oxidizing waters can penetrate from the earth’s surface via fractures, during the assessment timeframe (typically 1 Ma). An analogue for penetration of such oxidizing water occurs in the Cretaceous Toki Granite of central Japan. Here, a deep redox front is developed along water-conducting fractures at a depth of 210 m below the ground surface. Detailed petrographical studies and geochemical analyses were carried out on drill core specimens of this redox front. The aim was to determine the buffering processes and behavior of major and minor elements, including rare earth elements (REEs), during redox front development. The results are compared with analytical data from an oxidized zone found along shallow fractures (up to 20 m from the surface) in the same granitic rock, in order to understand differences in elemental migration according to the depth below the ground surface of redox-front formation. Geochemical analyses by XRF and ICP-MS of the oxidized zone at 210 m depth reveal clear changes in Fe(III)/Fe(II) ratios and Ca depletion across the front, while Fe concentrations vary little. In contrast, the redox front identified along shallow fractures shows strong enrichments of Fe, Mn and trace elements in the oxidized zone compared with the fresh rock matrix. The difference can be ascribed to the changing Eh and pH of groundwater as it flows downwards in the granite, due to

  15. The Search for Life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    For centuries, the planet Mars has been regarded as a possible abode for life. Serious searches for the signatures of life began in the 19th century, and continue via telescopic investigations and landed missions. While early work focused on phenomenology and bordered on fantasy, modern scientific inquiry has emphasized the search for chemical signatures of life in the soil and rocks at the planet's surface, and the search for biomarker gases in the atmosphere. Living systems produce more than 90% of Earth's atmospheric methane; the balance is of geochemical origin. The discovery of methane on Mars will be described, along with the ongoing extended search for clues to its origins. The possible origins of Mars methane will be discussed in the context of terrestrial analogue sites where geologic and biologic methane production now occurs - ranging from sub-permafrost zones in the arctic to hydrothermal vents in the deep ocean. Terrestrial organisms that could prosper on Mars today will be mentioned. I will briefly touch upon experiments conducted by landed spacecraft, ranging from the Viking Life Science Experiments in 1976 to the impending Mars Science laboratory, and the Trace Gas Orbiter and ExoMars missions now being developed for flight in the coming decade.

  16. Rollerjaw Rock Crusher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gregory; Brown, Kyle; Fuerstenau, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The rollerjaw rock crusher melds the concepts of jaw crushing and roll crushing long employed in the mining and rock-crushing industries. Rollerjaw rock crushers have been proposed for inclusion in geological exploration missions on Mars, where they would be used to pulverize rock samples into powders in the tens of micrometer particle size range required for analysis by scientific instruments.

  17. 'Escher' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters. The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water. Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend. These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  18. Martian analogue test site - pilbara craton, western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A.; Allwood, A.; Walter, M. R.; van Kranendonk, M.

    All exploration for life elsewhere depends on extrapolation from our knowledge of Earth. If the target is former microbial life, for example on Mars, there is no better analogue on Earth than the 3.5 billion year old rocks of the Pilbara region, Western Australia. This area is home to signs of the earliest life on Earth in the form of microbe, many famous stromatolitic horizons and carbon isotope biosignatures. These occur in a volcanic terrain, with weathering and hydrothermal alteration, which also has some similarity to Mars. The geology of this region is known in detail after decades of mapping and other studies. Current work includes studies to resolve disputes about the biogenicity of the microfossils and stromatolites. On balance, biological origins are most likely. In any event, problems of demonstrating biogenicity on other planets will be far more severe, and the work on the Pilbara materials will illuminate those problems. Also underway is mineral mapping of the volcanic, hydrothermal and fossiliferous units using both airborne and hand-held short-wave infrared spectrometers, We are able to map the fossiliferous units using this technique and contend that it would be a powerful exploration technique on Mars and elsewhere. Using the Pilbara as an analogue for other bodies in the Solar System can extend to using it as a place to test instrument packages under realistic conditions. The region has good air and road access, and good supporting infrastructure.

  19. Biomarkers and taphonomic processes in fresh and fossil biosignatures from Hot Spring silica deposits in El Tatio Chile, as a Mars Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo, D.; Sánchez-García, L.; Parro, V.; Cady, S. L.; Cabrol, N. A.

    2017-09-01

    Biomarkers characterization and taphonomic process of recent and fossil biosignatures in extreme environments with analogies to Mars is essential to understanding how life could develop and survive in this conditions. Siliceous sinter deposits on Mars where similar to those found in the hydrothermal hot springs and geysers from El Tatio, Chile. Organic preservation have been shown in this study. Many different labile functional groups (i.e., carboxylic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, etc.) were found in both "age" samples. A shift in congener pattern for the different lipids families were found and discuss. This results give insight in taphonomic processes actin in this extreme environment, which could be used as a baseline in Mars exploration.

  20. Analogue Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barceló Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.

  1. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Mars: Remote Sensing and Terrestrial Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    a Mars Analog Site: Tohachi Wash/Little Colorado River; and Antarctic Dry Valleys: Modification of Rocks and Soils and Implications for Mars The Arkaroola Mars Analogue Region, South Australia.

  2. Source-rock maturation characteristics of symmetric and asymmetric grabens inferred from integrated analogue and numerical modeling: The southern Viking Graben (North Sea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corver, M.P.; Doust, H.; van Wees, J.D.A.M.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of an integrated analogue and numerical modeling study with a focus on structural, stratigraphic and thermal differences between symmetric and asymmetric grabens. These models enable fault interpretation and subsidence analyses in studies of active rifting and graben

  3. Sensitvie life detection strategies for low-biomass environments: optimizing extraction of nucleic acids adsorbing to terrestrial and Mars analogue minerals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Direito, S.O.L.; Marees, A.; Roling, W.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption of nucleic acids to mineral matrixes can result in low extraction yields and negatively influences molecular microbial ecology studies, in particular for low-biomass environments on Earth and Mars. We determined the recovery of nucleic acids from a range of minerals relevant to Earth

  4. The Influence of Mineralogy on Recovering Organic Acids from Mars Analogue Materials Using the One-Pot Derivatization Experiment on the Sample Analysis at Mars(SAM) Instrument Suite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalport, Fabien; Glavin, Daniel P.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Bish, D.; Blake, D.; Coll, P.; Szopa, C.; Buch, A.; McAdam, A.; Dworkin, J. P.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The search for complex organic molecules on Mars, including important biomolecules such as amino acids and carboxylic acids, will require a chemical extraction and a derivatization step to transform these organic compounds into species that are sufficiently volatile to be detected by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). We have developed a ''one-pot'' extraction and chemical derivatization protocol using N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) and dimethylformamide (DMF) for the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment instrument suite on NASA's the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. The temperature and duration of the derivatization reaction, pre-concentration of chemical derivatives, and gas chromatographic separation parameters have been optimized under SAM instrument design constraints. MTBSTFA/DMF extraction and derivatization at 300 1C for several minutes of a variety of terrestrial Mars analog materials facilitated the detection of amino acids and carboxylic acids in a surface soil sample collected from the Atacama Desert and a carbonate-rich stromatolite sample from Svalbard. However, the rapid reaction of MTBSTFA with water in several analog materials that contained high abundances of hydrated minerals, and the possible deactivation of derivatized compounds by iron oxides, as detected by XRD/XRF using the CheMin field unit Terra, proved to be highly problematic for the direct extraction of organics using MTBSTFA. The combination of pyrolysis and two different wet-chemical derivatization methods employed by SAM should enable a wide range of organic compounds to be detected by GCMS if present on Mars.

  5. Analogue Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Barceló

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Analogue gravity is a research programme which investigates analogues of general relativistic gravitational fields within other physical systems, typically but not exclusively condensed matter systems, with the aim of gaining new insights into their corresponding problems. Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.

  6. Aqueous extracts of a Mars analogue regolith that mimics the Phoenix landing site do not inhibit spore germination or growth of model spacecraft contaminants Bacillus subtilis 168 and Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Wayne L.; McCoy, Lashelle E.; Kerney, Krystal R.; Ming, Douglas W.; Golden, D. C.; Schuerger, Andrew C.

    2012-08-01

    Because Mars is a primary target for life detection and habitability assessment missions, its exploration is also by necessity a Planetary Protection issue. The recent finding of significant levels of perchlorate (ClO4-) in regolith sampled from the Phoenix landing site raises the question of its potential biotoxicity to putative indigenous martian life, microbial forward contaminants from Earth, or future human visitors. To address this issue, an analogue regolith was constructed based on regolith chemistry data from the Phoenix landing site. A Mars Aqueous Regolith Extract (MARE) was prepared from the Phoenix analogue regolith and analyzed by ion chromatography. The MARE contained (mg/L) the cations Na+ (1411 ± 181), Mg2+ (1051 ± 160), Ca2+ (832 ± 125), and K+ (261 ± 29), and the anions SO42-(5911±993), ClO4-(5316±1767), Cl(171±25) and F- (2.0 ± 0.4). Nitrogen-containing species NO3-(773±113) and NO2-(6.9±2.3) were also present as a result of regolith preparation procedures, but their relevance to Mars is at present unknown. The MARE was tested for potential toxic effects on two model spacecraft contaminants, the spore-forming bacteria Bacillus subtilis strain 168 and Bacillus pumilus strain SAFR-032. In B. subtilis, spore germination and initial vegetative growth (up to ˜5 h) was not inhibited in a rich complex medium prepared with the MARE, but growth after 5 h was significantly suppressed in medium prepared using the MARE. Both B. subtilis and B. pumilus exhibited significantly higher rates of spore germination and growth in the MARE vs. DW with no additions (likely due to endogenous spore nutrients), but germination and growth was further stimulated by addition of glucose and a combination of buffered inorganic salts (K2HPO4, KH2PO4, (NH4)2SO4, and MgSO4). The data indicate that the aqueous environment in the regolith from the Phoenix landing site containing high levels of perchlorate does not pose a significant barrier to growth of putative

  7. In Situ Dating Experiments of Igneous Rocks Using the KArLE Instrument: A Case Study for Approximately 380 Ma Basaltic Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yuichiro; Cohen, Barbara A.

    2018-01-01

    We report new K-Ar isochron data for two approximately 380 Ma basaltic rocks, using an updated version of the Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KArLE). These basalts have K contents comparable to lunar KREEP basalts or igneous lithologies found by Mars rovers, whereas previous proof-of-concept studies focused primarily on more K-rich rocks. We continue to measure these analogue samples to show the advancing capability of in situ K-Ar geochronology. KArLE is applicable to other bodies including the Moon or asteroids.

  8. Redox front formation in an uplifting sedimentary rock sequence: An analogue for redox-controlling processes in the geosphere around deep geological repositories for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, H.; Metcalfe, R.; Yamamoto, K.; Murakami, Y.; Hoshii, D.; Kanekiyo, A.; Naganuma, T.; Hayashi, T.

    2008-01-01

    Subsurface redox fronts control the mobilization and fixation of many trace elements, including potential pollutants such as certain radionuclides. Any safety assessment for a deep geological repository for radioactive wastes needs to take into account adequately the long-term redox processes in the geosphere surrounding the repository. To build confidence in understanding these processes, a redox front in a reduced siliceous sedimentary rock distributed in an uplifting area in Japan has been studied in detail. Geochemical analyses show increased concentrations of Fe and trace elements, including rare earth elements (REEs), at the redox front, even though concentrations of reduced rock matrix constituents show little change. Detailed SEM observations revealed that fossilized microorganisms composed of amorphous granules made exclusively of Fe and Si occur in the rock's pore space. Microbial 16S rDNA analysis suggests that there is presently a zonation of different bacterial groups within the redox band, and bacterial zonation played an important role in the concentration of Fe-oxyhydroxides at the redox front. These water-rock-microbe interactions can be considered analogous to the processes occurring in the redox fronts that would develop around geological repositories for radioactive waste. Once formed, the Fe-oxyhydroxides within such a front would be preserved even after reducing conditions resume following repository closure

  9. Redox front formation in an uplifting sedimentary rock sequence: An analogue for redox-controlling processes in the geosphere around deep geological repositories for radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, H. [Nagoya University Museum, Material Research Section, Furocho, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)], E-mail: dora@num.nagoya-u.ac.jp; Metcalfe, R. [Quintessa Japan, Queen' s Tower A7-707, Minatomirai, Yokohama 220-6007 (Japan); Yamamoto, K. [Nagoya University Museum, Material Research Section, Furocho, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Murakami, Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tono Geoscience Centre (Japan); Hoshii, D.; Kanekiyo, A.; Naganuma, T. [Hiroshima University, Higashi Hiroshima, Kagamiyama 1-4-4 (Japan); Hayashi, T. [Asahi University, Department of Dental Pharmacology, Hozumi, Gifu (Japan)

    2008-08-15

    Subsurface redox fronts control the mobilization and fixation of many trace elements, including potential pollutants such as certain radionuclides. Any safety assessment for a deep geological repository for radioactive wastes needs to take into account adequately the long-term redox processes in the geosphere surrounding the repository. To build confidence in understanding these processes, a redox front in a reduced siliceous sedimentary rock distributed in an uplifting area in Japan has been studied in detail. Geochemical analyses show increased concentrations of Fe and trace elements, including rare earth elements (REEs), at the redox front, even though concentrations of reduced rock matrix constituents show little change. Detailed SEM observations revealed that fossilized microorganisms composed of amorphous granules made exclusively of Fe and Si occur in the rock's pore space. Microbial 16S rDNA analysis suggests that there is presently a zonation of different bacterial groups within the redox band, and bacterial zonation played an important role in the concentration of Fe-oxyhydroxides at the redox front. These water-rock-microbe interactions can be considered analogous to the processes occurring in the redox fronts that would develop around geological repositories for radioactive waste. Once formed, the Fe-oxyhydroxides within such a front would be preserved even after reducing conditions resume following repository closure.

  10. Sensitive life detection strategies for low-biomass environments: optimizing extraction of nucleic acids adsorbing to terrestrial and Mars analogue minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Susana O L; Marees, Andries; Röling, Wilfred F M

    2012-07-01

    The adsorption of nucleic acids to mineral matrixes can result in low extraction yields and negatively influences molecular microbial ecology studies, in particular for low-biomass environments on Earth and Mars. We determined the recovery of nucleic acids from a range of minerals relevant to Earth and Mars. Clay minerals, but also other silicates and nonsilicates, showed very low recovery (< 1%). Consequently, optimization of DNA extraction was directed towards clays. The high temperatures and acidic conditions used in some methods to dissolve mineral matrices proved to destruct DNA. The most efficient method comprised a high phosphate solution (P/EtOH; 1 M phosphate, 15% ethanol buffer at pH 8) introduced at the cell-lysing step in DNA extraction, to promote chemical competition with DNA for adsorption sites. This solution increased DNA yield from clay samples spiked with known quantities of cells up to nearly 100-fold. DNA recovery was also enhanced from several mineral samples retrieved from an aquifer, while maintaining reproducible DGGE profiles. DGGE profiles were obtained for a clay sample for which no profile could be generated with the standard DNA isolation protocol. Mineralogy influenced microbial community composition. The method also proved suitable for the recovery of low molecular weight DNA (< 1.5 kb). © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Palmottu analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen, L.; Blomqvist, R.; Suksi, J.

    1993-01-01

    The report gives a summary of the results of investigations carried out in 1992 at the Palmottu natural analogue study site, which is a small U-Th mineralization in Nummi-Pusula, southwestern Finland. Additionally, the report includes several separate articles dealing with various aspects of the Palmottu Analogue Project: (1) deep groundwater flow, (2) interpretation of hydraulic connections, (3) characterization of groundwater colloids, (4) uranium mineral-groundwater equilibrium, (5) water-rock interaction and (6) modelling of in situ matrix diffusion. The Palmottu Analogue Project aims at a more profound understanding of radionuclide transport processes in fractured crystalline bedrock. The essential factors controlling transport are groundwater flow and interaction between water and rock. Accordingly, the study includes (1) structural interpretations partly based on geophysical measurements, (2) hydrological studies including hydraulic drill-hole measurements, (3) flow modelling, (4) hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater, uranium chemistry and colloid chemistry, (5) mineralogical studies, (6) geochemical interpretation and modelling, (7) studies of radionuclide mobilization and retardation including matrix diffusion, and (8) modelling of uranium series data. Palaeohydrogeological aspects, due to the anticipated future glaciation of the Fennoscandian Shield, are of special interest. Quaternary sediments are studied to gain information on post-glacial migration in the overburden. (orig.)

  12. BALANOL ANALOGUES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to a solid phase methodology for the preparation of a combinatorial library of structural analogues of the natural product balanol (ophiocordin, azepinostatin), which is a protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. The method comprises solid...

  13. White Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  14. Smectite Formation from Basaltic Glass Under Acidic Conditions on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretyazhko, T. S.; Sutter, B.; Morris, R. V.; Agresti, D. G.; Le, L.; Ming, D. W.

    2015-01-01

    Massive deposits of phyllosilicates of the smectite group, including Mg/Fe-smectite, have been identified in Mars's ancient Noachian terrain. The observed smectite is hypothesized to form through aqueous alteration of basaltic crust under neutral to alkaline pH conditions. These pH conditions and the presence of a CO2-rich atmosphere suggested for ancient Mars were favorable for the formation of large carbonate deposits. However, the detection of large-scale carbonate deposits is limited on Mars. We hypothesized that smectite deposits may have formed under acidic conditions that prevented carbonate precipitation. In this work we investigated formation of saponite at a pH of approximately 4 from Mars-analogue synthetic Adirondack basaltic glass of composition similar to Adirondack class rocks located at Gusev crater. Hydrothermal (200º Centigrade) 14 day experiments were performed with and without 10 millimoles Fe(II) or Mg under anoxic condition [hereafter denoted as anoxic_Fe, anoxic_Mg and anoxic (no addition of Fe(II) or Mg)] and under oxic condition [hereafter denoted as oxic (no addition of Fe(II) or Mg)]. Characterization and formation conditions of the synthesized saponite provided insight into the possible geochemical conditions required for saponite formation on Mars.

  15. Eos Chaos Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    11 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered rock outcrops in Eos Chaos, located near the east end of the Valles Marineris trough system. The outcrops occur in the form of a distinct, circular butte (upper half of image) and a high slope (lower half of image). The rocks might be sedimentary rocks, similar to those found elsewhere exposed in the Valles Marineris system and the chaotic terrain to the east of the region. Location near: 12.9oS, 49.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  16. Reproducing early Martian atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure by modeling the formation of Mg-Fe-Ca carbonate identified in the Comanche rock outcrops on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Wolfgang; Fu, Yunjiao; Ilger, Jan-Michael

    2012-10-01

    The well defined composition of the Comanche rock's carbonate (Magnesite0.62Siderite0.25Calcite0.11Rhodochrosite0.02) and its host rock's composition, dominated by Mg-rich olivine, enable us to reproduce the atmospheric CO2partial pressure that may have triggered the formation of these carbonates. Hydrogeochemical one-dimensional transport modeling reveals that similar aqueous rock alteration conditions (including CO2partial pressure) may have led to the formation of Mg-Fe-Ca carbonate identified in the Comanche rock outcrops (Gusev Crater) and also in the ultramafic rocks exposed in the Nili Fossae region. Hydrogeochemical conditions enabling the formation of Mg-rich solid solution carbonate result from equilibrium species distributions involving (1) ultramafic rocks (ca. 32 wt% olivine; Fo0.72Fa0.28), (2) pure water, and (3) CO2partial pressures of ca. 0.5 to 2.0 bar at water-to-rock ratios of ca. 500 molH2O mol-1rock and ca. 5°C (278 K). Our modeled carbonate composition (Magnesite0.64Siderite0.28Calcite0.08) matches the measured composition of carbonates preserved in the Comanche rocks. Considerably different carbonate compositions are achieved at (1) higher temperature (85°C), (2) water-to-rock ratios considerably higher and lower than 500 mol mol-1 and (3) CO2partial pressures differing from 1.0 bar in the model set up. The Comanche rocks, hosting the carbonate, may have been subjected to long-lasting (>104 to 105 years) aqueous alteration processes triggered by atmospheric CO2partial pressures of ca. 1.0 bar at low temperature. Their outcrop may represent a fragment of the upper layers of an altered olivine-rich rock column, which is characterized by newly formed Mg-Fe-Ca solid solution carbonate, and phyllosilicate-rich alteration assemblages within deeper (unexposed) units.

  17. Grinding into Soft, Powdery Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This hole in a rock dubbed 'Clovis' is the deepest hole drilled so far in any rock on Mars. NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this view with its microscopic imager on martian sol 217 (Aug. 12, 2004) after drilling 8.9 millimeters (0.35 inch) into the rock with its rock abrasion tool. The view is a mosaic of four frames taken by the microscopic imager. The hole is 4.5 centimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter. Clovis is key to a developing story about environmental change on Mars, not only because it is among the softest rocks encountered so far in Gusev Crater, but also because it contains mineral alterations that extend relatively deep beneath its surface. In fact, as evidenced by its fairly crumbly texture, it is possibly the most highly altered volcanic rock ever studied on Mars. Scientific analysis shows that the rock contains higher levels of the elements sulfur, chlorine, and bromine than are normally encountered in basaltic rocks, such as a rock dubbed 'Humphrey' that Spirit encountered two months after arriving on Mars. Humphrey showed elevated levels of sulfur, chlorine, and bromine only in the outermost 2 millimeters (less than 0.1 inch) of its surface. Clovis shows elevated levels of the same elements along with the associated softness of the rock within a borehole that is 4 times as deep. Scientists hope to compare Clovis to other, less-altered rocks in the vicinity to assess what sort of water-based processes altered the rock. Hypotheses include transport of sulfur, chlorine, and bromine in water vapor in volcanic gases; hydrothermal circulation (flow of volcanically heated water through rock); or saturation in a briny soup containing the same elements. In this image, very fine-grained material from the rock has clumped together by electrostatic attraction and fallen into the borehole. NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS

  18. Experimental deformation of polyphase rock analogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bons, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis presents an investigation into the mechanical properties of ductile polyphase materials, which were studied by a number of different techniques. The first approach was to do creep tests and transparent deformation cell experiments with two-phase composites of organic crystalline

  19. Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor Outreach Compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    This videotape is a compilation of the best NASA JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) videos of the Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor missions. The mission is described using animation and narration as well as some actual footage of the entire sequence of mission events. Included within these animations are the spacecraft orbit insertion; descent to the Mars surface; deployment of the airbags and instruments; and exploration by Sojourner, the Mars rover. JPL activities at spacecraft control during significant mission events are also included at the end. The spacecraft cameras pan the surrounding Mars terrain and film Sojourner traversing the surface and inspecting rocks. A single, brief, processed image of the Cydonia region (Mars face) at an oblique angle from the Mars Global Surveyor is presented. A description of the Mars Pathfinder mission, instruments, landing and deployment process, Mars approach, spacecraft orbit insertion, rover operation are all described using computer animation. Actual color footage of Sojourner as well as a 360 deg pan of the Mars terrain surrounding the spacecraft is provided. Lower quality black and white photography depicting Sojourner traversing the Mars surface and inspecting Martian rocks also is included.

  20. Aram Chaos Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    8 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcrops of light-toned, sedimentary rock among darker-toned mesas in Aram Chaos. Dark, windblown megaripples -- large ripples -- are also present at this location. Location near: 3.0oN, 21.6oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  1. Weathering of rock 'Ginger'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    One of the more unusual rocks at the site is Ginger, located southeast of the lander. Parts of it have the reddest color of any material in view, whereas its rounded lobes are gray and relatively unweathered. These color differences are brought out in the inset, enhanced at the upper right. In the false color image at the lower right, the shape of the visible-wavelength spectrum (related to the abundance of weathered ferric iron minerals) is indicated by the hue of the rocks. Blue indicates relatively unweathered rocks. Typical soils and drift, which are heavily weathered, are shown in green and flesh tones. The very red color in the creases in the rock surface correspond to a crust of ferric minerals. The origin of the rock is uncertain; the ferric crust may have grown underneath the rock, or it may cement pebbles together into a conglomerate. Ginger will be a target of future super-resolution studies to better constrain its origin.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  2. Wet Mars, Dry Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brain, D. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K. W.; Thrall, L.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This poster highlights the third in a series of presentations that target school-age audiences with the overall goal of helping the audience visualize planetary magnetic field and understand how they can impact the climatic evolution of a planet. Our first presentation, "Goldilocks and the Three Planets," targeted to elementary school age audiences, focuses on the differences in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars and the causes of the differences. The second presentation, "Lost on Mars (and Venus)," geared toward a middle school age audience, highlights the differences in the magnetic fields of these planets and what we can learn from these differences. Finally, in the third presentation, "Wet Mars, Dry Mars," targeted to high school age audiences and the focus of this poster, the emphasis is on the long term climatic affects of the presence or absence of a magnetic field using the contrasts between Earth and Mars. These presentations are given using visually engaging spherical displays in conjunction with hands-on activities and scientifically accurate 3D models of planetary magnetic fields. We will summarize the content of our presentations, discuss our lessons learned from evaluations, and show (pictures of) our hands-on activities and 3D models.

  3. A Rover Mobility Platform with Autonomous Capability to Enable Mars Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, P.; Langley, C.; Shaw, A.

    2018-04-01

    The next step in understanding Mars is sample return. In Fall 2016, the CSA conducted an analogue deployment using the Mars Exploration Science Rover. An objective was to demonstrate the maturity of the rover's guidance, navigation, and control.

  4. Mineral Composition and Abundance of the Rocks and Soils at Gusev and Meridiani from the Mars Exploration Rover Mini-TES Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, P. R.; Wyatt, M. B.; Glotch, T. D.; Rogers, A. D.; Anwar, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bandfield, J. L.; Blaney, D. L.; Budney, C.; Calvin, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    The Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) has provided remote measurements of mineralogy, thermophysical properties, and atmospheric temperature profile and composition of the outcrops, rocks, spherules, and soils surrounding the Spirit and Opportunity Rovers. The mineralogy of volcanic rocks provides insights into the composition of the source regions and the nature of martian igneous processes. Carbonates, sulfates, evaporites, and oxides provide information on the role of water in the surface evolution. Oxides, such as crystalline hematite, provide insight into aqueous weathering processes, as would the occurrence of clay minerals and other weathering products. Diurnal temperature measurements can be used to determine particle size and search for the effects of sub-surface layering, which in turn provide clues to the origin of surficial materials through rock disintegration, aeolian transport, atmospheric fallout, or induration. In addition to studying the surface properties, Mini-TES spectra have also been used to determine the temperature profile in the lower boundary layer, providing evidence for convective activity, and have determined the seasonal trends in atmospheric temperature and dust and cloud opacity.

  5. Low-flow, low-permeability measurements in largely impermeable rocks. Proceedings of the NEA/AIEA workshop, Paris, 19-21 Mar 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Geological formations considered as potential candidates for the siting of radioactive waste repositories must contain no or little circulating ground water since, over the long term, ground water could transport particular radionuclides over long distances and even back to the biosphere. It is therefore essential that every candidate disposal formation be carefully evaluated in relation to its potential for transmitting fluids. Since suitable formations are necessarily characterized by negligible fluid flows, the above requirement implies some capability of measuring extremely low permeabilities in situ. The types of rocks that have been frequently considered as potential host materials for radioactive waste are rock salt, argillaceous sediments and crystalline rocks. Some countries with geologic disposal programmes are conducting or planning field experiments of various kinds. They are all confronted with the problem of how to measure very low permeabilities in situ. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency organized this meeting. These proceedings constitute a record of the papers presented and the discussions held during the workshop.

  6. Analogue MIMO Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNamara Darren

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution we propose an analogue receiver that can perform turbo detection in MIMO systems. We present the case for a receiver that is built from nonlinear analogue devices, which perform detection in a "free-flow" network (no notion of iterations. This contribution can be viewed as an extension of analogue turbo decoder concepts to include MIMO detection. These first analogue implementations report reductions of few orders of magnitude in the number of required transistors and in consumed energy, and the same order of improvement in processing speed. It is anticipated that such analogue MIMO decoder could bring about the same advantages, when compared to traditional digital implementations.

  7. The Valles natural analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockman, H.; Krumhansl, J.; Ho, C.; McConnell, V.

    1994-12-01

    The contact between an obsidian flow and a steep-walled tuff canyon was examined as an analogue for a highlevel waste repository. The analogue site is located in the Valles Caldera in New Mexico, where a massive obsidian flow filled a paleocanyon in the Battleship Rock tuff. The obsidian flow provided a heat source, analogous to waste panels or an igneous intrusion in a repository, and caused evaporation and migration of water. The tuff and obsidian samples were analyzed for major and trace elements and mineralogy by INAA, XRF, X-ray diffraction; and scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe. Samples were also analyzed for D/H and 39 Ar/ 4O isotopic composition. Overall,the effects of the heating event seem to have been slight and limited to the tuff nearest the contact. There is some evidence of devitrification and migration of volatiles in the tuff within 10 meters of the contact, but variations in major and trace element chemistry are small and difficult to distinguish from the natural (pre-heating) variability of the rocks

  8. Valles Marineris as a Cryokarstic Structure Formed by a Giant Dyke System: Support From New Analogue Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeren, M. S.; Sengor, A. M. C.; Acar, D.; Ülgen, S. C.; Onsel, I. E.

    2014-12-01

    Valles Marineris is the most significant near-linear depression on Mars. It is some 4000 km long, up to about 200 km wide and some 7 km deep. Although its margins look parallel at first sight, the entire structure has a long spindle shape with significant enlargement in its middle (Melas Chasma) caused by cuspate slope retreat mechanisms. Farther to its north is Hebes Chasma which is an entirely closed depression with a more pronounced spindle shape. Tithonium Chasma is a parallel, but much narrower depression to its northeast. All these chasmae have axes parallel with one another and such structures occur nowhere else on Mars. A scabland surface exists to the east of the Valles Marineris and the causative water mass seems to have issued from it. The great resemblance of these chasmae on mars to poljes in the karstic regions on earth have led us to assume that they owed their existence to dissolution of rock layers underlying them. We assumed that the dissolving layer consisted of water ice forming substantial layers, in fact entirely frozen seas of several km depth. We have simulated this geometry by using bentonite and flour layers (in different experiments) overlying layers of ice in which a resistant coil was used to simulate a dyke. We used different thicknesses of bentonite and flour overlying ice layers again of various thicknesses. The flour seems to simulate the Martian crust better because on Mars, g is only about 3/8ths of its value on Earth, so (for equal crustal density) the depth to which the cohesion term C remains important in the Mohr-Coulomb shear failure criterion is about 8/3 times greater. As examples we show two of those experiments in which both the rock analogue and ice layers were of 1.5 cm. thick. Perfect analogues of the Valles Marineris formed above the dyke analogue thermal source complete with the near-linear structure, overall flat spindle shape, cuspate margins, a central ridge, parallel side faults, parallel depressions resembling

  9. Ground water chemistry and geochemical modeling of water-rock interactions at the Osamu Utsumi mine and the Morro do Ferro analogue study sites, Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McNutt, R.H.; Puigdomenech, I.; Smellie, John A.T.; Wolf, M.

    1992-01-01

    Surface and ground waters, collected over a period of three years from the Osamu Utsumi uranium mine and the Morro do Ferro thorium/rare-earth element (Th/REE) deposits, were analyzed and interpreted to identify the major hydrogeochemical processes. These results provided information on the current geochemical evolution of ground waters for two study sites within the Poços de Caldas Natural Analogue Project.

  10. In Situ Analysis of Mars Soil and Rocks Sample with the Sam Gcms Instrumentation Onboard Curiosity : Interpretation and Comparison of Measurements Done during the First Martian Year of Curiosity on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szopa, C.; Coll, P. J.; Cabane, M.; Buch, A.; Coscia, D.; Millan, M.; Francois, P.; Belmahadi, I.; Teinturier, S.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Glavin, D. P.; Freissinet, C.; Steele, A.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    The characterisation of the chemical and mineralogical composition of solid surface samples collected with the Curiosity rover is a primary objective of the SAM experiment. These data should provide essential clues on the past habitability of Gale crater. Amongst the SAM suite of instruments [1], SAM-GC (Gas Chromatograph) is devoted to identify and quantify volatiles evolved from the thermal (heating up to about 900°C)/chemical (derivatization procedure) treatment of any soil sample collected by the Curiosity rover. With the aim to search for potential organic molecules outgassed from the samples, SAM-GC analytical channels composed of thermal-desorption injector, and a MXT-CLP or a MXT-Q chromatographic column was chosen to achieve all the measurements done up today, with the aim to separate of a wide range of volatile inorganic and organic molecules. Four solid samples have been analyzed with GCMS, one sand sample collected at the Rocknest site, two rock samples (John Klein and Cumberland respectively) collected at the Yellowknife Bay site using the Curiosity driller, and one rock sample collected at the Kimberly site. All the measurements were successful and they produced complex chromatograms with both detectors used for SAM GC, i.e. a thermal conductivity detector and the SAM quandrupole mass spectrometer. Their interpretation already revealed the presence of an oxychlorine phase present in the sample which is at the origin of chlorohydrocarbons clearly identified [2] but this represents only a fraction of the GCMS signal recorded [3,4]. This work presents a systematic comparison of the GCMS measurements done for the different samples collected, supported by reference data obtained in laboratory with different spare models of the gas chromatograph, with the aim to bring new elements of interpretation of the SAM measurements. References: [1] Mahaffy, P. et al. (2012) Space Sci Rev, 170, 401-478. [2] Glavin, D. et al. (2013), JGR. [3] Leshin L. et al. (2013

  11. Spectral Characterization of H2020/PTAL Mineral Samples: Implications for In Situ Martian Exploration and Mars Sample Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, C.; Pilorget, C.; Poulet, F.; Riu, L.; Dypvik, H.; Hellevang, H.; Rull Perez, F.; Veneranda, M.; Cousin, A.; Viennet, J.-C.; Werner, S. C.

    2018-04-01

    We present combined analysis performed in the framework of the Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library (H2020 project). XRD, NIR, Raman, and LIBS spectroscopies are used to characterise samples to prepare ExoMars/ESA and Mars2020/NASA observations.

  12. Constraints on mechanisms for the growth of gully alcoves in Gasa crater, Mars, from two-dimensional stability assessments of rock slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, C.H.; Tornabene, L.L.; Lanza, N.L.

    2011-01-01

    The value of slope stability analyses for gaining insight into the geologic conditions that would facilitate the growth of gully alcoves on Mars is demonstrated in Gasa crater. Two-dimensional limit equilibrium methods are used in conjunction with high-resolution topography derived from stereo High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) imagery. These analyses reveal three conditions that may produce observed alcove morphologies through slope failure: (1) a ca >10m thick surface layer that is either saturated with H2O ground ice or contains no groundwater/ice at all, above a zone of melting H2O ice or groundwater and under dynamic loading (i.e., seismicity), (2) a 1-10m thick surface layer that is saturated with either melting H2O ice or groundwater and under dynamic loading, or (3) a >100m thick surface layer that is saturated with either melting H2O ice or groundwater and under static loading. This finding of three plausible scenarios for slope failure demonstrates how the triggering mechanisms and characteristics of future alcove growth would be affected by prevailing environmental conditions. HiRISE images also reveal normal faults and other fractures tangential to the crowns of some gully alcoves that are interpreted to be the result of slope instability, which may facilitate future slope movement. Stability analyses show that the most failure-prone slopes in this area are found in alcoves that are adjacent to crown fractures. Accordingly, crown fractures appear to be a useful indicator of those alcoves that should be monitored for future landslide activity. ?? 2010.

  13. Organic molecules in the Sheepbed Mudstone, Gale Crater, Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Miller, K. E.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Summons, R. E.; Brunner, A. E.; Buch, A.; Szopa, C.; Archer, P. D.; Franz, H. B.; Atreya, S. K.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Cabane, M.; Coll, P.; Conrad, P. G.; Des Marais, D. J.; Dworkin, J. P.; Fairén, A. G.; François, P.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Kashyap, S.; ten Kate, I. L.; Leshin, L. A.; Malespin, C. A.; Martin, M. G.; Martin-Torres, F. J.; Mcadam, A. C.; Ming, D. W.; Navarro-González, R.; Pavlov, A. A.; Prats, B. D.; Squyres, S. W.; Steele, A.; Stern, J. C.; Sumner, D. Y.; Sutter, B.; Zorzano, M. P.

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on board the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover is designed to conduct inorganic and organic chemical analyses of the atmosphere and the surface regolith and rocks to help evaluate the past and present habitability potential of Mars at Gale Crater.

  14. Analogue circuits simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendo, C

    1988-09-01

    Most analogue simulators have evolved from SPICE. The history and description of SPICE-like simulators are given. From a mathematical formulation of the electronic circuit the following analysis are possible: DC, AC, transient, noise, distortion, Worst Case and Statistical.

  15. Mars bevares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Hendricks, Elbert

    2009-01-01

    2009 er femåret for Mission Mars. I den anledning opridser de to kronikører, far og søn, hvorfor man bør lade planer om en bemandet tur til Mars forblive i skrivebordsskuffen......2009 er femåret for Mission Mars. I den anledning opridser de to kronikører, far og søn, hvorfor man bør lade planer om en bemandet tur til Mars forblive i skrivebordsskuffen...

  16. Rock fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S.; Green, S.J.; Hakala, W.W.; Hustrulid, W.A.; Maurer, W.C. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    Experts in rock mechanics, mining, excavation, drilling, tunneling and use of underground space met to discuss the relative merits of a wide variety of rock fragmentation schemes. Information is presented on novel rock fracturing techniques; tunneling using electron beams, thermocorer, electric spark drills, water jets, and diamond drills; and rock fracturing research needs for mining and underground construction. (LCL)

  17. PTAL Database and Website: Developing a Novel Information System for the Scientific Exploitation of the Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneranda, M.; Negro, J. I.; Medina, J.; Rull, F.; Lantz, C.; Poulet, F.; Cousin, A.; Dypvik, H.; Hellevang, H.; Werner, S. C.

    2018-04-01

    The PTAL website will store multispectral analysis of samples collected from several terrestrial analogue sites and pretend to become a cornerstone tool for the scientific community interested in deepening the knowledge on Mars geological processes.

  18. Cementation of kerogen-rich marls by alkaline fluids released during weathering of thermally metamorphosed marly sediments. Part II: Organic matter evolution, magnetic susceptibility and metals (Ti, Cr, Fe) at the Khushaym Matruk natural analogue (Central Jordan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elie, M.; Techer, I.; Trotignon, L.; Khoury, H.; Salameh, E.; Vandamme, D.; Boulvais, P.; Fourcade, S.

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous combustion, less than 1 Ma ago, affected a 60-m thick sediment pile of bio-micrite at the Khushaym Matruck site (Jordan). The present study shows that three retrograde alteration stages occurred: weathering, thermal stress and oxidative alkaline perturbation. μ-FT-i.r. spectra of isolated kerogens and oxygen index of whole rocks indicate that oxidation of organic matter occurred down to similar to 10 m beneath the metamorphosed zone at Khushaym Matruck. The occurrence of the oxidative weathering bacterially mediated, as suggested by the mass chromatograms of saturated hydrocarbons, can explain high Rock-Eval T max values and low petroliferous potential measured along the sedimentary pile. On the other hand, the thermal extent of combustion events was limited to the first 2 m from the contact. The mean reflectance of 0.20-0.24% and porosity of ca. 50% of the grey clayey bio-micrites indicate that organic matter was very immature and sediments were unconsolidated at the time of the combustion event. Using mineralogy, microscopic analyses of vegetable debris and magnetic susceptibility, a suite of characteristic points corresponding to the thermal imprint can be assessed: (i) x = 0 m, T similar to 1000 degrees C, (ii) x 1 m, T similar to 350 degrees C, (iii) x = 2 m, T similar to 150 degrees C and (iv) x ≥ ∼ 8 m, T similar to 30 degrees C. Paleo-circulation of meteoric groundwater in the 'cement-marbles' generated high-pH fluids that have circulated via fractures and through the matrix porosity of the underlying bio-micrites but have also induced alkaline hydrolysis and oxidative attack of the organic matter. The polysaccharide/lignin ratio derived from mu-FT-i.r. analyses shows that the delignification of vegetable debris and degradation of polysaccharides progressively decline in the indurated zone, which indicates a decrease in the pH of migrating solutions. The latter, also severely oxidized organic matter at 2. 10 and 3.05 m as revealed by the

  19. Cementation of kerogen-rich marls by alkaline fluids released during weathering of thermally metamorphosed marly sediments. Part I: Isotopic (C,O) study of the Khushaym Matruk natural analogue (central Jordan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourcade, Serge; Trotignon, Laurent; Boulvais, Philippe; Techer, Isabelle; Elie, Marcel; Vandamme, Didier; Salameh, Elias; Khoury, Hani

    2007-01-01

    The Khushaym Matruk site in central Jordan may represent a natural analogue depicting the interaction of alkaline solutions with a clayey sedimentary formation or with clay-rich confining barriers at the interface with concrete structures in waste disposal sites. In this locality, past spontaneous combustion of organic matter in a clayey biomicritic formation produced a ca. 60 m-thick layer of cement-marble containing some of the high-temperature phases usually found in industrial cements (e.g., spurrite, brucite, and Ca-aluminate). A vertical cross-section of the underlying sediments was used in order to study the interaction between cement-marbles and neighbouring clayey limestones under weathering conditions. A thermodynamic approach of the alteration parageneses (calcite-jennite-afwillite-brucite and CSH phases) in the cement-marbles constrains the interacting solutions to have had pH-values between 10.5 and 12. Over 3 m, the sediments located beneath the metamorphic unit were compacted and underwent carbonation. They display large C and O isotopic variations with respect to 'pristine' sediments from the bottom of the section. Low δ 13 C-values down to -31.4 per mille /PDB show the contribution of CO 2 derived from the oxidization of organic matter and from the atmosphere to the intense carbonation process affecting that particular sedimentary level. The size of the C isotopic anomalies, their geometrical extent and their coincidence with the variations of other markers like the Zn content, the structure of organic matter, the mineralogical composition, all argue that the carbonation process was induced by the percolation of high pH solutions which derived from the alteration of cement-marbles. The temperature of the carbonation process remains conjectural and some post-formation O isotopic reequilibration likely affected the newly-formed carbonate. Carbonation induced a considerable porosity reduction, both in fractures and matrixes. The Khushaym Matruk site

  20. Chemistry of fluids from a natural analogue for a geological CO{sub 2} storage site (Montmiral, France): Lessons for CO{sub 2}-water-rock interaction assessment and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauwels, Helene [BRGM - Water Division, 3, av Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orleans Cedex (France)], E-mail: h.pauwels@brgm.fr; Gaus, Irina; Le Nindre, Yves Michel [BRGM - Water Division, 3, av Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orleans Cedex (France); Pearce, Jonathan [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham NG125GG (United Kingdom); Czernichowski-Lauriol, Isabelle [BRGM - Water Division, 3, av Claude Guillemin, 45060 Orleans Cedex (France)

    2007-12-15

    Chemical and isotope studies of natural CO{sub 2} accumulations aid in assessing the chemical effects of CO{sub 2} on rock and thus provide a potential for understanding the long-term geochemical processes involved in CO{sub 2} geological storage. Several natural CO{sub 2} accumulations were discovered during gas and oil exploration in France's carbogaseous peri-Alpine province (south-eastern France) in the 1960s. One of these, the Montmiral accumulation at a depth of more than 2400 m, is currently being exploited. The chemical composition of the water collected at the wellhead has changed in time and the final salinity exceeds 75 g/L. These changes in time can be explained by assuming that the fraction of the reservoir brine in the recovered brine-CO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O mixture varies, resulting in variable proportions of H{sub 2}O and brine in the sampled water. The proportions can be estimated in selected samples due to the availability of gas and water flowrate data. These data enabled the reconstruction of the chemical and isotope composition of the brine. The proportions of H{sub 2}O and brine can also be estimated from isotope ({delta}{sup 2}H, {delta}{sup 18}O) composition of collected water and {delta}{sup 18}O of the sulfates or CO{sub 2}. The reconstituted brine has a salinity of more than 85 g/L and, according to its Br{sup -} content and isotope ({delta}{sup 2}H, {delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 34}S) composition, originates from an evaporated Triassic seawater that underwent dilution by meteoric water. The reconstitution of the brine's chemical composition enabled an evaluation of the CO{sub 2}-water-rock interactions based on: (1) mineral saturation indices; and (2) comparison with initial evaporated Triassic seawater. Dissolution of K- and SO{sub 4}-containing minerals such as K-feldspar and anhydrite, and precipitation of Ca and Mg containing minerals that are able to trap CO{sub 2} (carbonates) are highlighted. The changes in concentration of

  1. Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  2. Exploring Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuil, Stéphanie

    2016-04-01

    Mars is our neighbour planet and has always fascinated humans as it has been seen as a potential abode for life. Knowledge about Mars is huge and was constructed step by step through numerous missions. It could be difficult to describe these missions, the associated technology, the results, the questions they raise, that's why an activity is proposed, that directly interests students. Their production is presented in the poster. Step 1: The main Mars feature and the first Mars explorations using telescope are presented to students. It should be really interesting to present "Mars Canals" from Percival Lowell as it should also warn students against flawed interpretation. Moreover, this study has raised the big question about extra-terrestrial life on Mars for the first time. Using Google Mars is then a good way to show the huge knowledge we have on the planet and to introduce modern missions. Step 2: Students have to choose and describe one of the Mars mission from ESA and NASA. They should work in pairs. Web sites from ESA and NASA are available and the teacher makes sure the main missions will be studied. Step 3: Students have to collect different pieces of information about the mission - When? Which technology? What were the main results? What type of questions does it raise? They prepare an oral presentation in the form they want (role play, academic presentation, using a poster, PowerPoint). They also have to produce playing cards about the mission that could be put on a timeline. Step 4: As a conclusion, the different cards concerning different missions are mixed. Groups of students receive cards and they have to put them on a timeline as fast as possible. It is also possible to play the game "timeline".

  3. ACTINOMYCIN D ANALOGUES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to new compounds being structurally and functionally similar to Actinomycin D and to combinatorial libraries of such compounds. The Actinomycin D analogues according to the present invention comprise two linear or cyclic peptide moieties constituted by $g...

  4. Cobalamin analogues in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardlei, Tore Forsingdal; Obeid, Rima; Herrmann, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Haptocorrin (HC) carries cobalamin analogues (CorA), but whether CorA are produced in the body is unknown. All cobalamins (Cbl) to the foetus are delivered by the Cbl-specific protein transcobalamin (TC), and therefore analysis of cord serum for CorA may help to clarify the origin...

  5. NATURAL ANALOGUE SYNTHESIS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present analogue studies and literature reviews designed to provide qualitative and quantitative information to test and provide added confidence in process models abstracted for performance assessment (PA) and model predictions pertinent to PA. This report provides updates to studies presented in the Yucca Mountain Site Description (CRWMS M and O 2000 [151945], Section 13) and new examples gleaned from the literature along with results of quantitative studies conducted specifically for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate additional understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure at a potential Yucca Mountain repository. The report focuses on key processes by providing observations and analyses of natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) systems to improve understanding and confidence in the operation of these processes under conditions similar to those that could occur in a nuclear waste repository. The process models include those that represent both engineered and natural barrier processes. A second purpose of this report is to document the various applications of natural analogues to geologic repository programs, focusing primarily on the way analogues have been used by the YMP. This report is limited to providing support for PA in a confirmatory manner and to providing corroborative inputs for process modeling activities. Section 1.7 discusses additional limitations of this report. Key topics for this report are analogues to emplacement-drift degradation, waste-form degradation, waste-package degradation, degradation of other materials proposed for the engineered barrier, seepage into drifts, radionuclide flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ), analogues to coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes, saturated-zone (SZ) transport, impact of radionuclide release on the biosphere

  6. Natural Analogue Synthesis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. M. Simmons

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to present analogue studies and literature reviews designed to provide qualitative and quantitative information to test and provide added confidence in process models abstracted for performance assessment (PA) and model predictions pertinent to PA. This report provides updates to studies presented in the ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' (CRWMS M and O 2000 [151945], Section 13) and new examples gleaned from the literature, along with results of quantitative studies conducted specifically for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP). The intent of the natural analogue studies was to collect corroborative evidence from analogues to demonstrate additional understanding of processes expected to occur during postclosure at a potential Yucca Mountain repository. The report focuses on key processes by providing observations and analyses of natural and anthropogenic (human-induced) systems to improve understanding and confidence in the operation of these processes under conditions similar to those that could occur in a nuclear waste repository. The process models include those that represent both engineered and natural barrier processes. A second purpose of this report is to document the various applications of natural analogues to geologic repository programs, focusing primarily on the way analogues have been used by the YMP. This report is limited to providing support for PA in a confirmatory manner and to providing corroborative inputs for process modeling activities. Section 1.7 discusses additional limitations of this report. Key topics for this report are analogues to emplacement drift degradation, waste form degradation, waste package degradation, degradation of other materials proposed for the engineered barrier, seepage into drifts, radionuclide flow and transport in the unsaturated zone (UZ), analogues to coupled thermal-hydrologic-mechanical-chemical processes, saturated zone (SZ) transport

  7. Search for Chemical Biomarkers on Mars Using the Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument Suite on the Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, D. P.; Conrad, P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Eigenbrode, J.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2011-01-01

    One key goal for the future exploration of Mars is the search for chemical biomarkers including complex organic compounds important in life on Earth. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will provide the most sensitive measurements of the organic composition of rocks and regolith samples ever carried out in situ on Mars. SAM consists of a gas chromatograph (GC), quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS), and tunable laser spectrometer to measure volatiles in the atmosphere and released from rock powders heated up to 1000 C. The measurement of organics in solid samples will be accomplished by three experiments: (1) pyrolysis QMS to identify alkane fragments and simple aromatic compounds; pyrolysis GCMS to separate and identify complex mixtures of larger hydrocarbons; and (3) chemical derivatization and GCMS extract less volatile compounds including amino and carboxylic acids that are not detectable by the other two experiments.

  8. CEC natural analogue working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Chapman, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    The second meeting of the CEC Natural Analogue Working Group took place on June 17-19, 1986, hosted by the Swiss NAGRA in Interlaken (CH). A review of recent progress in natural analogue programmes was carried out, and complemented by detailed discussions about geomicrobiology, archaeological analogues, natural colloids, and use of analogues to increase confidence in safety assessments for radioactive waste disposal. A statement drafted by the Group, and the presentations made, are put together in this report

  9. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W R; Mazurek, M; Waber, H N [Univ. of Berne (Switzerland). Institutes of Geology, Mineralogy and Petrology, Rock-Water Interaction Group (GGWW); Arlinger, J; Erlandson, A C; Hallbeck, L; Pedersen, K [Goeteborg University (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Boehlmann, W; Fritz, P; Geyer, S; Geyer, W; Hanschman, G; Kopinke, F D; Poerschmann, J [Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany); Chambers, A V; Haworth, A; Ilett, D; Linklater, C M; Tweed, C J [AEA Technology plc, Harwell (United Kingdom); Chenery, S R.N.; Kemp, S J; Milodowski, A E; Pearce, J M; Reeder, S; Rochelle, C A; Smith, B; Wetton, P D; Wragg, J [British Geological Survey, Keyworth (United Kingdom); Clark, I D [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Hodginson, E; Hughes, C R [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Hyslop, E K [British Geological Survey, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Karlsson, F [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Khoury, H N; Salameh, E [Univ. of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Lagerblad, B [Cement Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Longworth, G [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology; Pitty, A F [Private consultant, Norwich (United Kingdom); Savage, D [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Smellie, J A.T. [ed.; Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH){sub 2} type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the `alkali disturbed zone` of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  10. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, W.R.; Mazurek, M.; Waber, H.N.; Arlinger, J.; Erlandson, A.C.; Hallbeck, L.; Pedersen, K.; Chambers, A.V.; Haworth, A.; Ilett, D.; Linklater, C.M.; Tweed, C.J.; Chenery, S.R.N.; Kemp, S.J.; Milodowski, A.E.; Pearce, J.M.; Reeder, S.; Rochelle, C.A.; Smith, B.; Wetton, P.D.; Wragg, J.; Clark, I.D.; Karlsson, F.; Khoury, H.N.; Salameh, E.; Lagerblad, B.; Longworth, G.; Savage, D.; Smellie, J.A.T.

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH) 2 type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the 'alkali disturbed zone' of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  11. MAQARIN natural analogue study: phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W R; Mazurek, M; Waber, H N [Univ. of Berne (Switzerland). Institutes of Geology, Mineralogy and Petrology, Rock-Water Interaction Group (GGWW); Arlinger, J; Erlandson, A C; Hallbeck, L; Pedersen, K [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of General and Marine Microbiology; Boehlmann, W; Fritz, P; Geyer, S; Geyer, W; Hanschman, G; Kopinke, F D; Poerschmann, J [Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle (Germany); Chambers, A V; Haworth, A; Ilett, D; Linklater, C M; Tweed, C J [AEA Technology plc, Harwell (United Kingdom); Chenery, S R.N.; Kemp, S J; Milodowski, A E; Pearce, J M; Reeder, S; Rochelle, C A; Smith, B; Wetton, P D; Wragg, J [British Geological Survey, Keyworth (United Kingdom); Clark, I D [Univ. of Ottawa (Canada). Dept. of Geology; Hodginson, E; Hughes, C R [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Hyslop, E K [British Geological Survey, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Karlsson, F [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Khoury, H N; Salameh, E [Univ. of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Lagerblad, B [Cement Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Longworth, G [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology; Pitty, A F [Private consultant, Norwich (United Kingdom); Savage, D [QuantiSci Ltd, Melton Mowbray (United Kingdom); Smellie, J A.T. [ed.; Conterra AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1998-12-01

    This report represents the conclusion to Phase III of the Maqarin Natural Analogue Study. The main thrust was to establish the origin and chemistry of the Western Springs hyper alkaline groundwaters (Na/K enriched Ca(OH){sub 2} type) and to study their interaction with rocks of different compositions, as natural analogues to key processes that might occur at an early stage within the `alkali disturbed zone` of cementitious repositories in different host rocks. Whilst earlier studies at Maqarin were very much site-specific and process-oriented, Phase III provided a regional perspective to the geological evolution of the Maqarin region. This was made possible by greater field access which allowed a more systematic structural and geomorphological study of the area. This has resulted in a greater understanding of the age and spatial relationships concerning formation of the cement zones through spontaneous combustion of the Bituminous Marls, and the subsequent formation of high pH groundwaters at the Eastern and Western Springs locations. At the Western Springs locality, hydrochemical and hydrogeological evaluation of new and published data (plus access to unpublished data), together with detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies, helped to clarify the very earliest stage of cement leachate/host rock interaction. The data were used also to test coupled flow/transport codes developed to assess the long-term evolution of a cementitious repository. Additional objectives addressed include: a) rock matrix diffusion, b) the occurrence and chemical controls on zeolite composition, e) the occurrence and chemical controls on clay stability, and d) the role of microbes, organics and colloids in trace element transport. The Maqarin site now provides a consistent picture explaining the origin of the hyperalkaline groundwaters, and is therefore a unique location for the examination of the mechanisms and processes associated with cementitious repositories. Application of these

  12. CEC Natural Analogue Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Chapman, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    The central theme for the third meeting of the CEC analogue working group was ''How can analogue data be used for performance assessments, both in support of the results and for presentation to the public''. This report puts together the most recent achievements in this field, together with a review of on-going natural analogue programmes

  13. Volatile and Isotopic Imprints of Ancient Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Conrad, Pamela G.

    2015-01-01

    The science investigations enabled by Curiosity rover's instruments focus on identifying and exploring the habitability of the Martian environment. Measurements of noble gases, organic and inorganic compounds, and the isotopes of light elements permit the study of the physical and chemical processes that have transformed Mars throughout its history. Samples of the atmosphere, volatiles released from soils, and rocks from the floor of Gale Crater have provided a wealth of new data and a window into conditions on ancient Mars.

  14. Natural analogue working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.; Chapman, N.

    1986-01-01

    A Natural Analogue Working Group was established by the Commission of the European Communities in 1985. The purpose of this group is to bring together modellers with earth scientists and others, so that maximum benefit can be obtained from natural analogue studies with a view to safe geological disposal of radioactive waste. The first meeting of this group was held in Brussels from November 5 to 7, 1985. The discussions mainly concerned the identification of the modellers' needs and of the earth scientists' capacity to provide for them. Following the debates, a written statement was produced by the Group; this document forms the core of the present Report. Notes and outlines of many of the presentations made are grouped in four appendixes. The valuable contribution of all those involved in the meeting is gratefully acknowledged

  15. Aspartame and Its Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, L. A.; Komarova, T. V.; Davidovich, Yurii A.; Rogozhin, S. V.

    1981-04-01

    The results of studies on the biochemistry of the sweet taste are briefly reviewed. The methods of synthesis of "aspartame" — a sweet dipeptide — are considered, its structural analogues are described, and quantitative estimates are made of the degree of sweetness relative to sucrose. Attention is concentrated mainly on problems of the relation between the structure of the substance and its taste in the series of aspartyl derivatives. The bibliography includes 118 references.

  16. A microbial oasis in the hypersaline atacama subsurface discovered by a life detector chip : Implications for the search for life on mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parro, Victor; De Diego-Castilla, Graciela; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Blanco, Yolanda; Cruz-Gil, Patricia; Rodríguez-Manfredi, José Antonio; Fernández-Remolar, David; Gómez, Felipe; Gómez, Manuel J.; Rivas, Luis A.; Demergasso, Cecilia; Echeverría, Alex; Urtuvia, Viviana N.; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Postigo, Marina; Sánchez-Román, Mónica; Chong-Díaz, Guillermo; Gómez-Elvira, Javier

    2011-01-01

    The Atacama Desert has long been considered a good Mars analogue for testing instrumentation for planetary exploration, but very few data (if any) have been reported about the geomicrobiology of its salt-rich subsurface. We performed a Mars analogue drilling campaign next to the Salar Grande

  17. Quantum analogue computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendon, Vivien M; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, William J

    2010-08-13

    We briefly review what a quantum computer is, what it promises to do for us and why it is so hard to build one. Among the first applications anticipated to bear fruit is the quantum simulation of quantum systems. While most quantum computation is an extension of classical digital computation, quantum simulation differs fundamentally in how the data are encoded in the quantum computer. To perform a quantum simulation, the Hilbert space of the system to be simulated is mapped directly onto the Hilbert space of the (logical) qubits in the quantum computer. This type of direct correspondence is how data are encoded in a classical analogue computer. There is no binary encoding, and increasing precision becomes exponentially costly: an extra bit of precision doubles the size of the computer. This has important consequences for both the precision and error-correction requirements of quantum simulation, and significant open questions remain about its practicality. It also means that the quantum version of analogue computers, continuous-variable quantum computers, becomes an equally efficient architecture for quantum simulation. Lessons from past use of classical analogue computers can help us to build better quantum simulators in future.

  18. Potential High Priority Subaerial Environments for Mars Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    iMOST Team; Bishop, J. L.; Horgan, B.; Benning, L. G.; Carrier, B. L.; Hausrath, E. M.; Altieri, F.; Amelin, Y.; Ammannito, E.; Anand, M.; Beaty, D. W.; Borg, L. E.; Boucher, D.; Brucato, J. R.; Busemann, H.; Campbell, K. A.; Czaja, A. D.; Debaille, V.; Des Marais, D. J.; Dixon, M.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Farmer, J. D.; Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Fogarty, J.; Glavin, D. P.; Goreva, Y. S.; Grady, M. M.; Hallis, L. J.; Harrington, A. D.; Herd, C. D. K.; Humayun, M.; Kleine, T.; Kleinhenz, J.; Mangold, N.; Mackelprang, R.; Mayhew, L. E.; McCubbin, F. M.; Mccoy, J. T.; McLennan, S. M.; McSween, H. Y.; Moser, D. E.; Moynier, F.; Mustard, J. F.; Niles, P. B.; Ori, G. G.; Raulin, F.; Rettberg, P.; Rucker, M. A.; Schmitz, N.; Sefton-Nash, E.; Sephton, M. A.; Shaheen, R.; Shuster, D. L.; Siljestrom, S.; Smith, C. L.; Spry, J. A.; Steele, A.; Swindle, T. D.; ten Kate, I. L.; Tosca, N. J.; Usui, T.; Van Kranendonk, M. J.; Wadhwa, M.; Weiss, B. P.; Werner, S. C.; Westall, F.; Wheeler, R. M.; Zipfel, J.; Zorzano, M. P.

    2018-04-01

    The highest priority subaerial environments for Mars Sample Return include subaerial weathering (paleosols, periglacial/glacial, and rock coatings/rinds), wetlands (mineral precipitates, redox environments, and salt ponds), or cold spring settings.

  19. Investigation of microbial diversity in a desert Mars-like environment: Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Maria Susana; Staats, Martijn; Foing, Bernard H.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Roling, Wilfred

    The Utah Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) harbours geo-morphology and geo-processes analogues to the planet Mars. Soil samples were collected during the EuroGeoMars campaign (from 24 January to 1 March 2009) from different locations and depths [1]. Samples were distributed among scientific collaborator institutes for analysis of microbial diversity, amino acid content and degradation, content of PAH or larger organic molecules, and respective soil properties. Our sample analysis had the objective of characterizing the microbial communities in this Mars analogue: DNA isolation, PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) using primers for DNA amplification of Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene fragments, DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) and clone library construction with the final aim of sequencing. Results indicate that life is present in all the three domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya), while the most diversity was found in the domain Bacteria. Microorgan-isms are heterogeneously present and their identities are currently investigated. The obtained information will be later related to the other scientific analysis in order to obtain a better understanding of this Mars analogue site, which in turn will provide important information for the search for life on Mars. [1] Foing, B.H. et al . (2009). Exogeolab lander/rover instruments and EuroGeoMars MDRS campaign. LPI, 40, 2567.

  20. Recreating Rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posth, Nicole R

    2008-01-01

    Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers.......Nicole Posth and colleagues spent a month touring South African rock formations in their quest to understand the origin of ancient iron and silicate layers....

  1. Fractures and Rock Mechanics, Phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Anette; Jakobsen, Finn; Madsen, Lena

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the project is to combine geological descriptions of fractures, chalk types and rock mechanical properties in order to investigate whether the chosen outcrops can be used as analogues to reservoir chalks. This report deals with 1) geological descriptions of outcrop locality...

  2. Fractures and Rock Mechanics, Phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havmøller, Ole; Krogsbøll, Anette

    1997-01-01

    The main objectives of the project are to combine geological description of fractures, chalk types and rock mechanical properties, and to investigate whether the chosen outcrops can be used as analogues to reservoir chalks. Five chalk types, representing two outcrop localities: Stevns...

  3. Nontronite and Montmorillonite as Nutrient Sources for Life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, P. I.; Mickol, R. L.; Archer, P. D.; Kral, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    Clay minerals have been identified on Mars' oldest (Noachian) terrain and their presence suggests long-term water-rock interactions. The most commonly identified clay minerals on Mars to date are nontronite (Fe-smectite) and montmorillonite (Al-smectite) [1], both of which contain variable amounts of water both adsorbed on their surface and within their structural layers. Over Mars' history, these clay miner-al-water assemblages may have served as nutrient sources for microbial life.

  4. MARS-OZ - A Design for a Simulated Mars Base in the Australian Outback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, D.; Clarke, J. D. A.; Murphy, G.

    Mars Society Australia has developed the design of a simulated Mars base, MARS-OZ, for deployment in outback Australia. MARS-OZ will provide a platform for a diverse range of Mars analogue research in Australia. The simulated base consists of two mobile modules whose dimensions and shape approximate those of horizontally landed bent biconic spacecraft described in an earlier paper. The modules are designed to support field engineering, robotics, architectural, geological, biological and human factors research at varying levels of simulation fidelity. Non-Mars related research can also be accommodated, for example general field geology and biology, and engineering research associated with sustainable, low impact architecture. Crews of up to eight can be accommodated. In addition to its research function, the base also will serve as a centre of space education and outreach activities. The prime site for the MARS-OZ simulated base is located in the northern Flinders Ranges near Arkaroola in South Australia. This region contains many features that provide useful scientific analogues to known or possible past and present conditions on Mars from both a geological and biological perspective. The features will provide a wealth of study opportunities for crews. The very diverse terrain and regolith materials will provide ideal opportunities to field trial a range of equipment, sensors and exploration strategies. If needed, the prime site can be secured from casual visitors, allowing research into human interaction in isolation. Despite its relative isolation, the site is readily accessible by road and air from major Australian centres. This paper provides description of the configuration, design and construction of the proposed facility, its interior layout, equipment and systems fitouts, a detailed cost estimate, and its deployment. We estimate that the deployment of MARS-OZ could occur within nine months of securing funding.

  5. RAT magnet experiment on the Mars Exploration Rovers: Spirit and Opportunity beyond sol 500

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Kristoffer; Goetz, Walter; Chan, Marjorie A.

    2011-01-01

    The Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) magnet experiment on the Mars Exploration Rovers was designed to collect dust from rocks ground by the RAT of the two rovers on the surface of Mars. The dust collected on the magnets is now a mixture of dust from many grindings. Here the new data from the experiment...

  6. Revealing Television's Analogue Heroes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Jackson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will argue that we need to create new archival models in order to preserve and share knowledge of historical, ‘hidden’ television professions and production cultures. Oral history traditions of recording life stories give us a useful starting point. Engineering ‘encounters’ between skilled television technicians, and the now obsolete equipment they operated in the 1970s and 80s, is challenging for a myriad of reasons, but videoing the interaction of man and machine provides us with a rich insight into how analogue television was produced and broadcast. Social media enables us to disseminate these histories in new and innovative ways..

  7. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  8. Abraded Target on Rock 'Champagne' in Gusev Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this microscopic image of a target called 'Bubbles' on a rock called 'Champagne' after using its rock abrasion tool to grind a hole through the rock's outer surface. The circular area where the rock's interior is exposed is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) across. This rock is different from rocks out on the plains of Gusev Crater but is similar to other rocks in this area of the 'Columbia Hills' in that it rich in phosphorus. Plagioclase, a mineral commonly found in igneous rocks, is also present in these rocks, according to analysis with Spirit's miniature thermal emission spectrometer. By using the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer to collect data for multiple martian days, or sols, scientists are also beginning to get measurements of trace elements in the rocks. Spirit took the images that are combined into this mosaic on sol 358 (Jan. 3, 2005).

  9. Rock Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2017-01-01

    Rock physics is the discipline linking petrophysical properties as derived from borehole data to surface based geophysical exploration data. It can involve interpretation of both elastic wave propagation and electrical conductivity, but in this chapter focus is on elasticity. Rock physics is based...... on continuum mechanics, and the theory of elasticity developed for statics becomes the key to petrophysical interpretation of velocity of elastic waves. In practice, rock physics involves interpretation of well logs including vertical seismic profiling (VSP) and analysis of core samples. The results...

  10. Mineralogy of an Active Eolian Sediment from the Namib Dune, Gale Crater, Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Achilles, C. N.; Downs, R. T.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; Morris, R. V.; Treiman, A. H.; Morrison, S. M.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Ewing, R. C.; Chipera, S. J.; Yen, A. S.; Bristow, T. F.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Gellert, R.

    2017-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, is using a comprehensive scientific payload to explore rocks and soils in Gale crater, Mars. Recent investigations of the Bagnold Dune Field provided the first in situ assessment of an active dune on Mars. The Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) X-ray diffraction instrument on Curiosity performed quantitative mineralogical analyses of the

  11. Finding the team for Mars: a psychological and human factors analysis of a Mars Desert Research Station crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Benjamin D; Hancock, P A; Deaton, John; Suedfeld, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A two-week mission in March and April of 2011 sent six team members to the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS). MDRS, a research facility in the high Utah desert, provides an analogue for the harsh and unusual working conditions that will be faced by men and women who one day explore Mars. During the mission a selection of quantitative and qualitative psychological tests were administered to the international, multidisciplinary team. A selection of the results are presented along with discussion.

  12. Mars: Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, V.; Murdin, P.

    2001-07-01

    The atmosphere of MARS is much thinner than the terrestrial one. However, even the simplest visual telescopic observations show a set of atmospheric events such as seasonal exchange of material between polar caps, temporal appearance of clouds and changes of visibility of dark regions on the disk of the planet. In 1947 the prominent CO2 bands in the near-infrared part of the Martian spectrum were...

  13. Rocking pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    Rijkers, Ger T.; Rodriguez Gomez, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Ever since Chuck Berry coined the term “rocking pneumonia” in his 1956 song “Roll over Beethoven”, pneumonia has been mentioned frequently in modern blues and rock songs. We analyzed the lyrics of these songs to examine how various elements of pneumonia have been represented in popular music, specifically the cause of pneumonia, the risk groups, comorbidity (such as the boogie woogie flu), the clinical symptoms, and treatment and outcome. Up to this day, songwriters suggest that pneumonia is ...

  14. Alligator Rivers analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerden, P.

    1990-01-01

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization has extensively evaluated uranium ore bodies in the Alligator Rivers Uranium Province in Australia as analogues of radioactive waste repositories. The work was extended for a three-year program as an international project based on the Koongarra uranium deposit and sponsored by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. The technical program comprises six major sub-projects involving modelling and experimental work: modelling of radionuclide migration; hydrogeology of the Koongarra uranium deposit; uranium/thorium series disequilibria studies; groundwater and colloid studies; fission product studies; transuranic nuclide studies; an outline of the technical programs and a summary of progress in the technical sub-projects is given. This is followed by a series of technical reports which briefly describe current research tasks, and which have been separately indexed

  15. A Short Term Analogue Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Peter Jivan

    1992-01-01

    A short term analogue memory is described. It is based on a well-known sample-hold topology in which leakage currents have been minimized partly by circuit design and partly by layout techniques. Measurements on a test chip implemented in a standard 2.4 micron analogue CMOS process show a droop...

  16. Mars @ ASDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Francesco

    "Mars @ ASDC" is a project born with the goal of using the new web technologies to assist researches involved in the study of Mars. This project employs Mars map and javascript APIs provided by Google to visualize data acquired by space missions on the planet. So far, visualization of tracks acquired by MARSIS and regions observed by VIRTIS-Rosetta has been implemented. The main reason for the creation of this kind of tool is the difficulty in handling hundreds or thousands of acquisitions, like the ones from MARSIS, and the consequent difficulty in finding observations related to a particular region. This led to the development of a tool which allows to search for acquisitions either by defining the region of interest through a set of geometrical parameters or by manually selecting the region on the map through a few mouse clicks The system allows the visualization of tracks (acquired by MARSIS) or regions (acquired by VIRTIS-Rosetta) which intersect the user defined region. MARSIS tracks can be visualized both in Mercator and polar projections while the regions observed by VIRTIS can presently be visualized only in Mercator projection. The Mercator projection is the standard map provided by Google. The polar projections are provided by NASA and have been developed to be used in combination with APIs provided by Google The whole project has been developed following the "open source" philosophy: the client-side code which handles the functioning of the web page is written in javascript; the server-side code which executes the searches for tracks or regions is written in PHP and the DB which undergoes the system is MySQL.

  17. Officine Galileo for Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistelli, E.; Tacconi, M.

    1999-09-01

    The interest for Mars's exploration is continuously increasing. Officine Galileo is engaged in this endeavor with several programmes. The exobiology is, of course, a stimulating field; presently Officine Galileo is leading a team with Dasa and Tecnospazio, under ESA contract, for the definition of a facility for the search of extinct life on Mars through the detection of indicators of life. The system, to be embarked on a Mars lander, is based on a drill to take rock samples underneath the oxidised soil layer, on a sample preparation and distribution system devoted to condition and bring the sample to a set of analytical instruments to carry out in-situ chemical and mineralogical investigations. The facility benefits of the presence of optical microscope, gas chromatograph, several spectrometers (Raman, Mass, Mossbauer, APX-Ray), and further instruments. In the frame of planetology, Officine Galileo is collaborating with several Principal Investigators to the definition of a set of instruments to be integrated on the Mars 2003 Lander (a NASA-ASI cooperation). A drill (by Tecnospazio), with the main task to collect Mars soil samples for the subsequent storage and return to Earth, will have the capability to perform several soil analyses, e.g. temperature and near infrared reflectivity spectra down to 50 cm depth, surface thermal and electrical conductivity, sounding of electromagnetic properties down to a few hundreds meter, radioactivity. Moreover a kit of instruments for in-situ soil samples analyses if foreseen; it is based on a dust analyser, an IR spectrometer, a thermofluorescence sensor, and a radioactivity analyser. The attention to the Red Planet is growing, in parallel with the findings of present and planned missions. In the following years the technology of Officine Galileo will carry a strong contribution to the science of Mars.

  18. NASA Mars Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiber, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Papers about Mars and Mars exploration are presented, covering topics such as Martian history, geology, volcanism, channels, moons, atmosphere, meteorology, water on the planet, and the possibility of life. The unmanned exploration of Mars is discussed, including the Phobos Mission, the Mars Observer, the Mars Aeronomy Observer, the seismic network, Mars sample return missions, and the Mars Ball, an inflatable-sectored-tire rover concept. Issues dealing with manned exploration of Mars are examined, such as the reasons for exploring Mars, mission scenarios, a transportation system for routine visits, technologies for Mars expeditions, the human factors for Mars missions, life support systems, living and working on Mars, and the report of the National Commission on Space

  19. Source rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakr F. Makky

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro, and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members, Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history and calculate the levels of thermal maturity of the Fayoum-1X well based on calibration of measured %Ro and Tmax against calculated %Ro model. The calculated Total Organic Carbon (TOC content from well log data compared with the measured TOC from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis in Fayoum-1X well is shown to match against the shale source rock but gives high values against the limestone source rock. For that, a new model is derived from well log data to calculate accurately the TOC content against the limestone source rock in the study area. The organic matter existing in Abu Roash (F member is fair to excellent and capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbons (oil prone produced from (mixed type I/II kerogen. The generation potential of kerogen in Abu Roash (E and G members and Betty formations is ranging from poor to fair, and generating hydrocarbons of oil and gas prone (mixed type II/III kerogen. Eventually, kerogen (type III of Kharita Formation has poor to very good generation potential and mainly produces gas. Thermal maturation of the measured %Ro, calculated %Ro model, Tmax and Production index (PI indicates that Abu Roash (F member exciting in the onset of oil generation, whereas Abu Roash (E and G members, Kharita and Betty formations entered the peak of oil generation.

  20. The Mars Simulation Laboratory, University of Aarhus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrison, J. P.; Field, D.; Finster, K.; Lomstein, B. Aa.; Nørnberg, P.; Ramsing, N. B.; Uggerhøj, E.

    2001-08-01

    Present day Mars presents an extremely hostile environment to organic material. The average temperature is low (-50C), the atmospheric pressure is also low (7mbar) and there is little water over most of the planet. Chemically the surface is extremely oxidising and no signs of organic material have been detected. There is also a strong component of ultra violet radiation in the Martian sun light, lethal to most organisms. At Aarhus University we have constructed a Mars simulation environment which reproduces the physical, chemical and mineralogical conditions on Mars. It is hoped to set limits on where organic matter (or even life) might exist on Mars, for example at some depth under the surface, beneath the polar ice or within rocks. It is also possible to adjust the conditions in the simulation to investigate the most extreme environments in which organisms can be preserved or still function.

  1. Moon-Mars simulation campaign in volcanic Eifel: Remote science support and sample analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offringa, Marloes; Foing, Bernard H.; Kamps, Oscar

    2016-07-01

    Moon-Mars analogue missions using a mock-up lander that is part of the ESA/ILEWG ExoGeoLab project were conducted during Eifel field campaigns in 2009, 2015 and 2016 (Foing et al., 2010). In the last EuroMoonMars2016 campaign the lander was used to conduct reconnaissance experiments and in situ geological scientific analysis of samples, with a payload that mainly consisted of a telescope and a UV-VIS reflectance spectrometer. The aim of the campaign was to exhibit possibilities for the ExoGeoLab lander to perform remotely controlled experiments and test its applicability in the field by simulating the interaction with astronauts. The Eifel region in Germany where the experiments with the ExoGeoLab lander were conducted is a Moon-Mars analogue due to its geological setting and volcanic rock composition. The research conducted by analysis equipment on the lander could function in support of Moon-Mars sample return missions, by providing preliminary insight into characteristics of the analyzed samples. The set-up of the prototype lander was that of a telescope with camera and solar power equipment deployed on the top, the UV-VIS reflectance spectrometer together with computers and a sample webcam were situated in the middle compartment and to the side a sample analysis test bench was attached, attainable by astronauts from outside the lander. An alternative light source that illuminated the samples in case of insufficient daylight was placed on top of the lander and functioned on solar power. The telescope, teleoperated from a nearby stationed pressurized transport vehicle that functioned as a base control center, attained an overview of the sampling area and assisted the astronauts in their initial scouting pursuits. Locations of suitable sampling sites based on these obtained images were communicated to the astronauts, before being acquired during a simulated EVA. Sampled rocks and soils were remotely analyzed by the base control center, while the astronauts

  2. Intellektuaalne rock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  3. Search for magnetic minerals in Martian rocks: Overview of the Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) magnet investigation on Spirit and Opportunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetz, W.; Leer, K.; Gunnlaugsson, H.P.

    2008-01-01

    The Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) on board the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) is a grinding tool designed to remove dust coatings and/or weathering rinds from rocks and expose fresh rock material. Four magnets of different strengths that are built into the structure of the RAT have been attracting...... is interpreted as magnetite. The amount of abraded rock material adhering to the magnets varied strongly during the mission and is correlated in a consistent way to the amount of magnetite inferred from Mossbauer spectra for the corresponding rock. The RAT magnet experiment as performed on Opportunity also...

  4. Igneous Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Bruce R.

    “Igneous Rocks was written for undergraduate geology majors who have had a year of college-level chemistry and a course in mineralogy … and for beginning graduate students. Geologists working in industry, government, or academia should find this text useful as a guide to the technical literature up to 1981 and as an overview of topics with which they have not worked but which may have unanticipated pertinence to their own projects.” So starts the preface to this textbook.As one who works part time in research on igneous rocks, especially as they relate to mineral deposits, I have been looking for such a book with this avowed purpose in a field that has a choking richness of evolving terminology and a bewildering volume of interdisciplinary literature. In addition to the standard topics of igneous petrology, the book contains a chapter on the role of igneous activity in the genesis of mineral deposits, its value to geothermal energy, and the potential of igneous rocks as an environment for nuclear waste disposal. These topics are presented rather apologetically in the preface, but the author is to be applauded for including this chapter. The apology shows just how new these interests are to petrology. Recognition is finally coming that, for example, mineral deposits are not “sports of nature,” a view held even by many economic geologists as recently as the early 1960's; instead they are perfectly ordinary geochemical features formed by perfectly ordinary geologic processes. In fact, the mineral deposits and their attendant alteration zones probably have as much to tell us about igneous rocks as the igneous rocks have to tell us about mineral deposits.

  5. Chemopreventive properties of curcumin analogues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemopreventive properties of curcumin analogues, ... These compounds .... using microscope with 400 × magnification. APC ... Figure 3: Microscopic images of rat colorectal tissue stained with APC rabbit polyclonal antibody with different.

  6. Mars for Earthlings: an analog approach to Mars in undergraduate education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Marjorie; Kahmann-Robinson, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Mars for Earthlings (MFE) is a terrestrial Earth analog pedagogical approach to teaching undergraduate geology, planetary science, and astrobiology. MFE utilizes Earth analogs to teach Mars planetary concepts, with a foundational backbone in Earth science principles. The field of planetary science is rapidly changing with new technologies and higher-resolution data sets. Thus, it is increasingly important to understand geological concepts and processes for interpreting Mars data. MFE curriculum is topically driven to facilitate easy integration of content into new or existing courses. The Earth-Mars systems approach explores planetary origins, Mars missions, rocks and minerals, active driving forces/tectonics, surface sculpting processes, astrobiology, future explorations, and hot topics in an inquiry-driven environment. Curriculum leverages heavily upon multimedia resources, software programs such as Google Mars and JMARS, as well as NASA mission data such as THEMIS, HiRISE, CRISM, and rover images. Two years of MFE class evaluation data suggest that science literacy and general interest in Mars geology and astrobiology topics increased after participation in the MFE curriculum. Students also used newly developed skills to create a Mars mission team presentation. The MFE curriculum, learning modules, and resources are available online at http://serc.carleton.edu/marsforearthlings/index.html.

  7. Unsupervised feature learning for autonomous rock image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Lei; McIsaac, Kenneth; Osinski, Gordon R.; Francis, Raymond

    2017-09-01

    Autonomous rock image classification can enhance the capability of robots for geological detection and enlarge the scientific returns, both in investigation on Earth and planetary surface exploration on Mars. Since rock textural images are usually inhomogeneous and manually hand-crafting features is not always reliable, we propose an unsupervised feature learning method to autonomously learn the feature representation for rock images. In our tests, rock image classification using the learned features shows that the learned features can outperform manually selected features. Self-taught learning is also proposed to learn the feature representation from a large database of unlabelled rock images of mixed class. The learned features can then be used repeatedly for classification of any subclass. This takes advantage of the large dataset of unlabelled rock images and learns a general feature representation for many kinds of rocks. We show experimental results supporting the feasibility of self-taught learning on rock images.

  8. Brushed Target on Rock 'Champagne' in Gusev Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this microscopic image of a target called 'Bubbles' on a rock called 'Champagne' after using its rock abrasion tool to brush away a coating of dust. The circular brushed area is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) across. This rock is different from rocks out on the plains of Gusev Crater but is similar to other rocks in this area of the 'Columbia Hills' in that it has higher levels of phosphorus. Plagioclase, a mineral commonly found in igneous rocks, is also present in these rocks, according to analysis with the minature thermal emission spectrometer. By using the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer to collect data over multiple martian days, or sols, scientists are also beginning to get measurements of trace elements in these rocks. Spirit took the images that are combined into this mosaic on sol 354 (Dec. 30, 2004).

  9. Phosphine from rocks: mechanically driven phosphate reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glindemann, Dietmar; Edwards, Marc; Morgenstern, Peter

    2005-11-01

    Natural rock and mineral samples released trace amounts of phosphine during dissolution in mineral acid. An order of magnitude more phosphine (average 1982 ng PH3 kg rock and maximum 6673 ng PH3/kg rock) is released from pulverized rock samples (basalt, gneiss, granite, clay, quartzitic pebbles, or marble). Phosphine was correlated to hardness and mechanical pulverization energy of the rocks. The yield of PH3 ranged from 0 to 0.01% of the total P content of the dissolved rock. Strong circumstantial evidence was gathered for reduction of phosphate in the rock via mechanochemical or "tribochemical" weathering at quartz and calcite/marble inclusions. Artificial reproduction of this mechanism by rubbing quartz rods coated with apatite-phosphate to the point of visible triboluminescence, led to detection of more than 70 000 ng/kg PH3 in the apatite. This reaction pathway may be considered a mechano-chemical analogue of phosphate reduction from lightning or electrical discharges and may contribute to phosphine production via tectonic forces and processing of rocks.

  10. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Saulnier and W. Statham

    2006-04-16

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following analogous characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site: (1) Analogous source--UO{sub 2} uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geology--(i.e. fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs); (3) Analogous climate--Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous setting--Volcanic tuffs overlie carbonate rocks; and (5) Analogous geochemistry--Oxidizing conditions Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table.

  11. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Saulnier; W. Statham

    2006-01-01

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following analogous characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site: (1) Analogous source--UO 2 uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geology--(i.e. fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs); (3) Analogous climate--Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous setting--Volcanic tuffs overlie carbonate rocks; and (5) Analogous geochemistry--Oxidizing conditions Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table

  12. Hardened Lava Meets Wind on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its microscopic imager to capture this spectacular, jagged mini-landscape on a rock called 'GongGong.' Measuring only 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across, this surface records two of the most important and violent forces in the history of Mars -- volcanoes and wind. GongGong formed billions of years ago in a seething, stirring mass of molten rock. It captured bubbles of gases that were trapped at great depth but had separated from the main body of lava as it rose to the surface. Like taffy being stretched and tumbled, the molten rock was deformed as it moved across an ancient Martian landscape. The tiny bubbles of gas were deformed as well, becoming elongated. When the molten lava solidified, the rock looked like a frozen sponge. Far from finished with its life, the rock then withstood billions of years of pelting by small sand grains carried by Martian dust storms that sometimes blanketed the planet. The sand wore away the surface until, little by little, the delicate strands that enclosed the bubbles of gas were breached and the spiny texture we see today emerged. Even now, wind continues to deposit sand and dust in the holes and crevices of the rock. Similar rocks can be found on Earth where the same complex interplay of volcanoes and weathering occur, whether it be the pelting of rocks by sand grains in the Mojave desert or by ice crystals in the frigid Antarctic. GongGong is one of a group of rocks studied by Spirit and informally named by the Athena Science Team to honor the Chinese New Year (the Year of the Dog). In Chinese mythology, GongGong was the god-king of water in the North Land. When he sacrificed his life to knock down Mount BuZhou, he defeated the bad Emperor in Heaven, freed the sun, moon and stars to go from east to west, and caused all the rivers in China to flow from west to east. Spirit's microscopic imager took this image during on the rover's 736th day, or sol, of exploring Mars (Jan. 28, 2006). The

  13. Robotics and automation in Mars exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Roger D.; Sturms, Francis M., Jr.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Gamber, R. T.

    1992-01-01

    A new approach to the exploration of Mars is examined which relies on the use of smaller and simpler vehicles. The new strategy involves the following principles: limiting science objectives to retrieval of rock samples from several different but geologically homogeneous areas; making use of emerging microspacecraft technologies to significantly reduce the mass of hardware elements; simplifying missions to the absolutely essential elements; and managing risk through the employment of many identical independent pieces some of which may fail. The emerging technologies and their applications to robotic Mars missions are discussed.

  14. Tafoni - A Llink Between Mars and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, R. H.; Iacob, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Remarkable rock erosion structures on the planetary surface, tafoni represent an important instrument for investigating the specific environmental conditions causing such rock formations. From simple cavities to refined honeycomb or other intricate patterns, tafoni are a reflection of the complex interaction between the rock structure and the environmental factors. On the genesis of tafoni, there is no unique breakdown mechanism at work, but a multitude of physical and chemical processes developing over time. However, some of these formation mechanisms are typically predominant. Tafoni can be found on a variety of rock substrates, from sandstone and vesicular lava rocks to granite and basalt, and in a variety of environments, from wet coastal areas to the extreme dry zones of hot deserts, high plateaus or frozen lands of Antarctica. During various NASA missions, tafoni were also identified on rock formations on Mars. Comparative study of the environmental conditions leading to the formation of tafoni on Earth and Mars can help explain past and present surface erosion mechanisms on the Red Planet. The mechanisms responsible for tafoni formation on Earth include wind erosion, exfoliation, frost shattering, and, in the majority of cases, salt weathering. Microclimate variations of temperature, evaporation of salt water, disaggregation of mineral grains, as well as sandblasting, are among most common contributors that initiate the pitting of the rock surface, giving way to further development of tafoni alveoli, cavities and other erosion patterns. Dissolution of calcium carbonates and siliceous cements, or hydration of feldspars, are representative examples of tafoni erosion involving rain water, sea water or air moisture. Live organisms and biochemical processes are significant contributors to the formation and evolution of tafoni, especially in humid or water reach environments. In many instances, tafoni reflect erosion mechanism specific to environmental conditions

  15. Astrobiology and habitability studies in preparation for future Mars missions: trends from investigating minerals, organics and biota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Roling, W.F.M.; Thiel, C.S.; Quin, R.; Septhon, M.A.; Stoker, C.; Kotler, M.; Oliveira Lebre Direito, M.S.; Martins, Z.; Orzechowska, G.; Kidd, R.D.; van Sluis, C.A.; Foing, H.

    2011-01-01

    Several robotic exploration missions will travel to Mars during this decade to investigate habitability and the possible presence of life. Field research at Mars analogue sites such as desert environments can provide important constraints for instrument calibration, landing site strategies and

  16. Astrobiology and habitability studies in preparation for future Mars missions : Trends from investigating minerals, organics and biota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehrenfreund, P.; Röling, W.F.M.; Thiel, C.S.; Quinn, R.; Sephton, M.A.; Stoker, C.; Kotler, J.M.; Direito, S.O.L.; Martins, Z.; Orzechowska, G.E.; Kidd, R.D.; Van Sluis, C.A.; Foing, B.H.

    2011-01-01

    Several robotic exploration missions will travel to Mars during this decade to investigate habitability and the possible presence of life. Field research at Mars analogue sites such as desert environments can provide important constraints for instrument calibration, landing site strategies and

  17. Rock stresses (Grimsel rock laboratory)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, A.; Heusermann, S.; Braeuer, V.; Gloeggler, W.

    1989-01-01

    On the research and development project 'Rock Stress Measurements' the BGR has developed and tested several test devices and methods at GTS for use in boreholes at a depth of 200 m and has carried out rock mechanical and engineering geological investigations for the evaluation and interpretation of the stress measurements. The first time a computer for data processing was installed in the borehole together with the BGR-probe. Laboratory tests on hollow cylinders were made to study the stress-deformation behavior. To validate and to interprete the measurement results some test methods were modelled using the finite-element method. The dilatometer-tests yielded high values of Young's modulus, whereas laboratory tests showed lower values with a distinct deformation anisotropy. Stress measurements with the BGR-probe yielded horizontal stresses being higher than the theoretical overburden pressure and vertical stresses which agree well with the theoretical overburden pressure. These results are comparable to the results of the hydraulic fracturing tests, whereas stresses obtained with CSIR-triaxial cells are generally lower. The detailed geological mapping of the borehole indicated relationships between stress and geology. With regard to borehole depth different zones of rock structure joint frequency, joint orientation, and orientation of microfissures as well as stress magnitude, stress direction, and degree of deformation anisotropy could be distinguished. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Natural radioactivity of the rocks from the Moon and planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surkov, Yu.A. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Geokhimii i Analiticheskoj Khimii)

    1982-01-01

    Tha data on natural radioactivity of rocks (U, Th and K contents) from the Moon, Venus and Mars obtained by means of cosmic means are analyzed. The Moon rock radioactivity has been measured in situ (from orbital vehicles) as well as in the samples of lunar material delivered to the Earth and as for Venus and Mars rocks - by landing vehicles. It has been found that the main specific feature of the Moon and the Earth group planets is the presence of two geomorphological types of the structure of their surface composed by two different types of the matter. The ancient continent regions are made up by feldspar rock - gabbroanorthosite at the Moon (and possibly at the Mars) and granite-metamorphic at the Earth (and possibly at the Venus). The younger ''marine'' regions are composed by basalt rock. The presence at the Moon of two types of crust (marine and continental ones) having a different nature is clearly reflected on the Moon radioactivity map where marine regions (15% of the total surface) which have high radioactivity and continental regions with a relatively low radioactivity can be seen. The discovery of rocks on the Venus surface highly enriched by U, Th and K speaks of their melting from the primary matter in the depth of the Earth. The Marsian rock by the natural radioelement content is close to igneous rocks of the Earth crust of the basic composition and lunar marine basalts.

  19. Natural radioactivity of the rocks from the Moon and planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surkov, Yu.A.

    1982-01-01

    Tha data on natural radioactivity of rocks (U, Th and K contents) from the Moon, Venus and Mars obtained by means of cosmic means are analyzed. The Moon rock radioactivity has been measured in situ (from orbital vehicles) as well as in the samples of lunar material delivered to the Earth and as for Venus and Mars rocks - by landing vehicles. It has been found that the main specific feature of the Moon and the Earth group planets is the presence of two geomorphological types of the structure of their surface composed by two different types of the matter. The ancient contineent regions are made up by feldspar rock - gabbroanorthosite at the Moon (and possibly at the Mars) and granite-metamorphic at the Earth (and possibly at the Venus). The younger ''marine'' regions are composed by basalt rock. The presence at the Moon of two types of crust (marine and continental ones) having a different nature is clearly reflected on the Moon radioactivity map where marine regions (15% of the total surface) which have high radioactivity and continental regions with a relatively low radioactivity can be seen. The discovery of rocks on the Venus surface highly enriched by U, Th and K speaks of their melting from the primary matter in the depth of the Earth. The Marsian rock by the natural radioelement content is close to igneous rocks of the Earth crust of the basic composition and lunar marine basalts

  20. The humanation of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, L. W.

    Early developments related to human excursions to Mars are examined, taking into account plans considered by von Braun, and the 'ambitious goal of a manned flight to Mars by the end of the century', proposed at the launch of Apollo 11. In response to public reaction, plans for manned flights to Mars in the immediate future were given up, and unmanned reconnaissance of Mars was continued. An investigation is conducted concerning the advantages of manned exploration of Mars in comparison to a study by unmanned space probes, and arguments regarding a justification for interplanetary flight to Mars are discussed. Attention is given to the possibility to consider Mars as a 'back-up' planet for preserving earth life, an international Mars expedition as a world peace project, the role of Mars in connection with resource utilization considerations, and questions of exploration ethics.

  1. Mars Analytical Microimager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batory, Krzysztof J.; Govindjee; Andersen, Dale; Presley, John; Lucas, John M.; Sears, S. Kelly; Vali, Hojatollah

    Unambiguous detection of extraterrestrial nitrogenous hydrocarbon microbiology requires an instrument both to recognize potential biogenic specimens and to successfully discriminate them from geochemical settings. Such detection should ideally be in-situ and not jeopardize other experiments by altering samples. Taken individually most biomarkers are inconclusive. For example, since amino acids can be synthesized abiotically they are not always considered reliable biomarkers. An enantiomeric imbalance, which is characteristic of all terrestrial life, may be questioned because chirality can also be altered abiotically. However, current scientific understanding holds that aggregates of identical proteins or proteinaceous complexes, with their well-defined amino acid residue sequences, are indisputable biomarkers. Our paper describes the Mars Analytical Microimager, an instrument for the simultaneous imaging of generic autofluorescent biomarkers and overall morphology. Autofluorescence from ultraviolet to near-infrared is emitted by all known terrestrial biology, and often as consistent complex bands uncharacteristic of abiotic mineral luminescence. The MAM acquires morphology, and even sub-micron morphogenesis, at a 3-centimeter working distance with resolution approaching a laser scanning microscope. Luminescence is simultaneously collected via a 2.5-micron aperture, thereby permitting accurate correlation of multi-dimensional optical behavior with specimen morphology. A variable wavelength excitation source and photospectrometer serve to obtain steady-state and excitation spectra of biotic and luminescent abiotic sources. We believe this is the first time instrumentation for detecting hydrated or desiccated microbiology non-destructively in-situ has been demonstrated. We have obtained excellent preliminary detection of biota and inorganic matrix discrimination from terrestrial polar analogues, and perimetric morphology of individual magnetotactic bacteria. Proposed

  2. Automation &robotics for future Mars exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, W.; von Richter, A.; Bertrand, R.

    2003-04-01

    Automation and Robotics (A&R) are currently considered as a key technology for Mars exploration. initiatives in this field aim at developing new A&R systems and technologies for planetary surface exploration. Kayser-Threde led the study AROMA (Automation &Robotics for Human Mars Exploration) under ESA contract in order to define a reference architecture of A&R elements in support of a human Mars exploration program. One of the goals was to define new developments and to maintain the competitiveness of European industry within this field. We present a summary of the A&R study in respect to a particular system: The Autonomous Research Island (ARI). In the Mars exploration scenario initially a robotic outpost system lands at pre-selected sites in order to search for life forms and water and to analyze the surface, geology and atmosphere. A&R systems, i.e. rovers and autonomous instrument packages, perform a number of missions with scientific and technology development objectives on the surface of Mars as part of preparations for a human exploration mission. In the Robotic Outpost Phase ARI is conceived as an automated lander which can perform in-situ analysis. It consists of a service module and a micro-rover system for local investigations. Such a system is already under investigation and development in other TRP activities. The micro-rover system provides local mobility for in-situ scientific investigations at a given landing or deployment site. In the long run ARI supports also human Mars missions. An astronaut crew would travel larger distances in a pressurized rover on Mars. Whenever interesting features on the surface are identified, the crew would interrupt the travel and perform local investigations. In order to save crew time ARI could be deployed by the astronauts to perform time-consuming investigations as for example in-situ geochemistry analysis of rocks/soil. Later, the crew could recover the research island for refurbishment and deployment at another

  3. Evidence for a Large Natural Nuclear Reactor in Mars Past

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, J. E.

    2006-05-01

    It has long been known that The isotopic ratios 129 Xe/132Xe and 40Ar/36Ar are very high in Mars atmosphere relative to Earth or meteoritic backgrounds. This fact has allowed the SNC meteorites to be identified as Martian based on their trapped gases (1). However, while the isotopic anomalies explained one mystery, the origin of the SNC meteorites, they created a new mystery: the rock samples from Mars show no evidence of the large amounts of Iodine or Potassium that would give naturally give rise to the Xenon and Argon isotopic anomalies (2). In fact, the Martian meteorites are depleted in Potassium relative to earth rocks. This is added to the fact that for other isotopic systems such as 80Kr, Mars rock samples must be irradiated by neutrons at fluences of 1015 /cm2 to explain observed abundances (1) . Compounding the mystery is the fact that Mars surface layer has elevated levels of Uranium and Thorium relative to Earth and even its own rocks, as determined from SNCs (3). These anomalies can be explained if some large nuclear energy release, such as by natural nuclear reactors known to have operated on Earth (4) in in some concentrated ore body, occurred with perhaps a large volcano like explosion that spread residues over the planets surface. Based on gamma ray observations from orbit (3), and the correlations of normally uncorrelated Th and K deposits , the approximate location of this event would appear to have been in the north of Mars in a region in Acidalia Planitia centered at 45N Latitude and 15W Longitude (5). The possibility of such a large radiological event in Mars past adds impetus to Mars exploration efforts and particularly to a human mission to Mars to learn more about this possible occurrence. (1) Swindle, T. D. , Caffee, M. W., and Hohenberg, C. M., (1986) "Xenon and other Noble Gases in Shergottites" Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 50, pp 1001-1015. (2) Banin, A., Clark, B.C., and Wanke, H. "Surface Chemistry and Mineralogy" (1992) in "Mars

  4. The Mars Science Laboratory Organic Check Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Von der Heydt, Max O.; Mogensen, Claus T.; Canham, John; Harpold, Dan N.; Johnson, Joel; Errigo, Therese; Glavin, Daniel P.; Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2012-09-01

    Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover carries a set of five external verification standards in hermetically sealed containers that can be sampled as would be a Martian rock, by drilling and then portioning into the solid sample inlet of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite. Each organic check material (OCM) canister contains a porous ceramic solid, which has been doped with a fluorinated hydrocarbon marker that can be detected by SAM. The purpose of the OCM is to serve as a verification tool for the organic cleanliness of those parts of the sample chain that cannot be cleaned other than by dilution, i.e., repeated sampling of Martian rock. SAM possesses internal calibrants for verification of both its performance and its internal cleanliness, and the OCM is not used for that purpose. Each OCM unit is designed for one use only, and the choice to do so will be made by the project science group (PSG).

  5. Glaciation and geosphere evolution - Greenland Analogue Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschorn, S.; Vorauer, A.; Belfadhel, M.B.; Jensen, M.

    2011-01-01

    The deep geological repository concept for the long-term management of used nuclear fuel involves the containment and isolation of used nuclear fuel in a suitable geological formation. A key objective of the Canadian Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) geoscience technical research program is to advance the understanding of geosphere stability and its resilience to perturbations over time frames of relevance to a deep geological repository. Glaciation has been identified as the most probable and intense perturbation relevant to a deep geological repository associated with long-term climate change in northern latitudes. Given that the North American continent has been re-glaciated nine times over the past million years, it is strongly expected that a deep geological repository within a suitable crystalline or sedimentary rock formation in Canada will be subject to glaciation events associated with long-term climate change. As such, NWMO's geoscience research program has placed particular emphasis on investigations of the response of the geosphere to glaciations. As surface conditions change from present day conditions to periglacial, followed by ice-sheet cover of variable thickness and rapid glacial retreat, transient geochemical, hydraulic, mechanical and temperature conditions will be simultaneously imposed on groundwater systems. NWMO research activities related to glaciation events and their impacts on groundwater system evolution are being undertaken using a multi-disciplinary approach aimed at collecting multiple lines of evidence. These investigations include assessment of the: Impact of an ice sheet on groundwater composition at repository depth using the Greenland Ice Sheet as an analogue to future glaciations in North America; Expected physical and temporal surface boundary conditions related to potential future glaciation events by estimating the magnitude and time rate of change of ice sheet thickness, ground surface temperature and

  6. Introduction to electronic analogue computers

    CERN Document Server

    Wass, C A A

    1965-01-01

    Introduction to Electronic Analogue Computers, Second Revised Edition is based on the ideas and experience of a group of workers at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, Hants. This edition is almost entirely the work of Mr. K. C. Garner, of the College of Aeronautics, Cranfield. As various advances have been made in the technology involving electronic analogue computers, this book presents discussions on the said progress, including some acquaintance with the capabilities of electronic circuits and equipment. This text also provides a mathematical background including simple differen

  7. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.J. Saulnier Jr; W. Statham

    2006-03-10

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. the Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site. (1) Analogous source: UO{sub 2} uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geologic setting: fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash flow tuffs overlying carbonate rocks; (3) Analogous climate: Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous geochemistry: Oxidizing conditions; and (5) Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table. The Nopal I deposit is approximately 8 {+-} 0.5 million years old and has been exposed to oxidizing conditions during the last 3.2 to 3.4 million years. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Model considers that the uranium oxide and uranium silicates in the ore deposit were originally analogous to uranium-oxide spent nuclear fuel. The Pena Blanca site has been characterized using field and laboratory investigations of its fault and fracture distribution, mineralogy, fracture fillings, seepage into the mine adits, regional hydrology, and mineralization that shows the extent of radionuclide migration. Three boreholes were drilled at the Nopal I mine site in 2003 and these boreholes have provided samples for lithologic characterization, water-level measurements, and water samples for laboratory

  8. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G.J. Saulnier Jr; W. Statham

    2006-01-01

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. the Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site. (1) Analogous source: UO 2 uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geologic setting: fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash flow tuffs overlying carbonate rocks; (3) Analogous climate: Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous geochemistry: Oxidizing conditions; and (5) Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table. The Nopal I deposit is approximately 8 ± 0.5 million years old and has been exposed to oxidizing conditions during the last 3.2 to 3.4 million years. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Model considers that the uranium oxide and uranium silicates in the ore deposit were originally analogous to uranium-oxide spent nuclear fuel. The Pena Blanca site has been characterized using field and laboratory investigations of its fault and fracture distribution, mineralogy, fracture fillings, seepage into the mine adits, regional hydrology, and mineralization that shows the extent of radionuclide migration. Three boreholes were drilled at the Nopal I mine site in 2003 and these boreholes have provided samples for lithologic characterization, water-level measurements, and water samples for laboratory analysis

  9. Smectite Formation in Acid Sulfate Environments on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretyazhko, T. S.; Niles, P. B.; Sutter, B.; Clark, J. V.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.

    2017-01-01

    Phyllosilicates of the smectite group detected in Noachian and early Hesperian terrains on Mars were hypothesized to form under aqueous conditions that were globally neutral to alkaline. These pH conditions and the presence of a CO2-rich atmosphere should have been favorable for the formation of large carbonate deposits. However, large-scale carbonate deposits have not been detected on Mars. We hypothesized that smectite deposits are consistent with perhaps widespread acidic aqueous conditions that prevented carbonate precipitation. The objective of our work was to investigate smectite formation under acid sulfate conditions in order to provide insight into the possible geochemical conditions required for smectite formation on Mars. Hydrothermal batch incubation experiments were performed with Mars-analogue, glass-rich, basalt simulant in the presence of sulfuric acid of variable concentration.

  10. Water - rock interaction in different rock environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamminen, S.

    1995-01-01

    The study assesses the groundwater geochemistry and geological environment of 44 study sites for radioactive waste disposal. Initially, the study sites were divided by rock type into 5 groups: (1) acid - intermediate rocks, (2) mafic - ultramafic rocks, (3) gabbros, amphibolites and gneisses that contain calc-silicate (skarn) rocks, (4) carbonates and (5) sandstones. Separate assessments are made of acid - intermediate plutonic rocks and of a subgroup that comprises migmatites, granite and mica gneiss. These all belong to the group of acid - intermediate rocks. Within the mafic -ultramafic rock group, a subgroup that comprises mafic - ultramafic plutonic rocks, serpentinites, mafic - ultramafic volcanic rocks and volcanic - sedimentary schists is also evaluated separately. Bedrock groundwaters are classified by their concentration of total dissolved solids as fresh, brackish, saline, strongly saline and brine-class groundwaters. (75 refs., 24 figs., 3 tabs.)

  11. Curiosity: the Mars Science Laboratory Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    The Curiosity rover landed successfully in Gale Crater, Mars on August 5, 2012. This event was a dramatic high point in the decade long effort to design, build, test and fly the most sophisticated scientific vehicle ever sent to Mars. The real achievements of the mission have only just begun, however, as Curiosity is now searching for signs that Mars once possessed habitable environments. The Mars Science Laboratory Project has been one of the most ambitious and challenging planetary projects that NASA has undertaken. It started in the successful aftermath of the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover project and was designed to take significant steps forward in both engineering and scientific capabilities. This included a new landing system capable of emplacing a large mobile vehicle over a wide range of potential landing sites, advanced sample acquisition and handling capabilities that can retrieve samples from both rocks and soil, and a high reliability avionics suite that is designed to permit long duration surface operations. It also includes a set of ten sophisticated scientific instruments that will investigate both the geological context of the landing site plus analyze samples to understand the chemical & organic composition of rocks & soil found there. The Gale Crater site has been specifically selected as a promising location where ancient habitable environments may have existed and for which evidence may be preserved. Curiosity will spend a minimum of one Mars year (about two Earth years) looking for this evidence. This paper will report on the progress of the mission over the first few months of surface operations, plus look retrospectively at lessons learned during both the development and cruise operations phase of the mission..

  12. MarsSedEx I and II: Experimental investigation of gravity effects on sedimentation on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, N. J.; Kuhn, B.; Gartmann, A.

    2014-12-01

    Sorting of sedimentary rocks is a proxy for the environmental conditions at the time of deposition, in particular the runoff that moved and deposited the material forming the rocks. Settling of sediment is strongly influenced by the gravity of a planetary body. As a consequence, sorting of a sedimentary rock varies with gravity for a given depth and velocity of surface runoff. Theoretical considerations for spheres indicate that sorting is less uniform on Mars than on Earth for runoff of identical depth. The effects of gravity on flow hydraulics limit the use of common, semi-empirical models developed to simulate particle settling in terrestrial environments, on Mars. Assessing sedimentation patterns on Mars, aimed at identifying strata potentially hosting traces of life, is potentially affected by such uncertainties. Using first-principle approaches, e.g. through Computational Fluid Dynamics, for calculating settling velocities on other planetary bodies requires a large effort and is limited by the values of boundary conditions, e.g. the shape of the particle. The degree of uncertainty resulting from the differences in gravity on Earth and Mars was therefore tested during three reduced-gravity flights, the MarsSedEx I and II missions, conducted in November 2012 and 2013. Nine types of sediment, ranging in size, shape and density were tested in custom-designed settling tubes during parabolas of Martian gravity lasting 20 to 25 seconds. Based on the observed settling velocities, the uncertainties of empirical relationships developed on Earth to assess particle settling on Mars are discussed. In addition, the potential effects of reduced gravity on patterns of erosion, transport and sorting of sediment, including the implications for identifying strata bearing traces of past life on are examined.

  13. Geology of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderblom, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The geology of Mars and the results of the Mariner 4, 6/7, and 9 missions and the Viking mission are reviewed. The Mars chronology and geologic modification are examined, including chronological models for the inactive planet, the active planet, and crater flux. The importance of surface materials is discussed and a multispectral map of Mars is presented. Suggestions are given for further studies of the geology of Mars using the Viking data. 5 references

  14. Superconductive analogue of spin glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigel'man, M.; Ioffe, L.; Vinokur, V.; Larkin, A.

    1987-07-01

    The properties of granular superconductors in magnetic fields, namely the existence of a new superconductive state analogue of the low-temperature superconductive state in spin glasses are discussed in the frame of the infinite-range model and the finite-range models. Experiments for elucidation of spin-glass superconductive state in real systems are suggested. 30 refs

  15. Causal structure of analogue spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelo, Carlos; Liberati, Stefano; Sonego, Sebastiano; Visser, Matt

    2004-01-01

    The so-called 'analogue models of general relativity' provide a number of specific physical systems, well outside the traditional realm of general relativity, that nevertheless are well-described by the differential geometry of curved spacetime. Specifically, the propagation of perturbations in these condensed matter systems is described by 'effective metrics' that carry with them notions of 'causal structure' as determined by an exchange of quasi-particles. These quasi-particle-induced causal structures serve as specific examples of what can be done in the presence of a Lorentzian metric without having recourse to the Einstein equations of general relativity. (After all, the underlying analogue model is governed by its own specific physics, not necessarily by the Einstein equations.) In this paper we take a careful look at what can be said about the causal structure of analogue spacetimes, focusing on those containing quasi-particle horizons, both with a view to seeing what is different from standard general relativity, and what the similarities might be. For definiteness, and because the physics is particularly simple to understand, we will phrase much of the discussion in terms of acoustic disturbances in moving fluids, where the underlying physics is ordinary fluid mechanics, governed by the equations of traditional hydrodynamics, and the relevant quasi-particles are the phonons. It must however be emphasized that this choice of example is only for the sake of pedagogical simplicity and that our considerations apply generically to wide classes of analogue spacetimes

  16. Simulation and preparation of surface EVA in reduced gravity at the Marseilles Bay subsea analogue sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, P.; Gardette, B.; Chirié, B.; Collina-Girard, J.; Delauze, H. G.

    2012-12-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) of astronauts during space missions is simulated nowadays underwater in neutral buoyancy facilities. Certain aspects of weightlessness can be reproduced underwater by adding buoyancy to a diver-astronaut, therefore exposing the subject to the difficulties of working without gravity. Such tests were done at the COMEX' test pool in Marseilles in the 1980s to train for a French-Russian mission to the MIR station, for the development of the European HERMES shuttle and the COLUMBUS laboratory. However, space agencies are currently studying missions to other destinations than the International Space Station in orbit, such as the return to the Moon, NEO (near-Earth objects) or Mars. All these objects expose different gravities: Moon has one sixth of Earth's gravity, Mars has a third of Earth's gravity and asteroids have virtually no surface gravity; the astronaut "floats" above the ground. The preparation of such missions calls for a new concept in neutral buoyancy training, not on man-made structures, but on natural terrain, underwater, to simulate EVA operations such as sampling, locomotion or even anchoring in low gravity. Underwater sites can be used not only to simulate the reduced gravity that astronauts will experience during their field trips, also human factors like stress are more realistically reproduced in such environment. The Bay of Marseille hosts several underwater sites that can be used to simulate various geologic morphologies, such as sink-holes which can be used to simulate astronaut descends into craters, caves where explorations of lava tubes can be trained or monolithic rock structures that can be used to test anchoring devices (e.g., near Earth objects). Marseilles with its aerospace and maritime/offshore heritage hosts the necessary logistics and expertise that is needed to perform such simulations underwater in a safe manner (training of astronaut-divers in local test pools, research vessels, subsea robots and

  17. Mars: The Viking Discoveries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Bevan M.

    This booklet describes the results of NASA's Viking spacecraft on Mars. It is intended to be useful for the teacher of basic courses in earth science, space science, astronomy, physics, or geology, but is also of interest to the well-informed layman. Topics include why we should study Mars, how the Viking spacecraft works, the winds of Mars, the…

  18. Textural and mineralogical characteristics of microbial fossils associated with modern and ancient iron (oxyhydr)oxides: terrestrial analogue for sediments in Gale Crater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter-McIntyre, Sally L; Chan, Marjorie A; McPherson, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Iron (oxyhydr)oxide microbial mats in modern to ∼100 ka tufa terraces are present in a cold spring system along Ten Mile Graben, southeastern Utah, USA. Mats exhibit morphological, chemical, and textural biosignatures and show diagenetic changes that occur over millennial scales. The Jurassic Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation in the Four Corners region of the USA also exhibits comparable microbial fossils and iron (oxyhydr)oxide biosignatures in the lacustrine unit. Both the modern spring system and Brushy Basin Member represent alkaline, saline, groundwater-fed systems and preserve diatoms and other similar algal forms with cellular elaboration. Two distinct suites of elements (1. C, Fe, As and 2. C, S, Se, P) are associated with microbial fossils in modern and ancient iron (oxyhydr)oxides and may be potential markers for biosignatures. The presence of ferrihydrite in ∼100 ka fossil microbial mats and Jurassic rocks suggests that this thermodynamically unstable mineral may also be a potential biomarker. One of the most extensive sedimentary records on Mars is exposed in Gale Crater and consists of non-acidic clays and sulfates possibly of lacustrine origin. These terrestrial iron (oxyhydr)oxide examples are a valuable analogue because of similar iron- and clay-rich host rock compositions and will help (1) understand diagenetic processes in a non-acidic, saline lacustrine environment such as the sedimentary rocks in Gale Crater, (2) document specific biomediated textures, (3) demonstrate how biomediated textures might persist or respond to diagenesis over time, and (4) provide a ground truth library of textures to explore and compare in extraterrestrial iron (oxyhydr)oxides, where future explorations hope to detect past evidence of life.

  19. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Application of scenario development method in evaluation of the Koongarra Analogue. Final Report - Volume 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, K. [Kemakta Consultants co., Stockholm (Sweden); Wingefors, S. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1992-12-31

    The study of natural analogues has been established as one of the most important methods for validation of concepts and models applied for the assessment of long-term performance of repositories for nuclear waste. The objectives of such studies range from detailed investigations of processes and features on a small scale to attempts of explaining the evolution of whole sites. For studies of specific processes it may well be as important to consider the larger scale settings as boundary conditions. This appreciation of context and an integrated view may be as important for evaluation of most natural analogues as for performance assessments. This is more evident the more the evaluation depends on a knowledge about the evolution of the natural analogue. The attempted formulation of scenarios of the Koongarra Analogue has been based on the external conditions and external features. A rapid weathering of the host rock, i.e. the chlorite schist, is assumed to have started around the onset of the Pleistocene Ice Age (ca 1.6 Ma BP). The eventual oxidation and mobilization of the uranium ore could then have occurred under unsaturated or saturated conditions. This leads to the following major scenarios: (1) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions, with a periodical evolution of the dispersion fan in conjunction with alternating dry (glacial) and wet (interglacial) periods during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (2) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions as a single event, taking place either early or late during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (3)Uranyl Phosphates formed under saturated conditions, in conjunction with periods of higher and lower flow due to the climatic cycling. Although the original objectives may not have been fully achieved, this work is believed to contribute to a better understanding of the Koongarra Analogue as well as to give a basis for further scenario work

  20. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Application of scenario development method in evaluation of the Koongarra Analogue. Final Report - Volume 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagius, K.; Wingefors, S.

    1992-01-01

    The study of natural analogues has been established as one of the most important methods for validation of concepts and models applied for the assessment of long-term performance of repositories for nuclear waste. The objectives of such studies range from detailed investigations of processes and features on a small scale to attempts of explaining the evolution of whole sites. For studies of specific processes it may well be as important to consider the larger scale settings as boundary conditions. This appreciation of context and an integrated view may be as important for evaluation of most natural analogues as for performance assessments. This is more evident the more the evaluation depends on a knowledge about the evolution of the natural analogue. The attempted formulation of scenarios of the Koongarra Analogue has been based on the external conditions and external features. A rapid weathering of the host rock, i.e. the chlorite schist, is assumed to have started around the onset of the Pleistocene Ice Age (ca 1.6 Ma BP). The eventual oxidation and mobilization of the uranium ore could then have occurred under unsaturated or saturated conditions. This leads to the following major scenarios: (1) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions, with a periodical evolution of the dispersion fan in conjunction with alternating dry (glacial) and wet (interglacial) periods during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (2) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions as a single event, taking place either early or late during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (3)Uranyl Phosphates formed under saturated conditions, in conjunction with periods of higher and lower flow due to the climatic cycling. Although the original objectives may not have been fully achieved, this work is believed to contribute to a better understanding of the Koongarra Analogue as well as to give a basis for further scenario work

  1. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Application of scenario development method in evaluation of the Koongarra Analogue. Final Report - Volume 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skagius, K [Kemakta Consultants co., Stockholm (Sweden); Wingefors, S [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1993-12-31

    The study of natural analogues has been established as one of the most important methods for validation of concepts and models applied for the assessment of long-term performance of repositories for nuclear waste. The objectives of such studies range from detailed investigations of processes and features on a small scale to attempts of explaining the evolution of whole sites. For studies of specific processes it may well be as important to consider the larger scale settings as boundary conditions. This appreciation of context and an integrated view may be as important for evaluation of most natural analogues as for performance assessments. This is more evident the more the evaluation depends on a knowledge about the evolution of the natural analogue. The attempted formulation of scenarios of the Koongarra Analogue has been based on the external conditions and external features. A rapid weathering of the host rock, i.e. the chlorite schist, is assumed to have started around the onset of the Pleistocene Ice Age (ca 1.6 Ma BP). The eventual oxidation and mobilization of the uranium ore could then have occurred under unsaturated or saturated conditions. This leads to the following major scenarios: (1) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions, with a periodical evolution of the dispersion fan in conjunction with alternating dry (glacial) and wet (interglacial) periods during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (2) Uranyl Phosphates formed under unsaturated conditions as a single event, taking place either early or late during the Pleistocene Ice Age; (3)Uranyl Phosphates formed under saturated conditions, in conjunction with periods of higher and lower flow due to the climatic cycling. Although the original objectives may not have been fully achieved, this work is believed to contribute to a better understanding of the Koongarra Analogue as well as to give a basis for further scenario work

  2. Acid Sulfate Alteration on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the

  3. CERN Rocks

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The 15th CERN Hardronic Festival took place on 17 July on the terrace of Rest 3 (Prévessin). Over 1000 people, from CERN and other International Organizations, came to enjoy the warm summer night, and to watch the best of the World's High Energy music. Jazz, rock, pop, country, metal, blues, funk and punk blasted out from 9 bands from the CERN Musiclub and Jazz club, alternating on two stages in a non-stop show.  The night reached its hottest point when The Canettes Blues Band got everybody dancing to sixties R&B tunes (pictured). Meanwhile, the bars and food vans were working at full capacity, under the expert management of the CERN Softball club, who were at the same time running a Softball tournament in the adjacent "Higgs Field". The Hardronic Festival is the main yearly CERN music event, and it is organized with the support of the Staff Association and the CERN Administration.

  4. Mars Drilling Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Humboldt, C., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the current status of work to explore Mars beneath the surface of planet. One of the objective of this work is to enable further exploration of Mars by humans. One of the requirements for this is to find water on Mars. The presences of water is critical for Human Exploration and a permanent presence on Mars. If water is present beneath the surface it is the best chance of finding life on Mars. The presentation includes a timeline showing the robotic missions, those that have already been on Mars, and planned missions, an explanation of why do we want to drill on Mars, and some of the challenges, Also include are reviews of a missions that would drill 200 and 4,000 to 6,000 meters into the Martian bedrock, and a overview description of the drill. There is a view of some places where we have hopes of finding water.

  5. The pitchblende of Fe mine (Ciudad Rodrigo, Salamanca) as natural analogue of spent fuel behaviour (matrix I project)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez del Villar, L.; Campos, R.; Gomez, P.; Cozar, J. S.; Pardillo, J.; Garralon, A.; Turrero, M. J.; Buil, B.; Pelayo, M.; Ruiz, B.; Rivas, P.

    2001-01-01

    Uranium ore deposits have been extensively studied as natural analogues to the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. These investigations constitute an essential element of both national and international research programmes applied to the assessment of geological repositories in crystalline, clayey and even in schistose rocks. The uranium ore deposit of Fe mine (Ciudad Rodrigo, Salmanca) is placed in highly fractured schistose rocks, a geological setting that has not been envisaged in ENRESA options. However, the similarities with some of the repository features and the analogies with the processes involved in the degradation of the ore deposits made advisable its study as natural analogue. The most important features are. (Author)

  6. Mars Geochemical Instrument (MarGI): An instrument for the analysis of the Martian surface and the search for evidence of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojiro, Daniel R.; Mancinelli, Rocco; Martin, Joe; Holland, Paul M.; Stimac, Robert M.; Kaye, William J.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Geochemical Instrument, MarGI, was developed to provide a comprehensive analysis of the rocks and surface material on Mars. The instrument combines Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) with miniature Gas Chromatography-Ion Mobility Spectrometry (GC-IMS) to identify minerals, the presence and state of water, and organic compounds. Miniature pyrolysis ovens are used to both, conduct DTA analysis of soil or crushed rocks samples, and pyrolyze the samples at temperatures up to 1000 degrees C for GC-IMS analysis of the released gases. This combination of analytical processes and techniques, which can characterize the mineralogy of the rocks and soil, and identify and quantify volatiles released during pyrolysis, has applications across a wide range of target sites including comets, planets, asteroids, and moons such as Titan and Europa. The MarGI analytical approach evolved from the Cometary Ice and Dust Experiment (CIDEX) selected to fly on the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby Mission (CRAF).

  7. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) Wet Chemistry Experiment on the Mars 2001 Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannan, S. M.; Meloy, T. P.; Hecht, H.; Anderson, M. S.; Buehler, M.; Frant, M.; Kounaves, S. P.; Manatt, K. S.; Pike, W. T.; Schubert, W.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) is an instrument suite that will fly on the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander Spacecraft. MECA is sponsored by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) program and will evaluate potential hazards that the dust and soil of Mars might present to astronauts and their equipment on a future human mission to Mars. Four elements constitute the integrated MECA payload: a microscopy station, patch plates, an electrometer, and the wet chemistry experiment (WCE). The WCE is the first application of electrochemical sensors to study soil chemistry on another planetary body, in addition to being the first measurement of soil/water solution properties on Mars. The chemical composition and properties of the watersoluble materials present in the Martian soil are of considerable interest to the planetary science community because characteristic salts are formed by the water-based weathering of rocks, the action of volcanic gases, and biological activity. Thus the characterization of water-soluble soil materials on Mars can provide information on the geochemical history of the planet surface. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Modeling and observational occurrences of near-surface drainage in Utopia Planitia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costard, F.; Sejourne, A.; Kargel, J.; Godin, E.

    2016-12-01

    During the past 15 years, evidence for an ice-rich planet Mars has rapidly mounted, become increasingly varied in terms of types of deposits and types of observational data, and has become more widespread across the surface. The mid-latitudes of Mars, especially Utopia Planitia, show many types of interesting landforms similar to those in periglacial landscapes on Earth that suggest the presence of ice-rich permafrost. These include thermal contraction polygonal networks, scalloped terrains similar to thermokarst pits, debris flows, small mounds like pingos and rock glaciers. Here, we address questions concerning the influence of meltwater in the Utopia Planitia (UP) landscape using analogs of near-surface melting and drainage along ice-wedge troughs on Bylot Island, northern Canada. In Utopia Planitia, based on the identification of sinuous channel-like pits within polygonal networks, we suggest that episodic underground melting was possible under severe periglacial climate conditions. In UP, the collapse pattern and morphology of unconnected sinuous elongated pits that follow the polygon crack are similar to underground melting in Bylot Island (Nunavut, Canada). Based on this terrestrial analogue, we develop a thermal model that consists of a thick insulating dusty layer over ice-saturated dust during a period of slight climatic warming relative to today's climate. In the model, the melting point is reached at depths down to 150 m. We suggest that small-scale melting could have occurred below ground within ground-ice polygonal fractures and pooled in underground cavities. Then the water may have been released episodically causing mechanical erosion as well as undermining and collapse. After melting, the dry surface dusty layer might have been blown away, thus exposing the degraded terrain of the substrate layer.

  9. Status of natural analogue studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, Keiichi

    1994-03-01

    This report is based on the materials for the meeting at the Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan held on September 1993. Details are as follows: Alteration of glass as the study of alteration of natural minerals; alteration of uranium minerals, migration of uranium and thorium series radionuclides, alteration of chlorite, fixation of uranium alteration of minerals and migration of uranium as the study of alligator rivers analogue project held at Koongarra uranium deposit, Australia. (author)

  10. Basaltic rocks analyzed by the Spirit rover in Gusev crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSween, H.Y.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J.F.; Blaney, D.; Cabrol, N.A.; Christensen, P.R.; Clark, B. C.; Crisp, J.A.; Crumpler, L.S.; Des Marias, D.J.; Farmer, J.D.; Gellert, Ralf; Ghosh, A.; Gorevan, S.; Graff, T.; Grant, J.; Haskin, L.A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Jolliff, B.L.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Knudson, A.T.; McLennan, S.; Milam, K.A.; Moersch, J.E.; Morris, R.V.; Rieder, R.; Ruff, S.W.; De Souza, P.A.; Squyres, S. W.; Wanke, H.; Wang, A.; Wyatt, M.B.; Yen, A.; Zipfel, J.

    2004-01-01

    The Spirit landing site in Gusev Crater on Mars contains dark, fine-grained, vesicular rocks interpreted as lavas. Pancam and Mini-Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) spectra suggest that all of these rocks are similar but have variable coatings and dust mantles. Magnified images of brushed and abraded rock surfaces show alteration rinds and veins. Rock interiors contain ???25% megacrysts. Chemical analyses of rocks by the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer are consistent with picritic basalts, containing normative olivine, pyroxenes, plagioclase, and accessory FeTi oxides. Mo??ssbauer, Pancam, and Mini-TES spectra confirm the presence of olivine, magnetite, and probably pyroxene. These basalts extend the known range of rock compositions composing the martian crust.

  11. The Development of the Chemin Mineralogy Instrument and Its Deployment on Mars (and Latest Results from the Mars Science Laboratory Rover Curiosity)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David F.

    2014-01-01

    The CheMin instrument (short for "Chemistry and Mineralogy") on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity is one of two "laboratory quality" instruments on board the Curiosity rover that is exploring Gale crater, Mars. CheMin is an X-ray diffractometer that has for the first time returned definitive and fully quantitative mineral identifications of Mars soil and drilled rock. I will describe CheMin's 23-year development from an idea to a spacecraft qualified instrument, and report on some of the discoveries that Curiosity has made since its entry, descent and landing on Aug. 6, 2012, including the discovery and characterization of the first habitable environment on Mars.

  12. Beagle 2: Seeking the signatures of life on Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson Jr., E. K.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Wright, Ian P.; Morse, Andy; Stewart, Jenny; Morgan, G.; Praine, Ian; Leigh, Dennis; Sims, Mark R.; Pullan, Derek

    2003-01-01

    ESA's Beagle 2 lander will land on Mars to search for signatures of present and past life. A Gas Analysis Package (GAP) with a mass spectrometer, XRF, Mossbauer, stereo cameras, microscope, environmental sensors, rock corer/grinder, and a Mole attachment are on the lander.

  13. Simulations of the magnetic properties experiment on Mars Exploration Rovers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Worm, E. S.; Bertelsen, P.; Goetz, W.; Kinch, K.; Madsen, M. B.; Merrison, J. P.; Nornberg, P.

    2005-01-01

    We present some of the main findings from simulation studies of the Magnetic Properties Experiment on the Mars Exploration Rovers. The results suggest that the dust has formed via mechanical breakdown of surface rocks through the geological history of the planet, and that liquid water need not have played any significant role in the dust formation processes.

  14. Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale crater, Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Bish, D.L.; Ming, D.W.; Bristow, T.F.; Morris, R.V.; Blake, D.F.; Chipera, S.J.; Morrison, S.M.; Treiman, A.H.; Rampe, E.B.; Rice, M.; Achilles, C.N.; Grotzinger, J.P.; McLennan, S.M.; Williams, J.; Bell III, J.F.; Newsom, H.E.; Downs, R.T.; Maurice, S.; Sarrazin, P.; Yen, A.S.; Morookian, J.M.; Farmer, J.D.; Stack, K.; Milliken, R.E.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Sumner, D.Y.; Berger, G.; Crisp, J.A.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Anderson, R.; Des Marais, D.J.; Stolper, E.M.; Edgett, K.S.; Gupta, S.; Spanovich, N.; MSL Science Team, the|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/292012217

    2014-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks at Yellowknife Bay (Gale crater) on Mars include mudstone sampled by the Curiosity rover. The samples, John Klein and Cumberland, contain detrital basaltic minerals, calcium sulfates, iron oxide or hydroxides, iron sulfides, amorphous material, and trioctahedral smectites. The John

  15. Bentonite analogue research related to geological disposal of radioactive waste: current status and future outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reijonen, H.M. [Saanio and Rickkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Russel, A.W. [Bedrock Geosciences, Auenstein (Switzerland)

    2015-06-15

    The practice of utilising natural analogues in assessing the long-term behaviour of various components of geological repositories for radioactive waste is already well established in most disposal programmes. Numerous studies on bentonites, focussing on bentonite interaction with other components of the engineered barrier system and a range of host rock environments, are present in the literature. In this article, recent bentonite natural analogue studies are briefly reviewed, and gaps in the current literature identified, with the aim of (1) suggesting where relevant new information could be obtained by data mining published bentonite natural analogue studies with a new focus on current safety case requirements, (2) collecting relevant information by revisiting known bentonite analogue sites and conducting investigations with more appropriate analytical techniques, and (3) identifying novel study sites where, for example, bentonite longevity in very dilute to highly saline groundwater conditions can be studied. It must be noted that the use of natural analogues in safety case development is likely to be site and repository design-specific in nature and thus emphasis is placed on the appropriate use of relevant natural analogue data on bentonite longevity. (authors)

  16. Bentonite analogue research related to geological disposal of radioactive waste: current status and future outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reijonen, H.M.; Russel, A.W.

    2015-01-01

    The practice of utilising natural analogues in assessing the long-term behaviour of various components of geological repositories for radioactive waste is already well established in most disposal programmes. Numerous studies on bentonites, focussing on bentonite interaction with other components of the engineered barrier system and a range of host rock environments, are present in the literature. In this article, recent bentonite natural analogue studies are briefly reviewed, and gaps in the current literature identified, with the aim of (1) suggesting where relevant new information could be obtained by data mining published bentonite natural analogue studies with a new focus on current safety case requirements, (2) collecting relevant information by revisiting known bentonite analogue sites and conducting investigations with more appropriate analytical techniques, and (3) identifying novel study sites where, for example, bentonite longevity in very dilute to highly saline groundwater conditions can be studied. It must be noted that the use of natural analogues in safety case development is likely to be site and repository design-specific in nature and thus emphasis is placed on the appropriate use of relevant natural analogue data on bentonite longevity. (authors)

  17. Quick trips to Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornung, R.

    1991-01-01

    The design of a Mars Mission Vehicle that would have to be launched by two very heavy lift launch vehicles is described along with plans for a mission to Mars. The vehicle has three nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) boosters with a fourth in the center that acts as a dual mode system. The fourth generates electrical power while in route, but it also helps lift the vehicle out of earth orbit. A Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), a Mars transfer vehicle stage, and a Mars Excursion Vehicle (MEV) are located on the front end of this vehicle. Other aspects of this research including aerobraking, heat shielding, nuclear thermal rocket engines, a mars mission summary, closed Brayton cycle with and without regeneration, liquid hydrogen propellant storage, etc. are addressed

  18. Cars on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    Mars is one of the most fascinating planets in the solar system, featuring an atmosphere, water, and enormous volcanoes and canyons. The Mars Pathfinder, Global Surveyor, and Odyssey missions mark the first wave of the Planet Earth's coming invasion of the red planet, changing our views of the past and future of the planet and the possibilities of life. Scientist and science-fiction writer Geoffrey A. Landis will present experiences on the Pathfinder mission, the challenges of using solar power on the surface of Mars, and present future missions to Mars such as the upcoming Mars Twin Rovers, which will launch two highly-capable vehicles in 2003 to explore the surface of Mars.

  19. Areal and time distributions of volcanic formations on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katterfeld, G.N.; Vityaz, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of igneous rock distribution has been fulfilled on the basis of the geomorphological map of Mars at scale 1:5,000,000, according to data obtained from interpretation of 1:2,000,000 scale pictures of Mariner 9, Mars 4, Mars 5, Viking 1 and 2. Areological areas are listed as having been distinguished as the stratigraphic basis for a martian time scale. The area of volcanic eruptions and the number of eruptive centers are calculated on 10 x 10 deg cells and for each areological eras. The largest area of eruptive happening at different times is related with Tharsis tectonic uplift. The study of distribution of igneous rock area and volcanic centers number on 10 deg sectors and zones revealed the concentration belts of volcanic formations

  20. Areal and time distributions of volcanic formations on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katterfeld, G. N.; Vityaz, V. I.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of igneous rock distribution has been fulfilled on the basis of the geomorphological map of Mars at scale 1:5,000,000, according to data obtained from interpretation of 1:2,000,000 scale pictures of Mariner 9, Mars 4, Mars 5, Viking 1 and 2. Areological areas are listed as having been distinguished as the stratigraphic basis for a martian time scale. The area of volcanic eruptions and the number of eruptive centers are calculated on 10 x 10 deg cells and for each areological eras. The largest area of eruptive happening at different times is related with Tharsis tectonic uplift. The study of distribution of igneous rock area and volcanic centers number on 10 deg sectors and zones revealed the concentration belts of volcanic formations.

  1. NASA Curiosity rover hits organic pay dirt on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voosen, Paul

    2018-06-01

    Since NASA's Curiosity rover landed on Mars in 2012, it has sifted samples of soil and ground-up rock for signs of organic molecules—the complex carbon chains that on Earth form the building blocks of life. Past detections have been so faint that they could be just contamination. Now, samples taken from two different drill sites on an ancient lakebed have yielded complex organic macromolecules that look strikingly similar to kerogen, the goopy fossilized building blocks of oil and gas on Earth. At a few dozen parts per million, the detected levels are 100 times higher than previous finds, but scientists still cannot say whether they have origins in biology or geology. The discovery positions scientists to begin searching for direct evidence of past life on Mars and bolsters the case for returning rock samples from the planet, an effort that begins with the Mars 2020 rover.

  2. Mars at Opposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddle, Bob

    2010-01-01

    On January 29, Mars will reach opposition, a point along its orbit around the Sun where Mars will be directly opposite from the Sun in a two-planet and Sun line-up with the Earth in between. At this opposition, the Earth and Mars will be separated by nearly 100 million km. An opposition is similar to a full Moon in that the planet at opposition…

  3. NASA Mars 2020 Rover Mission: New Frontiers in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars 2020 rover mission is the next step in NASAs robotic exploration of the red planet. The rover, based on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover now on Mars, will address key questions about the potential for life on Mars. The mission would also provide opportunities to gather knowledge and demonstrate technologies that address the challenges of future human expeditions to Mars.Like the Mars Science Laboratory rover, which has been exploring Mars since 2012, the Mars 2020 spacecraft will use a guided entry, descent, and landing system which includes a parachute, descent vehicle, and, during the provides the ability to land a very large, heavy rover on the surface of Mars in a more precise landing area. The Mars 2020 mission is designed to accomplish several high-priority planetary science goals and will be an important step toward meeting NASAs challenge to send humans to Mars in the 2030s. The mission will conduct geological assessments of the rover's landing site, determine the habitability of the environment, search for signs of ancient Martian life, and assess natural resources and hazards for future human explorers. The science instruments aboard the rover also will enable scientists to identify and select a collection of rock and soil samples that will be stored for potential return to Earth in the future. The rover also may help designers of a human expedition understand the hazards posed by Martian dust and demonstrate how to collect carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, which could be a valuable resource for producing oxygen and rocket fuel.

  4. History of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The origin and early history of Mars and the relationship between Mars and the other planets are reviewed. The solar system formation and planetary differentiation are examined using data from planetary missions. Different views of Mars are presented, showing how ideas about the planet have changed as the amount of available observational data has increased. Viking aerography and surface characterization are discussed, including the nature of specific atmospheric components and the implications of surface phenomena. Models for the planetary formation and accretion processes are considered. The value of future missions to Mars is stressed

  5. Mars Stratigraphy Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, C. J.; Miller, S. L.; Cutts, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Stratigraphy Mission lands a rover on the surface of Mars which descends down a cliff in Valles Marineris to study the stratigraphy. The rover carries a unique complement of instruments to analyze and age-date materials encountered during descent past 2 km of strata. The science objective for the Mars Stratigraphy Mission is to identify the geologic history of the layered deposits in the Valles Marineris region of Mars. This includes constraining the time interval for formation of these deposits by measuring the ages of various layers and determining the origin of the deposits (volcanic or sedimentary) by measuring their composition and imaging their morphology.

  6. Thermal inertia and surface heterogeneity on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzig, Nathaniel E.

    Thermal inertia derived from temperature observations is critical for understanding surface geology and assessing potential landing sites on Mars. Derivation methods generally assume uniform surface properties for any given observation. Consequently, horizontal heterogeneity and near-surface layering may yield apparent thermal inertia that varies with time of day and season. To evaluate the effects of horizontal heterogeneity, I modeled the thermal behavior of surfaces containing idealized material mixtures (dust, sand, duricrust, and rocks) and differing slope facets. These surfaces exhibit diurnal and seasonal variability in apparent thermal inertia of several 100 tiu, 1 even for components with moderately contrasting thermal properties. To isolate surface effects on the derived thermal inertia of Mars, I mapped inter- annual and seasonal changes in albedo and atmospheric dust opacity, accounting for their effects in a modified derivation algorithm. Global analysis of three Mars years of MGS-TES 2 data reveals diurnal and seasonal variations of ~200 tiu in the mid-latitudes and 600 tiu or greater in the polar regions. Correlation of TES results and modeled apparent thermal inertia of heterogeneous surfaces indicates pervasive surface heterogeneity on Mars. At TES resolution, the near-surface thermal response is broadly dominated by layering and is consistent with the presence of duricrusts over fines in the mid-latitudes and dry soils over ground ice in the polar regions. Horizontal surface mixtures also play a role and may dominate at higher resolution. In general, thermal inertia obtained from single observations or annually averaged maps may misrepresent surface properties. In lieu of a robust heterogeneous- surface derivation technique, repeat coverage can be used together with forward-modeling results to constrain the near-surface heterogeneity of Mars. 1 tiu == J m -2 K -1 s - 2 Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer

  7. Ages of plains volcanism on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauber, Ernst; Jagert, Felix; Broz, Petr

    2010-05-01

    Plain-style volcanism [1] is widespread in the Tharsis and Elysium volcanic provinces on Mars, [2,3]. Detailed images and topographic data reveal the morphology and topography of clusters of low shields and associated lava flows. The landforms of plains volcanism on Mars have all well-known terrestrial analogues in basaltic volcanic regions, such as Hawaii, Iceland, and in particular the Snake River Plains [4]. The very gentle flank slopes (J. (1981) Icarus, 45, 586-601. [3] Hodges C.A. and Moore H.J. (1994) Atlas of volcanic features on Mars: USGS Prof. Paper 1534, 194 p. [4] Hauber E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 69-95. [5] Wilson L. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 28-46. [6] Vaucher, J. et al. (2009) Icarus 204, 418-442. [7] Baratoux D. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 47-68. [8] Bleacher J.E. et al. (2009) J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 185, 96-102. [9] Ivanov B.A. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 87-104. [10] Hartmann W.H. and Neukum G. (2001) Space Sci. Rev. 96, 165-194 [11] Kneissl T. et al. (2010) LPS XVI, submitted. [12] Michael, G.G. and Neukum G. (2010) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., in press. . [13] Malin M.C. et al. (2007) JGR 112, E05S04, doi: 10.1029/2006JE002808.

  8. Natural and archaeological analogues: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookins, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    In this chapter natural analogues in the geomedia for various aspects of radioactive waste disposal are discussed. Particular reference is made to the Okla Natural Reactor in Gabon. Igneous contact zones are discussed and natural analogues of waste-form materials. The importance of archaeological remains and anthropogenic materials left by man, in assessing weathering conditions and serving as radioactive waste analogues, is also emphasised. (UK)

  9. Mineralogy of an active eolian sediment from the Namib dune, Gale crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, C. N.; Downs, R. T.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; Morris, R. V.; Treiman, A. H.; Morrison, S. M.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Ewing, R. C.; Chipera, S. J.; Yen, A. S.; Bristow, T. F.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Gellert, R.; Hazen, R. M.; Fendrich, K. V.; Craig, P. I.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Des Marais, D. J.; Farmer, J. D.; Sarrazin, P. C.; Morookian, J. M.

    2017-11-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, is using a comprehensive scientific payload to explore rocks and soils in Gale crater, Mars. Recent investigations of the Bagnold Dune Field provided the first in situ assessment of an active dune on Mars. The Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) X-ray diffraction instrument on Curiosity performed quantitative mineralogical analyses of the history of the dune material and offers an important opportunity for ground truth of orbital observations. CheMin's analysis of the mineralogy and phase chemistry of modern and ancient Gale crater dune fields, together with other measurements by Curiosity's science payload, provides new insights into present and past eolian processes on Mars.

  10. Mars Science Laboratory Using Laser Instrument, Artist's Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This artist's conception of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory portrays use of the rover's ChemCam instrument to identify the chemical composition of a rock sample on the surface of Mars. ChemCam is innovative for planetary exploration in using a technique referred to as laser breakdown spectroscopy to determine the chemical composition of samples from distances of up to about 8 meters (25 feet) away. ChemCam is led by a team at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Centre d'Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements in Toulouse, France. Mars Science Laboratory, a mobile robot for investigating Mars' past or present ability to sustain microbial life, is in development at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory for a launch opportunity in 2009. The mission is managed by JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  11. Launching to the Moon, Mars, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration, announced in 2004, calls on NASA to finish constructing the International Space Station, retire the Space Shuttle, and build the new spacecraft needed to return to the Moon and go on the Mars. By exploring space, America continues the tradition of great nations who mastered the Earth, air, and sea, and who then enjoyed the benefits of increased commerce and technological advances. The progress being made today is part of the next chapter in America's history of leadership in space. In order to reach the Moon and Mars within the planned timeline and also within the allowable budget, NASA is building upon the best of proven space transportation systems. Journeys to the Moon and Mars will require a variety of vehicles, including the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle, the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, and the Lunar Surface Access Module. What America learns in reaching for the Moon will teach astronauts how to prepare for the first human footprints on Mars. While robotic science may reveal information about the nature of hydrogen on the Moon, it will most likely tale a human being with a rock hammer to find the real truth about the presence of water, a precious natural resource that opens many possibilities for explorers. In this way, the combination of astronauts using a variety of tools and machines provides a special synergy that will vastly improve our understanding of Earth's cosmic neighborhood.

  12. The overprotection of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairén, Alberto G.; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2013-07-01

    Planetary protection policies aim to guard Solar System bodies from biological contamination from spacecraft. Costly efforts to sterilize Mars spacecraft need to be re-evaluated, as they are unnecessarily inhibiting a more ambitious agenda to search for extant life on Mars.

  13. Building Virtual Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, S. P.; Menzies, A.; Goddard, C.

    2017-12-01

    Virtual and augmented reality enable scientists to visualize environments that are very difficult, or even impossible to visit, such as the surface of Mars. A useful immersive visualization begins with a high quality reconstruction of the environment under study. This presentation will discuss a photogrammetry pipeline developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory to reconstruct 3D models of the surface of Mars using stereo images sent back to Earth by the Curiosity Mars rover. The resulting models are used to support a virtual reality tool (OnSight) that allows scientists and engineers to visualize the surface of Mars as if they were standing on the red planet. Images of Mars present challenges to existing scene reconstruction solutions. Surface images of Mars are sparse with minimal overlap, and are often taken from extremely different viewpoints. In addition, the specialized cameras used by Mars rovers are significantly different than consumer cameras, and GPS localization data is not available on Mars. This presentation will discuss scene reconstruction with an emphasis on coping with limited input data, and on creating models suitable for rendering in virtual reality at high frame rate.

  14. Microscope on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at Meridiani Planum, Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's microscopic imager (circular device in center), located on its instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The image was acquired on the ninth martian day or sol of the rover's mission.

  15. Mars Sample Handling Functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. A.; Mattingly, R. L.

    2018-04-01

    The final leg of a Mars Sample Return campaign would be an entity that we have referred to as Mars Returned Sample Handling (MRSH.) This talk will address our current view of the functional requirements on MRSH, focused on the Sample Receiving Facility (SRF).

  16. IJslandse inzichten op Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vet, S.

    2013-01-01

    Vulkaanuitbarstingen onder gletsjers, zoals de vliegverkeer-verlammende uitbarsting van de vulkaan Eyjafjallajökull in IJsland in 2010, lijken in veel opzichten op vulkaanuitbarstingen die ooit op Mars voorkwamen. Dankzij de landschappelijke gelijkenissen tussen onze aarde en Mars is het mogelijk om

  17. Mars Science Laboratory Mission and Science Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotzinger, John P.; Crisp, Joy; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Anderson, Robert C.; Baker, Charles J.; Barry, Robert; Blake, David F.; Conrad, Pamela; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Ferdowski, Bobak; Gellert, Ralf; Gilbert, John B.; Golombek, Matt; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Hassler, Donald M.; Jandura, Louise; Litvak, Maxim; Mahaffy, Paul; Maki, Justin; Meyer, Michael; Malin, Michael C.; Mitrofanov, Igor; Simmonds, John J.; Vaniman, David; Welch, Richard V.; Wiens, Roger C.

    2012-09-01

    Scheduled to land in August of 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission was initiated to explore the habitability of Mars. This includes both modern environments as well as ancient environments recorded by the stratigraphic rock record preserved at the Gale crater landing site. The Curiosity rover has a designed lifetime of at least one Mars year (˜23 months), and drive capability of at least 20 km. Curiosity's science payload was specifically assembled to assess habitability and includes a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and gas analyzer that will search for organic carbon in rocks, regolith fines, and the atmosphere (SAM instrument); an x-ray diffractometer that will determine mineralogical diversity (CheMin instrument); focusable cameras that can image landscapes and rock/regolith textures in natural color (MAHLI, MARDI, and Mastcam instruments); an alpha-particle x-ray spectrometer for in situ determination of rock and soil chemistry (APXS instrument); a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer to remotely sense the chemical composition of rocks and minerals (ChemCam instrument); an active neutron spectrometer designed to search for water in rocks/regolith (DAN instrument); a weather station to measure modern-day environmental variables (REMS instrument); and a sensor designed for continuous monitoring of background solar and cosmic radiation (RAD instrument). The various payload elements will work together to detect and study potential sampling targets with remote and in situ measurements; to acquire samples of rock, soil, and atmosphere and analyze them in onboard analytical instruments; and to observe the environment around the rover. The 155-km diameter Gale crater was chosen as Curiosity's field site based on several attributes: an interior mountain of ancient flat-lying strata extending almost 5 km above the elevation of the landing site; the lower few hundred meters of the mountain show a progression with relative age from clay-bearing to sulfate

  18. Natural geochemical analogues of the near field of high-level nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apps, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    United States practice has been to design high-level nuclear waste (HLW) geological repositories with waste densities sufficiently high that repository temperatures surrounding the waste will exceed 100 degrees C and could reach 250 degrees C. Basalt and devitrified vitroclastic tuff are among the host rocks considered for waste emplacement. Near-field repository thermal behavior and chemical alteration in such rocks is expected to be similar to that observed in many geothermal systems. Therefore, the predictive modeling required for performance assessment studies of the near field could be validated and calibrated using geothermal systems as natural analogues. Examples are given which demonstrate the need for refinement of the thermodynamic databases used in geochemical modeling of near-field natural analogues and the extent to which present models can predict conditions in geothermal fields

  19. Literature survey of matrix diffusion theory and of experiments and data including natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlsson, Yvonne; Neretnieks, I.

    1995-08-01

    Diffusion theory in general and matrix diffusion in particular has been outlined, and experimental work has been reviewed. Literature diffusion data has been systematized in the form of tables and data has been compared and discussed. Strong indications of surface diffusion and anion exclusion have been found, and natural analogue studies and in-situ experiments suggest pore connectivity in the scale of meters. Matrix diffusion, however, mostly seem to be confined to zones of higher porosity extending only a few centimeters into the rock. Surface coating material do not seem to hinder sorption or diffusion into the rock. 54 refs, 18 tabs

  20. Rocks Can Wow? Yes, Rocks Can Wow!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Sally; Luke, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Rocks and fossils appear in the National Curriculum of England science programmes of study for children in year 3 (ages 7-8). A frequently asked question is "How do you make the classification of rocks engaging?" In response to this request from a school, a set of interactive activities was designed and organised by tutors and students…

  1. Identification and applicability of analogues for a safety case for a HLW repository in evaporites: results from a NEA workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noseck, U.; Wolf, J. [Gesellschaft für Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Brunswick (Germany); Steininger, W. [Project Management Agency Karslruhe Water Technology and Waste Management, PTKA-WTE, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, KIT, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Miller, B. [AMEC, The Renaissance Center, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    A workshop was held in September 2012 in Braunschweig, Germany, to discuss the potential for natural and anthropogenic analogue studies to contribute to safety cases for radioactive waste repositories constructed in salt formations. Presentations were given on many analogue sites and systems from different countries. Discussions at the workshop then addressed the following aspects that are particularly relevant to the safety concept for radioactive waste disposal in salt: (1) the long-term integrity of rock salt formations, (2) the integrity of technical barriers, and (3) microbial, chemical and transport processes. A diverse range of natural systems were discussed as potential analogues for the integrity of rock salt. These included the deformation of anhydrite layers in rock salt; the response of rock salt to mechanical and thermal loads; and the isotopic signatures of syngenetic waters contained in fluid inclusions. Some anthropogenic examples drawn from the oil and gas industries, and from hazardous waste disposal, were proposed as analogues for the integrity of (geo)technical barriers. A broad range of studies on natural and anthropogenic salt-brine systems were identified as potential analogues for the radionuclide sorption and (co)precipitation process that may take place in the repository near and far fields, as well as for understanding the significance of hydrocarbons and microbial processes. It was evident from discussions at the workshop that there are some specific technical issues that may benefit from further analogue study, particularly the compaction of crushed salt backfill, the viability of microbes in the near-field, the stability of plugs and seals, the deformation of anhydrite, and isotope signatures in fluid inclusions. (authors)

  2. Preservation of Reduced Carbon on Mars: Implications for Understanding Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela; Fogel, Marilyn; Steele, Andrew; Summons, Roger E.

    2007-01-01

    Upcoming Mars missions (e.g., Mars Science Laboratory, ExoMars, Astrobiology Field Laboratory, and Mars Sample Return) will search for evidence of extant and fossil microbial habitats and the potential for future habitation. Understanding the distribution and composition of reduced carbon (or organic carbon) is critical for unraveling the Martian carbon cycle, potential for life, and possible biosignature record. Reduced carbon may be produced from biological, geochemical, or interstellar processes; however, evidence for reduced carbon on Mars is lacking with the exception of parts per billion of atmospheric methane. In contrast, abundant atmospheric carbon dioxide may reflect surface oxidation of reduced carbon and accumulation over geological timescales. This suggests that there is an undetected or lost pool of reduced carbon - a pool that may host molecular biosignatures, a characteristic of extant or extinct habitability. In this presentation, we will evaluate factors influencing the preservation potential for organic molecules in rocks on Earth and Martian. We,draw examples from organic molecules in sulfates, basalts, and ancient shales from Mars-analog settings to show how the distribution of organics and their structural patterns will aid Mars habitability studies.

  3. SGTR assessment using MARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raines, J.C.; Dawson, S.M.; Deitke, B.; Henry, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    During the course of a plant accident, a consistent understanding of the plant response is vital to support an accident manager's decision making process. One tool that can provide assistance to the plant staff in assessing conditions in the plant during accident conditions is the MAAP Accident Response System (MARS) software. During an accident, MARS utilizes the on-line data from the plant instrumentation to initialize the Modular Accident Analysis Program (MAAP) code. Once initialized, MARS tracks and characterizes the plant behavior through the use of integrated logic modules. These logic modules provide the user with important information about the status of systems and the possible cause of the accident. The MARS logic modules evaluate relevant available plant instrumentation and the observations of the operating staff using fuzzy logic. The fuzzy logic is applied to provide a transition between areas where one is absolutely sure that a situation has not occurred to a condition where one is absolutely certain that a situation has occurred. One example of the use of logic modules in MARS is illustrated by that used to assess if a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) event has occurred. Each piece of relevant plant data is evaluated to determine if it is consistent with the symptoms of a SGTR. Each of the evaluations for the individual plant instruments and the operating staff observations are assembled to determine an overall confidence which characterizes the likelihood that a SGTR is occurring. Additional MARS logic modules are used to determine confidence levels for other types of accident events. The conclusions arrived at by each individual logic module are expressed as confidence levels. The logic module confidence levels can be graphically displayed using the MARS Graphical Users Interface (GUI), to indicate the confidence level MARS has assessed for each accident type. The GUI shows the identification of the possible accident types, but is not limited

  4. Analyses of Rock Size-Frequency Distributions and Morphometry of Modified Hawaiian Lava Flows: Implications for Future Martian Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Robert A.; Golombek, Matthew; Howard, Alan D.

    2000-01-01

    Both the size-frequency distribution and morphometry of rock populations emplaced by a variety of geologic processes in Hawaii indicate that such information may be useful in planning future landing sites on Mars and interpreting the surface geology.

  5. Rock slope design guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This Manual is intended to provide guidance for the design of rock cut slopes, rockfall catchment, and : rockfall controls. Recommendations presented in this manual are based on research presented in Shakoor : and Admassu (2010) entitled Rock Slop...

  6. Rock Slope Design Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Based on the stratigraphy and the type of slope stability problems, the flat lying, Paleozoic age, sedimentary : rocks of Ohio were divided into three design units: 1) competent rock design unit consisting of sandstones, limestones, : and siltstones ...

  7. The Rock Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

  8. CO2 Capture with Enzyme Synthetic Analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordatos, Harry

    2010-11-08

    Overview of an ongoing, 2 year research project partially funded by APRA-E to create a novel, synthetic analogue of carbonic anhydrase and incorporate it into a membrane for removal of CO2 from flue gas in coal power plants. Mechanism background, preliminary feasibility study results, molecular modeling of analogue-CO2 interaction, and program timeline are provided.

  9. Synthesis and anticancer evaluation of spermatinamine analogues

    KAUST Repository

    Moosa, Basem; Sagar, Sunil; Li, Song; Esau, Luke; Kaur, Mandeep; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2016-01-01

    analogues and their cytotoxic evaluation against three human cancer cell lines i.e. cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and prostate carcinoma (DU145). Analogues 12, 14 and 15 were found to be the most potent against one or more cell

  10. Realization of a collection of reference minerals to develop a technique for in situ dating of the Martian rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattani, F.; Gillot, P. Y.; Hildenbrand, A.; Quidelleur, X.; Courtade, F.; Boukari, C.; Lefevre, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Absolute dating within ± 20% is needed to check and to calibrate the relative Martian chronology presently available. For that purpose, a K-Ar dating system has been developed to experiment the feasibility of such dating in future landing planetary missions. It consists in a laser ablation-based system built to vaporize a reproducible volume of rock. Potassium content is measured by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and argon by quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS). Improvements of LIBS acquisition (optimization of optics part and normalization by total intensity spectrum) and QMS calibration (by reproducible known amount of argon) have been achieved. In addition, we have test the determination of ablated mass from volume measurement performed by profilometry technique. Instrument calibration for Martian analyses requires terrestrial analogues to determine the most suitable analytical conditions. For that purpose, total chemistry, electron microprobe analyses, flame absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry have been performed in order to qualify stoichiometry, mineralogy, K concentration and Ar content from a collection of old terrestrial rocks. These analyses coupled with those published have helped to select 14 mineral phases (e.g. feldspars) showing a large range of K content (0.15 - 11%). The objective is to calibrate the LIBS on different geological material with Mars-like %K values ( 0.4%), and assess the detection limit of the LIBS with extreme %K values. All these mineral phases display a K-Ar age older than 260 Ma. Hence, the content of radiogenic Ar atoms per gram is within the range of Martian samples (on the order of 1 Ga for 0.4 %K). Furthermore, the ablated mass is estimated by measurement of Ar extracted from an analogue mineral of known amount of radiogenic Ar content per gram. This quantification is then compared with the mass estimated from the volume measured by profilometry technique. Finally, it provides a well

  11. Metal-ion binding properties of (S)-1-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]cytosine (HPMPC, Cidofovir). A nucleotide analogue with activity against DNA viruses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blindauer, C. A.; Sigel, A.; Operschall, B. P.; Holý, Antonín; Sigel, H.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 472, Mar 1 (2018), s. 283-294 ISSN 0020-1693 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : acyclic nucleoside phosphonates * antivirals * chelates * isomeric equilibria * metal ion complexes * nucleotide analogues Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 2.002, year: 2016

  12. Pocos de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil: a natural analogue study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smellie, J.

    1989-01-01

    The Pocos de Caldas natural analogue project is an internationally funded project hosted by Brazil; the contributary organizations are SKB (Sweden), NAGRA (Switzerland), DOE (United Kingdom) and the DOE (United States). The Project is a multidisciplinary study of two mineralized areas within an alkaline igneous caldera complex located near the town of Pocos de Caldas in the state of Minas Gerais. One area, the Osamu Utsumi mine, is characterized by redox deposits of secondary remobilized pitchblende, and the other area, Morro do Ferro, comprises a highly weathered deposit of thorium and REE with subordinate uranium. The project, scheduled for three years (1986-1989), is now entering its third and final year. The pilot and feasibility studies, which characterized the first year, helped to establish the major drilling programme and the sampling protocols for both rock and groundwater studies which constituted the major part of the second year. The latest status of the investigations are briefly reported

  13. Mars, clays and the origins of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Hyman

    1989-01-01

    To detect life in the Martian soil, tests were designed to look for respiration and photosynthesis. Both tests (labeled release, LR, and pyrolytic release, PR) for life in the Martian soils were positive. However, when the measurement for organic molecules in the soil of Mars was made, none were found. The interpretation given is that the inorganic constituents of the soil of Mars were responsible for these observations. The inorganic analysis of the soil was best fitted by a mixture of minerals: 60 to 80 percent clay, iron oxide, quartz, and soluble salts such as halite (NaCl). The minerals most successful in simulating the PR and LR experiments are iron-rich clays. There is a theory that considers clays as the first organisms capable of replication, mutation, and catalysis, and hence of evolving. Clays are formed when liquid water causes the weathering of rocks. The distribution of ions such as aluminum, magnesium, and iron play the role of bases in the DNA. The information was stored in the distribution of ions in the octahedral and tetrahedral molecules, but that they could, like RNA and DNA, replicate. When the clays replicated, each sheet of clay would be a template for a new sheet. The ion substitutions in one clay sheet would give rise to a complementary or similar pattern on the clay synthesized on its surface. It was theorized that it was on the surface of replicating iron-rich clays that carbon dioxide would be fixed in the light into organic acids such as formic or oxalic acid. If Mars had liquid water during a warm period in its past, clay formation would have been abundant. These clays would have replicated and evolved until the liquid water was removed due to cooling of Mars. It is entirely possible that the Viking mission detected life on Mars, but it was clay life that awaits the return of water to continue its evolution into life based on organic molecules.

  14. Rock History and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Éric

    2013-01-01

    Two ambitious works written by French-speaking scholars tackle rock music as a research object, from different but complementary perspectives. Both are a definite must-read for anyone interested in the contextualisation of rock music in western popular culture. In Une histoire musicale du rock (i.e. A Musical History of Rock), rock music is approached from the point of view of the people – musicians and industry – behind the music. Christophe Pirenne endeavours to examine that field from a m...

  15. Exploration of the Habitability of Mars with the SAM Suite Investigation on the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, P. R.; Cabane, M.; Webster, C. R.

    2008-01-01

    The 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) with a substantially larger payload capability that any other Mars rover, to date, is designed to quantitatively assess a local region on Mars as a potential habitat for present or past life. Its goals are (1) to assess past or present biological potential of a target environment, (2) to characterize geology and geochemistry at the MSL landing site, and (3) to investigate planetary processes that influence habitability. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) Suite, in its final stages of integration and test, enables a sensitive search for organic molecules and chemical and isotopic analysis of martian volatiles. MSL contact and remote surface and subsurface survey Instruments establish context for these measurements and facilitate sample identification and selection. The SAM instruments are a gas chromatograph (GC), a mass spectrometer (MS), and a tunable laser spectrometer (TLS). These together with supporting sample manipulation and gas processing devices are designed to analyze either the atmospheric composition or gases extracted from solid phase samples such as rocks and fines. For example, one of the core SAM experiment sequences heats a small powdered sample of a Mars rock or soil from ambient to -1300 K in a controlled manner while continuously monitoring evolved gases. This is followed by GCMS analysis of released organics. The general chemical survey is complemented by a specific search for molecular classes that may be relevant to life including atmospheric methane and its carbon isotope with the TLS and biomarkers with the GCMS.

  16. Mars Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA’s Mars Exploration Program (MEP) calls for a series of highly ambitious missions over the next decade and beyond. The overall goals of the MEP must be...

  17. Mars Electric Reusable Flyer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the main issues with a Mars flight vehicle concept that can be reused and cover long distances for maximum surface data gathering is its ability to take off,...

  18. Environment of Mars, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D.I.

    1988-10-01

    A compilation of scientific knowledge about the planet Mars is provided. Information is divided into three categories: atmospheric data, surface data, and astrodynamic data. The discussion of atmospheric data includes the presentation of nine different models of the Mars atmosphere. Also discussed are Martian atmospheric constituents, winds, clouds, and solar irradiance. The great dust storms of Mars are presented. The section on Mars surface data provides an in-depth examination of the physical and chemical properties observed at the two Viking landing sites. Bulk densities, dielectric constants, and thermal inertias across the planet are then described and related back to those specific features found at the Viking landing sites. The astrodynamic materials provide the astronomical constants, time scales, and reference coordinate frames necessary to perform flightpath analysis, navigation design, and science observation design

  19. Biodiversity of Rock Varnish at Yungay, Atacama Desert, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, K.; Venkat, P.; La Duc, M.; Kuhlman, G.; McKay, C.

    2007-12-01

    Rock varnish is a very slow-growing nanostratigraphic coating consisting of approximately 70% clay and 30% iron and manganese oxides of fine-grained clay minerals rich in manganese and iron oxides, which forms on the surfaces of rocks in most semi-arid to hyper-arid climates. Rock varnish has even been postulated to exist on Mars based on surface imagery from several landed missions, and is considered a potential biomarker. However, the mechanism of varnish nucleation and growth remains unknown. Whether or not microbes are involved in the nucleation and growth of rock varnish, the detection of microbes using cultivation or cultivation- independent techniques has demonstrated that varnish provides a microhabitat for microbes. We hypothesized that rock varnish in the Mars-like Yungay region of the Atacama Desert may provide such a microhabitat for microbial life where none has been found to date in the surface soil (< 1 cm). The presence of microbes was investigated using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assay techniques and culture-independent biomolecular methods. High levels of both total and intracellular ATP were associated with the rock varnish while negligible ATP was found in the surrounding surface soil, suggesting that viable organisms were present. Total DNA was extracted from ground varnish and surrounding surface soil and subjected to trifurcate polymerase chain reactions (PCR). No DNA was recovered from the soil. Amplicons were used to generate ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clone libraries, which suggest the presence of numerous phylogenetically distinct microorganisms in eight Eubacterial clades, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Cytophaga-Flavobacterium- Bacteroides (CFB), Chloroflexi (green non-sulfur bacteria (GNS)), Gemmatimonadetes, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria. The diversity of bacteria found and presence of cyanobacteria suggests that rock varnish provides a niche environment for a cryptoendolithic microbial community where

  20. MARS software package status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhgirej, I.L.; Talanov, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    The MARS software package is intended for simulating the nuclear-electromagnetic cascades and the secondary neutrons and muons transport in the heterogeneous medium of arbitrary complexity in the magnetic fields presence. The inclusive approach to describing the particle production in the nuclear and electromagnetic interactions and by the unstable particles decay is realized in the package. The MARS software package was actively applied for solving various radiation physical problems [ru

  1. Status of MARS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.V. Mokhov

    2003-04-09

    Status and recent developments of the MARS 14 Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV are described. these include physics models both in strong and electromagnetic interaction sectors, variance reduction techniques, residual dose, geometry, tracking, histograming. MAD-MARS Beam Line Build and Graphical-User Interface.

  2. Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS) 2009 Expedition Crew Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Stacy; Ferrone, Kristine; Garvin, Christy; Kramer, W. Vernon; Palaia, Joseph, IV; Shiro, Brian

    2009-01-01

    The Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS), located on the rim of the Haughton Crater on Devon Island in the Canadian Arctic, is a simulated Mars habitat that provides operational constraints similar to those which will be faced by future human explorers on Mars. In July 2009, a six-member crew inhabited the isolated habitation module and conducted the twelfth FMARS mission. The crew members conducted frequent EVA operations wearing mock space suits to conduct field experiments under realistic Mars-like conditions. Their scientific campaign spanned a wide range of disciplines and included many firsts for Mars analog research. Among these are the first use of a Class IV medical laser during a Mars simulation, helping to relieve crew stress injuries during the mission. Also employed for the first time in a Mars simulation at FMARS, a UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) was used by the space-suited explorers, aiding them in their search for mineral resources. Sites identified by the UAV were then visited by geologists who conducted physical geologic sampling. For the first time, explorers in spacesuits deployed passive seismic equipment to monitor earthquake activity and characterize the planet's interior. They also conducted the first geophysical electromagnetic survey as analog Mars pioneers to search for water and characterize geological features under the surface. The crew collected hydrated minerals and attempted to produce drinkable water from the rocks. A variety of equipment was field tested as well, including new cameras that automatically geotag photos, data-recording GPS units, a tele-presence rover (operated from Florida), as well as MIT-developed mission planning software. As plans develop to return to the Moon and go on to Mars, analog facilities like FMARS can provide significant benefit to NASA and other organizations as they prepare for robust human space exploration. The authors will present preliminary results from these studies as well as their

  3. Terrestrial Analogs to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Arcone, S.; Arvidson, R. W.; Baker, V.; Barlow, N. G.; Beaty, D.; Bell, M. S.; Blankenship, D. D.; Bridges, N.; Briggs, G.; Bulmer, M.; Carsey, F.; Clifford, S. M.; Craddock, R. A.; Dickerson, P. W.; Duxbury, N.; Galford, G. L.; Garvin, J.; Grant, J.; Green, J. R.; Gregg, T. K. P.; Guinness, E.; Hansen, V. L.; Hecht, M. H.; Holt, J.; Howard, A.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Lee, P.; Lanagan, P. D.; Lentz, R. C. F.; Leverington, D. W.; Marinangeli, L.; Moersch, J. E.; Morris-Smith, P. A.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Olhoeft, G. R.; Ori, G. G.; Paillou, P.; Reilly, J. F., II; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Robinson, C. A.; Sheridan, M.; Snook, K.; Thomson, B. J.; Watson, K.; Williams, K.; Yoshikawa, K.

    2002-08-01

    It is well recognized that interpretations of Mars must begin with the Earth as a reference. The most successful comparisons have focused on understanding geologic processes on the Earth well enough to extrapolate to Mars' environment. Several facets of terrestrial analog studies have been pursued and are continuing. These studies include field workshops, characterization of terrestrial analog sites, instrument tests, laboratory measurements (including analysis of Martian meteorites), and computer and laboratory modeling. The combination of all these activities allows scientists to constrain the processes operating in specific terrestrial environments and extrapolate how similar processes could affect Mars. The Terrestrial Analogs for Mars Community Panel has considered the following two key questions: (1) How do terrestrial analog studies tie in to the Mars Exploration Payload Assessment Group science questions about life, past climate, and geologic evolution of Mars, and (2) How can future instrumentation be used to address these questions. The panel has considered the issues of data collection, value of field workshops, data archiving, laboratory measurements and modeling, human exploration issues, association with other areas of solar system exploration, and education and public outreach activities.

  4. Life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Although the Viking results may indicate that Mars has no life today, the possibility exists that Mars may hold the best record of the events that led to the origin of life. There is direct geomorphological evidence that in the past Mars had large amounts of liquid water on its surface. Atmospheric models would suggest that this early period of hydrological activity was due to the presence of a thick atmosphere and the resulting warmer temperatures. From a biological perspective the existence of liquid water, by itself motivates the question of the origin of life on Mars. From studies of the Earth's earliest biosphere we know that by 3.5 Gyr. ago, life had originated on Earth and reached a fair degree of biological sophistication. Surface activity and erosion on Earth make it difficult to trace the history of life before the 3.5 Gyr timeframe. If Mars did maintain a clement environment for longer than it took for life to originate on Earth, then the question of the origin of life on Mars follows naturally.

  5. The MARS2013 Mars analog mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groemer, Gernot; Soucek, Alexander; Frischauf, Norbert; Stumptner, Willibald; Ragonig, Christoph; Sams, Sebastian; Bartenstein, Thomas; Häuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Petrova, Polina; Evetts, Simon; Sivenesan, Chan; Bothe, Claudia; Boyd, Andrea; Dinkelaker, Aline; Dissertori, Markus; Fasching, David; Fischer, Monika; Föger, Daniel; Foresta, Luca; Fritsch, Lukas; Fuchs, Harald; Gautsch, Christoph; Gerard, Stephan; Goetzloff, Linda; Gołebiowska, Izabella; Gorur, Paavan; Groemer, Gerhard; Groll, Petra; Haider, Christian; Haider, Olivia; Hauth, Eva; Hauth, Stefan; Hettrich, Sebastian; Jais, Wolfgang; Jones, Natalie; Taj-Eddine, Kamal; Karl, Alexander; Kauerhoff, Tilo; Khan, Muhammad Shadab; Kjeldsen, Andreas; Klauck, Jan; Losiak, Anna; Luger, Markus; Luger, Thomas; Luger, Ulrich; McArthur, Jane; Moser, Linda; Neuner, Julia; Orgel, Csilla; Ori, Gian Gabriele; Paternesi, Roberta; Peschier, Jarno; Pfeil, Isabella; Prock, Silvia; Radinger, Josef; Ramirez, Barbara; Ramo, Wissam; Rampey, Mike; Sams, Arnold; Sams, Elisabeth; Sandu, Oana; Sans, Alejandra; Sansone, Petra; Scheer, Daniela; Schildhammer, Daniel; Scornet, Quentin; Sejkora, Nina; Stadler, Andrea; Stummer, Florian; Taraba, Michael; Tlustos, Reinhard; Toferer, Ernst; Turetschek, Thomas; Winter, Egon; Zanella-Kux, Katja

    2014-05-01

    We report on the MARS2013 mission, a 4-week Mars analog field test in the northern Sahara. Nineteen experiments were conducted by a field crew in Morocco under simulated martian surface exploration conditions, supervised by a Mission Support Center in Innsbruck, Austria. A Remote Science Support team analyzed field data in near real time, providing planning input for the management of a complex system of field assets; two advanced space suit simulators, four robotic vehicles, an emergency shelter, and a stationary sensor platform in a realistic work flow were coordinated by a Flight Control Team. A dedicated flight planning group, external control centers for rover tele-operations, and a biomedical monitoring team supported the field operations. A 10 min satellite communication delay and other limitations pertinent to human planetary surface activities were introduced. The fields of research for the experiments were geology, human factors, astrobiology, robotics, tele-science, exploration, and operations research. This paper provides an overview of the geological context and environmental conditions of the test site and the mission architecture, in particular the communication infrastructure emulating the signal travel time between Earth and Mars. We report on the operational work flows and the experiments conducted, including a deployable shelter prototype for multiple-day extravehicular activities and contingency situations.

  6. The alligator rivers analogue project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerden, P.

    1991-01-01

    The Koongarra uranium ore deposit in the Northern Territory of Australia is being studied to evaluate the processes and mechanisms involved in the hydrological/geochemical alteration of the primary uranium and model the formation of the secondary uranium mineralisation and the dispersion fan. A wide range of research is undertaken in the field and at laboratories in Australia, Japan, Sweden, the UK and the USA. The experimental and modelling tasks consider the original weathering of the region, the alteration of the host rock and primary uranium, groundwater flow and migration pathways, rock/groundwater interactions, such as adsorption desorption, nuclide transport and the relative distribution of the uranium/thorium radionuclides in the multi-phase system, and the continued development of the dispersion fan. The study of the in-situ production and mobility of long lived fission products eg Tc-99 and I-129 and transuranic nuclides such as Pu-239 is also possible. The methods used in collecting data for a repository are similar to those applied at Koongarra, hence, an analysis of the many different approaches taken may help evaluate and decrease the uncertainties of with field and laboratory measurements. (J.P.N.)

  7. Synthesis and biological evaluation of febrifugine analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Huong Doan Thi; Thanh, Giang Vo; Tran, Van Hieu; Vu, Van Nam; Vu, Van Loi; Le, Cong Vinh; Nguyen, Thuy Linh; Phi, Thi Dao; Truong, Bich Ngan; Chau, Van Minh; Pham, Van Cuong

    2014-12-01

    A series of febrifugine analogues were designed and synthesized. Antimalarial activity evaluation of the synthetic compounds indicated that these derivatives had a strong inhibition against both chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Many of them were found to be more active than febrifugine hydrochloride. The tested analogues had also a significant cytotoxicity against four cancer cell lines (KB, MCF7, LU1 and HepG2). Among the synthetic analogues, two compounds 17b and 17h displayed a moderate cytotoxicity while they exhibited a remarkable antimalarial activity.

  8. Examining Mars with SPICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Charles H.; Bachman, Nathaniel J.; Bytof, Jeff A.; Semenov, Boris V.; Taber, William; Turner, F. Scott; Wright, Edward D.

    1999-01-01

    The International Mars Conference highlights the wealth of scientific data now and soon to be acquired from an international armada of Mars-bound robotic spacecraft. Underlying the planning and interpretation of these scientific observations around and upon Mars are ancillary data and associated software needed to deal with trajectories or locations, instrument pointing, timing and Mars cartographic models. The NASA planetary community has adopted the SPICE system of ancillary data standards and allied tools to fill the need for consistent, reliable access to these basic data and a near limitless range of derived parameters. After substantial rapid growth in its formative years, the SPICE system continues to evolve today to meet new needs and improve ease of use. Adaptations to handle landers and rovers were prototyped on the Mars pathfinder mission and will next be used on Mars '01-'05. Incorporation of new methods to readily handle non-inertial reference frames has vastly extended the capability and simplified many computations. A translation of the SPICE Toolkit software suite to the C language has just been announced. To further support cartographic calculations associated with Mars exploration the SPICE developers at JPL have recently been asked by NASA to work with cartographers to develop standards and allied software for storing and accessing control net and shape model data sets; these will be highly integrated with existing SPICE components. NASA specifically supports the widest possible utilization of SPICE capabilities throughout the international space science community. With NASA backing the Russian Space Agency and Russian Academy of Science adopted the SPICE standards for the Mars 96 mission. The SPICE ephemeris component will shortly become the international standard for agencies using the Deep Space Network. U.S. and European scientists hope that ESA will employ SPICE standards on the Mars Express mission. SPICE is an open set of standards, and

  9. Antimicrobial Activity of Resveratrol Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Chalal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Stilbenes, especially resveratrol and its derivatives, have become famous for their positive effects on a wide range of medical disorders, as indicated by a huge number of published studies. A less investigated area of research is their antimicrobial properties. A series of 13 trans-resveratrol analogues was synthesized via Wittig or Heck reactions, and their antimicrobial activity assessed on two different grapevine pathogens responsible for severe diseases in the vineyard. The entire series, together with resveratrol, was first evaluated on the zoospore mobility and sporulation level of Plasmopara viticola (the oomycete responsible for downy mildew. Stilbenes displayed a spectrum of activity ranging from low to high. Six of them, including the most active ones, were subsequently tested on the development of Botrytis cinerea (fungus responsible for grey mold. The results obtained allowed us to identify the most active stilbenes against both grapevine pathogens, to compare the antimicrobial activity of the evaluated series of stilbenes, and to discuss the relationship between their chemical structure (number and position of methoxy and hydroxy groups and antimicrobial activity.

  10. Condensed matter analogues of cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit

    2013-10-01

    It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the

  11. Studies of natural analogues and geological systems. Their importance to performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandberg, F.; Grundfelt, B.; Hoeglund, L.O.; Skagius, K.; Karlsson, Fred; Smellie, J.

    1992-04-01

    This review has involved studies of natural analogues and natural geological systems leading to the identification and quantification of processes and features of importance to the performance and safety of repositories for radioactive waste. The features and processes selected for the study comprise general geochemical issues related to the performance of the near- and of the far-field, the performance and durability of construction materials and the effects of glaciation. For each of these areas a number of potentially important processes for repository performance have been described, and evidence for their existence, as well as quantification of parameters of models describing the processes, have been sought from major natural analogue studies and site investigations. The review has aimed at covering a relatively broad range of issues at the expense of in-depth analysis. The quantitative data presented are in most cases compilations of data from the literature; in a few cases results of evaluations made within the current project are included. The results of the study show that studies of natural analogues and natural geological systems have provided significant information regarding many issues of importance to repository performance. In several cases the evidence from natural analogues has demonstrated that processes assumed to take place in repositories actually occur in natural systems or under conditions similar to those predicted to prevail in a future repository. One example of such a process is coprecipitation of fission products and ferric oxyhydroxides as an analogue to corrosion products from a steel canister. In addition, the study of concentration gradients of uranium and other trace substances in the rock surrounding groundwater conduits confirm that matrix diffusion occurs in nature and that the diffusivities in the rock matrix measured in the laboratory are consistent with the observations in nature

  12. Mineralogical Results from the Mars Science Laboratory Rover Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David Frederick.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's CheMin instrument, the first X-ray Diffractometer flown in space, has been operating on Mars for nearly five years. CheMin was first to establish the quantitative mineralogy of the Mars global soil (1). The instrument was next used to determine the mineralogy of a 3.7 billion year old lacustrine mudstone, a result that, together with findings from other instruments on the MSL Curiosity rover, documented the first habitable environment found on another planet (2). The mineralogy of this mudstone from an ancient playa lake was also used to derive the maximum concentration of CO2 in the early Mars atmosphere, a surprisingly low value that calls into question the current theory that CO2 greenhouse warming was responsible for the warm and wet environment of early Mars. CheMin later identified the mineral tridymite, indicative of silica-rich volcanism, in mudstones of the Murray formation on Mt. Sharp. This discovery challenges the paradigm of Mars as a basaltic planet and ushers in a new chapter of comparative terrestrial planetology (3). CheMin is now being used to systematically sample the sedimentary layers that comprise the lower strata of Mt. Sharp, a 5,000 meter sequence of sedimentary rock laid down in what was once a crater lake, characterizing isochemical sediments that through their changing mineralogy, document the oxidation and drying out of the Mars in early Hesperian time.

  13. Curiosity's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Yingst, R. Aileen; Ravine, Michael A.; Caplinger, Michael A.; Maki, Justin N.; Ghaemi, F. Tony; Schaffner, Jacob A.; Bell, James F.; Edwards, Laurence J.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Heydari, Ezat; Kah, Linda C.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Olson, Timothy S.; Parker, Timothy J.; Rowland, Scott K.; Schieber, Juergen; Sullivan, Robert J.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Thomas, Peter C.; Jensen, Elsa H.; Simmonds, John J.; Sengstacken, Aaron J.; Wilson, Reg G.; Goetz, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) investigation will use a 2-megapixel color camera with a focusable macro lens aboard the rover, Curiosity, to investigate the stratigraphy and grain-scale texture, structure, mineralogy, and morphology of geologic materials in northwestern Gale crater. Of particular interest is the stratigraphic record of a ?5 km thick layered rock sequence exposed on the slopes of Aeolis Mons (also known as Mount Sharp). The instrument consists of three parts, a camera head mounted on the turret at the end of a robotic arm, an electronics and data storage assembly located inside the rover body, and a calibration target mounted on the robotic arm shoulder azimuth actuator housing. MAHLI can acquire in-focus images at working distances from ?2.1 cm to infinity. At the minimum working distance, image pixel scale is ?14 μm per pixel and very coarse silt grains can be resolved. At the working distance of the Mars Exploration Rover Microscopic Imager cameras aboard Spirit and Opportunity, MAHLI?s resolution is comparable at ?30 μm per pixel. Onboard capabilities include autofocus, auto-exposure, sub-framing, video imaging, Bayer pattern color interpolation, lossy and lossless compression, focus merging of up to 8 focus stack images, white light and longwave ultraviolet (365 nm) illumination of nearby subjects, and 8 gigabytes of non-volatile memory data storage.

  14. Rethinking of the criteria for natural analogue study. A case of Tono natural analogue study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hidekazu

    1996-01-01

    Natural analogue regarding long-term performance of the geological disposal system for radioactive waste isolation is essentially the study of geochemical process which has been evolved in geological environment. All geochemical studies, however, will not be nominated as natural analogue studies. It is, therefore, important to be clear the criteria for natural analogue study with the view of analogy by following three categories, (1) Conceptual model development, (2) Data provision and (3) Model testing, for the concept of geological disposal and safety assessment model. Rethinking of the criteria for natural analogue study through the case of Tono Natural Analogue Study, and the usefulness of natural analogue study for the safety assessment of geological disposal system in Japan have been presented in this paper. (author)

  15. International video project on natural analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guentensperger, Marcel

    1993-01-01

    A natural analogue can be defined as a natural process which has occurred in the past and is studied in order to test predictions about the future evolution of similar processes. In recent years, natural analogues have been used increasingly to test the mathematical models required for repository performance assessment. Analogues are, however, also of considerable use in public relations as they allow many of the principles involved in demonstrating repository safety to be illustrated in a clear manner using natural systems with which man is familiar. The international Natural Analogue Working Group (NAWG), organised under the auspices of the CEC, has recognised that such PR applications are of considerable importance and should be supported from a technical level. At the NAWG meeting in Pitlochry, Scotland (June 1990), it was recommended that the possibilities for making a video film on this topic be investigated and Nagra was requested to take the lead role in setting up such a project

  16. Natural analogues and radionuclide transport model validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lever, D.A.

    1987-08-01

    In this paper, some possible roles for natural analogues are discussed from the point of view of those involved with the development of mathematical models for radionuclide transport and with the use of these models in repository safety assessments. The characteristic features of a safety assessment are outlined in order to address the questions of where natural analogues can be used to improve our understanding of the processes involved and where they can assist in validating the models that are used. Natural analogues have the potential to provide useful information about some critical processes, especially long-term chemical processes and migration rates. There is likely to be considerable uncertainty and ambiguity associated with the interpretation of natural analogues, and thus it is their general features which should be emphasized, and models with appropriate levels of sophistication should be used. Experience gained in modelling the Koongarra uranium deposit in northern Australia is drawn upon. (author)

  17. The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library (PTAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, S. C.; Dypvik, H.; Poulet, F.; Rull Perez, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bultel, B.; Casanova Roque, C.; Carter, J.; Cousin, A.; Guzman, A.; Hamm, V.; Hellevang, H.; Lantz, C.; Lopez-Reyes, G.; Manrique, J. A.; Maurice, S.; Medina Garcia, J.; Navarro, R.; Negro, J. I.; Neumann, E. R.; Pilorget, C.; Riu, L.; Sætre, C.; Sansano Caramazana, A.; Sanz Arranz, A.; Sobron Grañón, F.; Veneranda, M.; Viennet, J.-C.; PTAL Team

    2018-04-01

    The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library project aims to build and exploit a spectral data base for the characterisation of the mineralogical and geological evolution of terrestrial planets and small solar system bodies.

  18. Sequence stratigraphy on an early wet Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Donald C.; Bhattacharya, Janok P.

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of Mars as a water-bearing body is of considerable interest for the understanding of its early history and evolution. The principles of terrestrial sequence stratigraphy provide a useful conceptual framework to hypothesize about the stratigraphic history of the planets northern plains. We present a model based on the hypothesized presence of an early ocean and the accumulation of lowland sediments eroded from highland terrain during the time of the valley networks and later outflow channels. Ancient, global environmental changes, induced by a progressively cooling climate would have led to a protracted loss of surface and near surface water from low-latitudes and eventual cold-trapping at higher latitudes - resulting in a unique and prolonged, perpetual forced regression within basins and lowland depositional environments. The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) serves as a potential terrestrial analogue of the depositional and environmental consequences relating to the progressive removal of large standing bodies of water. We suggest that the evolution of similar conditions on Mars would have led to the emplacement of diagnostic sequences of deposits and regional scale unconformities, consistent with intermittent resurfacing of the northern plains and the progressive loss of an early ocean by the end of the Hesperian era.

  19. Guidelines for 2008 MARS exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Full details of the Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS) are available via the HR Department’s homepage or directly on the Department’s MARS web page: https://cern.ch/hr-dept/ https://cern.ch/hr-eguide/mars/mars.asp You will find on these pages: MARS procedures including the MARS timetable for proposals and decisions; Regulations with links to the scheme’s statutory basis; Frequently Asked Questions; Useful documents with links to relevant documentation; e.g. mandate of the Senior Staff Advisory Committee (SSAC); Related links and contacts. HR Department Tel. 73566

  20. The Athena Science Payload for the 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Carr, M.; Christensen, P.; DesMarais, D.; Economou, T.; Gorevan, S.; Haskin, L.; Herkenhoff, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Athena Mars rover payload is a suite of scientific instruments and tools for geologic exploration of the martian surface. It is designed to: (1) Provide color stereo imaging of martian surface environments, and remotely-sensed point discrimination of mineralogical composition. (2) Determine the elemental and mineralogical composition of martian surface materials, including soils, rock surfaces, and rock interiors. (3) Determine the fine-scale textural properties of these materials. Two identical copies of the Athena payload will be flown in 2003 on the two Mars Exploration Rovers. The payload is at a high state of maturity, and first copies of several of the instruments have already been built and tested for flight.

  1. Using CTX Image Features to Predict HiRISE-Equivalent Rock Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Navid; Huertas, Andres; McGuire, Patrick; Mayer, David; Ardvidson, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    Methods have been developed to quantitatively assess rock hazards at candidate landing sites with the aid of images from the HiRISE camera onboard NASA s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. HiRISE is able to resolve rocks as small as 1-m in diameter. Some sites of interest do not have adequate coverage with the highest resolution sensors and there is a need to infer relevant information (like site safety or underlying geomorphology). The proposed approach would make it possible to obtain rock density estimates at a level close to or equal to those obtained from high-resolution sensors where individual rocks are discernable.

  2. In-Situ Operations and Planning for the Mars Science Laboratory Robotic Arm: The First 200 Sols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M.; Collins, C.; Leger, P.; Carsten, J.; Tompkins, V.; Hartman, F.; Yen, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Robotic Arm (RA) has operated for more than 200 Martian solar days (or sols) since the Mars Science Laboratory rover touched down in Gale Crater on August 5, 2012. During the first seven months on Mars the robotic arm has performed multiple contact science sols including the positioning of the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) and/or Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) with respect to rocks or loose regolith targets. The RA has supported sample acquisition using both the scoop and drill, sample processing with CHIMRA (Collection and Handling for In- Situ Martian Rock Analysis), and delivery of sample portions to the observation tray, and the SAM (Sample Analysis at Mars) and CHEMIN (Chemistry and Mineralogy) science instruments. This paper describes the planning and execution of robotic arm activities during surface operations, and reviews robotic arm performance results from Mars to date.

  3. A Study of Soil and Duricrust Models for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Janice L.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This project includes analysis of the Mars Pathfinder soil data (spectral, chemical and magnetic) together with analog materials and the products of laboratory alteration experiments in order to describe possible mechanisms for the formation of soil, duricrust and rock coatings on Mars. Soil analog mixtures have been prepared, characterized and tested through wet/dry cycling experiments for changes in binding and spectroscopic properties that are related to what could be expected for duricrusts on Mars. The smectite-based mixture exhibited significantly greater changes (1) in its binding properties throughout the wet/dry cycling experiments than did the palagonite-based mixture, and (2) in its spectral properties following grinding and resieving of the hardened material than did the palagonite-based mixture.

  4. Case for a wet, warm climate on early Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, J.B.; Kasting, J.F.; Richardson, S.M.; Poliakoff, K.

    1987-01-01

    Arguments are presented in support of the idea that Mars possessed a dense CO 2 atmosphere and a wet, warm climate early in its history. The plausibility of a CO 2 greenhouse is tested by formulating a simple model of the CO 2 geochemical cycle on early Mars. By scaling the rate of silicate weathering on Earth, researchers estimated a weathering time constant of the order of several times 10 to the 7th power years for early Mars. Thus, a dense atmosphere could have existed for a geologically significant time period (approx. 10 to the 9th power years) only if atmospheric CO 2 was being continuously resupplied. The most likely mechanism by which this could have been accomplished is the thermal decomposition of carbonate rocks induced directly or indirectly by intense, global scale volcanism

  5. Supervolcanoes within an ancient volcanic province in Arabia Terra, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Joseph R; Bleacher, Jacob E

    2013-10-03

    Several irregularly shaped craters located within Arabia Terra, Mars, represent a new type of highland volcanic construct and together constitute a previously unrecognized Martian igneous province. Similar to terrestrial supervolcanoes, these low-relief paterae possess a range of geomorphic features related to structural collapse, effusive volcanism and explosive eruptions. Extruded lavas contributed to the formation of enigmatic highland ridged plains in Arabia Terra. Outgassed sulphur and erupted fine-grained pyroclastics from these calderas probably fed the formation of altered, layered sedimentary rocks and fretted terrain found throughout the equatorial region. The discovery of a new type of volcanic construct in the Arabia volcanic province fundamentally changes the picture of ancient volcanism and climate evolution on Mars. Other eroded topographic basins in the ancient Martian highlands that have been dismissed as degraded impact craters should be reconsidered as possible volcanic constructs formed in an early phase of widespread, disseminated magmatism on Mars.

  6. Physical Properties of Granulates Used in Analogue Experiments of Caprock Failure and Sediment Remobilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukowski, N.; Warsitzka, M.; May, F.

    2014-12-01

    Geological systems consisting of a porous reservoir and a low-permeable caprock are prone to hydraulic fracturing, if pore pressure rises to the effective stress. Under certain conditions, hydraulic fracturing is associated with sediment remobilisation, e.g. sand injections or pipes, leading to reduced seal capacity of the caprock. In dynamically scaled analogue experiments using granular materials and air pressure, we intent to investigate strain patterns and deformation mechanisms during caprock failure and fluidisation of shallow over-pressured reservoirs. The aim of this study is to improve the understanding of leakage potential of a sealing formation and the fluidisation potential of a reservoir formation depending on rock properties and effective stress. For reliable interpretation of analogue experiments, physical properties of analogue materials, e.g. frictional strength, cohesion, density, permeability etc., have to be correctly scaled according to those of their natural equivalents. The simulation of caprock requires that the analogue material possess a low permeability and is capable to shear failure and tensional failure. In contrast, materials representing the reservoir have to possess high porosity and low shear strength. In order to find suitable analogue materials, we measured the stress-strain behaviour and the permeability of over 25 different types of natural and artificial granular materials, e.g. glass powder, siliceous microspheres, diatomite powder, loess, or plastic granulate. Here, we present data of frictional parameters, compressibility and permeability of these granular materials characterized as a function of sphericity, grain size, and density. The repertoire of different types of granulates facilitates the adjustment of accurate mechanical properties in the analogue experiments. Furthermore, conditions during seal failure and fluidisation can be examined depending on the wide range of varying physical properties.

  7. Remanent magnetism at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, S. A.; Ness, N. F.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that a strong case can be made for an intrinsic magnetic field of dynamo origin for Mars earlier in its history. The typical equatorial magnetic field intensity would have been equal to about 0.01-0.1 gauss. The earlier dynamo activity is no longer extant, but a significant remanent magnetic field may exist. A highly non-dipole magnetic field could result from the remanent magnetization of the surface. Remanent magnetization may thus play an important role in the Mars solar wind interactions, in contrast to Venus with its surface temperatures above the Curie point. The anomalous characteristics of Mars'solar wind interaction compared to that of Venus may be explicable on this basis.

  8. Spiders from Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-426, 19 July 2003No, this is not a picture of a giant, martian spider web. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a plethora of polygonal features on the floor of a northern hemisphere impact crater near 65.6oN, 327.7oW. The picture was acquired during spring, after the seasonal carbon dioxide frost cap had largely migrated through the region. At the time the picture was taken, remnants of seasonal frost remained on the crater rim and on the edges of the troughs that bound each of the polygons. Frost often provides a helpful hint as to where polygons and patterned ground occur. The polygons, if they were on Earth, would indicate the presence of freeze-thaw cycles in ground ice. Although uncertain, the same might be true of Mars. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  9. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Radionuclide transport. Final Report - Volume 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golian, C.; Lever, D.A.; Baker, A.J.; Connell, L.D.; Bennett, D.G.; Read, D.; Lindgreen, M.; Pers, K.; Skagius, K.; Murakami, T.; Ohnuki, T.

    1992-01-01

    The Koongarra orebody and its associated dispersion fan are examined as a geological analogue for the transport of radionuclides from waste repositories. The aim is to build a consistent picture of the transport that has been taking place in the orebody and the important processes controlling the retardation of uranium series isotopes and to test models of radionuclide transport. A particularly distinctive feature of the Koongarra system is the strong seasonal dependence of the groundwater flow. However, the Koongarra system is similar to a radioactive waste disposal system in that mobilization of uranium is taking place as a result of the infiltration of groundwaters that are in gross chemical disequilibrium with the mineralogy of the primary ore body. There are considerable differences between the Koongarra uranium orebody and a radioactive waste repository, particularly a deep waste repository. The Koongarra system is shallow, affected by seasonal hydrogeological changes as well as climatic variations on a longer timescale and transport is taking place in a zone of active weathering. Some of these features make the Koongarra system harder to characterise than a deep repository. However, there are nevertheless many analogies between the processes occurring at Koongarra and those occurring around a deep or shallow waste repository. The difficulties encountered because of the heterogeneity of the Koongarra weathered zone mirror those to be addressed in assessing radionuclide transport in repository systems. The 234 U/ 238 U activity ratios in rock samples from the dispersion fan decrease in the direction of groundwater transport, whereas in many other systems it has been reported that 234 U is preferentially mobile relative to 238 U (Osmond and Cowart, 1982; Osmond et al., 1983). As most uranium resides in the rock rather than in the groundwater, the net recoil flux of uranium daughter radionuclides is usually from the rock to the groundwater, thus leading to ( 234

  10. UV, visible, and near-IR reflectivity data for magnetic soils/rocks from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vempati, R. K.; Morris, R. V.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Coey, J. M. D.

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to obtain UV, visible, and near-IR reflectivity spectra for several magnetic Brazilian soils/rocks and compare them to corresponding data for Mars to see if these materials satisfy both magnetic and spectral constraints for Mars. Selected physical properties of the magnetic Brazilian soils/rocks are presented. In general, the spectral features resulting from ferric crystal-field transitions are much better defined in the spectra of the magnetic Brazilian soils/rocks than in Martian spectral data. Presumably, this results from a relatively higher proportion of crystalline ferric oxides for the former. The apparent masking of the spectral signature of maghemite by hematite or goethite for the Brazilian samples implies the magnetic and spectral constraints for Mars can be decoupled. That is, maghemite may be present in magnetically-significant but optically-insignificant amounts compared to crystalline hematite.

  11. Numerical modelling of fluid-rock interactions: Lessons learnt from carbonate rocks diagenesis studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Fadi; Bachaud, Pierre; Michel, Anthony

    2015-04-01

    contribution is based on several studies that were undertaken on carbonate rocks diagenesis in some of the major reservoir rocks in the Middle East and outcrop analogues in Europe. Here, the main processes at hand are related to fracture-related dolomitization and carbonate dissolution. We would like to present the workflows we have followed and the questioning that resulted for a series of case studies. The way forward, seems evident as the integration of workflows and numerical modelling tools at different scales, bringing better constrains on the boundary data and less uncertainty.

  12. Mars Gashopper Airplane, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Mars Gas Hopper Airplane, or "gashopper" is a novel concept for propulsion of a robust Mars flight and surface exploration vehicle that utilizes indigenous CO2...

  13. Scientific Results of the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerdt, W. B.

    2006-08-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover project launched two robotic geologists, Spirit and Opportunity, toward Mars in June and July of 2003, reaching Mars the following January. The science objectives for this mission are focused on delineating the geologic history for two locations on Mars, with an emphasis on the history of water. Although they were designed for a 90-day mission, both rovers have lasted more than two years on the surface and each has covered more than four miles while investigating Martian geology. Spirit was targeted to Gusev Crater, a 300-km diameter impact basin that was suspected to be the site of an ancient lake. Initial investigations of the plains in the vicinity of the landing site found no evidence of such a lake, but were instead consistent with unaltered (by water) basaltic plains. But after a 3-km trek to an adjacent range of hills it found a quite different situation, with abundant chemical and morphological evidence for a complex geological history. Opportunity has been exploring Meridiani Planum, which was known from orbital data to contain the mineral hematite, which generally forms in the presence of water. The rocks exposed in Meridiani are highly chemically altered, and appear to have been exposed to significant amounts of water. By descending into the 130-m diameter Endurance Crater, Opportunity was able to analyze a 10-m vertical section of this rock unit, which showed significant gradations in chemistry and morphology.

  14. Frost on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows bluish-white frost seen on the Martian surface near NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The image was taken by the lander's Surface Stereo Imager on the 131st Martian day, or sol, of the mission (Oct. 7, 2008). Frost is expected to continue to appear in images as fall, then winter approach Mars' northern plains. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. The stratigraphy of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    1986-01-01

    A global stratigraphy of Mars was developed from a global geologic map series derived from Viking images; the stratigraphy is composed of three maps. A new chronostratigraphic classification system which consists of lower, middle, and upper Noachian, Hesperian, and Amazonian systems is described. The crater-density boundaries of the chronostratigraphic units and the absolute ages of the Martian epochs aer estimated. The relative ages of major geologic units and featues are calculated and analyzed. The geologic history of Mars is summarized on the maps in terms of epochs.

  16. Lakes on Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrol, Nathalie A

    2014-01-01

    On Earth, lakes provide favorable environments for the development of life and its preservation as fossils. They are extremely sensitive to climate fluctuations and to conditions within their watersheds. As such, lakes are unique markers of the impact of environmental changes. Past and current missions have now demonstrated that water once flowed at the surface of Mars early in its history. Evidence of ancient ponding has been uncovered at scales ranging from a few kilometers to possibly that of the Arctic ocean. Whether life existed on Mars is still unknown; upcoming missions may find critic

  17. Natural analogues for processes affecting disposal of high-level radioactive waste in the vadose zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckless, J. S.

    2003-04-01

    Natural analogues can contribute to understanding and predicting the performance of subsystems and processes affecting a mined geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste in several ways. Most importantly, analogues provide tests for various aspects of systems of a repository at dimensional scales and time spans that cannot be attained by experimental study. In addition, they provide a means for the general public to judge the predicted performance of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository in familiar terms such that the average person can assess the anticipated long-term performance and other scientific conclusions. Hydrologists working on the Yucca Mountain Project (currently the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Repository Development) have modeled the flow of water through the vadose zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada and particularly the interaction of vadose-zone water with mined openings. Analogues from both natural and anthropogenic examples confirm the prediction that most of the water moving through the vadose zone will move through the host rock and around tunnels. This can be seen both quantitatively where direct comparison between seepage and net infiltration has been made and qualitatively by the excellent degree of preservation of archaeologic artifacts in underground openings. The latter include Paleolithic cave paintings in southwestern Europe, murals and artifacts in Egyptian tombs, painted subterranean Buddhist temples in India and China, and painted underground churches in Cappadocia, Turkey. Natural analogues also suggest that this diversion mechanism is more effective in porous media than in fractured media. Observations from natural analogues are also consistent with the modeled decrease in the percentage of infiltration that becomes seepage with a decrease in amount of infiltration. Finally, analogues, such as tombs that have ben partially filled by mud flows, suggest that the same capillary forces that keep water in the

  18. Mars Express - ESA sets ambitious goals for the first European mission to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-05-01

    2’s ‘nose’ is a gas analysis package. This will determine whether carbonate minerals, if they exist on Mars, have been involved in biological processes. Beagle’s nose will also detect gases such as methane, which scientists believe can only be produced by living organisms. Beagle 2 will also be able to collect samples from below the surface, whether under large boulders or within the interiors of rocks - places that the life-killing ultraviolet radiation from the Sun cannot reach. These samples will be collected with a probe called the ‘mole’, which is able to crawl short distances across the surface, at about 1 centimetre every six seconds, and to dig down to 2 metres deep. Mars Express will add substantial information to the international effort to explore Mars. “Mars Express is crucial for providing the framework within which all further Mars observations will be understood,” says Chicarro. The Mars Express spacecraft is now in Baikonur, Kazakhstan, being prepared for its launch in early June 2003.

  19. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  20. Between Analogue and Digital Diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Bun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay is about the interstitial. About how the diagram, as a method of design, has lead fromthe analogue deconstruction of the eighties to the digital processes of the turn of the millennium.Specifically, the main topic of the text is the interpretation and the critique of folding (as a diagramin the beginning of the nineties. It is necessary then to unfold its relationship with immediatelypreceding and following architectural trends, that is to say we have to look both backwards andforwards by about a decade. The question is the context of folding, the exchange of the analogueworld for the digital. To understand the process it is easier to investigate from the fields of artand culture, rather than from the intentionally perplicated1 thoughts of Gilles Deleuze. Both fieldsare relevant here because they can similarly be used as the yardstick against which the era itselfit measured. The cultural scene of the eighties and nineties, including performing arts, movies,literature and philosophy, is a wide milieu of architecture. Architecture responds parallel to itsera; it reacts to it, and changes with it and within it. Architecture is a medium, it has always beena medium, yet the relations are transformed. That’s not to say that technical progress, for exampleusing CAD-software and CNC-s, has led to the digital thinking of certain movements ofarchitecture, (it is at most an indirect tool. But the ‘up-to-dateness’ of the discipline, however,a kind of non-servile reading of an ‘applied culture’ or ‘used philosophy’2 could be the key.(We might recall here, parenthetically, the fortunes of the artistic in contemporary mass society.The proliferation of museums, the magnification of the figure of the artist, the existence of amassive consumption of printed and televised artistic images, the widespread appetite for informationabout the arts, all reflect, of course, an increasingly leisured society, but also relateprecisely to the fact

  1. An ultrasonic corer for planetary rock sample retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkness, P; Cardoni, A; Lucas, M

    2009-01-01

    Several recent and planned space projects have been focussed on surface rovers for planetary missions, such as the U.S. Mars Exploration Rovers and the European ExoMars. The main functions of similar extraterrestrial vehicles in the future will be moving across planetary surfaces and retrieving rock samples. This paper presents a novel ultrasonic rock sampling tool tuned in a longitudinal-torsional mode along with the conceptual design of a full coring apparatus for preload delivery and core removal. Drilling and coring bits have been designed so that a portion of the longitudinal motion supplied by the ultrasonic transducer is converted into torsional motion. Results of drilling/coring trials are also presented.

  2. The origin and evolution of terrestrial and Martian rock labyrinths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The morphological characteristics and evolutionary development of rock labyrinths on Earth (in sandstone, volcanics, and carbonates) are compared with those on Mars. On Earth rock labyrinths originate as parallel, an echelon, or intersecting narrow grabens, or develop where fault and joint networks are selectively eroded. Labyrinths frequently contain both downfaulted and erosional elements. Closed labyrinths contain depressions; open labyrinths do not, they are simple part of a fluvial network generally of low order. As closed labyrinths made up of intersecting grabens or made up of connected erosional depressions are extremely common on Mars, the research focussed on an understanding of these labyrinth types. Field investigations were carried out in Canyonlands National Park, Utah, and in the Chirachahua Mountains of Arizona. Martian labyrinths were investigated using Viking orbiter images. In addition, research was undertaken on apparent thermokarst features in Lunae Planum and Chryse Planitia where closed depressions are numerous and resemble atlas topography.

  3. 'Mars-shine'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 'Mars-shine' Composite NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit continues to take advantage of favorable solar power conditions to conduct occasional nighttime astronomical observations from the summit region of 'Husband Hill.' Spirit has been observing the martian moons Phobos and Deimos to learn more about their orbits and surface properties. This has included observing eclipses. On Earth, a solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's orbit takes it exactly between the Sun and Earth, casting parts of Earth into shadow. A lunar eclipse occurs when the Earth is exactly between the Sun and the Moon, casting the Moon into shadow and often giving it a ghostly orange-reddish color. This color is created by sunlight reflected through Earth's atmosphere into the shadowed region. The primary difference between terrestrial and martian eclipses is that Mars' moons are too small to completely block the Sun from view during solar eclipses. Recently, Spirit observed a 'lunar' eclipse on Mars. Phobos, the larger of the two martian moons, was photographed while slipping into the shadow of Mars. Jim Bell, the astronomer in charge of the rover's panoramic camera (Pancam), suggested calling it a 'Phobal' eclipse rather than a lunar eclipse as a way of identifying which of the dozens of moons in our solar system was being cast into shadow. With the help of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's navigation team, the Pancam team planned instructions to Spirit for acquiring the views shown here of Phobos as it entered into a lunar eclipse on the evening of the rover's 639th martian day, or sol (Oct. 20, 2005) on Mars. This image is a time-lapse composite of eight Pancam images of Phobos moving across the martian sky. The entire eclipse lasted more than 26 minutes, but Spirit was able to observe only in the first 15 minutes. During the time closest to the shadow crossing, Spirit's cameras were programmed to take images every 10 seconds. In the first three

  4. In Situ Strategy of the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory to Investigate the Habitability of Ancient Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    The ten science investigations of the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover named "Curiosity" seek to provide a quantitative assessment of habitability through chemical and geological measurements from a highly capable robotic' platform. This mission seeks to understand if the conditions for life on ancient Mars are preserved in the near-surface geochemical record. These substantial payload resources enabled by MSL's new entry descent and landing (EDL) system have allowed the inclusion of instrument types nevv to the Mars surface including those that can accept delivered sample from rocks and soils and perform a wide range of chemical, isotopic, and mineralogical analyses. The Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) experiment that is located in the interior of the rover is a powder x-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) instrument that provides elemental and mineralogical information. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) suite of instruments complements this experiment by analyzing the volatile component of identically processed samples and by analyzing atmospheric composition. Other MSL payload tools such as the Mast Camera (Mastcam) and the Chemistry & Camera (ChemCam) instruments are utilized to identify targets for interrogation first by the arm tools and subsequent ingestion into SAM and CheMin using the Sample Acquisition, Processing, and Handling (SA/SPaH) subsystem. The arm tools include the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) and the Chemistry and Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXX). The Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) instrument provides subsurface identification of hydrogen such as that contained in hydrated minerals

  5. Rock engineering in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Contains a large collection of short articles concerned with tunnels and underground caverns and their construction and use. The articles are grouped under the following headings: use of the subsurface space; water supply; waste water services; energy management (includes articles on power stations, district heating and oil storage and an article on coal storage); multipurpose tunnels; waste disposal; transport; shelters; sporting and recreational amenities located in rock caverns; storage facilities; industrial, laboratory, and service facilities; rock foundations; tourism and culture; utilization of rock masses; research on the disposal of nuclear waste; training and research in the field of rock engineering; site investigation techniques; design of structures in rock; construction; the environment and occupational safety; modern equipment technology; underground space in Helsinki.

  6. Mars Science Laboratory: Mission, Landing Site, and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotzinger, John; Blake, D.; Crisp, J.; Edgett, K.; Gellert, R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Hassler, D.; Mahaffy, P.; Malin, M.; Meyer, M.; Mitrofanov, I.; Vasavada, A.; Wiens, R.

    2012-10-01

    Scheduled to land on August 5, 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, will conduct an investigation of modern and ancient environments. Recent mission results will be discussed. Curiosity has a lifetime of at least one Mars year ( 23 months), and drive capability of at least 20 km. The MSL science payload was specifically assembled to assess habitability and includes a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and gas analyzer that will search for organic carbon in rocks, regolith fines, and the atmosphere; an x-ray diffractometer that will determine mineralogical diversity; focusable cameras that can image landscapes and rock/regolith textures in natural color; an alpha-particle x-ray spectrometer for in situ determination of rock and soil chemistry; a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer to remotely sense the chemical composition of rocks and minerals; an active neutron spectrometer designed to search for water in rocks/regolith; a weather station to measure modern-day environmental variables; and a sensor designed for continuous monitoring of background solar and cosmic radiation. The 155-km diameter Gale Crater was chosen as Curiosity’s field site based on several attributes: an interior mound of ancient flat-lying strata extending almost 5 km above the elevation of the landing site; the lower few hundred meters of the mound show a progression with relative age from clay-bearing to sulfate-bearing strata, separated by an unconformity from overlying likely anhydrous strata; the landing ellipse is characterized by a mixture of alluvial fan and high thermal inertia/high albedo stratified deposits; and a number of stratigraphically/geomorphically distinct fluvial features. Gale’s regional context and strong evidence for a progression through multiple potentially habitable environments, represented by a stratigraphic record of extraordinary extent, insure preservation of a rich record of the environmental history of early Mars.

  7. Calibrating the ChemCam LIBS for Carbonate Minerals on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Roger C.; Clegg, Samuel M.; Ollila, Ann M.; Barefield, James E.; Lanza, Nina; Newsom, Horton E.

    2009-01-01

    The ChemCam instrument suite on board the NASA Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover includes the first LIBS instrument for extraterrestrial applications. Here we examine carbonate minerals in a simulated martian environment using the LIDS technique in order to better understand the in situ signature of these materials on Mars. Both chemical composition and rock type are determined using multivariate analysis (MVA) techniques. Composition is confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Our initial results suggest that ChemCam can recognize and differentiate between carbonate materials on Mars.

  8. Mars at war

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Whether the climate of early Mars was warm and wet or cold and dry remains unclear, but the debate is overheated. With a growing toolbox and increasing data to tackle the open questions, progress is possible if there is openness to bridging the divide.

  9. Watersporen op Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijmonsbergen, A.C.; Cammeraat, L.H.; Jansen, B.

    2005-01-01

    SAMENVATTING De discussie over het voorkomen van water op Mars, in vaste of vloeibare vorm, nu en in het verleden, is nog steeds in volle gang. Dat geldt ook voor het effect van mogelijk aanwezig water op de landschapsontwikkeling van de Rode Planeet. Met het vrijkomen van steeds meer nieuwe

  10. Ancient aliens on mars

    CERN Document Server

    Bara, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Best-selling author and Secret Space Program researcher Bara brings us this lavishly illustrated volume on alien structures on Mars. Was there once a vast, technologically advanced civilization on Mars, and did it leave evidence of its existence behind for humans to find eons later? Did these advanced extraterrestrial visitors vanish in a solar system wide cataclysm of their own making, only to make their way to Earth and start anew? Was Mars once as lush and green as the Earth, and teeming with life? Did Mars once orbit a missing member of the solar system, a "Super Earth” that vanished in a disaster that devastated life on Earth and Venus and left us only the asteroid belt as evidence of its once grand existence? Did the survivors of this catastrophe leave monuments and temples behind, arranged in a mathematical precision designed to teach us the Secret of a new physics that could lift us back to the stars? Does the planet have an automated defense shield that swallows up robotic probes if they wander int...

  11. Mars Mission Specialist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Bill; Ogden, Kate; Walker, Becky; Bledsoe, Leslie; Hardage, Lauren

    2018-01-01

    For the last several years, the authors have implemented an integrated Mars Colony project for their third-grade classes. Students explored several considerations related to colonizing and inhabiting a new world, including food sources, types of citizens, transportation, and housing design. Nearly everything about the project was open-ended, full…

  12. Astrobiological aspects of Mars and human presence: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G

    2008-08-01

    After the realization of the International Space Station, human exploratory missions to Moon or Mars, i.e. beyond low Earth orbit, are widely considered as the next logical step of peaceful cooperation in space on a global scale. Besides the human desire to extend the window of habitability, human exploratory missions are driven by several aspects of science, technology, culture and economy. Mars is currently considered as a major target in the search for life beyond the Earth. Understanding the history of water on Mars appears to be one of the clues to the puzzle on the probability of life on Mars. On Earth microorganisms have flourished for more than 3.5 Ga and have developed strategies to cope with so-called extreme conditions (e.g., hot vents, permafrost, subsurface regions, rocks or salt crystals). Therefore, in search for life on Mars, microorganisms are the most likely candidates for a putative biota on Mars and the search for morphological or chemical signatures of life or its relics is one of the primary and most exciting goals of Mars exploration. The presence of humans on the surface of Mars will substantially increase this research potential, e.g., by supporting deep subsurface drilling and by allowing intellectual collection and sophisticated in situ analysis of samples of astrobiological interest. On the other hand, such long-duration missions beyond LEO will add a new dimension to human space flight, concerning the distance of travel, the radiation environment, the gravity levels, the duration of the mission, and the level of confinement and isolation the crew will be exposed to. This will raise the significance of several health issues, above all radiation protection, gravity related effects as well as psychological issues. Furthermore, the import of internal and external microorganisms inevitably accompanying any human mission to Mars, or brought purposely to Mars as part of a bioregenerative life support system needs careful consideration with

  13. Chemical Alteration of Soils on Earth as a Function of Precipitation: Insights Into Weathering Processes Relevant to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, R.; Chadwick, O.; Ewing, S.; Sutter, B.; Owen, J.; McKay, C.

    2004-12-01

    Soils lie at the interface of the atmosphere and lithosphere, and the rates of chemical and physical processes that form them hinge on the availability of water. Here we quantify the effect of these processes on soil volume and mass in different rainfall regimes. We then use the results of this synthesis to compare with the growing chemical dataset for soils on Mars in order to identify moisture regimes on Earth that may provide crude analogues for past Martian weathering conditions. In this synthesis, the rates of elemental gains/losses, and corresponding volumetric changes, were compared for soils in nine soil chronosequences (sequences of soils of differing ages) - sequences formed in climates ranging from ~1 to ~4500 mm mean annual precipitation (MAP). Total elemental chemistry of soils and parent materials were determined via XRF, ICP-MS, and/or ICP-OES, and the absolute elemental gains or losses (and volume changes) were determined by normalizing data to an immobile index element. For the chronosequences examined, the initial stages of soil formation (103^ to 104^ yr), regardless of climate, generally show volumetric expansion due to (1) reduction in bulk density by biological/physical turbation, (2) addition of organic matter, (3) accumulation of water during clay mineral synthesis, and/or (4) accumulation of atmospheric salts and dust. Despite large differences in parent materials (basalt, sandstone, granitic alluvium), there was a systematic relationship between long-term (105^ to 106^ yr) volumetric change and rainfall, with an approximate cross-over point between net expansion (and accumulation of atmospheric solutes and dust) and net collapse (net losses of Si, Al, and alkaline earths and alkali metals) between approximately 20 and 100 mm MAP. Recently published geochemical data of soils at Gusev Crater (Gellert et al. 2004. Science 305:829), when normalized to Ti, show apparent net losses of Si and Al that range between 5 and 50% of values relative to

  14. The Small Mars System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantino, E.; Grassi, M.; Pasolini, P.; Causa, F.; Molfese, C.; Aurigemma, R.; Cimminiello, N.; de la Torre, D.; Dell'Aversana, P.; Esposito, F.; Gramiccia, L.; Paudice, F.; Punzo, F.; Roma, I.; Savino, R.; Zuppardi, G.

    2017-08-01

    The Small Mars System is a proposed mission to Mars. Funded by the European Space Agency, the project has successfully completed Phase 0. The contractor is ALI S.c.a.r.l., and the study team includes the University of Naples ;Federico II;, the Astronomical Observatory of Capodimonte and the Space Studies Institute of Catalonia. The objectives of the mission are both technological and scientific, and will be achieved by delivering a small Mars lander carrying a dust particle analyser and an aerial drone. The former shall perform in situ measurements of the size distribution and abundance of dust particles suspended in the Martian atmosphere, whereas the latter shall demonstrate low-altitude flight in the rarefied planetary environment. The mission-enabling technology is an innovative umbrella-like heat shield, known as IRENE, developed and patented by ALI. The mission is also a technological demonstration of the shield in the upper atmosphere of Mars. The core characteristics of SMS are the low cost (120 M€) and the small size (320 kg of wet mass at launch, 110 kg at landing), features which stand out with respect to previous Mars landers. To comply with them is extremely challenging at all levels, and sets strict requirements on the choice of the materials, the sizing of payloads and subsystems, their arrangement inside the spacecraft and the launcher's selection. In this contribution, the mission and system concept and design are illustrated and discussed. Special emphasis is given to the innovative features and to the challenges faced in the development of the work.

  15. Mars Surface Environmental Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John

    2002-01-01

    Planetary exploration by astronauts will require extended periods of habitation on a planet's surface, under the influence of environmental factors that are different from those of Earth and the spacecraft that delivered the crew to the planet. Human exploration of Mars, a possible near-term planetary objective, can be considered a challenging scenario. Mission scenarios currently under consideration call for surface habitation periods of from 1 to 18 months on even the earliest expeditions. Methods: Environmental issues associated with Mars exploration have been investigated by NASA and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) as part of the Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap Project (see http ://criticalpath.jsc.nasa.gov). Results: Arrival on Mars will immediately expose the crew to gravity only 38% of that at Earth's surface in possibly the first prolonged exposure to gravity other than the 1G of Earth's surface and the zero G of weightless space flight, with yet unknown effects on crew physiology. The radiation at Mars' surface is not well documented, although the planet's bulk and even its thin atmosphere may moderate the influx of galactic cosmic radiation and energetic protons from solar flares. Secondary radiation from activated components of the soil must also be considered. Ultrafine and larger respirable and nonrespirable particles in Martian dust introduced into the habitat after surface excursions may induce pulmonary inflammation exacerbated by the additive reactive and oxidizing nature of the dust. Stringent decontamination cannot eliminate mechanical and corrosive effects of the dust on pressure suits and exposed machinery. The biohazard potential of putative indigenous Martian microorganisms may be assessed by comparison with analog environments on Earth. Even in their absence, human microorganisms, if not properly controlled, can be a threat to the crew's health. Conclusions: Mars' surface offers a substantial challenge to the

  16. The subsurface geology of Río Tinto: material examined during a simulated Mars drilling mission for the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Schutt, John; Sutter, Brad; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Bell, Mary Sue; Battler, Melissa; Cannon, Howard; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    The 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project conducted a simulated 1-month Mars drilling mission in the Río Tinto district, Spain. Dry robotic drilling, core sampling, and biological and geological analytical technologies were collectively tested for the first time for potential use on Mars. Drilling and subsurface sampling and analytical technologies are being explored for Mars because the subsurface is the most likely place to find life on Mars. The objectives of this work are to describe drilling, sampling, and analytical procedures; present the geological analysis of core and borehole material; and examine lessons learned from the drilling simulation. Drilling occurred at an undisclosed location, causing the science team to rely only on mission data for geological and biological interpretations. Core and borehole imaging was used for micromorphological analysis of rock, targeting rock for biological analysis, and making decisions regarding the next day's drilling operations. Drilling reached 606 cm depth into poorly consolidated gossan that allowed only 35% of core recovery and contributed to borehole wall failure during drilling. Core material containing any indication of biology was sampled and analyzed in more detail for its confirmation. Despite the poorly consolidated nature of the subsurface gossan, dry drilling was able to retrieve useful core material for geological and biological analysis. Lessons learned from this drilling simulation can guide the development of dry drilling and subsurface geological and biological analytical technologies for future Mars drilling missions.

  17. Total synthesis of sannanine and analogues thereof

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BADHER NAVEEN

    2018-03-02

    Mar 2, 2018 ... further characterized HRMS and IR spectral analysis. For all the newly synthesized by solid ..... Burst in a Model of Gouty Arthritis J. Nat. Prod. 70. 936. 3. ... Synthesis, Spectroscopic Characterisation, X-ray Struc- ture and DFT ...

  18. Radionuclide migration around uranium ore bodies: analogue of radioactive waste repositories. Annual report, July 1982-June 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airey, P.L.

    1984-10-01

    A number of uranium ore bodies in the Northern Territory of Australia have been evaluated as geochemical analogues of high-level radioactive waste repositories. The aim of the study is to contribute to the understanding of the scientific basis for the long-term prediction of the transport of radionuclides. Particular attention is being paid to investigations of (i) mechanisms of mobilization and subsequent retardation of uranium series nuclides following the weathering of metamorphic host rocks, (ii) the role of iron minerals in the retardation of uranium and thorium, (iii) the role of groundwater colloids in the transport of radionuclides, (iv) experimental methods for studying the time dependence of adsorption coefficients, and (v) conceptual methods for studying the effect of transport of uranium series nuclides through crystalline host rocks over geological time. The possibility of incorporating certain transuranic and fission product elements into the analogue is discussed. 29 figures, 36 tables

  19. Natural analogue of redox front formation in near-field environment at post-closure phase of HLW geological disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hidekazu; Yamamoto, Koushi; Amano, Yuki

    2005-01-01

    Redox fronts are created in the near field of rocks, in a range of oxidation environments, by microbial activity in rock groundwater. Such fronts, and the associated oxide formation, are usually unavoidable around high level radioactive waste (HLW) repositories, whatever their design. The long term behaviour of these oxides after repositories have been closed is however little known. Here we introduce an analogue of redox front formation, such as 'iron oxide' deposits, known as takashikozo forming cylindrical nodules, and the long term behaviour of secondarily formed iron oxyhydroxide in subsequent geological environments. (author)

  20. Insulin analogues with improved absorption characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brange, J; Hansen, J F; Langkjaer, L; Markussen, J; Ribel, U; Sørensen, A R

    1992-01-01

    The insulin preparations available today are not ideal for therapy as s.c. injection does not provide a physiological insulin profile. With the aim to improve the absorption properties recombinant DNA technology has been utilized to design novel insulin molecules with changed physico-chemical characteristics and hence altered subcutaneous absorption kinetics. Soluble, long-acting human insulin analogues in which the isoelectric point has been increased from 5.4 to approx. 7 are absorbed very slowly, providing a more constant basal insulin delivery with lower day-to-day variation than present protracted preparations. In addition they have better storage stability. Rapid-acting human insulin analogues with largely reduced self-association are absorbed substantially faster from subcutaneous tissue than current regular insulin and thus are better suited for bolus injection. The absorption kinetics of these analogues have been able to explain the mechanism behind the dose effect on insulin absorption rate.

  1. Synthesis and anticancer evaluation of spermatinamine analogues

    KAUST Repository

    Moosa, Basem

    2016-02-04

    Spermatinamine was isolated from an Australian marine sponge, Pseudoceratina sp. as an inhibitor of isoprenylcystiene carboxyl methyltransferase (Icmt), an attractive and novel anticancer target. Herein, we report the synthesis of spermatinamine analogues and their cytotoxic evaluation against three human cancer cell lines i.e. cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), and prostate carcinoma (DU145). Analogues 12, 14 and 15 were found to be the most potent against one or more cell lines with the IC50 values in the range of 5 - 10 μM. The obtained results suggested that longer polyamine linker along with aromatic oxime substitution provided the most potent analogue compounds against cancer cell lines.

  2. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  3. The Athena Mars Rover Science Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squyes, S. W.; Arvidson, R.; Bell, J. F., III; Carr, M.; Christensen, P.; DesMarais, D.; Economou, T.; Gorevan, S.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Haskin, L.

    1998-01-01

    The Mars Surveyor missions that will be launched in April of 2001 will include a highly capable rover that is a successor to the Mars Pathfinder mission's Sojourner rover. The design goals for this rover are a total traverse distance of at least 10 km and a total lifetime of at least one Earth year. The rover's job will be to explore a site in Mars' ancient terrain, searching for materials likely to preserve a record of ancient martian water, climate, and possibly biology. The rover will collect rock and soil samples, and will store them for return to Earth by a subsequent Mars Surveyor mission in 2005. The Athena Mars rover science payload is the suite of scientific instruments and sample collection tools that will be used to perform this job. The specific science objectives that NASA has identified for the '01 rover payload are to: (1) Provide color stereo imaging of martian surface environments, and remotely-sensed point discrimination of mineralogical composition. (2) Determine the elemental and mineralogical composition of martian surface materials. (3) Determine the fine-scale textural properties of these materials. (4) Collect and store samples. The Athena payload has been designed to meet these objectives. The focus of the design is on field operations: making sure the rover can locate, characterize, and collect scientifically important samples in a dusty, dirty, real-world environment. The topography, morphology, and mineralogy of the scene around the rover will be revealed by Pancam/Mini-TES, an integrated imager and IR spectrometer. Pancam views the surface around the rover in stereo and color. It uses two high-resolution cameras that are identical in most respects to the rover's navigation cameras. The detectors are low-power, low-mass active pixel sensors with on-chip 12-bit analog-to-digital conversion. Filters provide 8-12 color spectral bandpasses over the spectral region from 0.4 to 1.1 micron Narrow-angle optics provide an angular resolution of 0

  4. Cyprus natural analogue project (CNAP). Phase II Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, W.R.; Milodowski, A.E.

    2011-02-01

    Due to the extremely slow kinetics of bentonite reaction in low alkali cement leachates, natural analogues would appear to be the only viable method of studying bentonite reaction. As a result of a review of the available literature, several sites in Cyprus were selected as particularly promising for this purpose. This report presents the results of two short field campaigns in Cyprus in November/December, 2008 and February, 2009. The main aim of these campaigns was to establish if appropriate sites existed for a natural analogue study of bentonite-low alkali cement leachate reaction. Focus is on mineralogical changes and not changes in physical properties (such as porosity and permeability) of bentonite as the industrially-processed bentonite used in a repository will be completely different in terms of its engineering and hydrogeological properties to the unprocessed natural bentonite or analogue smectite-rich materials. The first campaign was in the form of a reconnaissance study to identify sites of likely interest and the second, follow-up, campaign focussed on obtaining preliminary groundwater and solid phase (bentonites/clay-rich sediments/altered igneous rocks/soils) samples which would allow a more detailed assessment of several of the potential sites. A large amount of information was collected during these short field campaigns and subsequent laboratory analysis of the collected samples so, to keep the main report down to a digestible size, much of the supporting information has been collated in seven appendices. These include full details of all 30 sites visited during both campaigns along with sample details, information on the analytical techniques, the analytical raw data and numerous photographs of the sites. The intention is that this report will provide full supporting information for a potential Phase III and a detailed database for our colleagues at the Geological Survey Department (GSD) in Cyprus. Consequently, all the information acquired

  5. Effects of earthquake induced rock shear on containment system integrity. Laboratory testing plan development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, Rodney S.

    2011-07-01

    This report describes a laboratory-scale testing program plan to address the issue of earthquake induced rock shear effects on containment system integrity. The document contains a review of relevant literature from SKB covering laboratory testing of bentonite clay buffer material, scaled analogue tests, and the development of related material models to simulate rock shear effects. The proposed testing program includes standard single component tests, new two-component constant volume tests, and new scaled analogue tests. Conceptual drawings of equipment required to undertake these tests are presented along with a schedule of tests. The information in this document is considered sufficient to engage qualified testing facilities, and to guide implementation of laboratory testing of rock shear effects. This document was completed as part of a collaborative agreement between SKB and Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) in Canada

  6. Effects of earthquake induced rock shear on containment system integrity. Laboratory testing plan development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, Rodney S. (RSRead Consulting Inc. (Canada))

    2011-07-15

    This report describes a laboratory-scale testing program plan to address the issue of earthquake induced rock shear effects on containment system integrity. The document contains a review of relevant literature from SKB covering laboratory testing of bentonite clay buffer material, scaled analogue tests, and the development of related material models to simulate rock shear effects. The proposed testing program includes standard single component tests, new two-component constant volume tests, and new scaled analogue tests. Conceptual drawings of equipment required to undertake these tests are presented along with a schedule of tests. The information in this document is considered sufficient to engage qualified testing facilities, and to guide implementation of laboratory testing of rock shear effects. This document was completed as part of a collaborative agreement between SKB and Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) in Canada

  7. An Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer for Mars-96 and Mars Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, R.; Wanke, H.; Economou, T.

    1996-09-01

    Mars Pathfinder and the Russian Mars-96 will carry an Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) for the determination of the chemical composition of Martian rocks and soil. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and many minor elements, including C,N and O, at levels above typically 1%. The method employed consist of bombarding a sample of 50 mm diameter with alpha particles from a radioactive source (50 mCi of Cm-244) and measuring: (i) backscattered alpha particles (alpha mode) (ii) protons from (a,p) reactions with some light elements (proton mode) (iii) characteristic X-rays emitted from the sample (X-ray mode). The APXS has a long standing space heritage, going back to Surveyor V,VI and VII (1967/68) and the Soviet Phobos (1988) missions. The present design is the result of an endeavour to reduce mass and power consumption to 600g/ 300mW. It consist of a sensor head containing the alpha sources, a telescope of a silicon detectors for the detection of the alpha particles and protons and a separate X-ray detector with its preamplifier, and an electronics box (80x70x60 mm) containing a microcontroller based multichannel spectrometer. The paper will describe the APXS flight hardware and present results obtained with the flight instrument that will show the instrument capabili- ties and the expected results to be obtained during surface operations on Mars.

  8. Rock properties data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R.; Gorski, B.; Gyenge, M.

    1991-03-01

    As mining companies proceed deeper and into areas whose stability is threatened by high and complex stress fields, the science of rock mechanics becomes invaluable in designing underground mine strata control programs. CANMET's Mining Research Laboratories division has compiled a summary of pre- and post-failure mechanical properties of rock types which were tested to provide design data. The 'Rock Properties Data Base' presents the results of these tests, and includes many rock types typical of Canadian mine environments. The data base also contains 'm' and 's' values determined using Hoek and Brown's failure criteria for both pre- and post-failure conditions. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs., 1 append.

  9. Eclogite facies rocks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carswell, D. A

    1990-01-01

    ... of eclogite evolution and genesis. The authors present a thorough treatment of the stability relations and geochemistry of these rocks, their intimate association with continental plate collision zones and suture zones...

  10. Rock kinoekraanil / Katrin Rajasaare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajasaare, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    7.-11. juulini kinos Sõprus toimuval filminädalal "Rock On Screen" ekraanile jõudvatest rockmuusikuid portreteerivatest filmidest "Lou Reed's Berlin", "The Future Is Unwritten: Joe Strummer", "Control: Joy Division", "Hurriganes", "Shlaager"

  11. Eclogite facies rocks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carswell, D. A

    1990-01-01

    .... This is the first volume to provide a coherent and comprehensive review of the conditions necessary for the formation of eclogites and eclogite facies rocks and assemblages, and a detailed account...

  12. Solid as a rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pincus, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    Recent technologic developments have required a more comprehensive approach to the behavior of rock mass or rock substance plus discontinuities than was adequate previously. This work considers the inherent problems in such operations as the storage of hot or cold fluids in caverns and aquifers, underground storage of nuclear waste, underground recovery of heat from hydrocarbon fuels, tertiary recovery of oil by thermal methods, rapid excavation of large openings at shallow to great depths and in hostile environments, and retrofitting of large structures built on or in rock. The standardization of methods for determining rock properties is essential to all of the activities described, for use not only in design and construction but also in site selection and post-construction monitoring. Development of such standards is seen as a multidisciplinary effort

  13. Rock Equity Holdings, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Rock Equity Holdings, LLC, for alleged violations at The Cove at Kettlestone/98th Street Reconstruction located at 3015

  14. Pop & rock / Berk Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Berk, 1975-

    2001-01-01

    Uute heliplaatide Redman "Malpractice", Brian Eno & Peter Schwalm "Popstars", Clawfinger "A Whole Lot of Nothing", Dario G "In Full Color", MLTR e. Michael Learns To Rock "Blue Night" lühitutvustused

  15. Hints of Habitable Environments on Mars Challenge Our Studies of Mars-Analog Sites on Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    desMarais, David J

    2009-01-01

    Life as we know it requires water with a chemical activity (alpha) >or approx.0.6 and sources of nutrients and useful energy. Some biota can survive even if favorable conditions occur only intermittently, but the minimum required frequency of occurrences is poorly understood. Recent discoveries have vindicated the Mars exploration strategy to follow the water. Mars Global Surveyor s Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) found coarse-grained hematite at Meridiani Planum. Opportunity rover confirmed this and also found evidence of ancient sulfate-rich playa lakes and near-surface groundwater. Elsewhere, TES found evidence of evaporitic halides in topographic depressions. But alpha might not have approached 0.6 in these evaporitic sulfate- and halide-bearing waters. Mars Express (MEX) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) found extensive sulfate evaporites in Meridiani and Valles Marineris. MEX found phyllosilicates at several sites, most notably Mawrth Valles and Nili Fossae. MRO's CRISM near-IR mapper extended the known diversity and geographic distribution of phyllosilicates to include numerous Noachian craters. Phyllosilicates typically occur at the base of exposed ancient rock sections or in sediments in early Hesperian craters. It is uncertain whether the phyllosilicates developed in surface or subsurface aqueous environments and how long aqueous conditions persisted. Spirit rover found remarkably pure ferric sulfate, indicating oxidation and transport of Fe and S, perhaps in fumaroles or hot springs. Spirit also found opaline silica, consistent with hydrothermal activity. CRISM mapped extensive silica deposits in the Valles Marineris region, consistent with aqueous weathering and deposition. CRISM also found ultramafic rocks and magnesite at Nili Fossae, consistent with serpentinization, a process that can sustain habitable environments on Earth. The report of atmospheric methane implies subsurface aqueous conditions. A working hypothesis is that aqueous

  16. Basic rocks in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piirainen, T.; Gehoer, S.; Iljina, M.; Kaerki, A.; Paakkola, J.; Vuollo, J.

    1992-10-01

    Basic igneous rocks, containing less than 52% SiO 2 , constitute an important part of the Finnish Archaean and Proterozoic crust. In the Archaean crust exist two units which contain the majority of the basic rocks. The Arcaean basic rocks are metavolcanics and situated in the Greenstone Belts of Eastern Finland. They are divided into two units. The greenstones of the lower one are tholeiites, komatiites and basaltic komatiites. The upper consists of bimodal series of volcanics and the basic rocks of which are Fe-tholeiites, basaltic komatiites and komatiites. Proterozoic basic rocks are divided into seven groups according to their ages. The Proterozoic igneous activity started by the volominous basic magmatism 2.44 Ga ago. During this stage formed the layered intrusions and related dykes in the Northern Finland. 2.2 Ga old basic rocks are situated at the margins of Karelian formations. 2.1 Ga aged Fe-tholeiitic magmatic activity is widespread in Eastern and Northern Finland. The basic rocks of 1.97 Ga age group are met within the Karelian Schist Belts as obducted ophiolite complexes but they occur also as tholeiitic diabase dykes cutting the Karelian schists and Archean basement. The intrusions and the volcanics of the 1.9 Ga old basic igneous activity are mostly encountered around the Granitoid Complex of Central Finland. Subjotnian, 1.6 Ga aged tholeiitic diabases are situated around the Rapakivi massifs of Southern Finland, and postjotnian, 1.2 Ga diabases in Western Finland where they form dykes cutting Svecofennian rocks

  17. EquiMar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnstone, C. M.; McCombes, T.; Bahaj, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    the performance evaluation of such systems in order to address this deficiency. This paper reports the development of a set of ‘Best Practices’ within the ECFPVII EquiMar project to be adopted for the performance quantification of wave and tidal energy converters as they evolve from an engineering concept......At the present time there are no approved standards or recognised best practices being implemented for the performance appraisal and benchmarking of wave and tidal energy converters. As such, this develops considerable misunderstanding between device developers, testing centres, investors....../ financiers etc when attempting to quantify the performance of a device since it makes it very difficult to reference and benchmark the performance of a marine energy converter. The EC Framework Programme VII EquiMar project has set out to develop a suite of Best Practices to be adopted when undertaking...

  18. The politics of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1986-01-01

    A discussion is presented comparing past and present major accomplishments of the U.S. and the Soviet Union in space. It concludes that the Soviets are presently well ahead of the U.S. in several specific aspects of space accomplishment and speculates that the Soviet strategy is directed towards sending a man to the vicinity of Mars by the end of this century. A major successful multinational space endeavor, INTELSAT, is reviewed and it is suggested that the manned exploration of Mars offers a unique opportunity for another such major international cooperative effort. The current attitude of U.S. leadership and the general public is assessed as uniformed or ambivalent about the perceived threat of Soviet dominance in space.

  19. Fossil life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M. R.

    1989-01-01

    Three major problems beset paleontologists searching for morphological evidence of life on early Earth: selecting a prospective site; finding biogenic structures; and distinguishing biogenic from abiogenic structures. The same problems arise on Mars. Terrestrial experience suggests that, with the techniques that can be employed remotely, ancient springs, including hot springs, are more prospective than lake deposits. If, on the other hand, the search is for chemical evidence, the strategy can be very different, and lake deposits are attractive targets. Lakes and springs frequenly occur in close proximity, and therefore a strategy that combines the two would seem to maximize the chance of success. The strategy for a search for stromatolite on Mars is discussed.

  20. Magnetic storms on Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    and typical time profile of such periods is investigated and compared to solar wind measurements at Earth. Typical durations of the events are 20–40h, and there is a tendency for large events to last longer, but a large spread in duration and intensity are found. The large and medium intensity events at Mars......Based on data from the Mars Global Surveyor magnetometer we examine periods of significantly enhanced magnetic disturbances in the martian space environment. Using almost seven years of observations during the maximum and early declining phase of the previous solar cycle the occurrence pattern...... are found to occur predominantly in association with interplanetary sector boundaries, with solar wind dynamic pressure enhancements being the most likely interplanetary driver. In addition it is found that, on time scales of months to several years, the dominant cause of global variability of the magnetic...

  1. Artificial structures on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Flandern, T.

    2002-05-01

    Approximately 70,000 images of the surface of Mars at a resolution of up to 1.4 meters per pixel, taken by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, are now in public archives. Approximately 1% of those images show features that can be broadly described as `special shapes', `tracks, trails, and possible vegetation', `spots, stripes, and tubes', `artistic imagery', and `patterns and symbols'. Rather than optical illusions and tricks of light and shadow, most of these have the character that, if photographed on Earth, no one would doubt that they were the products of large biology and intelligence. In a few cases, relationships, context, and fulfillment of a priori predictions provide objective evidence of artificiality that is exempt from the influence of experimenter biases. Only controlled test results can be trusted because biases are strong and operate both for and against artificiality.

  2. Analogue alternative the electronic analogue computer in Britain and the USA, 1930-1975

    CERN Document Server

    Small, James S

    2013-01-01

    We are in the midst of a digital revolution - until recently, the majority of appliances used in everyday life have been developed with analogue technology. Now, either at home or out and about, we are surrounded by digital technology such as digital 'film', audio systems, computers and telephones. From the late 1940s until the 1970s, analogue technology was a genuine alternative to digital, and the two competing technologies ran parallel with each other. During this period, a community of engineers, scientists, academics and businessmen continued to develop and promote the analogue computer.

  3. Classification Scheme for Diverse Sedimentary and Igneous Rocks Encountered by MSL in Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M. E.; Mangold, N.; Fisk, M.; Forni, O.; McLennan, S.; Ming, D. W.; Sumner, D.; Sautter, V.; Williams, A. J.; Gellert, R.

    2015-01-01

    The Curiosity Rover landed in a lithologically and geochemically diverse region of Mars. We present a recommended rock classification framework based on terrestrial schemes, and adapted for the imaging and analytical capabilities of MSL as well as for rock types distinctive to Mars (e.g., high Fe sediments). After interpreting rock origin from textures, i.e., sedimentary (clastic, bedded), igneous (porphyritic, glassy), or unknown, the overall classification procedure (Fig 1) involves: (1) the characterization of rock type according to grain size and texture; (2) the assignment of geochemical modifiers according to Figs 3 and 4; and if applicable, in depth study of (3) mineralogy and (4) geologic/stratigraphic context. Sedimentary rock types are assigned by measuring grains in the best available resolution image (Table 1) and classifying according to the coarsest resolvable grains as conglomerate/breccia, (coarse, medium, or fine) sandstone, silt-stone, or mudstone. If grains are not resolvable in MAHLI images, grains in the rock are assumed to be silt sized or smaller than surface dust particles. Rocks with low color contrast contrast between grains (e.g., Dismal Lakes, sol 304) are classified according to minimum size of apparent grains from surface roughness or shadows outlining apparent grains. Igneous rocks are described as intrusive or extrusive depending on crystal size and fabric. Igneous textures may be described as granular, porphyritic, phaneritic, aphyric, or glassy depending on crystal size. Further descriptors may include terms such as vesicular or cumulate textures.

  4. Seismic exploration for water on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, T.

    1987-01-01

    It is proposed to soft-land three seismometers in the Utopia-Elysium region and three or more radio controlled explosive charges at nearby sites that can be accurately located by an orbiter. Seismic signatures of timed explosions, to be telemetered to the orbiter, will be used to detect present surface layers, including those saturated by volatiles such as water and/or ice. The Viking Landers included seismometers that showed that at present Mars is seismically quiet, and that the mean crustal thickness at the site is about 14 to 18 km. The new seismic landers must be designed to minimize wind vibration noise, and the landing sites selected so that each is well formed on the regolith, not on rock outcrops or in craters. The explosive charges might be mounted on penetrators aimed at nearby smooth areas. They must be equipped with radio emitters for accurate location and radio receivers for timed detonation

  5. Fate of rhenium in the environment as a chemical analogue of technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of rhenium, a chemical analogue of Tc, were measured in various environmental samples by ICP-MS to obtain information values on long-lived 99 Tc mobility in the environment. From the results, it was assumed that Re was removed from the rock and soil by water due to weathering and transport to the sea through rivers. The element would be retained in seawater for a long time, i.e., 2 x 10 5 to 7.5 x 10 5 y. The reservoirs of Re in the sea would be seaweeds, and anoxic and suboxic sediments, especially slightly below the water-sediment interface. (author)

  6. On the in situ aqueous alteration of soils on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Ronald; Ewing, Stephanie; Dietrich, William; Sutter, Brad; Owen, Justine; Chadwick, Oliver; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Walvoord, Michelle; McKay, Christopher

    2008-08-01

    Early (>3 Gy) wetter climate conditions on Mars have been proposed, and it is thus likely that pedogenic processes have occurred there at some point in the past. Soil and rock chemistry of the Martian landing sites were evaluated to test the hypothesis that in situ aqueous alteration and downward movement of solutes have been among the processes that have transformed these portions of the Mars regolith. A geochemical mass balance shows that Martian soils at three landing sites have lost significant quantities of major rock-forming elements and have gained elements that are likely present as soluble ions. The loss of elements is interpreted to have occurred during an earlier stage(s) of weathering that may have been accompanied by the downward transport of weathering products, and the salts are interpreted to be emplaced later in a drier Mars history. Chemical differences exist among the sites, indicating regional differences in soil composition. Shallow soil profile excavations at Gusev crater are consistent with late stage downward migration of salts, implying the presence of small amounts of liquid water even in relatively recent Martian history. While the mechanisms for chemical weathering and salt additions on Mars remain unclear, the soil chemistry appears to record a decline in leaching efficiency. A deep sedimentary exposure at Endurance crater contains complex depth profiles of SO 4, Cl, and Br, trends generally consistent with downward aqueous transport accompanied by drying. While no model for the origin of Martian soils can be fully constrained with the currently available data, a pedogenic origin is consistent with observed Martian geology and geochemistry, and provides a testable hypothesis that can be evaluated with present and future data from the Mars surface.

  7. Reaching 1 m deep on Mars: the Icebreaker drill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacny, K; Paulsen, G; McKay, C P; Glass, B; Davé, A; Davila, A F; Marinova, M; Mellerowicz, B; Heldmann, J; Stoker, C; Cabrol, N; Hedlund, M; Craft, J

    2013-12-01

    The future exploration of Mars will require access to the subsurface, along with acquisition of samples for scientific analysis and ground-truthing of water ice and mineral reserves for in situ resource utilization. The Icebreaker drill is an integral part of the Icebreaker mission concept to search for life in ice-rich regions on Mars. Since the mission targets Mars Special Regions as defined by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), the drill has to meet the appropriate cleanliness standards as requested by NASA's Planetary Protection Office. In addition, the Icebreaker mission carries life-detection instruments; and in turn, the drill and sample delivery system have to meet stringent contamination requirements to prevent false positives. This paper reports on the development and testing of the Icebreaker drill, a 1 m class rotary-percussive drill and triple redundant sample delivery system. The drill acquires subsurface samples in short, approximately 10 cm bites, which makes the sampling system robust and prevents thawing and phase changes in the target materials. Autonomous drilling, sample acquisition, and sample transfer have been successfully demonstrated in Mars analog environments in the Arctic and the Antarctic Dry Valleys, as well as in a Mars environmental chamber. In all environments, the drill has been shown to perform at the "1-1-100-100" level; that is, it drilled to 1 m depth in approximately 1 hour with less than 100 N weight on bit and approximately 100 W of power. The drilled substrate varied and included pure ice, ice-rich regolith with and without rocks and with and without 2% perchlorate, and whole rocks. The drill is currently at a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5. The next-generation Icebreaker drill weighs 10 kg, which is representative of the flightlike model at TRL 5/6.

  8. Methane Seepage on Mars: Where to Look and Why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z; Etiope, Giuseppe

    2017-12-01

    Methane on Mars is a topic of special interest because of its potential association with microbial life. The variable detections of methane by the Curiosity rover, orbiters, and terrestrial telescopes, coupled with methane's short lifetime in the martian atmosphere, may imply an active gas source in the planet's subsurface, with migration and surface emission processes similar to those known on Earth as "gas seepage." Here, we review the variety of subsurface processes that could result in methane seepage on Mars. Such methane could originate from abiotic chemical reactions, thermogenic alteration of abiotic or biotic organic matter, and ancient or extant microbial metabolism. These processes can occur over a wide range of temperatures, in both sedimentary and igneous rocks, and together they enhance the possibility that significant amounts of methane could have formed on early Mars. Methane seepage to the surface would occur preferentially along faults and fractures, through focused macro-seeps and/or diffuse microseepage exhalations. Our work highlights the types of features on Mars that could be associated with methane release, including mud-volcano-like mounds in Acidalia or Utopia; proposed ancient springs in Gusev Crater, Arabia Terra, and Valles Marineris; and rims of large impact craters. These could have been locations of past macro-seeps and may still emit methane today. Microseepage could occur through faults along the dichotomy or fractures such as those at Nili Fossae, Cerberus Fossae, the Argyre impact, and those produced in serpentinized rocks. Martian microseepage would be extremely difficult to detect remotely yet could constitute a significant gas source. We emphasize that the most definitive detection of methane seepage from different release candidates would be best provided by measurements performed in the ground or at the ground-atmosphere interface by landers or rovers and that the technology for such detection is currently available. Key

  9. Sustainable Mars Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Christie; Hancock, Sean; Laub, Joshua; Perry, Christopher; Ash, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The proposed Mars sample return mission will be completed using natural Martian resources for the majority of its operations. The system uses the following technologies: In-Situ Propellant Production (ISPP), a methane-oxygen propelled Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), a carbon dioxide powered hopper, and a hydrogen fueled balloon system (large balloons and small weather balloons). The ISPP system will produce the hydrogen, methane, and oxygen using a Sabatier reactor. a water electrolysis cell, water extracted from the Martian surface, and carbon dioxide extracted from the Martian atmosphere. Indigenous hydrogen will fuel the balloon systems and locally-derived methane and oxygen will fuel the MAV for the return of a 50 kg sample to Earth. The ISPP system will have a production cycle of 800 days and the estimated overall mission length is 1355 days from Earth departure to return to low Earth orbit. Combining these advanced technologies will enable the proposed sample return mission to be executed with reduced initial launch mass and thus be more cost efficient. The successful completion of this mission will serve as the next step in the advancement of Mars exploration technology.

  10. Prussian Blue Analogues of Reduced Dimensionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gengler, Regis Y. N.; Toma, Luminita M.; Pardo, Emilio; Lloret, Francesc; Ke, Xiaoxing; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Gournis, Dimitrios; Rudolf, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-valence polycyanides (Prussian Blue analogues) possess a rich palette of properties spanning from room-temperature ferromagnetism to zero thermal expansion, which can be tuned by chemical modifications or the application of external stimuli (temperature, pressure, light irradiation). While

  11. The Palmottu analogue project: overview for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskeeniemi, T.; Blomqvist, R.; Suksi, J.; Niini, H.

    1994-01-01

    This article gives a summary of the activities carried out within the Palmottu analogue project in 1993. It consists of (1) an introductory part, followed by (2) a geological description of the site, and (3)an up-to-date summary of the results of the project. (orig.) (33 refs., 6 figs.)

  12. Somatostatin analogue scintigraphy and tuberculosis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biancheri, I.; Rudenko, B.; Vautrin, P.; Raddoul, J.; Lamfichek, N.; Kantelip, B.; Mantion, G.

    2005-01-01

    Scintigraphy using a radiolabelled somatostatin analogue (111 In-pentetreotide) is useful in the detection of neuroendocrine tumors. But this radiopharmaceutical accumulates also in solid tumours or in inflammatory diseases such as granulomatosis. We present a case of 111 In-pentetreotide uptake in a tuberculous adenopathy. (author)

  13. Analogue computer display of accelerator beam optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, K.

    1984-01-01

    Analogue computers have been used years ago by several authors for the design of magnetic beam handling systems. At Bochum a small analogue/hybrid computer was combined with a particular analogue expansion and logic control unit for beam transport work. This apparatus was very successful in the design and setup of the beam handling system of the tandem accelerator. The center of the stripper canal was the object point for the calculations, instead of the high energy acceleration tube a drift length was inserted into the program neglecting the weak focusing action of the tube. In the course of the installation of a second injector for heavy ions it became necessary to do better calculations. A simple method was found to represent accelerating sections on the computer and a particular way to simulate thin lenses was adopted. The analogue computer system proved its usefulness in the design and in studies of the characteristics of different accelerator installations over many years. The results of the calculations are in very good agreement with real accelerator data. The apparatus is the ideal tool to demonstrate beam optics to students and accelerator operators since the effect of a change of any of the parameters is immediately visible on the oscilloscope

  14. Scintigraphy with labelled analogues of the somatostatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duet, M.; Ajzenberg, C.; Warnet, A.; Mundler, O.

    1998-01-01

    The receptors of the somatostatin have been localized in a big number of tumors, whom a great number are neuro-endocrine tumors. However, some tumors that have not this differentiation (breast cancer, lymphomas, cerebral tumors) possess them as well. Analogues of somatostatin, labelled with isotopes having a gamma emission, allow from now their detection in vivo. (N.C.)

  15. Ultrasound exfoliation of inorganic analogues of graphene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Slušná, Michaela; Ecorchard, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, APR (2014), s. 1-14 ISSN 1556-276X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-05146S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Ultrasound * Exfoliation * Graphene inorganic analogues Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.779, year: 2014

  16. MARSI: metabolite analogues for rational strain improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, João G. R.; Zeidan, Ahmad A; Jensen, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    reactions in an organism can be used to predict effects of MAs on cellular phenotypes. Here, we present the Metabolite Analogues for Rational Strain Improvement (MARSI) framework. MARSI provides a rational approach to strain improvement by searching for metabolites as targets instead of genes or reactions...

  17. HiRISE Characterization of Thermophysical Units at Acidalia Planitia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Alonso, S.; Mellon, M. T.; Rafkin, S. C. R.; Zurek, R. W.; McEwen, A. S.; Putzig, N. E.; Searls, M. L.; HiRISE Team

    2008-03-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to characterize with HiRISE data the global thermophysical units in Mars, we report results regarding a region of Acidalia Planitia, which includes the largest outcrop of thermophysical unit F (rocks, bedrock, duricrust) on the planet.

  18. A diffuse radar scattering model from Martian surface rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, W. M.; Jakosky, B. M.; Christensen, P. R.

    1987-01-01

    Remote sensing of Mars has been done with a variety of instrumentation at various wavelengths. Many of these data sets can be reconciled with a surface model of bonded fines (or duricrust) which varies widely across the surface and a surface rock distribution which varies less so. A surface rock distribution map from -60 to +60 deg latitude has been generated by Christensen. Our objective is to model the diffuse component of radar reflection based on this surface distribution of rocks. The diffuse, rather than specular, scattering is modeled because the diffuse component arises due to scattering from rocks with sizes on the order of the wavelength of the radar beam. Scattering for radio waves of 12.5 cm is then indicative of the meter scale and smaller structure of the surface. The specular term is indicative of large scale surface undulations and should not be causally related to other surface physical properties. A simplified model of diffuse scattering is described along with two rock distribution models. The results of applying the models to a planet of uniform fractional rock coverage with values ranging from 5 to 20% are discussed.

  19. Mars Aqueous Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Mark; Wilson, Cherie; Carrera, Stacy; Rose, Heather; Muscatello, Anthony; Kilgore, James; Zubrin, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the Mars Aqueous Processing System (MAPS) is to establish a flexible process that generates multiple products that are useful for human habitation. Selectively extracting useful components into an aqueous solution, and then sequentially recovering individual constituents, can obtain a suite of refined or semi-refined products. Similarities in the bulk composition (although not necessarily of the mineralogy) of Martian and Lunar soils potentially make MAPS widely applicable. Similar process steps can be conducted on both Mars and Lunar soils while tailoring the reaction extents and recoveries to the specifics of each location. The MAPS closed-loop process selectively extracts, and then recovers, constituents from soils using acids and bases. The emphasis on Mars involves the production of useful materials such as iron, silica, alumina, magnesia, and concrete with recovery of oxygen as a byproduct. On the Moon, similar chemistry is applied with emphasis on oxygen production. This innovation has been demonstrated to produce high-grade materials, such as metallic iron, aluminum oxide, magnesium oxide, and calcium oxide, from lunar and Martian soil simulants. Most of the target products exhibited purities of 80 to 90 percent or more, allowing direct use for many potential applications. Up to one-fourth of the feed soil mass was converted to metal, metal oxide, and oxygen products. The soil residue contained elevated silica content, allowing for potential additional refining and extraction for recovery of materials needed for photovoltaic, semiconductor, and glass applications. A high-grade iron oxide concentrate derived from lunar soil simulant was used to produce a metallic iron component using a novel, combined hydrogen reduction/metal sintering technique. The part was subsequently machined and found to be structurally sound. The behavior of the lunar-simulant-derived iron product was very similar to that produced using the same methods on a Michigan iron

  20. Assessment of Mars Exploration Rover Landing Site Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.

    2005-05-01

    Comprehensive analyses of remote sensing data during the 3-year effort to select the Mars Exploration Rover landing sites at Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum correctly predicted the safe and trafficable surfaces explored by the two rovers. Gusev crater was predicted to be a relatively low relief surface that was comparably dusty, but less rocky than the Viking landing sites. Available data for Meridiani Planum indicated a very flat plain composed of basaltic sand to granules and hematite that would look completely unlike any of the existing landing sites with a dark, low albedo surface, little dust and very few rocks. Orbital thermal inertia measurements of 315 J m-2 s-0.5 K-1 at Gusev suggested surfaces dominated by duricrust to cemented soil-like materials or cohesionless sand or granules, which is consistent with observed soil characteristics and measured thermal inertias from the surface. THEMIS thermal inertias along the traverse at Gusev vary from 285 at the landing site to 330 around Bonneville rim and show systematic variations that can be related to the observed increase in rock abundance (5-30%). Meridiani has an orbital bulk inertia of ~200, similar to measured surface inertias that correspond to observed surfaces dominated by 0.2 mm sand size particles. Rock abundance derived from orbital thermal differencing techniques suggested that Meridiani Planum would have very low rock abundance, consistent with the rock free plain traversed by Opportunity. Spirit landed in an 8% orbital rock abundance pixel, consistent with the measured 7% of the surface covered by rocks >0.04 m diameter at the landing site, which is representative of the plains away from craters. The orbital albedo of the Spirit traverse varies from 0.19 to 0.30, consistent with surface measurements in and out of dust devil tracks. Opportunity is the first landing in a low albedo portion of Mars as seen from orbit, which is consistent with the dark, dust-free surface and measured albedos. The

  1. The central uplift of Ritchey crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Bray, Veronica J.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Mattson, Sarah S.; Okubo, Chris H.; Chojnacki, Matthew; Tornabene, Livio L.

    2015-01-01

    Ritchey crater is a ∼79 km diameter complex crater near the boundary between Hesperian ridged plains and Noachian highland terrain on Mars (28.8°S, 309.0°E) that formed after the Noachian. High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images of the central peak reveal fractured massive bedrock and megabreccia with large clasts. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) spectral analysis reveals low calcium pyroxene (LCP), olivine (OL), hydrated silicates (phyllosilicates) and a possible identification of plagioclase bedrock. We mapped the Ritchey crater central uplift into ten units, with 4 main groups from oldest and originally deepest to youngest: (1) megabreccia with large clasts rich in LCP and OL, and with alteration to phyllosilicates; (2) massive bedrock with bright and dark regions rich in LCP or OL, respectively; (3) LCP and OL-rich impactites draped over the central uplift; and (4) aeolian deposits. We interpret the primitive martian crust as igneous rocks rich in LCP, OL, and probably plagioclase, as previously observed in eastern Valles Marineris. We do not observe high-calcium pyroxene (HCP) rich bedrock as seen in Argyre or western Valles Marineris. The association of phyllosilicates with deep megabreccia could be from impact-induced alteration, either as a result of the Richey impact, or alteration of pre-existing impactites from Argyre basin and other large impacts that preceded the Ritchey impact, or both.

  2. The central uplift of Ritchey crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Bray, Veronica J.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Mattson, Sarah S.; Okubo, Chris H.; Chojnacki, Matthew; Tornabene, Livio L.

    2015-05-01

    Ritchey crater is a ∼79 km diameter complex crater near the boundary between Hesperian ridged plains and Noachian highland terrain on Mars (28.8°S, 309.0°E) that formed after the Noachian. High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images of the central peak reveal fractured massive bedrock and megabreccia with large clasts. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) spectral analysis reveals low calcium pyroxene (LCP), olivine (OL), hydrated silicates (phyllosilicates) and a possible identification of plagioclase bedrock. We mapped the Ritchey crater central uplift into ten units, with 4 main groups from oldest and originally deepest to youngest: (1) megabreccia with large clasts rich in LCP and OL, and with alteration to phyllosilicates; (2) massive bedrock with bright and dark regions rich in LCP or OL, respectively; (3) LCP and OL-rich impactites draped over the central uplift; and (4) aeolian deposits. We interpret the primitive martian crust as igneous rocks rich in LCP, OL, and probably plagioclase, as previously observed in eastern Valles Marineris. We do not observe high-calcium pyroxene (HCP) rich bedrock as seen in Argyre or western Valles Marineris. The association of phyllosilicates with deep megabreccia could be from impact-induced alteration, either as a result of the Richey impact, or alteration of pre-existing impactites from Argyre basin and other large impacts that preceded the Ritchey impact, or both.

  3. Mars Exploration Rovers Propulsive Maneuver Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Christopher L.; Raofi, Behzad; Kangas, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity successfully landed respectively at Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum in January 2004. The rovers are essentially robotic geologists, sent on a mission to search for evidence in the rocks and soil pertaining to the historical presence of water and the ability to possibly sustain life. In order to conduct NASA's 'follow the water' strategy on opposite sides of the planet Mars, an interplanetary journey of over 300 million miles culminated with historic navigation precision. Rigorous trajectory targeting and control was necessary to achieve the atmospheric entry requirements for the selected landing sites. The propulsive maneuver design challenge was to meet or exceed these requirements while preserving the necessary design margin to accommodate additional project concerns. Landing site flexibility was maintained for both missions after launch, and even after the first trajectory correction maneuver for Spirit. The final targeting strategy was modified to improve delivery performance and reduce risk after revealing constraining trajectory control characteristics. Flight results are examined and summarized for the six trajectory correction maneuvers that were planned for each mission.

  4. The potential of natural analogues in assessing systems for deep disposal of high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.A.; McKinley, I.G.; Smellie, J.A.T.

    1984-08-01

    Many of the processes which will lead to the breakdown of engineered barriers and the mobilization of radionuclides in a deep waste repository have analogies in natural geological systems. These 'natural analogues' are seen as a particularly important means of validating predictive models, under the broad heading of radionuclide migration, which are used in long-term safety analyses. Their principal value is the opportunity they provide to examine processes occurring over geological timescales, hence allowing more confident extrapolation of short timescales experimental data. This report begins by reviewing the processes leading to breakdown of containment in a high-level radioactive waste repository in crystalline bedrock and the subsequent migration mechanisms for radionuclides back to the biosphere. Nine specific processes are identified as being of the most significance in migration models, based on available sensitivity analyses. These processes are considered separately in detail, reviewing first the mechanisms involved and the most important unknown then the types of natural analogue which could most usefully provide supporting evidence for the effects of the process. Conclusions are drawn, for each process as to the extent to which analogues validate current predictions on scale and effect, longevity of function, etc. Where possible, quantitative evaluations are given, derived from analogue studies. A summary is provided of the conclusions for each process, and the most important topics for further studies are listed. Specific examples of these requisite analogues are given. The report emphasises throughout the importance of linking analogues to well defined processes, concluding that analogues of complete disposal systems do not exist. The results are seen to be widely applicable. A considerable amount of the information reviewed and presented could be used in the assessment of disposal of other waste types in other host rocks. (Author)

  5. A novel lunar bed rest analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Peter R; Rice, Andrea J; Licata, Angelo A; Kuklis, Matthew M; Novotny, Sara C; Genc, Kerim O; Englehaupt, Ricki K; Hanson, Andrea M

    2013-11-01

    Humans will eventually return to the Moon and thus there is a need for a ground-based analogue to enable the study of physiological adaptations to lunar gravity. An important unanswered question is whether or not living on the lunar surface will provide adequate loading of the musculoskeletal system to prevent or attenuate the bone loss that is seen in microgravity. Previous simulations have involved tilting subjects to an approximately 9.5 degrees angle to achieve a lunar gravity component parallel to the long-axis of the body. However, subjects in these earlier simulations were not weight-bearing, and thus these protocols did not provide an analogue for load on the musculoskeletal system. We present a novel analogue which includes the capability to simulate standing and sitting in a lunar loading environment. A bed oriented at a 9.5 degrees angle was mounted on six linear bearings and was free to travel with one degree of freedom along rails. This allowed approximately 1/6 body weight loading of the feet during standing. "Lunar" sitting was also successfully simulated. A feasibility study demonstrated that the analogue was tolerated by subjects for 6 d of continuous bed rest and that the reaction forces at the feet during periods of standing were a reasonable simulation of lunar standing. During the 6 d, mean change in the volume of the quadriceps muscles was -1.6% +/- 1.7%. The proposed analogue would appear to be an acceptable simulation of lunar gravity and deserves further exploration in studies of longer duration.

  6. Electrical power systems for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudici, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    Electrical power system options for Mars Manned Modules and Mars Surface Bases were evaluated for both near-term and advanced performance potential. The power system options investigated for the Mission Modules include photovoltaics, solar thermal, nuclear reactor, and isotope power systems. Options discussed for Mars Bases include the above options with the addition of a brief discussion of open loop energy conversion of Mars resources, including utilization of wind, subsurface thermal gradients, and super oxides. Electrical power requirements for Mission Modules were estimated for three basic approaches: as a function of crew size; as a function of electric propulsion; and as a function of transmission of power from an orbiter to the surface of Mars via laser or radio frequency. Mars Base power requirements were assumed to be determined by production facilities that make resources available for follow-on missions leading to the establishment of a permanently manned Base. Requirements include the production of buffer gas and propellant production plants.

  7. Guidelines for 2007 MARS exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Following the introduction of the new Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS), full details of the scheme are now available via the HR Department's homepage or directly on the Department's MARS web page: in English: http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/HumanResources/internal/personnel/pmd/cr/MARS.asp or French: http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/internal/personnel/pmd/cr/mars_fr.asp You will find on this page: 'Introduction to MARS' with detailed information presented in Frequently Asked Questions; these include the MARS timetable for proposals and decisions; 'Regulations' with links to the scheme's statutory documents; 'Procedures and Forms' and 'Useful Information' with links to all the relevant documentation; these include the mandates of the Senior Staff Advisory Committee (SSAC) and the Technical Engineers and Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC). HR Department Tel. 73566

  8. Cephalostatin analogues--synthesis and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flessner, Timo; Jautelat, Rolf; Scholz, Ulrich; Winterfeldt, Ekkehard

    2004-01-01

    Starting off in the early 90's the field of cephalostatin analogues has continually expanded over the last 10 years. First syntheses prepared symmetric analogues like 14b (119) and 26 (65), which were subsequently desymmetrized to provide analogues like beta-hydroxy ketone 31 (19). Importantly the straightforward approach provided already compounds with mu-molar potency and the same pattern of activity as cephalostatin 1 (1) (see Chapter 2.1). Chemically more demanding, two new methods for the directed synthesis of (bissteroidal) pyrazines were devised and subsequently applied to a wide variety of differently functionalized coupling partners. These new methods allowed for the synthesis of various analogues (Chapter 2.2.; and, last but not least, for the totals synthesis of several cephalostatin natural products; Chapter 1.). Functionalization and derivatization of the 12-position was performed (Chapter 2.1 and 3) and synthetic approaches to establish the D-ring double bond were successfully investigated (Chapter 3). [figure: see text] Dealing synthetically with the spiroketal moiety, novel oxidative opening procedures on monomeric delta 14, 15-steroids were devised as well as intensive studies regarding spiroketal synthesis and spiroketal rearrangements were conducted (Chapter 3.2. and 4.). Last but not least direct chemical modification of ritterazines and cephalostatins were studied, which provided a limited number of ritterazine analogues (Chapter 4.). All these synthetic activities towards analogues are summarized in Fig. 18. During this period of time the growing number of cephalostatins and ritterazines on the one hand and of analogues on the other hand provided several SAR trends, which can guide future analogue synthesis. The combined SAR findings are displayed in Fig. 19. So far it is apparent that: Additional methoxylations or hydroxylations in the steroidal A ring core structure (1-position) are slightly decreasing activity (compare cephalostatin 1 1 to

  9. The Topography of Mars: Understanding the Surface of Mars Through the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, C. A.; Neumann, G. A.; Sakimoto, S. E.

    2001-12-01

    The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter has been orbiting Mars since 1997 and has measured the topography of Mars with a meter of vertical accuracy. This new information has improved our understanding of both the surface and the interior of Mars. The topographic globe and the labeled topographic map of Mars illustrate these new data in a format that can be used in a classroom setting. The map is color shaded to show differences in elevation on Mars, presenting Mars with a different perspective than traditional geological and geographic maps. Through the differences in color, students can see Mars as a three-dimensional surface and will be able to recognize features that are invisible in imagery. The accompanying lesson plans are designed for middle school science students and can be used both to teach information about Mars as a planet and Mars in comparison to Earth, fitting both the solar system unit and the Earth science unit in a middle school curriculum. The lessons are referenced to the National Benchmark standards for students in grades 6-8 and cover topics such as Mars exploration, the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, resolution and powers of 10, gravity, craters, seismic waves and the interior structure of a planet, isostasy, and volcanoes. Each lesson is written in the 5 E format and includes a student content activity and an extension showing current applications of Mars and MOLA data. These activities can be found at http://ltpwww.gsfc.nasa.gov/education/resources.html. Funding for this project was provided by the Maryland Space Grant Consortium and the MOLA Science Team, Goddard Space Flight Center.

  10. Subsurface water and clay mineral formation during the early history of Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlmann, Bethany L; Mustard, John F; Murchie, Scott L; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Meunier, Alain; Fraeman, Abigail A; Langevin, Yves

    2011-11-02

    Clay minerals, recently discovered to be widespread in Mars's Noachian terrains, indicate long-duration interaction between water and rock over 3.7 billion years ago. Analysis of how they formed should indicate what environmental conditions prevailed on early Mars. If clays formed near the surface by weathering, as is common on Earth, their presence would indicate past surface conditions warmer and wetter than at present. However, available data instead indicate substantial Martian clay formation by hydrothermal groundwater circulation and a Noachian rock record dominated by evidence of subsurface waters. Cold, arid conditions with only transient surface water may have characterized Mars's surface for over 4 billion years, since the early-Noachian period, and the longest-duration aqueous, potentially habitable environments may have been in the subsurface.

  11. Preliminary GRS Measurement of Chlorine Distribution on Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. M.; Boynton, W. V.; Taylor, G. J.; Hamara, D.; Janes, D. M.; Kerry, K.

    2003-12-01

    Ongoing measurements with the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) aboard Mars Odyssey provide preliminary detection of chlorine at the surface of Mars. Summing all data since boom deployment and using a forward calculation model, we estimate values for chlorine concentration at 5° resolution. Rebinning this data and smoothing with a 15-degree-radius boxcar filter reveal regions of noticeable chlorine enrichment at scales larger than the original 5° resolution and allow for preliminary comparison with previous Mars datasets. Analyzing chlorine concentrations within 30 degrees of the equator, we find a negative correlation with thermal inertia (R2=0.55) and positive correlation with albedo (R2=0.52), indicating that chlorine is associated with fine, non-rock surface materials. Although possibly a smoothing artifact, the spatial correlation is more noticeable in the region covering Tharsis and Amazonis than around Arabia and Elysium. Additionally, a noticeable region of chlorine enrichment appears west of Tharsis Montes ( ˜0 to 20N, ˜110 to 150W) and chlorine concentration is estimated to vary in the equatorial region by over a factor of two. A simplified two-component model involving chlorine-poor rocks and a homogenous chlorine-rich fine material requires rock abundance to vary from zero to over 50%, a result inconsistent with previous measurements and models. In addition to variations in rock composition and distribution, substantial variations in chlorine content of various types of fine materials including dust, sand, and duricrust appear important in explaining this preliminary observation. Surprisingly, visual comparison of surface units mapped by Christensen and Moore (1992) does not show enrichment in chlorine associated with regions of indurated surfaces, where cementation has been proposed. Rather, Tharsis, a region of active deposition with proposed mantling of 0.1 to 2 meters of recent dust (Christensen 1986), shows the greatest chlorine signal. In light of

  12. Aqueous Alteration of Endeavour Crater Rim Apron Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Clark, B. C.; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A. S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Crumpler, L. S.; Farrand, W. H.; Grant, J. A., III; Jolliff, B. L.; Parker, T. J.; Peretyazhko, T.

    2014-12-01

    Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is exploring Noachian age rocks of the rim of 22 km diameter Endeavour crater. Overlying the pre-impact lithologies and rim breccias is a thin apron of fine-grained sediments, the Grasberg fm, forming annuli on the lower slopes of rim segments. Hesperian Burns fm sandstones overly the Grasberg fm. Grasberg rocks have major element compositions that are distinct from Burns fm sandstones, especially when comparing interior compositions exposed by the Rock Abrasion Tool. Grasberg rocks are also different from Endeavour rim breccias, but have general compositional similarities to them. Grasberg sediments are plausibly fine-grained materials derived from the impact breccias. Veins of CaSO4 transect Grasberg fm rocks demonstrating post-formation aqueous alteration. Minor/trace elements show variations consistent with mobilization by aqueous fluids. Grasberg fm rocks have low Mn and high Fe/Mn ratios compared to the other lithologies. Manganese likely was mobilized and removed from the Grasberg host rock by redox reactions. We posit that Fe2+ from acidic solutions associated with formation of the Burns sulfate-rich sandstones acted as an electron donor to reduce more oxidized Mn to Mn2+. The Fe contents of Grasberg rocks are slightly higher than in other rocks suggesting precipitation of Fe phases in Grasberg materials. Pancam spectra show that Grasberg rocks have a higher fraction of ferric oxide minerals than other Endeavour rim rocks. Solutions transported Mn2+ into the Endeavour rim materials and oxidized and/or precipitated it in them. Grasberg has higher contents of the mobile elements K, Zn, Cl, and Br compared to the rim materials. Similar enrichments of mobile elements were measured by the Spirit APXS on West Spur and around Home Plate in Gusev crater. Enhancements in these elements are attributed to interactions of hydrothermal acidic fluids with the host rocks. Interactions of fluids with the Grasberg fm postdate the genesis

  13. Memory-Efficient Onboard Rock Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burl, Michael C.; Thompson, David R.; Bornstein, Benjamin J.; deGranville, Charles K.

    2013-01-01

    Rockster-MER is an autonomous perception capability that was uploaded to the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity in December 2009. This software provides the vision front end for a larger software system known as AEGIS (Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science), which was recently named 2011 NASA Software of the Year. As the first step in AEGIS, Rockster-MER analyzes an image captured by the rover, and detects and automatically identifies the boundary contours of rocks and regions of outcrop present in the scene. This initial segmentation step reduces the data volume from millions of pixels into hundreds (or fewer) of rock contours. Subsequent stages of AEGIS then prioritize the best rocks according to scientist- defined preferences and take high-resolution, follow-up observations. Rockster-MER has performed robustly from the outset on the Mars surface under challenging conditions. Rockster-MER is a specially adapted, embedded version of the original Rockster algorithm ("Rock Segmentation Through Edge Regrouping," (NPO- 44417) Software Tech Briefs, September 2008, p. 25). Although the new version performs the same basic task as the original code, the software has been (1) significantly upgraded to overcome the severe onboard re source limitations (CPU, memory, power, time) and (2) "bulletproofed" through code reviews and extensive testing and profiling to avoid the occurrence of faults. Because of the limited computational power of the RAD6000 flight processor on Opportunity (roughly two orders of magnitude slower than a modern workstation), the algorithm was heavily tuned to improve its speed. Several functional elements of the original algorithm were removed as a result of an extensive cost/benefit analysis conducted on a large set of archived rover images. The algorithm was also required to operate below a stringent 4MB high-water memory ceiling; hence, numerous tricks and strategies were introduced to reduce the memory footprint. Local filtering

  14. Native copper as a natural analogue for copper canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos, N.

    1989-12-01

    This paper discusses the occurrence of native copper as found in geological formations as a stability analogue of copper canisters that are planned to be used for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel in the Finnish bedrock. A summary of several publications on native copper occurrences is presented. The present geochemical and geohydrological conditions in which copper is met with in its metallic state show that metallic copper is stable in a wide range of temperatures. At low temperatures native copper is found to be stable where groundwater has moderate pH (about 7), low Eh (< +100 mV), and low total dissolved solids, especially chloride. Microscopical and microanalytical studies were carried out on a dozen of rock samples containing native copper. The results reveal that the metal shows no significant alteration. Only the surface of copper grains is locally coated. In the oldest samples there exist small corrosion cracks; the age of the oldest samples is over 1,000 million years. A review of several Finnish groundwater studies suggests that there are places in Finland where the geohydrological conditions are favourable for native copper stability. (orig.)

  15. Searching for signatures of life on Mars: an Fe-isotope perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, M; Russell, S S; Blackhurst, R L; Grady, M M

    2006-10-29

    Recent spacecraft and lander missions to Mars have reinforced previous interpretations that Mars was a wet and warm planet in the geological past. The role of liquid water in shaping many of the surface features on Mars has long been recognized. Since the presence of liquid water is essential for survival of life, conditions on early Mars might have been more favourable for the emergence and evolution of life. Until a sample return mission to Mars, one of the ways of studying the past environmental conditions on Mars is through chemical and isotopic studies of Martian meteorites. Over 35 individual meteorite samples, believed to have originated on Mars, are now available for lab-based studies. Fe is a key element that is present in both primary and secondary minerals in the Martian meteorites. Fe-isotope ratios can be fractionated by low-temperature processes which includes biological activity. Experimental investigations of Fe reduction and oxidation by bacteria have produced large fractionation in Fe-isotope ratios. Hence, it is considered likely that if there is/were any form of life present on Mars then it might be possible to detect its signature by Fe-isotope studies of Martian meteorites. In the present study, we have analysed a number of Martian meteorites for their bulk-Fe-isotope composition. In addition, a set of terrestrial analogue material has also been analysed to compare the results and draw inferences. So far, our studies have not found any measurable Fe-isotopic fractionation in bulk Martian meteorites that can be ascribed to any low-temperature process operative on Mars.

  16. Mars Express en route for the Red Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    trajectory with Mars, on 20 December. It will enter the Martian atmosphere on Christmas day, after five days’ ballistic flight. As it descends, the lander will be protected in the first instance by a heat-shield; two parachutes will then open to provide further deceleration. With its weight down to 30 kg at most, it will land in an equatorial region known as Isidis Planitia. Three airbags will soften the final impact. This crucial phase in the mission will last just ten minutes, from entry into the atmosphere to landing. Meanwhile, the Mars Express probe proper will have performed a series of manœuvres through to a capture orbit. At this point its main motor will fire, providing the deceleration needed to acquire a highly elliptical transition orbit. Attaining the final operational orbit will call for four more firings. This 7.5 hour quasi-polar orbit will take the probe to within 250 km of the planet. Getting to know Mars - inside and out Having landed on Mars, Beagle 2 - named after HMS Beagle, on which Charles Darwin voyaged round the world, developing his evolutionary theory - will deploy its solar panels and the payload adjustable workbench, a set of instruments (two cameras, a microscope and two spectrometers) mounted on the end of a robot arm. It will proceed to explore its new environment, gathering geological and mineralogical data that should, for the first time, allow rock samples to be dated with absolute accuracy. Using a grinder and corer, and the “mole”, a wire-guided mini-robot able to borrow its way under rocks and dig the ground to a depth of 2 m, samples will be collected and then examined in the GAP automated mini-laboratory, equipped with 12 furnaces and a mass spectrometer. The spectrometer will have the job of detecting possible signs of life and dating rock samples. The Mars Express orbiter will carry out a detailed investigation of the planet, pointing its instruments at Mars for between half-an-hour and an hour per orbit and then, for the

  17. Rock Around the World: International Outreach for Scientific Education Using Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, L. D.; Klug, S. L.; Christensen, P. R.; Rogers, T. A.; Daub, G.

    2005-12-01

    Since the creation of the Rock Around the World (RATW) program in January 2004, we have received 6,861 (to date) rocks from children and adults alike from around the world. RATW is an educational outreach device to inspire and teach children about science. In addition, the accumulation of almost 7,000 rock samples has exponentially expanded the Arizona State University earth-based rock library into a large collection of samples useful for scientific investigation of Earth and Mars. This library currently supports research that is being conducted by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) and the two Mini-Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) instruments that are onboard the Mars Exploration Rovers. Currently, we have 3 undergraduate students working on the RATW project. As each rock sample arrives, appropriate information that was received with the sample is entered into our web-based RATW database. The information received with the rock sample is directly input into the RATW website. The information is publicly available for each sample at http://ratw.asu.edu. The sample is photographed, and then sent to the spectrometer for analysis. Once the spectrum is taken, calibration is performed. Then the sample is filed away in our rock archive room. Our website has several interactive tools which enhance the learning process. These tools include an interactive world map where the visitor can click on a rock location and preview all of the rocks sent from that geographical area of the world. In addition RATW has also put four virtual mineral libraries online. This enables any visitor to the RATW website to deconvolve or "unmix" their spectrum to see the mineral composition, using the same techniques that scientists use on the TES, THEMIS, and mini-TES data. The 6,861 rock samples we have received have been very geographically widespread. Participants have sent rocks from such places as

  18. Textures of the soils and rocks at Gusev crater from Spirit's Microscopic Imager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herkenhoff, K.E.; Squyres, S.W.; Arvidson, R.

    2004-01-01

    The Microscopic Imager on the Spirit rover analyzed the textures of the soil and rocks at Gusev crater on Mars at a resolution of 100 micrometers. Weakly bound agglomerates of dust are present in the soil near the Columbia Memorial Station. Some of the brushed or abraded rock surfaces show igneous...... textures and evidence for alteration rinds, coatings, and veins consistent with secondary mineralization. The rock textures are consistent with a volcanic origin and subsequent alteration and/or weathering by impact events, wind, and possibly water....

  19. Volcanogenic Fluvial-Lacustrine Environments in Iceland and Their Utility for Identifying Past Habitability on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Cousins

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The search for once-habitable locations on Mars is increasingly focused on environments dominated by fluvial and lacustrine processes, such as those investigated by the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover. The availability of liquid water coupled with the potential longevity of such systems renders these localities prime targets for the future exploration of Martian biosignatures. Fluvial-lacustrine environments associated with basaltic volcanism are highly relevant to Mars, but their terrestrial counterparts have been largely overlooked as a field analogue. Such environments are common in Iceland, where basaltic volcanism interacts with glacial ice and surface snow to produce large volumes of meltwater within an otherwise cold and dry environment. This meltwater can be stored to create subglacial, englacial, and proglacial lakes, or be released as catastrophic floods and proglacial fluvial systems. Sedimentary deposits produced by the resulting fluvial-lacustrine activity are extensive, with lithologies dominated by basaltic minerals, low-temperature alteration assemblages (e.g., smectite clays, calcite, and amorphous, poorly crystalline phases (basaltic glass, palagonite, nanophase iron oxides. This paper reviews examples of these environments, including their sedimentary deposits and microbiology, within the context of utilising these localities for future Mars analogue studies and instrument testing.

  20. Volcanogenic fluvial-lacustrine environments in iceland and their utility for identifying past habitability on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Claire

    2015-02-16

    The search for once-habitable locations on Mars is increasingly focused on environments dominated by fluvial and lacustrine processes, such as those investigated by the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover. The availability of liquid water coupled with the potential longevity of such systems renders these localities prime targets for the future exploration of Martian biosignatures. Fluvial-lacustrine environments associated with basaltic volcanism are highly relevant to Mars, but their terrestrial counterparts have been largely overlooked as a field analogue. Such environments are common in Iceland, where basaltic volcanism interacts with glacial ice and surface snow to produce large volumes of meltwater within an otherwise cold and dry environment. This meltwater can be stored to create subglacial, englacial, and proglacial lakes, or be released as catastrophic floods and proglacial fluvial systems. Sedimentary deposits produced by the resulting fluvial-lacustrine activity are extensive, with lithologies dominated by basaltic minerals, low-temperature alteration assemblages (e.g., smectite clays, calcite), and amorphous, poorly crystalline phases (basaltic glass, palagonite, nanophase iron oxides). This paper reviews examples of these environments, including their sedimentary deposits and microbiology, within the context of utilising these localities for future Mars analogue studies and instrument testing.

  1. Transporting radioactive rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, G.

    1990-01-01

    The case is made for exempting geological specimens from the IAEA Regulations for Safer Transport of Radioactive Materials. It is pointed out that many mineral collectors in Devon and Cornwall may be unwittingly infringing these regulations by taking naturally radioactive rocks and specimens containing uranium ores. Even if these collectors are aware that these rocks are radioactive, and many are not, few have the necessary equipment to monitor the activity levels. If the transport regulations were to be enforced alarm could be generated and the regulations devalued in case of an accident. The danger from a spill of rock specimens is negligible compared with an accident involving industrial or medical radioactive substances yet would require similar special treatment. (UK)

  2. Alteration of Basaltic Glass to Mg/Fe-Smectite under Acidic Conditions: A Potential Smectite Formation Mechanism on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretyazhko, Tanya; Sutter, Brad; Ming, Douglas W.

    2014-01-01

    Phyllosilicates of the smectite group including Mg- and Fe-saponite and Fe(III)-rich nontronite have been identified on Mars. Smectites are believed to be formed under neutral to alkaline conditions that prevailed on early Mars. This hypothesis is supported by the observation of smectite and carbonate deposits in Noachian terrain on Mars. However, smectite may have formed under mildly acidic conditions. Abundant smectite formations have been detected as layered deposits hundreds of meters thick in intracrater depositional fans and plains sediments, while no large deposits of carbonates are found. Development of mildly acidic conditions at early Mars might allow formation of smectite but inhibit widespread carbonate precipitation. Little is known regarding the mechanisms of smectite formation from basaltic glass under acidic conditions. The objective of this study was to test a hypothesis that Mars-analogue basaltic glass alters to smectite minerals under acidic conditions (pH 4). The effects of Mg and Fe concentrations and temperature on smectite formation from basaltic glass were evaluated. Phyllosilicate synthesis was performed in batch reactors (Parr acid digestion vessel) under reducing hydrothermal conditions at 200 C and 100 C. Synthetic basaltic glass with a composition similar to that of the Gusev crater rock Adirondack (Ground surface APXS measurement) was used in these experiments. Basaltic glass was prepared by melting and quenching procedures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that the synthesized glass was composed of olivine, magnetite and X-ray amorphous phase. Samples were prepared by mixing 250 mg Adirondack with 0.1 M acetic acid (final pH 4). In order to study influence of Mg concentration on smectite formation, experiments were performed with addition of 0, 1 and 10 mM MgCl2. After 1, 7 and 14 day incubations the solution composition was analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and the altered glass and formed

  3. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Radionuclide transport. Final Report - Volume 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golian, C [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Lever, D A; Baker, A J; Connell, L D [AEA Decommissioning and Radwaste, Harwell (United Kingdom); Bennett, D G; Read, D [WS Atkins Science and Technology Epsom Surrey (United Kingdom); Lindgreen, M; Pers, K; Skagius, K [Kemakta Consultants co., Stockholm (Sweden); Murakami, T; Ohnuki, T [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, IBARAKI (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The Koongarra orebody and its associated dispersion fan are examined as a geological analogue for the transport of radionuclides from waste repositories. The aim is to build a consistent picture of the transport that has been taking place in the orebody and the important processes controlling the retardation of uranium series isotopes and to test models of radionuclide transport. A particularly distinctive feature of the Koongarra system is the strong seasonal dependence of the groundwater flow. However, the Koongarra system is similar to a radioactive waste disposal system in that mobilization of uranium is taking place as a result of the infiltration of groundwaters that are in gross chemical disequilibrium with the mineralogy of the primary ore body. There are considerable differences between the Koongarra uranium orebody and a radioactive waste repository, particularly a deep waste repository. The Koongarra system is shallow, affected by seasonal hydrogeological changes as well as climatic variations on a longer timescale and transport is taking place in a zone of active weathering. Some of these features make the Koongarra system harder to characterise than a deep repository. However, there are nevertheless many analogies between the processes occurring at Koongarra and those occurring around a deep or shallow waste repository. The difficulties encountered because of the heterogeneity of the Koongarra weathered zone mirror those to be addressed in assessing radionuclide transport in repository systems. The {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios in rock samples from the dispersion fan decrease in the direction of groundwater transport, whereas in many other systems it has been reported that {sup 234}U is preferentially mobile relative to {sup 238}U (Osmond and Cowart, 1982; Osmond et al., 1983). As most uranium resides in the rock rather than in the groundwater, the net recoil flux of uranium daughter radionuclides is usually from the rock to the groundwater

  4. Alligator Rivers Analogue project. Radionuclide transport. Final Report - Volume 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golian, C. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Lever, D.A.; Baker, A.J.; Connell, L.D. [AEA Decommissioning and Radwaste, Harwell (United Kingdom); Bennett, D.G.; Read, D. [WS Atkins Science and Technology Epsom Surrey (United Kingdom); Lindgreen, M.; Pers, K.; Skagius, K. [Kemakta Consultants co., Stockholm (Sweden); Murakami, T.; Ohnuki, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai-mura, IBARAKI (Japan)

    1992-12-31

    The Koongarra orebody and its associated dispersion fan are examined as a geological analogue for the transport of radionuclides from waste repositories. The aim is to build a consistent picture of the transport that has been taking place in the orebody and the important processes controlling the retardation of uranium series isotopes and to test models of radionuclide transport. A particularly distinctive feature of the Koongarra system is the strong seasonal dependence of the groundwater flow. However, the Koongarra system is similar to a radioactive waste disposal system in that mobilization of uranium is taking place as a result of the infiltration of groundwaters that are in gross chemical disequilibrium with the mineralogy of the primary ore body. There are considerable differences between the Koongarra uranium orebody and a radioactive waste repository, particularly a deep waste repository. The Koongarra system is shallow, affected by seasonal hydrogeological changes as well as climatic variations on a longer timescale and transport is taking place in a zone of active weathering. Some of these features make the Koongarra system harder to characterise than a deep repository. However, there are nevertheless many analogies between the processes occurring at Koongarra and those occurring around a deep or shallow waste repository. The difficulties encountered because of the heterogeneity of the Koongarra weathered zone mirror those to be addressed in assessing radionuclide transport in repository systems. The {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios in rock samples from the dispersion fan decrease in the direction of groundwater transport, whereas in many other systems it has been reported that {sup 234}U is preferentially mobile relative to {sup 238}U (Osmond and Cowart, 1982; Osmond et al., 1983). As most uranium resides in the rock rather than in the groundwater, the net recoil flux of uranium daughter radionuclides is usually from the rock to the groundwater

  5. The pitchblende of Fe mine (Ciudad Rodrigo, Salamanca) as natural analogue of spent fuel behaviour (matrix I project); La pechblenda de la mina Fe (Ciudad Rodrigo, Salamanca), como analogo natural del comportamiento del combustible gastado (Proyecto Matrix I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez del Villar, L; Campos, R; Gomez, P; Cozar, J S; Pardillo, J; Garralon, A; Turrero, M J; Buil, B; Pelayo, M; Ruiz, B; Rivas, P [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    Uranium ore deposits have been extensively studied as natural analogues to the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. These investigations constitute an essential element of both national and international research programmes applied to the assessment of geological repositories in crystalline, clayey and even in schistose rocks. The uranium ore deposit of Fe mine (Ciudad Rodrigo, Salmanca) is placed in highly fractured schistose rocks, a geological setting that has not been envisaged in ENRESA options. However, the similarities with some of the repository features and the analogies with the processes involved in the degradation of the ore deposits made advisable its study as natural analogue. The most important features are. (Author)

  6. Río Tinto : A geochemical and mineralogical terrestrial analogue of Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amils, Ricardo; Fernández-Remolar, David; Parro, Victor; Rodríguez-Manfredi, José Antonio; Oggerin, Monike; Sánchez-Román, Mónica; López, Francisco J.; Fernández-Rodríguez, José Pablo; Puente-Sánchez, Fernando; Briones, Carlos; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Tornos, Fernando; Gómez, Felipe; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Rodríguez, Nuria; Omoregie, Enoma; Timmis, Kenneth; Arce, Alejandro; Sanz, José Luis; Gómez-Ortiz, David

    2014-01-01

    The geomicrobiological characterization of the water column and sediments of Río Tinto (Huelva, Southwestern Spain) have proven the importance of the iron and the sulfur cycles, not only in generating the extreme conditions of the habitat (low pH, high concentration of toxic heavy metals), but also

  7. Mars At Opposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    These NASA Hubble Space Telescope views provide the most detailed complete global coverage of the red planet Mars ever seen from Earth. The pictures were taken on February 25, 1995, when Mars was at a distance of 65 million miles (103 million km).To the surprise of researchers, Mars is cloudier than seen in previous years. This means the planet is cooler and drier, because water vapor in the atmosphere freezes out to form ice-crystal clouds. Hubble resolves Martian surface features with a level of detail only exceeded by planetary probes, such as impact craters and other features as small as 30 miles (50 kilometers) across.[Tharsis region] - A crescent-shaped cloud just right of center identifies the immense shield volcano Olympus Mons, which is 340 miles (550 km) across at its base. Warm afternoon air pushed up over the summit forms ice-crystal clouds downwind from the volcano. Farther to the east (right) a line of clouds forms over a row of three extinct volcanoes which are from north to south: Ascraeus Mons, Pavonis Mons, Arsia Mons. It's part of an unusual, recurring 'W'-shaped cloud formation that once mystified earlier ground-based observers.[Valles Marineris region] - The 16 mile-high volcano Ascraeus Mons pokes through the cloud deck along the western (left) limb of the planet. Other interesting geologic features include (lower left) Valles Marineris, an immense rift valley the length of the continental United States. Near the image center lies the Chryse basin made up of cratered and chaotic terrain. The oval-looking Argyre impact basin (bottom) appears white due to clouds or frost.[Syrtis Major region] - The dark 'shark fin' feature left of center is Syrtis Major. Below it the giant impact basin Hellas. Clouds cover several great volcanos in the Elysium region near the eastern (right) limb. As clearly seen in the Hubble images, past dust storms in Mars' southern hemisphere have scoured the plains of fine light dust and transported the dust northward. This

  8. Mars Thermal Inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This image shows the global thermal inertia of the Martian surface as measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor. The data were acquired during the first 5000 orbits of the MGS mapping mission. The pattern of inertia variations observed by TES agrees well with the thermal inertia maps made by the Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper experiment, but the TES data shown here are at significantly higher spatial resolution (15 km versus 60 km).The TES instrument was built by Santa Barbara Remote Sensing and is operated by Philip R. Christensen, of Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.

  9. Geotechnical properties of rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R.; Gorski, B.; Gyenge, M.

    1995-12-31

    The manual is a compilation of the geotechnical properties of many types of rock that are typical of Canadian mining environments. Included are values for density, porosity, compressive and shear wave velocity, uniaxial compressive strength, Young`s modulus, and Poisson`s ratio. The data base contains material constants that were determined using the Hoek and Brown failure criteria for both before and after failure conditions. 76 data sheets of rock properties in Canadian mines are included. 7 refs., 85 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Rock engineering applications, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, J.A.; Dusseault, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    This book demonstrates how to apply the theories and principles of rock engineering to actual engineering and construction tasks. It features insights on geology for mining and tunnelling applications. It is practical resource that focuses on the latest technological innovation and examines up-to-date procedures used by engineers for coping with complex rock conditions. The authors also discuss question related to underground space, from design approaches to underground housing and storage. And they cover the monitoring of storage caverns for liquid and gaseous products or toxic and radioactive wastes

  11. Smart Rocking Armour Units

    OpenAIRE

    Hofland, B.; Arefin, Syed Shamsil; van der Lem, Cock; van gent, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a method to measure the rocking motion of lab-scale armour units. Sensors as found in mobile phones are used. These sensors, data-storage and battery are all embedded in the model units, such that they can be applied without wires attached to them. The technique is applied to double-layer units in order to compare the results to the existing knowledge for this type of armour layers. In contrast to previous research, the gyroscope reading is used to determine the (rocking)...

  12. Rock Hellsinki, Marketing Research

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Roosa; Jalkanen, Katariina

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a qualitative research about rock and heavy metal music tourism in the capital city of Finland, Helsinki. As Helsinki can be considered the city of contrasts, the silent nature city mixed with urban activities, it is important to also use the potential of the loud rock and heavy metal music contrasting the silence. Finland is known abroad for bands such as HIM, Nightwish, Korpiklaani and Children of Bodom so it would make sense to utilize these in the tourism sector as well. The...

  13. Vibration and Acoustic Testing for Mars Micromission Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Dennis L.; Scharton, Terry D.

    1999-01-01

    spacecraft and the test fixture, alleviates the severe overtest at spacecraft resonances inherent in rigid fixture vibration tests. It has the distinct advantage over response limiting that the method is not dependent on the accuracy of a detailed dynamic model of the spacecraft. Combined loads, vibration, and modal testing were recently performed on the QuikSCAT spacecraft. The combined tests were performed in a single test setup per axis on a vibration shaker, reducing test time by a factor of two or three. Force gages were employed to measure the true c.g. acceleration of the spacecraft for structural loads verification using a sine burst test, to automatically notch random vibration test input accelerations at spacecraft resonances based on predetermined force limits, and to directly measure modal masses in a base drive modal test. In addition to these combined tests on the shaker, the QuikSCAT spacecraft was subjected to a direct field acoustic test by surrounding the spacecraft, still on the vibration shaker, with rock concert type acoustic speakers. Since the spacecraft contractor does not have a reverberant field acoustic test facility, performing a direct field acoustic test -saved the program nearly two weeks schedule time that would have been required for packing / unpacking and shipping of the spacecraft. This paper discusses the rationale behind and advantages of the above test approaches and provides examples of their actual implementation and comparisons to flight data. The applicability of the test approaches to Mars Micromission spacecraft qualification is discussed.

  14. Quantitative analysis of digital outcrop data obtained from stereo-imagery using an emulator for the PanCam camera system for the ExoMars 2020 rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Robert; Gupta, Sanjeev; Gunn, Matt; Paar, Gerhard; Balme, Matt; Huber, Ben; Bauer, Arnold; Furya, Komyo; Caballo-Perucha, Maria del Pilar; Traxler, Chris; Hesina, Gerd; Ortner, Thomas; Banham, Steven; Harris, Jennifer; Muller, Jan-Peter; Tao, Yu

    2017-04-01

    A key focus of planetary rover missions is to use panoramic camera systems to image outcrops along rover traverses, in order to characterise their geology in search of ancient life. This data can be processed to create 3D point clouds of rock outcrops to be quantitatively analysed. The Mars Utah Rover Field Investigation (MURFI 2016) is a Mars Rover field analogue mission run by the UK Space Agency (UKSA) in collaboration with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA). It took place between 22nd October and 13th November 2016 and consisted of a science team based in Harwell, UK, and a field team including an instrumented Rover platform at the field site near Hanksville (Utah, USA). The Aberystwyth University PanCam Emulator 3 (AUPE3) camera system was used to collect stereo panoramas of the terrain the rover encountered during the field trials. Stereo-imagery processed in PRoViP is rendered as Ordered Point Clouds (OPCs) in PRo3D, enabling the user to zoom, rotate and translate the 3D outcrop model. Interpretations can be digitised directly onto the 3D surface, and simple measurements can be taken of the dimensions of the outcrop and sedimentary features, including grain size. Dip and strike of bedding planes, stratigraphic and sedimentological boundaries and fractures is calculated within PRo3D from mapped bedding contacts and fracture traces. Merging of rover-derived imagery with UAV and orbital datasets, to build semi-regional multi-resolution 3D models of the area of operations for immersive analysis and contextual understanding. In-simulation, AUPE3 was mounted onto the rover mast, collecting 16 stereo panoramas over 9 'sols'. 5 out-of-simulation datasets were collected in the Hanksville-Burpee Quarry. Stereo panoramas were processed using an automated pipeline and data transfer through an ftp server. PRo3D has been used for visualisation and analysis of this stereo data. Features of interest in the area could be annotated, and their distances between to the rover

  15. Uranium, thorium and trace elements in geologic occurrences as analogues of nuclear waste repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Brookins, D.G.; Cohen, L.H.; Flexser, S.; Abashian, M.; Murphy, M.; Williams, A.E.

    1984-01-01

    Contact zones between intrusive rocks and tuff, basalt, salt and granitic rock were investigated as possible analogues of nuclear waste repository conditions. Results of detailed studies of contacts between quartz monzonite of Laramide age, intrusive into Precambrian gneiss, and a Tertiary monzonite-tuff contact zone indicate that uranium, thorium and other trace elements have not migrated significantly from the more radioactive instrusives into the country rock. Similar observations resulted from preliminary investigations of a rhyodacite dike cutting basalt of the Columbia River plateau and a kimberlitic dike cutting bedded salt of the Salina basin. This lack of radionuclide migration occurred in hydrologic and thermal conditions comparable to, or more severe than those expected in nuclear waste repository environments and over time periods of the order of concern for waste repositories. Attention is now directed to investigation of active hydrothermal systems in candidate repository rock types, and in this regard a preliminary set of samples has been obtained from a core hole intersecting basalt underlying the Newberry caldera, Oregon, where temperatures presently range from 100 to 265 0 C. Results of mineralogical and geochemical investigations of this core should indicate the alteration mineralogy and behavior of radioelements in conditions analogous to those in the near field of a repository in basalt

  16. Surface Properties and Characteristics of Mars Landing Sites from Remote Sensing Data and Ground Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golombek, M. P.; Haldemann, A. F.; Simpson, R. A.; Furgason, R. L.; Putzig, N. E.; Huertas, A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Heet, T.; Bell, J. F.; Mellon, M. T.; McEwen, A. S.

    2008-12-01

    Surface characteristics at the six sites where spacecraft have successfully landed on Mars can be related favorably to their signatures in remotely sensed data from orbit and from the Earth. Comparisons of the rock abundance, types and coverage of soils (and their physical properties), thermal inertia, albedo, and topographic slope all agree with orbital remote sensing estimates and show that the materials at the landing sites can be used as ground truth for the materials that make up most of the equatorial and mid- to moderately high-latitude regions of Mars. The six landing sites sample two of the three dominant global thermal inertia and albedo units that cover ~80% of the surface of Mars. The Viking, Spirit, Mars Pathfinder, and Phoenix landing sites are representative of the moderate to high thermal inertia and intermediate to high albedo unit that is dominated by crusty, cloddy, blocky or frozen soils (duricrust that may be layered) with various abundances of rocks and bright dust. The Opportunity landing site is representative of the moderate to high thermal inertia and low albedo surface unit that is relatively dust free and composed of dark eolian sand and/or increased abundance of rocks. Rock abundance derived from orbital thermal differencing techniques in the equatorial regions agrees with that determined from rock counts at the surface and varies from ~3-20% at the landing sites. The size-frequency distributions of rocks >1.5 m diameter fully resolvable in HiRISE images of the landing sites follow exponential models developed from lander measurements of smaller rocks and are continuous with these rock distributions indicating both are part of the same population. Interpretation of radar data confirms the presence of load bearing, relatively dense surfaces controlled by the soil type at the landing sites, regional rock populations from diffuse scattering similar to those observed directly at the sites, and root-mean-squared slopes that compare favorably

  17. Boron hydride analogues of the fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quong, A.A.; Pederson, M.R.; Broughton, J.Q.

    1994-01-01

    The BH moiety is isoelectronic with C. We have studied the stability of the (BH) 60 analogue of the C 60 fullerene as well as the dual-structure (BH) 32 icosahedron, both of them being putative structures, by performing local-density-functional electronic calculations. To aid in our analysis, we have also studied other homologues of these systems. We find that the latter, i.e., the dual structure, is the more stable although the former is as stable as one of the latter's lower homologues. Boron hydrides, it seems, naturally form the dual structures used in algorithmic optimization of complex fullerene systems. Fully relaxed geometries are reported as well as electron affinities and effective Hubbard U parameters. These systems form very stable anions and we conclude that a search for BH analogues of the C 60 alkali-metal supeconductors might prove very fruitful

  18. Studies of natural analogues and geological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandberg, F.; Grundfelt, B.; Hoeglund, L.; Skagius K.; Karlsson, F.; Smellie, J.

    1993-04-01

    This review has involved studies of natural analogues and natural geological systems leading to the identification and quantification of processes and features of importance to the performance and safety of repositories for radioactive waste. The features and processes selected for the study comprise general geochemical issues related to the performance of the near- and far-field, the performance and durability of construction materials and the effects of glaciation. For each of these areas a number of potentially important processes for repository performance have been described, and evidence for their existence, as well as quantification of parameters of models describing the processes have been sought from major natural analogue studies and site investigations. The review has aimed at covering a relatively broad range of issues at the expense of in-depth analysis. The quantitative data presented are in most cases compilations of data from the literature; in a few cases results of evaluations made within the current project are included

  19. Lead optimization of antimalarial propafenone analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowes, David; Pradhan, Anupam; Iyer, Lalitha V; Parman, Toufan; Gow, Jason; Zhu, Fangyi; Furimsky, Anna; Lemoff, Andrew; Guiguemde, W Armand; Sigal, Martina; Clark, Julie A; Wilson, Emily; Tang, Liang; Connelly, Michele C; Derisi, Joseph L; Kyle, Dennis E; Mirsalis, Jon; Guy, R Kiplin

    2012-07-12

    Previously reported studies identified analogues of propafenone that had potent antimalarial activity, reduced cardiac ion channel activity, and properties that suggested the potential for clinical development for malaria. Careful examination of the bioavailability, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, and efficacy of this series of compounds using rodent models revealed orally bioavailable compounds that are nontoxic and suppress parasitemia in vivo. Although these compounds possess potential for further preclinical development, they also carry some significant challenges.

  20. The Brookhaven electron analogue, 1953--1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, M.

    1991-12-18

    The following topics are discussed on the Brookhaven electron analogue: L.J. Haworth and E.L. VanHorn letters; Original G.K. Green outline for report; General description; Parameter list; Mechanical Assembly; Alignment; Degaussing; Vacuum System; Injection System; The pulsed inflector; RF System; Ferrite Cavity; Pick-up electrodes and preamplifiers; Radio Frequency power amplifier; Lens supply; Controls and Power; and RF acceleration summary.

  1. Electromagnetic wave analogue of electronic diode

    OpenAIRE

    Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2010-01-01

    An electronic diode is a nonlinear semiconductor circuit component that allows conduction of electrical current in one direction only. A component with similar functionality for electromagnetic waves, an electromagnetic isolator, is based on the Faraday effect of the polarization state rotation and is also a key component of optical and microwave systems. Here we demonstrate a chiral electromagnetic diode, which is a direct analogue of an electronic diode: its functionality is underpinned by ...

  2. The Brookhaven electron analogue, 1953--1957

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotkin, M.

    1991-01-01

    The following topics are discussed on the Brookhaven electron analogue: L.J. Haworth and E.L. VanHorn letters; Original G.K. Green outline for report; General description; Parameter list; Mechanical Assembly; Alignment; Degaussing; Vacuum System; Injection System; The pulsed inflector; RF System; Ferrite Cavity; Pick-up electrodes and preamplifiers; Radio Frequency power amplifier; Lens supply; Controls and Power; and RF acceleration summary

  3. 'Endurance' Courtesy of Mars Express

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its panoramic camera to capture this false-color image of the interior of 'Endurance Crater' on the rover's 188th martian day (Aug. 4, 2004). The image data were relayed to Earth by the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter. The image was generated from separate frames using the cameras 750-, 530- and 480-nanometer filters.

  4. Mars oxygen production system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Charles E.; Pillow, Linda K.; Perkinson, Robert C.; Brownlie, R. P.; Chwalowski, P.; Carmona, M. F.; Coopersmith, J. P.; Goff, J. C.; Harvey, L. L.; Kovacs, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    The design and construction phase is summarized of the Mars oxygen demonstration project. The basic hardware required to produce oxygen from simulated Mars atmosphere was assembled and tested. Some design problems still remain with the sample collection and storage system. In addition, design and development of computer compatible data acquisition and control instrumentation is ongoing.

  5. Life sciences and Mars exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Rummel, John D.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Teeter, Ron

    1990-01-01

    The major life science considerations for Mars exploration missions are discussed. Radiation protection and countermeasures for zero gravity are discussed. Considerations of crew psychological health considerations and life support systems are addressed. Scientific opportunities presented by manned Mars missions are examined.

  6. Water and Life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Christopher P.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Mars appears to be cold dry and dead world. However there is good evidence that early in its history it had liquid water, more active volcanism, and a thicker atmosphere. Mars had this earth-like environment over three and a half billion years ago, during the same time that life appeared on Earth. The main question in the exploration of Mars then is the search for a independent origin of life on that planet. Ecosystems in cold, dry locations on Earth - such as the Antarctic - provide examples of how life on Mars might have survived and where to look for fossils. Although the Viking results may indicate that Mars has no life today, there is direct geomorphological evidence that, in the past, Mars had large amounts of liquid water on its surface - possibly due to a thicker atmosphere. From a biological perspective the existence of liquid water, by itself motivates the question of the origin of life on Mars. One of the martian meteorites dates back to this early period and may contain evidence consistent with life. From studies of the Earth's earliest biosphere we know that by 3.5 Gyr. ago, life had originated on Earth and reached a fair degree of biological sophistication. Surface activity and erosion on Earth make it difficult to trace the history of life before the 3.5 Gyr timeframe. Ecosystems in cold, dry locations on Earth - such as the Antarctic - provide examples of how life on Mars might have survived and where to look for fossils.

  7. Mars Sample Return Architecture Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C. D.; Vijendran, S.

    2018-04-01

    NASA and ESA are exploring potential concepts for a Sample Retrieval Lander and Earth Return Orbiter that could return samples planned to be collected and cached by the Mars 2020 rover mission. We provide an overview of the Mars Sample Return architecture.

  8. Tectonic evolution of Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, D.U.; Golombek, M.P.; McGill, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Any model for the tectonic evolution of Mars must account for two major crustal elements: the Tharsis bulge and the topographically low and lightly crated northern third of the planet. Ages determined by crater density indicate that both of these elements came into existence very early in Martian history, a conclusion that holds no matter which of the current crater density versus age curves is used. The size of these two major crustal elements and their sequential development suggest that both may be related to a global-scale internal process. It is proposed that the resurfacing of the northern third of Mars is related to subcrustal erosion and isostatic foundering during the life of a first-order convection cell. With the demise of the cell, denser segregations of metallic materials began to coalesce as a gravitatively unstable layer which finally overturned to form the core. In the overturn, lighter crustal materials was shifted laterally and underplated beneath Tharsis to cause rapid and permanent isostatic rise. This was followed by a long-lived thermal phase produced by the hot underplate and by the gravitative energy of core formation slowly making its way to the surface to produce the Tharsis volcanics

  9. Life on Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatavaradan, V S [Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India)

    1976-10-01

    The miniature biological laboratory of the Viking-1 lander had three experiments to determine, whether the micro-organisms of the Martian soil has: (1) photo-synthetic activity (2) metabolic process activity (utilisation of nutrients) and (3) respiration. The Martian soil was warmed in an incubator and exposed to carbon dioxide (containing C/sup 14/) in presence of xenon arc lamp to simulate the Sun. If the Martian organisms of the expected type are present in the soil, the gas released during the heating would be radio-active which can be detected by a radiation counter. The three experiments had given positive signals denoting the presence of micro-organisms on the surface of Mars. The presence of superoxide in the soil would be poisonous to life but it is likely that organisms may survive deeper below the soil, where the chemicals would not be formed. The Viking-2 results also offered similar results. However, the basic question whether there is life on Mars still remains unanswered.

  10. Life on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatavaradan, V.S.

    1976-01-01

    The miniature biological laboratory of the Viking-1 lander had three experiments to determine, whether the micro-organisms of the Martian soil has: (1) photo-synthetic activity (2) metabolic process activity (utilisation of nutrients) and (3) respiration. The Martian soil was warmed in an incubator and exposed to carbon dioxide (containing C 14 ) in presence of xenon arc lamp to simulate the Sun. If the Martian organisms of the expected type are present in the soil, the gas released during the heating would be radio-active which can be detected by a radiation counter. The three experiments had given positive signals denoting the presence of micro-organisms on the surface of Mars. The presence of superoxide in the soil would be poisonous to life but it is likely that organisms may survive deeper below the soil, where the chemicals would not be formed. The Viking-2 results also offered similar results. However, the basic question whether there is life on Mars still remains unanswered. (K.M.)

  11. Safety during MARS exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    It is MARS(1) time again! All employed members of the CERN personnel are currently undergoing the annual MARS evaluations.   This is also a good occasion for supervisors and their supervisees to fill in or update the OHS-0-0-3 form(2) “Identification of occupational hazards”. Filling in the OHS-0-0-3 form is an opportunity to assess any safety issues related to the supervisee's activities.  Each of us should, together with our supervisor, regularly identify and assess the hazards we may be exposed to in the course of our professional activities and reflect on how to control and mitigate them. When filling in the OHS form for the first time, it is important to determine any potential hazards as well as the corresponding preventive measures, in particular training and protective equipment. When updating the form, please review the available information to ensure that it still corresponds to the current activities. The form should be updated w...

  12. The Tournemire industrial analogue: reactive-transport modelling of cement-clay interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, C.; Wilson, J.; Benbow, S.; Savage, D.; Walker, C.; Norris, S.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In a number of concepts for geological disposal facilities (GDFs) for radioactive waste, cement-based materials are used for a variety of purposes including mechanical support, backfilling of cavities, grouting of fractures in the host rock, and immobilisation of radionuclides in waste-forms. Such facilities will ultimately re-saturate with encroaching groundwater, at which point leaching of the cement components is likely to give rise to an alkaline pore fluid, regardless of cement type. This pore fluid will be in disequilibrium with both the host rock and other engineered barrier system (EBS) materials used in the construction of the facility, such as bentonite. The interaction of the pore fluid could lead, for example, to the reduction in the swelling capacity of the clay, alteration of porosity and permeability both in the host rock and in EBS materials, and reduction of sorption capacities. Analogue systems can provide information about hyper-alkaline alteration that it is not possible to obtain from short-term experimental studies alone, because they have evolved in situ over many tens, hundreds or thousands of years. These systems can be used to improve scientific understanding and consequently mathematical models, which in turn can be used to simulate the performance of the engineered and natural materials over the lifetime of the GDF. Industrial analogues provide a kind of 'halfway house' between natural analogues and laboratory experimental studies; the initial and boundary conditions are often better understood than natural analogues, and the timescales involved, whilst much shorter than natural analogues, are generally of much greater duration than laboratory studies. One such analogue can be found at Tournemire, southern France, where a tunnel excavated in the 1880's had several exploration boreholes drilled into its basement in the 1990's. These boreholes were then filled with concrete and cement

  13. A Rock Retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Terence J.

    1979-01-01

    The author offers an analysis of musical techniques found in the major rock trends of the 1960s. An annotated list of selected readings and a subject-indexed list of selected recordings are appended. This article is part of a theme issue on popular music. (Editor/SJL)

  14. Rock-hard coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has signed an agreement with a number of parties to investigate this material further.

  15. Fluids in metamorphic rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touret, J.L.R.

    2001-01-01

    Basic principles for the study of fluid inclusions in metamorphic rocks are reviewed and illustrated. A major problem relates to the number of inclusions, possibly formed on a wide range of P-T conditions, having also suffered, in most cases, extensive changes after initial trapping. The

  16. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has

  17. Northeast Church Rock Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeast Church Rock Mine, a former uranium mine 17 miles northeast of Gallup, NM in the Pinedale Chapter of the Navajo Nation. EPA is working with NNEPA to oversee cleanup work by United Nuclear Corporation, a company owned by General Electric (GE).

  18. Smart Rocking Armour Units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofland, B.; Arefin, Syed Shamsil; van der Lem, Cock; van gent, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a method to measure the rocking motion of lab-scale armour units. Sensors as found in mobile phones are used. These sensors, data-storage and battery are all embedded in the model units, such that they can be applied without wires attached to them. The technique is applied to

  19. Austere Human Missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Hoppy; Hawkins, Alisa M.; Tadcliffe, Torrey O.

    2009-01-01

    The Design Reference Architecture 5 (DRA 5) is the most recent concept developed by NASA to send humans to Mars in the 2030 time frame using Constellation Program elements. DRA 5 is optimized to meet a specific set of requirements that would provide for a robust exploration program to deliver a new six-person crew at each biennial Mars opportunity and provide for power and infrastructure to maintain a highly capable continuing human presence on Mars. This paper examines an alternate architecture that is scaled back from DRA 5 and might offer lower development cost, lower flight cost, and lower development risk. It is recognized that a mission set using this approach would not meet all the current Constellation Mars mission requirements; however, this 'austere' architecture may represent a minimum mission set that would be acceptable from a science and exploration standpoint. The austere approach is driven by a philosophy of minimizing high risk or high cost technology development and maximizing development and production commonality in order to achieve a program that could be sustained in a flat-funded budget environment. Key features that would enable a lower technology implementation are as follows: using a blunt-body entry vehicle having no deployable decelerators, utilizing aerobraking rather than aerocapture for placing the crewed element into low Mars orbit, avoiding the use of liquid hydrogen with its low temperature and large volume issues, using standard bipropellant propulsion for the landers and ascent vehicle, and using radioisotope surface power systems rather than a nuclear reactor or large area deployable solar arrays. Flat funding within the expected NASA budget for a sustained program could be facilitated by alternating cargo and crew launches for the biennial Mars opportunities. This would result in two assembled vehicles leaving Earth orbit for Mars per Mars opportunity. The first opportunity would send two cargo landers to the Mars surface to

  20. Teaching the Rock Cycle with Ease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereki, Debra

    2000-01-01

    Describes a hands-on lesson for teaching high school students the concept of the rock cycle using sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks. Students use a rock cycle diagram to identify pairs of rocks. From the rock cycle, students explain on paper how their first rock became the second rock and vice versa. (PVD)

  1. Mars weathering analogs - Secondary mineralization in Antarctic basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkley, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    Alkalic basalt samples from Ross Island, Antarctica, are evaluated as terrestrial analogs to weathered surface materials on Mars. Secondary alteration in the rocks is limited to pneumatolytic oxidation of igneous minerals and glass, rare groundmass clay and zeolite mineralization, and hydrothermal minerals coating fractures and vesicle surfaces. Hydrothermal mineral assemblages consist mainly of K-feldspar, zeolites (phillipsite and chabazite), calcite, and anhydrite. Low alteration rates are attributed to cold and dry environmental factors common to both Antarctica and Mars. It is noted that mechanical weathering (aeolian abrasion) of Martian equivalents to present Antarctic basalts would yield minor hydrothermal minerals and local surface fines composed of primary igneous minerals and glass but would produce few hydrous products, such as palagonite, clay or micas. It is thought that leaching of hydrothermal vein minerals by migrating fluids and redeposition in duricrust deposits may represent an alternate process for incorporating secondary minerals of volcanic origin into Martian surface fines.

  2. Mineralogy of a Mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Ming, D. W.; Bristow, T. F.; Morris, R. V.; Blake, D. F.; Chipera, S. J.; Morrison, S. M.; Treiman, A. H.; Rampe, E. B.; Rice, M.; Achilles, C. N.; Grotzinger, J. P.; McLennan, S. M.; Williams, J.; Bell, J. F.; Newsom, H. E.; Downs, R. T.; Maurice, S.; Sarrazin, P.; Yen, A. S.; Morookian, J. M.; Farmer, J. D.; Stack, K.; Milliken, R. E.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Sumner, D. Y.; Berger, G.; Crisp, J. A.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Anderson, R.; Des Marais, D. J.; Stolper, E. M.; Edgett, K. S.; Gupta, S.; Spanovich, N.; Agard, Christophe; Alves Verdasca, José Alexandre; Anderson, Ryan; Archer, Doug; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Arvidson, Ray; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Atreya, Sushil; Aubrey, Andrew; Baker, Burt; Baker, Michael; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Baratoux, David; Baroukh, Julien; Barraclough, Bruce; Bean, Keri; Beegle, Luther; Behar, Alberto; Bender, Steve; Benna, Mehdi; Bentz, Jennifer; Berger, Jeff; Berman, Daniel; Blanco Avalos, Juan J.; Blaney, Diana; Blank, Jen; Blau, Hannah; Bleacher, Lora; Boehm, Eckart; Botta, Oliver; Böttcher, Stephan; Boucher, Thomas; Bower, Hannah; Boyd, Nick; Boynton, Bill; Breves, Elly; Bridges, John; Bridges, Nathan; Brinckerhoff, William; Brinza, David; Brunet, Claude; Brunner, Anna; Brunner, Will; Buch, Arnaud; Bullock, Mark; Burmeister, Sönke; Cabane, Michel; Calef, Fred; Cameron, James; Campbell, John “Iain”; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Caride Rodríguez, Javier; Carmosino, Marco; Carrasco Blázquez, Isaías; Charpentier, Antoine; Choi, David; Clark, Benton; Clegg, Sam; Cleghorn, Timothy; Cloutis, Ed; Cody, George; Coll, Patrice; Conrad, Pamela; Coscia, David; Cousin, Agnès; Cremers, David; Cros, Alain; Cucinotta, Frank; d'Uston, Claude; Davis, Scott; Day, Mackenzie “Kenzie”; de la Torre Juarez, Manuel; DeFlores, Lauren; DeLapp, Dorothea; DeMarines, Julia; Dietrich, William; Dingler, Robert; Donny, Christophe; Drake, Darrell; Dromart, Gilles; Dupont, Audrey; Duston, Brian; Dworkin, Jason; Dyar, M. Darby; Edgar, Lauren; Edwards, Christopher; Edwards, Laurence; Ehresmann, Bent; Eigenbrode, Jen; Elliott, Beverley; Elliott, Harvey; Ewing, Ryan; Fabre, Cécile; Fairén, Alberto; Farley, Ken; Fassett, Caleb; Favot, Laurent; Fay, Donald; Fedosov, Fedor; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Fisk, Marty; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Flesch, Greg; Floyd, Melissa; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Forni, Olivier; Fraeman, Abby; Francis, Raymond; François, Pascaline; Franz, Heather; Freissinet, Caroline; French, Katherine Louise; Frydenvang, Jens; Gaboriaud, Alain; Gailhanou, Marc; Garvin, James; Gasnault, Olivier; Geffroy, Claude; Gellert, Ralf; Genzer, Maria; Glavin, Daniel; Godber, Austin; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Golovin, Dmitry; Gómez Gómez, Felipe; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Gondet, Brigitte; Gordon, Suzanne; Gorevan, Stephen; Grant, John; Griffes, Jennifer; Grinspoon, David; Guillemot, Philippe; Guo, Jingnan; Guzewich, Scott; Haberle, Robert; Halleaux, Douglas; Hallet, Bernard; Hamilton, Vicky; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Harpold, Daniel; Harri, Ari-Matti; Harshman, Karl; Hassler, Donald; Haukka, Harri; Hayes, Alex; Herkenhoff, Ken; Herrera, Paul; Hettrich, Sebastian; Heydari, Ezat; Hipkin, Victoria; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Hudgins, Judy; Huntress, Wesley; Hviid, Stubbe; Iagnemma, Karl; Indyk, Steve; Israël, Guy; Jackson, Ryan; Jacob, Samantha; Jakosky, Bruce; Jensen, Elsa; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Johnson, Jeffrey; Johnson, Micah; Johnstone, Steve; Jones, Andrea; Jones, John; Joseph, Jonathan; Jun, Insoo; Kah, Linda; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kahre, Melinda; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kasprzak, Wayne; Kauhanen, Janne; Keely, Leslie; Kemppinen, Osku; Keymeulen, Didier; Kim, Myung-Hee; Kinch, Kjartan; King, Penny; Kirkland, Laurel; Kocurek, Gary; Koefoed, Asmus; Köhler, Jan; Kortmann, Onno; Kozyrev, Alexander; Krezoski, Jill; Krysak, Daniel; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Lacour, Jean Luc; Lafaille, Vivian; Langevin, Yves; Lanza, Nina; Lasue, Jeremie; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Lee, Ella Mae; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Lees, David; Lefavor, Matthew; Lemmon, Mark; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Leshin, Laurie; Léveillé, Richard; Lewin-Carpintier, Éric; Lewis, Kevin; Li, Shuai; Lipkaman, Leslie; Little, Cynthia; Litvak, Maxim; Lorigny, Eric; Lugmair, Guenter; Lundberg, Angela; Lyness, Eric; Madsen, Morten; Mahaffy, Paul; Maki, Justin; Malakhov, Alexey; Malespin, Charles; Malin, Michael; Mangold, Nicolas; Manhes, Gérard; Manning, Heidi; Marchand, Geneviève; Marín Jiménez, Mercedes; Martín García, César; Martin, Dave; Martin, Mildred; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Mauchien, Patrick; McAdam, Amy; McCartney, Elaina; McConnochie, Timothy; McCullough, Emily; McEwan, Ian; McKay, Christopher; McNair, Sean; Melikechi, Noureddine; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Meyer, Michael; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Miller, Hayden; Miller, Kristen; Minitti, Michelle; Mischna, Michael; Mitrofanov, Igor; Moersch, Jeff; Mokrousov, Maxim; Molina Jurado, Antonio; Moores, John; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Muller, Jan-Peter; Muñoz Caro, Guillermo; Nachon, Marion; Navarro López, Sara; Navarro-González, Rafael; Nealson, Kenneth; Nefian, Ara; Nelson, Tony; Newcombe, Megan; Newman, Claire; Nikiforov, Sergey; Niles, Paul; Nixon, Brian; Noe Dobrea, Eldar; Nolan, Thomas; Oehler, Dorothy; Ollila, Ann; Olson, Timothy; Owen, Tobias; de Pablo Hernández, Miguel Ángel; Paillet, Alexis; Pallier, Etienne; Palucis, Marisa; Parker, Timothy; Parot, Yann; Patel, Kiran; Paton, Mark; Paulsen, Gale; Pavlov, Alex; Pavri, Betina; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pepin, Robert; Peret, Laurent; Perez, Rene; Perrett, Glynis; Peterson, Joe; Pilorget, Cedric; Pinet, Patrick; Pla-García, Jorge; Plante, Ianik; Poitrasson, Franck; Polkko, Jouni; Popa, Radu; Posiolova, Liliya; Posner, Arik; Pradler, Irina; Prats, Benito; Prokhorov, Vasily; Purdy, Sharon Wilson; Raaen, Eric; Radziemski, Leon; Rafkin, Scot; Ramos, Miguel; Raulin, François; Ravine, Michael; Reitz, Günther; Rennó, Nilton; Richardson, Mark; Robert, François; Robertson, Kevin; Rodriguez Manfredi, José Antonio; Romeral-Planelló, Julio J.; Rowland, Scott; Rubin, David; Saccoccio, Muriel; Salamon, Andrew; Sandoval, Jennifer; Sanin, Anton; Sans Fuentes, Sara Alejandra; Saper, Lee; Sautter, Violaine; Savijärvi, Hannu; Schieber, Juergen; Schmidt, Mariek; Schmidt, Walter; Scholes, Daniel “Dan”; Schoppers, Marcel; Schröder, Susanne; Schwenzer, Susanne; Sebastian Martinez, Eduardo; Sengstacken, Aaron; Shterts, Ruslan; Siebach, Kirsten; Siili, Tero; Simmonds, Jeff; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Slavney, Susie; Sletten, Ronald; Smith, Michael; Sobrón Sánchez, Pablo; Spray, John; Squyres, Steven; Stalport, Fabien; Steele, Andrew; Stein, Thomas; Stern, Jennifer; Stewart, Noel; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Stoiber, Kevin; Sucharski, Bob; Sullivan, Rob; Summons, Roger; Sun, Vivian; Supulver, Kimberley; Sutter, Brad; Szopa, Cyril; Tan, Florence; Tate, Christopher; Teinturier, Samuel; ten Kate, Inge; Thomas, Peter; Thompson, Lucy; Tokar, Robert; Toplis, Mike; Torres Redondo, Josefina; Trainer, Melissa; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; VanBommel, Scott; Varenikov, Alexey; Vasavada, Ashwin; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Vicenzi, Edward; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Voytek, Mary; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Ward, Jennifer; Webster, Chris; Weigle, Eddie; Wellington, Danika; Westall, Frances; Wiens, Roger Craig; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Williams, Amy; Williams, Rebecca; Williams, Richard B. “Mouser”; Wilson, Mike; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Wolff, Mike; Wong, Mike; Wray, James; Wu, Megan; Yana, Charles; Yingst, Aileen; Zeitlin, Cary; Zimdar, Robert; Zorzano Mier, María-Paz

    2014-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks at Yellowknife Bay (Gale crater) on Mars include mudstone sampled by the Curiosity rover. The samples, John Klein and Cumberland, contain detrital basaltic minerals, calcium sulfates, iron oxide or hydroxides, iron sulfides, amorphous material, and trioctahedral smectites. The John Klein smectite has basal spacing of ~10 angstroms, indicating little interlayer hydration. The Cumberland smectite has basal spacing at both ~13.2 and ~10 angstroms. The larger spacing suggests a partially chloritized interlayer or interlayer magnesium or calcium facilitating H2O retention. Basaltic minerals in the mudstone are similar to those in nearby eolian deposits. However, the mudstone has far less Fe-forsterite, possibly lost with formation of smectite plus magnetite. Late Noachian/Early Hesperian or younger age indicates that clay mineral formation on Mars extended beyond Noachian time.

  3. Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale crater, Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, D T; Bish, D L; Ming, D W; Bristow, T F; Morris, R V; Blake, D F; Chipera, S J; Morrison, S M; Treiman, A H; Rampe, E B; Rice, M; Achilles, C N; Grotzinger, J P; McLennan, S M; Williams, J; Bell, J F; Newsom, H E; Downs, R T; Maurice, S; Sarrazin, P; Yen, A S; Morookian, J M; Farmer, J D; Stack, K; Milliken, R E; Ehlmann, B L; Sumner, D Y; Berger, G; Crisp, J A; Hurowitz, J A; Anderson, R; Des Marais, D J; Stolper, E M; Edgett, K S; Gupta, S; Spanovich, N

    2014-01-24

    Sedimentary rocks at Yellowknife Bay (Gale crater) on Mars include mudstone sampled by the Curiosity rover. The samples, John Klein and Cumberland, contain detrital basaltic minerals, calcium sulfates, iron oxide or hydroxides, iron sulfides, amorphous material, and trioctahedral smectites. The John Klein smectite has basal spacing of ~10 angstroms, indicating little interlayer hydration. The Cumberland smectite has basal spacing at both ~13.2 and ~10 angstroms. The larger spacing suggests a partially chloritized interlayer or interlayer magnesium or calcium facilitating H2O retention. Basaltic minerals in the mudstone are similar to those in nearby eolian deposits. However, the mudstone has far less Fe-forsterite, possibly lost with formation of smectite plus magnetite. Late Noachian/Early Hesperian or younger age indicates that clay mineral formation on Mars extended beyond Noachian time.

  4. Mars Exploration Rovers Launch Performance and TCM-1 Maneuver Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Julie A.; Potts, Christopher L.; Raofi, Behzad

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) project successfully landed two identical rovers on Mars in order to remotely conduct geologic investigations, including characterization of rocks and soils that may hold clues to past water activity. Two landing sites, Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum, were selected out of nearly 200 candidate sites after balancing science returns and flight system engineering and safety. Precise trajectory targeting and control was necessary to achieve the atmospheric entry requirements for the selected landing sites within the flight system constraints. This paper discusses the expected and achieved launch vehicle performance and the impacts of that performance on the first Trajectory Correction Maneuver (TCM-1) while maintaining targeting flexibility in accommodating additional project concerns about landing site safety and possible in-flight retargeting to alternate landing sites.

  5. Demonstrations of Gravity-Independent Mobility and Drilling on Natural Rock using Microspines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew; King, Jonathan P.; Thatte, Nitish

    2012-01-01

    The video presents microspine-based anchors be ing developed for gripping rocks on the surfaces of comets and asteroids, or for use on cliff faces and lava tubes on Mars. Two types of anchor prototypes are shown on supporting forces in all directions away from the rock; >160 N tangent, >150 N at 45?, and >180 N normal to the surface of the rock. A compliant robotic ankle with two active degrees of freedom interfaces these anchors to the Lemur IIB robot for future climbing trials. Finally, a rotary percussive drill is shown coring into rock regardless of gravitational orientation. As a harder- than-zero-g proof of concept, inverted drilling was performed creating 20mm diameter boreholes 83 mm deep in vesicular basalt samples while retaining 12 mm diameter rock cores in 3-6 pieces.

  6. Critical Velocity for Shear Localization in A Mature Mylonitic Rock Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, M.; van den Ende, M.; Niemeijer, A. R.; Spiers, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    Highly localized slip zones, seen within ductile shear zones developed in nature, such as pseudotachylite bands occurring within mylonites, are widely recognized as evidence for earthquake nucleation and/or propagation within and overprinting the ductile regime. To understand brittle/frictional localization processes in ductile shear zones and to connect these to earthquake nucleation and propagation processes, we performed large velocity step-change tests on a brine-saturated, 80:20 (wt. %) halite and muscovite gouge mixture, after forming a mature mylonitic structure through pressure solution creep at low-velocity. The sharp increase in sliding strength that occurs in response to an instantaneous upward velocity-step (direct effect) is an important parameter in determining the potential for and nature of seismic rupture nucleation. We obtained reproducible results regarding low velocity mechanical behavior compared with previous work of Niemeijer and Spiers, [2006], but also obtained new insights into the effects of sudden increases in slip velocity on localization and strength evolution, at velocities above a specific critical velocity Vc ( 20 μm/sec). We found that once a ductile, mylonitic structure has developed in a shear zone, subsequent cataclastic deformation at high velocity (> Vc) is consistently localized in a narrow zone characterized by fine grains of halite aligned in arrays between foliated muscovite Due to this intense localization, structures presumably developed under low velocity conditions were still preserved in large parts of the gouge body. This switch to localized deformation is controlled by the imposed velocity, and becomes most apparent at velocities over Vc. In addition, the direct effect a decreases rapidly when the velocity exceeds Vc. This implies that slip can localize and accelerate towards seismic velocities more or less instantly once Vc is exceeded. Obtaining a measure for Vc in natural faults is therefore of key importance for understanding earthquake nucleation and propagation.

  7. North American Indian rock art and hallucinogenic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmann, K F

    1978-04-14

    It is proposed that the aboriginal rock paintings in two areas of North America may have been produced by shamans while they were under the influence of hallucinogenic agents derived from plants. The first of these areas is the Chumash and Yokuts Indian region of California, where polychrome paintings show designs similar to those visualized during the trance induced by decoctions of jimsonweed (Datura species). The second area is the lower Pecos River region of Texas, where shamanistic figures display traits considered to be conceptual analogues of the mescal bean (Sophora secundiflora) cult as practiced during historic times by Great Plains Indians. Although the evidence is only circumstantial, the proposed connections between these rock drawings and mind-expanding pharmacologic compounds fit well into the documented relationship that encompasses hallucinogenic drugs and certain movable objects of pre-Columbian American art.

  8. For Those About to Rock : Naislaulajat rock-genressä

    OpenAIRE

    Herranen, Linda

    2015-01-01

    For those about to rock – naislaulajat rock-genressä antaa lukijalleen kokonaisvaltaisen käsityksen naisista rock-genressä: rockin historiasta, sukupuolittuneisuudesta, seksismistä, suomalaisten naislaulajien menestyksestä. Työn aineisto on koottu aihepiirin kirjallisuudesta ja alalla toimiville naislaulajille teetettyjen kyselyiden tuloksista. Lisäksi avaan omia kokemuksiani ja ajatuksiani, jotta näkökulma naisista rock-genressä tulisi esille mahdollisimman monipuolisesti. Ajatus aihees...

  9. Comparison of disposal concepts for rock salt and hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, R.

    1998-01-01

    The study was carried out in the period 1994-1996. The goals were to prepare a draft on spent fuel disposal in hard rock and additionally a comparison with existing disposal concepts for rock salt. A cask for direct disposal of spent fuel and a repository for hard rock including a safeguards concept were conceptually designed. The results of the study confirm, that the early German decision to employ rock salt was reasonable. (orig.)

  10. Elastic Rock Heterogeneity Controls Brittle Rock Failure during Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbruch, C.; Shapiro, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    For interpretation and inversion of microseismic data it is important to understand, which properties of the reservoir rock control the occurrence probability of brittle rock failure and associated seismicity during hydraulic stimulation. This is especially important, when inverting for key properties like permeability and fracture conductivity. Although it became accepted that seismic events are triggered by fluid flow and the resulting perturbation of the stress field in the reservoir rock, the magnitude of stress perturbations, capable of triggering failure in rocks, can be highly variable. The controlling physical mechanism of this variability is still under discussion. We compare the occurrence of microseismic events at the Cotton Valley gas field to elastic rock heterogeneity, obtained from measurements along the treatment wells. The heterogeneity is characterized by scale invariant fluctuations of elastic properties. We observe that the elastic heterogeneity of the rock formation controls the occurrence of brittle failure. In particular, we find that the density of events is increasing with the Brittleness Index (BI) of the rock, which is defined as a combination of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. We evaluate the physical meaning of the BI. By applying geomechanical investigations we characterize the influence of fluctuating elastic properties in rocks on the probability of brittle rock failure. Our analysis is based on the computation of stress fluctuations caused by elastic heterogeneity of rocks. We find that elastic rock heterogeneity causes stress fluctuations of significant magnitude. Moreover, the stress changes necessary to open and reactivate fractures in rocks are strongly related to fluctuations of elastic moduli. Our analysis gives a physical explanation to the observed relation between elastic heterogeneity of the rock formation and the occurrence of brittle failure during hydraulic reservoir stimulations. A crucial factor for understanding

  11. The Mawrth Vallis region of Mars: A potential landing site for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Joseph R; Jean-PierreBibring; Poulet, François; Loizeau, Damien; Mangold, Nicolas; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Bishop, Janice L; Wray, James J; McKeown, Nancy K; Parente, Mario; Hauber, Ernst; Altieri, Francesca; Carrozzo, F Giacomo; Niles, Paul B

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, which will launch in 2011, is to characterize the habitability of a site on Mars through detailed analyses of the composition and geological context of surface materials. Within the framework of established mission goals, we have evaluated the value of a possible landing site in the Mawrth Vallis region of Mars that is targeted directly on some of the most geologically and astrobiologically enticing materials in the Solar System. The area around Mawrth Vallis contains a vast (>1 × 10⁶ km²) deposit of phyllosilicate-rich, ancient, layered rocks. A thick (>150 m) stratigraphic section that exhibits spectral evidence for nontronite, montmorillonite, amorphous silica, kaolinite, saponite, other smectite clay minerals, ferrous mica, and sulfate minerals indicates a rich geological history that may have included multiple aqueous environments. Because phyllosilicates are strong indicators of ancient aqueous activity, and the preservation potential of biosignatures within sedimentary clay deposits is high, martian phyllosilicate deposits are desirable astrobiological targets. The proposed MSL landing site at Mawrth Vallis is located directly on the largest and most phyllosilicate-rich deposit on Mars and is therefore an excellent place to explore for evidence of life or habitability.

  12. Range sections as rock models for intensity rock scene segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkwelo, S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents another approach to segmenting a scene of rocks on a conveyor belt for the purposes of measuring rock size. Rock size estimation instruments are used to monitor, optimize and control milling and crushing in the mining industry...

  13. Apparent thermal inertia and the surface heterogeneity of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzig, Nathaniel E.; Mellon, Michael T.

    2007-11-01

    Thermal inertia derivation techniques generally assume that surface properties are uniform at horizontal scales below the footprint of the observing instrument and to depths of several decimeters. Consequently, surfaces with horizontal or vertical heterogeneity may yield apparent thermal inertia which varies with time of day and season. To investigate these temporal variations, we processed three Mars years of Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations and produced global nightside and dayside seasonal maps of apparent thermal inertia. These maps show broad regions with diurnal and seasonal differences up to 200 J m -2 K -1s -1/2 at mid-latitudes (60° S to 60° N) and 600 J m -2 K -1s -1/2 or greater in the polar regions. We compared the seasonal mapping results with modeled apparent thermal inertia and created new maps of surface heterogeneity at 5° resolution, delineating regions that have thermal characteristics consistent with horizontal mixtures or layers of two materials. The thermal behavior of most regions on Mars appears to be dominated by layering, with upper layers of higher thermal inertia (e.g., duricrusts or desert pavements over fines) prevailing in mid-latitudes and upper layers of lower thermal inertia (e.g., dust-covered rock, soils with an ice table at shallow depths) prevailing in polar regions. Less common are regions dominated by horizontal mixtures, such as those containing differing proportions of rocks, sand, dust, and duricrust or surfaces with divergent local slopes. Other regions show thermal behavior that is more complex and not well-represented by two-component surface models. These results have important implications for Mars surface geology, climate modeling, landing-site selection, and other endeavors that employ thermal inertia as a tool for characterizing surface properties.

  14. Multiple Smaller Missions as a Direct Pathway to Mars Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, P. B.; Draper, D. S.; Evans, C. A.; Gibson, E. K.; Graham, L. D.; Jones, J. H.; Lederer, S. M.; Ming, D.; Seaman, C. H.; Archer, P. D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Recent discoveries by the Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Express, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft include multiple, tantalizing astrobiological targets representing both past and present environments on Mars. The most desirable path to Mars Sample Return (MSR) would be to collect and return samples from that site which provides the clearest examples of the variety of rock types considered a high priority for sample return (pristine igneous, sedimentary, and hydrothermal). Here we propose an MSR architecture in which the next steps (potentially launched in 2018) would entail a series of smaller missions, including caching, to multiple landing sites to verify the presence of high priority sample return targets through in situ analyses. This alternative architecture to one flagship-class sample caching mission to a single site would preserve a direct path to MSR as stipulated by the Planetary Decadal Survey, while permitting investigation of diverse deposit types and providing comparison of the site of returned samples to other aqueous environments on early Mars

  15. Soil/Rock Properties Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Soil/Rock Properties LaboratoryLocation: Spokane SiteThe Soil/Rock Properties Laboratory is contained in the soils bay, a 4,700 sq. ft. facility that provides space...