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Sample records for marlene deahl merrill

  1. Tips From Former Smokers – Marlene

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-25

    Marlene started losing her vision at age 56, after many years of smoking. She needs shots in one or both eyes every month to avoid going blind.  Created: 3/25/2015 by Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.   Date Released: 3/25/2015.

  2. Classifying the body in Marlene Dumas' The Image as Burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Anthea

    2018-03-01

    Medical photography, and in particular dermatological imagery, is often assumed to provide an objective, and functional, representation of disease and that it can act as a diagnostic aid. By contrast, artistic conceptions of the images of the body tend to focus on interpretative heterogeneity and ambiguity, aiming to create or explore meaning rather than enact a particular function. In her 2015 retrospective exhibition at the Tate Modern, South African artist Marlene Dumas questions these disciplinary divides by using medical imagery (among other photographic sources) as the basis for her portraits. Her portrait 'The White Disease' draws on an unidentified photograph taken from a medical journal, but obscures the original image to such a degree that any representation of a particular disease is highly questionable. The title creates a new classification, which reflects on disease and on the racial politics of South Africa during apartheid. Though, on the one hand, these techniques are seemingly disparate from the methods of medical understanding, features such as reliance on classification, and attempts at dispelling ambiguity, bring Dumas' work closer to the history of dermatological portraits than would usually be perceived to be the case. In considering the continuities and disparities between conceptualisations of skin in dermatology and Dumas' art, this paper questions assumptions of photographic objectivity to suggest that there is greater complexity and interpretative scope in medical dermatological images than might initially be assumed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. An analysis of the bodily spatial power relations in Agaat by Marlene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to explore the power relations portrayed through the bodily spatial interaction of the characters of Milla and Agaat in Marlene van Niekerk's 2004 novel, Agaat. This interaction is analysed according to the theory of Thirding-as- Othering posited by Henri Lefebvre and Edward Soja in terms of the body ...

  4. Merrill Lynch kavandab äridelegatsiooni visiiti Eestisse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Investeerimispanga Merrill Lynch eestvedamisel kavandatakse mais ärimeeste visiiti Eestisse, ütles Jüri Mõis, kes viibis New Yorgis toimunud Maailmapanga seminaril "Omavalitsused rahvusvahelistel kapitaliturgudel"

  5. Marlene Dietrich in the German Classroom: A German Film Project--Humanities through the Golden Age of German Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippo, Hyde

    1993-01-01

    Marlene Dietrich and other classic performers of German cinema can serve to open up a whole new realm for students of German, at secondary and postsecondary levels. By researching and viewing German and American film classics, students have opportunity to learn more about German language and an important element of German culture that has had…

  6. Efficient production of transgenic soybean (Glycine max [L] Merrill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficient production of transgenic soybean (Glycine max [L] Merrill) plants mediated via whisker-supersonic (WSS) method. MM Khalafalla, HA El-Shemy, SM Rahman, M Teraishi, H Hasegawa, T Terakawa, M Ishimoto ...

  7. The essential oil from the flowers of Citrus maxima (J. Burman) Merrill from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, N.X.; Pha, Nguyen M.; Lo, Vu N.; An, N.T.K.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-five compounds have been identified in the flower oil of Citrus maxima (J. Burman) Merrill. The major components were limonene (18.2%), linalool (16.4%), nerolidol (29.3%) and farnesol (15.7%).

  8. Robert M. Gagne and M. David Merrill: In Conversation. No. 3: An Overview of M. David Merrill's New Component Design Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twitchell, David, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This third in a series of edited transcripts based on a conference at Utah State University describes Merrill's Component Design Theory (CDT) and compares it to his earlier Component Display Theory. Topics discussed include concept structures, knowledge acquisition, components of an instructional design system, and a new CDT matrix. (10…

  9. Taaskasutuses London / Marlen Promann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Promann, Marlen

    2007-01-01

    "100% Disain London" messist, kus peateemaks oli säästlikkus disainis, materjalides, tehnoloogias ja tootmises. Markko Karu jõudis sellel noore disainiettevõtja auhinna finaali (International Young Design Entrepreneur of the Year)

  10. Anatomical Study of Somatic Embryogenesis in Glycine max (L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Aparecida Fernando

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative anatomical analysis of somatic embryogenesis in two soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill genotypes was carried out. The somatic embryos were originated from cotyledonary explants obtained from immature zygotic embryos. The medium used for somatic embryogenesis induction was Murashige and Skoog, 1962, salts and Gamborg et al., 1968, vitamins (MSB supplemented with 0.8 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D for genotype PI 123439 and 40 mg.L-1 of 2,4-D for ‘Williams 82’. Globular structures, constituted by meristematic cells, originated from subepidermal cell divisions of the cotyledonary mesophyll. In PI 123439, the globular structures presented tracheary differentiation among meristematic cells and they could follow distinct morphogenetic process depending on their location along the explant. For ‘Williams 82’ it was observed globular structures along the cotyledonary explant surface. They gave rise to somatic embryos. These embryos showed different morphologies and they were classified based on their shape and number of cotyledons. The ability of these morphological types to convert to plantlets was discussed.Realizou-se uma análise anatômica comparativa da embriogênese somática em dois genótipos de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill. Os embriões somáticos foram obtidos a partir de explantes cotiledonares excisados de embriões zigóticos imaturos do genótipo PI 123439, adaptado às condições tropicais, e ‘Williams 82’. O meio utilizado para indução da embriogênese somática constituiu-se de sais de Murashige e Skoog,1962, e vitaminas de Gamborg et al., 1968 (MSB suplementado com 0,8 mg.L-1 de 2,4-D (PI 123439 e 40 mg.L-1 (‘Williams 82’. Estruturas globulares originaram-se a partir de divisões celulares nas camadas subepidérmicas do mesofilo cotiledonar e foram constituídas por células meristemáticas. No genótipo PI 123439, as estruturas globulares apresentaram diferenciação traqueal entre as células meristemáticas e

  11. Merrill's Atlas of radiographic positions and radiologic procedures. Volumes 1-3. Sixth edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballinger, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    Merrill's Atlas describes and explains the routine and specialized radiologic procedures for all body systems. This edition thoroughly reorganized, updated and expanded. Volumes one and two describe all routine and flouroscopic procedures; and volume three describes more specialized areas in the profession

  12. Volatile constituents of the fruit peel oil of Citrus maxima (J. Burman) Merrill. from Northeast India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bordoloi, A.K.; Pathak, M.G.; Sperkova, S.; Leclercq, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    The oil obtained by steam distillation of the fruit peels of cultivated Citrus maxima (T. Burman) Merrill [syn. C. decumana Linn.; syn. C. grandts (1.) Osbeck] was investigated by GC and GC/MS. Thirty-five compounds were identified accounting for 98.90/0 of the oil. The major constituent was

  13. Human radiation studies: Remembering the early years. Oral history of Merril Eisenbud, January 26, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    Merril Eisenbud was interviewed on January 26, 1995 by representatives of the US DOE Office of Human Radiation Experiments. Following a brief biographical sketch, Mr. Eisenbud relates his remembrances as the AEC's first industrial hygienist, the setting up of AEC's Health and Safety Laboratory, monitoring radioactive fallout, and use or exposure of humans to radiation

  14. The Reflection Effect on the Eclipsing Binary by the Wilson and Devinney's Model and Russell and Merrill's Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Hee Choea

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The reflection effect on three types of eclipsing binaries has been analyzed Wilson and Devinney's model and Russell and Merrill's model. The reflection effect was displayed on the theoretical light curves for the various conditions using the Wilson and Devinney's light curve program. Two models were compared after the rectifing the theoretical light curves including the reflection effect with the Russell and Merrill's method. The result shows that two models have an agreement on the reflection effect just in cases of the small difference in temperature and albedo between two stars in the system.

  15. Protective effect of Lannea coromandelica Houtt. Merrill. against three common pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayurvedic text reports suggested Lannea coromandelica is used in various microbial origin disorders like dysentery, sore eyes and leprosy, genital wounds. Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the antimicrobial effect of L. coromandelica Houtt. Merrill. (Anacardiaceae on microbes which cause female reproductive tract infection. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic and aqueous bark extract (Ext. of L. coromandelica were screened against strains of Streptococcus pyogens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. Antimicrobial assay had been done with agar well diffusion method. Results: Ethanolic extracts [100% (16 mg, 75% (12 mg and 50% (8 mg] of L. coromandelica exhibited zone of inhibition (ZI 19.21 mm, 18.45 mm, 16.41 mm and 18.12 mm, 17.35 mm, 16.35 mm against S. aureus and S. pyogens, respectively. However, only 100% and 75% ethanolic extract showed (ZI-19.18 mm, 16.29 mm activity against C. albicans. Nevertheless, aqueous extract (100% showed higher antifungal activity (ZI-16.97 mm. Ciprofloxacin and amphotericin B were used as a standard drugs in the present study. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that L. coromandelica Houtt. Merrill. have antibacterial activity against S. pyogens, S. aureus and antifungal property against C. albicans. Our findings corroborate the ethnobotanical use of L. coromandelica in traditional medicine system (Ayurveda of India.

  16. Ozonation of Indigo Carmine Enhanced by Fe/Pimenta dioica L. Merrill Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Torres-Blancas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Green synthesis of metallic particles has become an economic way to improve and protect the environment by decreasing the use of toxic chemicals and eliminating dyes. The synthesis of metal particles is gaining more importance due to its simplicity, rapid rate of synthesis of particles, and environmentally friendly. The present work aims to report a novel and environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of iron particles using deoiled Pimenta dioica L. Merrill husk as support. The indigo carmine removal efficiency by ozonation and catalyzed ozonation is also presented. Synthesized materials were characterized by N2 physisorption and scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS. By UV-Vis spectrophotometry the removal efficiency of indigo carmine was found to be nearly 100% after only 20 minutes of treatment under pH 3 and with a catalyst loading of 1000 mgL−1. Analytical techniques such as determination of the total organic carbon content (TOC and chemical oxygen demand (COD showed that iron particles supported on deoiled Pimenta dioica L. Merrill husk can be efficiently employed to degrade indigo carmine and achieved a partial mineralization (conversion to CO2 and H2O of the molecule. From the results can be inferred that the prepared biocomposite increases the hydroxyl radicals generation.

  17. Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] rhizobial diversity in Brazilian oxisols under various soil, cropping, and inoculation managements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loureiro, M.D.; Kaschuk, G.; Alberton, O.; Hungria, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, soybean nodules were collected from 12 sites in the State of Mato Grosso, in the Brazilian Cerrados, where both exotic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] and bradyrhizobial strains have been introduced from 1 to 18 years before. All soils were originally devoid of rhizobia capable of

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamma irradiation is highly effective in inactivating microorganisms in various foods and offers a safe alternative method of food decontamination. In the present study, soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill) were treated with 0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 KGy of gamma irradiation. Microbial populations on s...

  19. Review: Barbara Merril & Linden West (2009. Using Biographical Methods in Social Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Garcia Diaz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The return of the subject in the social sciences reflects growing interest in the study of subjectivity. This refers to opportunities for individuals to make meaning of their lives within the institutions of society. MERRIL and WEST’s text serves as a reference for using biographical methods, as well as a reflection on the methodological and ethical issues inherent in doing this type of research.  This review examines the relationship between the book's content and its formal characteristics (didactic style, writing style and its interdisciplinary nature. This review also focuses on the advantages that this textbook may offer if used in  qualitative research courses in general and, specifically, in courses dealing with biographical research methods. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1201104

  20. Growth and quality of soybean sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) as affected by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Juan; Li, Xihong; Fan, Xuetong; Li, Weili; Jiang, Yuqian

    2013-01-01

    In this study, soybean seeds and sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) were exposed to radiation doses up to 3.0 kGy. The irradiated and non-irradiated seeds were germinated, and then germination rate, sprouts length, vitamin C content, antioxidants and visual and olfactory quality were determined after irradiation. Results indicated that there was no significant difference in the germination rate and sprouts length between the control and 0.3 kGy treated soybeans, however, the reductions in sprouts length of the 1.0 kGy and 3.0 kGy treated samples were quite significant with reductions of 20.4% and 58.8%, respectively. Irradiated sprouts had similar visual and olfactory quality as the non-irradiated one. Therefore, irradiation of seeds alone would have limited value in terms of commercial use due to reduced germination and length of sprouts. However, irradiation of sprouts at doses up to 3.0 kGy was feasible to enhance microbial safety of sprouts.

  1. Growth and quality of soybean sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) as affected by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Juan; Li, Xihong; Fan, Xuetong; Li, Weili; Jiang, Yuqian

    2013-01-01

    In this study, soybean seeds and sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) were exposed to radiation doses up to 3.0 kGy. The irradiated and non-irradiated seeds were germinated, and then germination rate, sprouts length, vitamin C content, antioxidants and visual and olfactory quality were determined after irradiation. Results indicated that there was no significant difference in the germination rate and sprouts length between the control and 0.3 kGy treated soybeans, however, the reductions in sprouts length of the 1.0 kGy and 3.0 kGy treated samples were quite significant with reductions of 20.4% and 58.8%, respectively. Irradiated sprouts had similar visual and olfactory quality as the non-irradiated one. Therefore, irradiation of seeds alone would have limited value in terms of commercial use due to reduced germination and length of sprouts. However, irradiation of sprouts at doses up to 3.0 kGy was feasible to enhance microbial safety of sprouts. - Highlights: ► Investigated the germination rate and the sprouts length after irradiation. ► Indicated the effect of irradiation on the antioxidants of the soybean sprouts. ► Evaluated the visual and olfactory quality of irradiated samples.

  2. HERITABILITAS, NISBAH POTENSI, DAN HETEROSIS KETAHANAN KEDELAI (Glycine max [L.] Merrill TERHADAP SOYBEAN MOSAIC VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyimas Sa’diyah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Heritability, potential ratio, and heterosis of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merrill resistance to soybean mosaic virus. The use of soybean cultivars with resistance to SMV is a way for controlling soybean mosaic disease. The objective of this research was to estimate the disease severity, the narrow sense heritability, potential ratio and heterosis of resistance character and number of pithy pods, number of healthy seeds, and healthy seeds weight per plant of ten F1 populations of soybean crossing result to SMV infection. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design in two replications. Observed characters were disease severity, number of pithy pods, number of healthy seeds, and healthy seeds weight per plant. The result of this research showed that 1 the crossing combinations those which were resistant to SMV (lower disease severity were Yellow Bean x Tanggamus, Tanggamus x Orba, and Tanggamus x Taichung, 2 the narrow sense heritability of disease severity was included in medium criteria, 3 number of pithy pods belonged to high criteria, and 4 number of healthy seeds and healthy seeds weight per plant were included in low criteria. The crossing combinations that had low estimation value of heterosis and heterobeltiosis of resistance to SMV infection were Yellow Bean x Taichung, Bean x Tanggamus and Tanggamus x B3570. Disease severity or resistance to SMV is influenced by genetic and environmental factors.

  3. Identification and colonization of endophytic fungi from soybean (Glycine max (L. Merril under different environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Chapaval Pimentel

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 297 endophytic fungi were isolated from 1728 leaf and stem fragments collected about twenty and forty days after germination from soybean (Glycine max (L. Merril plants grown in the field and a greenhouse. The fungi belonged to eight groups, six dematiaceous genera (Alternaria, Cladosporium, Chaetomium, Curvularia, Drechslera and Scopulariopsis and the non-dematiaceous genera Acremonium, Aspergillus, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Paecilomyces and Penicillium along with some Mycelia sterilia.. There were qualitative and quantitative differences in the type and number of isolates obtained from greenhouse and field-grown plants, with more isolates being obtained from the latter. No difference was found in the number of fungi isolated from leaves and stems irrespective of where the plants was grown. For was field-grown plants, the number of isolates decreased as the plants aged and more fungi were found in tissues near the soil, while for greenhouse-grown plants the number of isolates increased as the plants aged but in this case no more fungi were isolated from those tissues nearer the soil. These results could have biotechnological relevance for the biological control of pests or plant growth promotion.A partir de 1728 fragmentos de hastes e folhas de soja (Glycine max (L. Merril. provenientes de plantas do campo e de casa de vegetação, coletadas cerca de 20 e 40 dias após a germinação das sementes, 297 fungos endofíticos foram isolados. Os gêneros encontrados foram: Alternaria, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Chaetomium, Scopulariopsis, Drechslera (todos dematiáceos além de Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Acremonium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Paecilomyces e Mycelia sterilia. Foram detectadas diferenças qualitativas e quantitativas entre os isolados, em relação a micobiota de hospedeiros provenientes do campo e de casa de vegetação com maior frequência de fungos isolados de plantas no campo em comparação com as de casa de vegeta

  4. Utilization of the biorreactor of imersion by bubbles at the micropropagation of Ananas comosus L. Merril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessiel Newton Scheidt

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The research for new techniques of in vitro cultivation is being object of many studies around the world, in order to optimize and decrease production costs of seedlings with agronomical interest. The main goal of this work was to compare different systems of in vitro cultivations using Ananas comosus L. Merril. So, the in vitro growth of the plantlets was promoted in two different bioreactors: Bioreactor of Immersion by Bubbles (B.I.B.® and the Reactor of Temporary Immersion (R.I.T.A.® with immersion cycle every 2 hours for 15 minutes and the traditional system in flasks with 200 mL. All cultivation systems used the MS liquid nutritive solution, supplemented with BAP (1 mgL-1, ANA (0.25 mgL-1, sucrose (30 gL-1 and Tween 20® (0.5 µL. The pH was adjusted to 5.8 and sterilized at 120°C for 15 minutes. The cultures were kept into a growth room during 30 days, with controlled temperature of 25±2°C, under white cold light (46.8 µmol.m-2.s-1, with photoperiod of 16 hours. The experimental design used was randomized, with three treatments, three repetitions and ten plants each stage. Among the evaluated systems, the BIB® presented the best results for the tested variables, mainly the total number of shoots, being 2.3 e 3.1 times superior when compared with the system R.I.T.A.® and the traditional consecutively. So the system of immersion by bubbles turns into an effective equipment to produce seedlings of pineapple in large scale.A busca por novas técnicas de cultivo in vitro vem sendo amplamente estudadas, visando otimizar e baixar o custo de produção das mudas que tenham interesse agronômico. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar diferentes sistemas de cultivo in vitro de Ananas comosus L. Merril. Para tanto, o crescimento in vitro de plântulas foi promovido em sistemas de biorreatores (B.I.B.® e R.I.T.A.® com ciclo de imersão a cada 2 horas por 15 minutos e o sistema tradicional em frascos de 200 mL. Em todos os sistemas de

  5. 16S Ribosomal DNA Characterization of Nitrogen-Fixing Bacteria Isolated from Banana (Musa spp.) and Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães Cruz, Leonardo; Maltempi de Souza, Emanuel; Weber, Olmar Baler; Baldani, José Ivo; Döbereiner, Johanna; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria isolated from banana (Musa spp.) and pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril) were characterized by amplified 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Herbaspirillum seropedicae, Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans, Burkholderia brasilensis, and Burkholderia tropicalis were identified. Eight other types were placed in close proximity to these genera and other alpha and beta Proteobacteria. PMID:11319127

  6. Assessing the Reliability of Merging Chickering & Gamson's Seven Principles for Good Practice with Merrill's Different Levels of Instructional Strategy (DLISt7)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabar, Syaril Izwann; Albion, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Based on Chickering and Gamson's (1987) Seven Principles for Good Practice, this research project attempted to revitalize the principles by merging them with Merrill's (2006) Different Levels of Instructional Strategy. The aim was to develop, validate, and standardize a measurement instrument (DLISt7) using a pretest-posttest Internet…

  7. Floral biology and behavior of Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera in soybean (Glycine max L. Merril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wainer César Chiari

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to evaluate the pollination by Africanized honeybees Apis mellifera, the floral biology and to observe the hoarding behavior in the soybean flowers (Glycine max Merril, var. BRS-133. The treatments were constituted of demarcated areas for free visitation of insects, covered areas by cages with a honeybee colony (A. mellifera and also covered areas by cage without insects visitation. All areas had 24 m² (4m x 6m. The soybean flowers stayed open for a larger time (82.82 ± 3.48 hours in covered area without honeybees. The stigma of the flowers was also more receptive (P=0.0021 in covered area without honeybees (87.3 ± 33.0% and at 10:42 o'clock was the schedule of greater receptivity. The pollen stayed viable in all treatments, the average was 99.60 ± 0.02%, which did not present differences among treatments. The percentage of abortion of the flowers was 82.91% in covered area without honeybees, this result was superior (P=0.0002 to the 52.66% and 53.95% of the treatments uncovered and covered with honeybees, respectively. Honeybees were responsible for 87.7% of the pollination accomplished by the insects. The medium amounts of total sugar and glucose measured in the nectar of the flowers were, 14.33 ± 0.96 mg/flower and 3.61 ± 0.36 mg/ flower, respectively, not showing differences (PEste experimento teve como objetivos avaliar a polinização realizada por abelhas Apis mellifera, estudar a biologia floral e observar o comportamento de coleta nas flores de soja (Glycine max L. Merril, variedade BRS-133 plantadas na região de Maringá-PR. Os tratamentos constituíram de áreas demarcadas de livre visitação por insetos, áreas cobertas por gaiolas, com uma colônia de abelhas (A. mellifera no seu interior e plantas também cobertas por gaiola que impedia a visitação por insetos. Todas as áreas possuíam 24 m² (4 m x 6 m. As flores de soja permaneceram abertas por um tempo maior (82,82 ± 3,48 horas no

  8. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS Merrill using BT and XBT casts in the Indian Ocean and other seas from 1988-03-01 to 1988-03-29 (NODC Accession 8800110)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS MERRILL in the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Oman, and Indian Ocean. Data were...

  9. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS MERRILL using BT and XBT casts in the Indian Ocean and other seas from 05 April 1988 to 11 April 1988 (NODC Accession 8800140)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS MERRILL in the Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, and Gulf of Oman. Data were...

  10. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS MERRILL using BT and XBT casts in the Indian Ocean and other seas from 17 May 1988 to 01 June 1988 (NODC Accession 8800181)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS MERRILL in Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean, Gulf of Oman, Laccadive Sea, and...

  11. Desenvolvimento de Cerveja Artesanal com Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC e Abacaxi (Ananas comosus L. Merril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. F. Pinto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A cerveja é a bebida alcoólica mais consumida no mundo. Estando bem relacionado com festividades e comemorações, porém essa bebida contém uma variedade de compostos bioativos, vitaminas e minerais, capazes de promover benefícios quando a sua ingestão é feita de maneira moderada. O mercado está a cada dia buscando produtos diferenciados e até exclusivos, surge assim o campo das cervejas artesanais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver uma cerveja artesanal com acerola e abacaxi, trazendo uma nova alternativa ao nicho de mercado, além da associação ao aumento de suas características funcionais. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Cereais, Universidade Federal do Ceará – UFC, onde a cerveja foi produzida em escala laboratorial passando pelos processos de moagem do malte, mosturação, cozimento, decantação, filtração, fermentação, envase, maturação e primming, sendo adicionada a polpa de fruta em percentagem definidas por DIC, pasteurização e armazenamento. As amostras foram submetidas à análise físico-química, microbiológica e sensorial. Os resultados foram submetidos ao teste de normalidade, ao teste de média tukey e a ANOVA pelo software STATISTIC 10. A utilização das polpas de abacaxi e acerola como adjuntos no processamento da cerveja mostrou-se uma alternativa viável demostrada pelos resultados satisfatórios na avaliação sensorial, além de características físico-químicas de uma cerveja artesanal ácida/frutada. Development of craftbeer with Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC and pineapple (Ananas comosus L. MerrilAbstract: The beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage in the world. It is well associated with holidays and celebrations, but this beverage contains a variety of bioactive compounds, vitamins and minerals that promote benefits when its intake is made moderate manner. The market is every day looking for different and even unique products, thus arises the field of craft

  12. Mutants obtained by chronic gamma irradiation of soybean [Glycine Max (l.) Merrill]varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajos Novak, M; Korosi, F.; Sipos, T.; Hodosne Kotvics, G.

    2001-01-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is a wonder crop, containing about 20% oil and 40% high quality protein, having multiple uses such as food, fodder and industrial products. In Hungary in he last few years there has been a renewed interest in improving protein and oil content of the soybean crop. Selection for oil and/or protein content from segregating populations, derived from induced mutagenesis or hybridization, is known to be effective. Orf and Helms (1994) emphasized, that to fulfill demands of both sellers and purchasers, combined selection for yield components, yield, oil and/or protein content has to be carried out. For this purpose mutant soybean germplasm s were developed by pedigree method from a Carpathian-Ukrainian (KA) further more a Vietnamese (VL40) local variety adapted to Hungarian environmental conditions by 100-300 Gy chronic gamma irradiation. A function index was introduced to evaluate the genetic variability for the quality parameters and the most important agronomic traits. Chronic gamma irradiation increased the genetic variability of the oil content in the KA and of the protein content in the VL40 germplasm. Function index predicted up to 28% oil content in the KA mutant germplasm. Plants with 24.1 and 23.6% oil content were selected from the 150 Gy and the 100 Gy populations in the M4 generation. In the M5, progenies of a superior plant with 23.6% oil content were homozygous for this characteristics, while progenies of a superior plant with 24.1% oil content were segregating. Year can cause +-2.0-2.5% differences in the oil content of the seeds. Oil content had a moderate negative correlation with 1000-seed weight in both of the above mentioned generations .Seed samples with the highest oil content were analysed for fatty acid composition using gas-liquid chromatography. Their linoleic acid content ranged from 51.8 to 55.0%. Unfortunately, in M5 the linolenic acid content was higher than in M4, varying between 7.9% and 9.3%. The 200 Gy

  13. A emissão em 8mm e as bandas de Merrill-Sanford em estrelas carbonadas

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, A. B.; Lorenz-Martins, S.

    2003-08-01

    Estrelas carbonadas possuem bandas moleculares em absorção no visível e, no infravermelho (IR) as principais características espectrais se devem a emissão de grãos. Recentemente foi detectada a presença de bandas de SiC2 (Merrill-Sanford, MS) em emissão sendo atribuída à presença de um disco rico em poeira. Neste trabalho analisamos uma amostra de 14 estrelas carbonadas, observadas no telescópio de 1.52 m do ESO em 4 regiões espectrais diferentes, a fim de detectar as bandas de MS em emissão. Nossa amostra é composta de estrelas que apresentam além da emissão em 11.3 mm, outra em 8 mm. Esta última emissão, não usual nestes objetos, tem sido atribuída ou a moléculas de C2H2, ou a um composto sólido ainda indefinido. A detecção de emissões de MS e aquelas no IR, simultaneamente, revelaria um cenário mais complexo que o habitualmente esperado para os ventos destes objetos. No entanto como primeiro resultado, verificamos que as bandas de Merrill-Sanford encontram-se em absorção, não revelando nenhuma conexão com a emissão a 8 mm. Assim, temos duas hipóteses: (a) a emissão a 8 mm se deve à molécula C2H2 ou (b) essa emissão é resultado da emissão térmica de grãos. Testamos a segunda hipótese modelando a amostra com grãos não-homogêneos de SiC e quartzo, o qual emite em aproximadamente 8mm. Este grão seria produzido em uma fase evolutiva anterior a das carbonadas (estrelas S) e por terem uma estrutura cristalina são destruídos apenas na presença de campos de radiação ultravioleta muito intensos. Os modelos para os envoltórios utilizam o método de Monte Carlo para descrever o problema do transporte da radiação. As conclusões deste trabalho são: (1) as bandas de Merrill-Sanford se encontram em absorção, sugerindo um cenário usual para os ventos das estrelas da amostra; (2) neste cenário, a emissão em 8 mm seria resultado de grãos de quartzo com mantos de SiC, indicando que o quartzo poderia sobreviver a fase

  14. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum enhances the organic and fatty acids content of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís R; Pereira, Maria J; Azevedo, Jessica; Mulas, Rebeca; Velazquez, Encarna; González-Andrés, Fernando; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2013-12-15

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is one of the most important food crops for human and animal consumption, providing oil and protein at relatively low cost. The least expensive source of nitrogen for soybean is the biological fixation of atmospheric nitrogen by the symbiotic association with soil bacteria, belonging mainly to the genus Bradyrhizobium. This study was conducted to assess the effect of the inoculation of G. max with Bradyrhizobium japonicum on the metabolite profile and antioxidant potential of its seeds. Phenolic compounds, sterols, triterpenes, organic acids, fatty acids and volatiles profiles were characterised by different chromatographic techniques. The antioxidant activity was evaluated against DPPH, superoxide and nitric oxide radicals. Inoculation with B. japonicum induced changes in the profiles of primary and secondary metabolites of G. max seeds, without affecting their antioxidant capacity. The increase of organic and fatty acids and volatiles suggest a positive effect of the inoculation process. These findings indicate that the inoculation with nodulating B. japonicum is a beneficial agricultural practice, increasing the content of bioactive metabolites in G. max seeds owing to the establishment of symbiosis between plant and microorganism, with direct effects on seed quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Efecto de la morfología de los embriones somáticos en la regeneración de plantas de soya (Glycine max L. Merrill)

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Pérez, Jorge L.; García-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Veitía-Rodríguez, Novisel; Bermúdes-Caraballoso, Idalmis; Collado-López, Raúl; Torres-Rodríguez, Damaris

    2017-01-01

    Los protocolos establecidos para la regeneración de plantas vía embriogénesis somática en soya (Glycine max L. Merrill), son específicos para un número reducido de cultivares, lo que requiere de nuevos estudios que permitan disponer de protocolos más eficientes y reproducibles en un mayor número de genotipos. Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo determinar el efecto del tipo de morfología de los embriones somáticos en la germinación y conversión a planta en soya cultivar ʻIncasoy-27ʼ. Se emplearon...

  16. Assessment of clonal fidelity of Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merrill "in vitro" plantlets by ISSR molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Madan Mohan; Verma, Roop Narayan; Singh, Abhijeet; Batra, Amla

    2014-01-01

    Tylophora indica Burm F. Merrill. is widely used against various diseases owing to the presence an array of medicinally important secondary metabolites. Its stem is bitter, stomachic, stimulates bile secretion, enriches the blood and cures diseases like diabetes, fever, flatulence, hypertension, jaundice, leucorrhoea, urinary disease and upper respiratory tract infection. It is neglected for tissue culture work because of deciduous nature of climbing shrub, facing problems for micropropagation. Hence, in vitro regeneration of complete plantlets was done through indirect organogenesis in Tylophora indica. Calli were produced from in vivo leaves of T. indica on MS medium supplemented with 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP: 2.0 mg l(-1)) and Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA: 0.5 mg l(-1)). The multiple shoots (12.00 ± 1.50) emerged and elongated on MS medium fortified with Thidiazuron (TDZ: 0.1 mg l(-1)). They were rooted on half strength MS medium having IBA (0.5 mg l(-1)) (7.75 ± 0.25) after 20 days of sub-culturing followed by hardening and acclimatization. During indirect regeneration of plants, chances of somaclonal variations may arise. These variations should be identified to produce true to type plants. Plantlets raised through tissue culture were used to validate the clonal fidelity through Inter simple sequence repeat markers (ISSR). Clonal fidelity is a major consideration in commercial micropropagation using in vitro tissue culture methods. During the study, total 71 clear and distinct bands were produced using 6 primers. The banding pattern of each primer was uniform and comparable to mother plant and showed about 93% homology using un-weighted pair group method with arithmetic averaging (UPGMA). ISSR analysis confirmed the genetic stability of in vitro raised plants.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun Juan; Li Xihong; Fan Xuetong; Tang Yao; Xiao Yao; Wan Sen

    2012-01-01

    Gamma irradiation is highly effective in inactivating microorganisms in various foods and offers a safe alternative method of food decontamination. In the present study, soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill) were treated with 0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 KGy of gamma irradiation. Microbial populations on soybeans, isoflavone, tocopherol contents, raffinose family oligosaccharides, color and sensory properties were evaluated as a function of irradiation dose. The results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced aerobic bacterial and fungal load. Irradiation at the doses applied did not cause any significant change (p>0.05) in the contents of isoflavone of soybeans, but decreased tocopherol contents. The content of key flatulence-producing raffinose family oligosaccharides in irradiated soybeans (10.0 kGy) decreased by 82.1% compared to the control. Sensory analysis showed that the odor of the soybeans was organoleptically acceptable at doses up to 5.0 kGy and no significant differences were observed between irradiated and nonirradiated samples in flavor, texture and color after irradiation. - Highlights: ► The objective of this study concerns the elimination of microbial load factors at different radiation dose (0.0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy). ► Investigated the degradation of the gamma irradiation on the reduction of flatulence-causing. ► Indicated the effect of irradiation on the isoflavone and tocopherol contents of the soybeans. ► Evaluated the effect of the gamma irradiation on the sensory properties of soybeans.

  18. Cummings, Merrill, and Borrelli’s Inquiry into Small Screen Use by Academic Library Users: Timing is Everything

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharine Bomhold

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Cummings, J., Merrill, A., & Borrelli, S. (2010. The use of handheld mobile devices: Their impact and implications for library services. Library Hi Tech, (281, 22-40. https://doi.org/10.1108/07378831011026670 Abstract Objective – The authors undertook this study to understand the relatively new phenomenon of handheld computing and the use of small-screen devices among academic library users. They sought to determine if users would be inclined to search the online library catalogue on their devices and, by extension, if there would be a growing demand for small-screen compatible library services. Design – Online and paper surveys were used with both closed and open questions. Respondents included students, faculty, and staff at Washington State University (WSU. Setting – Washington State University Library, Pullman, Washington, United States of America. Subjects – The survey was open to any user of the Washington State University (Pullman Library. The 206 respondents included 126 (61.2% undergraduates, 26 (12.6% graduate or professional students, 32 (15.3% WSU employees, and 15 (7.3% faculty members. Methods – A survey was distributed both online and on paper. The online version used Surveymonkey.com and participation was solicited through various social media. It was open for three months during the Spring semester, 2007. The paper version was distributed to all library users on two days in June 2007. Eighty-four online and 122 paper responses were received. Main Results – Most of the respondents (58.4% who owned a personal digital assistant (PDA or Web-enabled cell phone (WECP indicated that they would search the library catalogue on a small-screen device. Responses to the open question “How would you use the OPAC [online public access catalogue] if it was available on a PDA or WECP?” were mixed, both positive and negative. The positive responders noted the possible time savings associated with the availability of

  19. 2011德国公开赛男单半决赛马琳VS波尔技战术比较分析%2011 German Open men's singles semi-final Marlene VS Pol comparative analysis of techniques and tactics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉启明; 张玉杰

    2012-01-01

    运用文献资料、录像观察、三段指标评估法,对马琳和波尔在德国公开赛半决赛中各项技战术进行统计,分析他们在发抢段、接抢断和相持段的技战术运用特点,找出各自的打法优势和不足之处,为我国直拍选手对战国外优秀横拍选手提供参考。%In this paper,literature,video observation,three sections of indicators to evaluate the law,Marlene and Boer in German open semi-finals of the technical and tactical statistics,analysis of their segment in the hair grad,then steal and use of technical and tactical stalemate Features section identify their strengths and weaknesses of the play,players battle for China's outstanding foreign Pen horizontal position players for reference.

  20. Selection individual on mutant genotype of soybean (Glycine maxl.merrill) in m5 generation based on resistance of stem rot disease Athelia rolfsii (curzi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmah, M.; Hanafiah, D. S.; Siregar, L. A. M.; Safni, I.

    2018-02-01

    This study was aimed to obtain selected individuals on soybean plant Glycine max L. (Merrill) in M5 generation based on high production character and tolerance of stem rot disease Athelia rolfsii (Curzi). This research was conducted in Plant Disease Laboratory and experimental field Faculty of Agriculture Universitas Sumatera Utara Medan, Indonesia. This research was conducted from December 2016 to June 2017. The treatments were 15 mutant lines genotypes and Anjasmoro variety. The results showed that some lines mutant genotypes can gave the good agronomic appearance character than Anjasmoro variety on inoculation treatment of stem rot disease. Selection performed on population M5 producesselected individuals with tolerance of stem rot disease from 100 and 200 Gy population.

  1. Seleccion de cepas de rizobios en suelos promisorios para el cultivo de la soya (Glycine max (L Merril en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester Bradley Rosemary

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available En el invernadero se evaluó la efectividad de las cepas preseleccionadas de B. japonicum (CIAT 199,209,3778,3874 y 3876 de la recomendada (CIAT51 y una de Rhizobium spp (CIAT 3779. En el suelo Fluventic Haplustoll, de reacción casi neutra, se presentó respuesta altamente significativa a la inoculación. El tratamiento fertilizado con 150 kg de N/ha produjo el mayor rendimiento de N. Las cepas más efectivas fueron CIAT 3778 y 51, que también presentaron el mayor indice de efectividad a la inoculación (IEI. En el suelo Typic Pellustert,de reacción alcalina, se presentó respuesta significativa a la inoculación. El mayor rendimiento de N se obtuvo con las cepas CIAT 3778 y 51, que fueron además estadísticamente iguales a las cepas CIAT 199 y 3876 en cuanto al IEI. En el suelo Arenic Haplustalf, de reacción ligeramente ácida, hubo respuesta altamente significativa a la inoculación y la cepa más efectiva fue la CJAT 199. En el suelo Fluventic Ustropept, de reacci6n ligeramente ácida, se presentaron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos inoculados. El mayor rendimiento de N se presentó en el tratamiento fertilizado con N. Las mejores cepas fueron CIAT 3778,3779 y 209. En el suelo Vertic Ustropept, de reacción alcalina, se presentó respuesta altamente significativa a la inoculación. En cuanto al rendimiento de N no se encontraron diferencias entre el tratamiento fertilizado con N y las cepas CIAT 51, 209 y CIAT 3778, siendo también las más efectivas en cuanto al IEI, junto oon la cepa CIAT 199. En los suelos Tropentic Haplorthox y Typic Tropudult no se enoontró respuesta a la inoculación.Screening of Rhizobium strains in soils apt for soybean (Glycine max (L Merril cultivation in Colombia. Under greenhouse conditions were evaluated the effectivity of the preselected strains of the preselected strains of B. japonicum (CIAT 199, 209, 3778, 3874 and 3876, in addition to the recommended strain (CIAT 51 and one of

  2. Emisiones de óxido nitroso en un cultivo de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill]: efecto de la inoculación y de la fertilización nitrógenada Nitrous oxide emission during a soybean [Glycine max (L. Merril] culture: inoculation and nitrogen fertilization effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio A Ciampitti

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El óxido nitroso absorbe radiación infrarroja contribuyendo al efecto invernadero; este gas es producido principalmente en el suelo, mediante los procesos de nitrificación y denitrificación. En un estudio a campo, sobre un suelo Argiudol típico, se evaluó el efecto de la fertilización y la inoculación con Bradyrhizobium japonicum en un cultivo de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill], sobre las emisiones de óxido nitroso. Los gases se extrajeron de cilindros de PVC y la lectura se realizó con cromatografía gaseosa. Las emisiones presentaron valores crecientes desde la siembra hacia madurez fisiológica del cultivo, para todos los tratamientos; este comportamiento fue concomitante con la evolución presentada por la humedad edáfica. La fertilización nitrogenada aumentó significativamente (PNitrous oxide gas absorbs infrared radiation contributing to the greenhouse effect; this gas is produced mainly in soil, by means of the processes of nitrification and denitrification. In a field study at the FAUBA on a typic Argiudol, we evaluated the effect of fertilization and inoculation with Bradyrhizobium japonicum during a soybean culture [Glycine max (L. Merrill], on nitrous oxide emisión. Gases were sampled with PVC cylinders and were read with gaseous chromatography. Emissions presented increasing values from seeding towards physiological maturity for all treatments; this behavior was similar to the evolution presented by nitrate level and soil moisture. Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased (P<0.05 nitrous oxide emissions and inoculation only had a significant effect with the highest level of fertilization (P=0.09. Plots fertilized at highest dose and inoculated gave the greatest nitrous oxide emissions. The variable that better explains the emissions is the nitrate level (r² = 0.1899; P=0.0231.

  3. Novel process of fermenting black soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] yogurt with dramatically reduced flatulence-causing oligosaccharides but enriched soy phytoalexins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shengbao; Saw, Chin Lee; Lee, Yuan Kun; Huang, Dejian

    2008-11-12

    Black soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] were germinated under fungal stress with food grade R. oligosporus for 3 days and were homogenized and fermented with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to produce soy yogurt. Fungal stress led to the generation of oxylipins [oxooctadecadienoic acids (KODES) isomers and their respective glyceryl esters] and glyceollins--a type of phytoalexins unique to soybeans. In soy yogurt, the concentrations of total KODES and total glyceollins were 0.678 mg/g (dry matter) and 0.953 mg/g, respectively. The concentrations of other isoflavones (mainly genistein and daidzein and their derivatives) in soy yogurt remained largely unchanged after the processes compared with the control soy yogurt. Germination of black soybean under fungal stress for 3 days was sufficient to reduce stachyose and raffinose (which cause flatulence) by 92 and 80%, respectively. With a pH value of 4.42, a lactic acid content of 0.262%, and a maximum viable cell count of 2.1 x 10 (8) CFU/mL in the final soy yogurt, soy milk from germinated soybeans under fungal stress was concluded to be a suitable medium for yogurt-making. The resulting soy yogurt had significantly altered micronutrient profiles with significantly reduced oligosaccharides and enriched glyceollins.

  4. Yield response of soy bean cultivars (Glycine max [L.] Merrill to the application of different doses of biofertilizer FitoMás–E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanitza Meriño Hernández

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was done under field conditions, from December 2012 through February 2013. The objective was to evaluate the yield response of soy bean (Glycine max [L.] Merrill, variety “INCASOY-24”, to the application of different doses of FitoMás-E, in a randomized block experimental design with 4 treatments: T1 (control, T2 (1 L.ha-1, T3 (1.5 L.ha-1 and T4 (2 L.ha-1, and 4 replications. The bioestimulant was applied to foliage early in the morning from the 10th day after germination. The data were analyzed statistically with Statistica, ver. 8.0 software. When the indicators used showed significant differences, the Duncan’s Multiple Range Test was applied to p < 0.05. The results of each evaluated variable showed a significant effect of FitoMás-E on the cultivar. The best results were achieved where the application dose was 1 L.ha-1 (T2.

  5. Yield and Yield Attributes Responses of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill to Elevated CO2 and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Inoculation in the Humid Transitory Rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurudeen ADEYEMI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Variations in yield components and grain yield of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF inoculated soybean varieties (Glycine max L. Merrill grown in CO2 enriched environment in the humid rainforest were tested.  A screen house trial was established with soybean varieties (‘TGx 1448-2E’, ‘TGx 1440-1E’ and ‘TGx 1740-2F’, AMF inoculation (with and without and CO2 enrichment (350±50 ppm and 550±50 ppm in open top chamber, arranged in completely randomised design, replicated three times. A field trial was also conducted; the treatments were arranged in a split-split plot configuration fitted into randomised complete block design. In the main plot the variant was CO2 enrichment, the sub-plot consisted of AMF inoculation (with and without, while the sub-sub plot consisted of soybean varieties, replicated three times. Both trials had significantly higher grain yield at elevated CO2 than ambient. This could be attributed to improved yield attributes, more spore count and root colonisation. In both trials, inoculated soybean had significantly higher dry pod weight than un-inoculated, which could suggest the increased grain yield observed on the field. AMF inoculated soybean varieties outperformed un-inoculated in both CO2 enriched and ambient concentrations. AMF inoculated soybean variety ‘TGx 1740-2F’ is most preferable in CO2 enriched environment, while variety ‘TGx 1448-2E’ had the most stable grain yield in all growth environments.

  6. The effect of soil tillage system and weeding time on the growth of weed and yield of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husni Thamrin Sebayang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth and yield of soybeans can decrease due to competition from weeds. Various efforts have been made to control the growth of weeds such as land preparation and weeding periods. An experiment to study the effect of soil tillage systems and weeding time on the growth of weeds and soybean crop yield (Glycine max (L. Merril has been done in Wringinsongo Village, Tumpang Sub-District, Malang Regency from February to May 2017. The split-plot design with three replicates was used with the soil tillage system as the main plot consisting of three levels, T0: no tillage, T1: minimum tillage, and T2: conventional tillage, and weeding time as the sub plot consisting of 4 levels, P0: no weeding, P1: weeding 1 time, P2: weeding two times and P3: weeding three times. The results showed that the dominant weed species before treatment were Amaranthus spinosus (Spiny amaranth, Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass, Cyperus rotundus (Purple nutsedge, Ageratum conyzoides (Billygoat weed, and Portulaca oleracea (Common purslane. After treatment, the dominant weed species were Cyperus rotundus (Purple nutsedge, Amaranthus spinosus (Spiny amaranth, Ageratum conyzoides (Billygoat weed, Physalis peruviana (Cape gooseberry, and Eclipta alba (False daisy. There was no significant difference of the dry weight of weeds in conventional tillage followed by weeding 3 times at 15, 30 and 45 days after planting, and minimum tillage and no tillage. For the yield of soybeans, conventional tillage followed by weeding 3 times at 15, 30 and 45 days after planting were not significant with that of minimum tillage. The yield of soybeans was lower than that of with no tillage and no weeding.

  7. 81 GUIATEU TAMO IDA MARLENE 1, DJUIDJE NGOUNOUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-07-12

    Jul 12, 2017 ... study was to evaluate the importance of the biochemical exploration of the liver function in ... test in Yaoundé central hospital, from November 2015 to February 2016. .... aminotransferase (AST) reflects direct ... Inclusion and exclusion criteria .... recruitment ... relatively lower mean CD4 T cell values than HIV.

  8. Jörg Haideri miljonid tekitavad kahtlusi / Marlen Rein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rein, Marlen, 1990-

    2010-01-01

    Austria ajakiri Profil avaldas väljavõtteid Iraagi siseminiseeriumi toimikust, mis heidavad halba varju Austria parempopulistliku partei Austria Tulevikuallianss autoõnnetuses hukkunud liidrile Jörg Haiderile ja teistele prominentsetele poliitikutele

  9. 81 GUIATEU TAMO IDA MARLENE 1, DJUIDJE NGOUNOUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-07-12

    Jul 12, 2017 ... In HIV / HCV co-infected patients, the first blood sample showed a significant increase of γ-GT ... second prélèvement sanguin avait été fait chez les patients mono-infectés VIH et co-infectés par le ... analyses biochimiques du second prélèvement effectuées après trois mois du premier prélèvement ont.

  10. Adubação foliar com macro e micronutrientes no crescimento de mudas micropropagadas do abacaxizeiro cv. Gold [Ananas comosus (L. Merrill] em diferentes recipientes Foliar fertilization with macro and micronutrients in the growth of plantlets micropropagated of pineapple cv. Gold [Ananas comosus (L. Merrill] in different containers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaias dos Santos Bregonci

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da adubação foliar com macro e micronutrientes no crescimento das mudas micropropagadas do abacaxizeiro cv. Gold [Ananas comosus (L. Merrill], em diferentes recipientes. O experimento foi em esquema fatorial 8x3, adubação foliar em 8 níveis e recipientes em 3 níveis, através de um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 5 repetições. As mudas foram padronizadas com altura média de 7,12 cm. As adubações foliares foram feitas com uréia, cloreto de potássio, ácido bórico, um formulado comercial com macro e micronutrientes e testemunha (pulverização com água e os recipientes: bandeja de isopor com 200 células; tubete pequeno de 115 cm³; e tubete grande com 300 cm³. O substrato utilizado foi o plantmax hortaliças®. Avaliaram-se as características área foliar, altura de planta e massa seca da parte aérea e da raiz, aos 140 dias do transplantio. Os adubos foliares proporcionaram maior crescimento em área foliar, altura e massa seca da parte aérea às mudas do abacaxizeiro, embora com resultados diferentes. Os adubos foliares não aumentaram a massa seca do sistema radicular. A bandeja de isopor apresentou as menores médias, com todos os adubos foliares para área foliar, altura e massa seca da parte aérea das mudas do abacaxizeiro. O tubete pequeno e o tubete grande apresentaram resultados semelhantes com a maioria dos adubos foliares utilizados.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the foliar fertilization with macro and micronutrients on the growth of the plantlets micropropagated of pineapple cv. Gold [Ananas comosus (L. Merrill] in different containers. The experiment was mounted in factorial arrangement 8x3, with foliar fertilization in 8 levels and containers in 3 levels, through a completely randomized design with five repetitions. The plantlets were standardized with average height of 7,12 cm. The foliar fertilization was used in the urea

  11. Estudo de competição inter e intraespecífica envolvendo Glycine max (L. Merril e Cyperus rotundus (L., em condições de casa de vegetação Inter and intraspecific competitions studies in Glycine max (L. merril and Cyperus rotundus L., in greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Pitelli

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento teve por objetivo estudar os efeitos da competição inter e intraespecífica envolvendo Glycine max (L. Merril e Cyperus rotundus L. sobre as características das plantas e acúmulos de N, P, K, Ca e Mg pelas espécies envolvidas. Para tanto, estipulou-se um tratamento em que se desenvolveram três plantas de Glycine max e outro em que se desenvolveram 3 tubérculos de Cyperus rotundus por vaso. Para estudar os efeitos da competição intraespecífica, em dois outros tratamentos dobraram-se as populações por vaso. No estudo da competição interespecífica permitiu-se o desenvolvimento de três plantas de Glycine max e de três tubérculos de Cyperus rotundus num mesmo vaso. De uma maneira geral, pôde-se observar que principalmente devido às diferenças no hábito de crescimento das duas espécies, a expressão da competição inter e intraespecífica, em cada uma delas, assume aspectos distintos. No caso de Cyperus rotundus, o efeito do dobro da densidade pôde ser compensado, em parte, pela maior produção de manifestações epígeas e de tubérculos, aliados ao maior desenvolvimento dos tubérculos na menor densidade de plantio. No caso da competição interespecífica, os resultados sugerem um efeito decisivo do sombreamento de Leguminosae sobre o comportamento da Cyperaceae. Os padrões de efeitos da competição pelos nutrientes foi determinado também pelas diferenças no recrutamento dos elementos do solo pelas espécies envolvidas.Inter and intraspecific competition studies envolving Glycine max (L. Merril and Cyperus rotundus L. were performed by measuring the effects on the growth and accumulation of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in the plants. The standard number of the plants per pot was three. In the interspecific competition plots three shoots of purple nutsedge and three plants of soybeans were cultivated per pot. In the intraspecific competition studies six shoots or plants per pot of C. rotundus or G. max were

  12. Efeito de doses de metribuzin no crescimento e na conversão da energia solar em plantas de soja (Glycine max (L . merrill Effect of metribuzin doses on the growth and solar energy conversion in soybean (Glycine max (L. merrill plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Silva Neto

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento e a eficiência na conversão da energia solar foram estudados em soja (Glycine max (L. Merri ll, cv. 'Uberaba', cultivada em condições de campo, sob quatro doses de metribuzin (0, 0,35; 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1. O valor máximo da conversão da energia solar foi de 0,75%, para as plantas cultiva das na maior dose do herbicida. Os valores da conversão da energia solar média durante o ciclo da cultura foram 0,32 ; 0,31 ; 0,32 e 0,33%. em ordem crescente de dose do metribuzin. De modo geral, na fase vegetativa as plantas controle apresentaram valores inferiores em todos os valores de crescimento determinados, superando as tratadas com metribuzin somente na fase reprodutiva, mostrando que no período crítico de competição o dano causado pelas plantas daninhas é maior que a possível fitotoxicida de causada pelo metribuzin.Growth analysis and evaluation of solar energy conversion in soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill, Uberaba unver field conditions and four doses of metribuzin (0,0;0,35; 0,70 and 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1 were performed in this study. Maximum solar energy conversion was 0,75% for pla nts tre ate d wit h 1,05 kg i.a.ha -1 metribuzin. The aver age of solar energy conversion throughout the entire crop cycle were 0,32, 0,31 , 0,32 and 0,33% for the increasing metribuzin doses. In general, the control showed lower figures for all growth values studied than the treated during the vegetative phase. During the reproductive phase, however, they surpassed those tre ated with metribuzin, showing that in the critical period of competition weeds were more harmful than the phytotoxicity produced by metribuzin.

  13. Influência de abelhas africanizadas na concentração de açúcares no néctar de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill var. Coodetec 207 = Influence of africanized honeybees on sugar concentration in the nectar of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill var. Coodetec 207

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloi Machado Alves

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a concentração de açúcares no néctar de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill em áreas com ou sem a presença de abelhas Apis mellifera L. Foi utilizada a variedade Coodetec 207 em quatro tratamentos: área de 24 m2 coberta com colônia de abelhas africanizadas em seu interior; área semicoberta com livre acesso para insetos visitantes; área livre e área coberta sem abelhas. As flores foram coletadas durante três dias, a cada 2h. e a concentração dos açúcares totais por flor foi determinada por espectrofotometria. A área coberta com abelha apresentou maior concentração de açúcares totais em relação à área coberta sem abelhas e livre, contudo, aconcentração de açúcares totais na área livre não diferiu da concentração observada na área coberta sem abelhas. Houve redução na concentração média de sacarose na área livre, diferindo das concentrações nas demais áreas. A concentração média de glicose não diferiu entre os tratamentos, enquanto que a de frutose não apresentou diferença entre as áreas cobertas com abelhas, semicoberta e livre. A variedade Coodetec 207 da soja apresentou maior concentração total de açúcares e de frutose nas áreas cobertas com abelhas. Contudo, a presença de Apis mellifera não interferiu nesta concentração de açúcares no néctar das flores de soja desta variedade.This research was carried out to evaluate the sugar concentration in soybean nectar in areas with Africanized honeybee colonies. The var. Coodetec 207 was used in four treatments: 24 m2 covered area with Africanized honeybee colony inside, semi-covered area for free insect visitation, uncovered area, and covered area without insect visitation. Flowers were harvested for three days at two-hour intervals, and the total sugar concentration per flower was determined by spectrophotometry. The covered area with Africanized honeybee colony presented higher sugar concentration than the covered area

  14. Teste de lixiviação de potássio para avaliação do vigor de sementes de soja [Glycine max (L.Merril] Potassium leaching test for the evaluation of soybean seed vigour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C.F.S. Dias

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo principal investigar a possibilidade de se obter indicações rápidas sobre a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de soja através do teste de lixiviação de potássio, cuja eficiência foi avaliada comparativamente as informações fornecidas por outros métodos considerados adequados para a determinação do vigor. Para tanto, utilizou-se quatro lotes de sementes de soja dos cultivares IAC-8 e IAC-15 que foram submetidos aos testes de germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, envelhecimento artificial, condutividade elétrica e determinação do grau de umidade. Além destes foram conduzidos estudos de lixiviação de potássio utilizando-se amostras de sementes não danificadas e de sementes fisicamente puras. A quantidade de potássio lixiviado foi avaliada em fotômetro de chama após 60, 90, 120 e 150 minutos de embebição a 30ºC. As avaliações feitas aos 60, 90 e 120 minutos mostraram-se adequadas para a identificação de lotes com diferentes níveis de vigor, constituindo-se em um método simples e rápido para a avaliação da qualidade fisiológica das sementes.This work was performed to investigate the possibilities of providing rapid indications on the physiological quality of seeds through the potassium leaching test. Four lots of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill seeds, cultivars IAC-8 and IAC-15 were submitted to germination, first count, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity and seed moisture tests. In addition, studies on potassium leaching were conducted with samples of selected non damaged seeds and with pure seeds. The amount of leached potassium was evaluated in a flame photometer after a 60, 90, 120 and 150 minute imbibition at 30°C. The evaluations after 60, 90 and 120 minutes were suitable for the identification of lots with different levels of vigour, thus proving to be a simple and rapid method for seed vigour evaluation.

  15. Armuloo lõpp / Merril Stevenson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stevenson, Merril

    2006-01-01

    Briti peaministri Tony Blairi ametist lahkumise järel arvatakse esile kerkivat kahte tugevamat liidrit, ühelt poolt konservatiivide peaministrikandidaat David Cameron, teisalt leiboristide Gordon Brown - järglane praegusele peaministrile. Vt. samas: Maailma liider otsib järgmist suurt väljakutset

  16. Autotrophic and heterotrophic activity in Arctic first-year sea-ice: Seasonal study from Marlene Bight, SW Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Dorte Haubjerg; Kristensen, Morten; Rysgaard, Søren

    2010-01-01

    in situ in plastic bags with subsequent melting and measurements of changes in total O-2 concentrations. The standard incubations showed that the annual succession followed a distinctive pattern, with a low, almost balancing heterotrophic and autotrophic activity during February and March. This period...

  17. Radiation induced mutagenesis in soybean (Glycine Max L. Merrill)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakode, M.M.; Nandanwar, R.S.; Patil, G.P.

    2000-01-01

    The mutagenic effects of gamma rays (10, 20 and 30 kR) on some biological parameter in M1 generation and frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and morphological mutations in five cultivars of soybean viz. JS-8021, JS-335, JS- 7105, Monetta and PKV -1 have been studied. A dose dependant decrease was noticed in most of the characters like root length, shoot length, germination, plant height, plant survival and pollen sterility. While seedling height, number of seeds per pod and number of branches per plant were not affected significantly. The highest frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and morphological mutations was noticed in variety JS-8021 in which 20 different gene loci for various characters were mutated. However variety JS- 7105 showed less radio sensitive response for different traits in which only 12 different loci were mutated. While JS-335, monetta and PKV-I showed moderate response to frequency and spectrum of various mutations. These varieties showed differential response to radio sensitivity, some useful mutations included, high yielding mutant in 20 kR, non shattering mutant in 30 kR and vine type mutant in 10 kR in variety monetta. Extra early type, erect and high branched type mutant were recorded with high frequency in 10 and 20 kR respectively in variety JS-8021. In general, 20 kR dose was found more effective in all the varieties studied. (author)

  18. Rhetoric. The Bobbs-Merrill Series in Composition and Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Richard L., Ed.

    Reflecting the opinions of both classical theorists and recent authors, 16 papers on rhetorical theory are collected in this publication. Selections in Part 1, concerned with the definition and objectives of rhetoric, are by Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Kenneth Burke, Donald C. Bryant, and Martin Steinmann, Jr. In Part 2, selections from the pedagogy…

  19. Reaction of some selected soybean varieties ( Glycine max (L) Merril)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In nematode endemic ecological zones, TGX-1985 – 8F is therefore recommended as it proved to contain some specialized genes that conferred a higher level of tolerance against root- knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Key Words: Glycine max, root – knot nematode, Dominant loci, Mi – 1.2, leucine zipper and R ...

  20. Is green better than blue? The Danish JHA opt-out and the unilateral attempt to attract highly skilled labour / Marlene Wind

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Wind, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Taanis rakendatud rohelise kaardi süsteemist ja kõrgelt kvalifitseeritud tööjõu meelitamisest Sinise kaardi direktiivi abil. Kahe süsteemi erinevustest ja sarnasustest ning raskustest meelitada tööle kõrgelt kvalifitseeritud tööjõudu Taanis ja kogu Euroopas

  1. Resposta da soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill à ação de bioestimulante = Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill response to biostimulant action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestina Alflen Klahold

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando verificar o efeito do bioestimulante, Stimulate®, aplicado via semente e pulverização foliar, na cultura da soja, conduziu-se um experimento sob ambiente protegido, em vasos. O delineamento foi de blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos constaram da combinação de doses de bioestimulate, aplicadas via semente (0, 3 e 5 mL kg-1 de sementes na semeadura e via foliar (0,0; 0,075; 0,150 e 0,225 mL L-1, aos 58 dias após a emergência (DAE. Realizaram-se coletas de plantas aos 73 e 129 DAE.Para algumas das variáveis estudadas, nas doses utilizadas, houve efeito negativo na resposta à aplicação de bioestimulante, para algumas doses testadas. Respostas positivas foram verificadas para massa seca de flores, raízes, razão raiz/parte aérea, número de flores, vagens e grãos e produção por planta. Destacaram-se positivamente os tratamentos: 0,0 mL 0,5 kg-1 (AS + 0,150 mL L-1 (APF; 3,0 mL 0,5 kg-1 (AS + 0,0 mL L-1 (APF; 3,0 mL 0,5 kg-1 (AS+ 0,225 mL L-1 (APF e 5,0 mL 0,5 kg-1 (AS + 0,075 mL L-1 (APF.Aiming to verify the effect of the bioestimulant, Stimulate®, applied saw by seed and leaf pulverization, in the culture of the soybean. It behaved an experiment under greenhouse, in vases. Randomized block experimental design was used, with four repetitions. The treatments consisted of the combination of bioestimulant doses: seed application (SA (0; 3; and 5 mL kg-1 of seeds in the sowing and leaf spray (LS (0.0; 0.075; 0.150; and 0.225 mL L- 1, to the 58 days after the emergency (DAE. Collections of plants were accomplished to the 73 and 129 DAE. For some of the studied variables, in the used doses, there was negative effect in the response of the biostimulant application, for some tested doses. Positives responses were verified for flowers and roots dry mass; root/shoot relation; flowers; beans and grains number; and yield for plant. They stood out the treatments: 0,0 mL 0.5 kg-1 (SA + 0.150 mL L-1 (LS; 3.0 mL 0.5 kg-1 (SA + 0.0 mL L-1 (LS; 3.0 mL 0.5 kg-1 (SA + 0.225 mL L-1 (LS; and 5.0 mL 0.5 kg-1 (SA + 0.075 mL L-1 (LS.

  2. (Glycine max L. (Merril) à l'apport des biomasses vertes de Tithonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 mars 2013 ... des biomasses de Tithonia diversifolia (10143 kg /hectare) comme fertilisant constituerait un atout majeur pour l'accroissement des rendements du soja dans un contexte de dégradation des sols et de prix élevé des engrais minéraux. Mots clés : biomasse de Tithonia diversifolia, fumure organique, soja, ...

  3. Cyanide and Copper Recovery from Barren Solution of the Merrill Crowe Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parga, José R.; Valenzuela, Jesús L.; Díaz, J. A.

    This paper is a brief overview of the role of inducing the nucleated precipitation of copper and cyanide in a flashtube serpentine reactor, using sodium sulfide as the precipitate and sulfuric acid as pH control. The results showed that pH had a great effect on copper cyanide removal efficiency and the optimum pH was about 3 to 3.5. At this pH value copper cyanide removal efficiency could be achieved above 97 and 99 %, when influent copper concentration ions were 650 and 900 ppm respectively. In this process the cyanide associated with the copper, zinc, iron cyanide complexes are released as HCN gas under strong acidic conditions, allowing it to be recycled back to the cyanidation process as free cyanide.

  4. Electronic tongue system to evaluate flavor of soybean (Glycine Max (L. Merrill genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Zoldan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An electronic tongue system was tested as a fast and efficient analytical tool for flavor evaluation of soybean genotypes. Grain samples of 25 soybean lines were analyzed using 0.25 g of milled samples added to 100 mL of distilled water and mixing for one minute on a magnetic stirrer. An aliquot (50 mL from the filtered liquid was used for the analysis on a pre-fixed frequency of 1 kHz and alternate tension of 50 mV. Two analyses were conducted in a complete randomized design with three replicates. Electrical response (capacitance of eight polymeric chemical sensors used to analyze the soybean lines were submitted to Principal Component Analysis (PCA. In the spatial distribution of the PCA graphic, the lines close to each other were similar, while the distant ones showed different characteristics. The electronic tongue system was efficient in discriminating flavor of soybean lines.

  5. Galahad Redux: An Assessment of the Disintegration of Merrill’s Marauders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-06

    with the Green Mountain Soya , Mad Anthony Vayne’t Indian fighter«, and Morgan’s Raiders. It la even possible to «ay that the animosity generated...struck aoat directly at th« «»It’s heart. It la possible that ha choae expodlency over integrity at a critical point in Galahad’a hlatory. Bo...telling the Marauder atory one oere tiaw hopafully relnforcea two aphorlaaa that sr« deeply eab«dd«d in Aatirican itllitary traditiooa. One la that

  6. The Failure of Lehman Brothers and Merril Lynch: A Lesson for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also the conventional lending procedures were not instituted rather they depend on subprime mortgage arrangement that did not have collateral securities. The declining home prices had made refinancing more difficult as a result of inadequate innovations in securitization. We therefore, recommended that the regulatory ...

  7. Growth and quality of soybean sprouts (Glycine max L. Merrill) as affected by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean sprouts are considered as natural and healthy food by Asian consumers. However, sprouts are often associated with outbreaks of foodborne illnesses and recalls due to contamination of seeds with human pathogens. Irradiation may be used to inactivate pathogens on seeds and sprouts. In this stu...

  8. (Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill) cultivées au Bénin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 mars 2015 ... morphotypes ont été identifiés et dénombrés à l'intérieur de 5 placeaux de 4 m2 dans chaque plantation. Les variétés d'ananas recensées sont au nombre de 5, à savoir : Cayenne lisse, Pain de sucre, Queen, Red. Spanish et Perolera. Elles renferment 16 morphotypes dont 4 pour la Cayenne lisse, ...

  9. Chemical composition, in vitro gas production and astringency in the foliage of Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merrill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojeda, A.; Barroso, J.A.; Obispo, N.; Gil, J.L.; Cegarra, R.

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine the chemical composition, astringency, in vitro gas production and ruminal degradability of the edible fraction of Samanea saman, during 2009, five samplings (February, April, May, June and October) were conducted on plants located in a semideciduous tropical forest in Venezuela. In each sampling 10 different plants were considered, each as a replicate evaluated in a completely randomized design. OM (94,1 ± 1,5%), CP (20,1 ± 1,5%), hemicellulose (17,5 ± 3,7%), cellulose (10,5 ± 2,5%), lignin (11,1 ± 1,8%), and total phenols (2,8 ± 1,1%) did not show variations (P<0,05). From May to October, the highest values (P<0,05) of EE (5,3 ± 0,8%), NDF (44,8 ± 3,3%), ADF (16,7 ± 1,9%), and Ca (1,3 ± 0,2%) were observed; while total (P<0,05) and condensed tannins (P<0,01) increased in October (3,75% and 0,99%, respectively). Astringency was not detected from February to May, and had limited values from June to October (0,4 ± 0,2 g Eta/100 g DM). No differences were observed in b (0,04 ± 0,01 mL/h), To (1,2 ± 0,2 h) and T½ (21,3 ± 3,3 h) with the highest gas potential production in February (63,3 mL/g DM). The OM and NDF degradability was reduced (P<0,05) in April (44,7% and 24,7%, respectively), without differences during the remaining months (51,2 ± 3,4% and 37,7 ± 3,3%, respectively). The edible biomass of S. saman could be used as a nutrient source in silvopastoral systems, with a low condensed tannin content of low biological activity, which causes a positive impact on the non-ammonia nitrogen flow from the rumen. (author)

  10. Optimal Fermentation Conditions of Hyaluronidase Inhibition Activity on Asparagus cochinchinensis Merrill by Weissella cibaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minji; Kim, Won-Baek; Koo, Kyoung Yoon; Kim, Bo Ram; Kim, Doohyun; Lee, Seoyoun; Son, Hong Joo; Hwang, Dae Youn; Kim, Dong Seob; Lee, Chung Yeoul; Lee, Heeseob

    2017-04-28

    This study was conducted to evaluate the hyaluronidase (HAase) inhibition activity of Asparagus cochinchinesis (AC) extracts following fermentation by Weissella cibaria through response surface methodology. To optimize the HAase inhibition activity, a central composite design was introduced based on four variables: the concentration of AC extract ( X 1 : 1-5%), amount of starter culture ( X 2 : 1-5%), pH ( X 3 : 4-8), and fermentation time ( X 4 : 0-10 days). The experimental data were fitted to quadratic regression equations, the accuracy of the equations was analyzed by ANOVA, and the regression coefficients for the surface quadratic model of HAase inhibition activity in the fermented AC extract were estimated by the F test and the corresponding p values. The HAase inhibition activity indicated that fermentation time was most significant among the parameters within the conditions tested. To validate the model, two different conditions among those generated by the Design Expert program were selected. Under both conditions, predicted and experimental data agreed well. Moreover, the content of protodioscin (a well-known compound related to anti-inflammation activity) was elevated after fermentation of the AC extract at the optimized fermentation condition.

  11. SEED VIGOR TESTING OF SOME DOMESTIC SOYBEAN CULTIVARS (Glycine max (L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Andrić

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed ageing is an important cause of low vigor and bad field emergence, especially in adverse seedbed conditions. Therefore, in this investigation, soybean seed vigor was tested by four laboratory tests (germination energy GE, standard germination SG, cold test CT, electrical conductivity EC and in field trial, as well (early planting dates Epd and optimal planting dates Opd. The soybean seed of 5 cultivars from Agricultural Institute Osijek, produced in the 3 years (1999., 2000., 2001. was used in the investigation. The seed was stored in a warehouse conditions for 6, 18 or 30 months prior to testing. Tested soybean seed showed significant differences in seed vigor influenced by seed age, seed treatment with fungicide (Vitavax 200 FF, cultivar and planting date. High quality seed with GE and SG over 85%,performed quite well in both planting dates, as well as seeds with the CT over 70% or with EC under 42 μScm-1g-1. On the contrary, considering seed with reduced vigor there is a very great possibility of reduced FE especially in Epd. However, seed treatment with fungicide and sowing in optimal seedbed conditions can significantly contribute to improvement of soybean seed performance and stand establishment. Correlation analyses showed that all tested seed vigor parameters were significantly connected (sign. level 99%. At early planting, the strongest correlation was established between the field emergence and CT (untreated seed, r=0.949** and for treated seed r=0.951** whereas in optimal planting date was between the field emergence and SG (for untreated seed r=0. 938** and for treated seed r=0.942**. Laboratory seed health testing showed significant differences in fungal disease intensity influenced by fungicide seed treatment, cultivar and seed age. Total seed infection and infection with Fusarium spp. was adversely correlated with all vigor parameters. All tested vigor parameters of soybean seed had influence on grain yield indirectly by crop stand establishment.

  12. Antioxidant activity of seedling growth in selected soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) responses of submergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanik, R. I.; Marbun, P.; Sihombing, L.

    2016-08-01

    In order to better understand the physiological and biochemical responses relating to direct seeding establishment in soybeans, the plant growth rate and antioxidative defense responses of seedlings in seven Indonesian soybean genotypes (Anjasmoro, Detam-1, Detam-2, Dieng, Grobogan, Tanggamus, and Willis) at different submergence periods (4, and 8 days) were examined. Twelve-day old seedlings were hydroponically grown in limited oxygen conditions. The results showed that the chlorophyll content in soybean seedlings was reduced beginning as early as 4 d under submerged condition, except for Detam-1, Detam-2, and Grobogan genotypes. The dry weight and protein concentration of seedlings were significantly higher at control condition (0 d) than those in submerged condition. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) increased linearly until 8 d submerged for all genotypes. On the other hand, our results showed that catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities did not work together, meaning that CAT is activated and APX deactivated, or vice versa, in response to submergence conditions, except for Grobogan and Tanggamus genotypes which had an effect on both CAT and APX activities. Submergence stress led to a significant increase in glutathione reductase (GR) together with APX activity for Detam-2 and Dieng genotypes at 8 d submerged.

  13. 77 FR 35104 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property at Merrill Field Airport, Anchorage, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... delivered to: Michelle Colby, Real Estate Services Manager, DOWL HKM, 4041 B Street, Anchorage, AK 99503...- 271-3665, email [email protected] or Michelle Colby, Real Estate Services Manager, DOWL HKM, 4041... Section 6.13 of the State of Alaska Right of Way Manual. This purchase offer was predicated on DOT&PF's...

  14. Droplet vitrification technique for cryopreservation of different pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merrill) accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germplasm conservation of pineapple is crucial to secure the genetic variability of the genus for breeding programs and supporting new research. Long-term conservation is done through cryopreservation, by storing cells or tissues at ultra-low temperature in liquid nitrogen (LN; -196°C) or in the LN ...

  15. Early histological, hormonal, and molecular changes during pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill) artificial flowering induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Maita Eulalia Ávila; Moreira, Rafael Oliveira; Lima, André Almeida; Ságio, Solange Aparecida; Barreto, Horllys Gomes; Luiz, Sara Lazara Pérez; Abreu, Carlos Eduardo Aragón; Yanes-Paz, Ermis; Ruíz, Yanelis Capdesuñer; González-Olmedo, Justo Lorenzo; Chalfun-Júnior, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Natural flowering can cause serious scheduling problems in the pineapple (Ananas comosus) industry and increase harvest costs. Pineapple flowering is thought to be triggered by increased ethylene levels and artificial forcing of pineapple flowering is a common practice to promote flowering synchronisation. However, little is known about the early hormonal and molecular changes of pineapple flowering induction and development. Here, we aimed to analyse the molecular, hormonal, and histological changes during artificial pineapple flowering by Ethrel ® 48 treatment. Histological analyses of the shoot apical meristem, leaf gibberellic acid (GA 3 ), and ethylene quantification were carried out during the first 72h after Ethrel ® 48 treatment. Expression profiles from ethylene biosynthesis (AcACS2 and AcACO1), gibberellin metabolism (AcGA2-ox1 and AcDELLA1), and flower development (FT-like gene (AcFT), LFY-like gene (AcLFY), and a PISTILLATA-like gene (AcPI)) genes were analysed during the first 24h after Ethrel ® 48 treatment. Differentiation processes of the shoot apical meristem into flower buds were already present in the first 72h after Ethrel ® 48 treatment. Ethrel ® 48 lead to a reduction in GA 3 levels, probably triggered by elevated ethylene levels and the positive regulation AcGA2-ox1. AcLFY activation upon Ethrel ® 48 may also have contributed to the reduction of GA 3 levels and, along with the up-regulation of AcPI, are probably associated with the flower induction activation. AcFT and AcDELLA1 do not seem to be regulated by GA 3 and ethylene. Decreased GA 3 and increased ethylene levels suggest an accumulation of AcDELLA1, which may display an important role in pineapple flowering induction. Thus, this study shows that molecular, hormonal, and histological changes are present right after Ethrel ® 48 treatment, providing new insights into how pineapple flowering occurs under natural conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural characterization of a glucuronoarabinoxylan from pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill) gum exudate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simas-Tosin, Fernanda F; de Souza, Lauro M; Wagner, Ricardo; Pereira, Graciele C Z; Barraza, Ruth R; Wendel, Cinthia F; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Iacomini, Marcello; Gorin, Philip A J

    2013-04-15

    Native polysaccharide from pineapple gum (PANP) was obtained following alkaline extraction of gum and fractionation with cetylpyridinium chloride. It was characterized as a glucuronoarabinoxylan using NMR, methylation data, controlled Smith degradation, carboxy-reduction, and ESI-MS of oligosaccharides produced on mild acid hydrolysis of PANP. HSPEC-MALLS-RI of carboxy-reduced fraction showed homogeneous profile (Mw 1.943×10(5) g/mol). PANP was composed of Ara, Xyl, Gal, and GlcpA (40:23:7:30 molar ratio). Its main chain presented (1→4)-linked β-xylan, highly substituted at O-2 and O-3 by side chains of 3-O- and 3,5-di-O-linked α-Araf, 2-O- and 4-O-linked α-GlcpA, and nonreducing end-units of α-Araf, β-Arap, β-Galp, and α-GlcpA. ESI-MS of a mixture of oligosaccharides formed on the mild acid hydrolysis of PANP was consistent with repetitive structures of α-GlcpA O-3 linked at β-Xylp units, whereas in others glucuronoarabinoxylan-type gum exudates, α-GlcpA units had been previously found to be linked at O-2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Failure of Lehman Brothers and Merril Lynch: A Lesson for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    the United State America treasury securities market. Ahimie (2008) ... Thus, the above school of thought considered a bank failure as not when it ceases .... Lynch had further confirmed the historical fact that, no bank or financial institution is.

  18. Characterization and extraction of volatile compounds from pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merril processing residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lília Calheiros de Oliveira Barretto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to extract and identify volatile compounds from pineapple residues generated during concentrated juice processing. Distillates of pineapple residues were obtained using the following techniques: simple hydrodistillation and hydrodistillation by passing nitrogen gas. The volatile compounds present in the distillates were captured by the solid-phase microextraction technique. The volatile compounds were identified in a system of high resolution gas chromatography system coupled with mass spectrometry using a polyethylene glycol polar capillary column as stationary phase. The pineapple residues constituted mostly of esters (35%, followed by ketones (26%, alcohols (18%, aldehydes (9%, acids (3% and other compounds (9%. Odor-active volatile compounds were mainly identified in the distillate obtained using hydrodistillation by passing nitrogen gas, namely decanal, ethyl octanoate, acetic acid, 1-hexanol, and ketones such as γ-hexalactone, γ-octalactone, δ-octalactone, γ-decalactone, and γ-dodecalactone. This suggests that the use of an inert gas and lower temperatures helped maintain higher amounts of flavor compounds. These data indicate that pineapple processing residue contained important volatile compounds which can be extracted and used as aroma enhancing products and have high potential for the production of value-added natural essences.

  19. Effects of gamma ray irradiation on early growth of soybean (Glycine mac (L). Merrill)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilik Harsanti; Yulidar

    2015-01-01

    Increase my in domestic soybean production is one of the government's program to reduce dependence on imported soybeans and soybean efforts to achieve self-sufficiency in 2015. An experiment has been conducted to study the effects of gamma ray irradiation of of 60 Cobalt on early growth of soybean seed. Variety Denna 2 varieties have been irradiated by gamma rays with 0 Gy, 200 Gy, 300 Gy, 400 Gy doses, and then planted in green house on Ps Jumat PAIR-BATAN. Plant growth from each doses is proved to be varied. From germination viability on the third day, the highest percentage of seedling with leaves is on 100 Gy dose (73.75%), and 7, 14 and 21 day the lowest is on dose 400 Gy. (author)

  20. Isolation of low-molecular albumins of 2S fraction from soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbas, Mariola; Porzucek, Filip; Woźniak, Anna; Słomski, Ryszard; Selwet, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that consumption of soybean products decrease the risk of cancers in humans. Experiments at the molecular level have demonstrated that in most cases proteins and peptides are responsible for the anticancer properties of soybeen. Special attention should be paid to lunasin - a peptide described for the first time 16 years ago. Due to its structure it causes i.a., inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. A novel procedure for the isolation and purification of low-molecular-mass 2S soybean albumin protein is described in the present paper. A fraction of four peptides one of them corresponding to molecular mass and isoelectric point characteristic for lunasin. The obtained peptides decreased on the rate of HeLa cell proliferation.

  1. Desenvolvimento de Cerveja Artesanal com Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC) e Abacaxi (Ananas comosus L. Merril)

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, L. I. F.; Universidade Federal do Ceará; Zambelli, R. A.; Universidade Federal do Ceará -UFC; Santos Junior, E. C.; Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina - UFSC; Pontes, D. F.; Universidade federal do Ceará - UFC

    2015-01-01

    A cerveja é a bebida alcoólica mais consumida no mundo. Estando bem relacionado com festividades e comemorações, porém essa bebida contém uma variedade de compostos bioativos, vitaminas e minerais, capazes de promover benefícios quando a sua ingestão é feita de maneira moderada. O mercado está a cada dia buscando produtos diferenciados e até exclusivos, surge assim o campo das cervejas artesanais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver uma cerveja artesanal com acerola e abacaxi, trazendo ...

  2. Hobuste hääled : Gerd Heuschmanni kõnekad väljaastumised hobuste eest / Birgit Popp ; saksa keelest tõlkisid Merike Udrik ja Agnes Raudam ; kommenteerinud Marlen Vassil

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Popp, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    Gerd Heuschmanni poolt väljaantud raamatust Finger in der Wunde ja selle ingliskeelsest tõlkest Tug of War : Classical versus "Modern" Dressage ning kakskeelsest filmist Stimmen der Pferde = If Horses Could Speak. Kõigis neis teostes käsiteltaksehobuse pingevaba kehahoiaku kujundamise ja hobusõbraliku koolituse vajalikkust ning ratsahobustele vigastuste ning kannatuste põhjustamist hobuse anatoomia vähese tundmise ja juba väljakujunenud treeningmeetodite järgimise tulemusel kasutatavast valest ratsutamistiilist

  3. Caracterización de la maduración del fruto de pina nativa (Ananas comosus L. Merrill CV. India Charaeterization of the ripening of pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merrill ev. India fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Madelaide

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como propósito caracterizar física, química y fisiológicamente el desarrollo de la maduración del fruto de piña nativa cv. India, conservado en fresco a 20°C. Durante el periodo de maduración del fruto, se encontró que la intensidad respiratoria no tuvo ningún incremento, lo que permitió clasificar al fruto como no climatérico. Este comportamiento estuvo acompañado por perdida de peso, disminución de la consistencia del mesocarpio del fruto, aumento en ácidos orgánicos, acidez, azúcares y disminución en los sólidos solubles y pH. El análisis de calidad mostró el detrimento de las características organolépticas que hacen apetecible el fruto, como son apariencia, sabor, color y aroma.This study was conducted to characterize physical, chemical
    and physiologically the development of maturation of fruit
    native pineapple cv. India, kept fresh at 20°C. During the fruit
    rnaturation, the respiratory intensity did not have any incrcase,
    which allowed to classify the fruit as non climacteric. This
    behavior was accompanied by loss of weight, decrease of
    consistency of edible fruit portion, increase in organic acids,
    acidity and sugars and decrease in soluble solids and pH.
    The quality analysis showed loss of organoleptic
    characteristics that make desirable the fruit, like appearance,
    flavor and color.

  4. Energy demand in the system sowing in different (Glycine max (L) Merril) systems planting and covering; Demanda energetica na semeadura de soja (Glycine max (L) Merril) em diferentes sistemas de manejo e cobertura do solo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Elcio Hiroyoshi [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: elcio@agr.feis.unesp.br; Benez, Sergio Hugo; Silva, Paulo Roberto Arbex; Seki, Andre Satoshi [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Mahl, Denise [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), Cidade Gaucha, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The difficulty of producing quality forage associated to the high tax of decomposition of the covering killed of the soil and the low operational efficiency of agricultural machines did with that the present work was accomplished in the Experimental Farm Lageado, FCA/ UNESP of the Campus of Botucatu, on an Alsisol, with objective to analyze the energy demand requested in the soy sowing in different systems of handling of the soil (no-tillage, conventional tillage and reduced tillage), on cultural remains of black oats picked for hay, sorghum picked for humid silage of grains and spontaneous vegetation. The used experimental design was a split plot to the factorial type 3x3 with four repetitions and portions of 140 m{sup 2}, Meantime to the results, was ended that the coverings of the soil didn't influence in the values of traction force, potency, displacement speed and increase of the consumption of fuel happened and non accommodation of the turned of the tractor-seeder-fertilizer. Associate to the structural conditions of the soil as absence of traffic of machines and low index of rain fall. (author)

  5. Comportamento de cultivares de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] em resposta ao metribuzin aplicado em diferentes doses Response of soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] cultivars to rates of metribuzin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.R.O. Velloso

    1980-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante o ano agrícola de 1978/79, foi realizado um experimento a campo, na re gião da Depressão Central do Rio Grande do Sul, com o objetivo de conhecer o comportamento das cultivares de soja BR1, Bragg, Davis, IAS4, IAS5, Paraná e Planalto em relação ao metribuzin aplicado em pré-emergência nas doses de 0, 490 e 980 g/ha. Os efeitos dos tratamentos foram estimados através de avaliação visual de fitotoxicidade, contagem da população de plantas, determinações do peso seco da parte aérea e do número de grãos e obtenção do rendimento de grãos. Para a maioria das variáveis em estudo, constatou-se que ocorreram reduções proporcionais aos acréscimos das doses do herbicida. Os resultados da avaliação visual de fitotoxicidade mostraram que houve diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos de doses, tendo as cultivares Bragg e Davis demonstrado o menor efeito fito-tóxico, enquanto BR1 foi a que apresentou maior grau de injúria. Quanto ao rendimento de grãos alcançado pelas cultivares, foi constatado que Bragg comportou-se como altamente tolerante; BR1 e Davis como moderadamente tolerantes; IAS5 como intermediária e Paraná, Planalto e IAS4 como moderadamente suscetíveis.A field experiment was conducted during the 1978/79 growing season at the Central Depression Region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, in order to evaluate the response soybean cultivars BR1, Bragg, Davis, IAS4, IAS5, Paraná, and Planalto to metribuzin applied in pre-emergence at rates of 0, 490 and 980 g/ha. The effects of the treatments were evaluated through visual rating of phytotoxicity, counting of soybean population, and determinations of dry weight of soybean stems, number of grains per unit area and grain yield. For most of the variables measured there were reductions proportional to increasing rates of metribuzin appl ied. Results of visual evaluation of soybean injury showed statistical differences among rates of the herbicide, being Bragg and Davis the cultivars that presented the lowest injury symptons, while BR1 showed the highest degree of phytotoxicity from metribuzin. For grain yi elds, it was determined that Bragg behaved as a highly tolerant cultivar; BR1 and Davis as moderately tolerants, IAS5 as intermediate; Paraná, Planalto and IAS 4 as moderately susceptibles.

  6. Efeito do metribuzin no controle das plantas daninhas e na produção de grãos em Glycine max (L merrill Effect of metribuzin in weed control and yield of Glycine max (L. merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Silva Neto

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available No ano agrícola 1985/ 86, em Viçosa-MG, foi instalado um ensaio de campo em solo Pdzólico Vermelho-Amarelo argiloso e com 2,9% de matéria orgânica, objetivando estudar o efeito das doses de metribuzin (0,0; 0,35; 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1 no controle de plantas daninhas e na produtividade da soja (Geycine max (L. Merri ll, cv. 'Uber aba'. A maioria das monocotiledôneas que ocorreram na area experimental foi represent ada por Cyperus rotundus L., Brachiaria plantaginea (Link Hitch. e Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers., tendo-se verificado somente redução em Brachiaria planta taginea em virtude do aumento das doses de metribuzin, ocorrendo o mesmo com relação às dicotiledôneas que se fizerem presentes no experimento, com exceção de Oxalis Oxyptera Prop., que não foi controlada nas doses utilizadas. A densidade total médias das invasoras, menos Cyperus rotundus , Oxalis oxyptera e Cynodon dactylon, foi de 141; 124; 62 e 59 plantas . m-2, respectivamente, para as doses de 0,0; 0,35 ; 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1 de metribuzin. A dose de 0,35 kg i.a. de metribuzin.ha-1 foi suficiente para promover a redução da matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas daninhas com a mesma eficiência de controle da dose de 1,05 kg i.a .ha-1 Entretanto, a densidade total médil das invasoras foi reduzida sig nificativamente nas doses de 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a. de metribuzin.ha-l. O efeito do metribuzin na soja foi evidenciado somente na dose de 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1, com injúria foliar (clorose leve ocorrida até 25 dias, aproximadamente, apôs a emergência das plântulas. Após esse período, houve total recuperação de todas as plantas de soja submetidas a essa dose. A produção de grão se o índice de colheita não foram influencia dos significativamente pelas doses de metribuzin.In order to test doses of metribu zin (0,0; 0,35; 0,70 and 1,05 kg a.i.ha ¹ in weed control and yield of soybe an (Glycine max (L. Merri ll, Uberaba, an experiment was conducted under field conditions in a clayey red yellow podzolic soil with 2,9% organic matter at Viçosa, MG, during the 1985 /86 growing season. Most of the monocotyledqns species present in the experimental area consisted of Cyperus rotundus L., Brachiaria plantaginea (Link Hitch and Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. Reduction observed was only for Brachiaria plantaginea as metribuzin doses increased, the sa me occuring with dycot iledons species existent in the area except for Oxalis oxypt era Prop. wich was not controlled by the doses using. The avera ge of the tota l weed density minus Cyper us rotundus, Oxalis oxyptera and Cynodon da+-ylon was 141, 124, 62 and 59 plants.m² for 0,0; 0,35; 0,70 and 1,05 kg a.i.ha-1 metribuzin, respectively. The lowest dose of metri buzin (0,35 kg a.i.ha-1 was as sufficient to promote reduction on weed shoot biomass at the highest did (1,05 kg a.i.ha-1. However, the mean of the total weed density was drastically recuded in the doses of 0,70 and 1,05 kg a.i.ha-1. The metribuzin caused damage to soybean plants at highest dose (1,05 kg a.i.ha-1 employed with a slight leaf injury '(chlorosis until 25 days after emergence. After this period it was observed a total recovery of the plants treat ed with this dose. The yield and the harvest index were not affected by doses of metribuzin.

  7. Evaluation of operational and energetic performances of combine harvesters in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril) crop; Avaliacao dos desempenhos operacional e energetico de colhedoras na cultura de soja (Clycine max (L) Merril)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazetto, Flavio Rielli [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Energia na Agricultura; Lancas, Kleber Pereira [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2009-07-01

    The objective of the present study consisted of evaluating three soybean combine harvesters, the first one with 7.62 m width header, 176.4 kW engine power and 7,200 L grain tank size, the second one with 7.01 m width header, 161.7 kW engine power and 6,700 L grain tank size and the third one with 6.71 m width header, 165.4 kW engine power and 6,000 L grain tank size with its respective mechanisms actuators, to identify the most efficient system in rationalization energy demand and operational performance. The combine harvest test was done at Igreja Velha farm, Tibagi/Parana State and the data analysis were done at FCA-UNESP, Campus de Botucatu/SP (Sao Paulo State University - Botucatu). The fuel consumption evaluation was made through the use of fluxometer in normal combine operation conditions and for the operational performance was determined all the running machine times. The combine with wider grain header, higher grain tank capacity, bigger engine power, rotary separator in the separation system and self-leveling sieves showed greater operational performance and less fuel consumption than the others combines tested. (author)

  8. Germinação de sementes e crescimento de plântulas de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill sob cobertura vegetal = Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill seed germination and plantlet growth under vegetation cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Pereira Nóbrega

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A eficiência do sistema de rotação de cultura requer, entre outrostratamentos, a escolha adequada das espécies a serem instaladas. Culturas vegetais podem apresentar compostos aleloquímicos, os quais são liberados por meio de pelos radiculares, sementes, raízes, colmos e folhas, em quantidades variáveis, capazes de interferir nas culturas subsequentes, comprometendo a produção. Assim, este estudoanalisou o potencial alelopático de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb (AP, nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus L. (NF, ervilhaca (Vicia sativa L. (ER, azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. (AZ e consórcio (CO - AP+ER+NF na germinação de sementes e crescimento de plântulas de soja. O experimento foi em laboratório, com substrato deareia, onde foram cultivadas plantas de cobertura, por 30 dias, mantendo os restos radiculares das plantas com e sem restos de parte aérea. Observou-se redução na emergência de plântulas de soja sob CO, AZ e AP. O índice de velocidade de emergência (IVE, a porcentagem de emergência em areia (EA e a massa fresca de hipocótilo (MFH foram afetados negativamente pelas plantas de cobertura.In order to be efficient, the crop rotation system requires, among other factors, an adequate choice of species to be installed. Vegetalcultures can feature allelochemical compounds, released by root hairs, roots, stems and leaves in variable amounts, which are able to interfere on subsequent cultures, as well as cause a delay in their production. Thus, this study analyzed the allelopathic potentialof black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb (BO, forage turnip (Raphanus sativus L. (FT, vetch (Vicia sativa L. (V, ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. (RG and consortium (CO - BO+V+FT on soybean seed germination and plantlet growth. This trial was carried out in a laboratory, with sand substrate, where coverage plants were grown, during 30 days. The remaining root portions of plants were kept with and without the remaining aerial part portions. A reduction was observed on the emergence of soybean plantlets under CO, RG and BO. The emergence speed index (ESI, emergence percentage on sand (ES and the green mass of hypocotyls (GMH were negatively affected bycoverage plants, and due to this, another study is essential to verify whether there is an indication of the allelopathic effect.

  9. Carboidratos das fibras de cotilédones e proteínas de produtos derivados de soja (Glycine max (L. Merril Carbohydrates from cotyledon fibers and proteins of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merril derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Fátima Seibel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Fibras alimentares obtidas de cotilédones de soja original (FAO e micronizada (FAM foram fracionadas e avaliadas quanto a polissacarídeos e monossacarídeos constituintes. O componente majoritário foi a hemicelulose, totalizando 59% em FAO e 51% na FAM, a pectina representou em média 14% e a celulose 8,5%. As duas amostras de fibras apresentaram 17 mg.g-1 de ácidos urônicos e a mesma composição de monossacarídeos, sendo galactose, glicose e arabinose/ramnose os principais componentes. As proteínas de concentrado protéico, farinha desengordurada e fibras alimentares (FAO e FAM foram avaliadas quanto à solubilidade em diferentes solventes (NaCl, água, etanol e NaOH e quanto ao peso molecular. A farinha desengordurada de soja teve a maior parte das proteínas passível de extração com solução salina, e o concentrado protéico e as fibras de cotilédones com solução alcalina. A fração protéica que não foi extraída com nenhum dos quatro solventes utilizados permaneceu no resíduo, o maior percentual estava no concentrado, seguido pela fibra alimentar micronizada e a farinha, já a menor quantidade estava na fibra alimentar original. A eletroforese das proteínas dos quatro ingredientes alimentares mostrou as subunidades que constituem as frações β-conglicinina e glicinina. Bandas com peso molecular próximo aos 30 kDa foram reveladas nas proteínas extraídas das fibras de cotilédones de soja, sendo provavelmente glicoproteínas de parede celular, ricas em hidroxiprolina.Dietary fibers from soybean cotyledons classified as original (ODF and milled (MDF were fractionated and evaluated as to fractions and monosaccharide composition. The major constituent was hemicellulose, 59% in ODF and 51% MDF, pectin was in average 14% and cellulose, 8.5%. Both samples had 17 mg.g-1 uronic acids and the same composition in monosaccharides: galactose, glucose and arabinose/rhamnose, after hydrolysis. Protein fractions extracted from protein concentrate, defatted flour and dietary fibers were evaluated for protein solubility in different solvents (NaCl, water, ethanol and NaOH and for molecular weight. Defatted flour had the highest concentration of proteins soluble in saline solution, while protein concentrate and dietary fibers had the highest protein solubility in alkaline solution. Residual protein, not extracted with any of the solvents used, remained in the insoluble fraction and the highest concentration was in the protein concentrate, followed by MDF, defatted flour and ODF. Protein electrophoresis of the four food ingredients showed subunits that constitute the fractions β-conglycinin and glycinin. Protein extracted from the dietary fibers showed bands with molecular weight of about 30 kDa, probably glycoproteins from cell wall material, rich in hydroxyproline.

  10. In silico characterization of 1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase and lysophospha-tidylcholine acyltransferase genes in Glycine max L. Merrill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, C S; Barros, B A; Barh, D; Ghosh, P; Azevedo, V; Barros, E G; Moreira, M A

    2016-08-26

    The enzymes 1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotrans-ferase (CPT) and lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) are important in lipid metabolism in soybean seeds. Thus, understand-ing the genes that encode these enzymes may enable their modification and aid the improvement of soybean oil quality. In soybean, the genes encoding these enzymes have not been completely described; there-fore, this study aimed to identify, characterize, and analyze the in silico expression of these genes in soybean. We identified two gene models encoding CPT and two gene models encoding LPCAT, one of which presented an alternative transcript. The sequences were positioned on the physical map of soybean and the promoter regions were analyzed. Cis-elements responsible for seed-specific expression and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses were identified. Virtual expression analysis of the gene models for CPT and LPCAT indicated that these genes are expressed under different stress conditions, in somatic embryos during differentiation, in immature seeds, root tissues, and calli. Putative ami-no acid sequences revealed the presence of transmembrane domains, and analysis of the cellular localization of these enzymes revealed they are located in the endoplasmic reticulum.

  11. Germinaton performance of selected local soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrills) cultivars during drought stress induced by Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pane, R. F.; Damanik, R. I.; Khardinata, E. H.

    2018-02-01

    Drought stress is one of the factors that can decreased growth and production, so that required a variety that has the ability to sustain cellular metabolism, and growth during the stress. This research was aimed to investigated the involvement of germination performance invitro of five local soybean cultivars, Grobogan, Kaba, Anjasmoro, Argomulyo, and Dering to drought stress induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000 (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6%). The measurable seedling traits as the day appearance of shoots and roots, total of leaves, shoot length, root length, fresh plant weight, dry plant weight, fresh root weight, and dry root weight under control as well as water stress condition were recorded. The experiment units were arranged in factorial completely randomized design with four replications. The result showed that the value for most parameters was recorded highest for Argomulyo cultivar compared with Dering cultivar which is known to be tolerant to drought. In terms of roots performance, Grobogan and Argomulyo cultivars produced the longest and heaviest of roots, while Grobogan cultivar had no significant different for root length compared with control. In conclusion, the root length and fresh weight root parameters can be used as quick criteria for drought tolerance.

  12. Induced mutations for disease resistance and other agronomic characteristics in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulmann Neto, A.; Menten, J.O.M.; Ando, A.; Alberini, J.; Peixoto, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    The present research project aims to induce mutations with resistance to Xanthomonas phaseoli (common blight) and golden mosaic virus (GMV) in bean and resistance to Phakopsora pachyrhizi (rust) and Brazilian bud blight in soybean. At the same time, other mutant types of interest were selected. Gamma rays and ethyl methane-sulphonate (EMS) were generally utilized as mutagenic agents and seeds of several cultivars from both crops were treated. The selection was made at the M 2 or M 3 generation, utilizing progeny or mixtures of seeds from bulk. Screening was carried out in the field, greenhouse or insectary (according to the disease). Priority was given to GMV in bean and about 235,850 plants were observed in the field and 67,500 in the insectary. Only one plant showing mild GMV symptoms was obtained. However, owing to negative pleiotropic effects, this mutant could not be used. Concerning the other diseases, there are some selected plants that still require better observation before reporting that progress has been made. With regard to other mutant types, earliness was obtained in soybean and a bush variety and an earlier mutant was selected in bean. This mutant has already been utilized by breeders in cross-breeding and is being multiplied to be experimentally utilized by farmers under special conditions of cultivation. In soybean, preliminary yield trials are under way, and include some of the early mutants obtained. (author). 26 refs, 20 tabs

  13. Potential production and growth analysis of local variety and Americana variety of soybean (Glycine max (L) Merril)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumakud, M.Y.M.A.

    2000-01-01

    Soybean needs high radiation intensity for photosynthesis process; therefore 100 percent of the sunlight are needed. Due to increasing the soybean production, the environment factor such as climate, soil and management are needed. One of the environment factor that influence the growth and dry matter production is radiation. This research done was to see the potential production of local variety and Americana variety by observing the total radiation absorption, temperature, rainfall and humidity. Therefore the objective of this research was to know the potential production in tropic area in soybean. If the production is mainly determined by the high growth rate or the length of phase linear or both of them also by the efficiency of radiation that received by the plant. The method of this research was carried out by using completed randomized design, with three replications. The result showed that the growth and the production of soybean are determined by growth rate (Cm) and the length of growth linear (tm). Dry matter of soybean is determined by growth rate instead of the length of growth linear, for efficiency of radiation are not significant. Pod formation is determined by the growth rate, content of pods is determined by the length of linear growth

  14. La pimienta de Jamaica [Pimenta dioica (L. Merrill, Myrtaceae] en la Sierra Norte de Puebla (México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macía Barco, Manuel Juan

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Pimenta dioica, allspice, is a neotropical Myrtaceae distributed in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean region. Its área of distribution in México ranges along East and Southeast parts of the country. The main use of its dried fruits is as spice, being sold in Mexican nacional markets as well as exported to Germany, the United States, Jamaica and Great Britain. Most of the harvest comes from trees growing wild in tropical forests, although lately there is a trend to domesticate and cultivate the plant. This paper describes the propagation, domestication, harvesting, processing, marketing and socioeconomic importance of allspice in the Sierra Norte de Puebla (México. The fieldwork has been focused on Totonaca indigenous communities from this area. In these communities, allspice has medicinal use, and is used as a condiment for food; other technological and cultural uses have been also recorded. A historical monograph from Casimiro Gómez Ortega is reviewed. It includes information of the history, botany, cultivation and commerce of allspice.Pimenta dioica es una miliacea neotropical de distribución mesoamericana y caribeña. En México vive hacia el este y sudeste. Sus frutos secos se utilizan como condimento, y se trata de un producto del mercado nacional mexicano que también se exporta a Alemania, Estados Unidos, Jamaica y Reino Unido. Aunque la mayoría de la cosecha proviene de la recolección de los frutos en árboles silvestres del bosque tropical, últimamente se tiende a cultivar esta especie en un proceso actual de domesticación. Se exponen datos sobre propagación, domesticación, cosecha, procesado, mercado e importancia socioeconómica de la pimienta de Jamaica en la Sierra Norte de Puebla (México, a partir de los datos de campo obtenidos principalmente en una comunidad indígena totonaca, en donde se usa como medicinal, en alimentación y en tecnología. Además se reseña una obra de carácter histórico sobre la pimienta de Gómez Ortega, que ofrece datos históricos, botánicos, de cultivo y de comercio de esta especie.

  15. POD NUMBER AND PHOTOSYNTHESIS AS PHYSIOLOGICAL SELECTION CRITERIA IN SOYBEAN (Glycine max L. Merrill BREEDING FOR HIGH YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Sitompul

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in two years using 638 F2 and 1185 F3 lines of selected 16 F1 and 15 F2 parent lines (³80 pods plant-1 to evaluate pod number and CO2 exchange rate (CER as selection criteria. Pod and seed number, and seed weight of individual lines were observed during harvesting time, and CER of randomly selected 32 F2 and 30 F3 lines was measured at initial seed filling stage. The selection of F2 lines based on pod number to generate F3 lines increased the average of seed yield by 39%, and pod number by 77% in F3 lines compared with F2 lines. A close relationships was found between seed weight and pod or seed number per plant. Net CER responded sensitively to a reduction of light in a short-term and showed 78% of F2 lines and all F3 lines with maximum CER (Pmax³20 mmolCO2.m-2.s-1. The ratio of pod number per plant and Pmax varied between lines and were used to group lines resulting in close relationships between Pmax and pod number. It is concluded that the use of pod number and CER (Pmax as selection criteria offers an alternative approach in soybean breeding for high yield.

  16. Analysis of the Energy Performance of the Chesapeake Bay Foundation's Philip Merrill Environmental Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, B.; Deru M.; Torcellini, P.; Ellis, P.

    2005-04-01

    The Chesapeake Bay Foundation designed their new headquarters building to minimize its environmental impact on the already highly polluted Chesapeake Bay by incorporating numerous high-performance energy saving features into the building design. CBF then contacted NREL to perform a nonbiased energy evaluation of the building. Because their building attracted much attention in the sustainable design community, an unbiased evaluation was necessary to help designers replicate successes and identify and correct problem areas. This report focuses on NREL's monitoring and analysis of the overall energy performance of the building.

  17. Óleos e extratos vegetais no controle da ferrugem asiática da soja (Glycine max (L.) Merril.)

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Daniella Ines

    2007-01-01

    A agricultura atual tem aumentado o seu potencial de produção graças à aplicação de produtos químicos para o controle de pragas e de doenças de plantas, o que tem causado sérios prejuízos ao meio ambiente e à saúde do agricultor. A exploração da atividade biológica de compostos secundários de plantas pode constituir mais uma forma potencial de controle alternativo, reduzindo, assim, o impacto ambiental. Portanto, este trabalho teve por objetivo selecionar extratos e óleos essenciais vegetais ...

  18. Determination of total protein and aminoacid composition of bromelain extracted from pineapple plant residues (Ananas comosus, (L.) Merril)

    OpenAIRE

    FREIMAN, Lenice O.; SABAA SRUR, A. U. O.

    1999-01-01

    O abacaxi por longo tempo tem sido a fruta não cítrica mais popular nos países tropicais e sub-tropicais, principalmente pelo seu atrativo sabor e aroma, além do refrescante balanço açúcar-ácido que possui, o que certamente, determinou sua importância sócio-econômica. Além dessas características, é fonte da enzima proteolítica bromelina, um produto de alto valor comercial, que não é fabricado no Brasil. O presente trabalho objetivou a determinação do escore de aminoácidos de bromelinas extraí...

  19. Physiology response of fourth generation saline resistant soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) with application of several types of antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, I. R.; Rosmayati; Rahmawati, N.

    2018-02-01

    Antioxidant applications are expected to reduce the adverse effects of soil saline. This research was conducted in plastic house, Plant Tissue Laboratory Faculty of Agriculture and Plant Physiology Laboratory Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Science, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan also in Research Centers and Industry Standardization, Medan from July-December 2016. The objective of the research was to know the effect of various antioxidant treatments with different concentrations (control, ascorbic acid 250, 500 and 750 ppm; salicylic acid 250, 500 and 750 ppm; α-tocopherol 250, 500 and 750 ppm) on fourth generation soybean physiology in saline condition (Electric Conductivity 5-6 dS/m). The results of this research showed that the antioxidant type and concentration affected not significantly to physiology of fourth generation soybean. Descriptively the highest average of superoxide dismutase and peroxide dismutase was showed on ascorbic acid 250 ppm. The highest average of ascorbate peroxidase was showed on α-tocopherol 750 ppm. The highest average of carotenoid content was showed on ascorbic acid 500 ppm. The highest average of chlorophyll content was showed on α-tocopherol 250 ppm. The highest average of ratio of K/Na was showed on salicylic acid 250 ppm.

  20. The scientific basis for modeling Northern Spotted Owl habitat: A response to Loehle, Irwin, Manly, and Merrill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey R. Dunk; Brian Woodbridge; Elizabeth M. Glenn; Raymond J. Davis; Katherine Fitzgerald; Paul Henson; David W. LaPlante; Bruce G. Marcot; Barry R. Noon; Martin G. Raphael; Nathan H. Schumaker; Brendan. White

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recently revised the recovery plan (USFWS, 2011) and designated Critical Habitat (USFWS, 2012a) for the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina). The Critical Habitat designation was based in part on a map of relative habitat suitability that was developed by USFWS (2011, 2012b) for this purpose. Loehle...

  1. Influence of weight and type of planting material on fruit quality and its heterogeneity in pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassinou Hotegni, V Nicodème; Lommen, Willemien J M; Agbossou, Euloge K; Struik, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Cultural practices can affect the quality of pineapple fruits and its variation. The objectives of this study were to investigate (a) effects of weight class and type of planting material on fruit quality, heterogeneity in quality and proportion and yield of fruits meeting European export standards, and (b) the improvement in quality, proportion and yield of fruits meeting export standards when flowering was induced at optimum time. Experiments were conducted in Benin with cvs Sugarloaf (a Perola type) and Smooth Cayenne. In cv. Sugarloaf, experimental factors were weight class of planting material (light, mixed, heavy) and time of flowering induction (farmers', optimum) (Experiment 1). In cv. Smooth Cayenne an additional experimental factor was the type of planting material (hapas, ground suckers, a mixture of the two) (Experiment 2). Fruits from heavy planting material had higher infructescence and fruit weights, longer infructescences, shorter crowns, and smaller crown: infructescence length than fruits from light planting material. The type of planting material in Experiment 2 did not significantly affect fruit quality except crown length: fruits from hapas had shorter crowns than those from ground suckers. Crops from heavy planting material had a higher proportion and yield of fruits meeting export standards than those from other weight classes in Experiment 1 only; also the type of planting material in Experiment 2 did not affect these variates. Heterogeneity in fruit quality was usually not reduced by selecting only light or heavy planting material instead of mixing weights; incidentally the coefficient of variation was significantly reduced in fruits from heavy slips only. Heterogeneity was also not reduced by not mixing hapas and ground suckers. Flowering induction at optimum time increased the proportion and yield of fruits meeting export standards in fruits from light and mixed slip weights and in those from the mixture of heavy hapas plus ground suckers.

  2. Effectiveness of fast neutrons irradiation for the stimulation and induction of genetic changes in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodkiewicz, T.; Sodkiewicz, W.

    1999-01-01

    Air-dry seeds of soybean cv. Warszawska were irradiated with fast neutrons (Nf) using the U-120 cyclotron (at the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow) at the doses of 500, 1000, 1500 R. Additionally, each of the irradiation doses was combined with the selected effective chemical mutagen N-nitroso-N-methylurea - in three concentrations: 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 mM, to evaluate synergistic effect of these two different mutagenic agents. The results showed some of protection effect of radiation on the level of somatic damage of soybean plants. In addition, the phenomenon of the 'delaying effect' was noted, because the protection effect of fast neutron radiation in the combined treatments with chemomutagen was observed in the emergence and plant survival in the M 2 generation as well. From the point of view of genetic changes induced in the soybean genome, the most effective dose of fast neutron irradiation was 500 R. The number of soybean mutants with earlier ripening obtained (in comparison with original 'mother' variety) at this irradiation dose was higher, than with the highest effective concentration of chemical mutagen (1.0 -1.5 mM MNUA). (author)

  3. Gamma-ray induction of a mutant soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] line lacking all seed lipoxygenases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajika, Makita; Suda, Ikuo; Sakai, Shinji; Takahashi, Masakazu

    1997-01-01

    Induction of a soybean line lacking all isozymes of seed lipoxygenase was attempted using γ-radiation and of 1,813 seeds in M 3 generation, only one was identified as a seed lacking all the isozymes by SDS-PAGE. This line did not present any physiological abnormality over 10 generations or more (M 4 -M 14 ) and no significant influence of the enzyme on the agricultural traits was observed during the performance test in fields. In the resistance test against insect pests, significant differences were not found among the varieties and the lines tested. These results suggest that deletion of all lipoxygenase isozymes would not affect the soybean production in practice. The lipoxygenase activity was not detected in the leaves as well as the seeds of this line, suggesting that this enzyme are not indispensable for the soybean growth. The validity of this line in food processing fields was examined through determining the levels of hexanal production and DETBA. This line was found able to improve the taste of soybean cookies and use in combination with other materials as flour, egg, etc. because the line has no lipoxygenase activity. (M.N.)

  4. Induced of plastid mutations in soybean plant (Glycine max L. Merrill) with gamma radiation and determination with RAPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atak, Cimen; Alikamanoglu, Sema; Acik, Leyla; Canbolat, Yasemin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of our study was to induce with radiation of atrazine resistant and tolerated mutants in Coles, Amsoy-71 and 1937 soybean varieties. Atrazine that is photosynthetic inhibitor is the most important herbicide of S-triazin group, and shows toxic effect on soybean plant. For the improvement of the atrazine resistant plants with mutation breeding, the seeds belonging to the three varieties were irradiated with 200 Gy of gamma radiation dose. The irradiated seeds were sown in the field and at the end of harvesting season, every pod at node situated on the main stem was picked up separately and M 2 generations were obtained. At the plants, which were obtained from M 2 generation, chlorophyll mutants were determined and atrazine selection was made. The percentage of chlorophyll mutants for Amsoy-71, Coles and 1937 soybean varieties were found as 1.07, 1.48 and 1.32, respectively. At the end of atrazine selection, the percentages of atrazine resistant plants for Amsoy-71, Coles and 1937 soybean varieties were 0.80, 0.60 and 0.53, respectively. The percentages of atrazine tolerated plants were 1.07, 1.18 and 1.05, respectively as well. In our research; the differences among the mutants replying to atrazine in various concentrations were examined by using RAPD procedure as the molecular marker techniques in comparison with polymorphism. In the study done by using 14 primers; according to the amplification results, the differences between atrazine resistant plants were shown

  5. Microbial assisted phyto extraction of metals and growth of soybean (glycine max l. merrill) on industrial waste water contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, I.; Bano, A.

    2012-01-01

    Pots experiments were made to investigate the role of effective microorganisms (EM) in improving phyto extraction of metals (Cd/sup +2/ and Mn/sup +2/) and growth of soybean plant in industrial waste water polluted soil. Waste water applications to soil were made in four different dilutions (i.e. 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). Effective microorganisms were added into waste water prior to application. Effect of treatments on growth parameters was studied. The Cd/sup +2/ and Mn/sup +2/ concentrations in different parts of plant were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Plant height significantly increased at all treatments except at 25% waste water treatment. Plant dry biomass and oil contents in seed significantly increased with all treatments compared to control but were higher at low concentration of waste water. Waste water treatments significantly increased the Cd and Mn accumulation in plant while inoculation of EM further enhanced the metals accumulation. The maximum accumulation of Cd and Mn found in plant treated with 100% waste water in combination with effective microorganisms. At harvest, the Cd/sup +2/ concentration decreased in leaves but increased in roots followed by stem > seeds, while, Mn/sup +2/ accumulation increased in leaves followed by roots > stem > seeds. Conclusively, EM enhanced the phyto extraction of Cd and Mn and also increased the oil contents in soybean on polluted soil. These findings suggest further investigation to find out a suitable concentration of industrial waste water in combination with EM for better growth of soybean and improving phyto extraction of metals. (author)

  6. 78 FR 41399 - Information Collections Being Submitted for Review and Approval to the Office of Management and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... made available for inspection by the Commission and franchising authorities, upon request. These... local franchising authority and the cable system operator. Federal Communications Commission. Marlene H...

  7. "Volossatõje nogi..." : [luuletused] / Kalju Lepik ; tlk. ja lühibiograafia: Svetlan Semenenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepik, Kalju, 1920-1999

    1999-01-01

    Sisu: "Volossatõje nogi..." ; "Komu poidu pozhaljuss ; Nezhnõi solovei ; Mat soldata ; U smerti glaza rebjonka ; Dva vorona ; Slavjanski tanets nr 1 ; Lili Marlen. Orig.: "Minul on karvased sääred..." ; Kellele ma kaeban kurja? ; Õrn ööbik ; Sõduri ema ; Surmal on lapse silmad ; Kaks ronka ; Slaavi tants nr. 1 ; Lili Marlen

  8. PERTUMBUHAN DAN HASIL TANAMAN KEDELAI PADA KONDISI CEKAMAN AIR DAN PEMBERIAN MIKOKOMPOS (Growth and Yield of Soybean (Glycine max (L) Merril) Under Water Stress Conditions and Mycocompost Application)

    OpenAIRE

    Buhaira, .; Soverda, Nerty; Lestari, Ardiyaningsih Puji; Achnopa, Yudi

    2013-01-01

    Thi research was conducted to increase soybean tolerance to drought and soil fertility by applying compost and   arbuscular mycorhiza fungi. This system will create environmental friendly agriculture or agricultural system focusing on utilizing biological manure which can improve land productivity. Experiment was arranged in completely randomized design with two treatment factors and three replicated . First factor is type of compost, municipal waste compost , cow manure compost, chicken manu...

  9. TESTES DE CONDUTIVIDADE ELÉTRICA PARA AVALIAÇÃO DO VIGOR DE SEMENTES DE SOJA (Glycine max (L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C.F.S DIAS

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo investigar a possibilidade de redução do período de condicionamento das sementes nos testes de condutividade elétrica, nos sistemas de massa e individual, e consequentemente, obter indicações mais rápidas sobre a qualidade fisiológica dos lotes. Para tanto, foram utilizados quatro lotes de sementes de soja das variedades IAC-8 e IAC-15 que foram submetidos a estudos específicos de condutividade elétrica de massa e individual (ASA-610, empregando-se períodos de condicionamento de 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 e 24 horas. No sistema de massa foram utilizadas amostras de sementes não danificadas e de sementes fisicamente puras. Nos estudos com o ASA-610 foram testadas as intensidades de corrente elétrica de 95 a 45 mA/semente, em intervalos de 5mA. Além destes foram conduzidos os seguintes testes: germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, envelhecimento artificial e determinação do grau de umidade das sementes. Os resultados indicaram que há possibilidade de redução no período de condicionamento das sementes no teste de condutividade de massa, sendo que os períodos de embebição mais curtos (4 e 8 horas permitiram a identificação de diferenças mais acentuadas entre os lotes, enquanto que leituras realizadas a partir de 16 horas mostraram-se mais sensíveis às variações de vigor das sementes. O referido teste mostrou-se adequado para a identificação de lotes com diferentes níveis de vigor. Já a condutividade individual (ASA-610 revelou eficiência variável de acordo com a variedade avaliada.To investigate the reduction of the seed soaking time, in bulk and individualy, conductivity tests were performed on four seed lots of two soybean varieties (IAC-8 and IAC-15. The following tests were conducted: standard germination, first count of standard germination, accelerated aging and seed moisture. Studies of bulk and individual (ASA-610 seed conductivity were conducted with 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 hours of soaking. It was concluded that for the bulk conductivity test the shorter imbibition periods (4 and 8 can be used for the detection of wide vigor differences, while imbibition periods of 16, 20 and 24 hours can be used to identify smaller vigor differences among soybean seed lots. This test showed to have good potential as a rapid and efficient method to discriminate soybean seed lots of different qualities. Its use in seed quality control programs can be useful. The efficiency of the ASA-610 varied according to variety.

  10. Effects of heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Zn and Pb) in agricultural soils near different emission sources on quality, accumulation and food safety in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, María Julieta; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Leonardo Nieto, Gastón; Pignata, María Luisa

    2012-09-30

    Argentina is one of the major producers of soybean in the world, this generates a high global demand for this crop leading to find it everywhere, even close to human activities involving pollutant emissions. This study evaluated heavy metal content, the transfer of metals and its relation to crop quality, and the toxicological risk of seed consumption, through soil and soybean sampling. The results show that concentrations of Pb and Cd in soils and soybeans at several sites were above the maximum permissible levels. The heavy metal bioaccumulation depending on the rhizosphere soil compartment showed significant and high regression coefficients. In addition, the similar behavior of Cd and Zn accumulation by plants reinforces the theory of other studies indicating that these metals are incorporated into the plant for a common system of transport. On the other hand, the seed quality parameters did not show a clear pattern of response to metal bioacumulation. Taken together, our results show that soybeans grown nearby to anthropic emission sources might represent a toxicological hazard for human consumption in a potential Chinese consumer. Hence, further studies should be carried out taking into account the potential negative health effects from the consumption of soybeans (direct or indirect through consumption of meat from cattle) in these conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Zn and Pb) in agricultural soils near different emission sources on quality, accumulation and food safety in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, María Julieta; Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen; Nieto, Gastón Leonardo; Pignata, María Luisa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Soybean grown near metal sources presents a toxicological hazard from heavy metals for Chinese consumers. ► Rhizosphere soil is the most suitable compartment for toxicological studies. ► Soil guidelines should be modified considering the exchangeable metals. - Abstract: Argentina is one of the major producers of soybean in the world, this generates a high global demand for this crop leading to find it everywhere, even close to human activities involving pollutant emissions. This study evaluated heavy metal content, the transfer of metals and its relation to crop quality, and the toxicological risk of seed consumption, through soil and soybean sampling. The results show that concentrations of Pb and Cd in soils and soybeans at several sites were above the maximum permissible levels. The heavy metal bioaccumulation depending on the rhizosphere soil compartment showed significant and high regression coefficients. In addition, the similar behavior of Cd and Zn accumulation by plants reinforces the theory of other studies indicating that these metals are incorporated into the plant for a common system of transport. On the other hand, the seed quality parameters did not show a clear pattern of response to metal bioacumulation. Taken together, our results show that soybeans grown nearby to anthropic emission sources might represent a toxicological hazard for human consumption in a potential Chinese consumer. Hence, further studies should be carried out taking into account the potential negative health effects from the consumption of soybeans (direct or indirect through consumption of meat from cattle) in these conditions.

  12. Purificação de bromelina dos resíduos de abacaxi (Ananas comosus L. Merril por sistemas bifásicos aquosos PEG/Sal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego de Freitas Coelho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the dimension of worldwide production of pineapple and to high amount of generated waste from its cultivation and processing, several research have been developed to recovery the enzymes presents on pineapple, such as bromelain. Bromelain is the general name given to the group of endopeptidases found in pineapple as well as all proteases derived from members of the family Bromeliaceae, which belongs to the pineapple. Because of that play important physiological roles, these enzymes offers a wide range of proven therapeutic applications. This work aims the purification of bromelain from pineapple waste through PEG/Salt aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS using (NH42SO4, CaCl2 and potassium phosphate. The results showed that in CaCl2 experiments have no ATPS formation in the range of its constituents. However, the PEG/phosphate systems and PEG/(NH42SO4 systems showed excellent results, recovering with bromelain purification factor of 7.4 and 10.7 times, respectively, and yields above 80%.

  13. Pengayaan Kompos Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit (Tkks) dengan Spent Earth terhadap Pertumbuhan dan Hasil Tanaman Kedelai (Glycine Max (L.)Merril) di Lahan Gambut

    OpenAIRE

    Adwa, Tengku Yulia Ispi; ', Nelvia

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to study the effect composting of oil palm empty fruit bunches enriched spent earth to the growth and yield of soybean. This research conducted on peat soil at Kualu Nenas village, Tambang sub-district, Kampar Regency starts from March to June 2013. The material used was soybean variety Grobogan, empty fruit bunches of oil palm (EFBOP) compost and spent earth (spent earth is a byproduct of vegetable oil processing). Research carried out experimentally using complete randomi...

  14. Antioxidative Defense Responses to lead-induced Oxidative Stress in Glycine max L. CV. Merrill grown in Different pH Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra, Pankaj Kishor

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Physiological and biochemical changes as well as the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes under lead (Pb2+ phytotoxicity were investigated in 20 days old soybean (Glycine max L. seedlings grown hydroponically in the laboratory under different pH conditions. The rapid uptake of Pb 2+ was observed immediately after the start of treatment. The quantity of accumulation of Pb2+ was much higher in roots than in shoots, its level rising with increasing pH from 3.0 to 8.0 . Not only that, an oxidative stress conditions were observed due to increased level of superoxide anion radical and hydrogen peroxide in shoots and root cells of 20 days old seedlings when treated with Pb(NO32 at a concentration of 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 μM. Spectrometric assays of seedlings showed increased level of activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, peroxidase and glutathione reductase. The presence of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS indicates the enhanced lipid peroxidation compared to controls. The alteration in the activities of the antioxidant enzymes and the induction of lipid peroxidation reflects the presence of Pb2+, which may cause oxidative stress.

  15. Effect of organic fertiliser residues from rice production on nitrogen fixation of soya (Glycine max L. Merrill, Chiang Mai 60 variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattida Luangmaka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A field study was undertaken on the residual effect of organic fertilisers applied to the preceding rice cropping on nitrogen fixation of soya in a rice-soya cropping system. The experiment was conducted on a farmer’s lowland paddy in Mae Rim district, Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Organic fertiliser treatments assigned were: 1 control (no fertiliser, 2 animal manure of cattle (AM, 3 compost (CP, 4 azolla (AZ, 5 AM + CP, 6 AM + AZ, 7 CP + AZ and 8 AM + CP + AZ. Soya seeds were planted without rhizobial inoculation in December 2011, four months after the application of organic fertilisers. Nodule weight, total shoot nitrogen accumulation and relative ureide index at various growth stages were recorded as the indices of nitrogen fixation. Results of the study demonstrate that the residues from the application the organic fertilisers of narrow C/N ratios during the land preparation for rice cropping four months before soya cultivation promoted nitrogen fixation by native rhizobia.

  16. Efecto de algunos fungicidas sobre la interacción Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn-Micorriza vesículo arbuscular en soya, Glycine max Merril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez de Prager Marina

    1987-09-01

    Full Text Available En el campo se dispuso de dos preparaciones de suelo: natural y desinfectado químicamente (Ditrapex-CE y en el invernadero de suelo esterilizado con vapor. Se utilizaron los fungicidas Propamocarb, SN-84364, PCNB y Vitavax-300. Se contó con la flora micorrizógena natural y una cepa introducida, Glomus manihotis. R. solani disminuyó en un 50 % la emergencia de la soya, comportándose más agresivo en suelo desinfectado. En los primeros 15 días su ataque se incrementó y redujo el desarrollo de MVA en suelo natural. Al avanzar la edad de la planta decreció su infección. Con relación a la MVA la tendencia es contraria. La presencia de la MVA, incluyendo G. manihotis no incrementó significativamente la materia seca y el rendimiento de la soya. Al desinfectar el suelo los fungicidas afectaron negativamente la infección micorrizógena, mientras que en suelo natural no sucedió este fenómeno, al contrario SN-84364 incrementó su presencia. Este producto es el que menos afecta la simbiosis en el suelo desinfectado. Los fungicidas SN-84364 y PCNB mostraron gran especificidad contra R. solani y Vitavax-300 mayor espectro de acción.With the object to evaluate in the soybeans crop behavior in the interaction of Rhizoctonia solani, vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM and fungicides used to treatment of seed, two different soil preparations were used in the field trials: natural and chemically disinfected (Ditrapex-CE and under greenhouse: using vapor- sterilized. Was utilized the fungicides Propamocarb, SN-84364, PCNB y Vitavax- 300. Be had into account the natural mycorrhizal flora and a source of Glomus manihotis introduced. R. solani reduced the emergence of soybean by 50%, the above-metioned pathogen was more agressive in disinfected soil. In the 15 days first the attack increased and reduced the VAM development in the natural soil. With the age of the plant the pathogen infection decreased. With relation by VAM is contrary the tendency. The presence of VAM, G. manihotis including, not increased significantly the dry mass and yield of the soybean. The fungicides diminished the VAM infection in both chemically and physically disinfected soil, whereas this does not ocurr in natural soil,SN-84364, on the other hand, increased the VAM infection. This product affected least the simbiosis in the disinfected soil. SN-84364 and PCNB exhibitited their great especifity against R. solani and Vitavax-300 a greater spectrum of action.

  17. Nitrogen, phosphor, and potassium nutrients uptake of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril) on three levels of radiation intensities and soil moisture content of latosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syahbuddin, H.; Apriyana, Y.; Heryani, N.; Darmijati, S.; Las, I.

    1998-01-01

    An experiment was implemented from July to August 1994 in greenhouse of the Ecophysiology Division, Bogor Research Institute for Food Crops using a split-split plot design with three replications. Radiation intensity levels as main plot were: without shelter, 25 percent shelter, and 67 percent shelter. Levels of available water in soil as sub-plot were: less than 25 percent soil water availability, content of soil water availability, and 125 percent soil water availability. Soybean varieties as sub-sub plots were: Wilis, Malabar, and Lokon. The experiment showed that nitrogen and phosphor uptake of Wilis was the highest, 41.228 mg and 1.225 mg per hill, especially under 100 percent light intensity and soil water availability more than 25 percent. Under 25 percent shade the potassium uptake of Wilis was 45.997 mg, this was higher than Malabar. The highest increased in seed dry weight, up to 0.733 g, occurred if soil water content changed from available water to 125 percent water content. One calory decreased in radiation caused 0.006 g decreased in seed dry weight per hill, Malabar variety produced an average of 0.892 g seed dry weight, where each millimeter of water will increased 2.0 mg of dry seed weight. Malabar variety had water use efficiency of 0.043 percent g/ml and radiation use efficiency 0.011 percent g/cal. Malabar variety produced the heaviest 100 good seed (7.293 g), followed by Wilis variety (5.520 g) and Lokon variety (4.597 g) [in

  18. Rate and time of nitrogen fertilizer application on the growth, nitrogen remobilization and yield of soyabean (Glycine max(L) Merrill)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebeley, J. F.; Sarkodie-Addo; Duku, S.

    2015-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted in 2012 at the plantation Crop section of the Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, to investigate the effect N availability on nodulation, nitrogen fixation, N remobilization and grain yield of soybean. The design used in both studies was a 3 x 4 factorial arranged in randomized complete block design. Each treatment was replicated three times. The factors studied were rate and time of N fertilizer application. The N rate were 0, 20, 40 and 60kg N/ha and the time of application were early vegetative and early flowering phases. Anidaso, an improved soybean variety of 110 days maturity was used. Following land preparation, seeds were planted at the beginning of the rains at a spacing of 50 x 5cm. All required cultural practices were observed. Data collected were nodule number per plant and nodule dry weight, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, 100 seeds weight, total nitrogen fixed, harvest index, grain yield and remobilized N. The total nitrogen difference method was used in determining the amount of N 2 fixed by the soybean and the micro kjeldahl method was used in determining the total plant N. The results indicated that nodulation was not significantly (p>0.05) affected by N rate and time of N application. However Nitrogen fixation was significantly (p<0.05 in affected time of N application in the minor season. Harvest index was significantly affected time of N application in the major season. Grain yield was also significantly affected by time of N application in both seasons. The results indicate that if farmers would apply N fertilizer to soybean at the vegetative growth phase, there would be increase in yield. The study also demonstrate that N remobilization occurs in soybean during grain filling although rate and time of application used did not significantly (p>0.05) affect N remobilization. (au)

  19. PineElm_SSRdb: a microsatellite marker database identified from genomic, chloroplast, mitochondrial and EST sequences of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Sakshi; Mishra, Bharat Kumar; Vivek, Thiruvettai; Magadum, Santoshkumar; Yasin, Jeshima Khan

    2016-01-01

    Simple Sequence Repeats or microsatellites are resourceful molecular genetic markers. There are only few reports of SSR identification and development in pineapple. Complete genome sequence of pineapple available in the public domain can be used to develop numerous novel SSRs. Therefore, an attempt was made to identify SSRs from genomic, chloroplast, mitochondrial and EST sequences of pineapple which will help in deciphering genetic makeup of its germplasm resources. A total of 359511 SSRs were identified in pineapple (356385 from genome sequence, 45 from chloroplast sequence, 249 in mitochondrial sequence and 2832 from EST sequences). The list of EST-SSR markers and their details are available in the database. PineElm_SSRdb is an open source database available for non-commercial academic purpose at http://app.bioelm.com/ with a mapping tool which can develop circular maps of selected marker set. This database will be of immense use to breeders, researchers and graduates working on Ananas spp. and to others working on cross-species transferability of markers, investigating diversity, mapping and DNA fingerprinting.

  20. Effect of cassava starch coating on quality and shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merril cv "Pérola").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierhals, Vânia S; Chiumarelli, Marcela; Hubinger, Miriam D

    2011-01-01

    This research studied the influence of treatment with ascorbic acid, citric acid, and calcium lactate dipping and cassava starch edible coatings on quality parameters and shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple in slices during 12 d at 5 °C. After previous tests, the treatments selected for this study were samples dipped into antibrowning solution with 0.5% of ascorbic acid and 1% of citric acid, with and without 2% of calcium lactate and coated with 2% of cassava starch suspensions. Changes in weight loss, juice leakage, mechanical properties (stress at failure), color parameters (L* and H*), ascorbic acid content, sensory acceptance, and microbial growth of fruits were evaluated. Samples only treated with antibrowning agents were used as control. Edible coatings with and without calcium lactate were efficient in reducing weight loss, juice leakage, and maintaining firmness during storage. However, these samples showed more browning and the ascorbic acid content was reduced. All treatments presented good sensory acceptance (scores above 6). The determining factor of shelf life of pineapple slices was the microbial spoilage. A shelf life of 8 d was obtained for pineapple slices only treated with antibrowning agents. On the other hand, coated samples showed a reduced shelf life of 7 d and higher yeast and mold growth. Thus, although cassava starch coatings were efficient in reducing respiration rate, weight loss, and juice leakage and maintained mechanical properties, these treatments were not able to increase the shelf life of minimally processed pineapple. Practical Application: Pineapple fruit is highly appreciated for its aroma, flavor, and juiciness, but its immediate consumption is difficult. Therefore, pineapple is a potential fruit for minimal processing. However, shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple is very limited by changes in color, texture, appearance, off-flavors, and microbial growth. The use of edible coatings as gas and water vapor barrier and antibrowning agents can extend the storage time and maintain the quality of fresh-cut produce. Cassava starch and alginate coatings are alternative to preserve minimally processed pineapples without changing the quality parameters of fresh fruit. Thus, this study is useful for consumers and fresh-cut industry interested in knowing factors affecting shelf life and quality of fresh-cut pineapple.

  1. The effect of nano-silica fertilizer concentration and rice hull ash doses on soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) growth and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciaty, T.; Purnomo, D.; Sakya, A. T.; Supriyadi

    2018-03-01

    Agriculture is facing a number of challenges included limited water supply, low nutrient use efficiency, etc affected by climate change. Nano-silica is a product of nanotechnology, the frontier technologies to enhance crop productivity under climate change threats. The purpose of the research was to investigate the effects of nano silica concentration and rice hull ash on growth and yield of soybean. The experiment was conducted at Gagasari village, Cirebon, West Java from March until June 2017. The treatments were arranged by using factorial completely randomized block design with two factors. The first factor was a concentration of nano silica fertilizer consisted of four levels i.e., 0, 1.75, 2.5, and 3.75 ml.l‑1. The second factor was doses of rice hull ash consisted of four levels i.e., 0, 1, 2, and 3 ton.ha‑1. Each treatment combinations was repeated three times. The result showed that concentration of nano silica individually affected the number of leaves and number of branches, NAR and RGR, productive branches at 21, 30-45, and 35 daps, respectively. It also affected the seed dry weight plant‑1 and plot‑1. Meanwhile, doses of rice hull ash affected LAI, NAR, and RGR, 15-30, and 30-45 dap, respectively. Dry seed weight plot‑1 was also affected by doses of rice hull ash. There was an interaction effect between nano-silica concentration and doses of rice hull ash on number pods.plant‑1. Combinations of 2.5 ml.l‑1 nano-silica and 3 ton.ha‑1 of rice hull ash gave the highest number pods.plant‑1.

  2. Physiochemical and Phytochemical Properties of Wax Apple (Syzygium samarangense [Blume] Merrill & L. M. Perry var. Jambu Madu as Affected by Growth Regulator Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Moneruzzaman Khandaker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study represents the first paper of the effects of growth regulators on the physiochemical and phytochemical properties of the wax apple fruit, a widely cultivated fruit tree in southeast Asia. Net photosynthesis, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS activity, peel color, fruit firmness, juice content, pH value, total soluble solids (TSSs, and the sugar acid ratio were all significantly increased in growth regulators (PGRs treated fruits. The application of gibberellin (GA3, naphthalene acetic acid (NAA, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D significantly reduced titratable acidity and increased total sugar and carbohydrate content compared to the control. The 50 mg/L GA3, 10 mg/L NAA, and 5 mg/L 2,4-D treatments produced the greatest increases in phenol and flavonoid content; vitamin C content was also higher for these treatments. PGR treatment significantly affected chlorophyll, anthocyanin, and carotene content and produced higher phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL and antioxidant activity levels. There was a positive correlation between peel color and TSS and antioxidant activity and both phenol and flavonoid content and PAL activity and anthocyanin formation. A taste panel assessment was also performed, and the highest scores were given to fruits that had been treated with GA3 or auxin. The study showed that application of 50 mg/L GA3, 10 mg/L NAA, and 5 mg/L 2,4-D once a week from bud development to fruit maturation increased the physiochemical and phytochemical properties of wax apple fruits.

  3. Effects of heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Zn and Pb) in agricultural soils near different emission sources on quality, accumulation and food safety in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Maria Julieta [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina); Rodriguez, Judith Hebelen, E-mail: jrodriguez@com.uncor.edu [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina); Nieto, Gaston Leonardo; Pignata, Maria Luisa [Multidisciplinary Institute of Plant Biology, Pollution and Bioindicator Section, Faculty of Physical and Natural Sciences, National University of Cordoba, Av. Velez Sarsfield 1611, X5016CGA Cordoba (Argentina)

    2012-09-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soybean grown near metal sources presents a toxicological hazard from heavy metals for Chinese consumers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rhizosphere soil is the most suitable compartment for toxicological studies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil guidelines should be modified considering the exchangeable metals. - Abstract: Argentina is one of the major producers of soybean in the world, this generates a high global demand for this crop leading to find it everywhere, even close to human activities involving pollutant emissions. This study evaluated heavy metal content, the transfer of metals and its relation to crop quality, and the toxicological risk of seed consumption, through soil and soybean sampling. The results show that concentrations of Pb and Cd in soils and soybeans at several sites were above the maximum permissible levels. The heavy metal bioaccumulation depending on the rhizosphere soil compartment showed significant and high regression coefficients. In addition, the similar behavior of Cd and Zn accumulation by plants reinforces the theory of other studies indicating that these metals are incorporated into the plant for a common system of transport. On the other hand, the seed quality parameters did not show a clear pattern of response to metal bioacumulation. Taken together, our results show that soybeans grown nearby to anthropic emission sources might represent a toxicological hazard for human consumption in a potential Chinese consumer. Hence, further studies should be carried out taking into account the potential negative health effects from the consumption of soybeans (direct or indirect through consumption of meat from cattle) in these conditions.

  4. Ensaio tecnológico e sensorial de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] enlatada em estádios verdes e no estádio da maturação de colheita Technological and sensorial assay of soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] canned at green stages and at harvest maturation stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F.P BARCELOS

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a viabilidade de consumo da cultivar de soja IAC PL-1 enlatada como grão verde e sua melhor época de colheita para enlatamento. Para tanto procederam-se cinco colheitas a partir do 48º dia após a floração (DAF até a extinção da coloração verde. O processamento iniciou-se pelo branqueamento das vagens, debulha e enlatamento. Aos cinco lotes obtidos adicionou-se um sexto lote para estudar o efeito do armazenamento. Para qualificar os seis lotes de grãos enlatados foram efetuadas medidas de peso, cor, textura e características do líquido de enlatamento. Foram realizados estudos das propriedades sensoriais dos grãos enlatados para dimensionar a aceitação pela degustação e aparência. O enlatamento foi otimizado para 121ºC com tempo de esterilização em torno de 4 minutos. A maturidade fisiológica dos grãos ocorreu entre o 61º ao 64º DAF. O processo térmico conservou a cor verde dos grãos enlatados e não induziu perda expressiva da massa dos grãos; a textura firme dos grãos aumentou com a maturação. Os provadores demonstraram boa aceitação dos produtos e não ocorreu preferência em relação aos estádios de maturação. O trabalho conclui que grãos verdes de soja IAC PL-1 proporcionam enlatados com boas características técnicas e gustativas. Foi observado que grãos colhidos no ponto convencional de maturação, armazenados e enlatados obtiveram boa aceitação gustativa, concluindo-se que a cultivar IAC PL-1 é também adequada para o consumo e enlatada após o armazenamento.It was investigated the consumption possibility of the soybean cultivar IAC PL-1 canned as green grain and its best harvest time for canning. Five harvests were processed from the 48th day after flowering (DAF until extinction of the green coloration. The canning procedure started by pod bleaching, dehulling and canning. To the five lots obtained, a sixth lot was added to study the effect of storage. To qualify the six lots of canned grains, measures of weight, color, texture were done, as well as characteristics of canning liquid. Studies of the sensorial properties of canned grains to dimensionate both acceptance and aspect was performed. Canning was optimized to 121ºC with sterilization time around four minutes. Grains physiological maturity took place between 61st to 64th DAF. The heat process conserved the green color of canned grains and did not induce significant loss of the mass of grains; the firm texture of grains increased with maturation. The tasters showed good acceptance of the products and there was no preference concerning the maturation stages. The work concluded that green grains of soybean IAC PL-1 provide canned products with very good technical and taste characteristics. It was found that grains harvested at the conventional maturation point stored and canned obtained good taste acceptance, following that the cultivar IAC PL-1 is also suitable to consumption canned after storage.

  5. Teores de isoflavonas em grãos inteiros e nos componentes dos grãos de diferentes cultivares de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill Isoflavone contents of whole soybeans and their components, obtained from different cultivars (Glycine max (L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Devido à maior concentração de isoflavonas nos hipocótilos dos grãos de soja, a indústria de alimentos tem utilizado esse componente do grão como matéria-prima. No presente trabalho, foram quantificados os teores de isoflavonas nas estruturas formadoras do grão de soja (hipocótilo, cotilédones e casca, analisadas por Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência (CLAE. Foram avaliadas quatro cultivares de sojas especiais: BRS 184, BRS 216, BRS 257 e BRS 267, desenvolvidas pela Embrapa Soja. Todas as cultivares apresentaram maior teor de isoflavonas totais no hipocótilo (média de 2029,32 mg.100 g-1. No grão inteiro (267,16 mg.100 g-1 e nos cotilédones (209,16 mg.100 g-1, os teores de isoflavonas foram cerca de dez vezes menores do que nos hipocótilos. A cultivar BRS 216 apresentou o teor maior de isoflavonas totais no hipocótilo (2583,20 mg.100 g-1. Embora a casca da soja não apresente isoflavonas, observou-se que esses compostos estavam presentes nessa parte do grão numa quantidade média de 105,58 mg.100 g-1, devido à presença de resíduos do hipocótilo e dos cotilédones provenientes do processo de descasque. Essa composição residual da casca favorece sua utilização como matéria-prima fonte de fibras, porque também fornece isoflavonas e outros compostos da soja.Due to the higher concentration of isoflavones in the soybean hypocotyls, the food industry has used this component of the bean as a raw material. This paper reports the isoflavone contents found in the different parts of the bean (hypocotyl, cotyledon and hull as analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Four special soybean cultivars, BRS 184, BRS 216, BRS 257 and BRS 267, developed by Embrapa Soybean, were evaluated. All the cultivars presented higher contents of total isoflavones in the hypocotyls (average of 2029.32 mg.100 g-1. The isoflavone contents of the whole beans (267.16 mg.100 g-1 and the cotyledons (209.16 mg.100 g-1 were about 10 times lower than that of the hypocotyls. Cultivar BRS 216 presented the highest total isoflavone content in the hypocotyl (2583.20 mg.100 g-1. Although soybean hulls do not contain isoflavones, an average of 105.57 mg.100 g-1 was found in this component, due to the presence of hypocotyl and cotyledon residues resulting from the hulling process. This residual composition of the hulls favors their use as a raw material that is a source of fibers, also providing isoflavones and other soybean compounds.

  6. EFFECTS OF SUBSTRATUM AND CONTAINERS IN ACCLIMATION OF PINEAPPLE SEEDLINGS [Ananas comosus (L. Merril] CV. PÉROLA EFEITOS DE SUBSTRATOS E RECIPIENTES NA ACLIMATAÇÃO DE PLÂNTULAS DE ABACAXIZEIRO [Ananas comosus (L. Merril] CV. PÉROLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Brandão Santa Cruz Barboza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    After the removal of the in vitro culture medium, the survival and growth of micropropagated seedlings are among the main difficulties found in several crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate the behavior of pineapple cv. Pérola seedlings produced in vitro and acclimated in different substrates and containers. The experimental design was completely randomized split plot, with four replicates. The plots (twenty plants consisted of three substrates (sand/plant fiber/humus, Plantmax and sand and the subplots consisted of three containers (a tubet 5cm in diameter by 13cm high, a tubet 5cm in diameter by 24.5cm high and a 10cm x 8cm plastic bag. The combinations of sand/plant fiber/humus with 5x13cm tubet or with a plastic bag, and of Plantmax with 5x13cm tubet provide better growth in ex vitro conditions.

    KEY-WORDS: Culture in vitro; micropropagation; fruitculture.

    A sobrevivência e o crescimento de plântulas micropropagadas, após a remoção do meio de cultivo in vitro, estão entre as principais dificuldades encontradas em várias culturas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento de plântulas de abacaxi cv. Pérola, produzidas in vitro e submetidas a aclimatação em diferentes substratos e recipientes. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente ao acaso em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. As parcelas (com vinte plântulas foram constituídas de três substratos (areia/xaxim/húmus, Plantmax e areia e as subparcelas, de três recipientes (tubete com 5cm de diâmetro x 13cm de altura, tubete com 5cm de diâmetro x 24,5cm de altura e saco plástico, com 10cm x 8cm. As combinações areia/xaxim/húmus com tubete pequeno ou com saco plástico e Plantmax com tubete de 5cm diâmetro x 13cm de altura proporcionaram melhores respostas ao crescimento em condições ex vitro.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Cultivo in vitro; micropropagação; fruticultura; parcelas subdivididas.

  7. Condições de pH e temperatura para máxima atividade da bromelina do abacaxi (Ananas Comosus L. Merril = Temperature and pH conditions for maximum activity of bromelain extracted from pineapple (Ananas Comosus L. Merril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacyr Jorge Elias

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A bromelina, enzima presente no abacaxi, hidrolisa ligações peptídicas das proteínas; tem aplicação em diversas áreas envolvendo alimentos e medicina. Visando o aproveitamento da bromelina recuperada, a partir dos resíduos da industrialização do fruto(variedade pérola, foram pesquisadas condições de pH e temperatura para maior atividade, empregando caseína como substrato. O extrato foi obtido pela trituração da casca e do talo interno do fruto. A atividade foi expressa em mmol tirosina L-1 min.-1 pela absorbância a280 nm dos aminoácidos aromáticos gerados na hidrólise da caseína. Os ensaios foram efetuados em duplicata para duas relações enzima/substrato: 1/25 e 1/125 (em massa. Foi estabelecido um planejamento experimental em estrela tendo como ponto central pH em7,0 e temperatura de 35°C. Os resultados foram tratados empregando o aplicativo computacional MINITAB 15 da Minitab Inc. que forneceu as equações do modelo e as superfícies de resposta. As equações foram tratadas matematicamente (cálculo diferencial, fornecendo gráficos da melhor atividade em função da temperatura. Observou-se perda daatividade enzimática com a elevação da temperatura para relação 1/25, atribuída à maior presença de enzima livre em comparação com a relação 1/125.Bromelain, the enzyme found in pineapple, hydrolyzes proteins’ peptide bonds, has several applications in the food industry and in medicine. Temperature and pH conditions for highest activity with casein as substrate were investigated from the bromelain recovered from industrialized pineapple (‘pérola’ variety fruit residues. Extract was obtained by grinding fruit rind and its internal stem. The activity was expressed in mmol tyrosine L-1 min.-1 by absorbance at 280 nm of aromatic amino acids produced in casein hydrolysis. Assays were undertaken in duplicate for two enzyme/substrate with ratios: 1/25 and 1/125 (mass. Eight-pointed experimental design was undertaken with central value for pH at 7.0 and for temperature at 35°C. Experimental results were processed by MINITAB 15 (Minitab Inc software which provided model’s equations and surface responses. Equations were mathematically processed by differential calculus producing graphs which exhibit the best activities according to temperatures. Loss of enzyme activity was reported with temperature increase at 1/25 ratio, due to a higher free enzyme, when compared to 1/125 ratio.

  8. Efeitos de herbicidas e populações de plantas na nodulação e produção da soja (Glycine max (L. Merril 'Santa Rosa' Effects of herbicides and plant populations on nodulation and yield in soybeans Glycine max (L. Merril 'Santa Rosa'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Deuber

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Três experimentos de campo e um em vasos foram conduzidos com a cultura da soja 'Santa Rosa', para estudar os efeitos da aplicação de diferentes herbicidas, combinados com diferentes populações de plantas, sobre a nodulação, produção de grãos e teor de N em grãos. Utilizaram-se solos argiloso e muito argiloso no campo e argiloso e barrento em vasos. Os herbicidas aplicados foram o trifluralin a 0,96 kg/ha e o vernolate a 3,60 kg/ha, incorporados ao solo; alachlor a 2,40 kg; pendimethalin a 1,50 kg em dois experimentos e a 1,25 kg em um e o metribuzin a 0,63 kg em dois e a 0,53 kg em um em pré-emergência no campo. Em vasos, as doses foram as mesmas, exceto do trifluralin, que foi de 0,86 kg. Havia um tratamento sem herbicida em cada experimento. As densidades de semeadura corresponderam, no Experimento I, a 200 e 300 mil plantas/ha, no Experimento II a 200, 300 e 400 mil plantas/ha e, no III, a 150 e 250 mil plantas/ha. Em cada vaso, foram semeadas três plantas e nestes, fez-se o estudo do crescimento até 30 dias, quando se coletaram os nódulos. No campo, em pleno florescimento, foram amostrados os nódulos de cinco plantas por parcela, que foram contados e pesados após secagem. Na colheita, foram obtidos a produção de grãos e o seu teor de N. As diferentes densidades não causaram alteração no número e no peso de nódulos. Em vasos a modulação foi afetada, na fase inicial, por trifluralin, pendimethalin e vernolate, que reduziram o número e o peso de nódulos. O trifluralin reduziu esses valores no campo, na fase de máxima nodulação, em um experimento. O aumento da população causou elevação do teor de N, e de grãos na colheita, em dois experimentos. Nenhum herbicida afetou o teor desse nutriente nas folhas ou nos grãos. A produção de grãos por área foi elevada com o aumento da população de plantas. O metribuzin causou redução da produção em um experimento.The effects of herbic ides and plant populations on nodulation and yield in soybean `Santa Rosa' were studied in three Experiments in field conditions and one in greenhouse. Clay and very clay soils were used in the field and very clay and loamy soils in pots. Trifluralin at 0,96 kg/ha and vernolate at 3,60 kg/ha, preplant incorporated; pendimethalin at 1,50 kg/ha, in two experiments, and at 1,25 in a third; alachlor at 2,40 kg; and metribu zin at 0,63 kg in two experiments and at 0,53 kg in a third, preemergence were applied in field conditions. In pots, the same rates were used, except for trifluralin which was applied at 0,86 kg/ha. A check was included in all experiments. All treatments in the field were combined with different plant densities: 200 and 300 thousand in Experiment I, 200, 300 and 400 thousand in Experiment II and 150 and 250 thousand in Experiment III. Three plants per pot were studied in the greenhouse experiment during the first 30 days. No interaction between herbicides and plant populations was observed for any of the studied parameters. The plant density increase caused increase of yield and in the N concentration in grains in two experiments. The different densities caused no change on the number or weight of nodules. Nodulation was affected, in pots, at its beginning, by trifluralin, pendimethalin and vernolate, with reduction of number and weight of nodules. Trifluralin depressed these values also in the field, in one experiment, at flower stage set. Grain yield was enhanced with population increase. Metribuzin reduced yield in one experiment.

  9. Desenvolvimento, partição de assimilados e produção de matéria seca de plantas de soja (Glycine max (L. merrill submetidas a quatro doses de metribuzin Development,assimilate partition and dry matter production in soybean (Glycine max (L. merrill plants treated with four doses of metribuzin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Silva Neto

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento, a partição e a produção de matéria seca, foram estudados em soja (Glycine Max (L. Merri ll, cv. 'Uberaba', cultivadas em condições de campo, sob quatro doses de metribuzin - (0,0; 0,35; 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a. ha-1. O metri buzin não reduziu a população e nem alterou significativamente a razão parte aérea/sistema radicular. A altura média das plantas aumentou significativamente com o incremento das doses de metribuzin, sendo que as alturas máximas das plantas foram 761, 784, 815 e 812 mm, em ordem crescente de dose de metribuzin. As variações das taxas de acúmulo de matéria seca foram nitida mente seqüenciais em todos os tratamentos, ocorrendo mudanças do dreno metabólico preferencial de um órgão para outro, de acordo com as transformações morfológicas das plantas, ressaltando-se que o metribuzin não alterou esse comportamento. Os tratamentos não influencia ramo acumulo de matéria seca das vagens (Wv, no entanto, a partir do inicio da maturação, as plantas-controle apres entaram maiores Wv, provavelmente, devido a maior taxa assi milatória líquida verificada a partir da floração plena. A matéria seca acumulada nos pericarpos (Wp diminuiu, a partir das sementes completamente desenvolvid os, para todos os tratamentos com exceção de Wp das plantas tratadas com 0,7 kg i.a. ha-1 de metribuzin que, manteve-se estável. Por outro lado, a matéria seca nas sementes (Ws aumentou de forma acentuada, desde o seu aparecimento até a colheita final , em todas as doses do herbicida.Development, assimlate partition and dry matter production in soybean (Glycine Max (L. Merri ll, cv. Uberaba plants treat ed with four metri buzin doses (0,0; 0,35; 0,70 and 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1 were studied in a field experiment. Metribuzin did not reduce the stand or alter ed significantly shoot /root ratio. Plants height average incre ased as the doses of metribuzin increased; maximum heights were 761, 784, 815 and 812 mm, for increasing metribuzin doses. Metribuzin did not alter the pattern of sequential dry matter partition in the plants. Metribuzin did not affect dry matter accumulation in pods (Wv; however, from initiation to the end of maturation of seeds the control presented greater Wv values than trea plants, due to its highest net assimilation rate after blooming. Pericarp dry matter (Wp was decre ased from full development se eds to final harvest for all treatments, except for Wp of plant streated with 0,7 i.a.ha-l that was maintained practically. Constant on the other hand, seed dry matter increased accentuately, from formation to last harvest, for all doses employed.

  10. Composición química, producción de gas in vitro y astringencia en el follaje de Samanea saman (Jacq. Merrill Chemical composition, in vitro gas production and astringency in the foliage of Samanea saman (Jacq. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ojeda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la composición química, la astringencia, la producción de gas y la degradabilidad ruminal in vitro de la fracción comestible de Samanea saman, durante el año 2009 se realizaron cinco muestreos (febrero, abril, mayo, junio y octubre en plantas localizadas en un bosque semicaducifolio tropical en Venezuela. En cada muestreo se consideraron 10 plantas diferentes, cada una como una réplica evaluada en un diseño completamente aleatorizado. No hubo variación (P>0,05 en la MO (94,1 ± 1,5%, la PC (20,1 ± 1,5%, la hemicelulosa (17,5 ± 3,7%, la celulosa (10,5 ± 2,5%, la lignina (11,1 ± 1,8% y los fenoles totales (2,8 ± 1,1%. De mayo a octubre se observaron los mayores valores (PIn order to determine the chemical composition, astringency, in vitro gas production and ruminal degradability of the edible fraction of Samanea saman, during 2009, five samplings (February, April, May, June and October were conducted on plants located in a semideciduous tropical forest in Venezuela. In each sampling 10 different plants were considered, each as a replicate evaluated in a completely randomized design. OM (94,1 ± 1,5%, CP (20,1 ± 1,5%, hemicellulose (17,5 ± 3,7%, cellulose (10,5 ± 2,5%, lignin (11,1 ± 1,8%, and total phenols (2,8 ± 1,1% did not show variations (P<0,05. From May to October, the highest values (P<0,05 of EE (5,3 ± 0,8%, NDF (44,8 ± 3,3%, ADF (16,7 ± 1,9%, and Ca (1,3 ± 0,2% were observed; while total (P<0,05 and condensed tannins (P<0,01 increased in October (3,75% and 0,99%, respectively. Astringency was not detected from February to May, and had limited values from June to October (0,4 ± 0,2 g Eta/100 g DM. No differences were observed in b (0,04 ± 0,01 mL/h, To (1,2 ± 0,2 h and T½ (21,3 ± 3,3 h with the highest gas potential production in February (63,3 mL/g DM. The OM and NDF degradability was reduced (P<0,05 in April (44,7% and 24,7%, respectively, without differences during the remaining months (51,2 ± 3,4% and 37,7 ± 3,3%, respectively. The edible biomass of S. saman could be used as a nutrient source in silvopastoral systems, with a low condensed tannin content of low biological activity, which causes a positive impact on the non-ammonia nitrogen flow from the rumen

  11. Avaliação de cultivares de soja (Glycine max (L. Merril em competição com Euphorbia heterophylla L. sob três densidades e dois períodos de ocorrência Evaluation of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill cultivars in competition with Euphorbia heterophylla L. in three densities and two periods of occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Chemale

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho, conduzido durante o ano agrícola de 1979/80 na Estação Experimental Agronômica de UFRGS, em Guaíba, RS, apresentou como objetivo testar quatro cultivares de soja (Paraná, Prata, Hood e IAS-4 quanto à sua habilidade em concorrer com Euphorbia heterophylla L. (leiteira, amendoim-bravo estabelecida em três densidades (0, 12 e 54 plan-tas/m2, em média e dois períodos de duração da competição (45 e 115 dias após a emergência da soja. Constatou-se que houve redução no rendimento de grãos de soja por efeito dos dois períodos de competição e das densidades de E. heterophylla L. referidas. Também os números de grãos e de legumes por área foram consideravelmente reduzidos pela presença da planta daninha associada ao período mais prolongado de competição. A espessura do caule e o número de nós das plantas de soja decresceram apenas sob o efeito da maior densidade da Euphorbia; entretanto, o número de ramos e o índice de área foliar, este aos 75 dias após a emergência da cultura, sofreram redução com a infestação de 12 plantas de Euphorbia por m2.A field experiment was performed at the Agronomy Experimental Station of UFRGS, in Guaíba, RS, Brazil, during the 1979/80 growing season, in order to test four soybean cultivars (Paraná, Prata, Hood e IAS-4 in competition with Euphorbia heterophylla L. established in three densities (0, 12 and 54 plants/m2 during two periods (45 and 115 days after soybean emergence. It was observed that soybean cultivars presented reduction of seed yields under the effect of the pe riods of competition and densities of Euphorbia heterophylla L. The number of seeds and pods per area were considerably reduced in the presence of the weed associated with the longest competition period. The stem diameter and number of nodes were reduced only by competition of the highest Euphorbia density; however, the number of branches and leaf area index, this after a period of 75 days of crop-weed association, were already reduced by a density of 12 plants/m2 of Euphorbia heterophylla L.

  12. Disturbance and Celebration of Josephine Baker in Copenhagen 1928

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanger, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    Marlene Spanger analyses reactions to the internationally recognised dancer and singer Josephine Baker (1906–1975), whose performances in Copenhagen gave rise to a heated emotional debate in Danish newspapers; these reactions mirror contemporary dominant religious, biological and colonial discour...

  13. Eredaid hetki "Pimedatest öödest" / Anne-Malle Hallik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hallik, Anne-Malle

    2002-01-01

    Pimedate Ööde filmifestivali eredamaid muljeid : Mark Soosaare filmid Kinomajas, Danis Tanovici "Eikellegimaa", Ida-Saksamaa indiaanifilmide kangelane - serblasest filminäitleja Gojko Mitic ja David Riva dokumentaalfilm "Marlene Dietrich - tema oma laul"

  14. God as burden: A theological reflection on art, death and God in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015) reflects on the work of (Dutch) South African artist Marlene Dumas (1953). Zwagerman addresses in particular Dumas' My Mother Before She Became My Mother (2010), painted 3 years after her mother died. In his reflections, Zwagerman ...

  15. 75 FR 37435 - Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... valid control number. No person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection... aircraft is operated in foreign nations. Federal Communications Commission. Marlene H. Dortch, Secretary...

  16. Time-Based Competition for Competitive Advantage: An Information Technology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-25

    Northern Telecom Competes on Time," Harvard Business Review (July-August 1989): 109. 5 Stalk, Jr., 48. 6 Stalk, 49. 7 Dumaine, 56. 8 Beverly Geber , "Speed...Where the People Fit In," Training, 24 August 1989: 27. 9 Dumaine, 56. 10 Bower, 114. 11 Bower, 114. 12 Dumaine, 57. 13 Bower, 115. 14 Geber , 29. 15... Geber , 28. 70 16 Geber , 29. 17 Dumaine, 59. 18 Geber , 29. 19 Merrills, 113. 20 Merrills, 114. 21 Merrills, 114. 22 Merrills, 114. 23 Merrills, 113. 24

  17. Differential gene expression and mitotic cell analysis of the drought tolerant soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill Fabales, Fabaceae cultivar MG/BR46 (Conquista under two water deficit induction systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana K. Martins

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought cause serious yield losses in soybean (Glycine max, roots being the first plant organ to detect the water-stress signals triggering defense mechanisms. We used two drought induction systems to identify genes differentially expressed in the roots of the drought-tolerant soybean cultivar MG/BR46 (Conquista and characterize their expression levels during water deficit. Soybean plants grown in nutrient solution hydroponically and in sand-pots were submitted to water stress and gene expression analysis was conducted using the differential display (DD and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. Three differentially expressed mRNA transcripts showed homology to the Antirrhinum majus basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor bHLH, the Arabidopsis thaliana phosphatidylinositol transfer protein PITP and the auxin-independent growth regulator 1 (axi 1. The hydroponic experiments showed that after 100 min outside the nutrient solution photosynthesis completely stopped, stomata closed and leaf temperature rose. Both stress induction treatments produced significant decrease in the mitotic indices of root cells. Axi 1, PITP and bHLH were not only differentially expressed during dehydration in the hydroponics experiments but also during induced drought in the pot experiments. Although, there were differences between the two sets of experiments in the time at which up or down regulation occurred, the expression pattern of all three transcripts was related. Similar gene expression and cytological analysis results occurred in both systems, suggesting that hydroponics could be used to simulate drought detection by roots growing in soil and thus facilitate rapid and easy root sampling.

  18. Aplicación de diferentes fuentes de azufre en soya (Glycine max (L. Merrill en tres ordenes de suelos del Valle del río Cauca, Colombia, en condiciones de invernadero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez L. Jairo A.

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron cuatro fuentes portadoras de S (sulfato de amonio, yeso, ácido sulfúrico y azufre micronizado en dosis de 20 y 40 kg de S/ha, aplicado en pre y al momento de la siembra , en tres órdenes de suelos (Vertisol, Inceptisol y Entisol del Valle geográfico del río Cauca, con la variedad ICA Tunía, como cultivo indicador. La unidad experimental estuvo constituida por bolsas de polietileno con dos kilos de suelo seco al aire, utilizando el horizonte Ap. El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar, el diseño de tratamientos fueron dos factoriales entrelazados con dos tratamientos adicionales, testigo absoluto (To, testigo comercial (Te. Este llevó fertilización basal con N, P, K, y doce tratamientos con fertilización basal más S (N, P, K +S. Al período de floración se cuantificó peso de materia seca, peso de nódulos, % S, % N Y N/S, a final de cosecha se determinó en el grano de soya % S, % N, N/ S, número de vainas, de granos, peso seco de grano y % de aceite. Los tres suelos respondieron a la fertilización de S. La fuente que presentó diferencias significativas con mayor incremento en producción de grano de soya, fue el azufre micronizado, en la dosis de 20 kg S/ha aplicado con anterioridad a la siembra.In order to fertilize, four sources of sulphur, ammonicum sulfate, gyppum, sulfuric acid and micronized sulphur, were used. Sulphur dose of 20 and 40 kg per hectare were applied before sowing and at the seeding moment, on three soils orders (Vertisol, Inceptisol and Entisol of the geographic Valley of the Cauca river, with the soybeam variety ICA Tunía. The experimental units were made of polyethilen bags with two kilograms of air dry soil, using the Ap. horizon. The experimental design was completyly ramdom. The treatment designs were two factorial s interlaced with two additional treatments, absolute indicator (To commercial indicator (Te. This carried basal fertilization with N, P, K and twelve treatments with basal fertilization plus sulphur (N, P, K + S. At flowering stage, the dry mather weight, nodules weight, % S, % N, and N/S, were mesured. At harvest time, % S, % N, N/S, amount of pods, grain, dry weight of grain and oil percentaje were determined. The soil orders showed good response to fertilization with sulphur. The source that presented significant differences with a highest increase in production of grain was the micronized sulphur with dose of 20 kg S/hectare, applied before sowing.

  19. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN BERBAGAI DOSIS MIKORIZA PADA KOMPOS SAMPAH KOTA TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN HASIL TANAMAN KEDELAI (Glycine max (L.) Merril) DALAM KEADAAN CEKAMAN AIR (Mycorrhizal Doses Effect of Various Cities Compost Trash on Plant Growth and Yields of S

    OpenAIRE

    Afriyon, Rendra; Soverda, Nerty; Myrna, Nyimas

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted in order to see the effect of mycorrhiza on municipal solid waste compost on the growth and yield of soybean under water stress conditions. The research also aims to obtain doses of mycorrhiza plus municipal waste compost is best for the growth and yield of soybean in the state of water stress. The study was conducted using a completely randomized design (CRD) is a factor, giving Mycorrhizae. Media used in all treatments and so on municipal solid waste compost added 20...

  20. Introduction of the rd29A: AtDREB2A CA gene into soybean (Glycine max L. Merril and its molecular characterization in leaves and roots during dehydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelle Engels

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The loss of soybean yield to Brazilian producers because of a water deficit in the 2011-2012 season was 12.9%. To reduce such losses, molecular biology techniques, including plant transformation, can be used to insert genes of interest into conventional soybean cultivars to produce lines that are more tolerant to drought. The abscisic acid (ABA-independent Dehydration Responsive Element Binding (DREB gene family has been used to obtain plants with increased tolerance to abiotic stresses. In the present study, the rd29A:AtDREB2A CA gene from Arabidopsis thaliana was inserted into soybean using biolistics. Seventy-eight genetically modified (GM soybean lines containing 2-17 copies of the AtDREB2A CA gene were produced. Two GM soybean lines (P1397 and P2193 were analyzed to assess the differential expression of the AtDREB2A CA transgene in leaves and roots submitted to various dehydration treatments. Both GM lines exhibited high expression of the transgene, with the roots of P2193 showing the highest expression levels during water deficit. Physiological parameters examined during water deficit confirmed the induction of stress. This analysis of AtDREB2A CA expression in GM soybean indicated that line P2193 had the greatest stability and highest expression in roots during water deficit-induced stress.

  1. Aplicação em pré-colheita, de dessecante em duas cultivares de soja (Glycine max (L. Merril I - Efeitos imediatos sobre a germinação e produção de sementes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Durigan

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de soja das cultivares Santa Rosa e IAC-2 foram tratadas, em diferentes épocas após o início do florescimento, com o desse cante paraquat na dose de 2 l/ha do produto comercial. Objetivou-se avaliar os possíveis efeitos sobre a infecção de sementes por microorganismos prejudiciais a sua qualidade. As aplicações do produto foram feitas semanalmente a partir dos 72 e 75 dias após o início do fl orescimento, para as cultivares IAC -2 e Santa Rosa. respectivamente (teores de umidade das sementes de 56,8 e 57,5%. Para todas as épocas tratadas, existiam as suas respectivas comparações que não receberam o produto. As testemunhas foram colhidas seguindo-se os critérios usuais dos agricultores que trabalham com soja, aos 100 e 103 dias após o inicio do florescimento, respectivamente para as cultivares IAC-2 e Santa Rosa. A incidência de fungos prejudiciais à qualidade das sementes foi sempre menor para as parcelas que receberam dessecamento e aumentou com o retardamento da colheita, principalmente nas parcelas não tratadas.The plant desiccant paraquat was applied on soybean plants at different stages of development 1972 and 75 days after flowering, weekly and the harvested seeds examined as to fungus incidence. The data showed that the incidence of seed deteriorating fungi was always lower in the treated plots and increased when the harvest was delayed, mainly in the untreated plots.

  2. Determinação de proteína total e escore de aminoácidos de bromelinas extraídas dos resíduos do abacaxizeiro (Ananas comosus, (L. Merril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREIMAN Lenice O.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O abacaxi por longo tempo tem sido a fruta não cítrica mais popular nos países tropicais e sub-tropicais, principalmente pelo seu atrativo sabor e aroma, além do refrescante balanço açúcar-ácido que possui, o que certamente, determinou sua importância sócio-econômica. Além dessas características, é fonte da enzima proteolítica bromelina, um produto de alto valor comercial, que não é fabricado no Brasil. O presente trabalho objetivou a determinação do escore de aminoácidos de bromelinas extraídas das várias partes do abacaxizeiro (casca, folha, caule, coroa e polpa, com duas precipitações subseqüentes, utilizando-se como agente precipitante, o etanol p.a. Análises mostraram maior teor de proteínas na bromelina extraída da coroa. Nas duas precipitações a composição de aminoácidos das enzimas obtidas, apresentaram resultados inferiores aos da comercial.

  3. Efeitos do bentazon sobre a produção e teores de N e óleo em soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill. Effects of bentazon on yield and N and oil content in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Deuber

    1981-06-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos do bentazon sobre a produção e sobre o teor de N e de óleo total nos grãos em soja das variedades Paraná, IAC-4, Santa Rosa e UFV-1 foram estudados em um experimento de campo. O bentazon foi aplicado na dose de 1,44 kg/ha sobre plantas com um, dois ou três trifólios totalmente esenvolvidos. Não foram encontradas diferenças entre as produções, teores de N ou de óleo em qualquer das variedades estudadas. A Paraná e a IAC-4 produziram mais que as outras duas. O teor de N foi significativamente mais baixo na Santa Rosa e o de óleo, significativamente mais elevado na Paraná e mais baixo na UFV-1.The effects of bentazon on yield and on N and oil content in grains, applied at 1,44 kg/ha, at three, growth stages, on soybeans, cv. Paraná, IAC-4, Santa Rosa and. UFV-1, were studied in a field experiment. No differences were found for yields or N and oil contents in any of the cultivars for application dates. Paraná and IAC-4 yielded more than the other two. N content was significantly lower in Santa Rosa and oil content significantly higher in Paraná and lower in UFV-1.

  4. Teste de lixiviação de potássio para avaliação do vigor de sementes de soja [Glycine max (L.)Merril

    OpenAIRE

    Dias,D.C.F.S.; Marcos F,J.; Carmelo,Q.A.C.

    1995-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo principal investigar a possibilidade de se obter indicações rápidas sobre a qualidade fisiológica de sementes de soja através do teste de lixiviação de potássio, cuja eficiência foi avaliada comparativamente as informações fornecidas por outros métodos considerados adequados para a determinação do vigor. Para tanto, utilizou-se quatro lotes de sementes de soja dos cultivares IAC-8 e IAC-15 que foram submetidos aos testes de germinação, primeira contagem ...

  5. Toward safer food: perspectives on risk and priority setting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffmann, Sandra; Taylor, Michael R

    2005-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Richard A. Merrill PART II Risks and Resources to Reduce Them Linking Illnesses to Foods: A Conceptual Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . Robert V. Tauxe...

  6. Comparative Scores on Two Intelligence Tests with Mentally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-09-14

    Sep 14, 1974 ... Merrill Palmer Scale were administered to each subject. The OSAIS is suitable for administration on persons between the chronological ages of 3 and 20 years. The. Merrill Palmer Scale is ... permission to publish. REFERENCES !. Gunzburg. H. C. in Minler. P.. ed. (1970): The Psychological Assess-.

  7. Adolescents' Intergenerational Narratives across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Elaine; Fivush, Robyn; Merrill, Natalie; Wang, Qi; McAnally, Helena

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents' intergenerational narratives--the stories they tell about their mothers' and fathers' early experiences--are an important component of their identities (Fivush & Merrill, 2016; Merrill & Fivush, 2016). This study explored adolescents' intergenerational narratives across cultures. Adolescents aged 12 to 21 from 3 cultural…

  8. Inimeseksolemise võtmed / Aita Kivi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivi, Aita, 1954-

    2000-01-01

    Sisu : Viiu Härm. Duubel kaks; Kurt Vonnegut. Titaani sireenid; Berendt, John. Südaöö hea ja kurja tundmise aias; Fern Michaels. Pühad; Erich Segal. Arstid; Maria Riva. Marlene Dietrich; Tiiu Põld. Märgitud mees

  9. Der Wettbewerb "Lesefücshse International" - Bücher für Jugendliche / Sybille Deselaers

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Deselaers, Sybille

    2011-01-01

    Raamatututvustused: Behrens, Katja. Der kleine Mausche aus Dessau. München : Hanser, 2009, Linker, Christian. Blitzlichtgewitter. München : Deutsche Taschenbuch Verlag, 2010, Hammer, Agnes. Herz, Klopf! Bindlach : Script5, 2009, Höra, Daniel. Gedisst. Berlin : Berlin Verlag, 2009, Röder, Marlene. Zebraland. [Ravensburg] : Ravensburger, 2010

  10. 78 FR 18933 - Proposed Priority-National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research-Advanced...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... of your electronic message. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marlene Spencer. Telephone: (202) 245... any year in which we choose to use this priority, we invite applications through a notice in the... entitlement grants, user fees, or loan programs or the rights and obligations of recipients thereof; or (4...

  11. Europas ledere må gøre op med ' folkets vilje

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene

    2017-01-01

    Centerleder og professor Marlene Wind insisterer i dagens Politiken i debatindlægget: "Europas ledere må gøre op med ' folkets vilje'", at verdens ledere må stå fast ved de principper, der har været bærende for vores samfund siden anden verdenskrig. Domstolenes politiske uafhængighed, menneskeret...

  12. Crime’s face: Imagining and representing kleptomania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, W.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Marlene Dumas is regarded as one of the most important international painters of this time. In this article, an analysis is made of what her painting The Kleptomaniac (2005) and, in particular, what its title represents. Drawing upon art history, I begin by looking at the original Portrait of a

  13. Two Viewpoints on the Challenges of ICT in Education: Knowledge-Building Theory vs. a Pragmatist Conception of Learning in Social Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivinen, Osmo; Piiroinen, Tero; Saikkonen, Loretta

    2016-01-01

    The paper contrasts two different approaches to the educational challenges of the ubiquitous, rapidly developing information and communication technologies (ICT). The first is the constructivist "knowledge building" theory spearheaded by Carl Bereiter and Marlene Scardamalia and recently further developed by Kai Hakkarainen and Sami…

  14. 78 FR 29062 - 2006 Biennial Regulatory Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... Subjects in 47 CFR Part 25 Satellites and telecommunications. Federal Communications Commission. Marlene H... provisions. DATES: Effective on May 17, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: William Bell, Satellite...: PART 25--SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS 0 1. The authority citation for part 25 continues to read as follows...

  15. Corbijni kogupauk Hollandis / Harry Liivrand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Liivrand, Harry, 1961-

    2000-01-01

    Rockmuusikamaailma fotograafist ja kujundiloojast Anton Corbijnist (s. 1955), tema näitustest "Anton Corbijn - 25 aastat tööd" Groningeni Muuseumis, "Still Lives" Amsterdami Torch Gallerys, projektist "Stripping girls; striptease as a theatre form" (koos Marlene Dumasiga) Amsterdami Teatrimuuseumis

  16. Dialogical Preaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorensen, Marlene Ringgaard

    Experiences of otherness and difference play a central role in human communication as well as in theological descriptions of the relationship between God and humans. Marlene Ringgaard Lorensen explores preaching in light of Bakhtinian theories of dialogicity and carnivalization and suggests ways...

  17. “Why were we crucified into car mechanics?”: Masculine identity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Critical commentary on Jak de Wet in Marlene van Niekerk's Agaat centres on his being a patriarchal stereotype of Afrikaner nationalism. However, while his negative behaviour in the novel is undeniable, the construction of his masculine identity is mediated by the emasculated space in which he enacts it. This article reads ...

  18. Has Carles Puigdemont Finally Run Out of Road?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene

    2018-01-01

    Professor og centerleder, Marlene Wind, er i dag den 5. februar 2018 i New York Times. Professor Wind er interviewet i forbindelse med debat-arrangementet med overskriften "Catalonia and Europe at a Crossroads for Democracy? Debate with Carles Puigdemont" afholdt den 22. januar på KU styret af...

  19. 78 FR 44029 - Establishment of Rules and Policies for the Digital Audio Radio Satellite Service in the 2310...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... 9605, February 11, 2013, are effective July 23, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Stephen Duall, Satellite Division, International Bureau, at (202) 418-1103, or email: stephen[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY... accordance with the Communications Act of 1934, as amended. Federal Communications Commission. Marlene H...

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 224 ... Vol 41, No 3 (2014), Dionysian Daydreaming: (Re)Creating Community in Marlene van Niekerk's Memorandum, Abstract. J Rossmann. Vol 43, No ... Vol 37, No 1 (2010), Inscribing whiteness and staging belonging in contemporary autobiographies and life-writing forms, Abstract. W Mbao. Vol 39, No 2 ...

  1. 77 FR 4558 - Combined Notice of Filings #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... Numbers: EC12-62-000. Applicants: La Paloma Generating Company, LLC, Merrill Lynch Credit Products, LLC..., LLC and La Paloma Generating Company, LLC. Filed Date: 1/20/12. Accession Number: 20120120-5257...

  2. Changes in micronutrients, dry weight and plant growth of soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) cultivars under salt stress. Murat Tunçturk1* ... Salinity stress negatively affected soybean cultivars and the extent of ... INTRODUCTION. Soybean is a ..... A general approach. Science 210: ...

  3. The Challenge of Weather Prediction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the motion of air caused by a balance between various forces. We have shown that this ..... original work has opened up a whole new field of research on deterministic ... (Third Edition) Charles E Merrill Publishing Company. Colombia, Toronto ...

  4. Mite (Acari) fauna of some cultivated plants from Kahramanmaraş ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... and fruit trees, the common weed Ipomoea indica (Burman) Merrill ... Mites were removed from the ... 2004). This species was also recorded from the bark of ..... the family Tetranychidae, damaging fruit trees in Central Anatolia.

  5. The Challenge of Weather Prediction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    around the sun. If weather is also governed by physical laws, why ... radiate according to Planck's law (higher the temperature of the black body ..... First law of thermodynamics. Relates ... (Third Edition) Charles E Merrill Publishing. Company.

  6. Visual graphics for human rights, social justice, democracy and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: art, democracy, human rights, social justice, the public good, visual graphics. Introduction ..... in industry and global communications pay scant regard to their effect on the environment. The ..... Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Merril.

  7. Estimating Selected Disease and Non-Battle Injury Echelon I and Echelon II Outpatient Visits of U.S. Soldiers and Marines in an Operational Setting from Corresponding Echelon III (Hospitalization) Admissions in the Same Theater of Operation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kilian, Dennis B

    2000-01-01

    .... This has been demonstrated throughout history from Napoleon's typhus outbreak in the retreat from Moscow, to Merrill's Maraders' dysentery outbreak in Burma, and to the US Forces-Somalia dengue and malaria outbreak...

  8. In vitro shoot multiplication and conservation of Caralluma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-03-30

    Burm. f.) Merrill. In Vitro Cell Deve. Biol. Plant. 41: 124-128. Thomas TD, Shankar S (2009). Multiple shoot induction and callus regeneration in Sarcostemma brevistigma Wight & Arnott, a rare medicinal plant. Plant Biotechnol.

  9. Naftariigid tõmbavad hinnapidurit / Erik Aru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Aru, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Investeerimispanga Merrill Lynch tooraineanalüüsi juht Merril Francisco Blanchi prognoosib, et nafta hind langeb madalaimale tasemele 2009. a. esimeses pooles ning alates juunist hakkab hind tõusma. IEA prognoosib, et naftatarbimise kasv aeglustub aastatel 2008-2013 vaid keskmiselt 1,2% võrra. OPEC, kes on viimase kahe kuu jooksul juba vähendanud naftatootmist, võib vastu võtta järjekordse otsuse naftatootmist kärpida. Vt. samas: Naftaspioonide maailm

  10. Concentrações de ANA e BAP na micropropagação de abacaxizeiro L. Merrill (Ananas comosus e no cultivo hidropônico das plântulas obtidas in vitro The effect of ANA and BAP concentrations on the micropropagation and hydroponic cultures of pineapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Elizabeth Costa de Macêdo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de diferentes concentrações de ANA e BAP na micropropagação do abacaxizeiro, bem como no cultivo em hidroponia das plântulas obtidas in vitro, foram estudados em brotos de abacaxizeiro da variedade Pérola, inoculados em meio de cultura básico MS, suplementado com os fitorreguladores BAP e ANA em diferentes concentrações. Caracteres morfológicos quantitativos relacionados ao crescimento dos brotos e das plântulas de abacaxizeiro foram avaliados respectivamente durante os cultivos in vitro e em hidroponia e mostraram que, o tratamento T1 (BAP = 1,0 mg L-1e ANA = 0,5 mg L-1 proporcionou a maior taxa média de regeneração de brotos e conseqüentemente uma maior produção de matéria fresca. Entretanto, a altura dos brotos e a formação de suas raízes foram maiores nos tratamentos T2 (BAP = 0,5 mg L-1 e ANA = 0,25 mg L-1 e T3 (BAP = 0,25 mg L-1 e ANA = 0,12 mg L-1 . Após sessenta dias de cultivo em hidroponia, todas as plântulas oriundas do tratamento T1 apresentaram um bom desenvolvimento, expresso pela maioria dos caracteres morfológicos avaliados. O sistema de micropropagação utilizado neste trabalho possibilitou a obtenção de brotos de abacaxizeiro Pérola, em quantidade suficiente e ao mesmo tempo de fácil individualização, seguida da regeneração de plântulas que foram cultivadas em hidroponia.The effect of different ANA and BAP concentrations on in vitro and hydroponic cultures were studied. Pineapple shoots derived from Pérola explants variety were inoculated in MS media containing BAP and ANA in different concentrations. Growth parameters of shoots and plantlets were measured for in vitro and hydroponic cultures. Showed a highest multiplication rates of shoots and consequently highest fresh matter production were obtained with BAP and ANA at the concentrations of 1,0 and 0,5 mg L-1 respectively. However, the shoot length as well as the root number formed were higher in the T2 (0,5 de BAP + 0,25 de ANA and T3 (0,25 de BAP + 0,12 de ANA treatments. The results showed that after sixty days of hydroponic culture and in the presence of T1 treatment, all plantlets had good developing that was observed in the majority of morphological growth parameters evaluated. The results showed that it is possible to obtain high quantities of shoots and then plantlets which could be cultivated in hydroponic culture using the pineapple micropropagation procedures methods.

  11. Fear, Honor, Interest: An Analysis of Russia’s Operations in the Near Abroad (2007-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Jackson, 82. 31 Victor Shnirelman, “New Racism, Clash of Civilisations and Russia,” in Russian Nationalism and the National Reassertion of Russia...August 2008). 29 behind Georgian lines to conduct subversive actions.110 Overwhelmed by force and simultaneous, in-depth actions, together with...New Racism, Clash of Civilisations and Russia.” In Russian Nationalism and the National Reassertion of Russia. Editor Marlene Laruelle, pg#s

  12. Analysis of the CFTR gene in Venezuelan cystic fibrosis patients, identification of six novel cystic fibrosis-causing genetic variants

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Karen; De Mendonca,Elizabeth; Matute,Xiorama; Chaustre,Ismenia; Villalon,Marlene; Takiff,Howard

    2016-01-01

    Karen Sánchez,1 Elizabeth de Mendonca,1 Xiorama Matute,2 Ismenia Chaustre,2 Marlene Villalón,3 Howard Takiff4 1Unit of Genetic and Forensic Studies, Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research (IVIC), 2Hospital JM de los Ríos, 3Hospital José Ignacio Baldo, Algodonal, National Reference Unit, 4Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research (IVIC), Caracas, Venezuela. Abstract: The mutations in the CFTR gene found in ...

  13. Acquisition Quality Improvement Within Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    support, encouragement, prayers, and the endless cups of coffee you surprised me with. I treasure you and have a lifetime to show you my gratitude. To...Peterson for not allowing me to stop when it seemed like the whole world was caving in on me and for providing the guidance to start this project. Marlene...Arizona, 2 Utah, Colorado and New Mexico . NAVFAC SW provides public works, planning, engineering / design, construction, real estate, environmental

  14. A CONVERSATİON ON INSTRUCTİONAL DESİGN WİTH ROBERT GAGNÉ AND DAVİD MERRİLL NO:1

    OpenAIRE

    Necmi Esgi; Omer Arslan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to bring in the first part of diachronic conversation on instructional design with Robert Gagné and David Merrill to transcripts. This conversation was hosted by Utah State University, in the United States of America, in July 10, 1989. Throughout the history of instructional design, these two scientists are considered as the pioneers of the field and in these sessions, they summarize and compare their studies. In the first session, Gagné and Merrill represent their...

  15. Effects of long-term storage on the quality of soybean, Glycine max ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, is one of the five most important legumes in the tropics and provides the protein eaten by most people in the region. One of the major constraints to soybean production is that the seed quality deteriorates rapidly during storage. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of some storage ...

  16. Learning about Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    The field of children's learning was thriving when the Merrill-Palmer Quarterly was launched; the field later went into eclipse and now is in the midst of a resurgence. This commentary examines reasons for these trends, and describes the emerging field of children's learning. In particular, the new field is seen as differing from the old in its…

  17. 77 FR 62316 - Holiday CVS, L.L.C., d/b/a CVS/Pharmacy Nos. 219 and 5195; Decision and Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... testimony centered on certain prescriptions that presented a collection of red flags that no reasonable and... Warrants at both Respondents and interviewed various employees of each store's pharmacy departments.... Merrill stated that ``once the limit [wa]s reached,'' customers who then presented oxycodone prescriptions...

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 19, No 2 (2017): Special Issue, Gestion participative de la fertilite de sol en culture biologique d'Ananas comosus ((L.) Merrill) au Sud de la Republique du Benin ... Vol 17, No 2 (2015), Habiletes manageriales et de leadership et la performance des unites de soins primaires du district des Lacs au Togo Leadership and ...

  19. The effects of water stress on the chemical composition of soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of soybean [Glycine max (L) Merrill] cv. Akiyoshi to three moisture levels at three growth stages was investigated in a glasshouse experiment. Percent leaf nitrogen was reduced by water deficit at late flowering and early podding but increased after rewatering. This parameter was not affected by water deficit at ...

  20. Prelude to the American Revolution? The War of Regulation: A Revolutionary Reaction for Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadlier, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    On June 19, 1771, the young, admired captain of the Regulators, Benjamin Merrill, and 11 of his compatriots were condemned to the gallows for high treason. But what heinous actions did these men commit? What reprehensible crime would constitute such a punishment? The answer lies in the failure of the Regulator Rebellion, a prolonged conflict in…

  1. Annual Meeting of International Neural Network Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-31

    Merrill, John and Port, Robert India;ia University Towards A Connectionist Model of Italian Morphology Arbitrio, Aiessandro Istituto Psicologia CNR & AI Lab...Connectionist Network Nolfi Stefano Fondazione Sigma Tau Parisi, Domenico Instituto di Psicologia C.N.R., Roma Decision Rules for Perception of Species

  2. Night Fighters Without Equal, Task Force 39 at Empress Augusta Bay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fuquea, David

    2004-01-01

    On the 1st of November 1943, the ships and men of Rear Admiral "Tip" Merrill's Task Force 39 steamed off the west coast of the island of Bougainville, the last island at the northern end of the Solomon Islands chain...

  3. New and noteworthy Malesian species of Loranthaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barlow, Bryan A.

    1995-01-01

    Ten new or noteworthy Malesian species of Loranthaceae are discussed. The known area of the relictual Cecarria obtusifolia (Merrill) Barlow is increased to include Flores and Timor. Dendrophthoe curvata (Blume) Miquel is accepted as a distinct species. The status of Dendrophthoe falcata (L. f.)

  4. PERFORMANCE IN ART NATURE AND MEANING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2012-04-25

    Apr 25, 2012 ... educational computing and technology. http://cnets.iste.org. Newby, T.; Stephen, D.; Lehman, J.; and Russel, J. (2000). Instructional technology for teaching learning. New Jersey: Merrill/Prentice Hall. Nikolov, R. (2007). Towards Web 2.0 schools: Rethinking the teachers' professional Development (a paper ...

  5. Personal news

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1947-01-01

    At a dinner given by Mrs and Br Verdoorn for the co-editors of Chronica Botanica during the AAAS-meetings at Boston, Mass., Dec. 29thm 1946, Dr. E. D. Merrill was awarded the honorary membership of the Botanic Gardens, Buitenzorg, Java, for 1946, on the occasion of the 129th anniversary of these

  6. Hakeem O. Ijaiya* Abstract The issue of transnational environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    State for pollution that affects neighbouring states can be traced to the Trail ... the growth of truly global proportions only since the onset of the industrial ... 3 See Thomas W. Merrill, Golden Rules for Transboundary Pollution, .... 20 NICHOLAS STERN, THE ECONOMICS OF CLIMATE CHANGE. ..... The Basel Convention.

  7. Changes in endogenous hormone concentrations during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-14

    Sep 14, 2011 ... acid (GA3) and zeatin (ZT), and led to the transition of vegetative growth to inflorescence initiation. After ... Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril) is native to southern Brazil and ... formalin acetic alcohol (FAA) solutions for anatomy analysis; and ..... plants, and is abundant in the will-be falling organs and.

  8. Targeting Breast Cancer CNS Metastasis with Oncolytic Polioviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    8217. Monte . iii. K. Merrill, aindr M. craincier. Genetic deiettinstnt-s af VV-inariivaicit PVS-RII’O (+ corrspondn ingt I X Wil’fiul. Sitrsial cell iype... Ararat M, Graham FL (2002) Preferential transformation of human neuronal cells by human adenoviruses and the origin of HEK 293 cells. Faseb J 16: 869

  9. 77 FR 31646 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... 04/30/12 (G.P) (Union). 81593 Bank of America Merrill Jacksonville, FL...... 05/09/12 05/08/12 Lynch (State/One-Stop). 81594 Catalina Marketing Saint Petersburg, FL.. 05/09/12 05/08/12 Corporation, Customer...

  10. Main: 1V3H [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1V3H 大豆 Soybean Glycine max (L.) Merrill Beta-Amylase Name=Bmy1; Glycine Max Molecule: Beta-Amylase; Chai... 495 AA, Molecular weight: 56011 Da ATSDSNMLLNYVPVYVMLPLGVVNVDNVFEDPDGLKEQLLQLRAAGVDGVMVDVWWGIIELKGPKQYDWRAYRSLFQLVQECGLTLQAI...MSFHQCGGNVGDIVNIPIPQWVLDIGESNHDIFYTNRSGTRNKEYLTVGVDNEPIFHGRTAIEIYSDYMKSFRENMSDFLESGLIIDIEVG...FLTWYSNKLLNHGDQILDEANKAFLGCKVKLAIKVSGIHWWYKVENHAAELTAGYYNLNDRDGYRPIARMLSRHHAILNFTCLEMRDSEQPSDAKSGPQELVQQVLSG...GWREDIRVAGENALPRYDATAYNQIILNAKPQGVNNNGPPKLSMFGVTYLRLSDDLLQKSNFNIFKKFVLKMHADQDYCANPQKYNHAITPLKPSAPKIPIEVLLEATKPTLPFPWLPETDMKVDG soybean_1V3H.jpg ...

  11. captive Chrysospa/ax treve/yani

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    897-898. REARDON, P.O., LEINWEBER, C.L. & MERRILL, L.B. 1974. Response of side oats grama to animal saliva and thiamine. J. Range Mgmt 27: 400-401. SEELY, M.K., DE VOS, M.P. & LOUW, a.N. 1977. Fog imbibition, satellite fauna and unusual leaf structure in a. Namib Desert dune plant, Trianthema hereroensis.

  12. Global Warming and the Political Ecology of Health: Emerging Crisis and Systemic Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Smith

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of Global Warming and the Political Ecology of Health: Emerging Crisis and Systemic Solutions. Hans Baer and Merrill Singer. 2008. Left Coast Press, Inc., Walnut Creek, CA. Pp. 238. $32.95 (paperback. ISBN 978-1-59874-354-8.

  13. 76 FR 11264 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... from Jennifer Merrill (USITC, tel. no. 202-205-3188). Hearing-impaired persons can obtain information... well as labor unions or representative groups of workers, U.S. importers and foreign exporters, and...'s shipments and purchases from various sources; (part III) financial data, including income-and-loss...

  14. Traditional Beach Template vs Cross Shore Swash Zone (CSSZ) Placement Methods at Egmont Key, FL: High Silt Content Beneficial Use Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Relationships • Swash Zone samples carried 13.2% of the Discharge Slurry fines out of the beach template, thus leaving 5.2% on the beach. *Sampling methods...Tina Underwood , Ms. Erin Duffy USACE Jacksonville District – Mr. Bryan Merrill, Mr. Mike Hensch, Mr. Vic Wilhelm, Mr. Tom Spencer. USACE Engineer

  15. Management process invaded Ames as the Center shifted from NACA to NASA oversight. Ames constructed

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Management process invaded Ames as the Center shifted from NACA to NASA oversight. Ames constructed a review room in its headquarters building where, in the graphical style that prevailed in the 1960's, Ames leadership could review progress against schedule, budget and performance measures. Shown, in October 1965 is Merrill Mead chief of Ames' program and resources office. (for H Julian Allen Retirement album)

  16. 78 FR 21349 - Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Orders Granting Authority To Import and Export Natural Gas, To Export Liquefied Natural Gas, To Export Compressed Natural Gas, Vacating Prior Authority and Denying Request for... OIL COMMERCIAL GP 12-164-NG XPRESS NATURAL GAS LLC 12-168-CNG MERRILL LYNCH COMMODITIES CANADA, ULC 12...

  17. Task Analysis in Instructional Program Development. Theoretical Paper No. 52.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Michael E.

    A review of task analysis procedures beginning with the military training and systems development approach and covering the more recent work of Gagne, Klausmeier, Merrill, Resnick, and others is presented along with a plan for effective instruction based on the review of task analysis. Literature dealing with the use of task analysis in programmed…

  18. Moor Journal of Agricultural Research - Vol 7, No 1 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Green manuring and nitrogen fertilization effects on soil chemical properties, ... Effects of soil moisture stress on floral and pods abortion, reproductive efficiency and grain yield in soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L) Merrill) ... Determinants of farm mechanization among arable crop farmers in Ibarapa ... B Osundare, 63-68.

  19. Ethics and the Press: Readings in Mass Media Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, John C., Ed.; Barney, Ralph D., Ed.

    This collection of 35 articles addresses the topic of the ethical considerations and implications involved in reporting the news. Included in this book are such articles as: "Ethics and Journalism" by John Merrill, "Quality in Mass Communications" by Wilbur Schramm, "The American Press: Some Truths About Truths" by…

  20. 75 FR 54957 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... highway operating conditions: Rick A. Ervin, Stephen P. Goodall, John R. Kelly, Osvaldo R. Maldonado, Frank G. Merrill, Alberto Mireles, Jr., Montie Price, Daniel R. Rosas, David M. Sims, Stephen W... pounds for all or part of the 3-year period: Adam O. Carson, Joe H. Saine, Joseph W. Schmit. One...

  1. Air & Space Power Journal. Volume 29, Number 2, March-April 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    combine authority and responsibility with accountability for performance at every level . Merrill A. McPeak, Selected Works, 1990– 1994 (Maxwell AFB...In this regard, I believe that Harrison succeeds. He begins by delivering an excellent historical account of the defini- tions of strategy...Reviewer: Capt Ian S. Bertram, USAF Rudder: From Leader to Legend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172

  2. Florae Malesianae Praecursores LX. The Oleaceae of Malesia. II. The genus Olea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiew, Ruth

    1979-01-01

    Olea comprises six species in Malesia: two from Malaya. O. brachiata (Lour.) Merrill (formerly O. maritima Wall. ex G. Don) and O. dentata Wall. ex G. Don (formerly O. penangiana Ridley); two from Borneo, O. borneensis Boerl. and O. decussata (Heine) Kiew and two from Java, O. javanica (Bl.) Knobl.

  3. Effect of no-tillage crop rotation systems on nutrient status of a rhodic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study the effects of no-tillage and eight crop rotations (established in 1985) on chemical properties of a Rhodic Ferralsol (Typic Haplorthox, Soil Taxonomy) and on nutrient uptake by maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) leaves were assessed in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, using a randomized ...

  4. 75 FR 14227 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Order Approving Proposed Rule Change...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... Commission has considered the proposed rule's impact on efficiency, competition, and capital formation. See... its rules governing NOM, the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association (``SIFMA... security.''). See also Newton v. Merrill, Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith, Inc., 135 F.3d 266, at 271, 274...

  5. Miscellaneous botanical Notes VIII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1957-01-01

    The only record of Thesium in Malaysia was hitherto the Southern Chinese Thesium psilotoides Hance from medium altitudes of the Benguet and Bontoe Mountain Provinces in North Luzon, according to Merrill (Enum. Philip. Fl. Pl. 2, 1923, 115), occurring between 1200 and 1500 m. The same species has

  6. 77 FR 66480 - Final Environmental Impact Statement, Narrows Project, Sanpete County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ..., Utah 84501 Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University, 701 East University Parkway, Provo, Utah 84602-6800 Manti Public Library, 50 South Main Street, Manti, Utah 84642 Marriott Library, University of Utah, 295 South 1500 East, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 Merrill-Cazier Library, Utah State University...

  7. Early Malnutrition and Central Nervous System Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrimshaw, Nevin S.

    1969-01-01

    Discusses the consequences of severe malnutrition in young experimental animals. Development of the brain is permanently impaired. Studies of the effects of malnutrition on children are included. (This paper was presented at the Eighth Annual Lecture of the Merrill-Palmer Historical Library in Child Development and Family Life, October 25, 1968.)…

  8. Samoje võsokoje v mire zhilovoje zdanije

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    2004. a. jaanuaris valmib Lõuna-Korea pealinnas Soulis maailma kõige kõrgem tornelamu Tower Palace Three (264 m, 73 korrust), mille projekteerisid arhitektuuribüroode Skidmore Owings & Merrill LLP ja Samoo Architects & Engineers arhitektid ja insenerid

  9. Development of SSR markers for genetic diversity and phylogenetic studies of Phomopsis longicolla causing Phomopsis seed decay in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phomopsis longicolla T. W. Hobbs (syn. Diaporthe longicolla) is the primary cause of Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill. The genome of P. longicolla type strain TWH P74 represents one of the important fungal pathogens in the Diaporthe-Phomopsis complex. In this study, th...

  10. Roles of Working Memory Performance and Instructional Strategy in Complex Cognitive Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, V.; Altun, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate how working memory (WM) performances and instructional strategy choices affect learners' complex cognitive task performance in online environments. Three different e-learning environments were designed based on Merrill's (2006a) model of instructional strategies. The lack of experimental research on his framework is…

  11. Marine Litter, Eutrophication and Noise Assessment Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazov, Atanas; Velcheva, Maya; Milkova, Tanya; Slabakova, Violeta; Marinova, Veselka

    2017-04-01

    MARLEN - Marine Litter, Eutrophication and Noise Assessment Tools is a project under the Programme BG02.03: Increased capacity for assessing and predicting environmental status in marine and inland waters, managed by Bulgarian Ministry of environment and waters and co-financed by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area (EEA FM) 2009 - 2014. Project Beneficiary is the Institute of oceanology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two partners: Burgas municipality and Bulgarian Black Sea Basin Directorate. Initial assessment of ecological state of Bulgarian marine waters showed lack of data for some descriptors of MSFD. The main goal of MARLEN is to build up tools for assessment of marine environment by implementing new technologies and best practices for addressing three main areas of interest with lack of marine data in particular: a) Marine litter detection and classification in coastal areas; b) Regular near real time surface water eutrophication monitoring on large aquatory; c) Underwater noise monitoring. Developed tools are an important source of real time, near real time and delay mode marine data for Bulgarian Black Sea waters. The partnership within the project increased capacity for environmental assessments and training of personnel and enhances collaboration between scientific institutes, regional and local authorities. Project results supported implementation of MSFD in Bulgarian marine waters for the benefit of coastal population, marine industry, tourism, marine research and marine spatial planning.

  12. Utilização de fluorescência de clorofila na separação de sementes esverdeadas de soja

    OpenAIRE

    CICERO, Silvio Moure; SCHOOR, Rob Van Der; JALINK, Henk

    2009-01-01

    The occurrence of green seeded soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is a problem closely related to unfavorable climatic conditions, mainly drought, that occurs during the final stages of seed maturation. This problem causes serious losses to soybean seed quality in Brazil. In these seeds, chlorophyll is not properly degraded during maturation, drastically reducing seed quality. Using the chlorophyll fluorescence technique, it is possible to remove green seeds from the seed lot, improving seed...

  13. Adaptive Tutoring for Self-Regulated Learning: A Tutorial on Tutoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    impact learning with effect sizes equivalent to raising average (“C”) students to experts (“A” students) through tailored instruction and...classification using physiological sensors (Brawner and Goldberg, 2012; Goldberg & Brawner, 2012; Kokini, et al, 2012) • EEGs – Advanced Brain ... IQ , EQ, adaptability…) Merrill, D. , Reiser, B, Ranney, M., and Trafton, J. (1992). Effective Tutoring Techniques: A Comparison of Human Tutors and

  14. The birth and growth of neuroradiology in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, C.; Goettingen Univ. Germany, F.R. Klinik fuer Neurochirurgie)

    1981-01-01

    Neuroradiology in the USA was started by the neurosurgeons Harvey Cushing, who personally made the first X-rays used to treat a patient with a neurological disability, and Walter Dandy, who first performed air ventriculography, ventriculoscopy, air encephalography and air myelography. The father of neuroradiology in the USA was Merrill Sosman, Cushing's associate. Modern neuroradiology was introduced into the USA from Europe by Mannie Schechter who was one of the original team of three Chief Editors of Neuroradiology. (orig.)

  15. Make or buy of IT-enabled innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Overby, Mikkel Lucas; Özcan, Serden

    2004-01-01

    , an analysis of three companies in the financial sector - Charles Schwab, Fidelity Investment, and Merrill Lynch - reveals that governance choices influence a company's ap-propriable learning curve advantage to slow down or speed up adoption and imitation of IT-enabled innovation. Moreover, we discuss...... the implications of governance choices in techno-logical environments characterised by either accumulation or disruption. Keywords: IT-enabled innovation, outsourcing, technological regime, strategic posture, first-mover advantages, financial services, online brokerage...

  16. Getting Ugly: Exploring Network Development in The Ugly American

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    firepower and numerical strength against the elusive Viet Minh guerrillas. The men study the writings of Mao Tse -tung in an effort to develop an...eventually finds U Tien, a devout Catholic from northern 86 Wing-Tsit Chan trans., The Way of Lao Tzu (Tao...D.C.: GPO, March 2012. Chan, Wing-Tsit, trans. The Way of Lao Tzu (Tao-te Ching). New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1963. Christakis, Nicholas A. and

  17. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL APPROACHES REGARDING THE ADOPTION OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE CODES

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin Nicolae Borlea; Monica-Violeta Achim; Ludovica Breban

    2013-01-01

    In the European Union, the concept of corporate governance began to emerge more clearly after 1997, when most countries have however, voluntarily adopted corporate governance codes. The impulse of adopting these codes consists in the financial scandals related to the failure of the British companies listed on the stock exchange. Numerous scandals involving big companies such as Enron, WorldCom, Parmalat, Xerox, Merrill Lynch, Andersen and so on, conduct to a lack of investors’ confidence. ...

  18. The Limits of Moral Principle: An Ends, Means, and Role Spheres Model of the Ethical Threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Stuart Mill (1806-1873) and Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) are readily identified with utilitarianism , while Plato, Aris- totle, Immanual Kant (1724-1804), and...Pennsylvania: Chandler Publishing Company, 1970. 11. Mill , John Stewart. Utilitarianism . Edited by Oskar Piest. New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1957. 12. Muller... John Locke (1632-1704) are identified with formalism (1:365). Utilitarian thought can be further broken down into such categories as act

  19. 77 FR 438 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Inseason Adjustment to the 2012 Gulf of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ..., Juneau, AK 99802-1668. Fax: Address written comments to Glenn Merrill, Assistant Regional Administrator... 709 West 9th Street, Room 420A, Juneau, AK. Instructions: Comments must be submitted by one of the...) 9,338 (36.47%) 7,282 (28.44%) 8,986 (35.10%) 25,606 D (Oct 1-Nov 1) 9,338 (36.47%) 7,282 (28.44%) 8...

  20. New drugs on the street: changing inner city patterns of illicit consumption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singer, Merrill

    2005-01-01

    .... 16, No. 1/2 2000. The journal is renumbered to start as Vol. 1, No. 1 2002. New Drugs on the Street: Changing Inner City Patterns of Illicit Consumption, edited by Merrill Singer, PhD (Vol. 4, No. 2, 2005). "ESSENTIAL READING for anyone in the drug use area who wants to be brought up-to-date on the current state of the field. This edited ...

  1. Workflow Optimization for Tuning Prostheses with High Input Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    of Specific Aim 1 by driving a commercially available two DoF wrist and single DoF hand. The high -level control system will provide analog signals...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0767 TITLE: Workflow Optimization for Tuning Prostheses with High Input Channel PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Daniel Merrill...Unlimited The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not be construed as an official Department

  2. The Stability of IQ in People with Low Intellectual Ability: An Analysis of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Simon

    2008-01-01

    A meta-analysis of the stability of low IQ (IQ less than 80) was performed on IQ tests that have been commonly used--tests that were derived by D. Wechsler (1949, 1955, 1974, 1981, 1991, 1997) and those based on the Binet scales (L. M. Terman, 1960; L. M. Terman & Merrill, 1972). Weighted-mean stability coefficients of 0.77 and 0.78 were found…

  3. Lessons Learned from Field Evaluation of Six High-Performance Buildings: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, P.; Deru, M.; Griffith, B.; Long, N.; Pless, S.; Judkoff, R.; Crawley, D. B.

    2004-07-01

    The energy performance of six high-performance buildings around the United States was monitored in detail. The six buildings include the Visitor Center at Zion National Park; the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Thermal Test Facility; the Chesapeake Bay Foundation's Merrill Center; The BigHorn Home Improvement Center; the Cambria DEP Office Building; and the Oberlin College Lewis Center. This paper discusses the design energy targets and actual performance.

  4. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 451 - 500 of 1255 ... Vol 8, No 3 (2002), Effects of lithology on geothermal gradient on the southeast Nigeria Delta, Nigeria, Abstract PDF. E.D. Uko, A.R.C Amakiri, K.O. Alagoa. Vol 11, No 2 (2005), Effects of long-term storage on the quality of soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, in different containers in southern Nigerian ...

  5. 関東地域の現地水田転換畑ほ場におけるダイズへの地下水位制御システム(FOEAS)と不耕起狭畦栽培の導入効果

    OpenAIRE

    島田, 信二; 前川, 富也; 濱口, 秀生; 若杉, 晃介; 藤森, 新作

    2017-01-01

    We attempted to clarify the effects of water table control by farm-oriented enhancement for aquatic system (FOEAS) and non-tillage cultivation on seedingefficiency, growth, yield, and seed component of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) grown on farmer’s fields in Tsukuba, Ibaraki.The experiment was performed for five years (2007- 2011) by using three cultivation methods: control field using conventional rotary seeding (CC), FOEAS field with conventional rotary seeding (FC), and FOEAS field w...

  6. Keeping the Edge. Air Force Materiel Command Cold War Context (1945-1991). Volume 1: Command Lineage Scientific Achievement and Major Tenant Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    Cambridge Research Laboratories AFCS Air Force Communications Service AFETR Air Force Eastern Test Range AFFDL Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory...Sacramento Air Logistics Center SMAMA Sacramento Air Materiel Area SOM Skidmore, Owings & Merrill SPACERAD Space Radiation Effects SPADATS Space...a unique post-World War II phenomenon that had a lasting effect —addressed here to illustrate some of the subtleties of the earliest Cold War years

  7. The Death of Socialism in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-05

    Greenwood Press, 1978), p. 136. 1 5 Burnett, p. 170. 1 6 Merrill, . 112. .38 17Books such as Ricardo Lagos’s La concentracion del poder economico en...establishment of three distinct sectors : social, mixed, and private. With regard to the social, it stated: 42 The process of transformation of our...economy begins with a policy destined to construct a dominant state sector , formed by those firms which the state currently possesses plus the firms

  8. Microbial Community Analysis of Field-Grown Soybeans with Different Nodulation Phenotypes▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Seishi; Rallos, Lynn Esther E.; Okubo, Takashi; Eda, Shima; Inaba, Shoko; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with the stems and roots of nonnodulated (Nod−), wild-type nodulated (Nod+), and hypernodulated (Nod++) soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merril] were analyzed by ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer analysis (RISA) and automated RISA (ARISA). RISA of stem samples detected no bands specific to the nodulation phenotype, whereas RISA of root samples revealed differential bands for the nodulation phenotypes. Pseudomonas fluorescens was exclusively associated with Nod+ soybe...

  9. Sajandi viimane Expo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    22. mail avatud Lissaboni maailmanäituse läbivaim teema on maailmamerede kaitse. Näitusega tähistatakse ka Portugali kui mereriigi ajaloo olulist sündmust - Vasco da Gama India-reisi 500. aastapäeva. See tähtpäev ja merede kaitse juhtmõte kajastuvad näituserajatiste kujunduskontseptsioonis. Santiago Calatrava Idavaksalist, Vasco da Gama sillast, USA firma Skidmore, Owings & Merrill projekteeritud teletornist, Peter Chermayeffi projekteeritud Okeanaariumist

  10. Pilvelõhkujad lõhuvad rekordeid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    2009. a. valmivast Vabadusetornist peab saama valmimise hetkel maailma kõrgeim hoone (541 m). 2004. a. valmib Taipeis 509 m kõrgune büroohoone ja kaubakeskus Taipei 101 (arhitekt C. Y. Lee). Dubaisse rajatava luksushotelli Burj Dubai (AB Skidmore Owings & Merrill) kõrguseks on planeeritud 610 m. Hetkel on maailma kõrgeim hoone 1998. a. valminud Petronas Toweri kaksiktorn Kuala Lumpuris (452 m). Tallinna kõrgeimaks hooneks saab ASi Nord Projekt projekteeritud luksushotell (112 m)

  11. Scattering of atoms by a stationary sinusoidal hard wall: Rigorous treatment in (n+1) dimensions and comparison with the Rayleigh method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, F.O.

    1977-01-01

    A rigorous treatment of the scattering of atoms by a stationary sinusoidal hard wall in (n+1) dimensions is presented, a previous treatment by Masel, Merrill, and Miller for n=1 being contained as a special case. Numerical comparisons are made with the GR method of Garcia, which incorporates the Rayleigh hypothesis. Advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed, and it is concluded that the Rayleigh GR method, if handled properly, will probably work satisfactorily in physically realistic cases

  12. Professor om brexit-åbning: Det bliver sværere i næste fase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene

    2017-01-01

    Professor og centerleder, Marlene Wind, var den 8. december i Vejle Amts Folkeblad, hvor hun kommenterede på udviklingen i Brexit-forhandlingerne i forlængelse af udmeldingen om, at forhandlingerne er klar til den næste fase. Professor Wind kalder dette for et gennembrud, men pointerer også at de...... videre forhandlinger vil være på EU’s præmisser. De videre forhandlinger vil blandt andet handle om en kommende handelsaftale mellem de to parter, til hvilket professor Wind påpeger, at det kan tage mange år, før man har en sådan i hus. Samtidig vurderer Wind også, at nogle leave-vælgere måske vil blive...

  13. Load training athletes specializing in race to 100 meter hurdles in its annual training cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Muszkieta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to provide an annual macrocycle preparation of athletes specializing in the 100 meters hurdles. A detailed discussion of the structure and analyze loads in individual periods of the annual training cycle. And the analysis and discussion of the variables of training athletes Marlene Morton, who allowed her to win the bronze medal Polish Youth Championships in Bialystok. The study was conducted based on a detailed analysis of the training diary kept by the athlete, the coach and the daily interview with the coach conducting Arthur Kohutek. They were presented various training periods and analyzed periods and sub-periods. In the summary they presented the conclusions that can be helpful when planning the burden for athletes who specialize in racing gossip.

  14. Introduction. Socialist Culture and Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joes Segal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available From October 6th to 11th, 2013, the MS Gretha van Holland brought twenty-four conference participants from Berlin to Beeskow, Eisenhüttenstadt, Frankfurt/Oder and back to Berlin. The aim of this on-board boat conference, organised by Art Archive Beeskow and Utrecht University in collaboration with Marlene Heidel, Claudia Jansen and Ursula Lücke, was to cross borders – national and disciplinary – by connecting parallel and divergent European histories of the Cold War period, both on a conceptual and on a practical level. A selected group of historians, art historians, architectural historians, cultural anthropologists and visual artists discussed the various ways in which socialist cultural history has been presented over the past decades and put new perspectives to the test. This conference has resulted in the present issue of HCM.

  15. Género(s y sadomasoquismo: la novela Los esclavos de Alberto Chimal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Grünnagel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article offers an interpretation of Alberto Chimal’s first novel, The Slaves, published by this Mexican author in 2009, a novel proposing an analysis of sadomasochistic sexual relations. In the center of the narration, we encounter two couples, both homosexual, acting out various sadomasochistic practices ‒ some of them of an extreme nature: On the one hand, two women, one of them already older (Marlene and (supposedly the director of pornographic movies, and the other, almost still a girl (Yuyis live a relation of dominance and submission with the noteworthy complication that Marlene could even be the mother of her "slave girl". The second couple is formed by two men: Golo, a decadent millionaire, and his "slave" nicknamed "Mundo" ('World' who is frequently reduced to something like a dog or even an unanimated object. The whole novel consists of various sequences narrating what the two couples experience in their sex life until a final turning point is reached with the forced separation in both cases. Due to a narrative structure that makes as understand that we as readers depend completely on an unreliable narrator, even the most brutal atrocities tend to dissipate in the fog of probably fictitious games showing us the trompe-l'oeil of a monstrous storyline of serial sex crimes. With this peculiar narrative structure in mind, I emphasize the 'ludic' character of sadomasochistic 'plays' narrated all through the novel, trying to understand what 'sadomasochism' means as a sexual practice or identity and what consequences could be drawn from these practices with regard to the construction of different genders (in the case of this novel: masculine and feminine.

  16. Bistatic radar

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, Nick

    2004-01-01

    Annotation his book is a major extension of a chapter on bistatic radar written by the author for the Radar Handbook, 2nd edition, edited by Merrill Skolnik. It provides a history of bistatic systems that points out to potential designers the applications that have worked and the dead-ends not worth pursuing. The text reviews the basic concepts and definitions, and explains the mathematical development of relationships, such as geometry, Ovals of Cassini, dynamic range, isorange and isodoppler contours, target doppler, and clutter doppler spread.Key Features * All development and analysis are

  17. Essays on Strategy. 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    the world combined), no programs have been cancelled, and the United States has recently shown interest in the Energia heavy lifter to boost the NASA...former Soviet space program than it does in the U.S. aerospace industry. Moreover, resuscitation of Energia is hardly enough to reverse the declining...Rocket Scientists," Jornal Do Brasil , 31 July 1990, 3. 61. General Merrill A. McPeak, Chief of Staff, U.S. Air Force, "Does the Air Force Have a Mission

  18. Programa computacional para o dimensionamento de colhedoras considerando a pontualidade na colheita de soja

    OpenAIRE

    Borges,Iackson O.; Maciel,Antonio J. S.; Milan,Marcos

    2006-01-01

    A colheita de soja (Glycine max (L.) Merril) é uma operação crítica que pode sofrer atrasos resultando em perdas na quantidade e na qualidade do material colhido. Embora o valor das perdas seja desconhecido no País, os produtores empregam colhedoras com reserva de capacidade para concluir a operação no menor prazo possível. O excesso de capacidade aumenta os custos fixos e a falta dela aumenta os custos das perdas por atraso e, em ambos os casos, reduzem a renda líquida da operação, ao que se...

  19. Das Américas para o Mundo: origem, domesticação e dispersão do abacaxizeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Crestani,Maraisa; Barbieri,Rosa Lia; Hawerroth,Fernando José; Carvalho,Fernando Irajá Félix de; Oliveira,Antonio Costa de

    2010-01-01

    O abacaxi (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril), fruto símbolo de regiões tropicais e subtropicais, originário das Américas, foi difundido para todo o mundo, principalmente pelos navegantes europeus, em razão de seu aroma e sabor característicos e exuberante aparência. Batizado como o "Rei das Frutas Coloniais", o abacaxi encontra-se entre as 11 frutas mais produzidas no mundo, sendo cultivada e consumida pelos cinco continentes, e o Brasil destaca-se como maior produtor. Assim, o objetivo desta revis...

  20. Das Américas para o Mundo: origem, domesticação e dispersão do abacaxizeiro From the Americas to the World: origin, domestication and dispersion of pineapple

    OpenAIRE

    Maraisa Crestani; Rosa Lia Barbieri; Fernando José Hawerroth; Fernando Irajá Félix de Carvalho; Antonio Costa de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    O abacaxi (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril), fruto símbolo de regiões tropicais e subtropicais, originário das Américas, foi difundido para todo o mundo, principalmente pelos navegantes europeus, em razão de seu aroma e sabor característicos e exuberante aparência. Batizado como o "Rei das Frutas Coloniais", o abacaxi encontra-se entre as 11 frutas mais produzidas no mundo, sendo cultivada e consumida pelos cinco continentes, e o Brasil destaca-se como maior produtor. Assim, o objetivo desta revis...

  1. Do Trauma Symptoms Mediate the Relationship Between Childhood Physical Abuse and Adult Child Abuse Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    fisico y abuso sexual . Psicothema, 14, 53–62. DiLillo, D., Perry, A. R., & Fortier, M. (2006). Child physical abuse and neglect. In R. T. Ammerman (Ed...Valerie A. Standere, Lex L. Merrill e a Center for the Study of Family Violence and Sexual Assault, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115-2854...recruits (N=5,394) and college students (N=716) completed self-report measures of their history of child abuse (i.e., CPA and child sexual abuse [CSA

  2. Aspectos Bionômicos de Spodoptera eridania (Cramer: Uma Praga em Expansão na Cultura da Soja na Região do Cerrado Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Sardinha de Souza

    2014-08-01

    Abstract. Soybean, Glycine max (L. Merril, represents one of the major economically important crops to Brazil, and is considered a national commodity because of its high yield and participation in international trade exportations. Among the insect pests that cause damage to this crop, Spodoptera eridania (Cramer larvae highlighted in the last agricultural seasons by feeding on leaves and pods of soybean plants, and hence causing economical losses to soybean growers, especially in the Cerrado areas located in the Midwest region of the country. We aimed with this review to provide information about bionomical aspects of S. eridania in order to give subsides for further researches on the management of this pest.

  3. Very high pressure Moessbauer spectroscopy using diamond anvil cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, M.P.; Taylor, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    The technique of generating very high pressure by means of Diamond Anvil Cells (DAC) for Mossbauer Effect applications is outlined. A comprehensive description is presented of the principles of DAC, modification for the use in M/umlt o/ssbauer Spectroscopy (MS), the Merrill--Bassett and Bassett cells, of pressure measurements, of gasketing and collimation, and of hydrostatic media. Examples of 151 Eu, 119 Sn and 129 I are given showing the feasibility of DAC applications in MS. Other isotopes with potential use for high pressure MS using DAC are suggested. 27 refs., 9 figs

  4. Participation of Taxifolin in the Protection of Soya Seeds from the Effects of Heavy Metal Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Kuznetsova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A correlation was revealed between the specific activity of peroxidases and their multiple forms during the germination of soya seeds (Glycine max (L. Merrill in the presence of heavy metal salts. It was shown that lead and cadmium sulfates cause emergence of new forms of the enzyme with high electrophoretic mobility, which indicates that the identified enzyme forms are involved in the molecular mechanism of adaptation to oxidative stress. Addition of taxifolin (dihydroquercetin, a bioflavonoid antioxidant, to the salts of heavy metals caused decrease in the specific activity of peroxidases and favored emergence of new forms of the enzyme, which were absent in the control samples.

  5. Stagnant or growing: Can management sciences evolve beyond known business challenges?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Goldman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As global markets embark on some serious introspection after the global crisis of 2008, many business decision makers are asking "How did this happen?" What has become clear, however, is that we are stumbling from one business crisis to another. First it was corporate scandals such as Enron, Parmalat and Fidentia. Then came the financial crisis and the dire straits of, inter alia, Merrill Lynch, RBS, and Lehmann Brothers. Luckily, perhaps, it is not known what and when the next crisis will be. What is certain is that it will come. This begs the question: does business ever learn from what has gone before?

  6. Soybean plants architeture and plant growth regulators application Arquitectura de las plantas de soja y la aplicación de reguladores del crecimiento vegetal Arquitetura de plantas de soja e a aplicação de reguladores vegetais

    OpenAIRE

    João Domingos Rodrigues; Elizabeth Erika Ono; Marcelo Ferraz de Campos

    2010-01-01

    Neste trabalho, estudou-se o efeito da aplicação de reguladores vegetais no desenvolvimento de plantas de soja (Glycine max (L.) Merrill cv. BRS-184). O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Botânica do Instituto de Biociências de Botucatu - UNESP. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições e oito tratamentos: testemunha; GA3, BAP e IBA a 100 mg L

  7. Effect of plant species on the specific activity of 65Zn and 54Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, T.; Neptune, A.M.L.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of five plant species on the specific activity of 65 Zn and 54 Mn is studied. Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.), rice (Oryza sativa, L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) and tomato (Lycopersium esculentum Mill) were grown in PV and TE soils labelled with 65 Zn and 54 Mn. The plants were harvested 30 days after seeding and specific activities of zinco and manganese were determined in the above ground part and in the roots. (M.A.C.) [pt

  8. Viability in the production of a drug extracted from Ananas comosus by a flat membrane system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Luiz Gumes Lopes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the production of e bromelain from the Ananas comosus L. Merril, by determining the process conditions using flat membranes. The production system modeling generated a hyperbolical curve and the optimization by response surfaces showed an influence of the transmembrane pressure higher than the pH influence. The cost of the production of bromelain from A. comosus was estimated 9 to 13 times lower than Sigma's retail sales price and 6.5 to 8.5 times lower than when this enzyme was obtained through a liquid-liquid extraction, which showed the economical feasibility of the process.

  9. Chemotaxonomic markers of organic, natural, and genetically modified soybeans detected by direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L.S.; Catharino, R.R.; Eberlin, M.N.; Tsai, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    The crude methanolic extracts of a single bean from samples of organic, natural or genetically modified (GM) soybeans [Glycine max. (Merrill) L.] were analyzed by direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). These extracts, containing the most polar natural products of soybeans (free aglycones, monoglucosides, diglucosides and esters including isoflavones and flavones) provide characteristic fingerprinting mass spectra owing to different proportions or sets of components. Spectra distinctiveness is confirmed by chemometric multivariate analysis of the ESIMS data, which place the three-types of beans into well-defined groups. When ESI-MS is applied, these polar components constitute therefore unique chemotaxonomic markers able to provide fast soybean typification. (author)

  10. Nuclear-fuel-cycle policy and the future of nuclear power. Oversight hearing before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session, October 23, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Edward Teller, Ralph Nader, and a panel from Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner, and Smith were among the 12 witnesses at this hearing on the Reagan administration's decision to eliminate the ban on plutonium reprocessing and its effect on the nuclear industry's future. Subcommittee Chairman Edward J. Markey asked for comments on safety question, recent plant cancellations, contributions that nuclear power can make in relieving oil dependence in the transportation sector, proliferation, and the inconsistency of subsidizing nuclear while imposing a free-market philosophy on solar, coal, and conservation. The testimony if followed by an appendix of additional material submitted for the record

  11. Data to the Malaysian liverwort flora, I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pócs Tamás

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available 120 liverwort specimens collected in peninsular Malaysia for oil body studies belonged to 80 species, 6 of which (Frullania subocellata S. Hatt., Chiloscyphus integerrimus Schiffn., Bazzania assamica (Steph. S. Hatt., Bazzania bilobata Kitag., Telaranea quadriseta (Steph. J. Engel & G. L. Merrill and Radula assamica Steph. proved to be new for Malaysia and 9 to its peninsular part or to Selangor or Pahang states. The most interesting occurrences were of Frullania subocellata, hitherto known only from Seram Island, Chiloscyphus integerrimus, known from Java, and Telaranea quadriseta, an Australian element. The majority of the collected species are of Indomalesian distribution. Microphotos and distribution maps of the more interesting species are provided.

  12. Quantitative Evaluation of Dichloroacetic Acid Kinetics in Human -- A Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    weight) Plasma VPLAC 4.4 (Merrill et al., 2005) Liver VLC 2.6 (Brown et al., 1997) Kidney VKC 0.44 (Brown et al., 1997) Rapidly perfused VRC 9.86...entire data set with the exception of individual subject optimized kinetic data reported by Schultz and Shangraw (2006). Perhaps the most challenging ...GSTzeta as well as the 0.02 mg/kg DCA administered daily in drinking water between the 2 challenges . If a person is administered 50 mg/kg/day by IV

  13. Methodology to evaluate the insecticide potential of forest tree species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Soto, Leon; Garcia P, Carlos Mario

    2000-01-01

    The flora diversity of Colombia has an enormous potential in the rational use of its forest resources. Trees with biocidal effects to control pests and diseases need to be investigated. The objective of this research was to develop a methodology with low costs, easy application and quick results. The methodology employed was as follows: selection of tree species based on bibliography, ancestral reports and personal observations. The process was as follows: field collection of plants, preparation of plants extracts and test with Artemia salina Leach to detect biological activity of the extracts using LC50. Bioassays with those extract more promising (LC50 less than 1000 ppm) Determination of active compounds. The methodology was employed with 5 forest tree species: guarea guidonia (L) Sleumer and trichia hirta L. (Meliaceae), Machaerium Moritzianum Benth. (Fabaceae), Swinglea glutinosa Merrill (rutaceae) and Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae). Using Artemia salina Leach as indicator of biocidal potential, two species were selected as the most promising, those were: Swinglea glutinosa Merril and Machaerium moritzianum Benth. In addition bioassays were made to evaluate fagoinhibition on Atta cephalotes (L.) (Hym: Formicidae) and control of Alconeura. This methodology is recommended for this kind of research

  14. Methodology for the insecticide potential evaluation of forest species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Soto, Leon; Garcia P, Carlos Mario

    2000-01-01

    The flora diversity of Colombia has an enormous potential in the rational use of its forest resources. Trees with biocides effects to pest control and diseases need to be investigated. The objective of this research was to develop a methodology with low costs, easy application and quick results. The methodology employed was as follows: selection of tree species based on bibliography, ancestral reports and personal observations. The process was as follows: field collection of plants, preparation of plants extracts, and test with Artemia Salina, leach to detect biological activity of the extracts using LC50. Bioassays with those extract more promising (LC50 less than 1000 ppm). The methodology was employed with 5 forest tree species: Guarea guidonia (L.) Sleumer and Trichia hirta L. (Meliaceae), machaerium moritzianum Benth. (Fabaceae), Swinglea glutinosa Merrill. (Rutaceae) and Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae). Using Artemia salina Leach as indicator of biocidal potential, two species were selected as the most promising, those were: Swinglea glutinosa Merril and Machaerium moritzianum Benth. In addition bioassays were made to evaluate fagoinhibition on Atta cephalotes (L.) and control of Alconeura. This methodology is recommended for this kind of research

  15. Ontological realism: A methodology for coordinated evolution of scientific ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barry; Ceusters, Werner

    2010-11-15

    Since 2002 we have been testing and refining a methodology for ontology development that is now being used by multiple groups of researchers in different life science domains. Gary Merrill, in a recent paper in this journal, describes some of the reasons why this methodology has been found attractive by researchers in the biological and biomedical sciences. At the same time he assails the methodology on philosophical grounds, focusing specifically on our recommendation that ontologies developed for scientific purposes should be constructed in such a way that their terms are seen as referring to what we call universals or types in reality. As we show, Merrill's critique is of little relevance to the success of our realist project, since it not only reveals no actual errors in our work but also criticizes views on universals that we do not in fact hold. However, it nonetheless provides us with a valuable opportunity to clarify the realist methodology, and to show how some of its principles are being applied, especially within the framework of the OBO (Open Biomedical Ontologies) Foundry initiative.

  16. Professor Wind i Deadline om Spitzenkandidaten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    Professor og centerleder, Marlene Wind, var fredag den 23. februar 2018 i DR2 Deadline for at snakke om proceduren bag udvælgelsen af en ny formand for Europa Kommissionen. Professer Wind forklarede blandt andet, hvordan Europa Parlamentet, siden Lisabon Traktaten i 2009, har fortolket en del af...... traktaten til, at det skal være det vindende parti ved EP-valget, som vælger Kommissionsformanden. Dette er kendt som Spitzenkandidaten-proceduren. Wind pointerede, at særligt tyskerne har den holdning til EU, at den primære legitimitet ligger hos Europa parlamentet, da det er det eneste direkte folkevalgte...... organ i EU. Wind påpegede, at statsoverhovederne har været meget skeptiske eller direkte imod proceduren, men at der er en stigende holdning til, at proceduren kan være med til at sikre borgerinddragelse i EU. Til dette sagde Wind; "Hvis man skal engangere borgerne ved det her valg, hvor stort set ingen...

  17. Premios Academia Nacional de Medicina deColombia – LABORATORIOS ABBOTT 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Jácome Roca

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    La Academia Nacional de Medicina con la colaboración de Laboratorios Abbott otorgó en noviembre de 2011 la quinta versión del Premio a las Ciencias Médicas, uno en las áreas de ciencias médicas y experimentales y otro en el área de ciencias clínicas. Presentamos aquí algunas notas sobre los trabajos ganadores y los que obtuvieron menciones honoríficas

    El Premio en el área de las Ciencias Básicas lo obtuvieron Carlos Vélez Pardo y Marlene Jiménez del Río, profesores del Grupo de Neurociencias de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Antioquia en Medellín. El trabajo ganador se tituló: “MECANISMOS MOLECULARES DE PÉRDIDA NEURONAL Y DE CITOPROTECCIÓN EN MODE-LOS IN VITRO E IN VIVO DE LA ENFERMEDAD DE ALZHEIMER Y PARKINSON” [1,2].

  18. PET/CT and MR imaging in myeloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulligan, Michael E. [University of Maryland Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Badros, Ashraf Z. [University of Maryland, Department of Medicine, Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2007-01-15

    Myeloma is the most common primary bone malignancy. It accounts for 10% of all hematological malignancies and 1% of all cancers. In the United States, there are an estimated 16,000 new cases and over 11,000 deaths yearly due to myeloma. Plasma cell dyscrasias manifest themselves in a variety of forms that range from MGUS (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance) and smoldering myeloma that require no therapy, to the ''malignant'' form of multiple myeloma. The role of imaging in the management of myeloma includes: an assessment of the extent of intramedullary bone disease, detection of any extramedullary foci, and severity of the disease at presentation; the identification and characterization of complications; subsequent assessment of disease status. This review will focus on the use of PET/CT and MR imaging for myeloma patients at the time of initial diagnosis and for follow-up management, based on current reports in the literature and our practice at the Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland Medical Center in Baltimore, USA. (orig.)

  19. God as burden: A theological reflection on art, death and God in the work of Joost Zwagerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rein Brouwer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In one of his essays on art, Dutch author and essayist Joost Zwagerman (1963–2015 reflects onthe work of (Dutch South African artist Marlene Dumas (1953. Zwagerman addresses inparticular Dumas’ My Mother Before She Became My Mother (2010, painted 3 years after hermother died. In his reflections, Zwagerman proposes an interpretation of Dumas’ work. Hesuggests that Dumas, in her art, does not accept the omnipotence of death. Maybe againstbetter judgement, but Dumas keeps creating images that not only illustrate the desire formeaning but also embody this desire. The image and the desire for meaning merge in Dumas’paintings. The painting itself becomes an autonomous ‘desire machine’, according toZwagerman. In this article, a (practical theological reading of Zwagerman’s own posthumouslypublished volume of poetry, ‘Wakend over God’ (2016, is presented, with a specific interest inart, death and God. The sacramental hermeneutics of Richard Kearney and the theopoetics ofJohn Caputo are brought into the conversation to elicit the dimensions of faith and religion inZwagerman’s own ‘desire machine’.

  20. The study of antioxidants in grapevine seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Tomášková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine seeds contain a large amount of antioxidant components, and are therefore recommended in the prevention and treatment of many diseases. For this research, we studied the antioxidant properties of grapevine seeds from the Marlen variety, as evidence suggests that these types have higher resistance against fungal diseases. Through high-performance liquid chromatography with UV/VIS detection, a total of 10 antioxidant components were selected for further investigation, specifically: catechin, epicatechin, rutin, quercitrin, quercetin, caftaric acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and gallic acid. The antioxidant activity was determinated spectrophotometrically through the adoption of three fundamentally different methods (the DPPH assay, the ABTS method, and the FRAP method. Using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, it was possible to determine the content of all the polyphenolic compounds. The results of the assessment antioxidant activity and the content of polyphenolic compounds were recalculated to gallic acid equivalents (GAE. The values of the antioxidant activity as determinated by the DPPH test were 6643 (±154 mg of GAE; 1984 (±88 mg of GAE when using the FRAP method; and 812 (±31 mg of GAE when the ABTS method was utilised. The content of the total polyphenolic compounds came to 6982 (±221 mg of GAE. The most abundant antioxidant was catechin, with a content of 115 mg.L-1, whilst the least represented compound was ferulic acid (0.139 mg.L-1. Overall, this study showed a high antioxidant potential of grapevine seeds. 

  1. Those Obscure Objects: Projections and Puppets of Desire Between Literature and Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Panella

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with one of the most popular female projections or phantoms of male desire, that is the charmer who never cedes, by comparing some literary and cinematic texts. This “allumeuse” which turns men into puppets in a dynamic of impossible seduction is the protagonist of La Femme et le Pantin (1898 by Pierre Louÿs (1870-1925, whose unforgettable Conchita from Sevilla was inspired by the young Charpillon who maddened the expert seducer Casanova. Conchita’s fame was deepened by the numerous adaptations of the text for the screen, especially von Sternberg’s The Devil is a Woman (1935 starring Marlene Dietrich, Duvivier’s La Femme et le Pantin (1959 with Brigitte Bardot, and Buñuel’s free and outstanding reinterpretation in Cet obscur objet du désir (1977. In the end, the adaptation of the novel Singularidades de uma Rapariga Loura (1874 by Portuguese Eça de Queirós (1845-1900 which Manoel de Oliveira directed in 2009 will be evoked  to argue that the unattainable female character could represent a projection of the male protagonists’ desire and romantic idealizations as well as of their fears and bourgeois conventions.

  2. Generation Chick: Reading Bridget Jones’s Diary, Jessica, 30., and Dies ist kein Liebeslied as Postfeminist Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Bethman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Helen Fielding’s, Marlene Streeruwitz’s, and Karen Duve’s novels in the context of the literarisches Fräuleinwunder , the generic conventions of chick lit, and postfeminism, relating all three to the globalization of the book publishing industry and its effects on German-language fiction. I argue that Duve’s and Streeruwitz’s texts can be understood as responses to the Anglo-American chick lit that flooded the German-language book market in the 1990s, of which Fielding’s novel is one of the best-known. Close readings situate both German-language novels firmly within the generic conventions of chick lit, and then look at the ways the texts relate to postfeminism, as well as second- and third-wave feminism. I conclude by arguing that our concept of Frauenliteratur should be expanded to include chick lit as well as more overtly political feminist texts.

  3. A Special Issue of the Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology on Knowledge Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Jacobsen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In a pervasive media and technology landscape that is increasingly global, participatory and connected, one in which learners and teachers can increasingly become creators of knowledge rather than mere consumers of prepared messages and ideas, it is vital for the field of educational technology to take stock of the latest research on knowledge building. Marlene Scardamalia and Carl Bereiter, innovative pioneers in the area of Knowledge Building in education, define the construct of Knowledge Building as having several characteristics that distinguish it from constructivist learning in general. Two key characteristics of Knowledge Building are intentionality and community knowledge. Intentionality captures that people engaged in knowledge building know they are doing it and that advances in knowledge are purposeful. Community knowledge captures that while learning is a personal matter, knowledge building is done for the benefit of the community. Scardamalia and Bereiter emphasize that in contrast to being spontaneous, a knowledge building culture requires a supportive learning environment and teacher effort and artistry to create and maintain a community devoted to ideas and to idea improvement. Distinct from improving individual students’ ideas and understanding, the collective work of Knowledge Building is explicitly focused on the creation and improvement of knowledge of value to one’s community – advancement of the knowledge itself.

  4. Simulation of groundwater conditions and streamflow depletion to evaluate water availability in a Freeport, Maine, watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Martha G.; Locke, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate water availability in the State of Maine, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Maine Geological Survey began a cooperative investigation to provide the first rigorous evaluation of watersheds deemed "at risk" because of the combination of instream flow requirements and proportionally large water withdrawals. The study area for this investigation includes the Harvey and Merrill Brook watersheds and the Freeport aquifer in the towns of Freeport, Pownal, and Yarmouth, Maine. A numerical groundwater- flow model was used to evaluate groundwater withdrawals, groundwater-surface-water interactions, and the effect of water-management practices on streamflow. The water budget illustrates the effect that groundwater withdrawals have on streamflow and the movement of water within the system. Streamflow measurements were made following standard USGS techniques, from May through September 2009 at one site in the Merrill Brook watershed and four sites in the Harvey Brook watershed. A record-extension technique was applied to estimate long-term monthly streamflows at each of the five sites. The conceptual model of the groundwater system consists of a deep, confined aquifer (the Freeport aquifer) in a buried valley that trends through the middle of the study area, covered by a discontinuous confining unit, and topped by a thin upper saturated zone that is a mixture of sandy units, till, and weathered clay. Harvey and Merrill Brooks flow southward through the study area, and receive groundwater discharge from the upper saturated zone and from the deep aquifer through previously unknown discontinuities in the confining unit. The Freeport aquifer gets most of its recharge from local seepage around the edges of the confining unit, the remainder is received as inflow from the north within the buried valley. Groundwater withdrawals from the Freeport aquifer in the study area were obtained from the local water utility and estimated for other categories. Overall

  5. Exubera. Inhale therapeutic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindra, Sanjit; Cefalu, William T

    2002-05-01

    Inhale, in colaboration with Pfizer and Aventis Pharma (formerly Hoechst Marion Roussel; HMR), is developing an insulin formulation utilizing its pulmonary delivery technology for macromolecules for the potential treatment of type I and II diabetes. By July 2001, the phase III program had been completed and the companies had begun to assemble data for MAA and NDA filings; however, it was already clear at this time that additional data might be required for filing. By December 2001, it had been decided that the NDA should include an increased level of controlled, long-term pulmonary safety data in diabetic patients and a major study was planned to be completed in 2002, with the NDA filed thereafter (during 2002). US-05997848 was issued to Inhale Therapeutic Systems in December 1999, and corresponds to WO-09524183, filed in February 1995. Equivalent applications have appeared to date in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Europe, Finland, Hungary, Japan, Norway, New Zealand, Poland and South Africa. This family of applications is specific to pulmonary delivery of insulin. In February 1999, Lehman Brothers gave this inhaled insulin a 60% probability of reaching market, with a possible launch date of 2001. The analysts estimated peak sales at $3 billion in 2011. In May 2000, Aventis predicted that estimated peak sales would be in excess of $1 billion. In February 2000, Merrill Lynch expected product launch in 2002 and predicted that it would be a multibillion-dollar product. Analysts Merril Lynch predicted, in September and November 2000, that the product would be launched by 2002, with sales in that year of e75 million, rising to euro 500 million in 2004. In April 2001, Merrill Lynch predicted that filing for this drug would occur in 2001. Following the report of the potential delay in regulatory filing, issued in July 2001, Deutsche Banc Alex Brown predicted a filing would take place in the fourth quarter of 2002 and launch would take place in the first

  6. TEORES DE POLIFENÓIS DE CAULE E FOLHA DE QUATRO CULTIVARES DE ABACAXIZEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANTOS MÔNICA ALESSANDRA TEIXEIRA DOS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Teores de polifenóis foram determinados nos resíduos agrícolas - caule e folha -do abacaxizeiro (Ananas comosus (L. Merrill das cultivares Pérola, Perolera, Smooth Cayenne e Primavera, cultivadas em Ijací-MG, com o objetivo de subsidiar a possível utilização destes resíduos para consumo humano e/ou animal. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, nenhuma das cultivares estudadas apresentou teores de polifenóis acima de 1%, nível considerado alto e prejudicial à digestibilidade de proteínas. A folha apresentou teores de polifenóis superiores aos do caule em todas as cultivares analisadas. Não houve diferenças significativas entre as cultivares, mas a Smooth Cayenne e a Perolera apresentaram os maiores e menores teores de polifenóis, respectivamente.

  7. Merge or Acquire - A Strategic Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awadhesh Pratap SINGH

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Merger or acquisition is always a long-debated topic in the field of Strategy and Finance from a long time. This article proposes a strategic framework using five steps process to deal with this issue. The step one defines the objective of merger or acquisition. Second step deals with SWOT analysis. Step three follows the framework proposed by Dyer JH et. al (2004 to decide on when to ally and when to acquire. Step four applies Parenting Fit matrix. Finally, the fifth and final step carried out the valuation to take a call on the price for acquisition. All along this journey, the paper takes up a relevant example of Bank of America’s acquisition to Merrill Lynch and concludes.

  8. A dynamic growth model of vegetative soya bean plants: model structure and behaviour under varying root temperature and nitrogen concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J. T.; Wilkerson, G. G.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Gold, H. J.

    1990-01-01

    A differential equation model of vegetative growth of the soya bean plant (Glycine max (L.) Merrill cv. Ransom') was developed to account for plant growth in a phytotron system under variation of root temperature and nitrogen concentration in nutrient solution. The model was tested by comparing model outputs with data from four different experiments. Model predictions agreed fairly well with measured plant performance over a wide range of root temperatures and over a range of nitrogen concentrations in nutrient solution between 0.5 and 10.0 mmol NO3- in the phytotron environment. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the model was most sensitive to changes in parameters relating to carbohydrate concentration in the plant and nitrogen uptake rate.

  9. Collaboration between student art teachers and communication and digital media students promoting subject specific didactics in digital visual learning design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Kirsten; Buhl, Mie

    into account. Our discussion of the potential for developing digital learning application from a collaborative approach is based on the visual design products, interviews and written reports, as well as shared experiences from the stakeholders in the project. Results: The project revealed three digital visual......=pdf Dunleavy, M. & Dede, C. (2014). Augmented reality teaching and learning. in. J.M. Spector, M.D. Merrill, J. Elen & M.J. Bishop (eds), The handbook og research for educational communications and technology New York: Springer http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic1116077.files....../DunleavyDedeARfinal.pdf Rasmussen, H. (2015). Digital Picture Production and Picture aesthetic Competency in It-didactic Design. Risk and opportunities for visual arts education in Europe. Proceedings, InSEA conferene, Lisbon, Portugal...

  10. Environmental Radioactivity from Natural, Industrial and Military Sources. 4th Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Steve

    1998-09-01

    Merril Eisenbud's series of books on environmental radioactivity have long had a place on the bookshelves of those involved with the environmental aspects of radiation protection. They provide authoritative coverage of the subject including sources, transport mechanisms and effects. The first edition, published in 1963, was naturally mostly concerned with the effects of nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere. The second edition, published in 1977, reflected the then expansive phase of nuclear power development worldwide and included an extensive treatment of the nuclear fuel cycle and its contributions to environmental radioactivity. In 1987 the third edition included coverage of the Three Mile Island accident and the Chernobyl accident against the background of cessation of new orders for nuclear plant in the United States. The fourth edition is a major revision with a lot of new material, and the welcome adoption of SI units throughout. The principal additions to the new edition are chapters on environmental surveillance, radiological assessment and dose reconstruction, and the remediation of contaminated sites; nothing has been lost from the extensive coverage of other topics in the third edition, whilst the text and bibliography have been revised and brought up to date. Earlier editions of the book have provided good summaries of accidents which have resulted in environmental contamination, and the updating here results in more extensive and up-to-date coverage of the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents, including the more recent evidence of health effects from the latter, together with new sections on the Palomares nuclear weapons accident in Spain, the Mayak/Chelyabinsk complex in Russia, and the accidents involving lost gamma radiation sources in Juarez, Mexico and Goiania, Brazil. Both here and in the extensive coverage of contamination at the USDoE production sites the new edition reflects and benefits from the increased public availability

  11. A taxonomic synopsis of Altingiaceae with nine new combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Ickert-Bond

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic synopsis of the Altingiaceae is presented, including the taxonomic enumeration and distribution of 15 recognized species based on studies of 1,500 specimens from 24 herbaria throughout the distributional range of the taxa. Previous phylogenetic analyses based on several molecular markers have shown that Altingia and Semiliquidambar are nested within Liquidambar. All Altingia and Semiliquidambar species are now formally transferred to Liquidambar, which has the nomenclatural priority. The following nine new combinations are herein made: Liquidambar cambodiana (Lecomte Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, L. caudata (H. T. Chang Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, L. chingii (Metcalf Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, L. gracilipes (Hemsl. Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, L. multinervis (Cheng Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, L. obovata (Merrill & Chun Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, L. poilanei (Tardieu Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, L. siamensis (Craib Ickert-Bond & J. Wen, and L. yunnanensis (Rehder & Wilson Ickert-Bond & J. Wen.

  12. Singapore in Its Worst Recession for Years. The Effects of the Current Economic Crisis on the City-State’s Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current economic downturn, Singapore has experienced one of its most severe recessions since independence. The financial crisis, which caused a fall in prices at most of the world’s leading stock exchanges and a sharp decline in industrial production, has also had a negative impact on the city-state’s export-dependent economy. The analysis outlines the economic downturn and the decline of Singapore’s export economy since the beginning of the crisis in late 2008. Central to the analysis are questions regarding the social consequences of the current economic crisis and the amount of losses Singapore’s state-owned holding companies, Temasek and GIC, experienced when some of the world’s biggest investment banks, such as Merrill Lynch, went into bankruptcy.

  13. Spectral irradiance curve calculations for any type of solar eclipse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deepak, A.; Merrill, J.E.

    1974-01-01

    A simple procedure is described for calculating the eclipse function (EF), alpha, and hence the spectral irradiance curve (SIC), (1-alpha), for any type of solar eclipse: namely, the occultation (partial/total) eclipse and the transit (partial/annular) eclipse. The SIC (or the EF) gives the variation of the amount (or the loss) of solar radiation of a given wavelength reaching a distant observer for various positions of the moon across the sun. The scheme is based on the theory of light curves of eclipsing binaries, the results of which are tabulated in Merrill's Tables, and is valid for all wavelengths for which the solar limb-darkening obeys the cosine law: J = /sub c/(1 - X + X cost gamma). As an example of computing the SIC for an occultation eclipse which may be total, the calculations for the March 7, 1970, eclipse are described in detail. (U.S.)

  14. BANKING SYSTEM STABILITY: COMMERCIAL AND CO-OPERATIVE BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru-Cristian OANEA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Commercial banks and co-operative banks are credit institutions, but there are some differences between the main operations proceeded by each of them. Based on these specific characteristics, we want to identify the manner in which financial crisis affected their activity. As we all know, the financial crisis had a major impact in the United States, the “natal” country of the crisis, because great banks such as Lehman Brothers or Merrill Lynch have bankrupted. Even if the Romanian banking system was not affected by such catastrophic situations, surely the financial crisis had a significant impact on it. This topic is worth to be analysed, because we would be able to identify the risk differences between these two types of business: commercial banks versus co-operative banks.

  15. The mortality of Oryzaephilus surinamensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Silvanidae induced by powdered plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłyś Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether powdered plants of different species namely: peppermint Mentha piperita (L. (Lamiaceae, wormwood Artemisia absinthium (L. (Asteraceae, common sage Salvia officinalis (L. (Lamiaceae, allspice Pimenta dioica (Linnaeus et Merrill (Myrtaceae and common garlic Allium sativum (L. (Amaryllidaceae, added to semolina using concentrations of 1.23, 3.61, and 5.88%, influence the mortality rate in the saw-toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Silvanidae. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory at 28°C and relative humidity 60±5%. At the concentration of 1.23%, allspice seeds caused the highest mortality amongst the saw-toothed grain beetle. When concentrations of 3.61 and 5.88% were used, sage, peppermint and wormwood caused the highest statistically significant mortality of O. surinamensis

  16. Observations of the interstellar ice grain feature in the Taurus molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittet, D.C.B.; Bode, H.F.; Longmore, A.J.; Baines, D.W.T.; Evans, A.

    1983-01-01

    Although water ice was originally proposed as a major constituent of the interstellar grain population (e.g. Oort and van de Hulst, 1946), the advent of infrared astronomy has shown that the expected absorption due to O-H stretching vibrations at 3 μm is illusive. Observations have in fact revealed that the carrier of this feature is apparently restricted to regions deep within dense molecular clouds (Merrill et al., 1976; Willner et al., 1982). However, the exact carrier of this feature is still controversial, and many questions remain as to the conditions required for its appearance. It is also uncertain whether it is restricted to circumstellar shells, rather than the general cloud medium. Detailed discussion of the 3 μm band properties is given elsewhere in this volume. 15 references, 4 figures

  17. 2009 ACADEMIC TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    LECTURE SERIES 28, 29, 30 October 2009 11:00 -12:00 – Main Auditorium, bldg. 500-1 Mathematics, Pricing, Market Risk Management and Trading Strategies for Financial Derivatives B. Lynn / CERN Theory Department, ex-Merrill Lynch MD, B. Coffey / VTB Bank, London An introduction to the mathematics and practicalities of market trading and risk management for financial derivatives, the course will focus on examples from the short-term and long term Foreign Exchange (FX) and Interest Rate (IR) derivatives markets. Topics: Government Bonds and IR Curves Stochastic FX, Black-Scholes Vanilla FX Options and Martingales Risk Management and Market Trading for Vanilla FX Options, Market Implied Volatility, Valuation and Risk Management, Market Trading Strategies Stochastic IR Curves and Implied Volatility, IR Derivatives Long Term FX Options: Interaction of Stochastic FX and Stochastic IR Vanilla Foreign Exchange (FX) Options: $ Government Bonds, Interest Rate (IR) Curves, Continu...

  18. Genetic improvement of soybean through induced mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjaya, J.G.; Nandanwar, R.S.; Thengane, R.J.; Muthiah, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril) is one of the important oilseed crops of India. The country produces more than 9.00 million tonnes of soybean per annum and has acquired first place amongst oilseed crops grown in India. Narrow genetic base of cultivated varieties in soybean is of global concern. Efficient mutant production systems, through physical or chemical mutagenesis, have been well established in soybean. A vast amount of genetic variability, of both quantitative and qualitative traits, has been generated through experimental mutagenesis. Two soybean varieties TAMS-38 and TAMS 98-21 have been developed and released for commercial cultivation by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). In this paper the role of mutation breeding in soybean improvement has been discussed. (author)

  19. Das Américas para o Mundo: origem, domesticação e dispersão do abacaxizeiro From the Americas to the World: origin, domestication and dispersion of pineapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maraisa Crestani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O abacaxi (Ananas comosus (L. Merril, fruto símbolo de regiões tropicais e subtropicais, originário das Américas, foi difundido para todo o mundo, principalmente pelos navegantes europeus, em razão de seu aroma e sabor característicos e exuberante aparência. Batizado como o "Rei das Frutas Coloniais", o abacaxi encontra-se entre as 11 frutas mais produzidas no mundo, sendo cultivada e consumida pelos cinco continentes, e o Brasil destaca-se como maior produtor. Assim, o objetivo desta revisão bibliográfica é abordar a história da cultura do abacaxi, contemplando sua botânica, sua origem e dispersão pelo mundo, seu cenário atual, também aspectos relacionados à conservação de germoplasma e ao melhoramento genético.The pineapple(Ananas comosus (L. Merril, fruit-symbol of tropical and subtropical regions, originated in the Americas, was widespread throughout the world mainly by european navigators because of its aroma and flavor, and lush appearance. Named as "King of Colonial Fruits", pineapple is one of the eleven most produced fruit in the world, growing consumed in every continent, with Brazil as the largest producer. Then, the objective of this literature review is to approach the pineapple history, contemplating its botany, origin and dispersion in the world and its current scenario and issues related to germplasm conservation and breeding.

  20. Epilepsia en el niño: Edad de inicio, tiempo de evolución y situación escolar. Su relación con el rendimiento intelectual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemente Trujillo Matienzo

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron 310 escolares epilépticos atendidos en el Instituto de Neurología y Neurocirugía con edades entre 5 y 14 años. Se les estudió rendimiento intelectual (test de inteligencia de Terman Merrill clasificado según la escala y se relacionó mediante el test de diferencias de medias con la edad de inicio de la enfermedad, el tiempo de evolución y la situación académica de cada niño. Se encontró que el grupo con retraso escolar difiere del que no lo tiene en cuanto a promedio alto (p 310 epileptic school children between 5 and 14 years old who were attended at the Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery entered this study. Their academic results were studied (Terman and Merrill's intelligence test and classified according to the scale and they were related to the age of onset of the disease, the time of evolution, and the academic situation of each child by using the test of differences of averages. It was found that the group with school retardation differs from the other one in the following aspects: high average (p < 0,01, low average, mild and moderate deficient (p < 0,0001, and severe deficient (p < 0,001. It is concluded that among epileptic school children there are differences as regards the academic performance between those who do not have school retardation and those who have it, and between those with 5 or less years of evolution of the disease and those ones with more.

  1. Technology evaluation: adalimumab, Abbott laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Hanns M

    2002-04-01

    Adalimumab (D2E7), a human monoclonal antibody that binds to and neutralizes TNFa, is being developed by Abbott (formerly Knoll), under license from Cambridge Antibody Technology (CAT), for the potential treatment of inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and Crohn's disease. It is also being investigated for the potential treatment of coronary heart disease. Phase II studies for Crohn's disease and phase III for RA were ongoing throughout 2001. Limited data are only available for RA. In January 2002, it was reported that phase III trials of adalimumab for RA had been completed, but details have not been published in the primary literature so far. At this time CAT and Abbott expected to file for US approval in the second quarter of 2002 with a launch date anticipated for 2003. Phase III data are expected to be presented at the European League Against Rheumatism meeting in June 2002. In November 2000, Lehman Brothers predicted a US launch in June 2002 with peak US sales of $600 million in 2007 and a launch in non-US markets in 2003 with peak sales in these markets of $300 million in 2008. In December 2000, Merrill Lynch predicted regulatory clearance in the second half of 2003. The probability of adalimumab reaching the market is estimated to be 70%. In December 2000, Merrill Lynch predicted a 2003 launch, with estimated sales of pounds sterling 3.65 million in that year rising to pounds sterling 30.14 million in 2010. In March 2001, ABN AMRO predicted sales of $73 million in 2003 rising to $392 million in 2007.

  2. The feasibility of using conversational agent technology to improve problem-solving and coping skills of young adults with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Friederichs-Fitzwater M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Marlene M von Friederichs-Fitzwater1, Frederick J Meyers21Division of Hematology/Oncology, Internal Medicine, 2School of Medicine, University of California Davis, Sacramento, CA, USAObjective: Young adults with cancer have unique psychosocial needs and often lack the problem-solving and coping skills for effective resolution. We conducted a study to clarify these needs and then developed and tested an educational intervention to coach young adults with cancer in problem-solving and coping skills using a new conversational agent technology that uses a multi-media format to simulate face-to-face encounters.Methods: We qualitatively assessed online focus groups and chat rooms with 45 young adults with cancer and used the results to develop and test an online 15-minute educational prototype using a new conversational agent technology with 49 young adults (18–35 years of age with cancer.Results: Young adults with cancer are most concerned about reproductive issues, emotional issues, communicating with healthcare providers, and the risks and benefits of treatments. The study participants found the I-COPE prototype to be useful, easy to use, and worth recommending to others. They wanted to have more video segments about the experiences of other young adults with cancer; more video segments of actual procedures and treatments; more Internet links to information and resources; and more opportunities to interact with the conversational agent.Conclusion: New conversational agent technology is useful in coaching problem-solving and coping skills to empower young adults with cancer.Practice implications: New conversational agent technology is a useful tool in patient education and skill development, particularly among young adults.Keywords: young adult cancer patients, conversational agent technology, problem-solving, coping, self-efficacy, survivorship

  3. Rule knowledge aids performance on spatial and object alternation tasks by alcoholic patients with and without Korsakoff’s amnesia

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    Fiona J Bardenhagen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiona J Bardenhagen1,2, Marlene Oscar-Berman3, Stephen C Bowden2,41School of Psychology, Victoria University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; 2Clinical Neurosciences, St. Vincent’s Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; 3Division of Psychiatry and Departments of Neurology and Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine; and Psychology Research Service, US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA Healthcare System, Jamaica Plain Campus, MA, USA; 4School of Behavioural Science, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Delayed alternation (DA and object alternation (OA tasks traditionally have been used to measure defective response inhibition associated with dysfunction of frontal brain systems. However, these tasks are also sensitive to nonfrontal lesions, and cognitive processes such as the induction of rule-learning strategies also are needed in order to perform well on these tasks. Performance on DA and OA tasks was explored in 10 patients with alcohol-induced persisting amnestic disorder (Korsakoff’s syndrome, 11 abstinent long-term alcoholics, and 13 healthy non-alcoholic controls under each of two rule provision conditions: Alternation Rule and Correction Rule. Results confirmed that rule knowledge is a crucial cognitive component for solving problems such as DA and OA, and therefore, that errors on these tasks are not due to defective response inhibition alone. Further, rule-induction strategies were helpful to Korsakoff patients, despite their poorer performance on the tasks. These results stress the role of multiple cognitive abilities in successful performance on rule induction tasks. Evidence that these cognitive abilities are served by diffusely distributed neural networks should be considered when interpreting behavioral impairments on these tasks.Keywords: alcoholism, Korsakoff’s syndrome, comparative neuropsychology, perseveration, rule induction, working memory

  4. Frontal brain dysfunction in alcoholism with and without antisocial personality disorder

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    Marlene Oscar-Berman

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Marlene Oscar-Berman1,2, Mary M Valmas1,2, Kayle s Sawyer1,2, Shalene M Kirkley1, David A Gansler3, Diane Merritt1,2, Ashley Couture11Department of Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, Boston Campus, Boston, MA, USA; 2Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 3Suffolk University, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD often are comorbid conditions. Alcoholics, as well as nonalcoholic individuals with ASPD, exhibit behaviors associated with prefrontal brain dysfunction such as increased impulsivity and emotional dysregulation. These behaviors can influence drinking motives and patterns of consumption. Because few studies have investigated the combined association between ASPD and alcoholism on neuropsychological functioning, this study examined the influence of ASPD symptoms and alcoholism on tests sensitive to frontal brain deficits. The participants were 345 men and women. Of them, 144 were abstinent alcoholics (66 with ASPD symptoms, and 201 were nonalcoholic control participants (24 with ASPD symptoms. Performances among the groups were examined with Trails A and B tests, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Controlled Oral Word Association Test, the Ruff Figural Fluency Test, and Performance subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Measures of affect also were obtained. Multiple regression analyses showed that alcoholism, specific drinking variables (amount and duration of heavy drinking, and ASPD were significant predictors of frontal system and affective abnormalities. These effects were different for men and women. The findings suggested that the combination of alcoholism and ASPD leads to greater deficits than the sum of each.  Keywords: alcoholism, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD, frontal brain system, neuropsychological deficits, reward system

  5. Pruebas de vigor y calidad fisiológica de semillas de soja Vigor tests and physiological quality of soybean seeds

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    Adriana Rita Salinas

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar las alteraciones producidas por el deterioro en semillas de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill utilizando diferentes pruebas de vigor. Se utilizaron semillas de soja de diferentes cultivares en 1997 y 1998, las cuales fueron sometidas a la prueba de germinación y diferentes pruebas de vigor: envejecimiento acelerado; conductividad eléctrica; deterioro controlado y tetrazolio. El deterioro controlado en semillas con 22% de humedad mostró ser un mejor indicador de la disminución del vigor de la semilla de soja que el envejecimiento acelerado. La conductividad eléctrica en semillas individuales podría ser considerada una buena prueba de vigor para detectar alteraciones producidas en las membranas citoplasmáticas en un estadio temprano del deterioro de las semillas. La clasificación de la viabilidad y el vigor a través de la prueba de tetrazolio está dada por el lugar donde se produce el daño y no por el tipo de daño que sufre la semilla.The objective of this work was to study soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill seed alterations produced by deterioration using different vigor tests. Soybean seeds of different cultivars were used in 1997 and 1998, which were submitted to standard germination test and the vigor tests: accelerated aging; electric conductivity; controlled deterioration and tetrazolium. The controlled deterioration with an elevation of the seed humidity to 22%, showed to be a better indicator of the diminishing of soybean seed vigor than the accelerated aging. The electric conductivity in individual seeds would be considered a good vigor test to detect the alterations produced in the cytoplasmic membranes in an early stage of the seed deterioration. The tetrazolium test by the evaluation of the different kinds of injuries suffered by the seeds, depends on the place where the seed is damaged not on the kind of injury suffered by the seed.

  6. Correlation of maturity groups with seed composition in soybeans, as influenced by genotypic variation.

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    Maestri, Damián M.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of 19 soybean cultivars (Glycine max (L. Merrill with maturity groups V, VI or VII were analyzed for proximate composition, fatty acids and sterols. Protein, oil, carbohydrate and ash contents varied between 344-463 g kg-1, 178-233 g kg-1, 234-338 g kg-1, and 40.0-49.3 g kg-1 of dry matter, respectively. Fatty acid profiles revealed that the major acids were palmitic (9.2-12.5%, oleic (17.7-22.1% and linoleic (53.6-56.9%. Linolenic acid ranged from 8.6 to 10.4%. Sitosterol (48.1-56.8% was the main component of the sterol fraction, followed by campesterol (18.4-21.7% and stigmasterol (13.4-18.0%. Statistically significant differences between genotypes were found for the majority of parameters evaluated, but there are not significant variations among maturity groups.

    Se analizaron la humedad, contenido en proteínas, carbohidratos, grasas y cenizas, y las composiciones en ácidos grasos y esteróles de las semillas de 19 cultivares de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill con grupos de madurez V, VI o VIl. Los contenidos de proteínas, aceites, carbohidratos y cenizas variaron entre 344-463 g kg-1, 178-233 g kg-1, 234-338 g kg-1 y 40.0-49.3 g kg-1 de materia seca, respectivamente. Los ácidos grasos mayoritarios fueron palmítico (9.2-12.5%, oleico (17.7-22.1% y linoleico (53.6-56.9%. El porcentaje de ácido linolénico varió desde 8.6 hasta 10.4%. El principal componente de la fracción de esteroles del aceite fue el sitosterol (48.1-56.8%, seguido por el campesterol (18.4-21.7% y el estigmasterol (13.4-18.0%. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los genotipos para la mayoría de los parámetros evaluados, pero no hubo variaciones significativas entre grupos de madurez.

  7. Correlation between seed size, protein and oil contents, and fatty acid composition in soybean genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maestri, Damián M.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L. Merrill with maturity groups IV, V, VI or VII were grown in 1995/96 at the Estación Experimental Agropecuaria (EEA-INTA of Manfredi and Marcos Juárez, Argentina. The aim of this research was to determine possible associations between seed size, protein and oil contents, and fatty composition. Seed size varied between 13.9-21.0 g/100 seeds. Protein and oil contents ranged from 331 to 448 and from 198 to 267 g kg-1, respectively, and showed no significant correlation with seed size. There were significant correlations between seed size and individual fatty adds: positive with stearic and oleic and negative with linoleic. The results obtained suggest that seed size and its relationship with individual fatty acids must be considered in soybean breeding programs.

    Se analizaron 18 genotipos de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill con grupos de madurez IV, V, VI o VIl, cultivados en 1995/96 en la Estación Experimental Agropecuaria (EEA-INTA de Manfredi y Marcos Juárez, Argentina. El propósito de la investigación fue determinar posibles asociaciones entre el tamaño del grano, los contenidos de proteínas y aceite y la composición de ácidos grasos del mismo. El tamaño del grano varió entre 13.9-21.0 g/100 granos. Los porcentajes de proteínas y aceite estuvieron comprendidos entre 331-448 y entre 198-267 g kg-1 respectivamente, y no mostraron correlaciones significativas con el tamaño del grano. Se observaron correlaciones significativas entre el tamaño del grano y determinados ácidos grasos: positivas con esteárico y oleico y negativa con linoleico. Las asociaciones encontradas podrían ser de utilidad en programas de mejoramiento de soja.

  8. Anatomia foliar de soja infectada por Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow e tratadas com extratos vegetais Leaf anatomy of soybean infected with Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow and treated with plant extracts

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    R.M. Mussury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Folhas de Glycine max (L. Merril,infectadas pelo fungo Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow e tratadas com extratos vegetais foram avaliadas, visando determinar in vivo as modificações anatômicas nas diferentes estruturas/tecidos foliares, além de reconhecer prováveis mecanismos de defesa. Folhas de soja cultivar 181 provenientes do quinto nó foram inoculadas com fungo e tratadas com diferentes extratos vegetais, água e álcool 70%. Para comparação foram analisadas a anatomia das folhas sadia e infectada e realizadas medidas nas estruturas/tecidos foliares. Na folha infectada, observou-se destruição da epiderme e parênquima lacunoso, visível proliferação de tricomas e cutícula espessada, principalmente na face abaxial. Observou-se a presença de compostos fenólicos nas células da epiderme quando rompida, em função do crescimento micelial. Nas folhas infectadas e tratadas com os extratos vegetais de Azadirachta indica, Maytenus ilicifolia e Allium sativum, as estruturas/tecidos vegetais apresentaram aumento de espessura por alongamento celular.Glycine max (L. Merril leaves, infected by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow and treated with plant extracts, were evaluated with the aim of determining in vivo the anatomical modifications in different leaf structures and of identifying probable defense mechanisms. Leaves from the 181 soybean cultivar originated from the fifth node were inoculated with the fungus and treated with different plant extracts, water and alcohol at 70%. For comparison, the anatomy of the healthy and infected leaves was analyzed and the leaf structures were measured. In the infected leaf, there was destruction of the epidermis and lacunar parenchyma, apparent trichome proliferation and denser cuticle, especially on the abaxial surface. There were also phenolic compounds in ruptured epidermis cells, due to mycelium growth. In the infected leaves treated with Azadirachta indica, Maytenus

  9. Free space optics: a viable last-mile alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willebrand, Heinz A.; Clark, Gerald R.

    2001-10-01

    This paper explores Free Space Optics (FSO) as an access technology in the last mile of metropolitan area networks (MANs). These networks are based in part on fiber-optic telecommunications infrastructure, including network architectures of Synchronous Optical Network (commonly referred to as SONET), the North American standard for synchronous data transmission; and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (commonly referred to as SDH), the international standard and equivalent of SONET. Several converging forces have moved FSO beyond a niche technology for use only in local area networks (LANs) as a bridge connecting two facilities. FSO now allows service providers to cost effectively provide optical bandwidth for access networks and accelerate the extension of metro optical networks bridging what has been termed by industry experts as the optical dead zone. The optical dead zone refers to both the slowdown in capital investment in the short-term future and the actual connectivity gap that exists today between core metro optical networks and the access optical networks. Service providers have built extensive core and minimal metro networks but have not yet provided optical bandwidth to the access market largely due to the non-compelling economics to bridge the dead zone with fiber. Historically, such infrastructure build-out slowdowns have been blamed on a combination of economics, time-to-market constraints and limited technology options. However, new technology developments and market acceptance of FSO give service providers a new cost-effective alternative to provide high-bandwidth services with optical bandwidth in the access networks. Merrill Lynch predicts FSO will grow into a $2 billion market by 2005. The drivers for this market are a mere 5%- 6% penetration of fiber to business buildings; cost effective solution versus RF or fiber; and significant capacity which can only be matched by a physical fiber link, Merrill Lynch reports. This paper will describe FSO

  10. Naringenin inhibits the growth and stimulates the lignification of soybean root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciene de Souza Bido

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The flavanone naringenin, an intermediate in flavonoid biosynthesis, was tested for its effect on root growth, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and peroxidase (POD activities, as well as phenolic compounds and lignin contents in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill seedlings. Three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in half-strength Hoagland nutrient solution (pH 6.0, with or without 0.1 to 0.4 mM naringenin in a growth chamber (25°C, 12-h photoperiod, irradiance of 280 µmol m-2 s-1 for 24 h. Inhibitory effects on root growth (length, weight, cell viability, PAL and soluble POD activities were detected after naringenin treatments. These effects were associated with stimulatory activity of the cell wall-bound POD followed by an increase in the lignin contents, suggesting that naringenin-induced inhibition in soybean roots could be due to the lignification process.Os efeitos de naringenina, um intermediário da biossíntese de flavonóides, foram avaliados sobre o crescimento das raízes, as atividades da fenilalanina amônia liase (PAL e peroxidases, bem como sobre os teores de compostos fenólicos e de lignina em plântulas de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill. Plântulas de três dias foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva de Hoagland, meia-força (pH 6,0, contendo ou não, naringenina 0,1 a 0,4 mM, em uma câmara de germinação (25°C, fotoperíodo de 12 h, 280 µmol m-2 s-1 durante 24 h. Efeitos inibitórios no crescimento das raízes (comprimento, massa e viabilidade celular e nas atividades da PAL e POD solúvel foram constatados após os tratamentos com naringenina. Estes efeitos foram associados com atividade estimulatória da POD ligada à parede celular, seguido por aumento nos teores de lignina, sugerindo que a inibição do crescimento das raízes pode ser devido ao processo de lignificação.

  11. Predicting and retrodicting intelligence between childhood and old age in the 6-Day Sample of the Scottish Mental Survey 1947.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Ian J; Brett, Caroline E

    2015-01-01

    In studies of cognitive ageing it is useful and important to know how stable are the individual differences in cognitive ability from childhood to older age, and also to be able to estimate (retrodict) prior cognitive ability differences from those in older age. Here we contribute to these aims with new data from a follow-up study of the 6-Day Sample of the Scottish Mental Survey of 1947 (original N = 1208). The sample had cognitive, educational, social, and occupational data collected almost annually from age 11 to 27 years. Whereas previous long-term follow-up studies of the Scottish mental surveys are based upon group-administered cognitive tests at a mean age of 11 years, the present sample each had an individually-administered revised Binet test. We traced them for vital status in older age, and some agreed to take several mental tests at age 77 years (N = 131). The National Adult Reading Test at age 77 correlated .72 with the Terman-Merrill revision of the Binet Test at age 11. Adding the Moray House Test No. 12 score from age 11 and educational information took the multiple R to .81 between youth and older age. The equivalent multiple R for fluid general intelligence was .57. When the NART from age 77 was the independent variable (retrodictor) along with educational attainment, the multiple R with the Terman-Merrill IQ at age 11 was .75. No previous studies of the stability of intelligence from childhood to old age, or of the power of the NART to retrodict prior intelligence, have had individually-administered IQ data from youth. About two-thirds, at least, of the variation in verbal ability in old age can be captured by cognitive and educational information from youth. Non-verbal ability is less well predicted. A short test of pronunciation-the NART-and brief educational information can capture well over half of the variation in IQ scores obtained 66 years earlier.

  12. Accelerated aging and seedling field emergence in soybean Envelhecimento acelerado e emergência de plântulas de soja em campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Melo Torres

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Information regarding the relationship between laboratory seed vigor testing and seedling field emergence is very important to estimate seed performance after sowing and help producers adopt the best procedures to improve stand establishment. The objective of the present study was to relate accelerated aging (AA test results to soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] seedling field emergence results based on data obtained over three agricultural years. The following evaluations were made: seed water content, standard germination, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity, and seedling field emergence. There was a close association between planting environmental conditions, seed physiological quality and seedling field emergence. The most accurate predictions were obtained for AA values > 90%, when field emergence was higher than 80% (r² = 0.90. Based on the results it was concluded that the AA test provided an accurate estimate of field emergence of soybean seedlings. However, as seedbed environmental conditions became less favorable, the ability of the AA test to estimate field performance significantly decreased.Informações sobre a relação entre resultados de testes de vigor conduzidos em laboratório e da emergência de plântulas em campo são fundamentais para a tomada de decisões pelos produtores de sementes. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo verificar a associação entre os resultados do teste de envelhecimento acelerado e a emergência de plântulas de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] em campo, em diferentes safras agrícolas e épocas de semeadura. Assim, foram efetuadas as seguintes avaliações: determinação do grau de umidade das sementes; testes de germinação, de envelhecimento acelerado e de condutividade elétrica, bem como emergência de plântulas em campo. A estimativa mais precisa do desempenho das plântulas em campo foi verificada numa faixa de valores de envelhecimento acelerado > 90%, estimando emergência em campo

  13. Fertilización fosfatada e inoculación de soja en vertisoles Phosphate fertilization and inoculation of soybean in vertisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Díaz-Zorita

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La simbiosis entre rizobios y soja [Glycine max (L. Merril] provee parte de los requerimientos de N del cultivo en un proceso que depende de la disponibilidad de nutrientes tales como el P. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los aportes de la fertilización con P (0,18 y 36 kg ha-1 y de la inoculación con Bradyrhizobium japonicum sobre la nodulación y los rendimientos de soja en Vertisoles potencialmente deficientes en P. En sitios sin antecedentes de soja, la inoculación incrementó la nodulación, la biomasa aérea y el rendimiento en grano por sobre los cultivos sin inocular. Al aumentar el P disponible (Psuelo + Pfertilización hasta 12,4 mg kg-1 la nodulación y la biomasa aérea aumentaron. En los sitios con antecedentes de soja en rotación, los rendimientos fueron superiores al inocular y sólo con este tratamiento la biomasa aérea y los rendimientos mejoraron al aumentar la oferta de P. En general, los cultivos inoculados y fertilizados mostraron los mayores rendimientos sugiriendo la conveniencia del manejo combinado de la nutrición del cultivo.The symbiosis between rhizobia and soybean [Glycine max (L. Merril] provides most of the nitrogen requirements of the crop through a process that also depends on the availability of nutrients, for example phosphorous. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of P fertilization (0, 18 y 36 kg ha-1 and Bradyrhizobium japonicum inoculation on the nodulation and grain yield of soybean crops in Vertisols with low soil P availability. In the sites without previous soybean crops, the inoculation promoted a greater nodulation, and shoot dry matter and grain yields above the non-inoculated crops. Nodulation and shoot growth increased with increasing available P (Psoil + Pfertilization levels up to 12.4 mg kg-1. In the sites rotated with soybean, yields were greater in the inoculated crops. Shoot dry matter and grain yields increased with increasing available P levels

  14. ALEXANDER DUGIN AND MOSCOW’S NEW RIGHT RADICAL INTELLECTUAL CIRCLES AT THE START OF PUTIN’S THIRD PRESIDENTIAL TERM 2012-2013: THE ANTI-ORANGE COMMITTEE, THE IZBORSK CLUB AND THE FLORIAN GEYER CLUB IN THEIR POLITICAL CONTEXT

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    Andreas UMLAND

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The relatively large attention that Alexander Dugin and his “neo-Eurasian” followers have received in international post-Sovietology and Russian right-wing extremism studies, over the last two decades, is unusual, but justified. Dugin represents for both, analytical and political reasons, a more interesting case than his various ultra-nationalist competitors on the book market, in mass media, and within the public discourse of post-Soviet Russia. Not only has he distinguished himself by his bold incorporation of West European inter- and post-war right-wing extremist ideas – including classical German Nazism – into his post-Soviet Russian fascist ideology. By today, he is one of the few still active veterans of the Soviet Union’s occult underground, entering the Iuzhinskii circle in the early 1980s (Menzel 2013, 195-228, Laruelle 2015b, 563-580. Later on, Dugin was, for a short period in 1988, a member of late Soviet Russia’s first openly ultra-nationalist grouping, the infamous so-called Pamiat’ (Memory Society. Already in the early nineties, Dugin became a prolific post-Soviet publicist whose first articles, in particular his columns for Russia’s leading ultra-nationalist weekly Den’/Zavtra (The Day/Tomorrow, helped to shape the overall world-view of the then emerging new Russian extreme right. This paper will, first, outline the overall background, determinants, and context of the type of non-party activities that, among others, Dugin is engaged in. The argument focuses on both Dugin’s specific strategy, on the side, and the general meaning of right-wing extremist activism outside the electoral realm, i.e. within so-called “uncivil society,” on the other. The paper, secondly, illustrates these general observations by way of continuing Marlene Laruelle’s (2009 and others’ (including my own, Umland 2007 research on post-Soviet Russian right-wing extremist clubs and think-tanks. The focus here will be on three new such

  15. Novel resveratrol nanodelivery systems based on lipid nanoparticles to enhance its oral bioavailability

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    Neves AR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ana Rute Neves,1 Marlene Lúcio,1 Susana Martins,2,3 José Luís Costa Lima,1 Salette Reis11REQUIMTE, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, 2Laboratory for Pharmaceutical Technology/Research Centre in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, 3Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Porto, PortugalIntroduction: Resveratrol is a polyphenol found in grapes and red wines. Interest in this polyphenol has increased due to its pharmacological cardio- and neuroprotective, chemopreventive, and antiaging effects, among others. Nevertheless, its pharmacokinetic properties are less favorable, since the compound has poor bioavailability, low water solubility, and is chemically unstable. To overcome these problems, we developed two novel resveratrol nanodelivery systems based on lipid nanoparticles to enhance resveratrol's oral bioavailability for further use in medicines, supplements, and nutraceuticals.Methods and materials: Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs loaded with resveratrol were successfully produced by a modified hot homogenization technique. These were completely characterized to evaluate the quality of the developed resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles.Results: Cryo-scanning electron microscopy morphology studies showed spherical and uniform nanoparticles with a smooth surface. An average resveratrol entrapment efficiency of ~70% was obtained for both SLNs and NLCs. Dynamic light scattering measurements gave a Z-average of 150–250 nm, polydispersity index of ~0.2, and a highly negative zeta potential of around −30 mV with no statistically significant differences in the presence of resveratrol. These characteristics remained unchanged for at least 2 months, suggesting good stability. Differential scanning calorimetry studies confirmed the solid state of the SLNs and NLCs at both room and body temperatures. The NLCs had a less ordered crystalline

  16. Update on taxane development: new analogs and new formulations

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    Yared JA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jean A Yared, Katherine HR TkaczukUniversity of Maryland School of Medicine, Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: The taxanes (paclitaxel and docetaxel represent an important class of antineoplastic agents that interfere with microtubule function leading to altered mitosis and cellular death. Paclitaxel (Taxol® was originally extracted from a yew tree (Taxus spp., Taxaceae a small slow-growing evergreen, coniferous tree. Due to the initial scarcity of paclitaxel, docetaxel (Taxotere® a semisynthetic analog of paclitaxel produced from the needles of European yew tree, Taxus baccata was developed. Docetaxel differs from paclitaxel in two positions in its chemical structure and this small alteration makes it more water soluble. Today, paclitaxel and docetaxel are widely prescribed antineoplastic agents for a broad range of malignancies including lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, Kaposi’s sarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer, bladder cancer, and other carcinomas. Although very active clinically, paclitaxel and docetaxel have several clinical problems including poor drug solubility, serious dose-limiting toxicities such as myelosuppression, peripheral sensory neuropathy, allergic reactions, and eventual development of drug resistance. A number of these side effects have been associated with the solvents used for dilution of these antineoplastic agents: Cremophor EL for paclitaxel and polysorbate 80 for docetaxel. In addition, reports have linked these solvents to the alterations in paclitaxel and docetaxel pharmacokinetic profiles. In this review, we provide preclinical and clinical data on several novel taxanes formulations and analogs which are currently US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved or in clinical development in various solid tumor malignancies. Of the new taxanes nab-paclitaxel and cabazitaxel have enjoyed clinical success and

  17. Brain volumes and neuropsychological performance are related to current smoking and alcoholism history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhar RB

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Riya B Luhar,1,2 Kayle S Sawyer,1,2 Zoe Gravitz,1,2 Susan Mosher Ruiz,1,2 Marlene Oscar-Berman1–3 1US Department of Veterans Affairs, Boston Healthcare System, 2Boston University School of Medicine, 3Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Background: Dual dependence on alcohol and nicotine is common, with many reports suggesting that more than 80% of alcoholics also smoke cigarettes. Even after cessation of alcohol consumption, many recovering alcoholics continue to smoke. In this exploratory study, we examined how current smoking and a history of alcoholism interacted in relation to brain volumes and neuropsychological performance. Methods: Participants were 14 abstinent long-term alcoholics (seven current smokers and seven nonsmokers, and 13 nonalcoholics (six current smokers and seven nonsmokers. The groups were equivalent in age, gender, education, and intelligence quotient. Two multiecho magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MP-RAGE scans were collected for all participants using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a 32 channel head coil. Brain volumes for each gray and white matter region of interest were derived using FreeSurfer. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests measuring intelligence quotient, memory, executive functions, personality variables, and affect. Results: Compared to nonsmoking nonalcoholics, alcoholics who smoke (the comorbid group had volumetric abnormalities in: pre- and para-central frontal cortical areas and rostral middle frontal white matter; parahippocampal and temporal pole regions; the amygdala; the pallidum; the ventral diencephalic region; and the lateral ventricle. The comorbid group performed worse than nonsmoking nonalcoholics on tests of executive functioning and on visually-based memory tests. History of alcoholism was associated with higher neuroticism scores among smokers, and current

  18. Seas must live

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-10-01

    The World Wildlife Fund's (WWF) campaign to protect the marine environment has recently received effective financial and moral support from a variety of sources. The Charles E. Merrill Fund made a $100,000 grant to the conservation program to help finance WWF's project concerning the western Pacific archipelago of Palau, the site of a proposed multimillion dollar oil supertanker port and industrial complex. WWF will conduct an independent study to provide an assessment of the ecological, economic, and social consequences of the planned superport. T. Heyerdahl offered his services as a spokesman for WWF's series of advertisements aimed at promoting public interest in conservation of the marine environment. Part of the money raised by the WWF will be used by the National Resources Defence Council (NRDC) in a project designed to ensure that the goals of protection and preservation embodied in environmental laws are carried out along the Atlantic coast. The WWF grant enables the NRDC to employ the services of a marine biologist for one year.

  19. The computation of fixed points and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Michael J

    1976-01-01

    Fixed-point algorithms have diverse applications in economics, optimization, game theory and the numerical solution of boundary-value problems. Since Scarf's pioneering work [56,57] on obtaining approximate fixed points of continuous mappings, a great deal of research has been done in extending the applicability and improving the efficiency of fixed-point methods. Much of this work is available only in research papers, although Scarf's book [58] gives a remarkably clear exposition of the power of fixed-point methods. However, the algorithms described by Scarf have been super~eded by the more sophisticated restart and homotopy techniques of Merrill [~8,~9] and Eaves and Saigal [1~,16]. To understand the more efficient algorithms one must become familiar with the notions of triangulation and simplicial approxi- tion, whereas Scarf stresses the concept of primitive set. These notes are intended to introduce to a wider audience the most recent fixed-point methods and their applications. Our approach is therefore ...

  20. Primary experiment aimed at selecting the suitable dose to mutation induction in two soybean cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabulsi, I.; Mir Ali, N

    1991-07-01

    Seeds from two soybean [Glycine Max L. (Merrill)] cultivars K-25 and K-38 were irradiated with the following doses of gamma rays: 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400 and 500 Gy. The dose rate was 9.25 Gy/minute. A week after irradiation 25 seeds were sown from each variety in pots (26.5 x 26.5 cm) with 4 replicates in a randomized complete block design under greenhouse conditions. The distance between the cotyledon and the first leaf was measured 4 weeks after sowing and the results showed stimualtion effect in the 100 and 150 Gy doses in comparison to the control whereas in the higher doses, a gradual reduction was realized in addition to the appearance of the necrotic spots on the leaves which was increased in percentages along with the dose. The results indicated that doses between 100 and 200 Gy achieved the highest rate of mutations with minimal rate of lethality hence achieving the aim of this preliminary experiment. (author). 5 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  1. Selection of progenitors for increase in oil content in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Isabela da Silva Rodrigues

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The low genetic diversity brings limitation to breeding, because genetically similar genotypes share alleles in common, causing little complementarity and low vigor due to the low levels of heterozygosity in crosses. The objective of this work was to analyze the oil content and genetic diversity of soybean genotypes (Glycine max (L. Merrill based on QTL regions of this trait for choice of progenitors for increase in oil content. Twenty-two genotypes with wide variation in oil content, including cultivars with high oil contents, were cultivated in different Brazilian conditions and the oil content of the grains was quantified by infrared spectrometry. Microsatellite markers selected based on QTL regions for oil content in soybean were analyzed to estimate the genetic diversity. In these studies, a wide variation in oil content (17.28-23.01% and a reasonable diversity among the genotypes were observed, being PI181544 the most divergent genotype, followed by Suprema. The genotypes PI371610/Suprema and Suprema/CD01RR8384 showed genetic distance and higher oil contents in the grains, while the cultivars Suprema and CD01RR8384 had the highest oil contents and proved to be little genetically related. These genotypes are promising progenitors for selection of high oil content in soybean.

  2. Closeout Report: Experimental High Energy Physics Group at the University of South Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Charles M; Godang, Romulus

    2013-06-25

    The High Energy Physics group at the University of South Alabama has been supported by this research grant (DE-FG02-96ER40970) since 1996. One researcher, Dr. Merrill Jenkins, has been supported on this grant during this time worked on fixed target experiments at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, west of Chicago, Illinois. These experiments have been E-705, E-771, E-871 (HyperCP) and E-921 (CKM) before it was canceled for budgetary reasons. After the cancellation of CKM, Dr. Jenkins joined the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment as an associate member via the High Energy Physics Group at the Florida State University. A second, recently tenured faculty member, Dr. Romulus Godang joined the group in 2009 and has been supported by this grant since then. Dr. Godang is working on the BaBaR experiment at SLAC and has joined the Belle-II experiment located in Japan at KEK. According to the instructions sent to us by our grant monitor, we are to concentrate on the activities over the last three years in this closeout report.

  3. Uptake, translocation and biotransformation of N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamide (N-EtFOSA) by hydroponically grown plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuyan; Zhou, Tao; Zhu, Lingyan; Wang, Bohui; Li, Ze; Yang, Liping; Liu, Lifen

    2018-04-01

    N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (N-EtFOSA) is an important perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) precursor (PreFOS) which is used in sulfluramid. The present work studied the uptake, translocation and metabolism of N-EtFOSA in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) by hydroponic exposure. Except for parent N-EtFOSA, its metabolites of perfluorooctane sulfonamide acetate (FOSAA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA), PFOS, perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) were detected in the roots and shoots of all the three plant species examined. This suggested that plant roots could take up N-EtFOSA from solutions efficiently, and translocate to shoots. A positive correlation was found between root concentration factors (RCFs) of N-EtFOSA and root lipid content. Much higher proportion of N-EtFOSA transformation products in plant tissues than in the solutions suggested that N-EtFOSA could be in vivo metabolized in plant roots and shoots to FOSAA, PFOSA and PFOS, and other additional shorter-chain perfluoroalkane sulfonates (PFSAs), including PFHxS and PFBS. The results suggested that plants had biotransformation pathways to N-EtFOSA that were different than those from microorganisms and animals. This study provides important information about the uptake and metabolism of PreFOSs in plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Electrical conductivity of the seed soaking solution and soybean seedling emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Roberval Daiton

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Vigor of soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] seeds can be evaluated by measuring the electrical conductivity (EC of the seed soaking solution, which has shown a satisfactory relationship with field seedling emergence, but has not had aproper definition of range yet. This work studies the relationship between EC and soybean seedling emergence both in the field and laboratory conditions, using twenty two seed lots. Seed water content, standard germination and vigor (EC, accelerated aging and cold tests were evaluated under laboratory conditions using -0.03; -0.20; -0.40 and -0.60 MPa matric potentials, and field seedling emergence was also observed. There was direct relationship between EC and field seedling emergence (FE. Under laboratory conditions, a decreasing relationship was found between EC and FE as water content in the substrate decreased. Relationships between these two parameters were also found when -0.03; -0.20 and -0.40 MPa matric potentials were used. EC tests can be used successfully to evaluate soybean seed vigor and identify lots with higher or lower field emergence potential.

  5. formación universitaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Elena García Puig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha detectado la necesidad de implementar el e-learning en la formación universitaria de enfermería. Para ello, esta investigación aplica el diseño instruccional al proceso de aprendizaje de un modelo profesional del cuidado, cuyo centro son las competencias a desarrollar por el estudiante. A partir de éstas se ha secuenciado el conocimiento a través de la Teoría de la Elaboración y la Técnica de Análisis de los Contenidos. Así mismo, en base a estos elementos se ha diseñado una serie de tareas teniendo en consideración la Técnica de Análisis de las Tareas y el Método de Simplificación de las Condiciones (SCM. Por otro lado, se ha diseñado y creado un objeto de aprendizaje a través del patrón EASA del software GLO Maker. Además en el planteamiento y diseño de la instrucción se ha tenido en consideración los cinco principios de David Merril. Todo ello orientado a un aprendizaje constructivista y una modalidad de enseñanza instruccional virtual.

  6. Capture and utilization of solar radiation by the soybean and common bean crops and by weeds; Captacao e aproveitamento da radiacao solar pelas culturas da soja e do feijao e por plantas daninhas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Jose Barbosa dos; Procopio, Sergio de Oliveira; Silva, Antonio Alberto da [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). FItotecnia; Costa, Luiz Claudio [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), 36571-000, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2003-07-01

    Aiming to develop techniques for the establishment of a Weed Integrated Management Program, the performance of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) and of weeds Bidens pilosa L., Euphorbia heterophylla L. (two biotypes), sensitive and resistant to ALS inhibitor - herbicides and [ Desmodium tortuosum (SW.) DC.], was evaluated in relation to their efficiency in capturing and utilizing solar radiation.The following indices were calculated: total dry biomass production rate (Ct), leaf dry biomass production rate (Cf), radiation efficient use (x), net assimilation rate (EA), specific leaf area (SA), leaf area index (L), leaf matter ratio (FW) and leaf area ratio (FA). No difference was observed for all characteristics evaluated among E. heterophylla biotypes. Soybean showed the highest rate of total dry biomass production along its cycle and also the highest leaf area index, indicating its greater capacity in capturing light and providing shade to competitive plants. Especially after flowering, common bean was the most efficient in draining its photoassimilates for leaf formation. Soybean showed greater efficiency in converting radiation intercepted in the biomass. (author)

  7. Can differences in root responses to soil drying and compaction explain differences in performance of trees growing on landfill sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiansheng; Zhang, Jianhua; Chan, Gilbert Y. S.; Wong, M. H.

    1999-07-01

    Two tropical woody species, Acacia confusa Merrill and Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C.B. Robinson, were grown under controlled conditions in PVC pipes filled with John Innes No. 2 soil. To investigate root distribution, physiological characteristics and hydraulic conductivity, four soil treatments were imposed-well-watered and noncompacted (control), well-watered and compacted; unwatered and noncompacted, and unwatered and compacted. In L. glutinosa, rooting depth and root elongation were severely restricted when soil bulk density increased from around 1.12 to 1.62 g cm(-3), whereas soil compaction had little effect on these parameters in A. confusa. As soil drying progressed, root water potential and osmotic potential declined more slowly in L. glutinosa than in A. confusa. Both the soil drying and compaction treatments significantly stimulated the accumulation of root abscisic acid (ABA) in both species. Soil drying damaged the root cell membrane of A. confusa, but had little influence on the root cell membrane of L. glutinosa. Soil drying had a greater effect on root hydraulic conductivity (L(p)) in L. glutinosa than in A. confusa, whereas the effect of soil compaction on L(p) was less in L. glutinosa than in A. confusa. Soil drying enhanced the effects of soil compaction on root L(p). We conclude that soil drying and compaction have large species-specific effects on the distribution, growth and physiology of roots. The relationships of these root properties to the species' ability to tolerate unfavorable soil conditions were examined.

  8. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Polyherbal Formulation against Russell's Viper and Cobra Venom and Screening of Bioactive Components by Docking Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, G.; Dey, Amitabha; Nongalleima, Kh.; Chavali, Murthy; Rimal Isaac, R. S.; Singh, N. Surjit; Deb, Lokesh

    2013-01-01

    The present study emphasizes to reveal the antivenom activity of Aristolochia bracteolata Lam., Tylophora indica (Burm.f.) Merrill, and Leucas aspera S. which were evaluated against venoms of Daboia russelli russelli (Russell's viper) and Naja naja (Indian cobra). The aqueous extracts of leaves and roots of the above-mentioned plants and their polyherbal (1 : 1 : 1) formulation at a dose of 200 mg/kg showed protection against envenomed mice with LD50 doses of 0.44 mg/kg and 0.28 mg/kg against Russell's viper and cobra venom, respectively. In in vitro antioxidant activities sample extracts showed free radical scavenging effects in dose dependent manner. Computational drug design and docking studies were carried out to predict the neutralizing principles of type I phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from Indian common krait venom. This confirmed that aristolochic acid and leucasin can neutralize type I PLA2 enzyme. Results suggest that these plants could serve as a source of natural antioxidants and common antidote for snake bite. However, further studies are needed to identify the lead molecule responsible for antidote activity. PMID:23533518

  9. Institutional arrangements in the emerging biodiesel industry: Case studies from Minas Gerais—Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kassia; Bijman, Jos; Slingerland, Maja

    2012-01-01

    Connecting (small) family farmers to the emerging biodiesel industry requires careful design of the institutional arrangements between the producers of oil crops and the processing companies. According to institutional economics theory, the design of effective and efficient arrangements depends on production and transaction characteristics, the institutional environment, and the organizational environment supporting the transaction between producers and the industry. This paper presents a comparative study on two cases in the feedstock-for-biodiesel industry in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The two case studies represent the production and transaction system of soybeans (Glycine max L. Merrill) and castor beans (Ricinus communis L.). Important elements of effective and efficient institutional arrangements are farmer collective action, availability of technical and financial support, and farmer experience with particular crops. - Highlights: ► We study institutional arrangements for feedstock transactions between family farmers and the biodiesel industry. ► We focussed on soybean and castor bean production and transaction systems. ► Institutional arrangements are affected by product and production characteristics. ► They are also affected by collective actions organizations such as cooperatives. ► Soybean involves lower transaction costs and therefore more simple arrangement than castor bean.

  10. Feeding and oviposition preference of Phyllophaga cuyabana (Moser) (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) on several crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Lenita J.; Hoffmann-Campo, Clara B.

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out to study food and oviposition preference by Phyllophaga cuyabana (Moser) on different plant species as Cajanus cajan L. (pigeon pea), Crotalaria juncea L. (sun hemp), Crotalaria spectabilis Roth (showy crotalaria), Crotalaria ochroleuca G. Don (slenderleaf rattlebox), Glycine max [L.] Merrill (soybean), Gossypium hirsutum L. (cotton), Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower), Stizolobium aterrimum [Mucuna aterrima] Piper and Tracey (velvetbean) and Zea mays L. (mayze). In no-choice experiments, the number of eggs layed in sunflower, C. juncea and soybean was larger compared to cotton. Despite the fact that the adults did not discriminate among plants, in dual-choice test, the proportion of eggs layed and leaf consumption by P. cuyabana adults in soybean were significantly higher than in C. spectabilis. The larval distribution in the soil was at random in multiple-choice, without any trend of preference, but in dual-choice, when soybean was the control, larvae always preferred to feed on its roots. P. cuyabana adults had preference for more suitable hosts and that could stand their offspring survival. This behaviour can be usefully exploited in an integrated management program for this pest. (author)

  11. Compatibility of chemical insecticides and entomopathogenic fungi for control of soybean defoliating pest, Rachiplusia nu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizza, Sebastian A; Schalamuk, Santiago; Simón, María R; Stenglein, Sebastian A; Pacheco-Marino, Suani G; Scorsetti, Ana C

    Rachiplusia nu (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is one of the major lepidopteran pests defoliating soybeans (Glycine max Merrill) in Argentina. The combined use of chemical insecticides and entomopathogenic fungi is a promising pest-control option to minimize adverse chemical effects. In this work, we evaluated the interactions between five insecticides-two being considered biorational-and five fungal entomopathogenic strains under laboratory conditions in order to determine the possible usefulness of combinations of these agents against R. nu. The insecticides were tested for compatibility at four doses by in vitro bioassay and for the lethality of R. nu by inoculations at three doses. Fungal strains were applied at 1×10 8 , 1×10 6 , and 1×10 4 conidia/ml. The combinations of those insecticides with Beauveria bassiana (LPSc 1067, LPSc 1082, LPSc 1098), Metarhizium anisopliae (LPSc 907), and Metarhizium robertsii (LPSc 963) caused higher R. nu-larval mortalities than any of the individual agents alone. We observed significant differences in the in vitro conidial viability, vegetative growth, and conidia production of the five strains of entomopathogenic fungi exposed to different doses of the chemical insecticides. The combination gamma-cyhalothrin-LPSc-1067 caused the highest percent mortality of R. nu larvae, with synergism occurring between the two agents at 50% and 25% of the maximum field doses. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Plant densities and modulation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Javier de Luca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soybean nitrogen (N demands can be supplied to a large extent via biological nitrogen fixation, but the mechanisms of source/sink regulating photosynthesis/nitrogen fixation in high yielding cultivars and current crop management arrangements need to be investigated. We investigated the modulation of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] at different plant densities. A field trial was performed in southern Brazil with six treatments, including non-inoculated controls without and with N-fertilizer, both at a density of 320,000 plants ha−1, and plants inoculated with Bradyrhizobium elkanii at four densities, ranging from 40,000 to 320,000 plants ha−1. Differences in nodulation, biomass production, N accumulation and partition were observed at stage R5, but not at stage V4, indicating that quantitative and qualitative factors (such as sunlight infrared/red ratio assume increasing importance during the later stages of plant growth. Decreases in density in the inoculated treatments stimulated photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation per plant. Similar yields were obtained at the different plant densities, with decreases only at the very low density level of 40,000 plants ha−1, which was also the only treatment to show differences in seed protein and oil contents. Results confirm a fine tuning of the mechanisms of source/sink, photosynthesis/nitrogen fixation under lower plant densities. Higher photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation rates are capable of sustaining increased plant growth.

  13. Distribution of the long-horned beetle, Dectes texanus, in soybeans of Missouri, Western Tennessee, Mississippi, and Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, Kelly V; Stewart, Scott; Musser, Fred; Lorenz, Gus; Bailey, Wayne; House, Jeff; Henry, Robert; Hastings, Don; Wallace, Milus; Fothergill, Kent

    2010-01-01

    The long-horned beetle, Dectes texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is a stem-boring pest of soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merrill (Fabales: Fabaceae). Soybean stems and stubble were collected from 131 counties in Arkansas, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee and dissected to determine D. texanus infestation rates. All states sampled had D. texanus present in soybeans. Data from Tennessee and Arkansas showed sample infestations of D. texanus averaging nearly 40%. Samples from Missouri revealed higher infestation in the twelve southeastern counties compared to the rest of the state. Data from Mississippi suggested that D. texanus is not as problematic there as in Arkansas, Missouri, and Tennessee. Infestation rates from individual fields varied greatly (0-100%) within states. In Tennessee, second crop soybeans (i.e. soybeans planted following winter wheat) had lower infestations than full season soybeans. A map of pest distribution is presented that documents the extent of the problem, provides a baseline from which changes can be measured, contributes data for emergency registration of pesticides for specific geographic regions, and provides useful information for extension personnel, crop scouts, and growers.

  14. Sowing seasons and quality of soybean seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ávila Marizangela Rizzatti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the difficulties of producing high quality soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] seeds during the traditional cropping period in some areas of the State of Paraná, Brazil, a research project was carried out with the objective of evaluating the influence of sowing dates on the physiological and sanitary quality of seeds, during the 1998/99 and 1999/00 cropping seasons, in Maringá, PR, Brazil. The experiment consisted of five cultivar competition assays, arranged in a completely randomized block design, with each assay sown at different dates (10/15, 10/30, 11/15, 11/30 and 12/15 for each cropping season. The evaluated cultivars were BRS 132 (early, BRS 133 (semi-early, BR 16 (semi-early, BRS 134 (intermediate and FT- Estrela (late. Seeds obtained at the sowing dates were evaluated in the laboratory by germination, accelerated aging, and health tests. Sowing in November resulted in seeds with superior physiological and health quality. Cultivar BRS 133 showed the greatest stability in seed production with better quality for the different sowing dates. Cultivars BRS 134 and BRS 133, which were sown during the period from 10/15 to 11/30, produced seeds that had higher percentages of normal seedlings in the germination and accelerated aging tests. Advancing or delaying sowing dates had adverse effects on soybean seed production with regard to their sanitary quality.

  15. Influência da cobertura morta no comportamento dos herbicidas imazaquin e clomazone The influence of straw mulch on the behaviour of the residual herbicides imazaquin and clomazone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito N. Rodrigues

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimentos de campo e bioensaios em casa-de-vegetação foram realizados para se estudar a influência da cobertura morta de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. no comportamento dos herbicidas imazaquin {ácido 2-[4,5 dihidro-4-metil-4-(1-metiletil-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-ilo]-3-quinolinacarboxílico} e clomazone {2-[(2-clorofenilmetil]-4,4-dimetil-3-isoxazolidinona}, aplicados em pré-emergência na cultura da soja [Glycine max (L. Merril], no sistema de plantio direto. O clomazone mostrou evidências de ter sido interceptado pela cobertura morta. A presença da cobertura morta não influiu na retenção do imazaquin, sendo este lixiviado da palha para o solo com as chuvas que ocorreram após a aplicação.Field experiments and glass house bioassays were conducted to determine the influence of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. straw mulch on the behaviour of the herbicides imazaquin {2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-ethyl-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid} and clomazone {2-[(2-chlorophenylmethyl]-4,4-dimethyl-3- isoxazolidinone}, wich had been applied to pre-emergence soybean (Glycine maxin a no-till system. There was evidence that clomazone had been intecepted by the straw whilst imazaquin was leached into the soil by rain.

  16. Effectiveness of Fungicide on Soybean Rust in the Southeastern United States: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Delaney

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Soybean rust (SBR, caused by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi Sydow, has been of concern to soybean (Glycine max Merrill growers in the southern United States since its introduction in 2004. As this fungus develops, pustules become numerous on the underside of leaves, which then turn yellow and drop prematurely, resulting in fewer pods, and poorly developed seeds. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of fungicide use in controlling SBR by conducting a meta-analysis of 61 published and unpublished trials across the southern United States from 2004 to 2014. We analyzed fungicide efficacy based on factors such as specific classes of fungicide, active ingredients, number of fungicide applications, target growth stage upon initial application, level of disease pressure, and year of the study. Fungicides significantly increased yield and 100-seed weight and decreased the severity of SBR. The means of SBR severity, yield, and 100-seed weight in fungicide-treated plants were 9% (95% confidence interval: 2%, 21%, 128% (121%, 135%, and 121% (116%, 128%, respectively, of those calculated in the control plants. By using meta-analysis to analyze fungicide efficacy across multiple field trials, we were able to determine that one application of a strobilurin fungicide when plants were either beginning pod development (R3 or developing seeds (R5 was the most cost-effective approach to controlling SBR and increasing 100-seed weight.

  17. Characterization of type and genetic diversity among soybean cyst nematode differentiators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Matsuo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines Ichinohe, resistant genotypes with high yields has been one of the objectives of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill breeding programs. The objective of this study was to characterize the pathotype of soybean cyst nematodes and analyze the genetic diversity of ten differentiator lines ('Lee 74', Peking, Pickett, PI 88788, PI 90763, PI 437654, PI 209332, PI 89772, PI 548316 and 'Hartwig'. Inoculum was obtained from plants cultivated in field soil in Viçosa, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Thirty-four days after inoculating each plant with 4,000 eggs, the number of females, female index, total number of eggs, number of eggs per female, reproduction factor, plant height, number of nodes, fresh and dry matter weights were assessed. The differential lines were first grouped with Scott-Knott test. Subsequently, the genetic diversity was evaluated using dendrograms, graphic analysis and the Tocher grouping method. The inoculum of H. glycines obtained from NBSGBP-UFV was characterized as HG Type 0. The differentiating lines were divergent, and PI 89772, PI 437654, 'Hartwig' and 'Peking' had the greatest potential for use in breeding programs.

  18. On merging Acer sections Rubra and Hyptiocarpa: Molecular and morphological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A J; Chen, Yousheng; Olsen, Richard T; Lutz, Sue; Wen, Jun

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we expanded Acer sect. Rubra Pax to include A. sect. Hyptiocarpa Fang. Traditionally, section Rubra comprises two iconic species, Acer rubrum Linnaeus (red maple) and A. saccharinum Linnaeus (silver maple), of eastern North American forests as well as the rare Japanese montane species, A. pycnanthum K. Koch. Section Hyptiocarpa consists of A. laurinum Hasskarl and A. pinnatinervium Merrill, which occur in subtropical and tropical regions of southwestern China to southeast Asia. Here, we confirm prior phylogenetic results showing the close relationship between sects. Rubra and Hyptiocarpa , and we use scanning electron microscopy to demonstrate that leaves of species within these sections have similar arrangements of cuticular waxes, which account for the silvery color of their abaxial surfaces. We describe that the sections also share labile sex expression; inflorescences that range from compound racemose thyrses, to racemes or umbels and that may have undergone evolutionary reduction; and several features of their fruits, such as seed locules without keels, basal portion of wings straight, acute attachment angle between mericarps, and production of some mericarps that are seedless and partially developed at maturity. Our expansion of sect. Rubra to include sect. Hyptiocarpa better elucidates the biogeographic and evolutionary history of these species. Additionally, we show that A. laurinum and A. pinnatinervium have intergrading morphology and are probably synonymous, but we note that further studies are required to conclude their taxonomic status.

  19. THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL APPROACHES REGARDING THE ADOPTION OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE CODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Nicolae Borlea

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union, the concept of corporate governance began to emerge more clearly after 1997, when most countries have however, voluntarily adopted corporate governance codes. The impulse of adopting these codes consists in the financial scandals related to the failure of the British companies listed on the stock exchange. Numerous scandals involving big companies such as Enron, WorldCom, Parmalat, Xerox, Merrill Lynch, Andersen and so on, conduct to a lack of investors’ confidence. These crises that have started to alarm governments, supervisory authorities, companies, investors and even the general public because of the fragility of the corporate governance’s system, highlight the need to rethink its structures. The process of adapting the corporate governance provisions in order to ensure transparency, responsibility and fair treatment of shareholders has resulted in the development of Corporate Governance Principles by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD. In order to asses these principles, it has started to identify the common elements of codes, one the most effective practice models of governance. Once the benefits of corporate governance practices have been understood and assimilated by the developed country, the developing countries (also Romania have begun to adopt "the best practices" in corporate governance, especially because this need is acutely felt in the changes required by the transition to a market economy. Our article describes the origins of the corporate governance, the concept and evolution of the corporate governance code at an international level, European level and also at a Romanian level.

  20. Sunlight stability and rain-fastness of formulations of Baculovirus heliothis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignoffo, C.M.; Garcia, C.; Saathoff, S.G.

    1997-01-01

    Sunlight-Ultraviolet, with an activity spectrum from 290 to 400 nm, is the most destructive factor affecting the persistence of baculoviruses. Benzopurpurin (a disazo dye) and carbon provided the best protection when polyhedral inclusion bodies (PIB) of Baculovirus heliothis were exposed to an artificial spectrum simulating sunlight-UV (UV). Greater than 75% of the original PIB activity was still present after 48 h of sunlight-UV. When sprayed on soybeans and exposed to natural sunlight, only formulations with carbon provided significant protection of PIB. The half-life of formulations were PIB-only 4.9 +/- 1.4 h (mean +/- SE), PIB + polymer (pyrrolidone-based sticker) 3.3 +/- 0.6 h, PIB + polymer + benzopurpurin 3.4 +/- 0.7 h, and PIB + polymer + carbon 27.7 +/- 5.2 h. PIB of B. heliothis tenaciously adhere to soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, leaflets after spraying and drying. Less than 6% of the PIB activity of nonformulated PIB was lost after a drenching, simulated rainfall. More than 97% of the original PIB activity of carbon formulations was still present on soybean leaflets after 10 h of exposure to sunlight-UV. In contrast, 20% was present for formulations without carbon

  1. Feeding and oviposition preference of Phyllophaga cuyabana (Moser) (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) on several crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Lenita J.; Hoffmann-Campo, Clara B. [EMBRAPA Soja, Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja]. E-mail: lenita@cnpso.embrapa.br; Garcia, Maria A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Zoologia; Amaral, Maria L.B. do [Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2007-09-15

    Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were carried out to study food and oviposition preference by Phyllophaga cuyabana (Moser) on different plant species as Cajanus cajan L. (pigeon pea), Crotalaria juncea L. (sun hemp), Crotalaria spectabilis Roth (showy crotalaria), Crotalaria ochroleuca G. Don (slenderleaf rattlebox), Glycine max [L.] Merrill (soybean), Gossypium hirsutum L. (cotton), Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower), Stizolobium aterrimum [Mucuna aterrima] Piper and Tracey (velvetbean) and Zea mays L. (mayze). In no-choice experiments, the number of eggs layed in sunflower, C. juncea and soybean was larger compared to cotton. Despite the fact that the adults did not discriminate among plants, in dual-choice test, the proportion of eggs layed and leaf consumption by P. cuyabana adults in soybean were significantly higher than in C. spectabilis. The larval distribution in the soil was at random in multiple-choice, without any trend of preference, but in dual-choice, when soybean was the control, larvae always preferred to feed on its roots. P. cuyabana adults had preference for more suitable hosts and that could stand their offspring survival. This behaviour can be usefully exploited in an integrated management program for this pest. (author)

  2. Co-inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria in soybeans associated to urea topdressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber Monçon Fipke

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Increased grain yield can be obtained via an interaction between plants and growth-promoting microorganisms. The Bradyrhizobium spp. are capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen in soybeans [Glycine max (L. Merril], and Azospirillum spp. induce the synthesis of phytohormones. The aim of this study was to evaluate inoculation with Bradyrhizobium and co-inoculation with Bradyrhizobium + Azospirillum brasilense in soybeans in combination with the application a topdressing of 0, 75 or 150 kg of N ha-1 of urea during the reproductive stage. Three soybean cultivars (BMX Ativa, TEC 6029 and BMX Potência, were tested in field experiments in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, during two agricultural years (2013/2014 and 2014/2015 and two sowing times. Morphological, nodulation and yield components were evaluated. Co-inoculation increased the grain yield by 240 kg ha-1 compared with conventional inoculation. When co-inoculated, cultivars BMX Ativa, TEC 6029 and BMX Potência showed increased grain yields of 6, 4 and 12%, respectively. The application of 150 kg ha-1 of N as a topdressing increased the grain yield by 300 kg ha-1 in the co-inoculated cultivars TEC 6029 and BMX Potência, but without a financial return. When inoculated only with Bradyrhizobium, the cultivars did not respond positively to the application of urea.

  3. A CEO roundtable on making mergers succeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, A; Bohnett, D; Liddy, E; Komansky, D; Kozlowski, D; Leschly, J; Gupta, R; McDonald, M; Avery, B; Moore, N; Krekel, T

    2000-01-01

    The announcement in January of the merger between America Online and Time Warner marked the convergence of the two most important business trends of the last five years--the rise of the Internet and the resurgence of mergers and acquisitions. M&A activity is at a fever pitch, spurred in large part by the breathtaking influx of capital into the Internet space. And all signs indicate the trend will only accelerate. Against this background, an impressive group of experienced deal makers came together to share their experiences of what makes mergers work. They were assembled in Scottsdale, Arizona, under the auspices of the M&A Group, a professional society formed in 1999 for CEOs interested in M&A as a business strategy. Participants included top executives from Internet start-ups like Teligent; venture capital firms like Baroda Ventures; financial institutions like Merrill Lynch and PricewaterhouseCoopers; and major corporations like Allstate, Tyco International, SmithKline Beecham, Rohm and Haas, VF, Crown Cork & Seal, and Hughes Space and Communications. The spirited and surprisingly frank discussion cut a wide swath, considering issues such as whether most mergers fail to pan out as well as expected, how to increase the odds of success, the nuts and bolts of the integration process, the trade-offs between acquiring a company and growing from within, the importance of cultural issues, and why anyone would want to be on the board of a merged company.

  4. Changes in seed water status as characterized by NMR in developing soybean seed grown under moisture stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, P.; Singh, Ravender; Verma, A.P.S.; Joshi, D.K.; Singh, Sheoraj

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In developing soybean seeds, moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state. • These changes are further corroborated by concomitant changes in seed metabolites. • Thus there exists a moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status. - Abstract: Changes in water status of developing seeds of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill.) grown under different moisture stress conditions were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)- spin–spin relaxation time (T 2 ). A comparison of the seed development characteristics, composition and physical properties indicated that, characteristics like seed weight, seed number/ear, rate of seed filling increased with development stages but decreased with moisture stress conditions. The NMR- spin–spin relaxation (T 2 ) component like bound water increased with seed maturation (40–50%) but decreased with moisture stress conditions (30–40%). The changes in seed water status to increasing levels of moisture stress and seed maturity indicates that moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state and intermediate state and less proportion of water in free-state. These changes are further corroborated by significant changes in protein and starch contents in seeds under high moisture stress treatments. Thus seed water status during its development is not only affected by development processes but also by moisture stress conditions. This study strongly indicated a clear moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status in developing soybean seeds

  5. Phylogeography of pink pineapple mealybugs, Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) reveals the history of pineapple introduction and cultivation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y B; Zhan, R L; Sun, G M; Wu, J B; Zhao, Y L

    2015-08-19

    The pink pineapple mealybug (PPM), Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a widespread plant-sucking insect of considerable concern because it transmits the pineapple mealybug wilt-associated virus. Its distribution is closely linked with its host, the pineapple [Ananas comosus (L.) Merrill] because of its wingless and parthenogenetic characteristics. To investigate the history of D. brevipes introduction and the cultivation of pineapple in China, samples of D. brevipes were collected from the main pineapple production region in China, and from Thailand, and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was analyzed. Homologous sequences of D. brevipes COI from Brazil, Thailand, and Philippines that are deposited in GenBank were compared. Phylogenetic analyses suggest there are close genetic relationships between PPM populations from Hawaii, Brazil, the Philippines, and from Thailand and China, which probably originate from South America. It is suggested that most PPMs in China were introduced from South America by way of Southeast Asia, being accompanied by the pineapple seedling. Conversely, some PPMs represented by Haplotype-WN from Wanning of China, and Lampang of Thailand were found to differ greatly from populations in Hawaii, Brazil, the Philippines, Thailand, and China. It is possible that another route was used for the introduction and distribution of pineapple, or that pineapple might have originated in Southeast Asia.

  6. Adaptabilidade e estabilidade de cultivares de soja em cinco épocas de plantio no cerrado de Rondônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prado Eloi Elias do

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho, a estabilidade e a adaptabilidade de 21 cultivares de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill, em cinco épocas de plantio no cerrado de Rondônia. O delineamento experimental foi blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. Os ensaios foram conduzidos no ano de 1996/97 pelo Centro de Pesquisa Agroflorestal de Rondônia, no Campo Experimental de Vilhena em Rondônia, RO. Os métodos utilizados apresentaram concordância entre os resultados alcançados, sendo que o comportamento das cultivares nas diferentes épocas de semeadura pode ser representado por um modelo linear. O coeficiente de resposta linear beta1i não apresentou diferença significativa (P<0,05 da unidade pelo teste t (beta1i = 1 em todas as cultivares testadas. As cultivares que apresentaram desvios de regressão sigma²(d i significativos (P<0,05 foram MT/BR50 e EMBRAPA 31, com R² = 58,56% e 74,43%, respectivamente. As demais cultivares não apresentaram desvios de regressão significativos.

  7. Study on Climatic Variation and Its Effect on Vegetable Type Soybean Genotypes at Khumaltar, Lalitpur in the Last Ten Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Raj Tripathi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycine max L. Merril is widely grown in the mid hills as intercrop with maize or in paddy bunds, while it is gaining popularity as sole crop in terai and inner terai. Mean temperature at Khumaltar during soybean growing period was mostly fluctuating; but we observed an increasing trend in temperature. Amount of rainfall was not changed dramatically but number of rainy days was decreased during study period. Rainfall during germination time increase soil moisture which also increase germination and found higher early stand. Days from sowing to 50% flowering and 90% maturity were short in the case of higher minimum temperature and low rainfall. Among the genotypes, AGS-377, AGS-378, AGS-379 and Tarkari Bhattmas-1 were more sensitive. However, seed yield decreased in the case of higher temperatures and low rainfall. Cool night temperatures and high moisture increased disease incidence in soybean which, eventually reduced yield. In last three years, plant suffered from moisture stress during early vegetative stage and high moisture during late vegetative stage which reduced seed yield and seed weight. In conclusion, we found that genotypes like AGS- 360, Sathiya and Tarkari Bhatmas-1 are very sensitive to climatic variation.

  8. An Improved Process for Precipitating Cyanide Ions from the Barren Solution at Different pHs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Gabriela V.; Parga, José R.; Valenzuela, Jesus L.; Vázquez, Victor; Valenzuela, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Mario

    2016-02-01

    In recent decades, the use of metal sulfides instead of hydroxide precipitation in hydrometallurgical processes has gained prominence. Some arguments for its preferential use are as follows: a high degree of metal removal at relatively low pH values, the sparingly soluble nature of sulfide precipitates, favorable dewatering characteristics, and the stability of the formed metal sulfides. The Merrill-Crowe zinc-precipitation process has been applied worldwide in a large number of operations for the recovery of gold and silver from cyanide solutions. However, in some larger plants, the quality of this precious precipitate is low because copper, zinc and especially lead are precipitated along with gold and silver. This results in higher consumption of zinc dust and flux during the smelting of the precipitate, the formation of the matte, and a shorter crucible life. The results show that pH has a significant effect on the removal efficiency of zinc and copper cyanide ions. The optimal pH range was determined to be 3-4, and the removal efficiency of zinc and copper cyanide ions was up to 99%.

  9. Electrochemical oxidation of cyanide on 3D Ti-RuO2 anode using a filter-press electrolyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Tzayam; López, Rosa L; Nava, José L; Lázaro, Isabel; Velasco, Guillermo; Cruz, Roel; Rodríguez, Israel

    2017-06-01

    The novelty of this communication lies in the use of a Ti-RuO 2 anode which has not been tested for the oxidation of free cyanide in alkaline media at concentrations similar to those found in wastewater from the Merrill Crowe process (100 mg L -1 KCN and pH 11), which is typically used for the recovery of gold and silver. The anode was prepared by the Pechini method and characterized by SEM. Linear sweep voltammetries on a Ti-RuO 2 rotating disk electrode (RDE) confirmed that cyanide is oxidized at 0.45 cyanide was investigated on Ti-RuO 2 meshes fitted into a filter-press electrolyzer. Bulk electrolyzes were performed at constant potentials of 0.85 V and 0.95 V and at different mean linear flow rates ranging between 1.2 and 4.9 cm s -1 . The bulk anodic oxidation of cyanide at 0.85 V and 3.7 cm s -1 achieved a degradation of 94%, with current efficiencies of 38% and an energy consumption of 24.6 kWh m -3 . Moreover, the degradation sequence of cyanide was also examined by HPLC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Degree Day Requirements for Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), a Pest of Soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jessica I; Lamp, William O

    2018-04-02

    Understanding the phenology of a new potential pest is fundamental for the development of a management program. Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), kudzu bug, is a pest of soybeans first detected in the United States in 2009 and in Maryland in 2013. We observed the phenology of kudzu bug life stages in Maryland, created a Celsius degree-day (CDD) model for development, and characterized the difference between microhabitat and ambient temperatures of both kudzu, Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae) and soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merrill (Fabales: Fabaceae). In 2014, low population numbers yielded limited resolution from field phenology observations. We observed kudzu bug populations persisting within Maryland; but between 2013 and 2016, populations were low compared to populations in the southeastern United States. Based on the degree-day model, kudzu bug eggs require 80 CDD at a minimum temperature of 14°C to hatch. Nymphs require 545 CDD with a minimum temperature of 16°C for development. The CDD model matches field observations when factoring a biofix date of April 1 and a minimum preoviposition period of 17 d. The model suggests two full generations per year in Maryland. Standard air temperature monitors do not affect model predictions for pest management, as microhabitat temperature differences did not show a clear trend between kudzu and soybeans. Ultimately, producers can predict the timing of kudzu bug life stages with the CDD model for the use of timing management plans in soybean fields.

  11. Microbial community analysis of field-grown soybeans with different nodulation phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Seishi; Rallos, Lynn Esther E; Okubo, Takashi; Eda, Shima; Inaba, Shoko; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2008-09-01

    Microorganisms associated with the stems and roots of nonnodulated (Nod(-)), wild-type nodulated (Nod(+)), and hypernodulated (Nod(++)) soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merril] were analyzed by ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer analysis (RISA) and automated RISA (ARISA). RISA of stem samples detected no bands specific to the nodulation phenotype, whereas RISA of root samples revealed differential bands for the nodulation phenotypes. Pseudomonas fluorescens was exclusively associated with Nod(+) soybean roots. Fusarium solani was stably associated with nodulated (Nod(+) and Nod(++)) roots and less abundant in Nod(-) soybeans, whereas the abundance of basidiomycetes was just the opposite. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that these basidiomycetous fungi might represent a root-associated group in the Auriculariales. Principal-component analysis of the ARISA results showed that there was no clear relationship between nodulation phenotype and bacterial community structure in the stem. In contrast, both the bacterial and fungal community structures in the roots were related to nodulation phenotype. The principal-component analysis further suggested that bacterial community structure in roots could be classified into three groups according to the nodulation phenotype (Nod(-), Nod(+), or Nod(++)). The analysis of root samples indicated that the microbial community in Nod(-) soybeans was more similar to that in Nod(++) soybeans than to that in Nod(+) soybeans.

  12. Microbial Community Analysis of Field-Grown Soybeans with Different Nodulation Phenotypes▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Seishi; Rallos, Lynn Esther E.; Okubo, Takashi; Eda, Shima; Inaba, Shoko; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2008-01-01

    Microorganisms associated with the stems and roots of nonnodulated (Nod−), wild-type nodulated (Nod+), and hypernodulated (Nod++) soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merril] were analyzed by ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer analysis (RISA) and automated RISA (ARISA). RISA of stem samples detected no bands specific to the nodulation phenotype, whereas RISA of root samples revealed differential bands for the nodulation phenotypes. Pseudomonas fluorescens was exclusively associated with Nod+ soybean roots. Fusarium solani was stably associated with nodulated (Nod+ and Nod++) roots and less abundant in Nod− soybeans, whereas the abundance of basidiomycetes was just the opposite. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that these basidiomycetous fungi might represent a root-associated group in the Auriculariales. Principal-component analysis of the ARISA results showed that there was no clear relationship between nodulation phenotype and bacterial community structure in the stem. In contrast, both the bacterial and fungal community structures in the roots were related to nodulation phenotype. The principal-component analysis further suggested that bacterial community structure in roots could be classified into three groups according to the nodulation phenotype (Nod−, Nod+, or Nod++). The analysis of root samples indicated that the microbial community in Nod− soybeans was more similar to that in Nod++ soybeans than to that in Nod+ soybeans. PMID:18658280

  13. Within-field spatial distribution of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in soybean (Fabales: Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, Nicholas J; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Greene, Jeremy K

    2013-12-01

    The recently introduced plataspid Megacopta cribraria (F.) can infest fields of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) in the southeastern United States. Grid sampling in four soybean fields was conducted in 2011 and 2012 to study the spatial distribution of M. cribraria adults, nymphs, and egg masses. Peak oviposition typically occurred in early August, while peak levels of adults occurred in mid-late September. The overall sex ratio was slightly biased at 53.1 ± 0.2% (SEM) male. Sweep samples of nymphs were biased toward late instars. All three life stages exhibited a generally aggregated spatial distribution based on Taylor's power law, Iwao's patchiness regression, and spatial analysis by distance indices (SADIE). Interpolation maps of local SADIE aggregation indices showed clusters of adults and nymphs located at field edges, and mean densities of adults were higher in samples taken from field edges than in those taken from field interiors. Adults and nymphs were often spatially associated based on SADIE, indicating spatial stability across life stages.

  14. The effect of rehabilitation exercises on the gait in people with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Marchewka

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The following question was set: Do special exercises decrease disturbances of gait in people with Down syndrome and allow for spacio-temporal parameters closer in values to the variables achieved by healthy people? The research involved 10 persons with Down syndrome, including 9 male pupils and 1 female pupil of the Complex of Special Schools in Cracow, Poland, aged 16-22, with the average age of 17.8±2.69. All the subjects had documented moderate and considerable mental handicap, with the average IQ equalling 37.6±4.29, measured in the Terman-Merrill scale. Background: People with Down syndrome have problems with keeping their balance, both while standing and walking. The dysfunction of lower extremities, manifesting itself in a gait different from the norm of healthy people, releases compensation mechanisms levelling disturbances and leading to unavoidable overloads, and in consequence to the damage of different segments of the locomotor system. Methods: Vicon 250, a computerized system of a three-dimensional analysis of motion, connected with five video cameras working in infrared was implemented to assess the parameters of gait. Results: All the spacio-temporal parameters of gait in people with Down syndrome were significantly improved after the period of rehabilitation, and in the case of step frequency equalled the norm of healthy people. Interpretation. The implementation of additional exercises affects the improvement of the gait parameters of mentally handicapped people, suffering from Down syndrome.

  15. Contribution of nitrogen derived from mineral supplementation for soybean seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerusa Massuquini Conceição

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seeds can absorb N from mineral supplementation, thus stimulating seedling development in soybeans (Glycine max (L. Merrill. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution to soybean seedlings of N derived from mineral supplementation in seeds with different nutritional contents. Seeds of the cultivar BMX Potência RR received mineral supplementation enriched with 2.5% excess 15N. The treatments were performed in seeds in two lots, one with high and one with low nutritional content. At 2, 6 and 10 days after sowing on paper towels, the seedlings were collected and separated into cotyledons, roots and shoots. Dry matter production, root length and root volume were assessed. Total N and 15N values were analyzed in the seedling organ tissues. The seeds from the lot with lower nutritional content absorbed more N from the mineral supplement, which was accumulated in the cotyledons and redistributed to the root systems and cotyledons. At 10 days after sowing, most of the N in the organs of soybean seedlings was derived from the seed reserves, regardless of nutritional content. Thus, application of N through mineral supplementation is of low importance for the development and nutrition of seedlings.

  16. What Killed Moritz Erhardt? Internships and the Cultural Dangers of “Positive” Ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Costea

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Moritz Erhardt’s tragic death as an intern at Bank of America Merrill Lynch in August 2013 provides an illustration of the cultural intensity and complexity that has come to imbue internships in higher education degree schemes. We offer an analysis of internships as part of a wider process of dissemination and proliferation of managerial vocabularies and images that underpin certain hyper-performative practices that permeate the powerful cultures stimulated by and sustained in many organizations. We analyze the cultural ground from which such practices might be seen to arise and present an interpretation of how certain “positive” themes and motifs—such as “potentiality,” “self-expression,” or “self-realization”—can become dangerous. These categories become dangerous once they are constituted as ideal measures of an unattainable level of performativity which can then become destabilizing and disorienting for any individual’s sense of self. In this sense, the paper contributes to the growing body of literature investigating the significance of internships in the new cultures of work characterizing the broader context of neoliberalism.

  17. Capture and utilization of solar radiation by the soybean and common bean crops and by weeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Jose Barbosa dos; Procopio, Sergio de Oliveira; Silva, Antonio Alberto da; Costa, Luiz Claudio

    2003-01-01

    Aiming to develop techniques for the establishment of a Weed Integrated Management Program, the performance of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) and of weeds Bidens pilosa L., Euphorbia heterophylla L. (two biotypes), sensitive and resistant to ALS inhibitor - herbicides and [ Desmodium tortuosum (SW.) DC.], was evaluated in relation to their efficiency in capturing and utilizing solar radiation.The following indices were calculated: total dry biomass production rate (Ct), leaf dry biomass production rate (Cf), radiation efficient use (x), net assimilation rate (EA), specific leaf area (SA), leaf area index (L), leaf matter ratio (FW) and leaf area ratio (FA). No difference was observed for all characteristics evaluated among E. heterophylla biotypes. Soybean showed the highest rate of total dry biomass production along its cycle and also the highest leaf area index, indicating its greater capacity in capturing light and providing shade to competitive plants. Especially after flowering, common bean was the most efficient in draining its photoassimilates for leaf formation. Soybean showed greater efficiency in converting radiation intercepted in the biomass. (author)

  18. Changes in seed water status as characterized by NMR in developing soybean seed grown under moisture stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, P., E-mail: pkrishnan@iari.res.in; Singh, Ravender; Verma, A.P.S.; Joshi, D.K.; Singh, Sheoraj

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • In developing soybean seeds, moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state. • These changes are further corroborated by concomitant changes in seed metabolites. • Thus there exists a moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status. - Abstract: Changes in water status of developing seeds of Soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill.) grown under different moisture stress conditions were characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)- spin–spin relaxation time (T{sub 2}). A comparison of the seed development characteristics, composition and physical properties indicated that, characteristics like seed weight, seed number/ear, rate of seed filling increased with development stages but decreased with moisture stress conditions. The NMR- spin–spin relaxation (T{sub 2}) component like bound water increased with seed maturation (40–50%) but decreased with moisture stress conditions (30–40%). The changes in seed water status to increasing levels of moisture stress and seed maturity indicates that moisture stress resulted in more proportion of water to bound state and intermediate state and less proportion of water in free-state. These changes are further corroborated by significant changes in protein and starch contents in seeds under high moisture stress treatments. Thus seed water status during its development is not only affected by development processes but also by moisture stress conditions. This study strongly indicated a clear moisture stress and development stage dependence of seed tissue water status in developing soybean seeds.

  19. Quantitative determination of nitrogen biological fixation by the N-15 isotopic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basantes, Emilio; Trivelin, Paulo; Mui Tsai, Siu

    1993-01-01

    In order to quantify the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and to evaluate the mycorrhiza effect in the BNF, an experiment was carried on by applying 1 5 N -ammonium sulphate and mycorrhiza fungi to the soil. The treatments included legumes: mucuna negra(Stizolobium atterrinum Piper et Tracv) and caupi (Vigna unguiculoata L. Walp). Two control plants: non nodulating soybean (Glycine max L.Merril) and rice (Oryza sativa), were used for measuring the fixed N in the legumes by isotope dilution method. Both legumes and control plants assimmilated the same ammounts of nitrogen from the soil and fertilizer. The greater N content in the legumnes was determined as coming from the fixed nitrogen. Rice and non nodulating soybean showed to be good controls for measuring biological nitrogen fixation using isotopic dilution method. The values of fixed nitrogen for legumes calculated using rice as control plant were slightly greater than those with non nodulating soybean, nevertheless there were no significant statistical differences between the values. The mucuna fixed more N than caupi in both mycorrhiza treatments (76.7, 66.6 and 56. 7 per cent of N fixed, respectively). The mycorrhiza increased dry matter yield (13.84 per cent), accumulation of N in the plant(14.85 per cent N) and the biological N fixation (16.06 per cent N-fixed) in caupi

  20. A unique polysaccharide containing 3-O-methylarabinose and 3-O-methylgalactose from Tinospora sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Shipra; Hensel, Andreas; Mischnick, Petra; Kumar, Vineet

    2018-08-01

    Tinospora sinensis (Lour.) Merrill is of great therapeutic significance in Indian traditional medicine. Crude polysaccharides were isolated from methanol pre-extracted stems of dried material by successive extractions with cold water, hot water and NaOH (0.25 mol/L) in 0.98, 0.55 and 0.70 % yields respectively. Cold water soluble polysaccharides (CWSP) were purified and fractionated by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel. Neutral polysaccharides were further fractionated on Sepharose CL6B to yield three fractions TW1, TW2, TW3. The study further focuses on structural elucidation of TW1. TW1 was obtained in 0.8 % yield relative to CWSP, with MW of 1.6 × 10 5  Da. It was composed of 3-O-methyl-arabinose, 3-O-methyl-galactose and galactose in molar ratio of 1.0:6.3:0.9 respectively. Based on per-deuteromethylation, NMR and ESI-MS analyses, TW1 was composed of 1,4-linked 3-O-methyl-β-d-galactopyranose and β-d-galactopyranose backbone with branching at O-6 of 3-O-methyl-β-d-galactosyl residues by 1,5-linked 3-O-methyl-α-l-arabinofuranoside chains. 3-O-methyl-arabinose and 3-O-methyl-galactose have first ever been reported in any polysaccharide and Tinospora genus, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Map-Based Cloning of the Gene Associated With the Soybean Maturity Locus E3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi; Hideshima, Rumiko; Xia, Zhengjun; Tsubokura, Yasutaka; Sato, Shusei; Nakamoto, Yumi; Yamanaka, Naoki; Takahashi, Ryoji; Ishimoto, Masao; Anai, Toyoaki; Tabata, Satoshi; Harada, Kyuya

    2009-01-01

    Photosensitivity plays an essential role in the response of plants to their changing environments throughout their life cycle. In soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], several associations between photosensitivity and maturity loci are known, but only limited information at the molecular level is available. The FT3 locus is one of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for flowering time that corresponds to the maturity locus E3. To identify the gene responsible for this QTL, a map-based cloning strategy was undertaken. One phytochrome A gene (GmPhyA3) was considered a strong candidate for the FT3 locus. Allelism tests and gene sequence comparisons showed that alleles of Misuzudaizu (FT3/FT3; JP28856) and Harosoy (E3/E3; PI548573) were identical. The GmPhyA3 alleles of Moshidou Gong 503 (ft3/ft3; JP27603) and L62-667 (e3/e3; PI547716) showed weak or complete loss of function, respectively. High red/far-red (R/FR) long-day conditions enhanced the effects of the E3/FT3 alleles in various genetic backgrounds. Moreover, a mutant line harboring the nonfunctional GmPhyA3 flowered earlier than the original Bay (E3/E3; PI553043) under similar conditions. These results suggest that the variation in phytochrome A may contribute to the complex systems of soybean flowering response and geographic adaptation. PMID:19474204

  2. Anisotropic crystal structure distortion of the monoclinic polymorph of acetaminophen at high hydrostatic pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldyreva, E V; Shakhtshneider, T P; Vasilchenko, M A; Ahsbahs, H; Uchtmann, H

    2000-04-01

    The anisotropy of structural distortion of the monoclinic polymorph of acetaminophen induced by hydrostatic pressure up to 4.0 GPa was studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction in a Merrill-Bassett diamond anvil cell (DAC). The space group (P2(1)/n) and the general structural pattern remained unchanged with pressure. Despite the overall decrease in the molar volume with pressure, the structure expanded in particular crystallographic directions. One of the linear cell parameters (c) passed through a minimum as the pressure increased. The intramolecular bond lengths changed only slightly with pressure, but the changes in the dihedral and torsion angles were very large. The compressibility of the intermolecular hydrogen bonds NH...O and OH...O was measured. NH...O bonds were shown to be slightly more compressible than OH...O bonds. The anisotropy of structural distortion was analysed in detail in relation to the pressure-induced changes in the molecular conformations, to the compression of the hydrogen-bond network, and to the changes in the orientation of molecules with respect to each other in the pleated sheets in the structure. Dirichlet domains were calculated in order to analyse the relative shifts of the centroids of the hydrogen-bonded cycles and of the centroids of the benzene rings with pressure.

  3. Activity of beta-glucosidase and levels of isoflavone glucosides in soybean cultivars affected by the environment Atividade de beta-glicosidase e níveis de isoflavonóides glicosídios em cultivares de soja, influenciadas pelo ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERCEDES CONCÓRDIA CARRÃO-PANIZZI

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available The enzyme beta-glucosidase hydrolyses the isoflavone glucosides developing aglycones, which are compounds with anticancer effects, that are also related with the astringency observed in soybean flavor. Due to the importance of this enzyme, a study was carried out to determine beta-glucosidase activity in soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill cultivars with different contents of isoflavone glucosides (enzyme substrate. The enzyme activity was determined in 51 soybean cultivars sowed in Londrina (latitude 23ºS, in Paraná State, Brazil, and in the cultivar IAS 5 from soybean production regions of different Brazilian states. Among the cultivars, a range of variability of 176.1 to 96.3 units of enzyme activity (cultivars IAC-2 and Embrapa 2, respectively was observed. A significant variability among cultivars could suggest genetic differences. In the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, the cultivar IAS 5 presented similar average of beta-glucosidase activity: 132.1, 131.9 and 132.5 units, respectively. Among locations in the states, the cultivar IAS 5 presented a variability for enzyme activity from 138.8 to 124.8 units, which were statistically different. In spite of statistics, the numerical values were not too different to assume that environmental conditions affected enzyme activity. A non-significative correlation for isoflavone glucoside concentrations and enzyme activity was observed among cultivars.

  4. Inorganic phosphorus along with biofertilizers improves profitability and sustainability in soybean (Glycine max–potato (Solanum tuberosum cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmita Munda

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Present study was conducted to assess role of phosphorus (P fertilization on economics, energy efficiency, P use indices and soil P balance in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merril]–potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cropping system during 2008–09 and 2009–10. Treatments in soybean as main plots consisted of two sources and two levels of phosphorus with or without biofertilizers [phosphorus solubilizing bacteria, PSB and arbuscular mycorrhizae, AM]. Three levels of P were applied to potato as subplots. System productivity was calculated in terms of soybean equivalent yield and found to be better with biofertilizers treated plots. When applied in combination with biofertilizers, 50% recommended dose of P (RDP as diammonium phosphate (DAP recorded B:C ratio at par with 100% RDP. Direct application of 100% RDP to potato resulted in significantly higher returns, enhancing the net returns. Application of biofertilizers alone increased the energy use efficiency over no biofertilizer application. Irrespective of source (DAP or rock phosphate treatments with biofertilizers had improved P use indices and apparent soil P balance even at 50% RDP. This indicates the role of biofertilizers in P solubilization and making it available to plant. Biofertilizers application can help cutting down the fertilizer P application in soybean–potato cropping system without any considerable reduction in yield and economic returns. Keywords: AM, B:C ratio, P use indices, PSB, Rock phosphate, Agronomic use efficiency

  5. Desarrollo de cultivares de soja mejorados con alto potencial de rendimiento para la región litoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M. Fresoli

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill es, a nivel mundial, uno de los principales productos vegetales por su potencial de productividad, adaptabilidad y rentabilidad, por lo que es importante disponer de variantes genotípicas que permitan elevados y estables rendimientos en diferentes latitudes, fechas de siembra, tipo de suelo, etc. El objetivo general de este proyecto fue desarrollar nuevos recombinantes genéticos de soja adaptados a la zona, con elevados rendimientos, buena calidad de semilla, seguridad de cosecha, e indiferencia al fotoperíodo. El mejoramiento genético tradicional de la especie se inició con la introducción de genotipos desde sus centros de origen, seguidos por la hibridación y posterior selección, utilizando el método de descendencia de semilla única (SSD. Para la evaluación del comportamiento agronómico, fenológico y sanitario se implementaron ensayos comparativos de rendimientos durante cuatro campañas. Como resultado, se inscribieron en el Registro Nacional de la Propiedad de Cultivares y en el Registro de Fiscalización de Cultivares tres nuevas creaciones fitogenéticas de soja: Mercurio FCA, Iridio FCA y Platino FCA, que presentaron en los años de evaluación excelentes rendimientos, calidad de semilla, carácter juvenil y resistencia a campo al cancro del tallo de la soja producido por Diaporthe phaseolorum f sp. Meridionalis.

  6. CFTSIM-ITER dynamic fuel cycle model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busigin, A.; Gierszewski, P.

    1998-01-01

    Dynamic system models have been developed for specific tritium systems with considerable detail and for integrated fuel cycles with lesser detail (e.g. D. Holland, B. Merrill, Analysis of tritium migration and deposition in fusion reactor systems, Proceedings of the Ninth Symposium Eng. Problems of Fusion Research (1981); M.A. Abdou, E. Vold, C. Gung, M. Youssef, K. Shin, DT fuel self-sufficiency in fusion reactors, Fusion Technol. (1986); G. Spannagel, P. Gierszewski, Dynamic tritium inventory of a NET/ITER fuel cycle with lithium salt solution blanket, Fusion Eng. Des. (1991); W. Kuan, M.A. Abdou, R.S. Willms, Dynamic simulation of a proposed ITER tritium processing system, Fusion Technol. (1995)). In order to provide a tool to understand and optimize the behavior of the ITER fuel cycle, a dynamic fuel cycle model called CFTSIM is under development. The CFTSIM code incorporates more detailed ITER models, specifically for the important isotope separation system, and also has an easier-to-use graphical interface. This paper provides an overview of CFTSIM Version 1.0. The models included are those with significant and varying tritium inventories over a test campaign: fueling, plasma and first wall, pumping, fuel cleanup, isotope separation and storage. An illustration of the results is shown. (orig.)

  7. Crescimento radicular de soja em razão da sucessão de cultivos e da compactação do solo Soybean root growth as affected by previous crop and soil compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire Helena da Silva

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi avaliar o crescimento radicular e produção de matéria seca da parte aérea da soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill cultivada após diversas espécies vegetais, em solo com diferentes níveis de compactação. O trabalho foi realizado em vasos contendo amostras de um Latossolo Vermelho, textura franco arenosa, com camada de 3,5 cm (profundidade de 15 a 18,5 cm compactada até as densidades 1,12, 1,36 e 1,60 Mg m-3, onde cultivaram-se anteriormente aveia-preta, guandu, milheto, mucuna-preta, soja, sorgo granífero e tremoço-azul, e um tratamento sem planta (pousio. Essas espécies se desenvolveram por 37 a 39 dias, foram cortadas ao nível do solo, picadas em partes de aproximadamente 3 cm e deixadas sobre a superfície do vaso por 40 dias. Após esse período, cultivou-se a soja até 28 dias após a emergência, quando, então, as plantas foram colhidas. Foram avaliados produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e de raízes, e comprimento e diâmetro radicular da soja. O cultivo anterior com aveia-preta, guandu e milheto favoreceu o crescimento radicular da soja abaixo de camadas compactadas do solo. Independentemente do nível de compactação, o cultivo anterior com qualquer das espécies estudadas beneficiou a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea da soja.This study aimed at evaluating root growth and shoot dry matter production of soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill cropped after different vegetal species, in a soil with different compaction levels. The experiment was conducted in pots containing a Dark-Red Latosol (Acrortox, loamy sand, and the pots had a layer 3.5 cm (15 to 18.5 cm thick and 15 cm deep compacted to 1.12, 1.36 and 1.60 Mg m-3. Before soybean, the pots were cropped with black oat, pigeon pea, pearl millet, black mucuna, soybean, grain sorghum and lupin, plus a treatment without plants. These species were grown for 37 to 39 days, when they were cut at soil level, prick in particles of

  8. Redução da infestação de Brachiaria plantaginea em soja pela cobertura do solo com palha de aveia-preta Reduction of Brachiaria plantaginea infestation on soybean crop with black oat residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIOVANI THEISEN

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido em área da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, em Eldorado do Sul, RS, em 1996/97, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de resíduos de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. sobre o solo na densidade de papuã (Brachiaria plantaginea (Link Hitch. e no rendimento da cultura da soja (Glycine max L. Merrill. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos casualizados em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições; os tratamentos método de controle de papuã (nas parcelas e cobertura do solo (nas subparcelas foram arranjados em esquema fatorial. A densidade da planta daninha diminuiu de forma exponencial com o aumento da cobertura de aveia sobre o solo, variando de 829 a 86 plantas/m² para níveis de cobertura 0,0 t/ha e 10,5 t/ha, respectivamente. Houve maior infestação de papuã nas linhas do que nas entrelinhas da cultura. Não houve efeito da cobertura vegetal no rendimento da soja quando a cultura foi mantida livre de papuã. Por sua vez, níveis crescentes de resíduos vegetais sobre o solo controlaram papuã e aumentaram linearmente o rendimento da cultura. Nas condições de alta infestação da área, a produção de grãos aumentou na razão de 158 kg/ha de grãos por tonelada de palha sobre o solo.This work was conducted at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, in Eldorado do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, during 1996/97, to evaluate the effect of black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb. residues on alexandergrass (Brachiaria plantaginea (Link Hitch. density and on soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill yield. Treatments were arranged in split-plot in a randomized complete block design with four replicates, with weed control method as main plots and level of black oat residues as subplots. An exponential reduction of alexandergrass density was observed, with data varying from 829 to 86 plants/m² for levels of straw on the soil surface of 0 to 10.5 ton/ha, respectively. Higher weed

  9. Análise lise da estabilidade e previsibilidade da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de soja produzidas em Cristalina, Goiás = Stability and predictability analyses of the physiological quality of soybean seeds produced in Cristalina, Goiás (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder Matsuo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a estabilidade e a previsibilidade da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de 13 genótipos de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill], produzidas em três localidades do município de Cristalina, Estado de Goiás. Os ensaios de melhoramento foram conduzidos no campo no ano agrícola 2004/05. Os ensaios de avaliação da qualidade dassementes foram realizados nos laboratórios e casa-de-vegetação da Universidade Federal de Viçosa, instalados no delineamento inteiramente casualizado com quatro repetições. Foram realizados os testes de germinação em papel toalha, emergência em leito de areia, índice de velocidade de emergência e análises de estabilidade pelos métodos propostos por Lin e Binns (1988 e Annicchiarico (1992. As médias de porcentagem de germinação, emergência de plântulas e índice de velocidade de germinação foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, a5% de probabilidade. Na avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes, foi identificado, como melhor, o genótipo 7B1454170 e como pior, o genótipo 9B1459189. Os genótipos Emgopa 313, 7B1454170, 11B145341 e DM339 foram classificados como de alta estabilidade para qualidade fisiológica, e os genótipos 3B1346193 e 9B1459189classificaram-se como de baixa previsibilidade. Os métodos de estimação utilizados foram eficazes, coerentes entre si e permitiram identificar, entre os genótipos avaliados, os de maior estabilidade e previsibilidade.The physiological quality stability and predictability of seeds from 13 soybean genotypes [Glycine max (L. Merrill] were analyzed. They were produced at three different locations in the town of Cristalina,Goiás. The field improvement trials were held in the agricultural year of 2004/05. The seed quality evaluation studies took place in the laboratories and in the greenhouse of the Federal University of Viçosa, in a completely randomized design with four repetitions. Germination in paper towels, emergence in sand bed, index of

  10. Fluorescência e teores de clorofilas em abacaxizeiro cv. pérola submetido a diferentes concentrações de sulfato de amônio Fluorescence and levels of chlorophyll in pineapple plants cv. perola submitted to different concentration of ammonium sulphate

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    Darlene Ana de Paula Vieira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo a análise da emissão da fluorescência da clorofila a e dos teores de clorofilas em plantas de Ananas comosus (L. Merril cv pérola, cultivadas em casa de vegetação, submetidas a quatro concentrações de nitrogênio por adição ou não de sulfato de amônio, de acordo com os seguintes tratamentos: Tº= 0 T1/2 = 15; T1 = 30; e T2 = 60 mg/kg solo. As determinações de fluorescência mínima (F0, máxima (Fm, variável (Fv, terminal (Ft e da eficiência fotoquímica máxima (Fv/Fm de folhas adaptadas ao escuro foram realizadas ao longo do dia, aos cinco dias após a segunda aplicação de sulfato de amônio, efetuada 120 dias após o transplantio. A adição de sulfato de amônio afetou a fluorescência variável e a máxima, mas não afetou a fluorescência mínima, a terminal nem a eficiência fotoquímica. Houve diferenças significativas entre os valores das variáveis da fluorescência ao longo do dia em que foram feitas as leituras. Houve diferenças nos teores de clorofilas foliares, em função das concentrações de sulfato de amônio aplicadas, com aumento para clorofila a e para a relação clorofila a/b, mas não para clorofila b.The present research aimed to analyze chlorophyll a fluorescence emission as well as chlorophyll levels in Ananas comosus (L. Merril cv Pérola grown under greenhouse conditions and submitted to four concentration of nitrogen, through addition or not of ammonium sulphate according to the following treatments: Tº= 0.000; T1/2 = 0.015; T1 =0.030; and T2 = 0.060 g/kg soil. Determinations of minimum (F0, maximum (Fm, variable (Fv, and terminal (Ft fluorescence and maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm of dark-adapted leaves were carried out during the day, five days after the second application of ammonium sulphate, carried out 120 days after the transplant. The results showed that the addition of ammonium sulphate affected variable and maximum fluorescence, but not

  11. Chemical and biochemical characterization of soybean produced under drought stress Caracterização química e bioquímica de soja produzida sob condições de déficit hídrico

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    Daniela Borrmann

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the second soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill producer and exporter in the world. In 2005, soybean cultivated in the southeastern region of the country suffered drought stress imposed by adverse high temperatures and low humidity during its reproductive stage. Little information is available regarding the effect of drought stress on the quality of grains. In this study chemical and biochemical characteristics of five soybean samples belonging to three different cultivars grown under drought stress were evaluated. The samples did not meet standards for marketing and contained high amounts of green seeds. Grains were analyzed for appearance, 100 seed weight, humidity, water activity, proteins, lipids, lipoxygenase 1 activity, peroxides, and pigment contents after harvest and after 20 months of storage at room temperature. Acidity was measured also after 30 months of storage. The values of water activity and humidity were 0.6-0.7 and 8.7-11.9%, respectively, and they did not change during storage time, but there was an increase in acidity, which alludes to lipase activity. The activity of lipoxygenase 1 was greatly affected. Immediately after harvest, the green pigments were represented mainly by pheophytin a, followed by pheophytin b, small quantities of chlorophyll b and chlorophyll a, and traces of other chlorophyll derivatives. After 20 months of storage almost all green pigments had disappeared. Drought stress probably enhanced membrane permeability, which led to a lower pH and promoted transformation of chlorophylls to pheophytins.O Brasil é o segundo maior produtor e exportador de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill do mundo. Em 2005, a soja produzida no sudeste do Brasil sofreu estresse hídrico devido a temperaturas altas e umidade baixa durante o período reprodutivo. Pouco se sabe do efeito de déficit hídrico sobre a qualidade dos grãos. Neste trabalho, foram analisadas características químicas e bioquímicas de cinco amostras de

  12. Parasitismo larval de Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae en el noreste de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina Larval parasitism of Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in north-eastern Buenos Aires province (Argentina

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    Gerardo Liljesthröm

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available En la interacción huésped-parasitoide las plantas suelen emitir señales capaces de aumentar la eficiencia de los parasitoides. Las larvas de Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Walsingham se alimentan endofíticamente de leguminosas herbáceas y constituyen una plaga de la soja (Glycine max Merrill. En este estudio analizamos el parasitismo larval de C. aporema en Melilotus albus Medikus, Galega officinalis L, Lupinus albus L y G. max, en el noreste de Buenos Aires. La densidad larval fue mayor en L. albus (109,2 larvas/m² que en las restantes leguminosas: 3,7; 6,9 y 11,3 en M. albus, G. officinalis y G. max, respectivamente. Sin embargo, el parasitismo y número de especies parasitoides fueron menores en L. albus (9,5% por el ectoparasitoide generalista Bracon sp. que en M. albus (32,6%, Bracon sp. y los endoparasitoides Trathala sp.y Bassus sp.; G. officinalis y G. max (26,4% y 50,6% respectivamente, con Trathala sp. y Bracon sp. en ambas. Lupinus albus fue la única especie vegetal que reaccionó a la alimentación de C. aporema con producción de exudados pegajosos y olorosos que podrían haber repelido los endoparasitoides, actuando como un refugio parcial para C. aporema. Además, al ser positivamente seleccionada por C. aporema, esta leguminosa podría utilizarse como franja trampa para su control en cultivos de soja, de manera compatible con tácticas de control biológico por conservación de enemigos naturales.In host-parasitoid interactions, parasitoid efficiency may be increased by different quantity and quality of plant signals. Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Walsingham is a pest on soybean, with larvae feeding endophitically on various herbaceous leguminosae. In this study we analyzed larval parasitism of C. aporema on Melilotus albus Medikus, Galega officinalis L, Lupinus albus L and Glycine max Merrill in the north-east of the Buenos Aires province. Larval density was higher on L. albus (109,2 larvae/m², than on the other

  13. Composição centesimal e conteúdo de aminoácidos, ácidos graxos e minerais de seis cultivares de soja destinadas à alimentação humana Proximate composition and amino acid, fatty acid and mineral contents of six soybean cultivars for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Regina Vieira

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Seis cultivares de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill: IAS-4, EMBRAPA-4, Davis, BR-16, Iguaçu e IAS-5, destinadas à alimentação humana, foram caracterizadas quanto à composição centesimal, conteúdo de aminoácidos, ácidos graxos e minerais. Os teores de fibra, proteína e óleo variaram significativamente nas amostras analisadas, enquanto que os teores de cinzas não apresentaram diferenças significativas. Com relação aos teores de minerais, o potássio foi o que obteve o maior valor, 1.824,02 mg/100 g para a cultivar Iguaçu, ficando a EMBRAPA-4 com o maior teor de cálcio, 313,93 mg/100 g. Para a composição em ácidos graxos, notou-se que a cultivar IAS-5 apresentou o maior teor de insaturados, 87,45%, enquanto que a Davis, o menor, 83,93%. A cultivar EMBRAPA-4 apresentou um teor de ácido oléico maior e de linoléico e linolênico bem menores que as demais cultivares estudadas, 39,93%, 42,46% e 4,64%, respectivamente. Os demais ácidos graxos estão de acordo com os valores encontrados na literatura no tocante a óleo de soja. Todas as cultivares estudadas apresentaram excelente balanço em aminoácidos essenciais (AAE. Os teores de cada AAE foram superiores aos da proteína padrão estabelecido pela FAO/WHO, com valor total de AAE variando de 39,5 a 45,0 g/100 g de proteína.Six soybean cultivars (Glycine max L. Merrill: IAS-4, EMBRAPA-4, Davis, BR-16, Iguaçu and IAS-5, for human consumption were characterized regarding their proximate composition and amino acid, fatty acids and mineral contents. Significant differences were observed among these varieties concerning their contents of protein, oil and fiber. However, their ash content did not show significant differences. Regarding the mineral composition, the cultivars Iguaçu and EMBRAPA-4 presented, respectively, the highest levels of potassium (1824.02 mg/100 g and calcium (313.93 mg/100 g. It was observed that the cultivar IAS-5 presented the highest level of unsaturated fatty

  14. Electrical conductivity and soybean seedling emergence Condutividade elétrica e a emergência de plântulas de soja

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    Julio Cesar Fachini Colete

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] seeds vigor and its relation with field seedling emergence can provide secure indicatives of seed physiological potential. The present research studied the relationship between the electrical conductivity test and the seedling emergence of soybean in field and laboratory. The field experiment was sown in November 26th, December 3td and 10th, 2000. Laboratory tests were performed using levels of water potential in the substrate (soil -0.03; -0.2; -0.4; and -0.6 MPa. Fourteen seed lots, seven of 'Embrapa 48' and seven of 'BRS 133' soybean cultivars were used. Laboratory tests comprised seed water content determination, before and after the accelerated aging; germination and vigor tests (accelerated aging and electrical conductivity. Germination and seedling emergence decreased as the substrate water potential was reduced, indicating a relationship among the germination, water potential and seed vigor. For the 'Embrapa 48' higher vigor seed lots, the best performance occurred at -0.6 MPa water potential. The electrical conductivity test may be efficient to evaluate soybean seed vigor and, consequently, the performance potential in the field. However, further studies are necessary to determine the values or the range of values that indicate the seed vigor level and the adequate use of a given seed lot.A avaliação do vigor e sua relação com a emergência de plântulas em campo é fundamental para a estimativa correta do potencial fisiológico de sementes de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill]. O presente trabalho objetivou verificar a relação entre os resultados do teste de condutividade elétrica (CE e os da emergência de plântulas de soja em campo e em laboratório. Foram estudados níveis de disponibilidade de água no substrato -0,03; -0,2; -0,4; e -0,6 MPa. Foram avaliados 14 lotes de sementes das cultivares Embrapa 48 e BRS 133. O experimento em campo foi conduzido em três épocas de semeadura

  15. Impactos do avanço da soja no balanço de radiação no leste da Amazônia Impacts of soybean expansion on radiation balance in eastern Amazon

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    Paulo Jorge de Oliveira Ponte de Souza

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O desmatamento da Amazônia, em especial para o uso da pecuária, tem sido explorado por diversos pesquisadores, os quais têm apontado como conseqüência, sérios problemas ambientais. O contínuo avanço da fronteira agrícola sobre as áreas de pecuária na Amazônia, e mesmo sobre áreas nativas, merece atenção pelo fato de poucos estudos terem sido realizados com o intuito de investigar quais os prováveis impactos ambientais da presença da monocultura da soja na região. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os impactos nos componentes do balanço de radiação devido à nova mudança no uso da terra em uma área de avanço da fronteira agrícola no leste da Amazônia. Realizaram-se experimentos micrometeorológicos no município de Paragominas-PA em uma área de cultivo de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill e em uma área do ecossistema florestal localizada na Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã em Melgaço-PA nos anos de 2006 e 2007. Durante o ciclo da soja o impacto médio encontrado representou uma redução 17,9% no saldo de radiação em relação ao ecossistema de floresta natural. Durante a entressafra observou-se um impacto negativo no saldo de radiação de 15,5%. Os principais forçantes deste impacto foram o maior albedo da soja e a perda de radiação de onda longa em relação à cobertura original. Ressalta-se que apesar do maior impacto ocorrer durante o ciclo da cultura, o tempo de ocorrência deste impacto negativo restringe-se a apenas 1/3 do ano, o que, implica em maior impacto da entressafra no saldo de energia em termos cumulativos.The deforestation of the Amazon, especially for pasture use, has been explored by several researchers who have pointed out as a consequence, serious environmental problems. The continuous expansion of agriculture on areas of cattle ranching in the Amazon, as well as on native areas, must be seen with caution since few studies have been conducted in order to investigate which probable

  16. Efeito repelente de azadiractina e óleos essenciais sobre Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae em algodoeiro Repellent effect of azadirachtin and essential oils on Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae in cotton plants

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    Lígia Helena de Andrade

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A repelência de inseticidas botânicos tem se destacado como uma tática promissora no controle alternativo de pragas agrícolas e urbanas, podendo ser um dos componentes do manejo integrado de pragas. Objetivou-se com este trabalho identificar a repelência de inseticidas botânicos sobre fêmeas ápteras de Aphis gossypii Glover. Testes com chance de escolha foram realizados com discos de folha de algodoeiro, imersos nas caldas dos inseticidas e testemunha (água destilada com DMSO a 2%. Utilizou-se azadirachtina (0,075% e os óleos essenciais de Piper hispidinervum CDC, P. aduncum L., Cymbopogon winterianus (L., C. citratus (D.C. Stapf, Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merrill e Perry, Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi e Chenopodium ambrosioides L. na concentração de 0,05%. C. citratus, C. winterianus, P. aduncum, S. terebinthifolius, azadirachtina e C. zeylanicum apresentaram os maiores percentuais de repelência, 100; 84; 66,67; 64; 60,87 e 48% respectivamente e reduziram a produção de ninfas em 100; 92; 42,9; 87,5; 80,65 e 89,74%, apresentando resultados significativos pelo teste do χ2 ao nível de 10% de probabilidade. Nos testes com F. vulgare (χ2 = 3,66, P = 0,05 as fêmeas de A. gossypii foram atraídas significativamente para os discos tratados e ocorreu um aumento na produção de ninfas nos resultados obtidos para F. vulgare (χ2 = 5,87, P = 0,02 e C. ambrosioides (χ2 = 14,31, P = 0,001.The repellence of botanical insecticides has emerged as a promising technique in the alternative control of urban and agricultural pests, being seen as one component of integrated pest management. The aim of this work was to identify the repellence of botanical insecticides on apterous females of Aphis gossypii Glover. Random-choice tests were carried out with discs from the leaves of cotton plants immersed in insecticide solution and in a control (distilled water with 2% DMSO. Azadirachtin was used

  17. Seleção de bactérias promotoras de crescimento no abacaxizeiro cultivar Vitória durante a aclimatização Selection of growth-promoting bacteria for pineapple 'Vitória' during acclimatization

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    Lílian Estrela Borges Baldotto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A propagação in vitro do abacaxizeiro (Ananas comosus L. Merril resulta na produção de uma grande quantidade de mudas sadias e homogêneas. Apesar dessas vantagens, a necessidade de um longo período de aclimatização onera essa prática agrícola. A aceleração do crescimento das plantas pela inoculação de bactérias diazotróficas endofíticas e epifíticas pode ser útil para diminuir esse período. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de 20 estirpes de bactérias diazotróficas em sintetizar indol, solubilizar fosfato de Ca e óxido de Zn e atuar antagonicamente ao fungo fitopatogênico Fusarium subglutinans f. sp. ananas, bem como, posteriormente, avaliar o desempenho do abacaxizeiro 'Vitória' propagado por cultura de tecidos em resposta à inoculação bacteriana durante o período de aclimatização em casa de vegetação. Foram medidas as características de crescimento da parte aérea e do sistema radicular e o conteúdo de nutrientes de folhas do abacaxizeiro. Os resultados mostraram diferenças na capacidade das bactérias de sintetizar indol, solubilizar fosfato de Ca e óxido de Zn e atuar antagonicamente ao Fusarium. Foram também constatadas diferenças na capacidade das bactérias em promover o crescimento da parte aérea e do sistema radicular e o acúmulo de N, P, K, Ca e Mg em folhas do abacaxizeiro. A inoculação das bactérias diazotróficas selecionadas pode promover o crescimento das mudas durante o período de aclimatização, melhorando a adaptação do abacaxizeiro ao ambiente ex vitroPineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merrill in vitro propagation results in the production of a large quantity of healthy and homogeneous plantlets. Despite these advantages, the long time required for acclimatization makes this agricultural practice too costly. Growth acceleration of plantlets by inoculation with endophytic and epiphytic diazotrophic bacteria may be useful to reduce this period. The objectives of this

  18. Resposta de plantas micropropagadas de abacaxizeiro à inoculação de bactérias diazotróficas em casa de vegetação Response of pineapple plantlets to inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria in greenhouse

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    Olmar Baller Weber

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar e avaliar bactérias diazotróficas isoladas de abacaxizeiro (Ananas comosus (L. Merril no desenvolvimento de cultivares micropropagadas da mesma espécie em casa de vegetação. Plantas da cultivar Perolera foram submetidas à inoculação com Asaia bogorensis (AB219 e cultivadas em tubetes, durante 145 dias, com as misturas: casca de arroz carbonizada, folha de carnaubeira triturada e vermicomposto; casca de arroz carbonizada, pó da casca do coco maduro e vermicomposto; casca de arroz carbonizada, vermiculita e vermicomposto. Plantas da cultivar Primavera receberam inóculos com o AB219 e bactérias relacionadas a Burkholderia cepacia (AB202 e AB213, enquanto plantas das cultivares Pérola e Smooth Cayenne receberam AB219 e AB213, sendo cultivadas, por 140 dias, em tubetes com a mistura de vermicomposto e vermiculita. A colonização dos abacaxizeiros pelas bactérias diazotróficas foi confirmada. As plantas da cultivar Perolera cresceram melhor em casca de arroz carbonizada, vermiculita e vermicomposto e responderam positivamente ao AB219. Já as plantas da cultivar Primavera não apresentaram resposta significativa à inoculação com AB219, AB202 e AB213. Houve incremento de 23,1% a 38,5% na matéria seca de raízes das plantas da cultivar Pérola na presença de AB213 e AB219, respectivamente. A presença de AB213 incrementou em 15,2% a matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas da cultivar Smooth Cayenne. Os resultados revelam a eficiência de bactérias diazotróficas na promoção do crescimento de abacaxizeiros.The objective of this work was to select and to evaluate isolates of diazotrophic bacteria associated to pineapple (Ananas comosus (L. Merril plants in the development of micropropagated plantlets of cultivars pineapple in greenhouse. Plantlets from the Perolera cultivar have been submitted to inoculation with Asaia bogorensis (AB219 and were cultivated during 145 days on the following

  19. MISTURAS DE HERBICIDAS: EFEITOS DE ADJUVANTES NO CONTROLE DE PLANTAS INFESTANTES NA CULTURA DA SOJA

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    VALDEMIR ANTONIO PERESSIN

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se efeitos de misturas de graminicidas com latifolicidas, aplicados em pós-emergência, acrescidos ou não de seus respectivos adjuvantes, no controle de plantas infestantes na cultura da soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill cv. IAC-8, em condições de campo. Os tratamentos consistiram em quatro graminicidas (haloxifop-metil, HM; sethoxydim, S; quizalofop-etil, QE e fluazifop-p-butil, FpB e quatro latifolicidas (chlorimuron-etil, CE; fomesafen, Fom; fluoroglycofen, Flu e lactofen, Lac, aplicados isoladamente e em misturas, além das testemunhas com e sem convivência da cultura com a comunidade infestante. Os resultados mostraram que os adjuvantes, de maneira geral, intensificaram a injúria dos herbicidas. Os graminicidas mais eficazes, aplicados isoladamente ou em misturas, no controle de Eleusine indica e de monocotiledôneas, foram HM, QE e FpB. Não houve diferenças significativas no controle de Digitaria horizontalis entre os quatro graminicidas isolados; porém, as melhores misturas foram as que utilizaram os graminicidas QE ou HM. Para controle de Mollugo verticillata, os melhores tratamentos foram obtidos com Lac aplicado isoladamente e com as misturas de QE, S ou HM com Fom e seus respectivos adjuvantes. As misturas de tanque apresentaram efeitos predominantemente antagonísticos no controle de E. indica, D. horizontalis e monocotiledôneas. Efeitos estatis-ticamente antagonísticos e sinergísticos no controle de M. verticillata foram obtidos, respec-tivamente, nas misturas de tanque com Lac e com Fom. Uma possível interação entre os adjuvantes e as misturas de herbicidas ocorreu nas avaliações de controle para E. indica, quando as misturas de S ou de HM foram usadas com ou sem adjuvantes. Os tratamentos com herbicidas não influíram na produção do cultivar de soja IAC-8.Mixtures of narrowleaf and broadleaf herbicides, with or without their respective surfactants, were evaluated as to postemergence selectivity for weed

  20. Efeito de linuron e oryzalin no crescimento da planta, na fixação simbiótica do nitrogênio e na produtividade da soja Effect of linuron and oryzalin on growth, symbiotic nitrogen fixation and yield of soybeans

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    Maria do Carmo S. S. Novo

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante 2 anos consecutivos, foi realizado um experimento na Estação Experimental de Ribeirão Preto, SP, do Instituto Agronômico, em um Latossolo roxo de textura argilosa, cultivado com soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] cultivar IAC-11. O objetivo do trabalho foi estudar o efeito da inoculação de sementes e de doses de linuron (1,00 e 2,00 kg/ha e de oryzalin (1,875 e 3,75 kg/ha, aplicados em pré-emergência, no crescimento da planta, na fixação simbiótica do nitrogênio e na produtividade de grãos de soja. Além dos tratamentos com herbicidas, foram mantidos dois controles, sendo um não inoculado e outro inoculado com a estirpe de Bradyrhizobium japonicum SMS-463(=29W. Os tratamentos com herbicidas foram todos inoculados. O delineamento experimental empregado foi em parcelas subdivididas com quatro repetições dispostas em blocos ao acaso. Foram realizadas amostragens aos 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 e 98 dias após a semeadura (DAS no primeiro ano, e aos 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 e 105 DAS no segundo ano. Nos 2 anos avaliou-se o peso de matéria seca de raiz, parte aérea e nódulos, número de nódulos e produtividade de grãos; e no segundo, também a atividade da nitrogenase dos nódulos. De modo geral, não houve efeito benéfico da inoculação de sementes no crescimento e na nodulação de plantas de soja. Somente a atividade da nitrogenase foi beneficiada pela inoculação. Houve maior efeito na aplicação dos herbicidas no primeiro ano. O crescimento da planta foi favorecido pela aplicação de herbicidas. A atividade da nitrogenase foi reduzida pela aplicação dos herbicidas, sendo as doses maiores mais prejudiciais. Oryzalin afetou mais a atividade da nitrogenase que linuron. Apesar de ter havido efeito dos diferentes tratamentos nos parâmetros estudados estes não alteraram o rendimento de grãos.Field investigation was conducted in 1986 and 1987 at Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil, to determine the effect of linuron (1.00 and 2.00 kg/ha and

  1. Avaliação da competição intergenotipica em misturas de cultivares de soja Evaluation o f intergenotypic competition in soybean cultivars blends

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    Dilson Antonio Bisognin

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar os efeitos da competição intergenotípica em misturas de cultivares de soja - Glycine max (L. Merrill - foi conduzido um experimento em Capão do Leão, RS, no ano agrícola de 1989/90. Os tratamentos foram os estandes puros de IAS 5, Ivorá, Bragg, BR 8 - Pelotas e Ivaí e as combinações de Bragg com os demais cultivares, nas proporções de 20, 35, 50, 65 e 80%. O delineamento experimental foi o látice parcialmente balanceado 5x5, com quatro repetições. A competição intergenotípica foi quantificada pela variação percentual = 100 (PM - PEP/ PEP, onde PM é a média do caráter em mistura e PEP é a média do caráter em estande puro. As misturas produziram, em média, 3,8% mais que a média dos componentes em estande puro. Duas misturas, IAS 5 + Bragg e BR 8-Pelotas + Bragg, proporcionaram acréscimos no rendimento em todas as proporções de misturas. Concluiu-se que a competição intergenotípica pode ser utilizada no melhoramento da soja, visando a obtenção de misturas com rendimento e desempenho superior. Respostas diferenciadas à competição intergenotípica foram observadas em diferentes misturas e proporções e, proporção e características contrastantes entre os cultivares como capacidade de ramificação, altura de planta, ciclo de maturação e período de florescimento devem ser consideradas para a formação de misturas superiores.Intergenotypic competition effects on soybean -Glycine max (L. Merrill - cultivar blends was evaluated in an experiment carried out along the 1989/90 crop season, in Capão do Leão county, RS. Five cultivars, IAS 5, Ivorá, Bragg, Ivaí and BR 8-Pelotas in pure stand and the blends of Bragg with every cultivar, in the proportions of 20, 35, 50, 65 and 80%, were alocated to a partially balanced 5 x 5 lattice design with four repetitions. Intergenotypic competition was quantified by percent vanation 1 (PM - PEP/PEP, where PM stands for the vanable mean in the blend and PEP

  2. Efeitos de genótipos, ambientes e de tratamentos hidrotérmicos na concentração de isoflavonas agliconas em grãos de soja Effects of genotypes, environments and hydrothermal treatments on the isoflavone aglycone concentration in soybean grains

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    Mercedes Concórdia Carrão-Panizzi

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de tratamentos hidrotérmicos, da variabilidade genética e de ambientes no teor de isoflavonas agliconas em grãos de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill]. O estudo foi realizado com as cultivares de soja BR 36, FEPAGRO RS-10 e BRS 155, cultivadas em Londrina, em Capanema e em Palmas, PR, na safra 1999/2000, mediante tratamentos hidrotérmicos de 40, 50 e 60°C por 12 e 18 horas. As maiores concentrações de isoflavonas totais (280 mg/100 g foram observadas nos grãos colhidos em Palmas, onde a temperatura média durante o enchimento de vagens foi mais baixa (19ºC. Em Londrina (23ºC, houve menor concentração de isoflavonas (140 mg/100 g. A cultivar BRS 155 apresentou o maior teor de isoflavonas totais em Palmas e em Londrina. Grãos não-tratados da BRS 155 apresentaram em média 4,0 mg/100 g de agliconas, as quais aumentaram para 52 mg/100 g, após os tratamentos hidrotérmicos. O tratamento a 50ºC por 12 horas foi mais efetivo no desenvolvimento de isoflavonas agliconas. A 60°C, houve redução das agliconas, decorrente da inativação das b-glicosidases. As formas malonil, que são termicamente instáveis, também foram reduzidas nas temperaturas mais altas.The objective of this work was to assess the effects of hydrothermal treatments and the environmental and genetic variability on the isoflavone aglycones concentration in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] grains. The study was carried out with the soybean cultivars BR 36, FEPAGRO RS-10, and BRS 155, cultivated in three locals of Paraná State (Londrina, Capanema, and Palmas, during 1999/2000 soybean season, submitted to hydrothermal treatments at 40, 50 and 60°C for 12 and 18 hours. Higher concentrations of total isoflavones (280 mg/100 g were observed in grains harvested in Palmas, where the average temperature during pod filling was 19ºC. In Londrina (23ºC, there was lower concentration of isoflavones (140 mg/100 g. The cultivar BRS

  3. Physiological quality of vegetable soybean seeds produced with different fertilization and storage for twelve months = Potencial fisiológico de sementes de soja-hortaliça produzidas com diferentes adubações e armazenadas por doze meses

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    Juliana Maria Espíndola Lima

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The vegetable soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill has characteristics that permit utilization in food as a vegetablewhen the seeds are still immature (stage R6 and occupy 80-90% of the cavity filling the pod. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physiological potential of seeds of two vegetable soybean genotypes produced with different fertilization and stored for 12 months. In seed production field was used in the experimental design of randomized blocks with 5x2 factorial, five fertilization (conventional, intermediate, alternative, manipueira and rice hulls and two periods of evaluation (at 12 months of storage. Evaluations conducted under laboratory conditions included mass of a hundred seeds, vigor and physiological quality considering germination, germination first count, electrical conductivity, potassium leaching, sand emergence and emergence rate of seedlings. The seeds of both vegetable soybean genotype were stored in polyethylene terephthalate bottles for 12 months, as to assess physical and physiological quality under storage. Seeds of BR9452273 produced with carbonized ricehusk showed better quality at harvest and presented greater reduced of vigour after 12 months of storage. BRS 258 cultivar conventional fertilization showed seeds of less physiological quality and higher reduced the vigour after 12 months of storage. The two vegetable soybean cultivars have quality reduced during storage of seed of twelve months in bottles of polyethylene terephthalate. = Resumo – A soja-hortaliça (Glycine max (L. Merrill apresenta características que permitem utilização na alimentação humana como hortaliça, quando as sementes estão ainda imaturas (estádio R6 e ocupam 80 a 90% do preenchimento da cavidade da vagem. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o potencial fisiológico das sementes de dois genótipos de soja-hortaliça produzidas com diferentes adubações e armazenadas por 12 meses. O delineamento

  4. Agronomic performance, chromosomal stability and resistance to velvetbean caterpillar of transgenic soybean expressing cry1Ac gene Performance agronômica, estabilidade cromossômica e resistência à lagarta-da-soja em soja transgênica que expressa o gene cry1Ac

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    Milena Schenkel Homrich

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze the agronomic performance and chromosomal stability of transgenic homozygous progenies of soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill.], and to confirm the resistance of these plants against Anticarsia gemmatalis. Eleven progenies expressing cry1Ac, hpt and gusA genes were evaluated for agronomic characteristics in relation to the nontransformed parent IAS 5 cultivar. Cytogenetical analysis was carried out on transgenic and nontransgenic plants. Two out of the 11 transgenic progenies were also evaluated, in vitro and in vivo, for resistance to A. gemmatalis. Two negative controls were used in resistance bioassays: a transgenic homozygous line, containing only the gusA reporter gene, and nontransgenic 'IAS 5' plants. The presence of cry1Ac transgene affected neither the development nor the yield of plants. Cytogenetical analysis showed that transgenic plants presented normal karyotype. In detached-leaf bioassay, cry1Ac plants exhibited complete efficacy against A. gemmatalis, whereas negative controls were significantly damaged. Whole-plant feeding assay confirmed a very high protection of cry1Ac against velvetbean caterpillar, while nontransgenic 'IAS 5' plants and homozygous gusA line exhibited 56.5 and 71.5% defoliation, respectively. The presence of cry1Ac transgene doesn't affect the majority of agronomic traits (including yield of soybean and grants high protection against A. gemmatalis.O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a performance agronômica e a estabilidade cromossômica de progênies transgênicas homozigotas de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill.], e confirmar a resistência dessas plantas a Anticarsia gemmatalis. Onze progênies com expressão dos genes cry1Ac, hpt e gusA foram avaliadas quanto às características agronômicas, em relação à cultivar parental IAS 5 não transformada. Análises citogenéticas foram realizadas em plantas transgênicas e não transgênicas. Duas das 11 prog

  5. Gene expression in the lignin biosynthesis pathway during soybean seed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldoni, A; Von Pinho, E V R; Fernandes, J S; Abreu, V M; Carvalho, M L M

    2013-02-28

    The study of gene expression in plants is fundamental, and understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in important biological processes, such as biochemical pathways or signaling that are used or manipulated in improvement programs, are key for the production of high-quality soybean seeds. Reports related to gene expression of lignin in seeds are scarce in the literature. We studied the expression of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, 4-hydroxycinnamate 3-hydroxylase, and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase genes involved in lignin biosynthesis during the development of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) seeds. As the endogenous control, the eukaryotic elongation factor 1-beta gene was used in two biological replicates performed in triplicate. Relative quantitative expression of these genes during the R4, R5, R6, and R7 development stages was analyzed. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used for the gene expression study. The analyses were carried out in an ABI PRISM 7500 thermocycler using the comparative Ct method and SYBR Green to detect amplification. The seed samples at the R4 stage were chosen as calibrators. Increased expression of the cinnamate-4-hydroxylase and PAL genes occurred in soybean seeds at the R5 and R6 development stages. The cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase gene was expressed during the final development phases of soybean seeds. In low-lignin soybean cultivars, the higher expression of the PAL gene occurs at development stages R6 and R7. Activation of the genes involved in the lignin biosynthesis pathway occurs at the beginning of soybean seed development.

  6. Improved protein quality in transgenic soybean expressing a de novo synthetic protein, MB-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunfang; Schernthaner, Johann; Labbé, Natalie; Hefford, Mary A; Zhao, Jiping; Simmonds, Daina H

    2014-06-01

    To improve soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] seed nutritional quality, a synthetic gene, MB-16 was introduced into the soybean genome to boost seed methionine content. MB-16, an 11 kDa de novo protein enriched in the essential amino acids (EAAs) methionine, threonine, lysine and leucine, was originally developed for expression in rumen bacteria. For efficient seed expression, constructs were designed using the soybean codon bias, with and without the KDEL ER retention sequence, and β-conglycinin or cruciferin seed specific protein storage promoters. Homozygous lines, with single locus integrations, were identified for several transgenic events. Transgene transmission and MB-16 protein expression were confirmed to the T5 and T7 generations, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of developing seed showed that the transcript peaked in growing seed, 5-6 mm long, remained at this peak level to the full-sized green seed and then was significantly reduced in maturing yellow seed. Transformed events carrying constructs with the rumen bacteria codon preference showed the same transcription pattern as those with the soybean codon preference, but the transcript levels were lower at each developmental stage. MB-16 protein levels, as determined by immunoblots, were highest in full-sized green seed but the protein virtually disappeared in mature seed. However, amino acid analysis of mature seed, in the best transgenic line, showed a significant increase of 16.2 and 65.9 % in methionine and cysteine, respectively, as compared to the parent. This indicates that MB-16 elevated the sulfur amino acids, improved the EAA seed profile and confirms that a de novo synthetic gene can enhance the nutritional quality of soybean.

  7. Improvement of soybean variety 'Bragg' through mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, P.S.; Prabhakar; Tiwari, S.P.; Sandhu, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Variety 'Bragg' (Jackson x D49-2491) of soybean (Glycine max. (L.) Merrill) was found to be high yielding and widely adaptable throughout India. Its yield stability, however, is unsatisfactory, probably due to low germinability necessitating use of higher seed rate. With the main objective to rectify this defect, mutagenesis involving chemical as well as physical mutagens was used. Dry seeds were treated with EMS or MMS (0.2, 0.4 and 0.6%), or gamma rays (15, 20 and 25 kR) with and without additional exposure to UV (2 hrs at 260 nm) in 1982. In M 2 , a mutation frequency ranging from 2.24 to 22.85% was observed. Screening of M 2 and of subsequent generations yielded a broad spectrum of mutations. Some of the mutants are agronomically useful. Among them, mutant 'T 2 14' resulting from 25 kR gamma rays + UV, was found to possess better germinability (+15%), earliness (5 days) and high yield during both rainy and post-rainy seasons in 1986 and 1987, when compared with the parent variety 'Bragg'. The mutant has smaller seed-size (TGW 125 g) than the parent (145 g). In soybean, large-seeded varieties were reported to have poorer seed germinability. Thus, the better germinability of the mutant might be related to its reduced seed size. Seeds of the mutant show a light brown colour of the hilum in contrast to the black hilum of 'Bragg'. In other characters the mutant is similar to 'Bragg'. The mutant should have potential for commercial cultivation in India. For confirmation of its agronomically superior performance, it is undergoing national evaluation in multilocational trials under 'All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Soybean (ICAR)'. The strain has been named 'NRC-2'. (author)

  8. Desempenho alimentar e sobrevivência de Euschistus heros parasitado por Hexacladia smithii em sementes de soja

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    Nunes Maria Clarice

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, em laboratório, a influência do parasitóide Hexacladia smithii Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae na atividade alimentar e sobrevivência de Euschistus heros (Fabricius (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae, aos 10, 20, 30 e 40 dias após o início do parasitismo. A atividade alimentar foi avaliada pelo número de bainhas constatadas nas sementes de soja, Glycine max (L. Merrill (Fabaceae, em 48 horas de alimentação. O teste foi mantido sob condições controladas de temperatura (25±2°C, umidade (65±10% e fotoperíodo (14L:10E. No início do desenvolvimento de H. smithii a atividade alimentar dos percevejos não-parasitados e parasitados foi semelhante, obtendo-se, entretanto, duas vezes mais bainhas alimentares depositadas/grão pelos machos e fêmeas, após 30 dias de parasitismo. A sobrevivência dos percevejos parasitados foi menor que a dos percevejos não-parasitados, alcançando 100% de mortalidade 40 a 50 dias após o início do parasitismo. A redução na sobrevivência dos percevejos parasitados por H. smithii e a atividade alimentar, semelhante a dos percevejos não-parasitados durante quase todo o período de desenvolvimento do parasitóide, destacam a contribuição desse parasitismo na redução da população do percevejo-marrom E. heros.

  9. The experiences of female high school students and interest in STEM: Factors leading to the selection of an engineering or computer science major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoways, Sharon K.

    STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) education creates critical thinkers, increases science literacy, and enables the next generation of innovators, which leads to new products and processes that sustain our economy (Hossain & Robinson, 2012). We have been hearing the warnings for several years, that there simply are not enough young scientists entering into the STEM professional pathways to replace all of the retiring professionals (Brown, Brown, Reardon, & Merrill, 2011; Harsh, Maltese, & Tai, 2012; Heilbronner, 2011; Scott, 2012). The problem is not necessarily due to a lack of STEM skills and concept proficiency. There also appears to be a lack of interest in these fields. Recent evidence suggests that many of the most proficient students, especially minority students and women, have been gravitating away from science and engineering toward other professions. (President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, 2010). The purpose of this qualitative research study was an attempt to determine how high schools can best prepare and encourage young women for a career in engineering or computer science. This was accomplished by interviewing a pool of 21 women, 5 recent high school graduates planning to major in STEM, 5 college students who had completed at least one full year of coursework in an engineering or computer science major and 11 professional women who had been employed as an engineer or computer scientist for at least one full year. These women were asked to share the high school courses, activities, and experiences that best prepared them to pursue an engineering or computer science major. Five central themes emerged from this study; coursework in physics and calculus, promotion of STEM camps and clubs, teacher encouragement of STEM capabilities and careers, problem solving, critical thinking and confidence building activities in the classroom, and allowing students the opportunity to fail and ask questions in a safe environment. These

  10. Parasitismo larval de Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae en el noreste de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina

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    Gerardo LILJESTHRÖM

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En la interacción huésped-parasitoide las plantas suelen emitir señales capaces de aumentar la eficiencia de los parasitoides. Las larvas de Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Walsingham se alimentan endofíticamente de leguminosas herbáceas y constituyen una plaga de la soja (Glycine max Merrill. En este estudio analizamos el parasitismo larval de C. aporema en Melilotus albus Medikus, Galega officinalis L, Lupinus albus L y G. max, en el noreste de Buenos Aires. La densidad larval fue mayor en L. albus (109,2 larvas/m2 que en las restantes leguminosas: 3,7; 6,9 y 11,3 en M. albus, G. officinalis y G. max, respectivamente. Sin embargo, el parasitismo y número de especies parasitoides fueron menores en L. albus (9,5% por el ectoparasitoide generalista Bracon sp. que en M. albus (32,6%, Bracon sp. y los endoparasitoides Trathala sp.y Bassus sp.; G. officinalis y G. max (26,4% y 50,6% respectivamente, con Trathala sp. y Bracon sp. en ambas. Lupinus albus fue la única especie vegetal que reaccionó a la alimentación de C. aporema con producción de exudados pegajosos y olorosos que podrían haber repelido los endoparasitoides, actuando como un refugio parcial para C. aporema. Además, al ser positivamente seleccionada por C. aporema, esta leguminosa podría utilizarse como franja trampa para su control en cultivos de soja, de manera compatible con tácticas de control biológico por conservación de enemigos naturales.

  11. Host plants of the tarnished plant bug (Heteroptera: Miridae) in Central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, J F; Mowery, S V

    2007-08-01

    The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), has taken on added importance as a pest of cotton in the Cotton Belt after successful eradication efforts for the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman). Because the Southern Blacklands region of Central Texas is in advanced stages of boll weevil eradication, blooming weeds and selected row crops were sampled during a 3-yr study to determine lygus species composition and associated temporal host plants. L. lineolaris was the sole lygus species in the region. Thirteen previously unreported host plants were identified for L. lineolaris, of which 69% supported reproduction. Rapistrum rugosum L. Allioni and Ratibida columnifera (Nuttall) Wooton and Standley were primary weed hosts during the early season (17 March to 31 May). Conyza canadensis L. Cronquist variety canadensis and Ambrosia trifida L. were primary weed hosts during the midseason (1 June to 14 August) and late-season (15 August to 30 November), respectively. Sisymbrium irio L. and Lamium amplexicaule L. sustained L. lineolaris populations during the overwintering period (1 December to 16 March). The proportion of females and numbers of nymphs found in R. rugosum, C. canadensis, A. trifida, and S. irio suggests these weeds supported reproductive adults during the early, mid-, and late season and overwintering period, respectively. Medicago sativa L. was the leading crop host for L. lineolaris; Glycine max L. Merrill did not yield L. lineolaris. Few L. lineolaris were collected in Gossypium hirsutum L. These results provide a more comprehensive assessment of host plants contributing to L. lineolaris populations in central Texas.

  12. Desempenho vegetativo e produtivo de cultivares e linhagens de soja de ciclo precoce no município de Piracicaba-SP

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    CÂMARA G.M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Como parte da rede oficial do Estado de São Paulo relativa à competição de linhagens de soja, desenvolveu-se no município de Piracicaba-SP, durante o ano agrícola 1996/97, experimento de campo visando avaliar o desempenho vegetativo e produtivo de linhagens e cultivares de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill pertencentes ao ciclo de maturação precoce. Delineado em blocos ao acaso com 20 tratamentos (linhagens e cultivares e 4 repetições, o experimento foi instalado em Terra Roxa Estruturada eutrófica. As parcelas foram constituídas por 4 linhas espaçadas entre si de 0,50 m com 5,0 m de comprimento. Como padrões de comparação das novas linhagens, foram utilizados os cultivares IAS-5 (atualmente o mais cultivado no Estado de São Paulo e IAC-17 (com elevada produtividade nos últimos ensaios no Estado de São Paulo. Foram avaliadas as seguintes características: estande inicial; época de florescimento; época de maturação; altura de planta no florescimento e na maturação; altura de inserção da primeira vagem; grau de acamamento e rendimento em grãos. Concluiu-se que: a baixo estande de plantas promoveu menor altura final, menor altura de inserção de vagem e menor rendimento em grãos; b as linhagens BR 92-4428, BR 92-6528, IAC 93-680, IAC 90-938, IDS 413-F4, IAC 93-598 e IAC 90-1000, foram as mais produtivas, superando ambos os padrões; c as linhagens FT 90-2687 e BR 92-5261, apresentaram os piores rendimentos.

  13. Original article The effects of kangaroo mother care in a sample of preterm, preschool aged children

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    Magdalena Chrzan-Dętkoś

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The research has shown that kangaroo mother care has a protective impact both on health and future cognitive skills of prematurely born babies. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between the early skin-to-skin contact and the cognitive and emotional-social functioning of preschool aged preterm babies. Participants and procedure The study group included 99 preterm babies. The children participated in a psychological examination conducted using the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale and the Terman-Merrill Test. The data concerning the skin-to-skin contact during the child’s hospitalisation were acquired during interviews with mothers. The emotional development was assessed on the basis of interviews with mothers, conducted using the Rescorla DSM-IV Orientation Scale (2005. Results The study showed no relation between kangaroo mother care and cognitive development. Nevertheless the early skin-to-skin contact turned out to be connected with the emotional functioning of the subjects. Preterm babies who used to experience kangaroo mother care experienced fewer anxiety and depressive disorders than those who did not. In addition it was revealed that the children who suffered from early damage to the brain in the forms of intraventricular and periventricular haemorrhages and experienced kangaroo mother care demonstrated less intense depressive symptoms than those who did not. Conclusions The obtained results, combined with the review of the foreign literature of the subject, indicate the usefulness of introducing kangaroo mother care to neonatal wards and encouraging parents to care about their prematurely born babies in such a way.

  14. An Account of the Accessioned Specimens in the Jose Vera Santos Memorial Herbarium, University of the Philippines Diliman

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    Sandra L. Yap

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The University of the Philippines Herbarium was established in 1908 and originally located in Ermita, Manila. The majority of its pre-war collections were destroyed during World War II, and no formal records of its specimens were preserved. Since then, multiple efforts to restore and improve the Herbarium have been proposed and implemented, most notably its move to the UP Diliman campus. In 1999, the Herbarium was off icially renamed as the Jose Vera Santos Memorial Herbarium after the noted grass expert, who initiated rehabilitation work in the Herbarium after the war. The Herbarium is registered with the international code PUH in the Index Herbariorum, a global directory of public herbaria managed by the New York Botanical Garden. To assess the accessioned (uniquely numbered and recorded collection of the Herbarium, an electronic database of its accessions was created.The Herbarium currently contains 14,648 accessions, 12,681 (86.6% of which were collected in the Philippines. This is comprised of 309 families, 1903 genera, and 4485 distinct species. Thirty-nine type specimens form part of the collection, only one of which is a holotype. On the basis of major plant groups, angiosperms make up 71% of the collection. Unsurprisingly, Family Poaceae has the largest number of specimens at 2,759 accessions. The earliest dated Philippine specimen was collected by E.D. Merrill in 1902, and roughly half of the total accessioned specimens were collected in the 1950s and 1970s. The two most prolif ic collectors were Santos and Leonardo L. Co, with 2,320 and 2,147 specimens, respectively. Luzon is the most well-represented island group with 2,752 specimens collected in Metro Manila alone. At present, PUH Curator James V. LaFrankie is working on the expansion of the collection and upgrading of the herbarium to encourage future educational and research activities.

  15. Breeding value of the second generation of soybean populations for «growing season» trait

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    О. З. Щербина

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Studying the inheritance of such trait of soybean (Glucine max (L. Merrill as growing season length in F2 and assessing hybrid combinations to identify more quick-ripening phenotypes as compared to parents. Methods. Laboratory test, mathematico-statistical evaluation. Results. In most crossbreeding combinations, when parents differed by growing season length, late ripeness was dominated in F2, in one combination – early ripeness, in two combinations, when parents scarcely differed by growing season length, complementary effect was observed for this index. It was found that ‘Anzhelika’/‘Mageva’ combination generated the highest number of more quick-ripening forms than any of the parents (13.1%, a smaller number was identified in ‘Legenda’/‘Vizhion’ (6.4% and ‘Anzhelika’/‘Gentleman’ (4.0%, and barely noticeable number was observed in ‘Legenda’/‘Yelena’ combination (1.3%. Conclusions. In the following crossbreeding combinations as ‘Legenda’/‘Vizhion’, Legenda’/‘Korado’, ‘Legenda’/‘Ustia’, ‘Legenda’/‘Yelena’, ‘Yug-30’/‘Gentleman’, ‘No. 894’/‘Vizhion’, ‘Anzhelika’/‘Annushka’, ‘No. 894’/‘Annushka’, ‘Legenda’/‘Annushka’, ‘No. 441’/‘Gentleman’, ‘No. 441’/‘Vizhion’, ‘No. 441’/‘Annushka’, ‘Anzheli­ka’/‘Gentleman’ and ‘Anzhelika’/‘Prypiat’ when parents considerably and insignificantly differ by growing season length, late ripeness was dominated in F2. ‘Ustia’/‘Vizhion’ and ‘Yug-30’/‘ Vizhion’ crossbreeding combinations in which parents hardly differ by growing season, complementary effect was observed in F2 for this index.

  16. Perinatal DDT Exposure Induces Hypertension and Cardiac Hypertrophy in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Merrill, Michele A; Sethi, Sunjay; Benard, Ludovic; Moshier, Erin; Haraldsson, Borje; Buettner, Christoph

    2016-11-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was used extensively to control malaria, typhus, body lice, and bubonic plague worldwide, until countries began restricting its use in the 1970s. However, the use of DDT to control vector-borne diseases continues in developing countries. Prenatal DDT exposure is associated with elevated blood pressure in humans. We hypothesized that perinatal DDT exposure causes hypertension in adult mice. DDT was administered to C57BL/6J dams from gestational day 11.5 to postnatal day 5. Blood pressure (BP) and myocardial wall thickness were measured in male and female adult offspring. Adult mice were treated with an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, captopril, to evaluate sensitivity to amelioration of DDT-associated hypertension by ACE inhibition. We further assessed the influence of DDT exposure on the expression of mRNAs that regulate BP through renal ion transport. Adult mice perinatally exposed to DDT exhibited chronically increased systolic BP, increased myocardial wall thickness, and elevated expression of mRNAs of several renal ion transporters. Captopril completely reversed hypertension in mice perinatally exposed to DDT. These data demonstrate that perinatal exposure to DDT causes hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in adult offspring. A key mechanism underpinning this hypertension is an overactivated renin angiotensin system because ACE inhibition reverses the hypertension induced by perinatal DDT exposure. Citation: La Merrill M, Sethi S, Benard L, Moshier E, Haraldsson B, Buettner C. 2016. Perinatal DDT exposure induces hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in adult mice. Environ Health Perspect 124:1722-1727; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP164.

  17. Gamma rays induced mutation for low phytic acid and trypsin inhibitor content in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, S.K.; Manjaya, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) is an important source of vegetable protein and is used as a food, feed and health supplement. However, consumption of soybean as food is limited because of the presence of many anti-nutritional factors. Trypsin inhibitors and phytic acid are two major anti-nutritional factors present in soybean that need to be removed for increasing the soybean consumption as food. Trypsin inhibitor is known to inhibit the trypsin/chymotrpsin activity and phytic acid reduces the bioavailability of essential micronutrients in digestive tract, resulting in adverse effect on health. Therefore, developing soybean cultivars having low trypsin inhibitors and phytic acid content is highly desirable. Soybean cultivar JS 93-05 was irradiated with 250 Gy gamma rays to induce mutation for various morphological and biochemical characters. A large number of mutants with altered morphological characters were identified. Ninety true breeding mutant lines in M6 generation were screened for trypsin inhibitor and phytic acid content. The phytic acid content was estimated using modified colorimetric method and trypsin inhibitor concentration was estimated using BAPNA as substrate in colorimetric method. The phytic acid content in the mutants varied from 7.59 to 24.14 mg g -1 . Two mutants lines TSG - 62 (7.59 mg g -1 ) and TSG - 66 (9.62 mg g -1 ) showed significant low phytic acid content as compared to the parent JS 93-05 (20.19 mg g -1 ). The trypsin inhibitor concentration in the mutants varied from 19.92 to 53.64 TIU mg -1 and one mutant line (TSG -14) was found with the lowest trypsin inhibitor concentration of 19.92 TIU mg -1 compared to parent JS 93-05 (50.90 TIU mg -1 ). The mutant lines identified in this study will serve as important genetic resources for developing low phytic acid and low trypsin inhibitor cultivars in soybean. (author)

  18. Corn-Soybean Rotation Systems in the Mississippi Delta: Implications on Mycotoxin Contamination and Soil Populations of Aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed K. Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of corn-soybean rotation on mycotoxin contamination in corn (Zea mays L. and soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill. grains has not been fully evaluated. Therefore, this research investigated the effect of corn-soybean rotation on aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in respective grains. The results showed that aflatoxin levels in soybean averaged 2.3, <0.5, 0.6, and 6.8 ng/g in 2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008, while corn aflatoxin levels were 16.7, 37.1, 2.4, and 54.8 ng/g, respectively. Aspergillus flavus colonization was significantly greater (P≤0.05 in corn (log 1.9, 2.9, and 4.0 cfu/g compared to soybean (<1.3, 2.6, and 2.7 cfu/g in 2005, 2007, and 2008, respectively. Aflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates were more frequent in corn than in soybean in all four years. Higher fumonisin levels were found in corn (0.2 to 3.6 μg/g than in soybean (<0.2 μg/g. Rotating soybean with corn reduces the potential for aflatoxin contamination in corn by reducing A. flavus propagules in soil and grain and reducing aflatoxigenic A. flavus colonization. These results demonstrated that soybean grain is less susceptible to aflatoxin contamination compared to corn due to a lower level of colonization by A. flavus with a greater occurrence of non-aflatoxigenic isolates.

  19. Diapause and different seasonal morphs of Euschistus heros (Fabr.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Northern Parana State; Diapausa e diferentes formas sazonais em Euschistus heros (Fabr.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) no Norte do Parana, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourao, Ana P. M. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia; Panizzi, Antonio R. [EMBRAPA, Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja

    2000-06-15

    The Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros (Fabr.), was collected on sunflower [Helianthus annuus (L.)], soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], star bristle [Acanthospermum hispidum (DC.)], and under fallen leaves of mango tree [Mangifera indica (L.)] and privet (Ligustrum lucidum Ait.), during one year, to evaluate the diapause incidence and the occurrence of different seasonal morphs. The majority of the insects (ca. 90%) with mature reproductive organs was observed during the summer (December-March), when E. heros was found on soybean or on sunflower; in the beginning of autumn, most insects (87%) showed immature reproductive organs, and they were found on star bristle and under fallen leaves. Bugs with mature reproductive organs had more developed shoulders (3.23 and 3.27 mm, for males and females, respectively) than bugs with immature organs (2.91 and 2.89 mm, for males and females, respectively). Two distinct body colors, dark brown and reddish brown, were observed. Nevertheless, the reddish brown was the predominant color of both mature and immature adults during all year. Adults were parasitized by Hexacladia smithii (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Tachinidae mainly Trichopoda giacomellii (Blanchard) (Diptera: Tachinidae) (80% and 40% of parasitism in male and female, respectively) during summer (December), when the bugs colonized sunflower. In soybean, 12% of males and 10% of females were parasitized, whereas in fallen leaves, the parasitism rate was 5% in both sexes.These results showed that in autumn/winter (shorter photoperiod) the majority of the insects were inactive under fallen leaves, showing immature reproductive organs and less developed shoulders, indicating that, at this time, these bugs were in diapause. (author)

  20. The Interactomic Analysis Reveals Pathogenic Protein Networks in Phomopsis longicolla Underlying Seed Decay of Soybean

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    Shuxian Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Phomopsis longicolla T. W. Hobbs (syn. Diaporthe longicolla is the primary cause of Phomopsis seed decay (PSD in soybean, Glycine max (L. Merrill. This disease results in poor seed quality and is one of the most economically important seed diseases in soybean. The objectives of this study were to infer protein–protein interactions (PPI and to identify conserved global networks and pathogenicity subnetworks in P. longicolla including orthologous pathways for cell signaling and pathogenesis. The interlog method used in the study identified 215,255 unique PPIs among 3,868 proteins. There were 1,414 pathogenicity related genes in P. longicolla identified using the pathogen host interaction (PHI database. Additionally, 149 plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDE were detected. The network captured five different classes of carbohydrate degrading enzymes, including the auxiliary activities, carbohydrate esterases, glycoside hydrolases, glycosyl transferases, and carbohydrate binding molecules. From the PPI analysis, novel interacting partners were determined for each of the PCWDE classes. The most predominant class of PCWDE was a group of 60 glycoside hydrolases proteins. The glycoside hydrolase subnetwork was found to be interacting with 1,442 proteins within the network and was among the largest clusters. The orthologous proteins FUS3, HOG, CYP1, SGE1, and the g5566t.1 gene identified in this study could play an important role in pathogenicity. Therefore, the P. longicolla protein interactome (PiPhom generated in this study can lead to a better understanding of PPIs in soybean pathogens. Furthermore, the PPI may aid in targeting of genes and proteins for further studies of the pathogenicity mechanisms.

  1. Improvement of soybean variety 'Bragg' through mutagenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, P S; Prabhakar,; Tiwari, S P; Sandhu, J S [National Research Centre for Soybean, Indore (India)

    1989-01-01

    Full text: Variety 'Bragg' (Jackson x D49-2491) of soybean (Glycine max. (L.) Merrill) was found to be high yielding and widely adaptable throughout India. Its yield stability, however, is unsatisfactory, probably due to low germinability necessitating use of higher seed rate. With the main objective to rectify this defect, mutagenesis involving chemical as well as physical mutagens was used. Dry seeds were treated with EMS or MMS (0.2, 0.4 and 0.6%), or gamma rays (15, 20 and 25 kR) with and without additional exposure to UV (2 hrs at 260 nm) in 1982. In M{sub 2}, a mutation frequency ranging from 2.24 to 22.85% was observed. Screening of M{sub 2} and of subsequent generations yielded a broad spectrum of mutations. Some of the mutants are agronomically useful. Among them, mutant 'T{sub 2}14' resulting from 25 kR gamma rays + UV, was found to possess better germinability (+15%), earliness (5 days) and high yield during both rainy and post-rainy seasons in 1986 and 1987, when compared with the parent variety 'Bragg'. The mutant has smaller seed-size (TGW 125 g) than the parent (145 g). In soybean, large-seeded varieties were reported to have poorer seed germinability. Thus, the better germinability of the mutant might be related to its reduced seed size. Seeds of the mutant show a light brown colour of the hilum in contrast to the black hilum of 'Bragg'. In other characters the mutant is similar to 'Bragg'. The mutant should have potential for commercial cultivation in India. For confirmation of its agronomically superior performance, it is undergoing national evaluation in multilocational trials under 'All India Co-ordinated Research Project on Soybean (ICAR)'. The strain has been named 'NRC-2'. (author)

  2. Nanosized soy phytosome-based thermogel as topical anti-obesity formulation: an approach for acceptable level of evidence of an effective novel herbal weight loss product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Menshawe, Shahira F; Ali, Adel A; Rabeh, Mohamed A; Khalil, Nermeen M

    2018-01-01

    Herbal supplements are currently available as a safer alternative to manage obesity, which has become a rising problem over the recent years. Many chemical drugs on the market are designed to prevent or manage obesity but high cost, low efficacy, and multiple side effects limit its use. Nano lipo-vesicles phytosomal thermogel of Soybean, Glycine max ( L .) Merrill, was formulated and evaluated in an attempt to investigate its anti-obesity action on body weight gain, adipose tissue size, and lipid profile data. Three different techniques were used to prepare phytosome formulations including solvent evaporation, cosolvency, and salting out. The optimized phytosome formulation was then selected using Design Expert ® (version 7.0.0) depending on the highest entrapment efficiency, minimum particle size (PS), and maximum drug release within 2 hours as responses for further evaluation. The successful phytosome complex formation was investigated by means of Fourier-transform infrared spec troscopy and determination of PS and zeta potential. Phytosome vesicles' shape was evaluated using transmission electron microscope to ensure its spherical shape. After characterization of the optimized phytosome formulation, it was incorporated into a thermogel formulation. The obtained phytosomal thermogel formulation was evaluated for its clarity, homogeneity, pH, and gel transformation temperature besides rheology behavior and permeation study. An in vivo study was done to investigate the anti-weight-gain effect of soy phytosomal ther mogel. EE was found to be >99% for all formulations, PS ranging from 51.66-650.67 while drug release was found to be (77.61-99.78) in range. FTIR and TEM results confirmed the formation of phytosome complex. In vivo study showed a marked reduction in body weight, adipose tissue weight and lipid profile. Concisely, soy phytosomal thermogel was found to have a local anti-obesity effect on the abdomen of experimental male albino rats with a slight systemic

  3. Composição centesimal e conteúdo de aminoácidos, ácidos graxos e minerais de seis cultivares de soja destinadas à alimentação humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Regina Vieira

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Seis cultivares de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill: IAS-4, EMBRAPA-4, Davis, BR-16, Iguaçu e IAS-5, destinadas à alimentação humana, foram caracterizadas quanto à composição centesimal, conteúdo de aminoácidos, ácidos graxos e minerais. Os teores de fibra, proteína e óleo variaram significativamente nas amostras analisadas, enquanto que os teores de cinzas não apresentaram diferenças significativas. Com relação aos teores de minerais, o potássio foi o que obteve o maior valor, 1.824,02 mg/100 g para a cultivar Iguaçu, ficando a EMBRAPA-4 com o maior teor de cálcio, 313,93 mg/100 g. Para a composição em ácidos graxos, notou-se que a cultivar IAS-5 apresentou o maior teor de insaturados, 87,45%, enquanto que a Davis, o menor, 83,93%. A cultivar EMBRAPA-4 apresentou um teor de ácido oléico maior e de linoléico e linolênico bem menores que as demais cultivares estudadas, 39,93%, 42,46% e 4,64%, respectivamente. Os demais ácidos graxos estão de acordo com os valores encontrados na literatura no tocante a óleo de soja. Todas as cultivares estudadas apresentaram excelente balanço em aminoácidos essenciais (AAE. Os teores de cada AAE foram superiores aos da proteína padrão estabelecido pela FAO/WHO, com valor total de AAE variando de 39,5 a 45,0 g/100 g de proteína.

  4. Microgrid Design Analysis Using Technology Management Optimization and the Performance Reliability Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamp, Jason E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eddy, John P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jensen, Richard P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Munoz-Ramos, Karina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Microgrids are a focus of localized energy production that support resiliency, security, local con- trol, and increased access to renewable resources (among other potential benefits). The Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security (SPIDERS) Joint Capa- bility Technology Demonstration (JCTD) program between the Department of Defense (DOD), Department of Energy (DOE), and Department of Homeland Security (DHS) resulted in the pre- liminary design and deployment of three microgrids at military installations. This paper is focused on the analysis process and supporting software used to determine optimal designs for energy surety microgrids (ESMs) in the SPIDERS project. There are two key pieces of software, an ex- isting software application developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) called Technology Management Optimization (TMO) and a new simulation developed for SPIDERS called the per- formance reliability model (PRM). TMO is a decision support tool that performs multi-objective optimization over a mixed discrete/continuous search space for which the performance measures are unrestricted in form. The PRM is able to statistically quantify the performance and reliability of a microgrid operating in islanded mode (disconnected from any utility power source). Together, these two software applications were used as part of the ESM process to generate the preliminary designs presented by SNL-led DOE team to the DOD. Acknowledgements Sandia National Laboratories and the SPIDERS technical team would like to acknowledge the following for help in the project: * Mike Hightower, who has been the key driving force for Energy Surety Microgrids * Juan Torres and Abbas Akhil, who developed the concept of microgrids for military instal- lations * Merrill Smith, U.S. Department of Energy SPIDERS Program Manager * Ross Roley and Rich Trundy from U.S. Pacific Command * Bill Waugaman and Bill Beary from U.S. Northern Command * Tarek Abdallah, Melanie

  5. Docetaxel in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rapidis

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Alexander Rapidis1, Nicholas Sarlis2, Jean-Louis Lefebvre3, Merrill Kies41Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Greek Anticancer Institute, Saint Savvas Hospital, Athens, Greece; 2Department of Medical Affairs, Oncology – US Sanofi-Aventis, Bridgewater, NJ, USA; 3Head and Neck Department, Centre Régional de Lutte Contre le Cancer de Lille, Lille, France; 4Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, The University of Texas – M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN presents at a locally advanced (LA stage in many patients. Chemotherapy has been successfully integrated into first-line treatment programs, either during or prior to radiotherapy (RT – the cornerstone modality for local disease control of inoperable disease or when organ preservation is desired. Concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT provides an absolute survival benefit when compared with other types of locoregional therapy that exclude chemotherapy. Nonetheless, distant metastases still represent the most common cause of treatment failure. Consequently, adding induction chemotherapy (ICT to definitive non-surgical local therapies with a curative intent has been vigorously explored in LA SCCHN. Recently, it has been shown that ICT using the combination of the taxane docetaxel with cisplatin–5-fluorouracil provides significant survival benefit over cisplatin–5-FU, when used before either definitive RT (TAX323 trial or carboplatin-based CCRT (TAX324 trial. Docetaxel is also being investigated in metastatic or recurrent (M/R disease, with promising initial results. It is very likely that the future management strategies of SCCHN will incorporate biologic agents as an add-on to docetaxel-containing schemas, administered either as ICT prior to CCRT in the LA setting or for the management of M/R disease.Keywords: chemoradiotherapy, chemotherapy, docetaxel, head and neck carcinoma, induction, locally

  6. Summary review of rock mechanics workshop on radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, N.L.; Goodman, R.E.; Merrill, R.H.

    1977-01-01

    Presentations, critiques and recommendations for the disposal of commercial radioactive waste based upon an analysis of the information presented at the Rock Mechanics Review/Workshop, Denver, Colorado, December 16-17, 1976 are summarized. The workshop, comprised of both formal and informal sessions, with about 50 participants, was hosted by RE/SPEC Inc. and Dr. Paul F. Gnirk, President and was sponsored by the Office of Waste Isolation (OWI), led by Dr. William C. McClain. The panel of reviewers, responsible for this report, consisted of Neville L. Carter, Richard E. Goodman, and Robert H. Merrill. These panel members were selected not only on the basis of their experience in various aspects of Rock Mechanics and Mining Engineering but also because they have had no previous active participation in problems concerning disposal of radioactive waste. By way of a general comment, the review panel was very favorably impressed with the Rock Mechanics research efforts, supported by OWI, on this problem and with the level of technical competence of those carrying out the research. Despite the rather preliminary nature of the results presented and the youth of the program itself, it is clear that the essential ingredients for a successful program are at hand, especially as regards disposal in natural salt formations. These include laboratory studies of appropriate rock deformation, numerical analyses of thermal and mechanical stresses around openings, and in situ field tests. We shall comment on each of these three major areas in turn. We shall then offer recommendations for their improvement, and, finally, we shall make more general recommendations for future considerations of the OWI radioactive waste disposal program

  7. Compost Addition Enhanced Hyphal Growth and Sporulation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi without Affecting Their Community Composition in the Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi form symbiotic associations with most crop plant species in agricultural ecosystems, and are conspicuously influenced by various agricultural practices. To understand the impact of compost addition on AM fungi, we examined effect of four compost rates (0, 11.25, 22.5, and 45 Mg/ha on the abundance and community composition of AM fungi in seedling, flowering, and mature stage of soybean in a 1-year compost addition experiment system in Northeast China. Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] was used as test plant. Moderate (22.5 Mg/ha and high (45 Mg/ha levels of compost addition significantly increased AM root colonization and extraradical hyphal (ERH density compared with control, whereas low (11.5 Mg/ha level of compost addition did not cause significant increase in AM root colonization and ERH density. AM fungal spore density was significantly enhanced by all the compost rates compared with control. The temporal variations analysis revealed that, AM root colonization in seedling stage was significantly lower than in flowering and mature stage. Although AM fungal operational taxonomic unit richness and community composition was unaffected by compost addition, some abundant AM fungal species showed significantly different response to compost addition. In mature stage, Rhizophagus fasciculatum showed increasing trend along with compost addition gradient, whereas the opposite was observed with Paraglomus sp. In addition, AM fungal community composition exhibited significant temporal variation during growing season. Further analysis indicated that the temporal variation in AM fungal community only occurred in control treatment, but not in low, moderate, and high level of compost addition treatments. Our findings highlighted the significant effects of compost addition on AM growth and sporulation, and emphasized that growth stage is a stronger determinant than 1-year compost addition in shaping AM fungal community in

  8. Compost Addition Enhanced Hyphal Growth and Sporulation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi without Affecting Their Community Composition in the Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Gu, Siyu; Xin, Ying; Bello, Ayodeji; Sun, Wenpeng; Xu, Xiuhong

    2018-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form symbiotic associations with most crop plant species in agricultural ecosystems, and are conspicuously influenced by various agricultural practices. To understand the impact of compost addition on AM fungi, we examined effect of four compost rates (0, 11.25, 22.5, and 45 Mg/ha) on the abundance and community composition of AM fungi in seedling, flowering, and mature stage of soybean in a 1-year compost addition experiment system in Northeast China. Soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merrill] was used as test plant. Moderate (22.5 Mg/ha) and high (45 Mg/ha) levels of compost addition significantly increased AM root colonization and extraradical hyphal (ERH) density compared with control, whereas low (11.5 Mg/ha) level of compost addition did not cause significant increase in AM root colonization and ERH density. AM fungal spore density was significantly enhanced by all the compost rates compared with control. The temporal variations analysis revealed that, AM root colonization in seedling stage was significantly lower than in flowering and mature stage. Although AM fungal operational taxonomic unit richness and community composition was unaffected by compost addition, some abundant AM fungal species showed significantly different response to compost addition. In mature stage, Rhizophagus fasciculatum showed increasing trend along with compost addition gradient, whereas the opposite was observed with Paraglomus sp. In addition, AM fungal community composition exhibited significant temporal variation during growing season. Further analysis indicated that the temporal variation in AM fungal community only occurred in control treatment, but not in low, moderate, and high level of compost addition treatments. Our findings highlighted the significant effects of compost addition on AM growth and sporulation, and emphasized that growth stage is a stronger determinant than 1-year compost addition in shaping AM fungal community in black soil of

  9. Compost Addition Enhanced Hyphal Growth and Sporulation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi without Affecting Their Community Composition in the Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Gu, Siyu; Xin, Ying; Bello, Ayodeji; Sun, Wenpeng; Xu, Xiuhong

    2018-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form symbiotic associations with most crop plant species in agricultural ecosystems, and are conspicuously influenced by various agricultural practices. To understand the impact of compost addition on AM fungi, we examined effect of four compost rates (0, 11.25, 22.5, and 45 Mg/ha) on the abundance and community composition of AM fungi in seedling, flowering, and mature stage of soybean in a 1-year compost addition experiment system in Northeast China. Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] was used as test plant. Moderate (22.5 Mg/ha) and high (45 Mg/ha) levels of compost addition significantly increased AM root colonization and extraradical hyphal (ERH) density compared with control, whereas low (11.5 Mg/ha) level of compost addition did not cause significant increase in AM root colonization and ERH density. AM fungal spore density was significantly enhanced by all the compost rates compared with control. The temporal variations analysis revealed that, AM root colonization in seedling stage was significantly lower than in flowering and mature stage. Although AM fungal operational taxonomic unit richness and community composition was unaffected by compost addition, some abundant AM fungal species showed significantly different response to compost addition. In mature stage, Rhizophagus fasciculatum showed increasing trend along with compost addition gradient, whereas the opposite was observed with Paraglomus sp. In addition, AM fungal community composition exhibited significant temporal variation during growing season. Further analysis indicated that the temporal variation in AM fungal community only occurred in control treatment, but not in low, moderate, and high level of compost addition treatments. Our findings highlighted the significant effects of compost addition on AM growth and sporulation, and emphasized that growth stage is a stronger determinant than 1-year compost addition in shaping AM fungal community in black soil of

  10. Quality and Control of Water Vapor Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    Water vapor imagery from the geostationary satellites such as GOES, Meteosat, and GMS provides synoptic views of dynamical events on a continual basis. Because the imagery represents a non-linear combination of mid- and upper-tropospheric thermodynamic parameters (three-dimensional variations in temperature and humidity), video loops of these image products provide enlightening views of regional flow fields, the movement of tropical and extratropical storm systems, the transfer of moisture between hemispheres and from the tropics to the mid- latitudes, and the dominance of high pressure systems over particular regions of the Earth. Despite the obvious larger scale features, the water vapor imagery contains significant image variability down to the single 8 km GOES pixel. These features can be quantitatively identified and tracked from one time to the next using various image processing techniques. Merrill et al. (1991), Hayden and Schmidt (1992), and Laurent (1993) have documented the operational procedures and capabilities of NOAA and ESOC to produce cloud and water vapor winds. These techniques employ standard correlation and template matching approaches to wind tracking and use qualitative and quantitative procedures to eliminate bad wind vectors from the wind data set. Techniques have also been developed to improve the quality of the operational winds though robust editing procedures (Hayden and Veldon 1991). These quality and control approaches have limitations, are often subjective, and constrain wind variability to be consistent with model derived wind fields. This paper describes research focused on the refinement of objective quality and control parameters for water vapor wind vector data sets. New quality and control measures are developed and employed to provide a more robust wind data set for climate analysis, data assimilation studies, as well as operational weather forecasting. The parameters are applicable to cloud-tracked winds as well with minor

  11. Endogenous NO3- in the root as a source of substrate for reduction in the light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufty, T.W. Jr.; Volk, R.J.; MacKown, C.T.

    1987-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the reduction of endogenous NO 3 - , which had been taken up by plants in darkness, during the course of the subsequent light period. Vegetative, nonnodulated soybean plant (Glycine max [L.]. Merrill, Ransom) were exposed to 1.0 millimolar 15 NO 3 - for 12 hours in darkness and then returned to a solution containing 1.0 millimolar 14 NO 3 - for the 12 hours chase period in the light. Another set of plants was exposed to 15 NO 3 - during the light period to allow a direct comparison of contributions of substrate from the endogenous and exogenous sources. At the end of the 15 NO 3 - exposure in the dark, 70% of the absorbed 15 NO 3 - remained unreduced, and 83% of this unreduced NO 3 - was retained in roots. The pool of endogenous 15 NO 3 - in roots was depleted at a steady rate during the initial 9 hours of light and was utilized almost exclusively in the formation of insoluble reduced-N in leaves. Unlabeled endogenous NO 3 - , which had accumulated in the root prior to the previous dark period, also was depleted in the light. When exogenous 15 NO 3 - was supplied during the light period, the rate of assimilation progressively increased, reflecting an increased rate of uptake and decreased accumulation of NO 3 - in the root tissue. The dark-absorbed endogenous NO 3 - in the root was the primary source of substrate for whole-plant NO 3 - reduction in the first 6 hours of the light period, and exogenous NO 3 - was the primary source of substrate thereafter

  12. Field observations of climbing behavior and seed predation by adult ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a lowland area of the temperate zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakawa, Kôji

    2010-10-01

    Granivory is a specialized food habit in the predominantly carnivorous beetle family Carabidae. Most studies of carabid granivory have been conducted under laboratory conditions; thus, our knowledge of the feeding ecology of granivorous carabids in the field is insufficient. I conducted field observations of climbing behavior and seed predation by adult carabids in a lowland area of eastern Japan, from early October to late November in 2008. This is the first systematic field observation of the feeding ecology of granivorous carabids in the temperate zone. In total, 176 carabid individuals of 11 species were observed, with 108 individuals feeding on plant seeds/flowers. Each carabid species was primarily observed feeding on a particular plant species. Frequently observed combinations were: Amara gigantea Motschulsky on Humulus scandens (Loureiro) Merrill (Moraceae) seed, Amara lucens Baliani on Artemisia indica Willdenow (Asteraceae) flower, and Amara macronota (Solsky) and Harpalus (Pseudoophonus) spp. on Digitaria ciliaris (Retzius) Koeler (Poaceae) seed. In all but one species, the sex ratio of individuals observed feeding was female-biased. In Am. gigantea and Am. macronota, a larger proportion of females than males ate seeds. In the three Amara species, copulations on plants, with the female feeding on its seeds/flowers, were often observed. These observations may indicate that, whereas females climb onto plants to feed on seeds, males climb to seek females for copulation rather than forage. Because granivorous carabids play important roles as weed-control agents in temperate agro-ecosystems, the present results would provide valuable basic information for future studies on this subject.

  13. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Enteritidis by Cymbopogon citratus D.C. Stapf. Essential Oil in Pineapple Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Caroline Junqueira Barcellos; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; Medeiros, José Alberto da Costa; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; dos Santos Falcão-Silva, Vivyanne; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of Cymbopogon citratus D.C. Stapf. essential oil (CCEO) to provoke a 5-log CFU/ml (5-log) inactivation in a mixed composite of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merril) juice (4°C) was assessed. Moreover, the effects of CCEO on the physicochemical and sensory quality parameters of pineapple juice were evaluated. The MIC of CCEO was 5 μl/ml against the composite mix examined. For L. monocytogenes and E. coli inoculated in juice containing CCEO (5, 2.5, and 1.25 μl/ml), a ≥5-log reduction was detected after 15 min of exposure. This same result was obtained for Salmonella Enteritidis incubated alone in pineapple juice containing CCEO at 5 and 2.5 μl/ml. Overall, Salmonella Enteritidis was the most tolerant and L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive to CCEO. The physicochemical properties (pH, titratable acidic [citric acid per 100 g], and soluble solids) of pineapple juice containing CCEO (2.5 and 1.25 μl/ml) were maintained. Juice containing CCEO (2.5 and 1.25 μl/ml) exhibited similar scores for odor, appearance, and viscosity compared with juice without CCEO. However, unsatisfactory changes in taste and aftertaste were observed in juices containing CCEO. These results suggest that CCEO could be used as an alternative antimicrobial compound to ensure the safety of pineapple juice, although CCEO at the tested concentrations negatively impacted its taste. Therefore, further studies are needed to determine the balance between microbial safety and taste acceptability of pineapple juice containing CCEO.

  14. Optimization of a protocol for the micropropagation of pineapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALMEIDA WELITON ANTONIO BASTOS DE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed at maximizing the number of plantlets obtained by the micropropagation of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L. Merrill cv. Pérola. Changes in benzylaminopurine (BAP concentration, type of medium (liquid or solidified and the type of explant in the proliferation phase were evaluated. Slips were used as the explant source, which consisted of axillary buds obtained after careful excision of the leaves. A Sterilization was done in the hood with ethanol (70%, for three minutes, followed by calcium hypochlorite (2%, for fifteen minutes, and three washes in sterile water. The explants were introduced in MS medium supplemented with 2mg L-1 BAP and maintained in a growth room at a 16h photoperiod (40 mmol.m-2.s-1, 27 ± 2ºC. After eight weeks, cultures were subcultured for multiplication in MS medium. The following treatments were tested: liquid x solidified medium with different BAP concentrations (0.0, 1.5 or 3.0 mg L-1, and the longitudinal cut, or not, of the shoot bud used as explant. The results showed that liquid medium supplemented with BAP at 1.5 mg L-1, associated with the longitudinal sectioning of the shoot bud used as explant presented the best results, maximizing shoot proliferation. On average, the best treatment would allow for an estimated production of 161,080 plantlets by the micropropagation of the axillary buds of one plant with eight slips and ten buds/slips, within a period of eight months.

  15. Public census data on CD-ROM at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, D.W.

    1993-01-16

    The Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) and Populations at Risk to Environmental Pollution (PAREP) projects, of the Information and Computing Sciences Division (ICSD) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), are using public socioeconomic and geographic data files which are available to CEDR and PAREP collaborators via LBL`s computing network. At this time 72 CD-ROM diskettes (approximately 37 gigabytes) are on line via the Unix file server ``cedrcd.lbl.gov``. Most of the files are from the US Bureau of the Census, and many of these pertain to the 1990 Census of Population and Housing. All the CD-ROM diskettes contain documentation in the form of ASCII text files. In addition, printed documentation for most files is available for inspection at University of California Data and Technical Assistance (UC DATA), tel. (510) 642-6571, or the UC Documents Library, tel. (510) 642-2569, both located on the UC Berkeley Campus. Many of the CD-ROM diskettes distributed by the Census Bureau contain software for PC compatible computers, for easily accessing the data. Shared access to the data is maintained through a collaboration among the CEDR and PAREP projects at LBL, and UC DATA, and the UC Documents Library. LBL is grateful to UC DATA and the UC Documents Library for the use of their CD-ROM diskettes. Shared access to LBL facilities may be restricted in the future if costs become prohibitive. Via the Sun Network File System (NFS), these data can be exported to Internet computers for direct access by the user`s application program(s). Due to the size of the files, this access method is preferred over File Transfer Protocol (FTP) access. Please contact Deane Merrill (dwmerrill@lbl.gov) if you wish to make use of the data.

  16. Public census data on CD-ROM at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, D.W.

    1993-01-16

    The Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) and Populations at Risk to Environmental Pollution (PAREP) projects, of the Information and Computing Sciences Division (ICSD) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), are using public socioeconomic and geographic data files which are available to CEDR and PAREP collaborators via LBL's computing network. At this time 72 CD-ROM diskettes (approximately 37 gigabytes) are on line via the Unix file server cedrcd.lbl.gov''. Most of the files are from the US Bureau of the Census, and many of these pertain to the 1990 Census of Population and Housing. All the CD-ROM diskettes contain documentation in the form of ASCII text files. In addition, printed documentation for most files is available for inspection at University of California Data and Technical Assistance (UC DATA), tel. (510) 642-6571, or the UC Documents Library, tel. (510) 642-2569, both located on the UC Berkeley Campus. Many of the CD-ROM diskettes distributed by the Census Bureau contain software for PC compatible computers, for easily accessing the data. Shared access to the data is maintained through a collaboration among the CEDR and PAREP projects at LBL, and UC DATA, and the UC Documents Library. LBL is grateful to UC DATA and the UC Documents Library for the use of their CD-ROM diskettes. Shared access to LBL facilities may be restricted in the future if costs become prohibitive. Via the Sun Network File System (NFS), these data can be exported to Internet computers for direct access by the user's application program(s). Due to the size of the files, this access method is preferred over File Transfer Protocol (FTP) access. Please contact Deane Merrill (dwmerrill lbl.gov) if you wish to make use of the data.

  17. 3D visualization of movements can amplify motor cortex activation during subsequent motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollfrank, Teresa; Hart, Daniel; Goodsell, Rachel; Foster, Jonathan; Tan, Tele

    2015-01-01

    A repetitive movement practice by motor imagery (MI) can influence motor cortical excitability in the electroencephalogram (EEG). This study investigated if a realistic visualization in 3D of upper and lower limb movements can amplify motor related potentials during subsequent MI. We hypothesized that a richer sensory visualization might be more effective during instrumental conditioning, resulting in a more pronounced event related desynchronization (ERD) of the upper alpha band (10-12 Hz) over the sensorimotor cortices thereby potentially improving MI based brain-computer interface (BCI) protocols for motor rehabilitation. The results show a strong increase of the characteristic patterns of ERD of the upper alpha band components for left and right limb MI present over the sensorimotor areas in both visualization conditions. Overall, significant differences were observed as a function of visualization modality (VM; 2D vs. 3D). The largest upper alpha band power decrease was obtained during MI after a 3-dimensional visualization. In total in 12 out of 20 tasks the end-user of the 3D visualization group showed an enhanced upper alpha ERD relative to 2D VM group, with statistical significance in nine tasks.With a realistic visualization of the limb movements, we tried to increase motor cortex activation during subsequent MI. The feedback and the feedback environment should be inherently motivating and relevant for the learner and should have an appeal of novelty, real-world relevance or aesthetic value (Ryan and Deci, 2000; Merrill, 2007). Realistic visual feedback, consistent with the participant's MI, might be helpful for accomplishing successful MI and the use of such feedback may assist in making BCI a more natural interface for MI based BCI rehabilitation.

  18. Methodology for Preliminary Design of Electrical Microgrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Richard P. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stamp, Jason E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eddy, John P. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Henry, Jordan M [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Munoz-Ramos, Karina [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abdallah, Tarek [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Many critical loads rely on simple backup generation to provide electricity in the event of a power outage. An Energy Surety Microgrid TM can protect against outages caused by single generator failures to improve reliability. An ESM will also provide a host of other benefits, including integration of renewable energy, fuel optimization, and maximizing the value of energy storage. The ESM concept includes a categorization for microgrid value proposi- tions, and quantifies how the investment can be justified during either grid-connected or utility outage conditions. In contrast with many approaches, the ESM approach explic- itly sets requirements based on unlikely extreme conditions, including the need to protect against determined cyber adversaries. During the United States (US) Department of Defense (DOD)/Department of Energy (DOE) Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security (SPIDERS) effort, the ESM methodology was successfully used to develop the preliminary designs, which direct supported the contracting, construction, and testing for three military bases. Acknowledgements Sandia National Laboratories and the SPIDERS technical team would like to acknowledge the following for help in the project: * Mike Hightower, who has been the key driving force for Energy Surety Microgrids * Juan Torres and Abbas Akhil, who developed the concept of microgrids for military installations * Merrill Smith, U.S. Department of Energy SPIDERS Program Manager * Ross Roley and Rich Trundy from U.S. Pacific Command * Bill Waugaman and Bill Beary from U.S. Northern Command * Melanie Johnson and Harold Sanborn of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Construc- tion Engineering Research Laboratory * Experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

  19. Gravitropism in higher plant shoots. VI. Changing sensitivity to auxin in gravistimulated soybean hypocotyls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorabaugh, P. A.; Salisbury, F. B.

    1989-01-01

    Although the Cholodny-Went model of auxin redistribution has been used to explain the transduction phase of gravitropism for over 60 years, problems are apparent, especially with dicot stems. An alternative to an auxin gradient is a physiological gradient in which lower tissues of a horizontal stem become more sensitive than upper tissues to auxin already present. Changes in tissue sensitivity to auxin were tested by immersing marked Glycine max Merrill (soybean) hypocotyl sections in buffered auxin solutions (0, 10(-8) to 10(-2) molar indoleacetic acid) and observing bending and growth of upper and lower surfaces. The two surfaces of horizontal hypocotyl sections responded differently to the same applied auxin stimulus; hypocotyls bent up (lower half grew more) in buffer alone or in low auxin levels, but bent down (upper half grew more) in high auxin. Dose-response curves were evaluated with Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with auxin-receptor binding analogous to enzyme-substrate binding. Vmax for the lower half was usually greater than that for the upper half, which could indicate more binding sites in the lower half. Km of the upper half was always greater than that of the lower half (unmeasurably low), which could indicate that upper-half binding sites had a much lower affinity for auxin than lower-half sites. Dose-response curves were also obtained for sections scrubbed' (cuticle abraded) on top or bottom before immersion in auxin, and gravitropic memory' experiments of L. Brauner and A. Hagar (1958 Planta 51: 115-147) were duplicated. [1-14C]Indoleacetic acid penetration was equal into the two halves, and endogenous plus exogenously supplied (not radiolabeled) free auxin in the two halves (by gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring-mass spectrometry) was also equal. Thus, differential growth occurred without free auxin redistribution, contrary to Cholodny-Went but in agreement with a sensitivity model.

  20. Induction New Suitable Soybean Genotypes for Iraqi Environmental Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudhair, H.; Jaim, A.; Nassralla, A.; Suhail, A.; Abass, H.; Hassan, A.; Hussain, A.; Mahmood, J.

    2002-01-01

    Mutation breeding programme was conducted to improve soybean (Glycine max. L. merrill) yield and oil Seeds were irradiation with 0,100,200,300 Gray of gamma ray Co 60 Selection of genetic variants started from M2 and continued to M8. Eight variants were selected in M8 generation that were characterized with high yield and desirable morphological characters. Preliminary comparison experiments of M9 and M10 with check variety (Lee74) were conducted at two locations (Twaitha and Lattifya). Three promising variants were selected for high yield and low percentage of seed shrinkage as compared with the check variety (Lee74) and other mutants. The same selected variants were planted in large scale comparison experiments with check variety (LEE 74) and two introduced varieties (Coker335 and Gasoy17) in two locations (Twaitha and lattifya) for two seasons (1998,1999). Variants H134 and H39 were superior in their yield components and earliness in maturity compared with the variant H226 and the other check varieties . The average yield and oil percentage in the two seasons(1998,1999) was 3195, 3115kg/ha and 18.2%, 19.3% respectively for the variants H134 and H39 compared with the yield and the percentage of oil for the check variety (Lee74) that was 2794 kg/ha and 18.3% respectively. These two variants were also superior in their protein percentage. According to these promising results of the variants H134 and H39 they were submitted for registration. They were registered under the names TAKA1 and TAKA-2 as suitable varieties for Iraqi environmental conditions. (authors) 13 refs., 5 tabs

  1. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Biological Activities of the Essential Oil and Extract of the Seeds of Glycine max (Soybean) from North Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Somayeh; Alinezhad, Heshmatollah; Nematzadeh, Ghorban Ali; Tajbakhsh, Mahmood; Baharfar, Robabeh

    2017-04-01

    Glycine max (L.) Merrill (soybean) is a major leguminous crop, cultivated globally as well as in Iran. This study examines the chemical composition of soybean essential oil, and evaluates the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of seeds on various plant pathogens that commonly cause irreparable damages to agricultural crops. The essential oil of soybean seeds was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial activity was tested against 14 microorganisms, including three gram-positive, five gram-negative bacteria, and six fungi, using disk diffusion method and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration technique. The soybean seeds were also subjected to screening for possible antioxidant activity by using catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Forty components were identified, representing 96.68% of the total oil. The major constituents of the oil were carvacrol (13.44%), (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (9.15%), p-allylanisole (5.65%), p-cymene (4.87%), and limonene (4.75%). The oil showed significant activity against Pseudomonas syringae subsp. syringae, Rathayibacter toxicus with MIC = 25 µg/mL, and Pyricularia oryzae with MIC = 12.5 µg/mL. In addition, the free radical scavenging capacity of the essential oil was determined with an IC 50 value of 162.35 µg/mL. Our results suggest that this plant may be a potential source of biocide, for economical and environmentally friendly disease control strategies. It may also be a good candidate for further biological and pharmacological investigations.

  2. Diapause and different seasonal morphs of Euschistus heros (Fabr.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Northern Parana State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, Ana P. M.; Panizzi, Antonio R.

    2000-01-01

    The Neotropical brown stink bug, Euschistus heros (Fabr.), was collected on sunflower [Helianthus annuus (L.)], soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], star bristle [Acanthospermum hispidum (DC.)], and under fallen leaves of mango tree [Mangifera indica (L.)] and privet (Ligustrum lucidum Ait.), during one year, to evaluate the diapause incidence and the occurrence of different seasonal morphs. The majority of the insects (ca. 90%) with mature reproductive organs was observed during the summer (December-March), when E. heros was found on soybean or on sunflower; in the beginning of autumn, most insects (87%) showed immature reproductive organs, and they were found on star bristle and under fallen leaves. Bugs with mature reproductive organs had more developed shoulders (3.23 and 3.27 mm, for males and females, respectively) than bugs with immature organs (2.91 and 2.89 mm, for males and females, respectively). Two distinct body colors, dark brown and reddish brown, were observed. Nevertheless, the reddish brown was the predominant color of both mature and immature adults during all year. Adults were parasitized by Hexacladia smithii (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Tachinidae mainly Trichopoda giacomellii (Blanchard) (Diptera: Tachinidae) (80% and 40% of parasitism in male and female, respectively) during summer (December), when the bugs colonized sunflower. In soybean, 12% of males and 10% of females were parasitized, whereas in fallen leaves, the parasitism rate was 5% in both sexes.These results showed that in autumn/winter (shorter photoperiod) the majority of the insects were inactive under fallen leaves, showing immature reproductive organs and less developed shoulders, indicating that, at this time, these bugs were in diapause. (author)

  3. Species and cultivar influences on survival and parasitism of fall armyworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braman, S K; Duncan, R R; Hanna, W W; Engelke, M C

    2004-12-01

    Interactions between host plant resistance and biological control may benefit or hinder pest management efforts. Turfgrass cultivars have rarely been tested for extrinsic resistance characteristics such as occurrence and performance of beneficial arthropods on plant genotypes with resistance to known turf pests. Parasitism of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), among six turfgrass genotypes was evaluated. The six grasses tested [Sea Isle-1 and 561-79 seashore paspalum, Paspalum vaginatum Swartz; TifSport and TifEagle hybrid Bermuda grass, Cynodon dactylon (L.) x C. transvaalensis (Burtt-Davy); and Cavalier and Palisades zoysiagrass, Zoysia japonica von Steudel and Z. matrella (L.) Merrill, respectively] represented a range in resistance to S. frugiperda. Differential recovery of larvae released as first instars reflected this gradient in resistance of Cavalier > or = Palisades > or = TifSport = TifEagle > or = 561- = Sea Isle-1 Larval recovery (percentage of initial number released) was greatest in May, less in July and August, and least in October, probably reflecting the increase in activity of on-site predators and disease pressure. Parasitism of the fall armyworm by the braconid Aleiodes laphygmae Viereck varied among turfgrass genotypes. Parasitism was greatest during July. In total, 20,400 first instars were placed in the field; 2,368 were recovered; 468 parasitoids were subsequently reared; 92.2% were A. laphygmae. In the field, the greatest percentage of reduction in S. frugiperda larvae by A. laphygmae occurred on the armyworm-susceptible seashore paspalums (51.9% on Sea Isle-1 in July). Cotesia marginiventris Cresson and Meteorus sp. also were reared from collected larvae. No parasitoids were reared from larvae collected from resistant Cavalier zoysiagrass. A. laphygmae and C. marginiventris were reared from larvae collected from the other five grass cultivars. No parasitoids of older larvae or pupae were observed.

  4. Early-maturing soybean cropping system. III. Protein and oil contents and oil composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, M.V.; Steele, C.C.; Grabau, L.J.; MacKown, C.T.; Hildebrand, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    Expanding production of early-maturing soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] cultivars in the southeastern USA has exposed such cultivars to a wide range of environmental conditions during seed-fill. Temperatures during this growth stage influence levels of specific fatty acids, particularly of the unsaturated fatty acids. Our objective was to evaluate the grain quality responses of early-maturing cultivars to the wide range of planting dates in the southeastern USA. Protein and oil contents along with fatty acid profiles were assessed for cultivars from Maturity Group (MG) 00 through IV using late April mid-May early June, and late June planting dates on a well-drained Maury silt loam (fine, mixed, mesic Typic Paleudalf) in 1990 through 1993. Across years and cultivars. delayed planting increased protein content and linolenic acid levels and reduced oil content and oleic acid levels but had little or no influence on palmitic stearic or linoleic acid levels. The higher seed-fill temperatures associated with early planting were strongly correlated with increased oil content and oleic acid levels and reduced linolenic acid levels. Increasing seed-fill temperatures were closely associated with reduced linolenic acid levels for all six cultivars. However, the oleic acid response to seed-temperatures strongly depended on cultivar maturity. Oleic acid levels of early-maturing cultivars were much more sensitive to seed-fill temperatures than were those of later maturing cultivars. While other effects of environment on grain quality characteristics may be relatively small perhaps the quality of new low linolenic acid cultivars could be amplified through culture under the warmer conditions the southeastern USA

  5. 3D visualization of movements can amplify motor cortex activation during subsequent motor imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa eSollfrank

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A repetitive movement practice by motor imagery (MI can influence motor cortical excitability in the electroencephalogram (EEG. The feedback and the feedback environment should be inherently motivating and relevant for the learner and should have an appeal of novelty, real-world relevance or aesthetic value (Ryan and Deci, 2000; Merrill, 2007. This study investigated if a realistic visualization in 3D of upper and lower limb movements can amplify motor related potentials during motor imagery. We hypothesized that a richer sensory visualization might be more effective during instrumental conditioning, resulting in a more pronounced event related desynchronisation (ERD of the upper alpha band (10-12 Hz over the sensorimotor cortices thereby potentially improving MI based BCI protocols for motor rehabilitation. The results show a strong increase of the characteristic patterns of ERD of the upper alpha band components for left and right limb motor imagery present over the sensorimotor areas in both visualization conditions. Overall, significant differences were observed as a function of visualization modality (2D vs. 3D. The largest upper alpha band power decrease was obtained during motor imagery after a 3-dimensional visualization. In total in 12 out of 20 tasks the end-user of the 3D visualization group showed an enhanced upper alpha ERD relative to 2D visualization modality group, with statistical significance in nine tasks.With a realistic visualization of the limb movements, we tried to increase motor cortex activation during MI. Realistic visual feedback, consistent with the participant’s motor imagery, might be helpful for accomplishing successful motor imagery and the use of such feedback may assist in making BCI a more natural interface for motor imagery based BCI rehabilitation.

  6. Genetic control of soybean seed oil: I. QTL and genes associated with seed oil concentration in RIL populations derived from crossing moderately high-oil parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mehrzad; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

    2013-02-01

    Soybean seed is a major source of oil for human consumption worldwide and the main renewable feedstock for biodiesel production in North America. Increasing seed oil concentration in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] with no or minimal impact on protein concentration could be accelerated by exploiting quantitative trait loci (QTL) or gene-specific markers. Oil concentration in soybean is a polygenic trait regulated by many genes with mostly small effects and which is negatively associated with protein concentration. The objectives of this study were to discover and validate oil QTL in two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations derived from crosses between three moderately high-oil soybean cultivars, OAC Wallace, OAC Glencoe, and RCAT Angora. The RIL populations were grown across several environments over 2 years in Ontario, Canada. In a population of 203 F(3:6) RILs from a cross of OAC Wallace and OAC Glencoe, a total of 11 genomic regions on nine different chromosomes were identified as associated with oil concentration using multiple QTL mapping and single-factor ANOVA. The percentage of the phenotypic variation accounted for by each QTL ranged from 4 to 11 %. Of the five QTL that were tested in a population of 211 F(3:5) RILs from the cross RCAT Angora × OAC Wallace, a "trait-based" bidirectional selective genotyping analysis validated four QTL (80 %). In addition, a total of seven two-way epistatic interactions were identified for oil concentration in this study. The QTL and epistatic interactions identified in this study could be used in marker-assisted introgression aimed at pyramiding high-oil alleles in soybean cultivars to increase oil concentration for biodiesel as well as edible oil applications.

  7. "Y el resto se hace con gritos": Notas sobre literatura y teatro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Arpes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Quisiera comenzar con un, más o menos extenso, listado de obras de teatro que aún permanecen en cartel o, en todo caso, algunas de ellas lo estuvieron hasta marzo, en salas oficiales y alternativas del circuito teatral porteño pero, también, del interior del país: Tres para el té sobre textos de Lewis Carroll; Galileo, sobre la mesa sobre el texto de Bertolt Brecht; Federico tuvo un sueño, inspirada en el cuento de Antonio Tabucchi y en textos poéticos de Federico García Lorca; Los siete locos, de Roberto Arlt; Crave de Sarah Kane; Cielo rojo, el sueño Bolchevique del poeta Vladimir Maiacovsky; La Manchada, sobre Cuentos de la selva de Horacio Quiroga; Doña Flor y sus dos maridos de Jorge Amado; Grande y Pequeño del escritor alemán contemporáneo Botho Strauss; El diario de Anna Frank; Esa que no eres sobre textos de Alejandra Pizarnik, obra que recibió este verano el premio Estrella de Mar en la categoría mejor espectáculo del teatro off; La revolución silenciada sobre la obra Tres jueces para un largo silencio de Andrés Lizarraga, aquel escritor y dramaturgo argentino, el primero en recibir el premio Casas de las Américas; El mundo ha vivido equivocado de Roberto Fontanarrosa; Una vida más cuerda mañana, sobre textos de Griselda Gambaro, Sarah Kane y Vicente Zito Lema; La Divina Comedia de Dante Alighieri: Mi madre Mi Tierra donde conviven textos literarios de autores como Gloria Fuertes y Federico García Lorca; Sabor a Freud de José Pablo Feinman; El Corazón Delator de Edgar Allan Poe; El Relato de Lady Sotheby. de Marlene Spindler, espectáculo basado en textos de Fiodor Dostoyevsky y Stefan Zweig; Juicio al tango, sobre textos de Leopoldo Marechal; El día que Nietzsche lloró, título de la primera novela del profesor de psiquiatría de la Universidad de Stanford, Irvin Yalom; El último encuentro de Sándor Márai, versión escénica de la exitosa novela “El último encuentro” de Sándor Márai aquel escritor

  8. "Y el resto se hace con gritos": Notas sobre literatura y teatro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Arpes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Quisiera comenzar con un, más o menos extenso, listado de obras de teatro que aún permanecen en cartel o, en todo caso, algunas de ellas lo estuvieron hasta marzo, en salas oficiales y alternativas del circuito teatral porteño pero, también, del interior del país: Tres para el té sobre textos de Lewis Carroll; Galileo, sobre la mesa sobre el texto de Bertolt Brecht; Federico tuvo un sueño, inspirada en el cuento de Antonio Tabucchi y en textos poéticos de Federico García Lorca; Los siete locos, de Roberto Arlt; Crave de Sarah Kane; Cielo rojo, el sueño Bolchevique del poeta Vladimir Maiacovsky; La Manchada, sobre Cuentos de la selva de Horacio Quiroga; Doña Flor y sus dos maridos de Jorge Amado; Grande y Pequeño del escritor alemán contemporáneo Botho Strauss; El diario de Anna Frank; Esa que no eres sobre textos de Alejandra Pizarnik, obra que recibió este verano el premio Estrella de Mar en la categoría mejor espectáculo del teatro off; La revolución silenciada sobre la obra Tres jueces para un largo silencio de Andrés Lizarraga, aquel escritor y dramaturgo argentino, el primero en recibir el premio Casas de las Américas; El mundo ha vivido equivocado de Roberto Fontanarrosa; Una vida más cuerda mañana, sobre textos de Griselda Gambaro, Sarah Kane y Vicente Zito Lema; La Divina Comedia de Dante Alighieri: Mi madre Mi Tierra donde conviven textos literarios de autores como Gloria Fuertes y Federico García Lorca; Sabor a Freud de José Pablo Feinman; El Corazón Delator de Edgar Allan Poe; El Relato de Lady Sotheby. de Marlene Spindler, espectáculo basado en textos de Fiodor Dostoyevsky y Stefan Zweig; Juicio al tango, sobre textos de Leopoldo Marechal; El día que Nietzsche lloró, título de la primera novela del profesor de psiquiatría de la Universidad de Stanford, Irvin Yalom; El último encuentro de Sándor Márai, versión escénica de la exitosa novela “El último encuentro” de Sándor Márai aquel escritor

  9. Test of variables of attention (TOVA as a predictor of early attention complaints, an antecedent to dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R Braverman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Eric R Braverman1,5, Amanda Lih-Chuan Chen2, Thomas JH Chen3, John D Schoolfield4, Alison Notaro5, Dasha Braverman5, Mallory Kerner5, Seth H Blum6 , Vanessa Arcuri5, Michael Varshavskiy5, Uma Damle5 , B William Downs7, Roger L Waite7, Marlene Oscar-Berman8, John Giordano9 , Kenneth Blum5,6,7,101Division of Neurological Surgery, Weill Cornell College of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Engineering and Management of Advanced Technology, 3Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan, Taiwan Republic of China; 4Department of Periodontics, University of Texas, Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA; 5PATH Research Foundation, New York, NY, USA; 6Department of Nutritional Genomics, Synaptamine, Inc., San Antonio, TX, USA; 7Department of Personalized Medicine, LifeGen, Inc., La Jolla, CA, USA; 8Boston University School of Medicine, Boston VA, Boston, MA, USA; 9Department of Holistic Medicine, G & G Holistic Addiction Treatment Center, North Miami Beach, FL, USA; 10Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Wake Forest School of Medicine, Medical Center Boulevard, Winston-Salem, NC, USAAbstract: The goal of this study was to determine if impairments detected by the test of variables of attention (TOVA may be used to predict early attention complaints and memory impairments accurately in a clinical setting. We performed a statistical analysis of outcomes in a patient population screened for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or attention complaints, processing errors as measured by TOVA and the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III results. Attention deficit disorder (ADD checklists, constructed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition criteria, which were completed by patients at PATH Medical, revealed that 72.8% of the patients had more than one attention complaint out of a total of 16 complaints, and 41.5% had more than five complaints. For the 128

  10. Research for energy optimized building. Status seminar; Forschung fuer Energieoptimiertes Bauen. Statusseminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Within the meeting of the Project Management Juelich (Juelich, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Bavarian Centre for Applied Energy Research (Wuerzburg, Federal Republic of Germany) between 30th June and 2nd July, 2009, in Wuerzburg the following lectures were held: (1) Optically switchable layers with tungsten oxide (Andreas Georg); (2) Functional coatings for application on outer surfaces of glazings (Hansjoerg Weis); (3) Functional coatings and application (Thomas Hofmann); (4) Thermal insulation in the 21st century: Vacuum-insulation panel and vacuum-isolation glasses (Ulrich Heinemann, Helmut Weinlaeder, Hans-Peter Ebert); (5) Textile composites using thermal insulation composites as an example (Alexandra Saur, Jan Beringer, Andreas Holm, Klaus Sedlbauer); (6) Design of membranes for the enhancement of the energy efficiency in buildings (Jochen Manara et al.); (7) Design of membranes for the energetic sanitation of buildings (Werner Lang et al.); (8) Total energetic analysis of complex HLK systems for buildings (Wolfgang Richter); (9) Review on hybrid aeration systems (Dirk Mueller et al.); (10) IEA SHC-Task 38 (Operating Agent) - Energy efficient cooling and dehumidification (ECOS) (Hans-Martin Henning, Alexander Morgenstern, Constanze Bongs); (11) Air quality controlled aeration of building (Jens Knissel, Marc Grossklos); (12) Development of a solar driven refrigerating absorber / heat pump with a ice storage (Thomas Brendel, Marco Zetzsche, Hans Mueller-Steinhagen); (13) Heat pumps field test 'WP efficiency' - interim results (Marek Miara); (14) ECBCS Annex 49 Low Exergy Systems for High-Performance Buildings and Communities (Dietrich Schmidt, Marlen Schurig); (15) Aquifer storage for the heat supply and cold supply of buildings (Sefan Kranz et al.); (16) Evaluation and optimization of operation of systems for the seasonal heat storage and cold storage in the foundations of office buildings (Herdis Kipry, Franziska Bockelmann, M. Norbert Fisch

  11. PREMIOS ACADEMIA NACIONAL DE MEDICINA A LA INVESTIGACIÓN CIENTÍFICA 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Academia Nacional de Medicina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available

    RESÚMENES DE LOS TRABAJOS GANADORES

    El 1 de noviembre de 2016 el jurado calificador seleccionó como ganadores de la convocatoria los siguientes trabajos de investigación:

    GANADOR DEL PREMIO EN EL ÁREA DE CIENCIAS BÁSICAS:

    Purificación de Nasulisina-1: una nueva toxina del veneno de la serpiente Porthidium nasutum que específicamente induce apoptosis en un modelo celular de leucemia a través de la activación de caspasa-3 y el factor inductor de apoptosis.

    Angélica Rocío Bonilla Porras, Leidy Johana Vargas, Marlene Jiménez del-Río, Vitelbina Núñez y Carlos Vélez Pardo

    Resumen

    La nasulysina-l, una nueva metaloproteinasa de zinc del veneno de serpiente de Porthidium nasutum, fue purificado a homogeneidad mediante la realización de una cromatografía de exclusión molecular y una cromatografía líquida de alta resolución en una columna de fase inversa. La masa molecular de la enzima purificada era de 25.900 kDa y pl 4,1, como se determinó por electroforesis en gel de poliacrilamida 1D y 2D. El análisis por cromatografía líquida acoplada a espectrometría de masas en tándem (LC-MS/ MS de la secuencia N-terminal de aminoácidos (1FSPRYlELVVVAD- HGMFKKYNSNLNTlR28; ITASLANLEVWSK12; 1DLLPR6 de la nasulysina-l purificada muestra una estrecha homología estructural con otras metaloproteinasas aisladas de diferentes venenos de serpiente. La nasulysina-l purificada mostró actividad específica de inducción de apoptosis en células Jurkat y K562, un modelo celular de leucemia linfocítica aguda (LLA de células T y un modelo celular de leucemia mieloide crónica (LMC respectivamente, sin afectar la viabilidad de linfocitos humanos. Después de 48 horas de tratamiento, la nasulysina-l (20 mg / ml indujo la pérdida de potencial de membrana mitocondrial (∆Ψm, activación del factor inductor de apoptosis (AIF, y activación de

  12. Analysis of embryo, cytoplasm and maternal effects on fatty acid components in soybean (Glycine max Merill.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Hailong; LI Wenxia; LI Wenbin

    2007-01-01

    The quality of oil determined by the constituents and proportion of fatty acid components,and the understanding of heredity of fatty acid components are of importance to breeding good quality soybean varieties.Embryo,cytoplasmic and maternal effects and genotype×environment interaction effects for quality traits of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill.] seeds were analyzed using a general genetic model for quantitative traits of seeds with parents,F1 and F2,of 20 crosses from a diallel mating design of five parents planted in the field in 2003 and 2004 in Harbin,China.The interaction effects of palmitic,stearic,and linoleic acid contents were larger than the genetic main effects,while the genetic main effects were equal to interaction effects for linolenic and oleic acid content.Among all kinds of genetic main effects,the embryo effects were the largest for palmitic,stearic,and linoleic acids,while the cytoplasm effects were the largest for oleic and linolenic acids.Among all kinds of interaction effects,the embryo interaction effects were the largest for fatty acids.The sum of additive and additive× environment effects were larger than that of dominance and dominance×environment effects for the linolenic acid content,but not for other quality traits.The general heritabilities were the main parts of heritabilities for palmitic and oleic acid contents,but the interaction was more important for stearic,linoleic,and linolenic acid contents.For the general heritability,maternal and cytoplasm heritabilities were the main components for palmitic,oleic,and linolenic acid contents.It was shown for the interaction heritabilities that the embryo interaction heritabilities were more important for oleic and linolenic acid contents,while the maternal interaction heritabilities were more important for linoleic acid content.Among selection response components,the maternal and cytoplasm general responses and/or interaction responses were more important for palmitic

  13. Soil organic carbon assessments in cropping systems using isotopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín De Dios Herrero, Juan; Cruz Colazo, Juan; Guzman, María Laura; Saenz, Claudio; Sager, Ricardo; Sakadevan, Karuppan

    2016-04-01

    Introduction of improved farming practices are important to address the challenges of agricultural production, food security, climate change and resource use efficiency. The integration of livestock with crops provides many benefits including: (1) resource conservation, (2) ecosystem services, (3) soil quality improvements, and (4) risk reduction through diversification of enterprises. Integrated crop livestock systems (ICLS) with the combination of no-tillage and pastures are useful practices to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) compared with continuous cropping systems (CCS). In this study, the SOC and its fractions in two cropping systems namely (1) ICLS, and (2) CCS were evaluated in Southern Santa Fe Province in Argentina, and the use of delta carbon-13 technique and soil physical fractionation were evaluated to identify sources of SOC in these systems. Two farms inside the same soil cartographic unit and landscape position in the region were compared. The ICLS farm produces lucerne (Medicago sativa Merrill) and oat (Avena sativa L.) grazed by cattle alternatively with grain summer crops sequence of soybean (Glicine max L.) and corn (Zea mays L.), and the farm under continuous cropping system (CCS) produces soybean and corn in a continuous sequence. The soil in the area is predominantly a Typic Hapludoll. Soil samples from 0-5 and 0-20 cm depths (n=4) after the harvest of grain crops were collected in each system and analyzed for total organic carbon (SOC, 0-2000 μm), particulate organic carbon (POC, 50-100 μm) and mineral organic carbon (MOC, is probably due to the presence of deep roots under pastures in ICLS. Delta carbon-13 values for 0-5 cm were -22.9, -21.2 and -19.9 per mil for REF, ICLS and CCS, respectively (Pis explained by the presence of tree species with high lignin content in natural vegetation. Lignin has lower delta carbon-13 compared to cellulose (dominating in crops and pastures), which is present in greater proportion in plant residues of

  14. Efeitos dos herbicidas glyphosate e paraquat, aplicados ao solo, sobre a emergência de feijão e soja e de algumas espécies daninhas Effects of the herbicides glyphosate and paraquat, applied to the soil, on the emergence of dry beans and soybeans and some weed species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. Dias

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Em trabalho conduzido a campo na Estação Experimental Agronômica da UFRGS, Guaíba, RS em 1979/80, usaram-se os herbicidas glyphosate, paraquat e sua combinação, objetivando determinar os efe itos de doses e de épocas de aplicação destes herbicidas em plântulas de feijão e de soja e sobre nutrientes do solo. Pelos resultados obtidos para emergência e peso de maté ria seca da parte aé re a de soja , não houve di ferenças para os tratamentos testados. Também não ocorreram diferenças significativas à população in ic ia l de feijão e sobre os elementos de solo analisados (Ca, Mg e K. Com relação ao peso de matéria seca da parte aérea do feijão, verificou-se que houve interação entre herbicida e doses usadas, tendo glyphosate isolado e glyphosate mais paraquat aplicados seqüencialmente nas doses máximas causado redução significativa naquele parâmetro. Com relação ao paraquat, não foram detectadas diferenças significativas entre as doses testadas.A field xeperiment was conducted during the 1979/80 growing season at the Agronomic Experimental Station of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, in Guaíba, RS, Brazil, in order to evaluate the efects of rates and times of appl ication of the herbicides glyphosate, paraqu at, and the ir combin at ion, on dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and soybeans (Glvcine max (L. Merrill, and on some soil nutrierts. The results indicated no significant differences among the soybeans treatments tested fo r plant population and shoot dry weight. Also no sta ti sti cal diffe re nces occurred fo r dry beans plant population and for soil nutrients analysed (Ca, Mg, and K. For dry beans shoot dry weight, there was an interaction of herbicides and rates, where glyphosate sprayed alone and glyphosate plus paraquat applied at the maxima ra te s te sted caused significant decreases on that variable. For paraquat utilized alone, no significant effects were detected among the rates applied.

  15. Radiation interception and the accumulation of biomass and nitrogen by soybean and three tropical annual forage legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pengelly, B.C.; Blamey, F.P.C.; Muchow, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted at Gatton and Dalby in southeastern Queensland to determine parameters associated with radiation interception and biomass and nitrogen (N) accumulation for the ley legume species, phasey bean (Macroptilum lathyroides (L.) Urban) and vigna, (Vigna trilobata (L.) Verdc.). Sesbania (Sesbania cannabina Retz.), a native legume species, and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill)) were included in the study for comparison. The most important differences between species related to differences in radiation interception, radiation-use efficiency (RUE), N-accumulation efficiency and the partitioning of N to plant parts. During early growth, soybean intercepted more radiation than the other species, primarily because of its greater leaf area index (LAI). Sesbania had the highest RUE (1.08 g MJ −1 ) followed by phasey bean (0.94 g MJ −1 ), soybean (0.89 g MJ −1 ) and vigna (0.77 g MJ −1 ). The efficiency of N-accumulation was greater in soybean (0.028 g N g −1 ) and phasey bean (0.030 g N g −1 ) than in vigna (0.022 g N g −1 ) and sesbania (0.021 g N g −1 ). In all species, the proportion of N allocated to leaves declined throughout the experimental period, being more rapid in soybean than in sesbania and phasey bean. Despite this decline in total N partitioned to the leaves, both soybean and phasey bean maintained a relatively stable specific leaf nitrogen (SPLN) throughout the experimental periods although sesbania and vigna displayed rapid decreases in SPLN. The large variation between species in RUE and N-accumulation efficiency indicates that the development of ley legume cultivars with a combination of traits for more efficient legume production, water use and soil N-accumulation in the water-limited environments of the grain belt of eastern Australia may be possible. The sensitivity of forage production, water use and soil N-accumulation to variation in RUE and N-accumulation efficiency needs to be quantified using modeling

  16. The Eh-pH Diagram and Its Advances

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    Hsin-Hsiung Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Pourbaix presented Eh versus pH diagrams in his “Atlas of Electrochemical Equilibria in Aqueous Solution”, diagrams have become extremely popular and are now used in almost every scientific area related to aqueous chemistry. Due to advances in personal computers, such diagrams can now show effects not only of Eh and pH, but also of variables, including ligand(s, temperature and pressure. Examples from various fields are illustrated in this paper. Examples include geochemical formation, corrosion and passivation, precipitation and adsorption for water treatment and leaching and metal recovery for hydrometallurgy. Two basic methods were developed to construct an Eh-pH diagram concerning the ligand component(s. The first method calculates and draws a line between two adjacent species based on their given activities. The second method performs equilibrium calculations over an array of points (500 × 800 or higher are preferred, each representing one Eh and one pH value for the whole system, then combines areas of each dominant species for the diagram. These two methods may produce different diagrams. The fundamental theories, illustrated results, comparison and required conditions behind these two methods are presented and discussed in this paper. The Gibbs phase rule equation for an Eh-pH diagram was derived and verified from actual plots. Besides indicating the stability area of water, an Eh-pH diagram normally shows only half of an overall reaction. However, merging two or more related diagrams together reveals more clearly the possibility of the reactions involved. For instance, leaching of Au with cyanide followed by cementing Au with Zn (Merrill-Crowe process can be illustrated by combining Au-CN and Zn-CN diagrams together. A second example of the galvanic conversion of chalcopyrite can be explained by merging S, Fe–S and Cu–Fe–S diagrams. The calculation of an Eh-pH diagram can be extended easily into another dimension, such

  17. NÍVEIS DE FÓSFORO E CALAGEM PARA SOJA E EFEITO RESIDUAL NO ARROZ, EM SOLOS DE CERRADO DO ESTADO DE GOIÁS PHOSPHORUS AND LIME LEVELS FOR SOYBEANS AND RESIDUAL EFFECT IN RICE IN “CERRADO” SOILS OF THE STATE OF GOIÁS

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    Johanna Dobereiner

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    No presente trabalho são apresentados os resultados de experimentos de campo sobre níveis de fósforo e calagem, com a cultura da soja, em nove localidades do Estado de Goiás, e do efeito residual da adubação em cinco destas localidades com o plantio do arroz. Houve efeito linear do fósforo em sete dos experimentos com soja, efeito quadrático deste elemento em um deles e da interação fósforo calcário em outro. Nos experimentos com arroz, houve efeito linear do fósforo residual em três localidades e quadrático do calcário em uma. As melhores produções de soja e arroz foram 1,9 vezes mais altas que as médias de produção destas culturas no Brasil em 1969, apesar da estiagem prolongada.

    In this study are presented the results of the field experiments of phosphorous and lime levels in soybean (Glicine max. L. Merril crops. which were planted in nine locations in the state of Goiás. It was also studied the effect of fertilizer in five of these locations on the subsequent rice crops. There was a linear effect of phosphorous in seven of the soybean experiments, with a quadratic effect of this same element in another experiment. In the rice experiments, there was a linear effect of residual phosphorous in three of the locations and a quadratic effect of calcium in one location. The best production of soybeans and rice was 1.9 times higher than the average production of these crops in Brazil in 1969, despite of a severe drought. The profit was calculated along with the relationship between the increase in value of the crops and the cost (fertilizer and lime of producing this increase. The extra cost was justified in six places, mainly in the places where rice was planted during the second year.

  18. Mass-Fatality Incident Preparedness Among Faith-Based Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Qi; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Gershon, Robyn R

    2017-12-01

    organizations (73%) and less likely with local death care sector organizations (27%) or Departments of Health (DOHs; 32%). The study suggests improvements are needed in terms of staff training in general, and specifically, drills with planning partners are needed. Greater cooperation and inclusion of FBOs in national planning and training will likely benefit overall MFI preparedness in the US. Zhi Q , Merrill JA , Gershon RR . Mass-fatality incident preparedness among faith-based organizations. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(6):596-603.

  19. The Effect of Animation in Multimedia Computer-Based Learning and Learning Style to the Learning Results

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    Muhammad RUSLI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a learning depends on four main elements, they are content, desired learning outcome, instructional method and the delivery media. The integration of those four elements can be manifested into a learning modul which is called multimedia learning or learning by using multimedia. In learning context by using computer-based multimedia, there are two main things that need to be noticed so that the learning process can run effectively: how the content is presented, and what the learner’s chosen way in accepting and processing the information into a meaningful knowledge. First it is related with the way to visualize the content and how people learn. The second one is related with the learning style of the learner. This research aims to investigate the effect of the type of visualization—static vs animated—on a multimedia computer-based learning, and learning styles—visual vs verbal, towards the students’ capability in applying the concepts, procedures, principles of Java programming. Visualization type act as independent variables, and learning styles of the students act as a moderator variable. Moreover, the instructional strategies followed the Component Display Theory of Merril, and the format of presentation of multimedia followed the Seven Principles of Multimedia Learning of Mayer and Moreno. Learning with the multimedia computer-based learning has been done in the classroom. The subject of this research was the student of STMIK-STIKOM Bali in odd semester 2016-2017 which followed the course of Java programming. The Design experiments used multivariate analysis of variance, MANOVA 2 x 2, with a large sample of 138 students in 4 classes. Based on the results of the analysis, it can be concluded that the animation in multimedia interactive learning gave a positive effect in improving students’ learning outcomes, particularly in the applying the concepts, procedures, and principles of Java programming. The

  20. The Past Informs the Future: An Overview of the Million Worker Study and the Mallinckrodt Chemical Works Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, John D; Ellis, Elizabeth D; Golden, Ashley P; Girardi, David J; Cohen, Sarah S; Chen, Heidi; Mumma, Michael T; Shore, Roy E; Leggett, Richard W

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of ongoing work on the Million Worker Study (MWS), highlighting some of the key methods and progress so far as exemplified by the study of workers at the Mallinckrodt Chemical Works (MCW). The MWS began nearly 25 y ago and continues in a stepwise fashion, evaluating one study cohort at a time. It includes workers from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manhattan Project facilities, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulated nuclear power plants, industrial radiographers, U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) nuclear weapons test participants, and physicians and technologists working with medical radiation. The purpose is to fill the major gap in radiation protection and science: What is the risk when exposure is received gradually over time rather than briefly as for the atomic bomb survivors? Studies published or planned in 2018 include leukemia (and dosimetry) among atomic veterans, leukemia among nuclear power plant workers, mortality among workers at the MCW, and a comprehensive National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) Report on dosimetry for the MWS. MCW has a singular place in history: the 40 tons (T) of uranium oxide produced at MCW were used by Enrico Fermi on 2 December 1942 to produce the first manmade sustained and controlled nuclear reaction, and the atomic age was born. Seventy-six years later, the authors followed the over 2,500 MCW workers for mortality and reconstructed dose from six sources of exposure: external gamma rays from the radioactive elements in pitchblende; medical x rays from occupationally required chest examinations; intakes of pitchblende (uranium, radium, and silica) measured by urine samples; radon breath analyses and dust surveys overseen by Robley Evans and Merril Eisenbud; occupational exposures received before and after employment at MCW; and cumulative radon concentrations and lung dose from the decay of radium in the work environment. The unique

  1. Expression and methylation data from SLE patient and healthy control blood samples subdivided with respect to ARID3a levels

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    Julie M. Ward

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previously published studies revealed that variation in expression of the DNA-binding protein ARID3a in B lymphocytes from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE correlated with levels of disease activity (“Disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus correlates with expression of the transcription factor AT-rich-interactive domain 3A” (J.M. Ward, K. Rose, C. Montgomery, I. Adrianto, J.A. James, J.T. Merrill et al., 2014 [1]. The data presented here compare DNA methylation patterns from SLE peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from samples with high numbers of ARID3a expressing B cells (ARID3aH versus SLE samples with normal numbers of ARID3a+ B cells (ARID3aN. The methylation data is available at the gene expression omnibus (GEO repository, “Gene Expression Omnibus: NCBI gene expression and hybridization array data repository” (R. Edgar, M. Domrachev, A.E. Lash, 2002 [2]. Isolated B cells from SLE ARID3aH and ARID3aN B samples were also evaluated via qRT-PCR for Type I interferon (IFN signature and pathway gene expression levels by qRT-PCR. Similarly, healthy control B cells and B cells stimulated to express ARID3a with the TLR agonist, CpG, were also compared via qRT-PCR. Primers designed to detect 6 IFNa subtype mRNAs were tested in 4 IFNa, Epstein-Barr Virus-transformed B cell lines (“Reduced interferon-alpha production by Epstein-Barr virus transformed B-lymphoblastoid cell lines and lectin-stimulated lymphocytes in congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type I” (S.H. Wickramasinghe, R. Hasan, J. Smythe, 1997 [3]. The data in this article support the publication, “Human effector B lymphocytes express ARID3a and secrete interferon alpha” (J.M. Ward, M.L. Ratliff, M.G. Dozmorov, G. Wiley, J.M. Guthridge, P.M. Gaffney, J.A. James, C.F. Webb, 2016 [4].

  2. APLICAÇÃO FOLIAR DE CÁLCIO E BORO E COMPONENTES DE RENDIMENTO E QUALIDADE DE SEMENTES DE SOJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bevilaqua Gilberto Antonio Peripolli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de cálcio (Ca e boro (B, aplicados em pulverização foliar, nas fases vegetativa e reprodutiva da cultura de soja (Glycine max L. Merril, cvs. FT Cometa e BR 16, nos componentes de rendimento e na qualidade fisiológica de sementes. O trabalho foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação. O solo usado foi um Planossolo, com as seguintes caracteristicas físico-químicas: K: 1,67 mmoc dm-3, P: 3,5mg dm-3, matéria orgânica: 16,6g dm-3; teores de Ca+Mg: 18mmoc dm-3 de solo, pH: 4,7 e argila: 11%. As unidades experimentais foram bandejas com capacidade para 20kg de solo, mantidas com umidade próxima da capacidade de campo (20%, durante o experimento. Os tratamentos consistiram da aplicação da solução em quatro épocas: pré-floração, floração, pós-floração, pré-colheita, e com uma testemunha não tratada. A solução foi preparada com cloreto de cálcio (0,5% de Ca e borato de sódio (0,25% de B, corrigido para pH 7,0, usando-se volume de calda de 100 ha-1 Os componentes de rendimento avaliados foram: número de vagens e peso de grãos /planta e número de grãos/vagem. As sementes foram avaliadas através de emergência no campo, velocidade de emergência e peso da matéria seca de plântulas. Com base nos resultados, conclui-se que: a a aplicação de Ca e B aumentou o peso de grãos por planta; b Ca e B não afetaram a qualidade fisiológica de sementes; c as maiores respostas de Ca e B nos componentes de rendimento foram verificadas nas fases de floração e pós-floração.

  3. Development of a Short-Form of the RCOPE for Use with Bereaved College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Benjamin D; Collison, Elizabeth A; Gramling, Sandra E; Weiskittle, Rachel; Weisskittle, Rachel

    2015-08-01

    Bereavement is being increasingly recognized as a key issue in college populations (Balk in Mortality 2:207-220, 1997; Balk et al. in Death Stud 34:459-468, 2010). However, there is currently a dearth of research on the impact that the loss of a loved one has on college students and the ways that college students cope during the grieving process. This lack of research, particularly among younger groups, is problematic as researchers have shown that emerging adults experience a surprisingly high number of losses and are an at-risk group for poor post-loss outcomes (Servaty-Seib and Taub 2010; Servaty-Seib and Hamilton 2006; Arnett in Am Psychol 55(5):469, 2000). Religion is a common way that individuals cope with bereavement (Frantz et al. in Pastor Psychol 44(3):151-163, 1996) and may also be commonly used by college students to manage everyday stress (Merrill et al. 2009). The RCOPE (Pargament et al. in J Clin Psychol 56(4):519-543, 2000; J Health Psychol 9:713-730, 2004) is a frequently used measure of religious coping that has recently been evaluated for use with a bereaved undergraduate population. Lord and Gramling (2014) examined the factor structure of the RCOPE and concluded that overlap between the positive and negative religious coping subscales when used with a bereaved undergraduate sample detracted from the predictive utility of the instrument. The researchers provided evidence for the use of a new 2-factor, 39-item version of the RCOPE with the bereaved college student population. The current study replicated Lord and Gramling (2014) with a large follow-up sample of bereaved undergraduates. Participants (N = 677) consisted of individuals who had lost a loved one within the past 2 years, had a mean age of 19.1, and were predominantly female (62%) underclassmen (84% freshman or sophomore status). A majority of participants (68%) were identified as Christian. Exploratory factor analyses closely mimicked the results of the previous study, and the number

  4. Ampliación de la galería de arte Albright – Knox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skidmore - Owings - Merrill, Arquitectos

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available Owings and Merrill, architects. This new extension houses an exhibition hall, an auditorium seating 350 people, lecture rooms, services, dining room, and a club room. The modifications to the old building have provided space for the Education Department and the Library. The auditorium is enclosed with large grey glass panels, and enables the beautiful park scenery to be viewed from within. From the outside, however, these glass surfaces act as mirrors, and reflect the surrounding views. To prevent the sun from penetrating, black curtains have been fitted. The seats of the auditorium are covered with vermillion nylon cloth, and the floor has a light yellow carpet. The ground floor is constructed round an open air garden-court, which contains a number of sculptures, especially one by Henry Moore, and the Manipulator, by Reg Butler. Large glazed areas are a feature of the building surface round the garden-court. The buildings are connected with each other at the level of the ground floor, and we feel that the outstanding success of the Albright Knox Gallery is due to the surprising harmony achieved between the old and the new buildings.La nueva ampliación alberga: una sala de exposiciones, un auditorio con capacidad para 350 personas sentadas, salas de conferencias, servicios, comedor y estar-club. La renovación realizada en el edificio antiguo ha proporcionado espacios para el Departamento de educación y la biblioteca. El auditorio, cerrado con amplios cristales grises, permite a los visitantes del interior contemplar el bello paisaje del parque, mientras que en el exterior actúa como un espejo, que refleja los alrededores. Para impedir el paso de los rayos solares dispone de cortinas negras; los asientos están tapizados en nylon bermellón y el piso va cubierto con moquetas beige. La planta baja rodea, mediante espacios también acristalados, el patio-jardín al aire libre, dedicado a escultura, en el que destacan una de Henry Moore, y el

  5. Dependence of the productivity of maize and soybean intercropping systems on hybrid type and plant arrangement pattern

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    Dolijanović Željko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intercropping systems could improve utilization of the most important resources (soil, water and nutrients, provide a better control of weeds, pests and diseases, and finally higher productivity, especially under rain-fed growing conditions. This study aimed to determine the effects of three maize (Zea mays L. prolific hybrids (FAO 500, 600 and 700 and the spatial intercrop patterns on the above-ground biomass and grain yields of maize and soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill, on chernozem soil type at Zemun Polje, Belgrade, in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replications and three treatments: 3 rows of maize and 3 rows of soybean in strips for each maize hybrid (three variants, 3 rows of maize and 3 rows of soybean in alternate rows for each hybrid (another three variants and monocrops of both maize and soybeans. To optimize the ecological and economic benefits of maize/soybean intercrop in terms of yield, variety selection and compatibility of the component crops should be made using established agronomic management practices involving the two crops. Suitable maize varieties for maize/soybean intercrop systems are varieties that have less dense canopy. These varieties would therefore have lesser shading effect to the understory beans. However, establishment of an appropriate spatial arrangement of the component crops would be essential to alleviate negative effects especially on the less competitive crop. The intercropping system in alternate rows showed significantly higher above-ground biomass and grain yields in comparation with both the strip intercropping system and maize monocrops in 2004. Soybean gave significantly lower above-ground biomass and grain yield in intercrops than in monocrops. Maize prolific hybrid growing in intercropping with soybean as legume crop, increased productivity of cropping system, especially in favourable agroecological conditions. Maize and soybean yields

  6. Dynamic High Pressure Study of Chemistry and Physics of Molecular Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezowski, Sebastian Ryszard

    Both temperature and pressure control and influence the packing of molecules in crystalline phases. Our molecular simulations indicate that at ambient pressure, the cubic polymorph of tetracyanoethylene, TCNE, is the energetically stable form up to ˜ 160 K. The observed transition from the cubic to the monoclinic polymorph occurs however only at temperatures above ˜ 318 K due to the large transition barrier. The temperature-induced phase transition in TCNE studied with high-resolution IR spectroscopy is explained in terms of the increased vibrational entropy in the crystals of the monoclinic polymorph. Based upon the inverted design of the Merril-Bassett Diamond Anvil Cell, an improved, second generation dynamic Diamond Anvil Cell was developed. Based on the fluorescence of ruby crystals, we were able to demonstrate that the pressure variation range can be further increased at least up to 7 kbar and that the dynamic pressure compression of up to 1400 GPa/s can be achieved. A new class of mechanophoric system, bis-anthracene, BA, and its photoisomer, PI, is shown to respond reversibly to a mild, static pressure induced by a Diamond Anvil Cell as well as to shear deformation based on absorption spectroscopic measurements. The forward reaction occurs upon illumination with light while the back-reaction may be accelerated upon heating or mechanical stress, coupled to a rehybridization on four equivalent carbon atoms. It is an intriguing result as high pressure stabilizes the photodimerized species in related systems. Our molecular volume simulations ruled out significant differences in the volumes between bis-anthracene and its photoisomer. Kinetic absorption measurements at several different pressures reveal a negative volume of activation in the exothermic back-reaction at room temperature. Through a series of temperature-dependent kinetic measurements it is shown that the barrier of activation for the back-reaction is reduced by more than an order of magnitude at

  7. Ciclesonide ( Byk Gulden).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Gordon

    2002-01-01

    Ciclesonide, a non-halogenated inhaled corticosteroid with anti-inflammatory activity, is under development by Byk Gulden, Aventis and Teijin as a potential treatment for asthma [213439]. It was also being developed by Byk Gulden for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but no development had been reported for this indication since 1999; however, Teijin was carrying out clinical trials in this indication at the end of 2000. During 2000, Byk Gulden was carrying out phase III trials in the US and Europe and in March 2001, results were expected in the third quarter of 2001 [312399], [383726], [423659]. Two inhalant formulations (multidose powder and propellant filled) and a nasal formulation of ciclesonide are being developed by Byk Gulden for the treatment of asthma and seasonal allergic rhinitis, respectively [337147]. The compound is formulated for once-daily dosing and demonstrated good efficacy without corticosteroid-associated systemic side effects [409257]. In January 2001, Byk Gulden expected launch of a CFC-free multidose inhaler formulation in 2003 [395596]; in March 1999, launch of a nasal formulation was expected in 2004 and a multidose powder inhaler in 2005 [337147]. By September 2001, the compound was in phase III trials in the US for asthma, with a potential US launch anticipated by Aventis in 2004 [423465]. In November 2001, Aventis expected to submit an NDA to the FDA in 2003 [428057]. Teijin, which has a development and licensing agreement with Byk Gulden for the treatment of asthma and COPD in Japan, commenced phase I trials of ciclesonide in Japan in spring 1999, had completed these during 2000, and began phase II trials by September of that year [383726]. An NDA is expected to befiled in Japan in 2003. In October 2000 and April 2001, Merrill Lynch predicted peak sales of Euro400 million in 2007, with sales of Euro5 million in 2002, rising to Euro150 million in 2004 [395562], [420574]. Deutsche Bank predicted in August 2001, that sales of

  8. Develop, Discuss, and Decide: How New Science Teachers Use Technologies to Advance Their Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Joshua Alexander

    For decades, there has been a nationwide demand to increase the number of science teachers in K-12 education (National Commission on Excellence in Education, 1983; National Research Council [NRC], 2007). This demand is in large part due to increases in state science graduation requirements. Teacher preparation programs have been preparing new science teachers on pace with the resulting increase in demand (Ingersoll & Merrill, 2010), however, shortages have continued as up to 50% of these new teachers leave the profession within their first five years of teaching (Smith & Ingersoll, 2004), creating a "revolving door" phenomenon as districts scramble to address this early attrition with yet more beginning teachers. We need to address what Ingersoll (2012) describes as the "greening" of the teaching force: the fact that an increasingly large segment of the teaching force is comprised of beginning teachers who are at a high risk of leaving the profession. The three related studies that comprise this dissertation focus on the role of technological interventions for in-service and pre-service science teachers. The context for the first two studies is TIN, an online induction program for beginning secondary science teachers. These two studies consider the impact of technological supports on the reflective practice of participating teachers. The design interventions included VideoANT (an online video annotation tool) and Teachers as Leaders roles (a structured response protocol) for the Venture/Vexation online forum activity. The context for the third study is T3-S, a university licensure course for pre-service science teachers designed to explore technology integration in secondary science classrooms. This study investigated the impact of pre-service teacher participation in the creation of an Adventure Learning (AL) environment (Doering, 2006) on their understanding of technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge (TPACK) and its role in their future science

  9. Metodología para la evaluación del potencial insecticida de especies forestales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Soto León

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available La diversidad florística de Colombia plantea enormes retos de investigación, con miras a una utilización racional e integral de sus recursos forestales. Las plantas con efectos biocidas utilizables en el control de plagas o enfermedades revisten una singular importancia. El objetivo de este trabajo es plantear una metodología de fácil aplicación, bajo costo y rápidos resultados, que permita acopiar la información necesaria sobre el mayor número de especies con potencial en este sentido. La metodología plantea la siguiente secuencia: selección de las especies vegetales de interés, apoyada en los reportes bibliográficos, conocimiento ancestral y observaciones personales; recolección del material en el campo; preparación del extracto total a partir del material seco; pruebas iniciales con Artemia salina Lech. para detectar actividad biológica, a través de la determinación de la LC50 (las especies con LC50 menores de 1000 ppm se consideran promisorias y ameritan procesos posteriores de fraccionamiento químico, bioensayos con las sustancias más promisorias sobre algún organismo de interés particular y determinación final de los compuestos activos en la planta. La metodología descrita fue empleada en la evaluación del potencial de acción biocida de 5 especies arbóreas o arbustivas, Guarea guidonia (L. Sleumer y Trichia hirta L. (Meliaceae, Machaerium moritzianum Benth. (Fabaceae, Swinglea glutinosa Merrill. (Rutaceae y Mammea americana L. (Clusiaceae. Se utilizó para los bioensayos iniciales el microcrustáceo Artemia salina Leach como indicador del potencial biocida con el fin de seleccionar las dos especies más promisorias a partir de las LC50 obtenidas. Con las dos se realizaron los bioensayos para evaluar la acción fagoinhibidora en la hormiga arriera Atta cephalotes (L., y el posible control de Alconeura sp. (Homoptera: Cicadellidae, insecto chupador que afecta la ceiba verde Pseudobombax septenatum (Jacq. Dugand

  10. Nanosized soy phytosome-based thermogel as topical anti-obesity formulation: an approach for acceptable level of evidence of an effective novel herbal weight loss product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Menshawe SF

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Shahira F El-Menshawe,1 Adel A Ali,1 Mohamed A Rabeh,2 Nermeen M Khalil3 1Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beni-Suef University, Beni Suef, 2Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Giza, 3Department of Pharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Nahda University Beni-Suef, Beni Suef, Egypt Purpose: Herbal supplements are currently available as a safer alternative to manage obesity, which has become a rising problem over the recent years. Many chemical drugs on the market are designed to prevent or manage obesity but high cost, low efficacy, and multiple side effects limit its use. Nano lipo-vesicles phytosomal thermogel of Soybean, Glycine max (L. Merrill, was formulated and evaluated in an attempt to investigate its anti-obesity action on body weight gain, adipose tissue size, and lipid profile data. Methods: Three different techniques were used to prepare phytosome formulations including solvent evaporation, cosolvency, and salting out. The optimized phytosome formulation was then selected using Design Expert® (version 7.0.0 depending on the highest entrapment efficiency, minimum particle size (PS, and maximum drug release within 2 hours as responses for further evaluation. The successful phytosome complex formation was investigated by means of Fourier-transform infrared spec­troscopy and determination of PS and zeta potential. Phytosome vesicles’ shape was evaluated using transmission electron microscope to ensure its spherical shape. After characterization of the optimized phytosome formulation, it was incorporated into a thermogel formulation. The obtained phytosomal thermogel formulation was evaluated for its clarity, homogeneity, pH, and gel transformation temperature besides rheology behavior and permeation study. An in vivo study was done to investigate the anti-weight-gain effect of soy phytosomal ther­mogel. Results: EE was found to be >99% for all

  11. TMAP7 User Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, Glen R.

    2008-01-01

    The TMAP Code was written at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory by Brad Merrill and James Jones in the late 1980s as a tool for safety analysis of systems involving tritium. Since then it was upgraded to TMAP4 and has been used in numerous applications including experiments supporting fusion safety, predictions for advanced systems such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), and estimates involving tritium production technologies. Its further upgrade to TMAP2000 and now to TMAP7 was accomplished in response to several needs. TMAP and TMAP4 had the capacity to deal with only a single trap for diffusing gaseous species in solid structures. TMAP7 includes up to three separate traps and up to 10 diffusing species. The original code had difficulty dealing with heteronuclear molecule formation such as HD and DT under solution-law dependent diffusion boundary conditions. That difficulty has been overcome. TMAP7 automatically generates heteronuclear molecular partial pressures when solubilities and partial pressures of the homonuclear molecular species are provided for law-dependent diffusion boundary conditions. A further sophistication is the addition of non-diffusing surface species. Atoms such as oxygen or nitrogen or formation and decay or combination of hydroxyl radicals on metal surfaces are sometimes important in reactions with diffusing hydrogen isotopes but do not themselves diffuse appreciably in the material. TMAP7 will accommodate up to 30 such surface species, allowing the user to specify relationships between those surface concentrations and partial pressures of gaseous species above the surfaces or to form them dynamically by combining diffusion species or other surface species. Additionally, TMAP7 allows the user to include a surface binding energy and an adsorption barrier energy. The code includes asymmetrical diffusion between the surface sites and regular diffusion sites in the bulk. All of the

  12. The in vitro effect of selected essential oils on the growth and mycotoxin production of Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Císarová, Miroslava; Tančinová, Dana; Medo, Juraj; Kačániová, Miroslava

    2016-10-02

    The aim of the present study was to assess the antifungal and anti-toxinogenic activity of 15 essential oils (EOs) against three fungi of the genus Aspergillus (A. parasiticus KMi-227-LR, A. parasiticus KMi-220-LR and A. flavus KMi-202-LR). The minimum inhibitory doses (MIDs) of the tested essential oils and their antifungal activity were determined using the micro-atmosphere method. The original commercial essential oil samples of Jasminum officinale L., Thymus vulgaris L., Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill & Perry, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ocimum basilicum L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Salvia officinalis L., Citrus limon (L.) Burm, Origanum vulgare L., Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Carum carvi L., Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck., Zingiber officinalis Rosc., Mentha piperita L. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. (C. verum J.S.Presl.) were produced in Slovakia (Calendula a.s., Nová Ľubovňa, Slovakia). All essential oils exhibited activity against all tested strains of fungi. After 14 days of incubation, A. flavus (KMi-202-LR) showed the highest susceptibility with a growth inhibition percentage (GIP) of 18.70% to C. limon and 5.92% to C. sinensis, while A. parasiticus (KMi-220-LR) exhibited a GIP of 20.56% to J. officinale. The minimum inhibitory doses (MIDs) of EOs with the most significant activity were recorded. The best antifungal activity, using the micro-atmosphere method was found in S. aromaticum with an MID of 62.5 μL L -1 air, T. vulgaris (MID of 62.5 μL L -1 air) and O. vulgare (MID of 31.5 μL L -1 air) against all tested strains. Mycotoxin production of the tested strains was evaluated by the thin layer chromatography (TLC) method. Mycotoxin production of AFB 1 and AFG 1 was inhibited following all treatments with C. carvi, R. officinale and S. officinale, Eucalyptus globulus L. and O. basilicum L. Essential oils exhibited a potential inhibition activity against toxic fungi, although, these affected only the production of AFB 1 .

  13. Genetic control of soybean seed oil: II. QTL and genes that increase oil concentration without decreasing protein or with increased seed yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mehrzad; Cober, Elroy R; Rajcan, Istvan

    2013-06-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] seed oil is the primary global source of edible oil and a major renewable and sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production. Therefore, increasing the relative oil concentration in soybean is desirable; however, that goal is complex due to the quantitative nature of the oil concentration trait and possible effects on major agronomic traits such as seed yield or protein concentration. The objectives of the present study were to study the relationship between seed oil concentration and important agronomic and seed quality traits, including seed yield, 100-seed weight, protein concentration, plant height, and days to maturity, and to identify oil quantitative trait loci (QTL) that are co-localized with the traits evaluated. A population of 203 F4:6 recombinant inbred lines, derived from a cross between moderately high oil soybean genotypes OAC Wallace and OAC Glencoe, was developed and grown across multiple environments in Ontario, Canada, in 2009 and 2010. Among the 11 QTL associated with seed oil concentration in the population, which were detected using either single-factor ANOVA or multiple QTL mapping methods, the number of QTL that were co-localized with other important traits QTL were six for protein concentration, four for seed yield, two for 100-seed weight, one for days to maturity, and one for plant height. The oil-beneficial allele of the QTL tagged by marker Sat_020 was positively associated with seed protein concentration. The oil favorable alleles of markers Satt001 and GmDGAT2B were positively correlated with seed yield. In addition, significant two-way epistatic interactions, where one of the interacting markers was solely associated with seed oil concentration, were identified for the selected traits in this study. The number of significant epistatic interactions was seven for yield, four for days to maturity, two for 100-seed weight, one for protein concentration, and one for plant height. The identified molecular

  14. Avaliação das possibilidades de escórias de siderurgia como corretivos da acidez do solo Evaluation of blast furnace slags as correctives for soil acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Pimentel Wutke

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho são apresentados os resultados obtidos em um ensaio de competição entre materiais corretivos, conduzido em vasos de Mitscherlich. Objetivou-se, principalmente, avaliar as possibilidades de dois tipos de escórias de siderurgia para substituir os corretivos usuais na agricultura. Foram comparados um calcário dolomítico cristalino, um calcário altamente cálcico, um material cálcico proveniente dos sambaquis do Litoral Sul paulista, uma escória de altos fornos a coque, produzida em Volta Redonda, e uma escória originária da produção de aços pelo processo Martin-Siemens básico, obtida em São Caetano. Os materiais corretivos foram comparados sempre em presença de adubação com NPK, feita em solução e na forma de drogas puras. Constaram, ainda, da experiência, um tratamento testemunha e outro com NPK, sem calagem. A planta indicadora utilizada foi a soja, Glycine max (L. Merril, variedade "Abura". No final do ensaio, além da colheita das sementes de soja, retiraram-se amostras de terra de todos os vasos, para determinações de seus índices pH e dos teores de H+ + AL+3 trocável. Com relação ao poder de neutralização da acidez do solo, revelaram-se mais eficiente o calcário dolomítico, o cálcico e o sambaqui Com eficiência intermediária colocou-se a escória de São Caetano e. em último lugar, a escória de Volta Redonda. As produções das sementes de soja, todavia, não confirmaram êstes resultados, uma vez que as diferenças, entre os tratamentos com corretivos não foram estatisticamente significativas. Moagem mais severa do que a utilizada neste ensaio possivelmente elevará a eficiência das duas escórias, como corretivos da acidez do solo. Com relação às suas influências sôbre a produção, avaliadas nas condições do ensaio, não há necessidade de se apurar mais o seu grau de moagem, a nao ser para atender às exigências legais, que disciplinam o comércio de adubos e corretivos

  15. Leadership Does Make a Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-05-01

    Early in my term as editor of this Journal, I received from a reader a letter that was intended to spur ideas for an editorial comment. The writer had taught mathematics, physics, and chemistry using high school curricula developed during the 1960s. He argued that only one of these curricula, the Chemical Education Materials Study (CHEM Study), today remains an important influence on its discipline, at both the high school and college levels. He attributed this to Glenn Seaborg's leadership of the CHEM Study project. Though I planned to base an editorial on this letter, other subjects continually intervened. Glenn Seaborg's death on February 25 of this year has prompted me to wait no longer. In education, as in many other areas, Seaborg's leadership made a tremendous difference. He served as an excellent model of the melding of research, teaching, and service-the often praised but seldom achieved ideal of an academic career. The CHEM Study project has been chronicled in a book by Richard Merrill and David Ridgway (1). Seaborg's foreword describes a meeting with a group from ACS and NSF who had "a visionary plan to press upon me" for a new high school chemistry curriculum. Although he was then Chancellor of the University of California, Berkeley, and had numerous other commitments that should have precluded his taking on leadership of such a program, Seaborg accepted. He immediately set about persuading other leaders, such as J. Arthur Campbell and George C. Pimentel, to play major roles in the project. In addition he helped set up a steering committee that included high school and college teachers as well as representatives from industry and ACS. In describing his recruitment of Pimentel, Seaborg allowed that "It is just possible that my role as Chancellor helped induce a Berkeley faculty member to accept this demanding assignment." Seaborg used his fame and his position effectively to help achieve an important goal. CHEM Study's influence went well beyond the high

  16. Resistance to stem canker, frogeye leaf spot and powdery mildew of soybean lines lacking lipoxigenases in the seeds Resistência ao cancro-da-haste, à cercosporiose e ao oídio de linhagens de soja sem lipoxigenases nas sementes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Osório Martins

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] crop holds a prominent position in the Brazilian economy because of the extension of the planted area and volume of grain production, but the beany flavor has been a limiting factor for soybean derivatives consumption by western population. This flavor is produced mainly by action of lipoxygenase enzymes (Lox1, Lox2 and Lox3, present in some commercial varieties. The genetic elimination of the alleles that codify these enzymes is the most appropriate way to avoid problems associated to this deleterious flavor. To elucidate the effect of seed lipoxygenase elimination on the resistance to plant pathogens, normal varieties of soybean (FT-Cristalina RCH, Doko RC and IAC-12 and their backcross-derived lines, both with the three lipoxygenases present in their seeds (triple-positive, TP and without the three lipoxygenases (triple-null, TN, were tested for their resistance to stem canker (Diaporthe phaseolorum f.sp. meridionalis, frogeye leaf spot (Cercospora sojina Hara, and powdery mildew (Microsphaera diffusa Cke. & Pk.. All genetic materials studied were resistant to stem canker. FT-Cristalina RCH and Doko-RC and their TP and TN lines were resistant to frogeye leaf spot. IAC-12 and its derived lines not only presented a higher disease index, but also the derived lines, TP and TN, were more susceptible, indicating the loss of genes for disease resistance in the backcrosses. There was no association between the elimination of lipoxygenases from the seeds with the resistance to frogeye leaf spot. In relation to the powdery mildew, TP or TN lines presented similar or higher resistance than their respective recurrent parents whose susceptibility appeared in the following order: IAC-12, less susceptible, Doko-RC, intermediate and FT-Cristalina RCH, more susceptible.A cultura da soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] ocupa lugar de destaque na economia brasileira, tanto em termos de área plantada, quanto de produção de gr

  17. Alternative procedure for the cold test for soybean seeds Procedimento alternativo para o teste de frio em semente de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Guilherme Torres Licursi Vieira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for high quality soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] seeds requires a precise seed quality control system from the seed industry. One way to accomplish this is by improving vigor testing. Cold test has been traditionally employed for corn seeds. However, it has also been used for other seed crops such as cotton (Gossypium spp., soybean (Glycine Max, dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris and pea (Pisum sativum. This study was carried out with the objective of adjusting an alternative procedure for the cold test to determine soybean seed vigor. Six commercial soybean seed lots of the cultivar BRS 133 were used. The physiological potential of the seed lots was evaluated by germination on paper towel and sand box, seedling field emergence, tetrazolium, accelerated aging and electrical conductivity tests. Seed moisture content was also determined. The temperature used for the cold test procedures was 10ºC during five days. Four cold test procedures were evaluated: i plastic boxes with soil; ii rolled paper towel with soil; iii rolled paper towel without soil, and iv an alternative procedure, using rolled paper towel without soil under cold water. A completely randomized experimental design with eight replications was used and the means were compared by the Tukey test (p = 0.05. To verify the dependence between the alternative test and others single linear correlation was used. All cold test procedures had similar coefficients of variation (CV, highlighting that rolled paper towel with soil and the alternative procedure had the best performance, with an average of 94% and 93% normal seedlings and CV of 3.2% and 3.6%, respectively. The alternative procedure has satisfactory results for estimating soybean seed vigor, yielding consistent results compared to the traditional procedure.A crescente demanda por semente de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] de alta qualidade tem requerido da indústria de sementes um controle de qualidade mais preciso

  18. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SOIL CORRECTIVES AND GYPSUM ON THE SOIL CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS CROPPED WITH RICE AND SOYBEANS AÇÃO DE DIFERENTES CORRETIVOS E DO GESSO SOBRE AS CARACTERÍSTICAS QUÍMICAS DE UM LATOSSOLO VERMELHO ESCURO NA SUCESSÃO ARROZ E SOJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Mozena Leandro

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Aiming to verify the action of different soil correctives on the chemical characteristics of a dark red latosoil median texture, a two-years field experiment was carried out. A completely randomized design with 7 treatments (6 different soil correctives and a control with no liming and four repetitions were used. As soil correctives limestone (calcitic, dolomitic, calcinated dolomitic, and magnesian, gypsum and calcium hydroxide were employed. On the first year the experimental area was cropped with rice (Oryza sativa L. c.v. IAC-25 and on the second one with soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill c.v. IAC-8. Dolomitic limestone caused the greatest chemical alterations on soil characteristics, with increase on pH, K+, Ca+2 and Mg+2 and decrease on H+ + Al+3 values, during the first year. Losses of exchangeable Mg+ by leaching have been found during the second year, due to the use of gypsum and calcitic limestone. All liming materials, but gypsum, increased rice yields when compared with the control. The calcinated dolomitic limestone gave the highest soybean yields.

    KEY-WORDS: Soil; soil acidity; liming materials; pH.

  1. Alternatives to improve technological and environmentally the miner-metallurgic processes of recovery of gold in Vetas and California (Santander, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedraza Rosas, Julio Elias; Yanez Traslavina, Jose Julian

    2004-01-01

    (NO 3 ) 2 . It was determined that without the use of catalysts, this process can be applied with excellent results for the case of the Vetas ores; for example, carrying out tests with samples -65 Tyler (d 8 0), mechanical agitation, continuous aeration, 40% solids, (NaCN) = 5000ppm, in times of so alone 4 at 6 hours of lixiviation, dissolutions of gold superiors to 90 % were obtained with cyanide consumptions among 2 to 4 mineral kg/t. For the samples of California, the best dissolutions of gold, of the order of 90%, were achieved using the cyanidation for conventional agitation with the mineral head without concentrating, milled at -200 Tyler (d 8 0) and with times of 24 hours of reaction. For the gold recovery from the cyanidates solutions, they were carried out tests with activated coal and cementation with powder of zinc, obtaining very satisfactory results. With base in the obtained results, they propose flow diagrams of three recovery plants of gold from the minerals of the studied mines. For the Vetas case, a plant with the processes of centrifugal concentration and intensive cyanidates of the concentrates, while for those of California, they propose two plants applying the conventional cyanidation, a recovering the gold with activated coal and the other one with the process Merrill-Crowe

  2. Journal abstracts from current research in the field of child and adolescent mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Debate RD, Kelley PG, Zwald M, Huberty J & Zhang Y (2009) Changes in psychosocial factors and physical activity frequency among third- to eighth-grade girls who participated in a developmentally focused youth sport program: A preliminary study. Journal of School Health 79(10): 474-484 Boyce JC, Mueller NB, Hogan-Watts M & Luke Douglas A (2009) Evaluating the strength of school tobacco policies: The development of a practical rating system. Journal of School Health 79(10): 495-504 Craine JL, Tanaka Teri A, Nishina A & Conger KJ (2009) Understanding adolescent delinquency: The role of older siblings' delinquency and popularity with peers. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly 55(4): 436-453 Rosales FJ, Reznick JS & Zeisel SH (2009) Understanding the role of nutrition in the rain and behavioural development of toddlers and pre-school children: Identifying methodological barriers. Nutritional Neuroscience 12(5): 190-202 Clemmens DA (2009) The Significance of motherhood for adolescents whose mothers have breast cancer. Oncology Nursing Forum 36(5): 571-577 Archambault I, Janosz M, Morizot J & Pagani L (2009) Adolescent behavioural, affective, and cognitive engagement in school: Relationship to dropout. Journal of School Health 79(9): 408-415 Denison JA, McCauley AP, Dunnett-Dagg WA, Lungu N & Sweat MD (2009) HIV testing among adolescents in Ndola, Zambia: How individual, relational, and environmental factors relate to demand. AIDS Education & Prevention 21(4): 314-324 Pollock JA & Halkitis PN (2009) Environmental factors in relation to unprotected sexual behaviour among gay, bisexual and other MSM. AIDS Education & Prevention 21(4): 340-355 Nippold MA, Mansfield TC, Billow JL & Tomblin JB (2009) Syntactic development in adolescents with a history of language impairments: A follow-up investigation. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology 18(3): 241-251 Sharaf AY, Thompson EA & Walsh E (2009) Protective effects of self-esteem and family support on suicide risk behaviours among

  3. Programa computacional para o dimensionamento de colhedoras considerando a pontualidade na colheita de soja Computer model to select combine harvesters considering the timeliness of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iackson O. Borges

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A colheita de soja (Glycine max (L. Merril é uma operação crítica que pode sofrer atrasos resultando em perdas na quantidade e na qualidade do material colhido. Embora o valor das perdas seja desconhecido no País, os produtores empregam colhedoras com reserva de capacidade para concluir a operação no menor prazo possível. O excesso de capacidade aumenta os custos fixos e a falta dela aumenta os custos das perdas por atraso e, em ambos os casos, reduzem a renda líquida da operação, ao que se denomina custo de pontualidade. O problema do dimensionamento consiste em ajustar o custo do capital extra investido na capacidade da máquina para garantir a pontualidade e o custo das perdas por atraso, buscando maximizar a renda líquida. Devido à importância da cultura e da pontualidade, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do atraso no dimensionamento da frota e no custo da operação de colheita. Para tanto, desenvolveu-se um modelo computacional em linguagem Borland® Delphi 5.0, em que a entrada de dados inclui os atributos da região agroclimática, da colhedora e das cultivares de soja. O resultado é a renda líquida como indicador da pontualidade na operação para a colhedora selecionada. O programa foi utilizado para simular cenários numa propriedade na região de Ponta Grossa - PR, e os valores obtidos revelaram que a frota de colhedoras da propriedade opera com capacidade ociosa, produzindo renda líquida abaixo do potencial.Soybean harvest is considered a critical operation that might suffer some delays causing a reduction in crop yield or quality. Although the value of losses is unknown in the country, combine harvesters with high capacity are applied by the producers and they aim to conclude the operation as fast as possible. If the harvesters have greater capacity than the required, the fixed cost is increased, and if it is the opposite, it might reduce the crop yield. In both cases, there is a decrease in

  4. 物權「自治」主義的美麗新世界?― 民法第757條之立法論與解釋論 Is Freedom of Property Form Principle Efficient?― Interpretations of Articles 757 of the Taiwan Civil Code and the Underlying Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    張永健 Yun-Chine Chang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available 近來,不少學者批評物權法定主義,提倡以物權自治主義代之。2009年民法第757條修正,改採物權法定加習慣主義。文以Merrill和Smith提出之物權類型最適數目理論為基礎,輔以Hansmann和Kraakman及本文之批評修正,評判上述各種制度安排何者為優。 本文主張物權法定主義,理論上雖不當然創設最適數目之物權類型(台灣經驗即為一例,但若立法者不怠惰,仍有可能達成該目標。物權自治主義製造外部成本,,理論上必然會創造過多之物權類型,並無效率。法院解釋物權法定加習慣主義時,除應注意修法理由所揭示之社會成本外,亦應考量邊際社會利益。此外,動產因難以適當地公示,不應輕易使習慣得創設新動產物權。法院承認習慣所創設之不動產物權,應以該習慣存在於全國大多數地區為要件。 Recently, many Taiwanese and Chinese scholars criticized the numerus clausus principle, and proposed freedom of property form principle instead. In 2009, the Taiwan legislature amended Article 757 of the Civil Code, loosening the numerus clausus principle, and allowing customs to create new property forms. Based on the optimal standardization theory first proposed by Merrill & Smith, with the revision by Hansmann & Kraakman and this article, I evaluate which institutional arrangement to create property forms is the most desirable. This article argues that although the numerus clausus principle (under which the legislature monopolizes the creation of property forms does not guarantee creation of optimal number of property forms, it is not impossible for the number of statue-created property forms to approximate the optimal number. The freedom of property form principle, by contrast, will produce an over-optimal number of property forms, because of the external costs of creating new property forms by private transactors. When interpreting

  5. Galactosemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Hernández Saenz

    1985-12-01

    émicos, Kalkar en 1956 descubre el error metabólico por la falta de la enzima uridyl transferasa. Beutler (13 y Baluda en 1966, describen un examen sencillo para detectar esta enfermedad en los recién nacidos.

    En los años setenta, Levy (14 y Shi practican estudios masivos en cinco millones novecientos mil niños, con el beneficio de la prevención del retardo mental y las graves infecciones que padecen estos niños (15 (16, Merril (17 en 1970, por medio de ingeniería genética, usando un bacteriófago Lambafago Transductor, reemplaza al gene anormal por uno sano. Fensom (18 en 1979, practica amniocentesis para diagnóstico prenatal. Gitzelmann en el XVI Simposio de Errores Congénitos del Metabolismo, actualiza la secuencia metabólica de la galactosa. Boskowa (19 en el XVI Congreso Mundial de Pediatría, relaciona el nivel de galactosa-1-fosfato y la evolución clínica.

  6. Allelopathic effect of sunflower water extract on the germination of soybean and hairy beggartick / Efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de folhas de girassol sobre a germinação de soja e picão-preto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Leszczynski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the allelopathic effect of water extract from sunflower fresh leaves on the germination and initial development of conventional and transgenic soybean cultivars, and of the invasive hairy beggartick (Bidens pilosa L.. Experiments were carried out at Laboratory of Plant Physiology, Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná, in 2007. Fresh leaves from sunflower were ground in a blender at the proportion 200g/1L distilled water, resulting in crude extract (100%, in which pH was measured. Dilutions of 80%, 60%, 40% and 20% were done from the crude extract, and only distilled water was used as control. Statistical analysis (Tukey 5% probability indicated that only the highest extract concentrations (60%, 80% and 100% influenced the analyzed parameters for conventional and transgenic soybean. Beggartick seeds, however, had germination percentage completely inhibited when 40% water extract was applied, which indicates that sunflower straw could be used as a natural herbicide. Nevertheless, field studies must be carried out to prove such effect.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito alelopático do extrato aquoso de folhas frescas de girassol sobre a germinação das sementes e desenvolvimento inicial das plântulas das cultivares de soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill convencional (CD232, transgênica (CD213RR e uma de suas invasoras, o picão preto (Bidens pilosa L.. Os experimentos foram realizados no Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal da Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Paraná no ano de 2007. As folhas de girassol colhidas na época da floração foram trituradas com o auxílio de um liquidificador na proporção de 200g/1L de água destilada resultando no extrato bruto (100%. A partir do extrato bruto foram feitas as diluições de 80%, 60%, 40% e 20%, sendo utilizado como testemunha apenas água destilada. Após análise estatística (Tukey 5% de probabilidade, pode-se verificar que o extrato aquoso das

  7. Cultivares de soja sob plantio direto em Latossolo Vermelho compactado = Soybean cultivars under no-till on a compacted oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neyde Fabíola Balarezo Giarola

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O processo de compactação pode modificar os atributos físicos do solo a ponto de limitar o potencial genético de desenvolvimento de culturas agrícolas ou de cultivares mais sensíveis. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, em Latossolo Vermelho Eutroférrico típico, a resposta de parâmetros de produção de cultivares de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill e atributos físicos do solo ao sistema plantio direto em condições de lavoura e com compactação adicional. O estudo foi conduzido na C-Vale Cooperativa Agroindustrial, em Palotina, Estado do Paraná. Foram avaliados dois tratamentos de solo: sistema plantio direto sem compactação adicional (SPD-C0 e sistema plantio direto com compactação adicional (PD-C1, e cinco cultivares de soja: (1 Coodetec 204, (2 Coodetec 215, (3 Monsoy 5942,(4 Embrapa 48 e (5 Spring. Adotou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 5 X 2. Os atributos de solo avaliados foram: densidade do solo, porosidade total, macro e microporosidade. Nas plantas, foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: fitomassa seca, altura de plantas, altura de inserção da primeira vagem, massa demil grãos e produtividade. Os resultados demonstraram que as variáveis de produção das cultivares de soja não foram influenciados pelos diferentes níveis de compactação do solo, e as diferenças observadas se deveram às características das próprias cultivares.The compaction process can promote changes in the physical attributes of soil, to the point of limiting the genetic potential for the development of more sensitive agricultural crops or cultivars. Thegoal of this study was to evaluate, on a clayed Red Latosol (Oxisol, the response of production parameters of different varieties of soybean (Glycine max and physical attributes of soil under tillage farming, and with additional compression. The study was conducted at C-Valley Agroindustrial Cooperative, in Palotina (Paraná State. Two treatments

  8. Alterações de atributos químicos e biológicos de solo e rendimento de milho e soja pela utilização de resíduos de curtume e carbonífero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira A. S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Resíduos gerados por curtumes e pela exploração de carvão mineral são produtos potencialmente poluentes em várias regiões do Brasil, principalmente nos estados do Rio Grande do Sul e de Santa Catarina. O presente trabalho foi realizado no campo com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adição de resíduos de curtume e rejeito carbonífero sobre o solo e sobre as plantas cultivadas em um Argissolo Vermelho distrófico típico da Estação Experimental Agronômica da UFRGS, localizada no município de Eldorado do Sul (RS. O experimento foi realizado no ano agrícola de 1996/97, em parcelas de 70 m², cultivando-se soja (Glycine max L. Merrill e milho (Zea mays L.. Tratamentos com a adição de 21,3 e 42,5 t ha-1 de lodo de curtume (LC com adubação fosfatada e potássica na forma mineral foram comparados com o tratamento com adubação mineral completa (NPK mais correção da acidez do solo e com a testemunha absoluta. Foram estudados também: (a adição de resíduo carbonífero (106 t ha-1 mais adubação mineral; (b resíduo carbonífero (106 t ha-1 mais lodo de curtume (21,3 t ha-1 com adubação fosfatada e potássica; (c serragem cromada (29 t ha-1 mais adubação mineral (NPK, e (d Cr mineral (125 kg ha-1 mais lodo de curtume (21,3 t ha-1 com adubação fosfatada e potássica. Foram avaliadas as alterações químicas e biológicas do solo, bem como os efeitos da aplicação dos resíduos sobre o rendimento e absorção de metais pelas plantas. A adição de LC aumentou o valor de pH e o teor de Ca trocável do solo. Não foram constatadas alterações nas concentrações dos metais Cu, Cd, Pb e Ni no solo, aumentando, entretanto, significativamente os teores de Cr. A atividade microbiana avaliada pela produção de CO2 foi estimulada pela adição dos resíduos, mas a população de bactérias, fungos e ctinomicetos não foi afetada. A adição de LC propiciou rendimentos de soja e milho semelhantes aos com adição de fertilizante

  9. Complex history of admixture during citrus domestication revealed by genome analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, G. Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aur& #233; lio,; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Fabbro, Cristian Del; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco; Estornell, Leandro H.; Mu?oz-Sanz, Juan V.; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; P& #233; rez, Juli& #225; n P& #233; rez,; Ramon, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, Francois; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G.; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astua, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-06-30

    vulnerable to disease outbreaks, including citrus greening disease (also known as Huanglongbing) that is rapidly spreading throughout the world's major citrus producing regions1. Understanding the population genomics and domestication of citrus will enable strategies for improvements to citrus including resistance to greening and other diseases. The domestication and distribution of edible citrus types began several thousand years ago in Southeast Asia and spread globally following ancient land and sea routes. The lineages that gave rise to most modern cultivated varieties, however, are lost in undocumented antiquity, and their identities remain controversial2, 3. Several features of Citrus biology and cultivation make deciphering these origins difficult. Cultivated varieties are typically propagated clonally by grafting and through asexual seed production (apomixis via nucellar polyembryony) to maintain desirable combinations of traits (Fig. 1). Thus many important cultivar groups have characteristic basic genotypes that presumably arose through interspecific hybridization and/or successive introgressive hybridizations of wild ancestral species. These domestication events predated the global expansion of citrus cultivation by hundreds or perhaps thousands of years, with no record of the domestication process. Diversity within such groups arises through accumulated somatic mutations, generally without sexual recombination, either as limb sports on trees or variants among apomictic seedling progeny. Two wild species are believed to have contributed to domesticated pummelos, mandarins and oranges. Based on morphology and genetic markers, pummelos have generally been identified with the wild species C. maxima (Burm.) Merrill that is indigenous to Southeast Asia. Although mandarins are similarly widely identified with the species C. reticulata Blanco 4-6, wild populations of C. reticulata have not been definitively described. Various authors have taken dif

  10. Controle de plantas daninhas em soja com doses reduzidas de herbicidas Soybean weed control with reduced rates of herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson G. Fleck

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available doses reduzidas dos herbicidas haloxyfop-methyl e sethoxydim para controlar papuã [Brachiaria plantaginea (Link Hitchc.] na cultura da soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill. Haloxyfop-methyl foi testado nas doses de 120, 90, 60 e 30+30 g/ha; já sethoxydim o foi nas doses de 220, 165, 110 e 55+55 g/ha. A pulverização dos herbicidas ocorreu 15 dias após a semeadura da soja; nesta ocasião, a maioria das plantas de papuã encontravam-se no estádio de três a quatro folhas. Os tratamentos herbicidas com doses reduzidas em aplicações seqüenciais, tiveram a segunda pulverização realizada 11 dias após a primeira aplicação. Foi obtido controle ao redor de 95% para todos os tratamentos, com pequenas variações não significativas. O rendimento de grãos de soja foi equivalente entre a testemunha capinada e os tratamentos haloxyfop-methyl a 90 e 60 g/ha, sethoxydim a 220, 110 e 55+55 g/ha. Os demais tratamentos foram semelhantes entre si, superando a testemunha infestada, a qual apresentou o menor rendimento de grãos. Os resultados evidenciam a viabilidade da utilização de doses reduzidas, as quais podem alcançar patamares de produtividade tão elevados quanto aqueles obtidos com doses plenas.During the 1993/94 growing season, it was carried out a field experiment at the Agronomic Experimental Station of Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, in Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil, in order to evaluate the possibility of using reduced rates of the herbicides haloxyfop-methyl and sethoxydim for Alexandergrass [Brachiaria plafitaginea (Link Hitchc.] control in soybeans. Haloxyfop-methyl was tested at 120, 90, 60, and 30+30 g/ha, where as sethoxydim was at rates, of 220, 165, 110, and 55+55 g/ha. Herbicide spraying occurred 15 days after soybean sowing; at this time Alexandergrass plants ranged from one leaf to one tiller. Herbicide treatments using reduced rates in sequential applications had the second spraying accomplished 11 days after the first one

  11. EDITORIAL: World Year of Physics 2005 Focus on Photoemission and Electronic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    , ultra-precise clocks and, at some point, maybe true nanomachines. Focus on Nano-electromechanical Systems Contents Thermomechanical noise limits on parametric sensing with nanomechanical resonators A Cleland Dynamics of a nanomechanical resonator coupled to a superconducting single-electron transistor M Blencowe, J Imbers and A Armour Simple models suffice for the single dot quantum shuttle A Donarini, T Novotny and A-P Jauho Quantum nano-electromechanics with electrons, quasiparticles and Cooper pairs: effective bath descriptions and strong feedback effects A Clerk and S Bennett Nuclear wave function interference in single-molecule electron transport M R Wegewijs and K C Nowack Self-excitation in nanoelectromechanical charge shuttles below the field emission regime F Rüting, A Erbe and C Weiss Formation of micro-tubes from strained SiGe/Si heterostructures H Qin, N Shaji, N E Merrill, H S Kim, R C Toonen, R H Blick, M M Roberts, D Savage, M G Lagally and G Celler Spin-controlled nanoelectromechanics in magnetic NEM-SET systems L Y Gorelik, D Fedorets, R I Shekhter and M Jonson Coupling between electronic transport and longitudinal phonons in suspended nanotubes S Sapmaz, P Jarillo-Herrero, Ya M Blanter and H van der Zant Phonon-assisted tunneling in interacting suspended single wall carbon nanotubes W Izumida and M Grifoni Theoretical and experimental investigations of three-terminal carbon nanotube relays S Axelsson, E E B Campbell, L M Jonsson, J M Kinaret, S W Lee, Y W Park and M Sveningsson Quantum dots in Si/SiGe 2DEGs with Schottky top-gated leads K A Slinker, K L M Lewis, C C Haselby, S Goswami, L J Klein, J O Chu, S N Coppersmith and R Joynt VHF, UHF and microwave frequency nanomechanical resonators X M H Huang, X L Feng, C A Zorman, M Mehregany and M Roukes Robert H Blick, University of Wisconsin at Madison, USA Milena Grifoni, Universität Regensburg, Germany

  12. Carbon stocks quantification in agricultural systems employing succession and rotation of crops in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Michele K. C.; Marinho, Mara de A.; Denardin, José E.; Zullo, Jurandir, Jr.; Paz-González, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Soil and vegetation constitute respectively the third and the fourth terrestrial reservoirs of Carbon (C) on Earth. C sequestration in these reservoirs includes the capture of the CO2 from the atmosphere by photosynthesis and its storage as organic C. Consequently, changes in land use and agricultural practices affect directly the emissions of the greenhouse gases and the C sequestration. Several studies have already demonstrated that conservation agriculture, and particularly zero tillage (ZT), has a positive effect on soil C sequestration. The Brazilian federal program ABC (Agriculture of Low Carbon Emission) was conceived to promote agricultural production with environmental protection and represents an instrument to achieve voluntary targets to mitigate emissions or NAMAS (National Appropriated Mitigation Actions). With financial resources of about US 1.0 billion until 2020 the ABC Program has a target of expand ZT in 8 million hectares of land, with reduction of 16 to 20 million of CO2eq. Our objective was to quantify the C stocks in soil, plants and litter of representative grain crops systems under ZT in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Two treatments of a long term experimental essay (> 20 years) were evaluated: 1) Crop succession with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merril); 2) Crop rotation with wheat/soybean (1st year), vetch (Vicia sativa L.)/soybean (2nd year), and white oat (Avena sativa L.)/sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) (3rd year). C quantification in plants and in litter was performed using the direct method of biomass quantification. The soil type evaluated was a Humic Rhodic Hapludox, and C quantification was executed employing the method referred by "C mass by unit area". Results showed that soybean plants under crop succession presented greater C stock (4.31MgC ha-1) comparing with soybean plants cultivated under crop rotation (3.59 MgC ha-1). For wheat, however, greater C stock was quantified in plants under rotation

  13. Genotype x year interaction for cooking time and its correlation with mass and imbibition percentage on food type soybean/ Interação genótipo x ano para tempo de cozimento e sua correlação com a massa e percentagem de embebição em soja tipo alimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Paranzini Faria

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is second in soybean world production and it is responsable for 26.8% of the global production. Soybean grains have 40% of protein and 20% of oil. Soybean grains are rich in isoflavones, which prevent degenerative cronic diseases. With the increasing use of soybean for human consumption, there is necessity to study how the environment effects the grain technological characteristics. Many technological processes in soybean industrialization involve imbibition and cooking. The objective of this work was to select soybean genotypes for human consumption, by determining cooking time and its correlation with mass and grain imbibition percentages, taking into consideration genotype, agricultural year and their interaction. The following traits were determined: weight of one hundred seeds, imbibition percentage and cooking time. Cooking time was measured by a modified Mattson Machine. Significant differences (O Brasil é o segundo produtor mundial de soja (Glycine Max (L. Merrill, sendo responsável por 26,8% da safra global. A soja possuí 40% de proteína e 20% de óleo. A soja é rica em isoflavonas, as quais atuam na prevenção de doenças crônicas degenerativas. Com o crescente uso da soja na alimentação humana, há necessidade de se estudar como o ambiente influencia nas características tecnológicas do grão. Muitos dos processos tecnológicos de industrialização da soja possuem como ponto inicial a hidratação e posterior cozimento da soja. O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar genótipos de soja para o consumo humano, através da determinação do tempo de cozimento e sua correlação com a massa e percentagem de embebição dos grãos, levando-se em consideração genótipo, ano agrícola e sua interação. Foram determinados os seguintes caracteres: massa de cem grãos, percentagem de embebição e tempo de cozimento. O tempo de cozimento foi determinado por meio da Máquina de Mattson adaptada. Foram encontradas diferen

  14. Fertilization types and times of evaluation in health and viability of seeds of vegetable soybeans=Tipos de adubação e épocas de avaliação na sanidade e viabilidade de sementes de soja-hortaliça

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Maria Espíndola Lima

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of vegetable soybeans (Glycine max (L. Merrill, the same species as the common soybean, have some special characteristics, such as: flavor, texture differentiated for use as vegetable, being consumed when the seeds are still immature at the R6 stage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of five types of fertilization and evaluation times in the health and viability of seeds of vegetable soybeans cultivar BRS 258, and lineage BR 9452273. The experimental design was a randomized block, 5 x 2 factorial design with four replications. The factors consisted of five types of fertilizer and two evaluation periods (after harvest and the twelve months of storage. For treatments with twelve months of storage, the seeds of vegetable soybeans of both genotypes were stored in polyethylene bottles terephthalate (Pet. Seeds were subjected to stringent health and germination tests. The average reduction in seed quality during storage was 4% for BRS 258 and 23% for BR 9452273. The reduction in seed quality of the two genotypes was not affected by the fertilization method used, nor by pathogens and bacteria saprophytes, but by the storage in polyethylene terephthalate bottles for 12 months=As sementes de soja-hortaliça, mesma espécie da soja comum, possuem características especiais, tais como: sabor, textura diferenciada para utilização na alimentação humana como hortaliça, quando as sementes estão imaturas, no estádio R6. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de cinco tipos de adubação e duas épocas de avaliação na sanidade e a viabilidade de sementes de soja-hortaliça, cultivar BRS 258 e linhagem BR 9452273. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial (5 x 2, com quatro repetições. Os fatores consistiram de cinco tipos de adubação e duas épocas de avaliação (após a colheita e aos doze meses de armazenamento. Para os tratamentos com doze meses de armazenamento, as

  15. Downwind changes in grain size of aeolian dust; examples from marine and terrestrial archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuut, Jan-Berend; Prins, Maarten

    2013-04-01

    references Betzer, P.R., Carder, K.L., Duce, R.A., Merrill, J.T., Tindale, N.W., Uematsu, M., Costello, D.K., Young, R.W., Feely, R.A., Breland, J.A., Bernstein, R.E., Greco, A.M., 1988. Long-range transport of giant mineral aerosol particles. Nature 336, 568. Claquin, T., Roelandt, C., Kohfeld, K.E., Harrison, S.P., Tegen, I., C., P.I., Balkanski, Y., Bergametti, G., Hansson, M., Mahowald, N.M., Rodhe, H., Schulz, M., 2003. Radiative forcing of climate by ice-age atmospheric dust. Climate Dynamics 20, 193-202. Holz, C., Stuut, J.-B.W., Henrich, R., 2004. Terrigenous sedimentation processes along the continental margin off NW-Africa: implications from grain-size analyses of surface sediments. Sedimentology 51, 1145-1154. Otto, S., de Reus, M., Trautmann, T., Thomas, A., Wendisch, M., Borrmann, S., 2007. Atmospheric radiative effects of an in situ measured Saharan dust plume and the role of large particles. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 4887-4903. Prins, M.A., Weltje, G.J., 1999. End-member modeling of siliciclastic grain-size distributions: the Late Quaternary record of eolian and fluvial sediment supply to the Arabian Sea and its paleoclimatic significance., in: Harbaugh, J., Watney, L., Rankey, G., Slingerland, R., Goldstein, R., Franseen, E. (Eds.), Numerical experiments in stratigraphy: Recent advances in stratigraphic and sedimentologic computer simulations. SEPM Special Publication 62. Society for Sedimentary Geology, pp. 91-111. Prins, M.A., Vriend, M., 2007, Glacial and interglacial eolian dust dispersal patterns across the Chinese Loess Plateau inferred from decomposed loess grain-size records. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems (G-cubed), 8, Q07Q05, doi:10.1029/2006GC001563. Prins, M.A., Vriend, M., Nugteren, G., Vandenberghe, J., Lu, H., Zheng, H., Jan Weltje, G., 2007. Late Quaternary aeolian dust input variability on the Chinese Loess Plateau: inferences from unmixing of loess grain-size records. Quaternary Science Reviews 26, 230-242. Prins, M.A., Zheng, H., Beets, K

  16. Obituary: Benjamin Franklin Peery Jr. (1922-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Charles

    2011-12-01

    brings up several hundred abstracts. He is remembered warmly by his departmental colleagues. R. K. Honeycutt writes: Those of us who overlapped with Ben at Indiana have only good memories about a good friend. He was a fine stellar astronomer who I remember most fondly from our lunchtime conversations. We talked about astronomy, politics, university issues, the arts, and human development/human nature. With Ben the conversation was always about ideas, not events or people. He was a scholar in the best Univ tradition--I learned a lot from Ben about being part of a University community. His interests remained focused on cool giant stars, like VV Cephei, but moved to the study of systems where the radioactive element technetium could be identified in the spectrum. This observation, first made by Paul Merrill, proved that nuclear transformations involving trans-iron peak elements were taking place in stars, and was a keystone of the theory of nucleosynthesis. Nucleosynthesis and stellar structure were the main fields of his research career. In 1977, Ben joined the faculty of Howard University. Shortly before his departure from Bloomington, IN, he told me that the new move would mean less time for research, and more emphasis on teaching, services, and efforts to bring more African Americans into scientific careers. Ben was only the second African American PhD in astronomy, and felt a responsibility to increase that number and to improve educational opportunities generally for the African Americans. He had been involved with the National Science Teacher's Association's (ASTA) Elementary School Science Program when he was at Indiana. At Howard, he was principal investigator on a NASA grant which led to the development of research and teaching facilities for astronomy. The grant supported both colleagues and students who were able to carry out summer research projects at Goddard Space Flight Center. One of the Howard students supported by this grant, Professor Araya Asfaw, is now

  17. Effect of Zinc and Salicylic acid Foliar Application on Quantitative and Qualititative Characteristics of Soybean under Deficit Irrigation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Zarei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merrill is a leguminous annual crop belonging to the Fabaceae family, that because an important source of food containing 20 to 28 grain oil percent and high protein is the most important oilseed of worldwide interest. Recently, cultivation of this plant is considered as a valuable oil plant in crop rotation. Drought, salinity, heat and freezing are environmental conditions that cause adverse effects on the growth of plants. Water deficit more than other stresses limits the growth of crops. Yield of soybean decreased due to drought stress. The consumption of fertilizers increases the quality of crops. According to the findings of Yasari and Vahedi (2012 use of Zn in soil and foliar application has an increasing effect on the percentage and the amount of oil and protein in soybean product. The role of salicylic acid (SA is reducing the effects of environmental stresses. It appears that water stress impairs plants and zinc alleviates water stress injuries. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of water stress, zinc and salicylic acid foliar application on oil and grain protein percentage and their relation with oil and protein yield of soybean. Materials and Methods This study was carried out in the agricultural garden of Lorestan-Iran, in 2013. The meteorological data of the region are representing in Table 2. The soil was clay-loam texture (Table 1. The experiment was performed using Split factorial in a randomized complete block design with four replications. In this study, main factor was two levels of irrigation regimes: after 60 (optimum irrigation and 120 mm (stress evaporation from evaporation pan class A and subplot were considered combination of zinc foliar application (Zero and 1 L/ha, in two levels and salicylic acid (0, 0.5 and 1 mM. All statistical analyses were carried out using SAS software and the correlation was done using MSTAT-C program. Results and Discussion In the

  18. Obituary: William F. M. Buscombe, 1918-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taam, Ronald Everett; Bahng, John D. R.

    2003-12-01

    in the spectra of long period variable stars with Paul Merrill. In 1952 Bill took an astronomer staff position at the Commonwealth Observatory (later called the Mount Stromlo Observatory). When it became part of the Australian National University in Canberra, Australia, he became a professor of astronomy. Until 1968, Bill observed the stars in the southern hemisphere measuring their radial velocities and classifying them spectroscopically. His research spanned over several directions including studies of the atmospheres of cool giant stars, the Magellanic clouds, novae, and galactic structure. His work led him to become one of the first astronomers to undertake spectral classifications of stars in the southern hemisphere. Bill briefly returned to the US as a visiting professor in astronomy at the University of Pennsylvania from 1964--1965 and permanently relocated to the US in 1968. Bill was persuaded to leave Australia to join the faculty at Northwestern University as Professor of Astronomy by J. Allen Hynek, the then chair of the department. At that time, the Lindheimer Observatory had been constructed on the Evanston campus and the installation of a new Coudé spectrograph for the 1-meter reflector was planned. However, due to budgetary constraints the Coudé project (estimated at the time to be on the order of 1 million dollars) had to be scrapped and a more modest Cassegrain spectrograph was installed instead. Having lost an opportunity to carry on his favorite research field of high dispersion spectroscopy, Bill settled down to concentrate on teaching the art of astronomical spectroscopy and supervising several PhD students in their research. During the subsequent years he continued and expanded his earlier efforts with Pamela Kennedy in Australia of compiling a photometric and spectroscopic database forming the early basis for his spectral catalogs. He was appointed emeritus professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy upon his retirement in 1988. Bill

  19. Studying the glial cell response to biomaterials and surface topography for improving the neural electrode interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ereifej, Evon S.

    Neural electrode devices hold great promise to help people with the restoration of lost functions, however, research is lacking in the biomaterial design of a stable, long-term device. Current devices lack long term functionality, most have been found unable to record neural activity within weeks after implantation due to the development of glial scar tissue (Polikov et al., 2006; Zhong and Bellamkonda, 2008). The long-term effect of chronically implanted electrodes is the formation of a glial scar made up of reactive astrocytes and the matrix proteins they generate (Polikov et al., 2005; Seil and Webster, 2008). Scarring is initiated when a device is inserted into brain tissue and is associated with an inflammatory response. Activated astrocytes are hypertrophic, hyperplastic, have an upregulation of intermediate filaments GFAP and vimentin expression, and filament formation (Buffo et al., 2010; Gervasi et al., 2008). Current approaches towards inhibiting the initiation of glial scarring range from altering the geometry, roughness, size, shape and materials of the device (Grill et al., 2009; Kotov et al., 2009; Kotzar et al., 2002; Szarowski et al., 2003). Literature has shown that surface topography modifications can alter cell alignment, adhesion, proliferation, migration, and gene expression (Agnew et al., 1983; Cogan et al., 2005; Cogan et al., 2006; Merrill et al., 2005). Thus, the goals of the presented work are to study the cellular response to biomaterials used in neural electrode fabrication and assess surface topography effects on minimizing astrogliosis. Initially, to examine astrocyte response to various materials used in neural electrode fabrication, astrocytes were cultured on platinum, silicon, PMMA, and SU-8 surfaces, with polystyrene as the control surface. Cell proliferation, viability, morphology and gene expression was measured for seven days in vitro. Results determined the cellular characteristics, reactions and growth rates of astrocytes

  20. Legumes and forage species sole or intercropped with corn in soybean-corn succession in midwestern Brazil Espécies leguminosas e forrageiras, solteiras ou consorciadas com milho, na sucessão soja-milho no centro-oeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessí Ceccon

    2013-02-01

    . com uma espécie forrageira. O trabalho foi implantado em março de 2005 com o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade de resíduos das espécies e de grãos de soja (Glycine max L. Merrill e de milho safrinha em sucessão. Foram avaliados tratamentos de milho safrinha consorciado com Brachiaria (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisk, B. ruziziensis cv. comum, Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, crotalaria juncea (Crotalaria juncea L., guandu [Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp], e também o sorgo (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench, a B. ruziziensis e o milho safrinha solteiro. Em outubro de 2005, as espécies foram dessecadas com glyphosate e a soja semeada. Após a colheita de soja em março de 2006, o milho safrinha foi cultivado em área total. O rendimento de grãos e palha de milho não foi influenciado pela espécie em consórcio. A massa seca da parte aérea foi maior quando o milho foi consorciado com Tanzânia (10,7 Mg ha-1, Marandu (10,1 Mg ha-1 e Ruziziensis (9,8 Mg ha-1 do que com o milho solteiro (4,0 Mg ha-1. Nos tratamentos consorciados, houve aumento na porcentagem de solo coberto com os resíduos vegetais. O rendimento de grãos de soja e milho safrinha em sucessão foram maiores na ruziziensis solteira e no milho safrinha consorciado com ruziziensis. O cultivo de milho safrinha consorciado com Brachiaria spp. ou com Panicum spp. aumenta a produção de resíduos culturais, preserva os nutrientes no solo sem reduzir a produtividade do milho e viabiliza o plantio direto no Centro-Oeste do Brasil.

  1. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    &E potential of fusion can be attained by prudent materials selection, judicious design choices, and integration of safety requirements into the design of the facility. To achieve this goal, S&E research is focused on understanding the behaviour of the largest sources of radioactive and hazardous materials in a fusion facility, understanding how energy sources in a fusion facility could mobilize those materials, developing integrated state-of-the-art S&E computer codes and risk tools for safety assessment, and evaluating and improving fusion facility design in terms of accident safety, worker safety, and waste disposal. There are three papers considering safety issues of the test blanket modules (TBM) producing tritium to be installed in ITER. These modules represent different concepts of demonstration fusion power facilities (DEMO). L. Boccaccini et al (Germany) analyses the possibility of jeopardizing the ITER safety under specific accidents in the European helium-cooled pebble-bed TBM, e.g. pressurization of the vacuum vessel (VV), hydrogen production from the Be-steam reaction, the possible interconnection between the port cell and VV causing air ingress. Safety analysis is also presented for Chinese TBM with a helium-cooled solid breeder to be tested in ITER by Z. Chen et al (China). Radiological inventories, afterheat, waste disposal ratings, electromagnetic characteristics, LOCA and tritium safety management are considered. An overview of a preliminary safety analysis performed for a US proposed TBM is presented by B. Merrill et al (USA). This DEMO relevant dual coolant liquid lead-lithium TBM has been explored both in the USA and EU. T. Pinna et al (Italy) summarize the six-year development of a failure rate database for fusion specific components on the basis of data coming from operating experience gained in various fusion laboratories. The activity began in 2001 with the study of the Joint European Torus vacuum and active gas handling systems. Two years later the

  2. List of Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    de Física Teórica, Madrid Aaron Sim Imperial College, London Woojoo Sim Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH) Sergey Slizovskiy Department of Theoretical Physics, Uppsala University Paul Smyth Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Corneliu Sochichiu Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati Dmitri Sorokin Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padova Kellogg Stelle Imperial College, London Piotr Surowka Jagiellonian University, Krakow Yasutoshi Takayama Niels Bohr Institute, København Laura Tamassia Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Radu Tatar University of Liverpool Larus Thorlacius University of Iceland Paavo Tiitola Helsinki Institute of Physics Diego Trancanelli Stony Brook University, NY Michele TraplettiInstitut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg Mario Trigiante Politecnico di Torino Angel Uranga CERN, Geneva and Instituto de Física Teórica, Madrid Roberto Valandro SISSA, Trieste Dieter Van den Bleeken Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Antoine Van Proeyen Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Thomas Van Riet Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen Pierre Vanhove Service de Physique Théorique, Saclay Oscar Varela Universidad de Valencia Alessandro Vichi Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa Massimiliano VinconQueen Mary, University of London John Ward Queen Mary, University of London and CERN, Geneva Brian Wecht Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA Marlene Weiss Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zürich and CERN, Geneva Sebastian Weiss Université de Neuchâtel Alexander Wijns Vrije Universiteit, Brussel Przemek Witaszczyk Jagiellonian University, Krakow Timm Wrase University of Texas at Austin Jun-Bao Wu SISSA, Trieste Amos Yarom Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München Marco Zagermann Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Daniela Zanon Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Milano Andrea Zanzi University of Bonn Andrey Zayakin Moscow State University (MSU) and Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP

  3. List of Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    teborg Cornelius Schmidt-ColinetEidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Johannes SchmudeSwansea University Waldemar SchulginLaboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, Paris Domenico SeminaraUniversità di Firenze Alexander SevrinVrije Universiteit, Brussel Konstadinos SfetsosUniversity of Patras Igor ShenderovichSt Petersburg State University Jonathan ShockUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Massimo SianiUniversità di Milano-Bicocca Christoph SiegUniversità Degli Studi di Milano Joan SimonUniversity of Edinburgh Paul SmythUniversity of Hamburg Luca SommovigoUniversidad de Valencia Dmitri Sorokin Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padova Christos SourdisUniversity of Patras Wieland StaessensVrije Universiteit, Brussel Ivan StefanovUniversity of Patras Sigurdur StefanssonUniversity of Iceland Kellogg Stelle Imperial College London Giovanni Tagliabue Università di Milano Laura Tamassia Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Javier TarrioUniversidade de Santiago de Compostela Dimitri TerrynVrije Universiteit, Brussel Larus Thorlacius University of Iceland Mario ToninDipartimento Di Fisica, Sezione Di Padova Mario Trigiante Politecnico di Torino Efstratios TsatisUniversity of Patras Arkady TseytlinImperial College London Pantelis TziveloglouCornell University, New York and CERN, Geneva Angel Uranga CERN, Geneva Dieter Van den Bleeken Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Ernst van Eijk Università di Napoli Federico II Antoine Van Proeyen Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Maaike van ZalkUtrecht University Pierre Vanhove Service de Physique Théorique, CEA Saclay Silvia Vaula Instituto de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid Cristian Vergu Service de Physique Théorique, CEA Saclay Alessandro VichiÉcole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Marlene WeissCERN, Geneva and Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich Sebastian Weiss Université de Neuchâtel Alexander WijnsUniversity of Iceland Linus WulffUniversity of Padova Thomas

  4. PERSPECTIVE: REDD pilot project scenarios: are costs and benefits altered by spatial scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.

    2009-09-01

    Kimberly M Carlson Payments for reducing carbon emissions due to deforestation and degradation (REDD) have garnered considerable global interest and investments. These financial incentives aim to alter the drivers of land use change by reducing opportunity costs of retaining forest cover, and are often promoted as multipartite solutions that not only generate profits and reduce carbon emissions but provide benefits for human development and biodiversity. Currently, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is debating a post-Kyoto protocol with national or sub-national emission reduction targets. Anticipating the inclusion of REDD in this agreement, >80% of pilot REDD projects are being established in tropical regions (table 1). While the capacity of REDD projects to meet their stated objectives must be assessed post- implementation, land use change models are powerful tools for generating potential outcomes from these pilot initiatives. Table 1. Extent and emissions reductions for all REDD projects as reported by Ecosystem Marketplace, which maintains a comprehensive and up-to-date inventory of REDD projects that are selling credits and/or are verified by a third-party verifier. Adapted from Forest Carbon Portal (2009). Geographical zoneContinentProjects (#) Area (km2) Emissions reductions (Mt C) Tropical and Subtropical Africa2775019.50 Asia28100109.60 South America 9183 880278.24 TemperateAustralia1140.18 North America115N/A Totals15199 759407.52 In this issue of ERL, Gaveau et al (2009) use a spatially-explicit model to explore the potential of a REDD pilot project in northern Sumatra, Indonesia, to reduce deforestation and conserve orangutan biodiversity. This project is conceived by the Provincial Government of Aceh, financed by Merrill Lynch, and co-managed by carbon trading firm Carbon Conservation and NGO Flora and Fauna International. Project managers estimate CO2 emissions reductions at 3.4 Mt y-1 over 30 years across a 7500 km2

  5. The remarkable Red Rectangle: A Stairway to Heaven?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    responsible for the striking red colour of the Rectangle is not yet clear, but it is likely that they are some kind of hydrocarbon formed in the cool outflows from the central star. Another remarkable feature of the Red Rectangle, visible only with the superb resolution of the Hubble telescope, is the dark band passing across the central star. This is the shadow of a dense disc of dust that surrounds the star and obscures it from direct view. The light we see streams out along the axis of the disc, and is scattered towards us by dust particles. Astronomers have found that the central star is actually a close pair of stars orbiting each other with a period of about 10.5 months. Interactions between these stars have probably caused the ejection of the thick dust disc that obscures our view of the binary. The disc then funnels subsequent dust and gas outflows out along its axis, forming the bizarre bi-conical structure we see as the rung of the Red Rectangle. The reasons for these fresh periodic ejections of more gas and dust remain unknown. The Red Rectangle was first discovered during a rocket flight in the early 1970s, in which astronomers were searching for strong sources of infrared radiation. This infrared source lies about 2300 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Monoceros. Stars surrounded by clouds of dust are often strong infrared sources because the dust is heated by the starlight and then re-radiates long-wavelength red light. Studies of HD 44179 with ground-based telescopes revealed a rectangular shape in the dust surrounding the star at the centre, leading to the name 'Red Rectangle', coined in 1973 by astronomers Martin Cohen and Mike Merrill. This image was made from observations taken on 17-18 March 1999 with Hubble’s Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

  6. Fire as a natural and human factor shaping the Mediterranean Ecosystems. The Montgó forest fire and the teaching for the Geograns (older than 55) students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; Arcenegui, Victoria; Jordán, Antonio; Úbeda, Xavier; Pereira, Paulo

    2015-04-01

    ., Zavala, L. M. 2015. Modelling the impacts of wildfire on ash in a short-term period. Land Degradation & Development.| DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2195 Pérez-Cabello, F., Cerdà, A., de la Riva, J., Echeverría, M.T., García-Martín, A., Ibarra, P., Lasanta, T., Montorio, R., Palacios, V. 2012. Micro-scale post-fire surface cover changes monitored using high spatial resolution photography in a semiarid environment: A useful tool in the study of post-fire soil erosion processes, Journal of Arid Environments, 76: 88-96. 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2011.08.007 Pérez-Cabello, F., Cerdà, A., de la Riva, J., Echeverría, M.T., García-Martín, A., Ibarra, P., Lasanta, T., Montorio, R., Palacios, V. 2012. Micro-scale post-fire surface cover changes monitored using high spatial resolution photography in a semiarid environment: A useful tool in the study of post-fire soil erosion processes, Journal of Arid Environments, 76: 88-96. 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2011.08.007 Prats, S.A., Malvar, M.C., Simões-Vieira, D.C., MacDonald, L., Keizer, J.J. 2015. Effectiveness of hydro- mulching to reduce runoff and erosion in a recently burnt pine plantation in central Portugal. Land Degradation & Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2236. Roebroeks, W., Villa, P. 2011. On the earliest evidence for habitual use of fire in Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(13), 5209-5214. Romme, W. H., Boyce, M. S., Gresswell, R., Merrill, E. H., Minshall, G. W., Whitlock, C., Turner, M. G. 2011. Twenty years after the 1988 Yellowstone fires: lessons about disturbance and ecosystems. Ecosystems, 14(7), 1196-1215. Zumbrunnen, T., Menéndez, P., Bugmann, H., Conedera, M., Gimmi, U., Bürgi, M. 2012. Human impacts on fire occurrence: a case study of hundred years of forest fires in a dry alpine valley in Switzerland. Regional Environmental Change, 12(4), 935-949.