WorldWideScience

Sample records for marketing demand-side management

  1. Industrial demand-side management in Canada. In the market for competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, A.

    1995-01-01

    The requirement for demand-side management brought on by increased competitiveness, a consequence of the deregulation of Canadian electric utilities, was discussed. Options for demand-side management were presented. The effect of deregulation on making demand-side management and energy efficiency high priorities in industry was discussed. Coordinated efforts of Power Smart Inc. and utilities in promoting energy efficiency were claimed to be the key to the success of demand-side management in the electric power industry in Canada. Demand-side management programs were expected to enhance productivity of industry by maximizing the value of plant energy use, and by providing industrial customers with a higher level of customer service

  2. Renewable generation versus demand-side management. A comparison for the Spanish market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldán Fernández, Juan Manuel; Burgos Payán, Manuel; Riquelme Santos, Jesús Manuel; Trigo García, Ángel Luis

    2016-01-01

    Conventionally the required instantaneous balance generation-load is achieved by adjusting production to fit variable consumer demand. Nowadays, a significant and increasing segment of generation is renewable. But renewable production cannot be scheduled on request since its generation is dependent on nature (wind, sun, …). In this context, demand-side management (DSM) would help since it would be advisable for part of the flexibility to be provided by the demand. The integration of renewable production and demand-side management (DSM), are compared in this work for Spain throughout 2008–2014. First a qualitative model, based on the linearization of the wholesale market, is employed to explore some hypotheses. A set of scenarios are then examined to quantify the main effects on the market. The results show that DSM exhibits the best performance in terms of economic efficiency and environmental sustainability, as well as for the reduction of load peaks and losses in the system, what suggests the convenience of promoting plans for the replacement of equipment with other more efficient as well as the implementation of real-time tariffs. - Highlights: •The impact of the integration of renewable production versus DSM has been compared. •Merit-order effect related to energy efficiency and to load-shifting is identified. •Large industries achieve energy efficiency with less CAPEX than renewable generation. •Load-shifting cycle yields a reduction of the traded energy and the economic volume.

  3. Power System Transient Stability Improvement Using Demand Side Management in Competitive Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Wang, Chunqi; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead in Denmark, the price could be transferred to the consumers and they may shift some of their loads from high price periods to the low price periods in order to save their energy costs. The optimal load response to an electricity price...... for demand side management generates different load profiles and may provide an opportunity to improve the transient stability of power systems with high wind power penetrations. In this paper, the idea of the power system transient stability improvement by using optimal load response to the electricity...... price is proposed. A 102-bus power system which represents a simplified model of the western Danish power system is chosen as the study case. Simulation results show that the optimal load response to electricity prices is an effective measure to improve the power system transient stability with high...

  4. Electric power market liberalization and demand-side management (DSM); Denryoku shijo jiyuka to DSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yajima, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-30

    This paper explains effects of market liberalization which will lead to introducing competition in electric power business on demand-side management (DSM), by quoting examples mainly in the United States. The paper also describes the future outlook thereon. The DSM program in the United States has expanded for the period between 1989 through 1994. However, during the last few years, the movements of electric power market liberalization have come to force electric power business entities to change their management strategies and reduction in expense. This situation has resulted in reduction in the DSM budget. Future DSM programs are thought to diversify into the following types: a program such as load management which has effect of reducing expenses and investments in investment time periods of 5 to 10 years, a program effective for users such as high-efficiency motors which have effects of reducing expenses and improving efficiency in investment time periods of 3 to 5 years, a program which will be effective enough if market barriers are removed after the market conversions, but requires subsidies and purchase guarantees, and a social program intended for environmental effects and low-income users. 4 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Demand Side Management in a competitive European market: Who should be responsible for its implementation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didden, Marcel H.; D'Haeseleer, William D.

    2003-01-01

    Demand side management (DSM), more specifically energy efficiency, is standing in the spotlight due to the Kyoto commitments. An additional factor, the liberalization of the electricity markets, causes every country to review its own DSM activities. Especially in Europe, where the directive for opening the electricity market has a direct impact on the current DSM frameworks, governments will have to consider a change in this framework. In order to achieve this, much research has been done in the past years on how to change the DSM framework in a way that the requirements of both liberalization and the Kyoto Protocol will be met. In this paper, we review the current DSM activities and ongoing research from the starting point 'who should be responsible for implementing DSM'. We conclude that countries have to make explicit choices on how to arrange their DSM activities for the different customers groups. They have to be aware of the fact that some combinations of DSM activities will lead to counter-productive results and therefore inefficiency. This paper also investigates which of these DSM activities fits best in the open market; a critical review of Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) is used as a starting point. We agree with various proponents of IRP that planning towards minimal societal costs is theoretically appropriate, looking from a societal point of view. We also indicate in this paper that the planning process IRP is partly applicable in the open market. But looking at the practical application of IRP in the past, we must conclude that there are better alternatives for achieving energy efficient goals in a liberalized market

  6. Why commercial customers are SIC of DSM [demand-side management] marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Studies have shown that the success of demand management programs, which have demonstrated economic benefits, depends on the level of customer participation. In order to have a better understanding of the decisionmaking process of commercial customers with respect to demand management programs, a study was undertaken to determine the preferences and the behavior of this class of clientele. This clientele, whose power consumption has been increasing at a faster rate than that of other sectors, represents a vast range of enterprises producing and supplying all kinds of products. Many of them operate from numerous geographic points on local, regional, national, and even world scales and are generally hierarchically organized. Because of these characteristics, their decisionmaking processes and their needs are equally complex, more so than in the residential sector. A multidimensional approach has been adopted to ensure that their needs are determined according to a quantitative and qualitative research method. The conclusions of the quantitative research have demonstrated that the frameworks representing different organizations respond differently to questions on their needs. It is also noted that certain commercial enterprises are of a cohesive nature (i.e. there is a consistency in understanding of corporate strategic and operational requirements at all hierarchical levels), while others are more diffuse. Those responsible for marketing demand management programs therefore must improve their understanding of the strategic and operational needs of their commercial customers in order to make their demand management programs productive in the view of the appropriate personnel at the hierarchical level applicable to the company concerned

  7. Demand side management in a day-ahead wholesale market: A comparison of industrial & social welfare approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Bo; Farid, Amro M.; Youcef-Toumi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We compare two demand side management in a day-ahead electricity wholesale market. • We develop and reconcile social welfare & industrial DSM mathematical models. • We show the industrial netload has an additional forecast quantity of baseline. • We analytically and numerically show the model equivalence with accurate baseline. • We numerically demonstrate the baseline errors lead to higher and costlier dispatch. - Abstract: The intermittent nature of renewable energy has been discussed in the context of the operational challenges that it brings to electrical grid reliability. Demand side management (DSM) with its ability to allow customers to adjust electricity consumption in response to market signals has often been recognized as an efficient way to mitigate the variable effects of renewable energy as well as to increase system efficiency and reduce system costs. However, the academic & industrial literature have taken divergent approaches to DSM implementation. While the popular approach among academia adopts a social welfare maximization formulation, the industrial practice compensates customers according to their load reduction from a predefined electricity consumption baseline that would have occurred without DSM. This paper rigorously compares these two different approaches in a day-ahead wholesale market context analytically and in a test case using the same system configuration and mathematical formalism. The comparison of the two models showed that a proper reconciliation of the two models might make them mitigate the stochastic netload in fundamentally the same way, but only under very specific conditions which are rarely met in practice. While the social welfare model uses a stochastic net load composed of two terms, the industrial DSM model uses a stochastic net load composed of three terms including the additional baseline term. DSM participants are likely to manipulate the baseline in order to receive greater financial

  8. Feasibility and potential of thermal demand side management in residential buildings considering different developments in the German energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolisz, Henryk; Punkenburg, Carl; Streblow, Rita; Müller, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A scenario analysis for the German energy market in the year 2030 is performed. • Growing demand for flexible electric capacities is identified in all scenarios. • Significant potential for domestic demand side management is identified. • A distinct potential for dynamic operation of domestic supply systems is found. • The necessity for a quick introduction of smart metering and control is found. - Abstract: A transition in the electricity market is required to manage the volatility of increasing renewable energy generation. These fluctuations can be faced with flexible consumption through Demand Side Management (DSM), establishment of further centralized storage capacities and provisioning of dynamic back up generation capacities. At least the latter two options can impose large establishment and operation costs upon the electricity market. Therefore, the feasibility and the resulting potential of coupling the electricity grid with the thermal supply of residential buildings is analysed in this paper. Thereby, inexpensive and widespread thermal storage capacities could be used to improve the integration of dynamic renewable electricity generation. In this paper the technical and economical key impact factors for such thermal DSM approach are elaborated. Based on a literature review, the identified key factors are aggregated to form consistent scenarios of the German “Energiewende” (turnaround in energy policy). The practicability and possible magnitude of the intended DSM is then analysed based on the identified scenarios. All resulting scenarios highlight the growing demand for a flexible electricity market. Especially in scenarios with strong growth of renewable electricity generation, up to 45 GW of flexible electric capacities would be required in Germany by the year 2030. Furthermore, the analysis demonstrates that independently of the energy market development, it is very likely that electricity coupled supply systems will

  9. Communication technologies for demand side management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uuspaeae, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The scope of this research is data communications for electric utilities, specifically for the purposes of Demand Side Management (DSM). Demand Side Management has the objective to change the customer`s end use of energy in a manner that benefits both the customer and the utility. For example, peak demand may be reduced, and the peak demand may be relocated to off peak periods. Thus additional investments in generation and network may be avoided. A number of Demand Side Management functions can be implemented if a communication system is available between the Electric Utility and the Customer. The total communication capacity that is needed, will depend on several factors, such as the functions that are chosen for DSM, and on the number and type of customers. Some functions may be handled with one-way communications, while some other functions need to have two-way communication

  10. Demand Side Management in an Integrated Electricity Market: What are the Impacts on Generation and Environmental Concerns?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergaentzle, Claire; Clastres, Cedric

    2013-05-01

    Smart Grid technology appears necessary to succeed in activating the demand through demand side management (DSM) programs. This would in turn improve energy efficiency and achieve environmental targets through controlled consumption. The many pilot projects led worldwide involving smart grids technology, brought quantitative evaluations of DSM measures on electricity load. Efficient DSM instruments must be fine-tuned to respond to very specific issues arising from the generation mix, the integration of intermittent energies or the level of outage risks faced during peak period. Efficient DSM strategies are illustrated through a model involving five countries that carry these different features and under the assumptions of isolated and fully interconnected markets. This paper aims at bringing recommendations regarding the instruments that should be implemented to maximize the benefits of smart grids technology and demand response. Finally, it tends to emphasis the issue of homogenized energy efficiency policies, critical in the building of internal energy markets such as the one the European Union is envisioning. (authors)

  11. Demand Side Management for Multiple Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    Steering a heterogeneous set of devices in a Smart Grid using cost functions: Demand Side Management (DSM) is an important element in smart grids. DSM is already in operation for large consumers, but thorough research is required into DSM on a building level within the distribution grid.

  12. Demand side management using profile steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Toersche, Hermen; Hoogsteen, Gerwin; van der Klauw, Thijs; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2015-01-01

    Many Demand Side Management (DSM) approaches use energy prices as steering signals. This paper shows that such steering signals may result in power quality problems and high losses. As an alternative, this paper proposes to use desired (e.g., flat) power profiles as steering signals and presents an

  13. Demand side management. Benefits and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strbac, Goran

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the major benefits and challenges of electricity demand side management (DSM) are discussed in the context of the UK electricity system. The relatively low utilisation of generation and networks (of about 50%) means that there is significant scope for DSM to contribute to increasing the efficiency of the system investment. The importance of the diversity of electricity load is discussed and the negative effects of DSM on load diversity illustrated. Ageing assets, the growth in renewable and other low-carbon generation technologies and advances in information and communication technologies are identified as major additional drivers that could lead to wider applications of DSM in the medium term. Potential benefits of DSM are discussed in the context of generation and of transmission and distribution networks. The provision of back-up capacity by generation may not be efficient as it will be needed relatively infrequently, and DSM may be better placed to support security. We also present an analysis of the value of DSM in balancing generation and demand in a future UK electricity system with significant variable renewable generation. We give a number of reasons for the relatively slow uptake of DSM, particularly in the residential, commercial and small business sectors. They include a lack of metering, information and communication infrastructure, lack of understanding of the benefits of DSM, problems with the competitiveness of DSM when compared with traditional approaches, an increase in the complexity of system operation and inappropriate market incentives. (author)

  14. Data model for Demand Side Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Vasilica OPREA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Demand Side Management (DSM is a portfolio of measures to improve the energy system mainly at the consumption level. In this paper we propose a data model for DSM stating from the optimization methods approach in SMARTRADE project from different perspectives of several entities that include: Transmission System Operator (TSO/Distribution System Operators (DSOs perspectives in case of security/reliability concerns: minimum amount of load (or generation shedding; aggregators perspective in case of demand or generation shedding request: Which demand (or generators should be shed?; consumers perspective: load shifting (time-of-use (ToU tariffs and optimum contract strategies with the aggregators (also known as balancing responsible parties- BRP for load shedding.

  15. Industrial demand side management: A status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, M.F.; Conger, R.L.; Foley, T.J. [and others

    1995-05-01

    This report provides an overview of and rationale for industrial demand side management (DSM) programs. Benefits and barriers are described, and data from the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey are used to estimate potential energy savings in kilowatt hours. The report presents types and examples of programs and explores elements of successful programs. Two in-depth case studies (from Boise Cascade and Eli Lilly and Company) illustrate two types of effective DSM programs. Interviews with staff from state public utility commissions indicate the current thinking about the status and future of industrial DSM programs. A comprehensive bibliography is included, technical assistance programs are listed and described, and a methodology for evaluating potential or actual savings from projects is delineated.

  16. Applying demand side management using a generalised grid supportive approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauwbroek, N.; Nguyen, H.P.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Demand side management is often seen as a promising tool for distribution network operators to mitigate network operation limit violations. Many demand side management applications have been proposed, each with their own objectives and methodology. Quite often, these demand side management

  17. Evaluation of demand-side management programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbe, A.L.; O'Loughlin, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    Over the past few years, the attention accorded to demand-side management (DSM) measures has called into question the traditional cost minimization approach for evaluating such programs. Two broad approaches to DSM seem to be generally used: one examining the problem from multiple perspectives and the other including various practical methods used in-house by utility planners. Whatever the standard used to evaluate DSM, there remains at least one problem which cannot be quantified. The customers who participate in a DSM program cannot only take into account the effects of DSM on their electricity bills; their comfort can also be affected. This lowering of comfort constitutes a legitimate cost which can explain why some apparently sensible DSM measures are not adopted. A method is proposed to incorporate this cost. It establishes a way to evaluate DSM program tradeoffs that, from the perspective of standard economic theory, maximizes social welfare; explains why at least one of the perspectives in the multiple perspective approach needs to be modified to incorporate all customer costs; and outlines how the proposed standard can be implemented. 8 refs

  18. Emerging technologies for demand side management. Demand side management jitsugen no tame no saishin gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H; Iyoda, I [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-11-05

    This paper explains the latest situation in hardware technologies to realize the demand side management, divided into the following technologies: communications technology, measurement technology, client information system technology, load controlling technology, home automation technology, and energy storing and saving technologies. Speaking of the communications technology, information exchange between the supply side and the demand side is important in the demand side management, whereas a technology intended of automatic power distribution and automatic meter-reading is advancing in development. The technology covers transmissions using from power lines and telephone lines to optical cables and wireless communications. Power line communications using power transmission lines as communication lines are simple and economical, but weak against noise, and not suitable for long-distance communications. Wireless communications have been drawing attentions along with the development of mobile communication device technologies. These technologies will give benefits to electric power companies in the initial stage of their use, such as for load investigation and general automation in power distribution. They would shift to benefiting users in about 2010 covering from security information such as about power interruption to publicity information and educations. 8 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Impact of Demand Side Management in Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponnaganti, Pavani; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    Demand Side Management (DSM) is an efficient flexible program which helps distribution network operators to meet the future critical peak demand. It is executed in cases of not only technical issues like voltage sag or swell, transformer burdening, cable congestions, but also to increase the degree...... of visibility in the electricity markets. The aim of this paper is to find the optimal flexible demands that can be shifted to another time in order to operate the active distribution system within secure operating limits. A simple mechanism is proposed for finding the flexibility of the loads where electric...

  20. Cost benefit analysis of the demand side management programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schechtman, R.; Baum, M.

    1989-01-01

    The several cost and benefit components of the demand side management programs for the society groups, including the concessionaire, consumers and society as a whole are studied. The rule evaluations of management programs by demand side, used by North American concessionaire are also discussed. Finally, the numerical examples, that consolidating the concepts and rules evaluation are presented. (C.G.C.). 5 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs

  1. Decision support program for congestion management using demand side flexibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esmat, Ayman; Pinson, Pierre; Usaola, Julio

    2017-01-01

    In the past decades, Distribution System Operators (DSOs) have been mitigating distribution networks (DNs) contingencies by opting to grid reinforcements. However, this approach is not always cost and time efficient. Demand Side Flexibility (DSF) is one of the recent alternatives used in DNs cong...... effect is taken into consideration as well as the uncertain behavior of customers. Finally, the distribution grid of the Danish Bornholm Island is used to illustrate the merits of the DSP. The total cost incurred by the DSO is calculated and presented.......In the past decades, Distribution System Operators (DSOs) have been mitigating distribution networks (DNs) contingencies by opting to grid reinforcements. However, this approach is not always cost and time efficient. Demand Side Flexibility (DSF) is one of the recent alternatives used in DNs...... congestion management. Consequently, new market players such as aggregators are needed to handle DSF transaction between customers and DSOs. This paper proposes and models a decision support program (DSP) to optimize the total cost charged by the DSO for using DSF services. Moreover, the energy rebound...

  2. Electricity deregulation, spot price patterns and demand-side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Flynn, P.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines extensive hourly or half-hourly power price data from 14 deregulated power markets. It analyzes average diurnal patterns, relationship to system load, volatility, and consistency over time. Diurnal patterns indicate the average price spread between off-peak and on-peak and weekend vs. weekday power consumption. Volatility is measured by price velocity: the average normalized hourly change in power price, calculated daily. The calculated price velocity is broken down into an expected component that arises from the diurnal pattern and an unexpected component that arises from unknown factors. The analysis reveals significant differences among markets, suggesting that demand-side management (DSM) of power consumption is far more difficult in some markets than in others. At one extreme, Spain, Britain and Scandinavia show consistent diurnal price patterns, a stable relationship between price and system load, and a low unexplained component of price volatility. A power consumer in these markets could form a reasonable expectation of a reward for DSM of elective power consumption. At the other extreme, two markets in Australia show erratic diurnal price patterns from year to year, low correlation between price and system load, and a high amount of unexpected price velocity. A power consumer in these markets would have far greater difficulty in realizing a benefit from DSM. Markets that experienced one period of very high prices without a clear external cause, such as California and Alberta, appear to have a significant longer-term erosion of public support for deregulation. (author)

  3. Demand-side management process evaluations - the management perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrault, G.A.; Barrett, L.B.

    1993-01-01

    A demand-side management (DSM) process evaluation is a qualitative, expert assessment of how a utility marketing program is being conducted. It reviews the efficiency and effectiveness in which a utility plans, manages, executes, and monitors the delivery of DSM programs to its marketplace. Process evaluations,which includes load impact, customer satisfaction and cost-effectiveness analysis, are becoming an increasingly significant component. The process evaluation focus is on the program planning and delivery process as opposed to the energy impacts resulting from the specific measures or products of the program. Because of this process-oriented focus, such evaluations can identify important opportunities for improving the cost-effectiveness of a program without significantly changing product lines. The evaluation may identify administrative or delivery process improvements. In addition, the evaluation may identify ways of improving the degree to which the customer is satisfied with the program or the utility. Since process evaluations are usually conducted as part of a utility's mandated DSM measurement and evaluation plan, they tend to focus mainly on the stated needs of the regulator as opposed to company management. This can be a problem. Although the regulatory perspective is important, in an increasingly competitive business environment, utilities must not overlook management's business and operational needs for specific information regarding DSM program planning, control, execution, and evaluation. This paper discusses some of the conflicts that exist between the regulator's and management's needs for DSM program evaluation results and presents some approaches for assuring that both needs are met. It is organized to first discuss the scope of a process evaluation, then the evaluation issues, the management concerns, and finally reporting of results

  4. Indirect Control for Demand Side Management – A Conceptual Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heussen, Kai; You, Shi; Biegel, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    The concept of “indirect control” has become a relevant discussion term in relation to activation distributed and small-scale demand and generation units to provide resources for power system balancing. The term and its association with price signals has, however caused some confusion as to its...... correct definition, either as a control or a market concept. This paper aims to provide a conceptual introduction to "indirect control" for management of small and distributed demand side resources. A review of control concepts and an analysis of "indirectness" features are provided to create a framework...... for systematic classification of indirect control strategies. The concepts developed then enable a discussion of control performance and valuation of direct- and indirect control strategies....

  5. Air pollution impacts from demand-side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.C.; Sandii Win, M.; Hall, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    Air-polluting emission rates and energy-efficiency ratings vary widely among power plants, depending on location, age and whether the power plant is repowered. Traditional regulations require installation of specified emission control equipment that varies among power plants. These regulations do not specify that utilities first dispatch the cleanest power plants as demand varies from peak to off-peak periods. This empirical analysis shows, for 2 years out of 20, that demand-side management (DSM) programs increase air pollution. One reason for this result is that regulations require installation of specific emission-control technology but do not provide the incentive to take actual emissions or their air quality impacts into account when operating the system. For certain types of air pollutants and in some regions, regulatory programs now include markets for tradable emission credits. Such programs may alter this incentive. (author)

  6. U.S. electric utility demand-side management 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management report is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternative Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. The report presents comprehensive information on electric power industry demand-side management (DSM) activities in the US at the national, regional, and utility levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decision makers, government policy makers, analysts, and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding DSM as it relates to the US electric power industry. The first chapter, ''Profile: US Electric Utility Demand-Side Management'', presents a general discussion of DSM, its history, current issues, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent chapters present discussions and more detailed data on energy savings, peak load reductions and costs attributable to DSM. 9 figs., 24 tabs

  7. Balancing islanded residential microgrids using demand side management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteen, Gerwin; van der Klauw, Thijs; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Feng, Xianyong; Hebner, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Now that the internet of things is emerging, control of domestic assets within the smart micro grids is also gaining interest. Furthermore, these micro grids may operate in islanded mode for short periods. Various demand side management approaches are presented in literature to control these assets.

  8. Load building versus conservation as demand-side management objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kexel, D.T.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the economics of load building versus conservation as demand-side management objectives. Economic criteria to be used in evaluating each type of program from the perspectives of all impacted parties are provided. The impact of DSM programs on electric rates is shown to be a key focal point of a thorough evaluation

  9. Using demand-side management to decrease transformer ageing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klauw, Thijs; Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Hurink, Johann L.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of local, often uncontrollable, generation units as well as larger loads such as electric vehicles (EVs) causes an increasing amount of stress on our energy supply chain, specifically on the distribution grids. Demand-side management (DSM) is often seen as a potential technology to

  10. DSM [demand-side management] financing: Risks and incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayton, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    Opportunities to make investments in demand side management (DSM) are widespread, especially among large, complex, energy-intensive customers. Acceptable economics are found for energy efficiency improvements, new construction or renovation, replacement of failing or obsolete equipment, and retrofit of existing facilities with more efficient equipment and operations. Market imperfections and technical limitations intrude on the DSM investment process. These intrusions are examined from a financial viewpoint by considering the return on investment and risks faced by the three potential investors in DSM opportunities: the customer, the utility, and the third party contractor or financier. These risks are illustrated by examining the cash flow of a typical project depicting a comprehensive energy efficiency installation in a medium to large industrial or institutional facility. The spread between the customer's risk/return ratio and that of the other two investors is shown to be surprisingly large. A utility role in marketing and financing, as opposed to direct subsidizing of customers or direct purchase of DSM resources from third parties, is explored as an efficient response to these realities. 2 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Demand side management at Enbridge and best practices in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, K.; Griffin, B. [Enbridge Gas Distribution, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    In 1994, the Ontario Energy Board required that gas utilities implement DSM programs for all customers. Enbridge began delivering demand side management (DSM) programs in 1995. DSM is now fully integrated with marketing. DSM programs are delivered across the residential, commercial, industrial, and multi-residential sectors. In 1997, Enbridge introduced the Steam Saver Program for customers who own mid-sized and large steam boilers. The program is now saving customers over 41 million cubic metres of gas per year, representing over $10 million annually. Steam boiler plants burn 30 per cent of all fuel in Ontario. They include natural gas, oil, wood or coal. This paper included a table listing the annual fuel consumption and cost for 1,200 boiler plants in Ontario. The Steam Saver Program identified steam efficiency projects in the customer's plant, provided a business case for the customer and provided technical and financial help to implement the project. The average financial payback on steam efficiency projects is 1.7 years. This paper also described Enbridge's Natural Gas Construction Heater Program for new residential construction markets. The program promotes the benefits of natural gas construction heaters as an alternative to propane salamanders for curing concrete walls in basements, drywall drying, and thawing soil for basement floors before pouring concrete. The natural gas construction heaters are also more suitable for heating the home before a central furnace system is activated. 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  12. Internet of Things, Challenges for Demand Side Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Vasilica OPREA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of any new product means also the apparition of new issues and challenges, and this is especially true when we talk about a mass adoption. The advent of Internet of Things (IoT devices will be, in the authors of this paper opinion, the largest and the fastest product adoption yet to be seen, as several early sources were predicting a volume of 50 billion IoT devices to be active by 2020 [1][2]. While later forecasts reduced the predicted amount to about 20-30 billion devices [3], even for such “reduced” number, demand side management issues are foreseeable, for the potential economic impact of IoT applications in 2025 will be between 3.9 and $11.1 trillion USD [4]. Not only that new patterns will emerge in energy consumption and Internet traffic, but we predict that the sheer amount of data produced by this quantity of IoT devices will give birth to a new sort of demand side management, the demand side management of IoT data. How will this work is yet to be seen but, at the current moment, one can at least identify the bits and pieces that will constitute it. This paper is intended to serve as short guide regarding the possible challenges raised by the adoption of IoT devices. The data types and structures, lifecycle and patterns will be briefly discussed throughout the following article.

  13. Real-Time Demand Side Management Algorithm Using Stochastic Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Amoasi Acquah

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A demand side management technique is deployed along with battery energy-storage systems (BESS to lower the electricity cost by mitigating the peak load of a building. Most of the existing methods rely on manual operation of the BESS, or even an elaborate building energy-management system resorting to a deterministic method that is susceptible to unforeseen growth in demand. In this study, we propose a real-time optimal operating strategy for BESS based on density demand forecast and stochastic optimization. This method takes into consideration uncertainties in demand when accounting for an optimal BESS schedule, making it robust compared to the deterministic case. The proposed method is verified and tested against existing algorithms. Data obtained from a real site in South Korea is used for verification and testing. The results show that the proposed method is effective, even for the cases where the forecasted demand deviates from the observed demand.

  14. Demand Side Management: An approach to peak load smoothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Prachi

    A preliminary national-level analysis was conducted to determine whether Demand Side Management (DSM) programs introduced by electric utilities since 1992 have made any progress towards their stated goal of reducing peak load demand. Estimates implied that DSM has a very small effect on peak load reduction and there is substantial regional and end-user variability. A limited scholarly literature on DSM also provides evidence in support of a positive effect of demand response programs. Yet, none of these studies examine the question of how DSM affects peak load at the micro-level by influencing end-users' response to prices. After nearly three decades of experience with DSM, controversy remains over how effective these programs have been. This dissertation considers regional analyses that explore both demand-side solutions and supply-side interventions. On the demand side, models are estimated to provide in-depth evidence of end-user consumption patterns for each North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) region, helping to identify sectors in regions that have made a substantial contribution to peak load reduction. The empirical evidence supports the initial hypothesis that there is substantial regional and end-user variability of reductions in peak demand. These results are quite robust in rapidly-urbanizing regions, where air conditioning and lighting load is substantially higher, and regions where the summer peak is more pronounced than the winter peak. It is also evident from the regional experiences that active government involvement, as shaped by state regulations in the last few years, has been successful in promoting DSM programs, and perhaps for the same reason we witness an uptick in peak load reductions in the years 2008 and 2009. On the supply side, we estimate the effectiveness of DSM programs by analyzing the growth of capacity margin with the introduction of DSM programs. The results indicate that DSM has been successful in offsetting the

  15. Adaptive heat pump and battery storage demand side energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieczky, Florian; Lettner, Christian; Natschläger, Thomas; Traxler, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    An adaptive linear model predictive control strategy is introduced for the problem of demand side energy management, involving a photovoltaic device, a battery, and a heat pump. Moreover, the heating influence of solar radiation via the glass house effect is considered. Global sunlight radiation intensity and the outside temperature are updated by weather forecast data. The identification is carried out after adapting to a time frame witch sufficiently homogeneous weather. In this way, in spite of the linearity an increase in precision and cost reduction of up to 46% is achieved. It is validated for an open and closed loop version of the MPC problem using real data of the ambient temperature and the global radiation.

  16. Development of planning methods for demand-side management (DSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerkkaeinen, S.; Kekkonen, V.; Rissanen, P.

    1995-01-01

    The interest of utilities and governmental agencies in Demand-side management (IDSM) and Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) has increased during recent years also in Finland. From the governmental point of view, the main reason for this has been concern about the environmental effects of electricity supply and consumption. Utilities are mainly interested in cost reductions in electricity supply and distribution caused by DSM. Also improved service to the customer due to DSM has increasing value to utilities. In this project, the main target has been to develop and assess methods for DSM planning from the utility point of view. The final goal is to integrate these methods into the strategic planning of electric utilities

  17. An energy service company's perspective on demand-side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullock, C.G.

    1993-01-01

    In 1985, Massachusetts Electric Company held a bid for demand reduction to be supplied by energy service companies (ESCOs). It was one of the first demand-side management (DSM) bidding programs held in the United States. Since then, several DSM auctions have been held. Many people expected DSM bidding to be a key component in integrated resource planning. Many observed similarities with supply side bidding, and expected DSM bidding to grow according. Today, more than $2 billion annually is being spent by utilities on DSM programs. Less than $100 million is spent with ESCOs. This chapter explores some of the reasons for the current situation and suggests some alternatives, which could benefit all of the players

  18. Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Demand-Side Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Stoustrup

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of supermarket refrigeration systems for supervisory control in the smart grid is presented in this paper. A modular modeling approach is proposed in which each module is modeled and identified separately. The focus of the work is on estimating the power consumption of the system while estimating the cold reservoir temperatures as well. The models developed for each module as well as for the overall integrated system are validated by real data collected from a supermarket in Denmark. The results show that the model is able to estimate the actual electrical power consumption with a high fidelity. Moreover a simulation benchmark is introduced based on the produced model for demand-side management in smart grid. Finally, a potential application of the proposed benchmark in direct control of the power/energy consumption is presented by a simple simulation example.

  19. Intelligent demand side management of residential building energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Maruti N.

    Advent of modern sensing technologies, data processing capabilities and rising cost of energy are driving the implementation of intelligent systems in buildings and houses which constitute 41% of total energy consumption. The primary motivation has been to provide a framework for demand-side management and to improve overall reliability. The entire formulation is to be implemented on NILM (Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring System), a smart meter. This is going to play a vital role in the future of demand side management. Utilities have started deploying smart meters throughout the world which will essentially help to establish communication between utility and consumers. This research is focused on investigation of a suitable thermal model of residential house, building up control system and developing diagnostic and energy usage forecast tool. The present work has considered measurement based approach to pursue. Identification of building thermal parameters is the very first step towards developing performance measurement and controls. The proposed identification technique is PEM (Prediction Error Method) based, discrete state-space model. The two different models have been devised. First model is focused toward energy usage forecast and diagnostics. Here one of the novel idea has been investigated which takes integral of thermal capacity to identify thermal model of house. The purpose of second identification is to build up a model for control strategy. The controller should be able to take into account the weather forecast information, deal with the operating point constraints and at the same time minimize the energy consumption. To design an optimal controller, MPC (Model Predictive Control) scheme has been implemented instead of present thermostatic/hysteretic control. This is a receding horizon approach. Capability of the proposed schemes has also been investigated.

  20. Modeling and Analysis of Commercial Building Electrical Loads for Demand Side Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardino, Jonathan

    In recent years there has been a push in the electric power industry for more customer involvement in the electricity markets. Traditionally the end user has played a passive role in the planning and operation of the power grid. However, many energy markets have begun opening up opportunities to consumers who wish to commit a certain amount of their electrical load under various demand side management programs. The potential benefits of more demand participation include reduced operating costs and new revenue opportunities for the consumer, as well as more reliable and secure operations for the utilities. The management of these load resources creates challenges and opportunities to the end user that were not present in previous market structures. This work examines the behavior of commercial-type building electrical loads and their capacity for supporting demand side management actions. This work is motivated by the need for accurate and dynamic tools to aid in the advancement of demand side operations. A dynamic load model is proposed for capturing the response of controllable building loads. Building-specific load forecasting techniques are developed, with particular focus paid to the integration of building management system (BMS) information. These approaches are tested using Drexel University building data. The application of building-specific load forecasts and dynamic load modeling to the optimal scheduling of multi-building systems in the energy market is proposed. Sources of potential load uncertainty are introduced in the proposed energy management problem formulation in order to investigate the impact on the resulting load schedule.

  1. Demand-side management: The perspective of a combination utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packard, C.P.

    1993-01-01

    During the 1980's, Baltimore Gas ampersand Electric (BG ampersand E) met part of the rapid growth in demand for electricity in its service territory by implementing cost-effective demand-side management (DSM) programs--specifically, peak shaving and load shifting strategies. BG ampersand E's focus in the 1990's has been expanded to include all DSM options with an increasing emphasis on those which promote overall 1 energy efficiency or strategic conservation. This change in focus is being driven by Federal legislation, state regulatory requirements and the perceived potential benefits for both the customer and the Company. Current activities related to DSM include involvement in a Collaborative Process to design cost-effective electric and gas conservation programs for all customer classes--low-income, residential, commercial and industrial. Program design consists of four steps: (1) data gathering and technology assessment; (2) development of program concepts; (3) detailed program design and (4) monitoring and evaluation. Significant reductions in the projected peaks as well as in sales in future years are the anticipated results of our efforts. As a combination utility, unique opportunities and challenges face BG ampersand E: fuel switching, eligibility of non-full requirements customers, and energy options for customers

  2. Who should pay for demand-side management programs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaim, T.

    1992-01-01

    Traditional utility resource planning involves taking the load forecast as a given and then determining the additional supply resources expected to serve that load at minimum cost and optimal levels of reliability. With integrated planning, the goal is still to balance supply and demand, but in a way that is most cost effective given all possible ways to serve customers' energy service needs. The new element in integrated resource planning is demand side management (DSM) or activities aimed at altering the quantity of energy customers use and/or the timing of their consumption. This paper discusses how DSM works to accomplish energy conservation and how it affects the rate structure. It also goes on to discuss how a utility can optimize the participation in a conservation program so that no particular group might have to carry the brunt of a rate increase. These suggestions include aligning rates to accurately reflect marginal costs; require participating customers to pay as many program costs as are possible; where participating customers can't pay full cost of a program, restrict costs to those groups who are eligible to participate; and offer a 'reverse shared-savings' program to the largest customers. The paper goes on to discuss electric-to-gas fuel switching and what customers should carry the cost burden for this type of switching

  3. Demand-side management pricing options in electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardana, P.; Herman, P.

    1990-01-01

    In 1989 Ontario Hydro implemented optional time-of-use (TOU) rates at the wholesale level for all municipal utilities in the province. At the same time, mandatory TOU rates were implemented for large users (customers with loads in excess of 5 MW) served by municipal utilities and Ontario Hydro's direct customers. To fully explore the potential of rate structures as demand-side management (DSM) tools, Ontario Hydro retained a consulting firm to carry out a survey of innovative rate structures in other jurisdications. The survey was intended to identify: the status quo of rate structures in other jurisdictions that were designed specifically to encourage DSM; a profile of the cost basis of the rate structures, for example whether traditional embedded cost of service analyses or contentious methods such as marginal cost pricing were used; whether innovative rates have been successful, and customer reactions and attitudes; and how innovative rates fit into the overall strategy of the utilities. It was found that TOU, interruptible and end-use targeted rates are the rate structures of choice for many utilities. Most are concerned with deferring capacity, reducing peak demand, and shifting load out of peak periods. Most utilities report success with their programs and satisfaction with the present form of the programs. 5 tabs

  4. Economic profitability analysis of demand side management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheen, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    This study considers both the internal and external costs of the utility in deriving the avoided capacity cost (ACC) and avoided operating cost (AOC) induced in an electric utility caused by the implementation of a demand side management program (DSM). In calculating the ACC, a multiple objective linear programming model is developed. Meanwhile, the AOC is calculated by considering the differences between the total and specific time period energy consumption ratios before and after the implementation of the DSM program. This study also develops an economic analysis method using Net Present Value and Pay Back Year models to assess the economic profitability of implementing a DSM program from a participant's point of view. The design and construction of a partial load leveling eutectic salt Cooling Energy Storage (CES) air conditioning system in a target office building in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, is discussed in order to simulate the cost benefit of the CES system from the perspective of the utility and from that of the participant. The results confirm the effectiveness of the developed models in simulating the economic benefits of implementing a DSM program from the perspectives of both the utility and the participant

  5. The Wisconsin experience with incentives for demand-side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landgren, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    It has been noted that, within traditional regulatory frameworks for electric utilities, factors exist which discourage demand side management (DSM) and that there is a lack of positive incentives for DSM. Regulatory agencies should therefore make it possible for DSM measures to benefit from the same treatment as supply-side measures. The Wisconsin Public Service Commission (WPSC) has recognized this need and has adopted various measures accordingly. The need for efficiency incentives is described according to the particular experience of Wisconsin Electric concerning their recourse to a DSM incentive and according to new incentive models being tested in collaboration with other electricity suppliers in Wisconsin. The WPSC has concluded that the fact of considering the costs relating to DSM as expenses or capitalizing them within the rate base does not motivate the utility to promote DSM programs. The WPSC has thus decided to experiment with energy efficiency incentives in order to evaluate their eventual impact. The choice of the type of incentive had an objective of starting the process in an area where the lack of experience has created, from the regulatory point of view, a reticence on the part of utilities to engage in DSM programs. The WPSC has designed a variety of incentive models which have been adapted to each utility's own situation. Specific incentive programs developed for three Wisconsin utilities are reviewed

  6. Using Demand Side Management to Adapt to Water Scarcity and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Saiss is a sub-basin of the Sebou basin in Northern Morocco. Due to decreased precipitation and increased water demand, the surface waters of the Saiss basin have been greatly reduced. At the current rate of exploitation, the aquifer will be depleted within 25 years. This project will examine whether demand-side ...

  7. Effects of utility demand-side management programs on uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirst, E.

    1994-01-01

    Electric utilities face a variety of uncertainties that complicate their long-term resource planning. These uncertainties include future economic and load growths, fuel prices, environmental and economic regulations, performance of existing power plants, cost and availability of purchased power, and the costs and performance of new demand and supply resources. As utilities increasingly turn to demand-side management (DSM) programs to provide resources, it becomes more important to analyze the interactions between these programs and the uncertainties facing utilities. This paper uses a dynamic planning model to quantify the uncertainty effects of supply-only vs DSM + supply resource portfolios. The analysis considers four sets of uncertainties: economic growth, fuel prices, the costs to build new power plants, and the costs to operate DSM programs. The two types of portfolios are tested against these four sets of uncertainties for the period 1990 to 2010. Sensitivity, scenario, and worst-case analysis methods are used. The sensitivity analyses show that the DSM + supply resource portfolio is less sensitive to unanticipated changes in economic growth, fuel prices, and power-plant construction costs than is the supply-only portfolio. The supply-only resource mix is better only with respect to uncertainties about the costs of DSM programs. The base-case analysis shows that including DSM programs in the utility's resource portfolio reduces the net present value of revenue requirements (NPV-RR) by 490 million dollars. The scenario-analysis results show an additional 30 million dollars (6%) in benefits associated with reduction in these uncertainties. In the worst-case analysis, the DSM + supply portfolio again reduces the cost penalty associated with guessing wrong for both cases, when the utility plans for high needs and learns it has low needs and vice versa. 20 refs

  8. Optimal Load Response to Time-of-Use Power Price for Demand Side Management in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    -of-use power price for demand side management in order to save the energy costs as much as possible. 3 typical different kinds of loads (industrial load, residential load and commercial load) in Denmark are chosen as study cases. The energy costs decrease up to 9.6% with optimal load response to time......-of-use power price for different loads. Simulation results show that the optimal load response to time-of-use power price for demand side management generates different load profiles and reduces the load peaks. This kind of load patterns may also have significant effects on the power system normal operation.......Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead in Denmark, the price could be transferred to the consumers and they may shift their loads from high price periods to the low price periods in order to save their energy costs. This paper presents a load optimization method to time...

  9. Research on electricity market operation mechanism and its benefit of demand side participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuai; Yan, Xu; Qin, Li-juan; Lin, Xi-qiao; Zeng, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Demand response plays an important role in maintaining the economic stability of the system, and has the characteristics of high efficiency, low cost, fast response, good environmental benefits and so on. Demand side resource is an important part of electricity market. The research of demand side resources in our country is still in the initial stage, but the opening of the electricity sales side provides a broad prospect for the development of electricity market. This paper summarizes the main types of demand side resources in our country, analyzes the economic principle of demand response from the micro perspective, puts forward some suggestions on the operation mechanism of China’s demand side resources participating in the electricity market under the condition of electricity sales side opening, analyzes the current situation of pricing in the electricity wholesale market and sets up the pricing strategy of the centralized wholesale market with the demand side power supply participating in quotation, which makes the social and economic benefits reach the maximum.

  10. Market modeling for assessment of demand side programs using the marginal cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papastamatiou, Panagiotis; Psarras, John

    2000-01-01

    Demand side management is nowadays considered as a functional step in the energy planning process. The criteria proposed for the assessment of the demand side programs (DSPs) are usually based on the balance between the marginal supply cost and the mean DSP cost. These criteria could not support the allotting of the invested capital to incentives for the consumers and advertising. This paper presents a methodology to support the utility planning at this point with more reliability. It proposes the expansion of the assessment criteria with the use of the marginal cost of the DSP. For the calculation of the DSP marginal cost, a dynamic model is developed and it is used for the simulation of the penetration of a DS Program. Using the 'least-cost' criterion as the decision rule for the simulation, the planner has a distribution of the available investment capital throughout the whole planning period. The use of the 'most-value' criterion supports the separation of the invested capital between incentives for the consumers and supportive expenses, e.g. advertising, marketing cost, etc. (Author)

  11. Assessing the potential of residential HVAC systems for demand-side management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klauw, Thijs; Hoogsteen, Gerwin; Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Hurink, Johann L.; Feng, Xianyong; Hebner, Robert E.

    This paper investigates the potential of residential heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems to contribute to dynamic demand-side management. Thermal models for seven houses in Austin, Texas are developed with the goal of using them in a planning based demand-side management methodology.

  12. New Real-Time Market Facilitating Demand-Side Resources for System Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Donghan; Nyeng, Preben; Xie, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Many demand side resources have the potential to provide fast and low cost balancing services. Switching these devices on and off can be executed in seconds and have limited consequences for the customers if the duration is not long. With carefully designed market rules, tens of thousands...... the participation of demand-side resources. In light of the future environment of increasing intermittent renewable power and distributed energy/storage resources, stochastic time-series and Monte-Carlo simulation are used to analyze the relationship between balancing requirement and generation/demand uncertainties...

  13. Controlling market power and price spikes in electricity networks: Demand-side bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassenti, Stephen J; Smith, Vernon L; Wilson, Bart J

    2003-03-04

    In this article we report an experiment that examines how demand-side bidding can discipline generators in a market for electric power. First we develop a treatment without demand-side bidding; two large firms are allocated baseload and intermediate cost generators such that either firm might unilaterally withhold the capacity of its intermediate cost generators from the market to benefit from the supracompetitive prices that would result from only selling its baseload units. In a converse treatment, ownership of some of the intermediate cost generators is transferred from each of these firms to two other firms such that no one firm could unilaterally restrict output to spawn supracompetitive prices. Having established a well controlled data set with price spikes paralleling those observed in the naturally occurring economy, we also extend the design to include demand-side bidding. We find that demand-side bidding completely neutralizes the exercise of market power and eliminates price spikes even in the presence of structural market power.

  14. Co-optimization of Energy and Demand-Side Reserves in Day-Ahead Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surender Reddy, S.; Abhyankar, A. R.; Bijwe, P. R.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a new multi-objective day-ahead market clearing (DAMC) mechanism with demand-side reserves/demand response (DR) offers, considering realistic voltage-dependent load modeling. The paper proposes objectives such as social welfare maximization (SWM) including demand-side reserves, and load served error (LSE) minimization. In this paper, energy and demand-side reserves are cleared simultaneously through co-optimization process. The paper clearly brings out the unsuitability of conventional SWM for DAMC in the presence of voltage-dependent loads, due to reduction of load served (LS). Under such circumstances multi-objective DAMC with DR offers is essential. Multi-objective Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2+ (SPEA 2+) has been used to solve the optimization problem. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is confirmed with results obtained from IEEE 30 bus system.

  15. The Demand Side in Economic Models of Energy Markets: The Challenge of Representing Consumer Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krysiak, Frank C.; Weigt, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Energy models play an increasing role in the ongoing energy transition processes either as tools for forecasting potential developments or for assessments of policy and market design options. In recent years, these models have increased in scope and scale and provide a reasonable representation of the energy supply side, technological aspects and general macroeconomic interactions. However, the representation of the demand side and consumer behavior has remained rather simplistic. The objective of this paper is twofold. First, we review existing large-scale energy model approaches, namely bottom-up and top-down models, with respect to their demand-side representation. Second, we identify gaps in existing approaches and draft potential pathways to account for a more detailed demand-side and behavior representation in energy modeling.

  16. The Demand Side in Economic Models of Energy Markets: The Challenge of Representing Consumer Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krysiak, Frank C., E-mail: frank.krysiak@unibas.ch; Weigt, Hannes [Department of Business and Economics, University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-05-19

    Energy models play an increasing role in the ongoing energy transition processes either as tools for forecasting potential developments or for assessments of policy and market design options. In recent years, these models have increased in scope and scale and provide a reasonable representation of the energy supply side, technological aspects and general macroeconomic interactions. However, the representation of the demand side and consumer behavior has remained rather simplistic. The objective of this paper is twofold. First, we review existing large-scale energy model approaches, namely bottom-up and top-down models, with respect to their demand-side representation. Second, we identify gaps in existing approaches and draft potential pathways to account for a more detailed demand-side and behavior representation in energy modeling.

  17. The Demand Side in Economic Models of Energy Markets: The Challenge of Representing Consumer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eKrysiak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy models play an increasing role in the ongoing energy transition processes either as tools for forecasting potential developments or for assessments of policy and market design options. In recent years these models have increased in scope and scale and provide a reasonable representation of the energy supply side, technological aspects and general macroeconomic interactions. However, the representation of the demand side and consumer behavior has remained rather simplistic. The objective of this paper is twofold. First, we review existing large scale energy model approaches, namely bottom-up and top-down models, with respect to their demand side representation. Second, we identify gaps in existing approaches and draft potential pathways to account for a more detailed demand side and behavior representation in energy modeling.

  18. Linking meters and markets: Roles and incentives to support a flexible demand side

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    wholesale market participants to the demand side is mostly infeasible, resulting in flexibility tasks being aggregated and delegated to balancing responsible wholesale traders. This analysis focuses on whether current incentives and roles are appropriate and where the design could be improved to establish......Present trends in the development of electricity systems are expected to generate a growing need for flexibility in decentralised resources, including demand response. In order to enable decentralised actors to create value, the organisation of markets and incentives should incorporate these new...... a flexible demand side with a particular focus on the Danish case. Design-related barriers are identified that affect expected value, associated risks, and the distribution of responsibilities. This serves as a basis to define policy options in the context of Nordic electricity markets. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd...

  19. The energy situation and demand side management in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebergs, V.; Zeltins, N.; Stuits, I.; Stripnieks, Yu.

    1994-01-01

    Only 12 per cent of the electric energy consumed in Latvia is produced by local energy resources(hydro-, peat, firewood). The rest (50 per cent) is imported or produced from the imported fuel (gas, heavy fuel). After 1991, when Latvia entered the market economy, the fuel prices began to approach the world prices and the production of electric energy decreased. Therefore it is important to work out a correct concept of Energy Development in Latvia corresponding to the market economy. (author)

  20. Assessment of utility side financial benefits of demand side management considering environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeygunawardane, Saranga Kumudu

    2018-02-01

    Any electrical utility prefers to implement demand side management and change the shape of the demand curve in a beneficial manner. This paper aims to assess the financial gains (or losses) to the generating sector through the implementation of demand side management programs. An optimization algorithm is developed to find the optimal generation mix that minimizes the daily total generating cost. This daily total generating cost includes the daily generating cost as well as the environmental damage cost. The proposed optimization algorithm is used to find the daily total generating cost for the base case and for several demand side management programs using the data obtained from the Sri Lankan power system. Results obtained for DSM programs are compared with the results obtained for the base case to assess the financial benefits of demand side management to the generating sector.

  1. Demand-side management and European environmental and energy goals: An optimal complementary approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergaentzlé, Claire; Clastres, Cédric; Khalfallah, Haikel

    2014-01-01

    Demand side management (DSM) in electricity markets could improve energy efficiency and achieve environmental targets through controlled consumption. For the past 10 years or so DSM programmes have registered significant results. However, detailed analysis of its real impact as observed by a large number of pilot studies suggests that such programmes need to be fine-tuned to suit clearly identified conditions. This study aims to provide recommendations for the instruments to be used to prompt demand response with a view to maximizing energy and environmental efficiencies of various countries. The present study suggests that different DSM models should be deployed depending on the specific generation mix in any given country. Beside the natural benefits from cross-borders infrastructures, DSM improves the flexibility and reliability of the energy system, absorbing some shock on generation mix. We show efficiency increases with demand response but at a decreasing rate. So, according to rebound and report effects, simple DSM tools could be preferred. - Highlights: • Demand side management could improve energy and environmental efficiency. • Several instruments should be used to achieve significant load-shedding. • DSM models should be deployed depending on generation mix. • Efficiency increases with demand response but at a decreasing rate. • Rebound and report effects reduce positive impacts

  2. Why strategic pricing is the most powerful DSM [demand-side management] tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, W.

    1990-01-01

    Strategic pricing has long been under-utilized as a strategic tool by the electric utility industry. Ways by which utility, customer and regulatory interests can and should overlap with reference to strategic planning, and how the electric industry could enhance its ability to continue providing premier energy services to its customers and society are examined. Strategic pricing in the airline, banking, automobile and telephone industries are examined and compared. Strategic pricing can help utilities segment markets to improve service value, define products, create customer incentives to purchase/consume desirable goods and services, and signal competitors. Each of these benefits is illustrated with an example that closely integrates strategic pricing with demand-side management. Pricing strategically takes many steps, but can be broken down into: meet common challenges of business and marketing objectives; gain regulatory acceptance; and energize the organization to accept, adopt and implement strategic pricing

  3. New vision of demand side management strategy as the main tool in cooperation suppliers and consumers of electrical energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szkutnik, J.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the complex proposal for the implementation of the demand side management in the Polish energy sector. The issue of demand side management is well known in the world, European and domestic dimensions. The experience of western countries shows that at least to some extent, the demand side management strategy is already implemented there. However, Polish experience is far too insufficient. Demand side management consists in efficient management of energy demand as well as adoption of this demand i.e. changing the load. The decrease of energy consumption in the moment of its peak demand leads to the balance between the demand and supply in the system, which influences the market price of energy. If certain mechanisms are implemented that will cause that final receivers will be willing to adjust their demand for energy, we will create the Demand Response, which is an efficient tool in the demand side management strategy. It is assumed that electronic meters will bring a real quality change. The undertakings based on initiatives of the Polish Energy Regulatory Office that promote the concept of implementation of electronic metering in the Polish energy sector prove that Poland is determined to improve its energy efficiency. The report describes the concept of the electronic meters that enables the realisation of the demand side management strategy as well as other complementary solutions that make the strategy even more efficient. In this field, it is planned to establish a dedicated loyalty programmes for energy receivers. The concept includes also the combination of the model solutions with the campaign 'energy efficiency' organised by the Ministry of Economy, which aims at fulfilling the requirements of the directive 2006/32/EC on energy end-use efficiency and energy services. As complementary solution in this new vision to add the system of recycling of waste heat home appliance devices. (Author)

  4. Demand side management in recycling and electricity retail pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazan, Osman

    This dissertation addresses several problems from the recycling industry and electricity retail market. The first paper addresses a real-life scheduling problem faced by a national industrial recycling company. Based on their practices, a scheduling problem is defined, modeled, analyzed, and a solution is approximated efficiently. The recommended application is tested on the real-life data and randomly generated data. The scheduling improvements and the financial benefits are presented. The second problem is from electricity retail market. There are well-known patterns in daily usage in hours. These patterns change in shape and magnitude by seasons and days of the week. Generation costs are multiple times higher during the peak hours of the day. Yet most consumers purchase electricity at flat rates. This work explores analytic pricing tools to reduce peak load electricity demand for retailers. For that purpose, a nonlinear model that determines optimal hourly prices is established based on two major components: unit generation costs and consumers' utility. Both are analyzed and estimated empirically in the third paper. A pricing model is introduced to maximize the electric retailer's profit. As a result, a closed-form expression for the optimal price vector is obtained. Possible scenarios are evaluated for consumers' utility distribution. For the general case, we provide a numerical solution methodology to obtain the optimal pricing scheme. The models recommended are tested under various scenarios that consider consumer segmentation and multiple pricing policies. The recommended model reduces the peak load significantly in most cases. Several utility companies offer hourly pricing to their customers. They determine prices using historical data of unit electricity cost over time. In this dissertation we develop a nonlinear model that determines optimal hourly prices with parameter estimation. The last paper includes a regression analysis of the unit generation cost

  5. Achieving demand side management through eco-industrial networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, N.

    2002-01-01

    This Power Point presentation describes the progress made by the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) in achieving sustainable development. The GVRD provides regional level infrastructure for drinking water, liquid waste treatment and solid waste management. Member municipalities provide the complementary services to businesses and residents of the communities. Particular emphasis has been given to protecting the green zone, building complete communities, achieving a compact Metropolitain region, and increasing transportation choices. The GVRD has also adopted a Livable Region Strategic Plan (LRSP) which encompasses economic, social and environmental issues. All member municipalities of the GVRD have prepared statements that indicate how their local policies will help achieve the LRSP goals. This presentation also includes a review of the region's air quality in order to emphasize the link between air quality and the pattern of urban development and transportation choices. The GVRD air quality management is unique in Canada. tabs., figs

  6. An Improved Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm for the Implementation of Demand Side Management Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Panapakidis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Load profiling refers to a procedure that leads to the formulation of daily load curves and consumer classes regarding the similarity of the curve shapes. This procedure incorporates a set of unsupervised machine learning algorithms. While many crisp clustering algorithms have been proposed for grouping load curves into clusters, only one soft clustering algorithm is utilized for the aforementioned purpose, namely the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM algorithm. Since the benefits of soft clustering are demonstrated in a variety of applications, the potential of introducing a novel modification of the FCM in the electricity consumer clustering process is examined. Additionally, this paper proposes a novel Demand Side Management (DSM strategy for load management of consumers that are eligible for the implementation of Real-Time Pricing (RTP schemes. The DSM strategy is formulated as a constrained optimization problem that can be easily solved and therefore, making it a useful tool for retailers’ decision-making framework in competitive electricity markets.

  7. Foundation and economic consistency framework for demand side management actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabet, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Since the first oil crisis, energy management constitutes one of the main lines of France's energy policy, together with the development of the national supply and the diversification of the origin of imported energy products. The priority given to petroleum product savings, the effort already made in the field of electro technologies and rational use of electricity, and the temporary surplus of nuclear generation capacity have resulted in less attention given by the players to energy conservation concerning electricity uses, or at least take this into account mainly for competitive uses. The evolution of the stakes involved makes it necessary today to re-examine the role of electricity DSM in the French energy system. This should be done particularly by identifying, through experimentation, the potentials and methods of electricity DSM programs that are desirable from the economic, social and environmental viewpoint. (au)

  8. Demand-side management and demand response in the Ontario energy sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In June 2003, the Ontario Energy Board was asked by the Minister of Energy to identify and review options for the delivery of demand-side management (DSM) and demand response (DR) activities within the electricity sector, by consulting with stakeholders. The role of local distribution company (distributor) in such activities was also to be determined. The objective was to balance implementation costs with the benefits to consumers and the entire system. The preliminary research and ideas were presented in this discussion paper. Definitions of both DSM and DR were provided, followed by an overview of economic theory and competitive markets. The framework for discussion was presented, along with a list of issues and other considerations. A spectrum of potential approaches to a DSM and DR framework was included and jurisdictional examples provided. A brief overview of the concept of load aggregation was presented and the next steps for consultations were outlined. 30 refs., 7 tabs

  9. An Overview of Demand Side Management Control Schemes for Buildings in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing share of distributed energy resources and renewable energy in power systems results in a highly variable and less controllable energy production. Therefore, in order to ensure stability and to reduce the infrastructure and operation cost of the power grid, flexible and controllable...... of the power sector in mind and thus can differ significantly in their architecture, their integration into the various markets, their integration into distribution network operation and several other aspects. This paper proposes a classification of load control policies for demand side management in smart...... buildings, based on external behavior: direct, indirect, transactional and autonomous control; internal operation: decision support system scope, control strategy, failure handling and architecture. This classification assists in providing an overview of the control schemes as well as different ways...

  10. Demand-Side Management and European environmental and energy goals. An optimal complementary approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergaentzle, Claire; Clastres, Cedric; Khalfallah, Haikel

    2013-12-01

    Demand side management (DSM) in electricity markets could improve energy efficiency and achieve environmental targets through controlled consumption. For the past 10 years or so DSM programs have registered significant results. However, detailed analysis of its real impact as observed by a large number of pilot studies suggests that such programs need to be fine-tuned to suit clearly identified conditions. This study aims to provide recommendations for the instruments to be used to prompt demand response with a view to maximizing energy and environmental efficiencies of various countries. The present study suggests that different DSM models should be deployed depending on the specific generation mix in any given country. Beside the natural benefits from cross-borders infrastructures, DSM improves the flexibility and reliability of the energy system, absorbing some shock on generation mix. We show efficiency increases with demand response but at a decreasing rate. So, according to rebound and report effects, simple DSM tools could be preferred. (authors)

  11. Optimal Multi-scale Demand-side Management for Continuous Power-Intensive Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sumit

    With the advent of deregulation in electricity markets and an increasing share of intermittent power generation sources, the profitability of industrial consumers that operate power-intensive processes has become directly linked to the variability in energy prices. Thus, for industrial consumers that are able to adjust to the fluctuations, time-sensitive electricity prices (as part of so-called Demand-Side Management (DSM) in the smart grid) offer potential economical incentives. In this thesis, we introduce optimization models and decomposition strategies for the multi-scale Demand-Side Management of continuous power-intensive processes. On an operational level, we derive a mode formulation for scheduling under time-sensitive electricity prices. The formulation is applied to air separation plants and cement plants to minimize the operating cost. We also describe how a mode formulation can be used for industrial combined heat and power plants that are co-located at integrated chemical sites to increase operating profit by adjusting their steam and electricity production according to their inherent flexibility. Furthermore, a robust optimization formulation is developed to address the uncertainty in electricity prices by accounting for correlations and multiple ranges in the realization of the random variables. On a strategic level, we introduce a multi-scale model that provides an understanding of the value of flexibility of the current plant configuration and the value of additional flexibility in terms of retrofits for Demand-Side Management under product demand uncertainty. The integration of multiple time scales leads to large-scale two-stage stochastic programming problems, for which we need to apply decomposition strategies in order to obtain a good solution within a reasonable amount of time. Hence, we describe two decomposition schemes that can be applied to solve two-stage stochastic programming problems: First, a hybrid bi-level decomposition scheme with

  12. Impact of energy storage in buildings on electricity demand side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Waqar A.; Nair, Nirmal-Kumar C.; Farid, Mohammad M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Phase change material (PCM) application for space heating has been implemented and assessed for built environment. → Real-Time Pricing (RTP) is assessed as tool to implement Demand Side Management programs effectively. → Two buildings, with and without PCM, have been compared for space heating using RTP in functional electricity market. → PCM found to offer peak load shifting, energy conservation, and reduction in price of electricity. -- Abstract: This paper assesses impact of using phase change materials (PCM) in buildings to leverage its thermal energy storage capability. The emphasis is from an electricity demand side perspective with case studies that incorporates wholesale electricity market data of New Zealand. The results presented in this paper show that for space heating application significant advantages could be obtained using PCM built structures. These positive impacts include peak load shifting, energy conservation and reduction in peak demand for network line companies and potential reduction in electricity consumption and savings for residential customers. This paper uses a testing facility that consists of two identically designed and shaped offices built at Tamaki Campus location of the University of Auckland, New Zealand. The walls and ceilings of one office are finished with ordinary gypsum boards while the interior of the other office is finished with PCM impregnated gypsum boards. Controlled heating facility is provided in both the offices for maintaining temperature within the range of human comfort. This facility is equipped with advanced data acquisition equipment for data monitoring and archiving both locally within the offices and also remotely. Through actual observations and analysis this paper demonstrates two major impacts of DSM. First, the application of phase change material (PCM) in building environment enabling efficient thermal storage to achieve some reduction in the overall electrical energy

  13. Neural network controller for Active Demand-Side Management with PV energy in the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matallanas, E.; Castillo-Cagigal, M.; Gutiérrez, A.; Monasterio-Huelin, F.; Caamaño-Martín, E.; Masa, D.; Jiménez-Leube, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We have developed a neural controller for Active Demand-Side Management. ► The controller consists of Multilayer Perceptrons evolved with a genetic algorithm. ► The architecture of the controller is distributed and modular. ► The simulations show that the electrical local behavior improves. ► Active Demand-Side Management helps users to control his energy behaviour. -- Abstract: In this paper, we describe the development of a control system for Demand-Side Management in the residential sector with Distributed Generation. The electrical system under study incorporates local PV energy generation, an electricity storage system, connection to the grid and a home automation system. The distributed control system is composed of two modules: a scheduler and a coordinator, both implemented with neural networks. The control system enhances the local energy performance, scheduling the tasks demanded by the user and maximizing the use of local generation.

  14. Hawaii demand-side management resource assessment. Final report: DSM opportunity report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Hawaii Demand-Side Management Resource Assessment was the fourth of seven projects in the Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES) program. HES was designed by the Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism (DBEDT) to produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. The purpose of Project 4 was to develop a comprehensive assessment of Hawaii`s demand-side management (DSM) resources. To meet this objective, the project was divided into two phases. The first phase included development of a DSM technology database and the identification of Hawaii commercial building characteristics through on-site audits. These Phase 1 products were then used in Phase 2 to identify expected energy impacts from DSM measures in typical residential and commercial buildings in Hawaii. The building energy simulation model DOE-2.1E was utilized to identify the DSM energy impacts. More detailed information on the typical buildings and the DOE-2.1E modeling effort is available in Reference Volume 1, ``Building Prototype Analysis``. In addition to the DOE-2.1E analysis, estimates of residential and commercial sector gas and electric DSM potential for the four counties of Honolulu, Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai through 2014 were forecasted by the new DBEDT DSM Assessment Model. Results from DBEDTs energy forecasting model, ENERGY 2020, were linked with results from DOE-2.1E building energy simulation runs and estimates of DSM measure impacts, costs, lifetime, and anticipated market penetration rates in the DBEDT DSM Model. Through its algorithms, estimates of DSM potential for each forecast year were developed. Using the load shape information from the DOE-2.1E simulation runs, estimates of electric peak demand impacts were developed. 10 figs., 55 tabs.

  15. Demand-side management and demand response in the Ontario energy sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    A directive from the former Minister of Energy was received by the Ontario Energy Board (OEB), directing the Board to consult with stakeholders on options for the delivery of demand-side management (DSM) and demand response (DR) activities within the electricity sector, including the role of local distribution companies in such activities. The implementation costs were to be balanced with the benefits to both consumers and the entire system. The scope of the review was expanded by the Board to include the role of gas distribution companies in DSM. A consultation process was implemented and stakeholders were invited to participate. A series of recommendations was made, including: (1) a hybrid framework utilizing market-based and public-policy approaches should deliver DSM and DR activities in Ontario's energy markets, (2) DSM and DR activities should come under the responsibility of a central agency, (3) DSM and DR activities should be coordinated through cooperation between the Ministry of Energy, the Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO) and the Ontario Energy Board, (4) regulatory mechanisms to induce gas distributors, electricity transmitters and electricity distributors to reduce distribution system losses should be put in place, (5) all electricity consumers should fund electricity DSM and some retail DR initiatives through a transparent, non-bypassable consumption charge, and (6) the Board should design, develop and deliver information to consumers regarding energy conservation, energy efficiency, load management, and cleaner sources of energy. refs., 4 figs

  16. DSM [demand-side management] opportunities in Alberta: An economist's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    In Alberta, utility companies are placing increasing attention on demand-side management (DSM) as one option for meeting future demand. Some basic economic principles are provided to yield a guideline on how much a utility should be spending on DSM initiatives. For the case of financial incentives to customers, it is shown that subsidies based on sound economic principles will enable the utility to charge lower overall rates to customers receiving the subsidy without raising other customers' rates. Moving outside of a well-understood market-based system and into a fully centralized planning approach to DSM eliminates a critical link between utilities and their customers. In Alberta, DSM measures appropriate in other regions will not be appropriate due to the province's unique supply and demand characteristics. Most of Alberta's electricity supply comes from low-cost coal-fired plants. On the demand-side, there is a significant concentration of large industrial and commercial consumers, notably in the oil and gas industry, and there is essentially no demand for electric heating in homes since natural gas is very abundant. The Alberta integrated power system currently operates at a load factor of ca 77%, reflecting the large industrial demand and the absence of a winter peaking effect associated with electrical heating requirements. A relatively small difference in embedded and incremental electricity supply costs means that utilities have little to spend on DSM programs. The identification of cost-effective DSM opportunities, most of which are likely to be found in the industrial sector, requires a considerable amount of detailed information on consumer behavior and close collaboration between utility and customer

  17. Demand side management in households. Potentials and restraints of short-term power supply; Demand Side Management in Haushalten. Potenziale und Hemmnisse fuer kurzfristige Leistungsbereitstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roon, Serafin von; Gobmaier, Thomas [FfE Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft e.V., Muenchen (Germany); Huck, Malte

    2010-07-01

    Within the project ''Wind energy - balancing forecast errors'' we examine potentials, restraints and costs of various options for balancing forecast errors of wind power generation. One possibility of providing this backup power could be to practice Demand Side Management (DSM) of household appliances. The integration of these appliances in a DSM network is facilitated by standardized data transmission procedures and the increasing deployment of microprocessors. Due to the low power consumption of the switchable devices no DSM measures are implemented in the household sector so far, despite the numerous appliances. (orig.)

  18. Impact of realistic communications for fast-acting demand side management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dambrauskas, Paulius; Syed, Mazheruddin H.; Blair, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    The rising penetration of intermittent energy resources is increasing the need for more diverse electrical energy resources that are able to support ancillary services. Demand side management (DSM) has a significant potential to fulfil this role, but several challenges are still impeding the wide...

  19. History of demand side management and classification of demand response control schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lampropoulos, I.; Kling, W.L.; Ribeiro, P.F.; Berg, van den J.

    2013-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to provide a review on the topic of demand side management. A historical overview provides a critical insight to applied cases, while the discovery of new evidence calls for reconsideration of the design of demand response control schemes. The developments at the demand

  20. Ensuring the security of electricity supply in Ontario: is demand-side management the answer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuddy, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the issues relating to ensuring the security of electricity supply in Ontario. In particular, it focuses on demand-side management as a means of achieving these objectives. The solution involves both conservation and supply. It is therefore critical that there be investment in new supply with multiple buyers/sellers. regulatory environment and pricing could encourage conservation

  1. Generation of flexible domestic load profiles to evaluate demand side management approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteen, Gerwin; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2016-01-01

    Various Demand Side Management (DSM) approaches have been developed the last couple of years to avoid costly grid upgrades. However, evaluation of these DSM methodologies is usually restricted to a use-case specific example, making comparison between different DSM approaches hard. This paper

  2. Experimental determination of demand side management potential of wet appliances in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staats, M. R.; de Boer-Meulman, P. D M; van Sark, W. G J H M

    2017-01-01

    The potential of demand side management (DSM) of wet appliances (washing machine, dishwasher and tumble dryer) in households with photovoltaic (PV) systems is studied experimentally focusing on evening peak demand reduction and increase in PV self-consumption. In a sample of 100 Dutch households the

  3. Increased demand-side flexibility: market effects and impacts on variable renewable energy integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Grytli Tveten

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of increased demand-side flexibility (DSF on integration and market value of variable renewable energy sources (VRE. Using assumed potentials, system-optimal within-day shifts in demand are investigated for the Northern European power markets in 2030, applying a comprehensive partial equilibrium model with high temporal and spatial resolution. Increased DSF is found to cause only a minor (less than 3% reduction in consumers’ cost of electricity. VRE revenues are found to increase (up to 5% and 2% for wind and solar power, respectively, and total VRE curtailment decreases by up to 7.2 TWh. Increased DSF causes only limited reductions in GHG emissions. The emission reduction is, however, sensitive to underlying assumptions. We conclude that increased DSF is a promising measure for improving VRE integration. However, low consumers’ savings imply that policies stimulating DFS will be needed to fully use the potential benefits of DSF for VRE integration

  4. Transactive Demand Side Management Programs in Smart Grids with High Penetration of EVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poria Hasanpor Divshali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to environmental concerns, economic issues, and emerging new loads, such as electrical vehicles (EVs, the importance of demand side management (DSM programs has increased in recent years. DSM programs using a dynamic real-time pricing (RTP method can help to adaptively control the electricity consumption. However, the existing RTP methods, particularly when they consider the EVs and the power system constraints, have many limitations, such as computational complexity and the need for centralized control. Therefore, a new transactive DSM program is proposed in this paper using an imperfect competition model with high EV penetration levels. In particular, a heuristic two-stage iterative method, considering the influence of decisions made independently by customers to minimize their own costs, is developed to find the market equilibrium quickly in a distributed manner. Simulations in the IEEE 37-bus system with 1141 customers and 670 EVs are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method can better manage the EVs and elastic appliances than the existing methods in terms of power constraints and cost. Also, the proposed method can solve the optimization problem quick enough to run in real-time.

  5. The past, present, and future of U.S. utility demand-side management programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, J.

    1996-12-01

    Demand-side management or DSM refers to active efforts by electric and gas utilities to modify customers' energy use patterns. The experience in the US shows that utilities, when provided with appropriate incentives, can provide a powerful stimulus to energy efficiency in the private sector. This paper describes the range and history of DSM programs offered by US electric utilities, with a focus on the political, economic, and regulatory events that have shaped their evolution. It also describes the changes these programs are undergoing as a result of US electricity industry restructuring. DSM programs began modestly in the 1970s in response to growing concerns about dependence on foreign sources of oil and environmental consequences of electricity generation, especially nuclear power. The foundation for the unique US partnership between government and utility interests can be traced first to the private-ownership structure of the vertically integrated electricity industry and second to the monopoly franchise granted by state regulators. Electricity industry restructuring calls into question both of these basic conditions, and thus the future of utility DSM programs for the public interest. Future policies guiding ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency DSM programs will need to pay close attention to the specific market objectives of the programs and to the balance between public and private interests

  6. Demand-side management (DSM) in the context of China's on-going power sector reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Sufang; Jiao, Yiqian; Chen, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    As an approach to manage power demand-side resources, DSM plays an important role in electric power system. Though DSM was introduced into China in the early 1990s, its benefits have been underutilized. Using literature study, interview methods and three data sources, this paper examines the likely impacts of China's on-going power sector reform on its DSM. It finds that the major constraints to DSM in China are the insufficient and improper market-based DSM mechanism, grid companies’ low motivations for DSM due to their traditional business model, the underdeveloped energy service industry, and electricity end-users’ low motivation for DSM. China's on-going power sector reform will change power transmission and distribution pricing and grid companies’ business model and introduce competition into retail-side. Drawing on these findings, it is concluded that the likely impacts of the new reform on DSM are: governments may attach more importance to DSM; grid companies may have more motivations for DSM investment; electricity end-users’ motivations for DSM may be both enhanced and dampened; electricity retailers’ motivations for DSM may be dampened; demand response application may be enhanced, and more DSM business models may be developed. Finally, policy implications are provided. - Highlights: • Mechanism of and constraints to DSM in China are examined. • China’s on-going power sector reform is overviewed. • DSM is likely to be enhanced under China's on-going power sector reform. • Policy implications are provided.

  7. The past, present, and future of U.S. utility demand-side management programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.

    1996-12-01

    Demand-side management or DSM refers to active efforts by electric and gas utilities to modify customers` energy use patterns. The experience in the US shows that utilities, when provided with appropriate incentives, can provide a powerful stimulus to energy efficiency in the private sector. This paper describes the range and history of DSM programs offered by US electric utilities, with a focus on the political, economic, and regulatory events that have shaped their evolution. It also describes the changes these programs are undergoing as a result of US electricity industry restructuring. DSM programs began modestly in the 1970s in response to growing concerns about dependence on foreign sources of oil and environmental consequences of electricity generation, especially nuclear power. The foundation for the unique US partnership between government and utility interests can be traced first to the private-ownership structure of the vertically integrated electricity industry and second to the monopoly franchise granted by state regulators. Electricity industry restructuring calls into question both of these basic conditions, and thus the future of utility DSM programs for the public interest. Future policies guiding ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency DSM programs will need to pay close attention to the specific market objectives of the programs and to the balance between public and private interests.

  8. A Midwest utility's perspective of DSM [demand-side management]: Balancing the needs of customers, shareholders and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    PSI Energy, a predominately coal-burning Indiana electric utility, is very concerned about the environment and is using demand-side management (DSM) as part of a strategy to balance the sometimes conflicting interests of the environment, the economy, customers and shareholders. Faced with slow growth within its service territory, an abundance of low-cost, high sulfur coal burning baseload capacity, massive future expenditures for acid rain mitigation and a weakened financial state due to a cancelled nuclear project, PSI Energy has taken a novel approach to preserving value for customers, shareholders, the economy and environment. To accomodate Indiana's goal of least cost utility planning, PSI initiated an all-source bidding program in which it solicited bids for peaking capacity or the equivalent. Four parallel but separate solicitations were pursued: combustion turbine manufacturers for PSI owned and operated capacity, other utilities and non-utility generators for purchased power and third parties for demand-side management. PSI's philosophy with respect to bidding can be expressed as: simplicity, flexibility, creativity, partnerships, expeditious and fairness. There is a minimum bid of 5 MW of summer peak demand reduction, and the minimum contract length is 10 years. The entire 550 MW capacity block available to be filled in the program is open to demand-side resources. The ten major evaluation criteria involved in the program are: price, sponsor qualifications, operational impact, marketing plan, technology, financing plan, verification and measurement, form of security, project management plan, and project cost estimates

  9. Predictive Control of Demand Side Units Participating in the Primary Frequency Reserve Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2013-01-01

    We consider an aggregator controlling a mixed portfolio of conventional power generators and demand side units. The generators are controllable within certain power and ramp limitations while the demand side units are characterized by flexible consumptions and therefore can be treated as energy...

  10. Demand side management scheme in smart grid with cloud computing approach using stochastic dynamic programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sofana Reka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a cloud computing framework in smart grid environment by creating small integrated energy hub supporting real time computing for handling huge storage of data. A stochastic programming approach model is developed with cloud computing scheme for effective demand side management (DSM in smart grid. Simulation results are obtained using GUI interface and Gurobi optimizer in Matlab in order to reduce the electricity demand by creating energy networks in a smart hub approach.

  11. Demand-side management project for Tenaga Nasional Berhad. Progress report No. 4. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This study, conducted by the California Energy Commission, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. Progress Report No. 4 is divided into the following contents: April 6, 1994 Training Mission Delegation Itinerary; April 6, 1994 Training Mission Workshop Information Package; Letter to Chairman of Tenaga Nasional Berhad Requesting Demonstration Project Funding; Design/Build Construction Bid Proposal for Energy Efficient Electric Technology Demontration Project; Final Draft of Demand-Side Management Plan for Tenaga Nasional Berhad; Attachments.

  12. From demand side management (DSM) to energy efficiency services: A Finnish case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apajalahti, Eeva-Lotta; Lovio, Raimo; Heiskanen, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Energy conservation is expected to contribute significantly to climate change mitigation and energy security. Traditionally, energy companies have had strong role in providing Demand Side Management (DSM) measures. However, after energy market liberalization in Europe, energy companies' DSM activities declined. In response, the EU issued Directive (2006/32/EC) on energy end-use efficiency and energy services (ESD) to motivate energy companies to promote energy efficiency and conservation, closely followed by Directive (2012/27/EU) on energy efficiency (EED), requiring the setting up energy efficiency obligation schemes. Despite strong political and economic motivation, energy companies struggle to develop energy efficiency services in liberalised energy markets due to conflicting institutional demands, which arise from contradicting policy requirements and customer relations. The main challenges in developing new innovative energy efficiency services, evidenced by an in-depth case study, were (1) the unbundling of energy company operations, which makes it difficult to develop services when the contribution of several business units is required and (2) the distrust among energy end-users, which renders the business logic of energy saving contract models self-contradictory. On the basis of the research, avenues out of these dilemmas are suggested. -- Highlights: •Energy companies struggle to become energy service provides •We explore the development of new energy saving business solutions •Dispersed organisational structure leaves energy saving business as isolated function •Strong consumer scepticism towards energy companies as providers of energy saving •More emphasis on the changing company-customer relationship is needed

  13. A System Architecture for Autonomous Demand Side Load Management in Smart Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Zhu, Guchuan; Anjos, Miguel F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a system architecture for load management in smart buildings which enables autonomous demand side load management in the smart grid. Being of a layered structure composed of three main modules for admission control, load balancing, and demand response management...... in multiple time-scales and allows seamless integration of diverse techniques for online operation control, optimal scheduling, and dynamic pricing. The design of a home energy manager based on this architecture is illustrated and the simulation results with Matlab/Simulink confirm the viability...

  14. Smart grids and power systems efficiency: regulatory tools and demand-side management impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergaentzle, Claire

    2015-01-01

    The physical architecture of electricity grids and the organizational structure of power systems implemented after the reforms have traditionally be achieved according to the characteristics of the transmission infrastructures and power mixes. However, the new challenges related to energy transition favor a greater participation of decentralized generation and final consumers to system exploitation and competitive markets. This latter participation is made possible thanks to recent innovations in the fields of communication and remote control technologies. Significant evolutions are expected in power industries that share common characteristics. First, these evolutions suppose massive capital investments to modernize and adapt current power distribution grids. Second, it is expected the activation of distribution grids and final consumers will unleash substantial unexploited economic efficiency gains as well as impose new constraints. Taking these simple facts as a starting point, the objective of the thesis is twofold. In the first place, we provide a theoretical analysis of the regulatory instruments that monitor the system operators' expenses. Relying on the literature, we aim at characterizing what regulatory tools and incitation are suitable for investing in smart grids technologies. Since it is necessary to compare theoretical formulation to facts, we use an empirical approach that allows us to designate key benefits pursued by the development of smart grids and to compare our theoretical results with practical regulatory applications. Our findings eventually allow us to formulate recommendations. In the second place, the thesis focuses on the impacts of demand-side management during peak periods. We structure our approach around two general observations. Large benefits should be generated in lowering substantially peak demand. However, such situation also creates losses of profit for generators. We provide an estimation of efficiency gains and revenue losses

  15. Demand-side management project for Tenaga Nasional Berhad. Progress report No. 3. Volume 2. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-09-01

    The objective of this work is identify and encompass those utility demand-side management (DSM) activities that influence customer electricity use to produce customer savings while favorably modifying the utility load. These activities can help utilities operate more efficiently and effectively in uncertain and competitive business environments. This work authorization will initiate the following: Provide descriptive information on the operating characteristics, applicability, specifications, costs, and benefits of DSM/end-use technologies; Characterize the marketing methods used to encourage customer acceptance of these technologies.

  16. Energy efficiency and demand side management. Complement or contradiction? The impact of energy efficiency measures on the potential for demand side management; Energieeffizienz und Lastflexibilisierung. Partner oder Gegenspieler? Der Einfluss von Energieeffizienzmassnahmen auf das Lastflexibilisierungspotenzial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peraus, Sebastian [TU Muenchen (Germany). Maschinenwesen; Gruber, Anna; Roon, Serafin von [Forschungsgesellschaft fuer Energiewirtschaft mbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-02-01

    The success of the so called ''Energiewende'' in Germany is based on two major elements: the improvements in energy efficiency and the increase of renewable energy sources (RES). But the supply of RES cannot always be regulated according to the electricity demand. As a result both flexible electricity generation and demand side management will become increasingly important. Consequently, it has to be discussed, whether the improvement of energy efficiency and demand side management could interfere. This publication will illustrate the possible impact of energy efficiency measures on the potential for demand side management.

  17. The impact of demand side management strategies in the penetration of renewable electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, André; Silva, Carlos; Ferrão, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    High fuel costs, increasing energy security and concerns with reducing emissions have pushed governments to invest in the use of renewable energies for electricity generation. However, the intermittence of most renewable resources when renewable energy provides a significant share of the energy mix can create problems to electricity grids, which can be minimized by energy storage systems that are usually not available or expensive. An alternative solution consists on the use of demand side management strategies, which can have the double effect of reducing electricity consumption and allowing greater efficiency and flexibility in the grid management, namely by enabling a better match between supply and demand. This work analyzes the impact of demand side management strategies in the evolution of the electricity mix of Flores Island in the Azores archipelago which is characterized by high shares of renewable energy and therefore the introduction of more renewable energy sources makes it an interesting case study for testing innovative solutions. The electricity generation system is modeled in TIMES, a software which optimizes the investment and operation of wind and hydro plants until 2020 based on scenarios for demand growth, deployment of demand response technologies in the domestic sector and promotion of behavioral changes to eliminate standby power. The results show that demand side management strategies can lead to a significant delay in the investment on new generation capacity from renewable resources and improve the operation of the existing installed capacity. -- Highlights: ► Energy efficiency can help reduce the need for investment in more renewable energy. ► Dynamic demand helps increase the use of renewable energy in low demand periods. ► Around 40% of total consumption by domestic appliances is used as dynamic demand. ► The load of domestic appliances is mainly shifted to the 5:00 to 9:00 period.

  18. R and D options for demand side management in Japanese electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, T.

    1995-01-01

    Japanese electric utilities are facing several problems: increasing construction cost of power facilities, siting constraints and the environmental issue of greenhouse gas emissions. To overcome these problems, electric utilities have been promoting demand-side-management (DSM) activities as well as supplier-side measures, with some presently being carried out through promoting energy conservation technologies and introducing tariff options for residential/commercial and industrial consumers. R and D works have been carried out on various fields such as energy storage and heat storage which contribute to the improvement of the load factor. 5 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Communications technologies for demand side management, DSM, and European utility communications architecture, EurUCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uuspaeae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The scope of this research is data communications for electric utilities. Demand Side Management (DSM) calls for communication between the Electric Utility and the Customer. The communication capacity needed will depend on the functions that are chosen for DSM, and on the number of customers. Some functions may be handled with one-way communications, some functions require two-way communication. Utility Communication Architecture looks for an overall view of the communications needs and communication systems in an electric utility. The objective is to define and specify suitable and compatible communications procedures within the Utility and also to outside parties. (27 refs.)

  20. Communications technologies for demand side management, DSM, and European utility communications architecture, EurUCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uuspaeae, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The scope of this research is data communications for electric utilities. Demand Side Management (DSM) calls for communication between the Electric Utility and the Customer. The communication capacity needed will depend on the functions that are chosen for DSM, and on the number of customers. Some functions may be handled with one-way communications, some functions require two-way communication. Utility Communication Architecture looks for an overall view of the communications needs and communication systems in an electric utility. The objective is to define and specify suitable and compatible communications procedures within the Utility and also to outside parties. (27 refs.)

  1. A distributed algorithm for demand-side management: Selling back to the grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Milad; Khalili, Azam; Rastegarnia, Amir; Zandi, Sajad; Bazzi, Wael M

    2017-11-01

    Demand side energy consumption scheduling is a well-known issue in the smart grid research area. However, there is lack of a comprehensive method to manage the demand side and consumer behavior in order to obtain an optimum solution. The method needs to address several aspects, including the scale-free requirement and distributed nature of the problem, consideration of renewable resources, allowing consumers to sell electricity back to the main grid, and adaptivity to a local change in the solution point. In addition, the model should allow compensation to consumers and ensurance of certain satisfaction levels. To tackle these issues, this paper proposes a novel autonomous demand side management technique which minimizes consumer utility costs and maximizes consumer comfort levels in a fully distributed manner. The technique uses a new logarithmic cost function and allows consumers to sell excess electricity (e.g. from renewable resources) back to the grid in order to reduce their electric utility bill. To develop the proposed scheme, we first formulate the problem as a constrained convex minimization problem. Then, it is converted to an unconstrained version using the segmentation-based penalty method. At each consumer location, we deploy an adaptive diffusion approach to obtain the solution in a distributed fashion. The use of adaptive diffusion makes it possible for consumers to find the optimum energy consumption schedule with a small number of information exchanges. Moreover, the proposed method is able to track drifts resulting from changes in the price parameters and consumer preferences. Simulations and numerical results show that our framework can reduce the total load demand peaks, lower the consumer utility bill, and improve the consumer comfort level.

  2. A distributed algorithm for demand-side management: Selling back to the grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Latifi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Demand side energy consumption scheduling is a well-known issue in the smart grid research area. However, there is lack of a comprehensive method to manage the demand side and consumer behavior in order to obtain an optimum solution. The method needs to address several aspects, including the scale-free requirement and distributed nature of the problem, consideration of renewable resources, allowing consumers to sell electricity back to the main grid, and adaptivity to a local change in the solution point. In addition, the model should allow compensation to consumers and ensurance of certain satisfaction levels. To tackle these issues, this paper proposes a novel autonomous demand side management technique which minimizes consumer utility costs and maximizes consumer comfort levels in a fully distributed manner. The technique uses a new logarithmic cost function and allows consumers to sell excess electricity (e.g. from renewable resources back to the grid in order to reduce their electric utility bill. To develop the proposed scheme, we first formulate the problem as a constrained convex minimization problem. Then, it is converted to an unconstrained version using the segmentation-based penalty method. At each consumer location, we deploy an adaptive diffusion approach to obtain the solution in a distributed fashion. The use of adaptive diffusion makes it possible for consumers to find the optimum energy consumption schedule with a small number of information exchanges. Moreover, the proposed method is able to track drifts resulting from changes in the price parameters and consumer preferences. Simulations and numerical results show that our framework can reduce the total load demand peaks, lower the consumer utility bill, and improve the consumer comfort level. Keywords: Energy, Systems engineering, Electrical engineering

  3. Development of assessment model for demand-side management investment programs in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Deok Ki; Park, Sang Yong; Park, Soo Uk

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study is the development of the assessment model for demand-side management investment programs (DSMIPs) in the areas of natural gas and district heating. Demand-side management (DSM) is the process of managing the consumption of energy to optimize available and planned generation resources and DSMIPs are the actions conducted by energy suppliers to promote investment in the DSM. In this research, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method was used to develop a scientific and rational assessment model for DSMIPs. To apply the AHP method, assessment indicators for the assessment have been identified by using the concept of 'plan, do, see' and the decision-making hierarchy was established. Then AHP model was developed to set up the priorities of assessment indicators and a survey of experts from government and energy suppliers was carried out. Finally, the priorities of assessment indicators were calculated based on the result of survey using the AHP method. The assessment model developed from this research will actually be used to assess the results of DSMIPs, which is being carried out by Korea gas corporation (KOGAS) and Korea district heating corporation (KDHC). The use of the assessment model developed by this research is expected to contribute to enhance efficiency in planning, execution, and assessment of DSMIPs

  4. Demand Side Management for the European Supergrid: Occupancy variances of European single-person households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torriti, Jacopo

    2012-01-01

    The prospect of a European Supergrid calls for research on aggregate electricity peak demand and Europe-wide Demand Side Management. No attempt has been made as yet to represent a time-related demand curve of residential electricity consumption at the European level. This article assesses how active occupancy levels of single-person households vary in single-person household in 15 European countries. It makes use of occupancy time-series data from the Harmonised European Time Use Survey database to build European occupancy curves; identify peak occupancy periods; construct time-related electricity demand curves for TV and video watching activities and assess occupancy variances of single-person households. - Highlights: ► Morning peak occupancies of European single households tale place between 7h30 and 7h40. ► Evening peaks take place between 20h10 and 20h20. ► TV and video activities during evening peaks make up about 3.1 GWh of European peak electricity load. ► Baseline and peak occupancy variances vary across countries. ► Baseline and peak occupancy variances can be used as input for Demand Side Management choices.

  5. Employee retention and integrated disability management practices as demand side factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habeck, Rochelle; Hunt, Allan; Rachel, Colleen Head; Kregel, John; Chan, Fong

    2010-12-01

    Demand-side employment research on company policies and practices related to retention and absence and disability management (ADM) can contribute to our understanding of employment issues related to people with disabilities from the employers' perspective. To examine company ADM and retention practices and their effectiveness, as well as how these company policies and practices might influence hiring of people with disabilities. Disability Management Employer Coalition employer members (N = 650) were surveyed by internet and the survey data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation, and multiple regression. Ninety-five participants responded to the survey resulting in a response rate of 14%. Retention practice was found to be associated with retention effectiveness (r = .39, P ideas and involvement of employees, and assuring they know how their work and performance support the mission. ADM practice was related to improving health and managing health conditions (r = .26, P companies.

  6. An analysis of the factors influencing demand-side management activity in the electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Mark Joseph

    Demand-side management (DSM), defined as the "planning, implementation, and monitoring of utility activities designed to encourage consumers to modify their pattern of electricity usage, including the timing and level of electricity demand," is a relatively new concept in the U.S. electric power industry. Nevertheless, in twenty years since it was first introduced, utility expenditures on DSM programs, as well as the number of such programs, have grown rapidly. At first glance, it may seem peculiar that a firm would actively attempt to reduce demand for its primary product. There are two primary explanations as to why a utility might pursue DSM: regulatory mandate, and self-interest. The purpose of this dissertation is to determine the impact these influences have on the amount of DSM undertaken by utilities. This research is important for two reasons. First, it provides insight into whether DSM will continue to exist as competition becomes more prevalent in the industry. Secondly, it is important because no one has taken a comprehensive look at firm-level DSM activity on an industry-wide basis. The primary data set used in this dissertation is the U.S. Department of Energy's Annual Electric Utility Report, Form EIA-861, which represents the most comprehensive data set available for analyzing DSM activity in the U.S. There are four measures of DSM activity in this data set: (1) utility expenditures on DSM programs; (2) energy savings by DSM program participants; and (3) the actual and (4) the potential reductions in peak load resulting from utility DSM measures. Each is used as the dependent variable in an econometric analysis where independent variables include various utility characteristics, regulatory characteristics, and service territory and customer characteristics. In general, the results from the econometric analysis suggest that in 1993, DSM activity was primarily the result of regulatory pressure. All of the evidence suggests that if DSM continues to

  7. Modulation strategies of integrated HVAC systems used in residential buildings for demand-side management at different scales

    OpenAIRE

    Georges, Emeline

    2017-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy sources in the electricity production mix has an important impact on the management of the electricity grid, due to their intermittency. In particular, to ensure grid balancing, there is a rising need for flexibility, both on the supply and demand sides. A possible solution to help achieve grid balancing is the smart modulation of the electrical load in a "demand following supply" scheme through demand-side management. In this context, the objective of...

  8. Accurate Estimation of Target amounts Using Expanded BASS Model for Demand-Side Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Woong; Park, Jong-Jin; Kim, Jin-O.

    2008-10-01

    The electricity demand in Korea has rapidly increased along with a steady economic growth since 1970s. Therefore Korea has positively propelled not only SSM (Supply-Side Management) but also DSM (Demand-Side Management) activities to reduce investment cost of generating units and to save supply costs of electricity through the enhancement of whole national energy utilization efficiency. However study for rebate, which have influence on success or failure on DSM program, is not sufficient. This paper executed to modeling mathematically expanded Bass model considering rebates, which have influence on penetration amounts for DSM program. To reflect rebate effect more preciously, the pricing function using in expanded Bass model directly reflects response of potential participants for rebate level.

  9. An Enhanced System Architecture for Optimized Demand Side Management in Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzar Mahmood

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Demand Side Management (DSM through optimization of home energy consumption in the smart grid environment is now one of the well-known research areas. Appliance scheduling has been done through many different algorithms to reduce peak load and, consequently, the Peak to Average Ratio (PAR. This paper presents a Comprehensive Home Energy Management Architecture (CHEMA with integration of multiple appliance scheduling options and enhanced load categorization in a smart grid environment. The CHEMA model consists of six layers and has been modeled in Simulink with an embedded MATLAB code. A single Knapsack optimization technique is used for scheduling and four different cases of cost reduction are modeled at the second layer of CHEMA. Fault identification and electricity theft control have also been added in CHEMA. Furthermore, carbon footprint calculations have been incorporated in order to make the users aware of environmental concerns. Simulation results prove the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  10. Bulk electric system reliability evaluation incorporating wind power and demand side management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dange

    correlations and the interactive effects of wind power and load forecast uncertainty on system reliability are examined. The concept of the security cost associated with operating in the marginal state in the well-being framework is incorporated in the economic analyses associated with system expansion planning including wind power and load forecast uncertainty. Overall reliability cost/worth analyses including security cost concepts are applied to select an optimal wind power injection strategy in a bulk electric system. The effects of the various demand side management measures on system reliability are illustrated using the system, load point, and well-being indices, and the reliability index probability distributions. The reliability effects of demand side management procedures in a bulk electric system including wind power and load forecast uncertainty considerations are also investigated. The system reliability effects due to specific demand side management programs are quantified and examined in terms of their reliability benefits.

  11. Simulation of demand side participation in Spanish short term electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valencia-Salazar, I.; Alvarez, C.; Escriva-Escriva, G.; Alcazar-Ortega, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Benefits from customer active participation can be obtained with a proper generation of bids and offers. → Simulation of Spanish customers' participation is shown in daily, intra-daily and balancing markets. → Market efficiency and economics profits arise in balancing markets by using customer load reductions. → Real market prices and real customers' consumptions profiles are used in the simulations. -- Abstract: Demand response resources management is one of the most investigated solutions oriented to improve the efficiency in electricity markets. In this paper, the capability of customers to participate in short term markets is analyzed. An available methodology to analyze the daily and monthly energy consumptions of large customers is used to create energy offers and bids. This allows customers to participate in energy markets in order to buy, as first step, the usual electricity consumption and, additionally, to offer demand reductions in the short term electricity markets. Additionally, this paper shows the customer potential to participate in the Spanish electricity markets.

  12. Impact of realistic communications for fast-acting demand side management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dambrauskas, Paulius; Syed, Mazheruddin H.; Blair, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    The rising penetration of intermittent energy resources is increasing the need for more diverse electrical energy resources that are able to support ancillary services. Demand side management (DSM) has a significant potential to fulfil this role, but several challenges are still impeding the wide......-scale integration of DSM. One of the major challenges is ensuring the performance of the networks that enable communications between control centres and the end DSM resources. This study presents an analysis of all communications networks that typically participate in the activation of DSM, and provides an estimate...... for the overall latency that these networks incur. The most significant sources of delay from each of the components of the communications network are identified which allows the most critical aspects to be determined. This analysis, therefore, offers a detailed evaluation of the performance of DSM resources...

  13. Demand side management for remote area power supply systems incorporating solar irradiance model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Alawi, A.; Islam, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for generating the daily electricity load profile for remote areas in the Middle East from first principles, using diversified demand. The generated load profile includes the energy required to run a small desalination unit to provide the necessary freshwater. Demand side management (DSM) is used in this study to smooth out the daily peaks and fill valleys in the load curve to make the most efficient use of energy resources. Finally, the load profile is compared with real data for six houses collected from Safri area in the Sultanate of Oman. These data may be used as the basis to obtain load profiles of other remote areas of the Middle East since the weather and social factors are similar. The modified hourly variation factor based on weather and economic and social factors of the Middle East is obtained. (author)

  14. Optimal energy efficiency policies and regulatory demand-side management tests: How well do they match?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Under conventional models, subsidizing energy efficiency requires electricity to be priced below marginal cost. Its benefits increase when electricity prices increase to finance the subsidy. With high prices, subsidies are counterproductive unless consumers fail to make efficiency investments when private benefits exceed costs. If the gain from adopting efficiency is only reduced electricity spending, capping revenues from energy sales may induce a utility to substitute efficiency for generation when the former is less costly. This goes beyond standard 'decoupling' of distribution revenues from sales, requiring complex energy price regulation. The models' results are used to evaluate tests in the 2002 California Standard Practice Manual for assessing demand-side management programs. Its 'Ratepayer Impact Measure' test best conforms to the condition that electricity price is too low. Its 'Total Resource Cost' and 'Societal Cost' tests resemble the condition for expanded decoupling. No test incorporates optimality conditions apart from consumer choice failure.

  15. R and D options for demand side management in Japanese electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takahiko

    1996-01-01

    Japanese electric demand has been steadily increasing in accordance with the economic growth. However, Japanese electric utilities are facing several problems; increasing construction cost of power facilities, siting constraints and the environmental issue of greenhouse gas emissions. To overcome these problems, electric utilities have been promoting demand-side-management (DSM) activities as well as supplier-side measures, with some presently being carried out through promoting energy conservation technologies and introducing electric tariff options of specific contracts for residential/commercial and industrial consumers. Japanese electric utilities have been carrying out R and D for the future, in particular, energy storage and heat storage which contribute to the improvement of load factor. In this paper, I would like to outline the R and D options for DSM in Japan. (author)

  16. Communications technologies for demand side management, DSM, and European utility communications architecture, EurUCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerkkaeinen, S.; Kekkonen, V. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Rissanen, P. [Tietosavo Oy (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this project the main target is to develop and assess methods for DSM (Demand Side Management) and distribution automation planning from the utility`s point of view. The final goal is to integrate these methods for the strategic planning of electric utilities. In practice the project is divided into four main parts: The development and assessment of DSM/IRP planning methods and cost/benefit analysis as a part of international co-operation (IEA DSM Agreement: Annex IV, European Cost/Benefit analysis of DSM, EUBC, and Finnish SAVE-project started in 1995 in co-operation with SRC International and six electric utilities in Finland); Development of PC-based DSM planning and assessment tools at VTT; Development of a decision support system of distribution network planning including DSM options at Tietosavo Oy and Integration of DSM planning and network planning tools in co-operation with VTT Energy and Tietosavo Oy

  17. Developing a demand side management strategic framework through a collaborative [process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostler, J.

    1992-01-01

    Alberta Power Ltd. is developing a demand side management (DSM) strategic framework through a collaborative process that began in September 1991. The process is seen to have the advantages of involving customers in DSM issues, giving them the opportunity to determine the outcome, being less confrontational, and having the capability of arriving at solutions unattainable through other processes. Issues being considered in the collaborative process include cost effectiveness, externalities, screening and analyzing of DSM measures, cost allocation and recovery, DSM lost revenues, the utility role in DSM, measurement criteria, and incentives. The process includes day-long meetings of a 12-member collaborative group comprising representatives from Alberta Power, government agencies, industry and municipal associations, and environmental and consumer organizations. A professional facilitator and an expert consultant from outside Alberta Power were employed to support the collaborative process. The process is working well and is on track to present the utility with a strategic framework to deal with DSM

  18. US EPA's photovoltaic demand-side management project. Report for September 1992-July 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, E.C.; Spiegel, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses an investigation of how photovoltaics (PV) may be used as both a pollution-mitigating energy replacement for fossil fuels and a demand-side management (DSM) option to reduce peak electrical demands of commercial and residential buildings. Eleven electric utilities are partners in this first nationwide demonstration of PV DSM. The approach is to install and monitor standardized PV systems in diverse geographic areas with varying solar energy resource and electric power demand, production, and cost conditions. The systems are being monitored for a year to record direct and diffuse irradiance, ambient air temperature, PV power generation, and building loads. Utilities are providing the electric system operations data needed to determine the pollution mitigation and peak demand reduction that can result from the PV electrical power generation

  19. Principles concerning the progress of the gas demand side management in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leca, A.; Statie, E.; Nistoran, D.

    1996-01-01

    The consequences of the application of demand side management (DSM) and integrated resources planning (IRP) notions for natural gas are analysed. Present socio-economic context in Romania - from a geopolitical point of view - obviously highlights a set of difficult gas supply problems in our country related to: the impossibility of satisfying the consumption demand from internal resources; the necessity of ensuring by imports of an important quantity of gas, which entails an important foreign currency expenditure and possible political pressures which an unique supplier could exert; the requirement of alignment to the western European country legislation, at an institutional and economical practice level. Each of these problems related to the gas-based power production and all together impose the tackling of DSM and IRP requirements from a strategic point of view. Some conclusions and proposals are presented. (author) 1 fig., 4 refs

  20. Demand-Side Energy Management Based on Nonconvex Optimization in Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Demand-side energy management is used for regulating the consumers’ energy usage in smart grid. With the guidance of the grid’s price policy, the consumers can change their energy consumption in response. The objective of this study is jointly optimizing the load status and electric supply, in order to make a tradeoff between the electric cost and the thermal comfort. The problem is formulated into a nonconvex optimization model. The multiplier method is used to solve the constrained optimization, and the objective function is transformed to the augmented Lagrangian function without constraints. Hence, the Powell direction acceleration method with advance and retreat is applied to solve the unconstrained optimization. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve the balance between the electric supply and demand, and the optimization variables converge to the optimum.

  1. Multicriteria evaluation of demand side management (DSM) implementation strategies in the Indian power sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vashishtha, Sanjay [Centre for Renewable Energy and Environmental Development (CREED), BITS, Pilani, Rajasthan 333031 (India); Ramachandran, M. [BITS Pilani Dubai Centre, Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

    2006-09-15

    In recent years, demand side management (DSM) has emerged as an efficient utility planning strategy for reducing capacity shortages and improving system load factors. The Indian government is adopting various policies to implement DSM programs. DSM implementation involves a variety of interests with conflicting objectives, and a range of possible implementation strategies with varying implications for effectiveness, cost, feasibility, efficiency and stakeholder acceptance. This necessitates a critical comparison of the strategies to determine a preferred strategy or combination of strategies from each specific stakeholder's point of view. The present study evaluates DSM implementation strategies from a multiobjective perspective using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Eight strategies and six criteria were considered. Forty utility, regulator, and consumer stakeholders were surveyed. The most highly ranked strategies involved creating dedicated funds and providing technical support to end users for effective implementation of DSM. (author)

  2. Communications technologies for demand side management, DSM, and European utility communications architecture, EurUCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerkkaeinen, S; Kekkonen, V [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Rissanen, P [Tietosavo Oy (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    In this project the main target is to develop and assess methods for DSM (Demand Side Management) and distribution automation planning from the utility`s point of view. The final goal is to integrate these methods for the strategic planning of electric utilities. In practice the project is divided into four main parts: The development and assessment of DSM/IRP planning methods and cost/benefit analysis as a part of international co-operation (IEA DSM Agreement: Annex IV, European Cost/Benefit analysis of DSM, EUBC, and Finnish SAVE-project started in 1995 in co-operation with SRC International and six electric utilities in Finland); Development of PC-based DSM planning and assessment tools at VTT; Development of a decision support system of distribution network planning including DSM options at Tietosavo Oy and Integration of DSM planning and network planning tools in co-operation with VTT Energy and Tietosavo Oy

  3. Incentive-compatible demand-side management for smart grids based on review strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2015-12-01

    Demand-side load management is able to significantly improve the energy efficiency of smart grids. Since the electricity production cost depends on the aggregate energy usage of multiple consumers, an important incentive problem emerges: self-interested consumers want to increase their own utilities by consuming more than the socially optimal amount of energy during peak hours since the increased cost is shared among the entire set of consumers. To incentivize self-interested consumers to take the socially optimal scheduling actions, we design a new class of protocols based on review strategies. These strategies work as follows: first, a review stage takes place in which a statistical test is performed based on the daily prices of the previous billing cycle to determine whether or not the other consumers schedule their electricity loads in a socially optimal way. If the test fails, the consumers trigger a punishment phase in which, for a certain time, they adjust their energy scheduling in such a way that everybody in the consumer set is punished due to an increased price. Using a carefully designed protocol based on such review strategies, consumers then have incentives to take the socially optimal load scheduling to avoid entering this punishment phase. We rigorously characterize the impact of deploying protocols based on review strategies on the system's as well as the users' performance and determine the optimal design (optimal billing cycle, punishment length, etc.) for various smart grid deployment scenarios. Even though this paper considers a simplified smart grid model, our analysis provides important and useful insights for designing incentive-compatible demand-side management schemes based on aggregate energy usage information in a variety of practical scenarios.

  4. Hawaii demand-side management resource assessment. Final report, Reference Volume 1: Building prototype analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This report provides a detailed description of, and the baseline assumptions and simulation results for, the building prototype simulations conducted for the building types designated in the Work Plan for Demand-side Management Assessment of Hawaii`s Demand-Side Resources (HES-4, Phase 2). This report represents the second revision to the initial building prototype description report provided to DBEDT early in the project. Modifications and revisions to the prototypes, based on further calibration efforts and on comments received from DBEDT Staff have been incorporated into this final version. These baseline prototypes form the basis upon which the DSM measure impact estimates and the DSM measure data base were developed for this project. This report presents detailed information for each of the 17 different building prototypes developed for use with the DOE-21E program (23 buildings in total, including resorts and hotels defined separately for each island) to estimate the impact of the building technologies and measures included in this project. The remainder of this section presents some nomenclature and terminology utilized in the reports, tables, and data bases developed from this project to denote building type and vintage. Section 2 contains a more detailed discussion of the data sources, the definition of the residential sector building prototypes, and results of the DOE-2 analysis. Section 3 provides a similar discussion for the commercial sector. The prototype and baseline simulation results are presented in a separate section for each building type. Where possible, comparison of the baseline simulation results with benchmark data from the ENERGY 2020 model or other demand forecasting models specific to Hawaii is included for each building. Appendix A contains a detailed listing of the commercial sector baseline indoor lighting technologies included in the existing and new prototypes by building type.

  5. Managing Sustainable Demand-side Infrastructure for Power System Ancillary Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Simon Christopher

    Widespread access to renewable electricity is seen as a viable method to mitigate carbon emissions, although problematic are the issues associated with the integration of the generation systems within current power system configurations. Wind power plants are the primary large-scale renewable generation technology applied globally, but display considerable short-term supply variability that is difficult to predict. Power systems are currently not designed to operate under these conditions, and results in the need to increase operating reserve in order to guarantee stability. Often, operating conventional generation as reserve is both technically and economically inefficient, which can overshadow positive benefits associated with renewable energy exploitation. The purpose of this thesis is to introduce and assess an alternative method of enhancing power system operations through the control of electric loads. In particular, this thesis focuses on managing highly-distributed sustainable demand-side infrastructure, in the form of heat pumps, electric vehicles, and electrolyzers, as dispatchable short-term energy balancing resources. The main contribution of the thesis is an optimal control strategy capable of simultaneously balancing grid- and demand-side objectives. The viability of the load control strategy is assessed through model-based simulations that explicitly track end-use functionality of responsive devices within a power systems analysis typically implemented to observe the effects of integrated wind energy systems. Results indicate that there is great potential for the proposed method to displace the need for increased reserve capacity in systems considering a high penetration of wind energy, thereby allowing conventional generation to operate more efficiently and avoid the need for possible capacity expansions.

  6. Definitional-mission report: Demand-side management program for the Tenaga Nasional Berhad in Malaysia. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    A definitional mission evaluated the prospects of the US Trade and Development Program (TDP) funding a market demonstration of a Demand Side Management (DSM) program being developed by the Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) in Malaysia. TNB is the national electric utility of Malaysia with the responsibility to promote economically efficient supply of electricity needed for the economic development of Peninsular Malaysia. DSM is a utility-financed program to affect energy savings at the enduse level thereby reducing peak and base loads. Historically, TNB has taken the peak load and the load duration curves as given in planning and implementing the least-cost generation expansion strategy. It has refrained from influencing the pattern of energy use by the customer through any means other than tariff structures and levels. The experience of many utilities with DSM in the U.S. offers TNB an opportunity to develop a suitable DSM program for Malaysia.

  7. Distributed Optimisation Algorithm for Demand Side Management in a Grid-Connected Smart Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omowunmi Mary Longe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The contributions of Distributed Energy Generation (DEG and Distributed Energy Storage (DES for Demand Side Management (DSM purposes in a smart macrogrid or microgrid cannot be over-emphasised. However, standalone DEG and DES can lead to under-utilisation of energy generation by consumers and financial investments; in grid-connection mode, though, DEG and DES can offer arbitrage opportunities for consumers and utility provider(s. A grid-connected smart microgrid comprising heterogeneous (active and passive smart consumers, electric vehicles and a large-scale centralised energy storage is considered in this paper. Efficient energy management by each smart entity is carried out by the proposed Microgrid Energy Management Distributed Optimisation Algorithm (MEM-DOA installed distributively within the network according to consumer type. Each smart consumer optimises its energy consumption and trading for comfort (demand satisfaction and profit. The proposed model was observed to yield better consumer satisfaction, higher financial savings, and reduced Peak-to-Average-Ratio (PAR demand on the utility grid. Other associated benefits of the model include reduced investment on peaker plants, grid reliability and environmental benefits. The MEM-DOA also offered participating smart consumers energy and tariff incentives so that passive smart consumers do not benefit more than active smart consumers, as was the case with some previous energy management algorithms.

  8. A Virtual Power Plant Architecture for the Demand-Side Management of Smart Prosumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pasetti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a conceptual study on a Virtual Power Plant (VPP architecture for the optimal management of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs owned by prosumers participating in Demand-Side Management (DSM programs. Compared to classical VPP architectures, which aim to aggregate several DERs dispersed throughout the electrical grid, in the proposed VPP architecture the supervised physical domain is limited to single users, i.e., to single Points of Delivery (PODs of the distribution network. The VPP architecture is based on a service-oriented approach, where multiple agents cooperate to implement the optimal management of the prosumer’s assets, by also considering different forms of Demand Response (DR requests. The considered DR schemes range from Price-Based DRs to Event-Based DRs, covering both the normal operating functions and the emergency control requests applied in modern distribution networks. With respect to centralized approaches, in this study the control perspective is moved from the system level to the single prosumer’s level, who is allowed to independently provide flexible power profiles through the aggregation of multiple DERs. A generalized optimization model, formulated as a Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP problem, is also introduced. Such a model is able to compute the optimal scheduling of a prosumer’s assets by considering both DR requests and end-users’ requirements in terms of comfort levels while minimizing the costs.

  9. Optimization Models and Methods for Demand-Side Management of Residential Users: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antimo Barbato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The residential sector is currently one of the major contributors to the global energy balance. However, the energy demand of residential users has been so far largely uncontrollable and inelastic with respect to the power grid conditions. With the massive introduction of renewable energy sources and the large variations in energy flows, also the residential sector is required to provide some flexibility in energy use so as to contribute to the stability and efficiency of the electric system. To address this issue, demand management mechanisms can be used to optimally manage the energy resources of customers and their energy demand profiles. A very promising technique is represented by demand-side management (DSM, which consists in a proactive method aimed at making users energy-efficient in the long term. In this paper, we survey the most relevant studies on optimization methods for DSM of residential consumers. Specifically, we review the related literature according to three axes defining contrasting characteristics of the schemes proposed: DSM for individual users versus DSM for cooperative consumers, deterministic DSM versus stochastic DSM and day-ahead DSM versus real-time DSM. Based on this classification, we provide a big picture of the key features of different approaches and techniques and discuss future research directions.

  10. Demand side management for commercial buildings using an in line heat pump water heating methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, Riaan; Rousseau, Pieter G.; Eldik, Martin van

    2004-01-01

    Most of the sanitary hot water used in South African buildings is heated by means of direct electrical resistance heaters. This is one of the major contributors to the undesirably high morning and afternoon peaks imposed on the national electricity supply grid. For this reason, water heating continues to be of concern to the electricity supplier, ESCOM. Previous studies, conducted by the Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education in South Africa, indicated that extensive application of the so called inline heat pump water heating methodology in commercial buildings could result in significant demand side management savings to ESKOM. Furthermore, impressive paybacks can be obtained by building owners who choose to implement the design methodology on existing or new systems. Currently, a few examples exist where the design methodology has been successfully implemented. These installations are monitored with a fully web centric monitoring system that allows 24 h access to data from each installation. Based on these preliminary results, a total peak demand reduction of 108 MW can be achieved, which represents 18% of the peak load reduction target set by ESKOM until the year 2015. This represents an avoided cost of approximately MR324 (ZAR) [Int J Energy Res 25(4) (1999) 2000]. Results based on actual data from the monitored installations shows a significant peak demand reduction for each installation. In one installation, a hotel with an occupancy of 220 people, the peak demand contribution of the hot water installation was reduced by 86%, realizing a 36% reduction in peak demand for the whole building. The savings incurred by the building owner also included significant energy consumption savings due to the superior energy efficiency of the heat pump water heater. The combined savings result in a conservatively calculated straight payback period of 12.5 months, with an internal rate of return of 98%. The actual cost of water heating is studied by

  11. A Hybrid Genetic Wind Driven Heuristic Optimization Algorithm for Demand Side Management in Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Javaid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, demand side management (DSM techniques have been designed for residential, industrial and commercial sectors. These techniques are very effective in flattening the load profile of customers in grid area networks. In this paper, a heuristic algorithms-based energy management controller is designed for a residential area in a smart grid. In essence, five heuristic algorithms (the genetic algorithm (GA, the binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO algorithm, the bacterial foraging optimization algorithm (BFOA, the wind-driven optimization (WDO algorithm and our proposed hybrid genetic wind-driven (GWD algorithm are evaluated. These algorithms are used for scheduling residential loads between peak hours (PHs and off-peak hours (OPHs in a real-time pricing (RTP environment while maximizing user comfort (UC and minimizing both electricity cost and the peak to average ratio (PAR. Moreover, these algorithms are tested in two scenarios: (i scheduling the load of a single home and (ii scheduling the load of multiple homes. Simulation results show that our proposed hybrid GWD algorithm performs better than the other heuristic algorithms in terms of the selected performance metrics.

  12. Distributed Demand Side Management with Battery Storage for Smart Home Energy Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omowunmi Mary Longe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of Demand Side Management (DSM with Distributed Energy Storage (DES has been gaining attention in recent studies due to the impact of the latter on energy management in the smart grid. In this work, an Energy Scheduling and Distributed Storage (ESDS algorithm is proposed to be installed into the smart meters of Time-of-Use (TOU pricing consumers possessing in-home energy storage devices. Source of energy supply to the smart home appliances was optimized between the utility grid and the DES device depending on energy tariff and consumer demand satisfaction information. This is to minimize consumer energy expenditure and maximize demand satisfaction simultaneously. The ESDS algorithm was found to offer consumer-friendly and utility-friendly enhancements to the DSM program such as energy, financial, and investment savings, reduced/eliminated consumer dissatisfaction even at peak periods, Peak-to-Average-Ratio (PAR demand reduction, grid energy sustainability, socio-economic benefits, and other associated benefits such as environmental-friendliness.

  13. Supply shortage forecast in Ontario: The significance of demand-side management (DSM); its tools and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, S.

    2004-01-01

    Aspects of the recent report by the Ontario Electricity Conservation and Supply Task Force and Independent Market Operator which forecasts acute power supply shortages in Ontario, are discussed. Immediate action is recommended to avert the problem. The principal recommendation concerns the adoption of Demand Side Management as a tool to reduce the widening gap between supply and demand, citing supply shortage, imports, high prices, deregulated market and environmental concerns as the driving forces which push for the adoption of DSM. It is claimed that DSM, through its tools such as Demand/Load Response Programs and Time-of-Use rates has the capacity to create the necessary balance between supply and demand more efficiently, and in a more timely fashion than supply side management. The demand for adoption of DSM is justified on the basis of a careful examination of the magnitude and significance of each of the driving forces affecting the electricity supply in Ontario, as well as the benefits and techniques of DSM designed to manage power shortages. Energy Conservation and Efficiency and Demand/Load Response Programs are discussed as the principal DSM techniques, while Dynamic/Real Time Pricing, Time-of-Use Rates, Automated /Smart Metering, Web-based/Communication Systems, Reliability-based Programs, Market/Price-based programs, and Types of Load Control are described as the principal tools used by DSM. DSM program approaches and strategies are also reviewed, along with a brief list of successful examples of DSM applications. 3 figs

  14. Supply shortage forecast in Ontario: The significance of demand-side management (DSM); its tools and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, S.

    2004-06-01

    Aspects of the recent report by the Ontario Electricity Conservation and Supply Task Force and Independent Market Operator which forecasts acute power supply shortages in Ontario, are discussed. Immediate action is recommended to avert the problem. The principal recommendation concerns the adoption of Demand Side Management as a tool to reduce the widening gap between supply and demand, citing supply shortage, imports, high prices, deregulated market and environmental concerns as the driving forces which push for the adoption of DSM. It is claimed that DSM, through its tools such as Demand/Load Response Programs and Time-of-Use rates has the capacity to create the necessary balance between supply and demand more efficiently, and in a more timely fashion than supply side management. The demand for adoption of DSM is justified on the basis of a careful examination of the magnitude and significance of each of the driving forces affecting the electricity supply in Ontario, as well as the benefits and techniques of DSM designed to manage power shortages. Energy Conservation and Efficiency and Demand/Load Response Programs are discussed as the principal DSM techniques, while Dynamic/Real Time Pricing, Time-of-Use Rates, Automated /Smart Metering, Web-based/Communication Systems, Reliability-based Programs, Market/Price-based programs, and Types of Load Control are described as the principal tools used by DSM. DSM program approaches and strategies are also reviewed, along with a brief list of successful examples of DSM applications. 3 figs.

  15. A Novel Prosumer-Based Energy Sharing and Management (PESM) Approach for Cooperative Demand Side Management (DSM) in Smart Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Sohail Razzaq; Rehman Zafar; Naveed Ahmed Khan; Asif Raza Butt; Anzar Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Increasing population and modern lifestyle have raised energy demands globally. Demand Side Management (DSM) is one important tool used to manage energy demands. It employs an advanced power infrastructure along with bi-directional information flow among utilities and users in order to achieve a balanced load curve and minimize demand-supply mismatch. Traditionally, this involves shifting the electricity demand from peak hours to other times of the day in an optimized manner. Multiple users e...

  16. Analysis of Cool Roof Coatings for Residential Demand Side Management in Tropical Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Miller

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cool roof coatings have a beneficial impact on reducing the heat load of a range of building types, resulting in reduced cooling energy loads. This study seeks to understand the extent to which cool roof coatings could be used as a residential demand side management (DSM strategy for retrofitting existing housing in a constrained network area in tropical Australia where peak electrical demand is heavily influenced by residential cooling loads. In particular this study seeks to determine whether simulation software used for building regulation purposes can provide networks with the ‘impact certainty’ required by their DSM principles. The building simulation method is supported by a field experiment. Both numerical and experimental data confirm reductions in total consumption (kWh and energy demand (kW. The nature of the regulated simulation software, combined with the diverse nature of residential buildings and their patterns of occupancy, however, mean that simulated results cannot be extrapolated to quantify benefits to a broader distribution network. The study suggests that building data gained from regulatory simulations could be a useful guide for potential impacts of widespread application of cool roof coatings in this region. The practical realization of these positive impacts, however, would require changes to the current business model for the evaluation of DSM strategies. The study provides seven key recommendations that encourage distribution networks to think beyond their infrastructure boundaries, recognising that the broader energy system also includes buildings, appliances and people.

  17. Proceedings of the CEATI demand side management workshop on understanding customer response. CD-ROM ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Demand for electricity continues to increase in the midst of environmental concerns, deregulation and the rapid evolution of technology. In order to succeed in a changing environment, utilities must be both adaptive and innovative. Growing concerns over supply and the environmental effects of rising consumption rates have led many utilities to establish demand side management (DSM) programs. However, some utilities have failed to consider the importance of customer behaviour in the success of DSM programs. This conference examined various successful initiatives to encourage customers to reduce their individual or corporate demands for energy. The influence of branding, technology, information prices signals and various other strategies were explored. Issues concerning energy efficiency and customer feedback were discussed. The effect of alternative pricing regimes on DSM programs was investigated. Various information system tools were also examined, and the value of real time electricity monitoring was evaluated. Various DSM initiatives in North America were used to establish benchmarks for the successful implementation of DSM strategies. The conference was divided into 3 sessions: (1) involving the customer in reducing demand; (2) the success of energy efficiency and demand response programs : the impact of branding and the impact of price signals; and (3) the technologies and innovations needed to make it work. The conference featured 13 presentations, of which 8 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  18. Proceedings of the CEATI demand side management workshop on understanding customer response. CD-ROM ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Demand for electricity continues to increase in the midst of environmental concerns, deregulation and the rapid evolution of technology. In order to succeed in a changing environment, utilities must be both adaptive and innovative. Growing concerns over supply and the environmental effects of rising consumption rates have led many utilities to establish demand side management (DSM) programs. However, some utilities have failed to consider the importance of customer behaviour in the success of DSM programs. This conference examined various successful initiatives to encourage customers to reduce their individual or corporate demands for energy. The influence of branding, technology, information prices signals and various other strategies were explored. Issues concerning energy efficiency and customer feedback were discussed. The effect of alternative pricing regimes on DSM programs was investigated. Various information system tools were also examined, and the value of real time electricity monitoring was evaluated. Various DSM initiatives in North America were used to establish benchmarks for the successful implementation of DSM strategies. The conference was divided into 3 sessions: (1) involving the customer in reducing demand; (2) the success of energy efficiency and demand response programs : the impact of branding and the impact of price signals; and (3) the technologies and innovations needed to make it work. The conference featured 13 presentations, of which 8 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Exploring Community-Oriented Approaches in Demand Side Management Projects in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mengolini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate if the theoretical and political trends towards a more collective dimension of energy use are reflected in the design and development of demand side management (DSM pilot projects in Europe. Specifically, the paper analyses DSM projects in the database of the Joint Research Centre (JRC of the European Commission to capture signs of a new attention towards the wider context in which consumers live and towards the social dimension associated with energy consumption. To this end, the paper investigates the projects’ scope (in terms of project’s partners, end-use sectors and targeted services as well as the consumer engagement strategies that projects use. These elements reflect the projects’ consideration for the socio-economic dimension of the community where the pilots take place and their inclination to build on community dynamics. The analysis shows that DSM projects in the EU are increasingly being designed and developed with a collegial approach to energy consumption in mind, although an integrated approach is still missing. In addition, research is still needed to link the use of this innovative approach to project results. A closer look at the developments and results of these projects can help to identify what works and what doesn’t in real life experiences, thus supporting effective policy making at the EU and national level.

  20. Impacts of Demand-Side Management on Electrical Power Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Jumma Jabir

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Electricity demand has grown over the past few years and will continue to grow in the future. The increase in electricity demand is mainly due to industrialization and the shift from a conventional to a smart-grid paradigm. The number of microgrids, renewable energy sources, plug-in electric vehicles and energy storage systems have also risen in recent years. As a result, future electricity grids have to be revamped and adapt to increasing load levels. Thus, new complications associated with future electrical power systems and technologies must be considered. Demand-side management (DSM programs offer promising solutions to these issues and can considerably improve the reliability and financial performances of electrical power systems. This paper presents a review of various initiatives, techniques, impacts and recent developments of the DSM of electrical power systems. The potential benefits derived by implementing DSM in electrical power networks are presented. An extensive literature survey on the impacts of DSM on the reliability of electrical power systems is also provided for the first time. The research gaps within the broad field of DSM are also identified to provide directions for future work.

  1. Energy Refurbishment of an Office Building with Hybrid Photovoltaic System and Demand-Side Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Almeida Dávi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available On-site photovoltaic (PV and battery systems intend to improve buildings energy performance, however battery costs and monetary incentives are a major drawback for the introduction of these technologies into the electricity grids. This paper proposes an energy refurbishment of an office building based on multi-objective simulations. An innovative demand-side management approach is analyzed through the PV and battery control with the purpose of reducing grid power peaks and grid imported energy, as well as improving the project economy. Optimization results of load matching and grid interaction parameters, complemented with an economic analysis, are investigated in different scenarios. By means of battery use, the equivalent use of the grid connection is reduced by 12%, enhancing the grid interaction potential, and 10% of load matching rates can be increased. Project improvements indicate the grid connection capacity can be reduced by 13% and significant savings of up to 48% are achieved on yearly bills. The economy demonstrates the grid parity is only achieved for battery costs below 100 €/kWh and the payback period is large: 28 years. In the case with only PV system, the grid parity achieves better outcomes and the payback time is reduced by a half, making this a more attractive option.

  2. Albedo and vegetation demand-side management options for warm climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Darwin C.

    1997-01-01

    For electric utilities, demand-side management (DSM) can reduce electric load and shift load from peak to off-peak periods. In general, the investor in DSM collects the reward with lower electric bills, excepting a positive externality because of reduced tropospheric and stratospheric air pollution from fossil fuel power plants. In warm climates, DSM options include increasing albedo and vegetation, respectively, by painting surfaces white and planting trees; these DSM options are distinguished from all other DSM options because of ecosystem effects. Ambient temperature falls, mitigating the urban 'heat island', which reduces electric load and ozone formation. The investor in albedo and vegetation DSM options does not collect all of the reward from lower electric bills, since the lower ambient temperature provides savings to all customers who use electricity for air conditioning and refrigeration. Similar to other DSM options, air pollution is also reduced as a result of lower power plant emissions. Complex airshed models and electric utility system dispatch models are applied in this paper to account for some of these ecosystem effects. Unaccounted ecosystem effects remain, stymieing cost effectiveness analysis

  3. A sustainable development of a city electrical grid via a non-contractual Demand-Side Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoylenko, Vladislav O.; Pazderin, Andrew V.

    2017-06-01

    An increasing energy consumption of large cities as well as an extreme high density of city electrical loads leads to the necessity to search for an alternative approaches to city grid development. The ongoing implementation of the energy accounting tariffs with differentiated rates depending upon the market conditions and changing in a short-term perspective, provide the possibility to use it as a financial incentive base of a Demand-Side Management (DSM). Modern hi-technology energy metering and accounting systems with a large number of functions and consumer feedback are supposed to be the good means of DSM. Existing systems of Smart Metering (SM) billing usually provide general information about consumption curve, bills and compared data, but not the advanced statistics about the correspondence of financial and electric parameters. Also, consumer feedback is usually not fully used. So, the efforts to combine the market principle, Smart Metering and a consumer feedback for an active non-contractual load control are essential. The paper presents the rating-based multi-purpose system of mathematical statistics and algorithms of DSM efficiency estimation useful for both the consumers and the energy companies. The estimation is performed by SM Data processing systems. The system is aimed for load peak shaving and load curve smoothing. It is focused primarily on a retail market support. The system contributes to the energy efficiency and a distribution process improvement by the manual management or by the automated Smart Appliances interaction.

  4. Demand Side Management in Nearly Zero Energy Buildings Using Heuristic Optimizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Javaid

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Today’s buildings are responsible for about 40% of total energy consumption and 30–40% of carbon emissions, which are key concerns for the sustainable development of any society. The excessive usage of grid energy raises sustainability issues in the face of global changes, such as climate change, population, economic growths, etc. Traditionally, the power systems that deliver this commodity are fuel operated and lead towards high carbon emissions and global warming. To overcome these issues, the recent concept of the nearly zero energy building (nZEB has attracted numerous researchers and industry for the construction and management of the new generation buildings. In this regard, this paper proposes various demand side management (DSM programs using the genetic algorithm (GA, teaching learning-based optimization (TLBO, the enhanced differential evolution (EDE algorithm and the proposed enhanced differential teaching learning algorithm (EDTLA to manage energy and comfort, while taking the human preferences into consideration. Power consumption patterns of shiftable home appliances are modified in response to the real-time price signal in order to get monetary benefits. To further improve the cost and user discomfort objectives along with reduced carbon emission, renewable energy sources (RESs are also integrated into the microgrid (MG. The proposed model is implemented in a smart residential complex of multiple homes under a real-time pricing environment. We figure out two feasible regions: one for electricity cost and the other for user discomfort. The proposed model aims to deal with the stochastic nature of RESs while introducing the battery storage system (BSS. The main objectives of this paper include: (1 integration of RESs; (2 minimization of the electricity bill (cost and discomfort; and (3 minimizing the peak to average ratio (PAR and carbon emission. Additionally, we also analyze the tradeoff between two conflicting objectives

  5. On the Mobile Communication Requirements for the Demand-Side Management of Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Rinaldi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The rising concerns about global warming and environmental pollution are increasingly pushing towards the replacement of road vehicles powered by Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs. Electric Vehicles (EVs are generally considered the best candidates for this transition, however, existing power grids and EV management systems are not yet ready for a large penetration of EVs, and the current opinion of the scientific community is that further research must be done in this field. The so-called Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G concept plays a relevant role in this scenario by providing the communication capabilities required by advanced control and Demand-Side Management (DSM strategies. Following this research trend, in this paper the communication requirements for the DSM of EVs in urban environments are discussed, by focusing on the mobile communication among EVs and smart grids. A specific system architecture for the DSM of EVs moving inside urban areas is proposed and discussed in terms of the required data throughput. In addition, the use of a Low-Power Wide-Area Network (LPWAN solution—the Long-Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN technology—is proposed as a possible alternative to cellular-like solutions, by testing an experimental communication infrastructure in a real environment. The results show that the proposed LPWAN technology is capable to handle an adequate amount of information for the considered application, and that one LoRa base station is able to serve up to 438 EVs per cell, and 1408 EV charging points.

  6. Domestic demand-side management (DSM): Role of heat pumps and thermal energy storage (TES) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteconi, A.; Hewitt, N.J.; Polonara, F.

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps are seen as a promising technology for load management in the built environment, in combination with the smart grid concept. They can be coupled with thermal energy storage (TES) systems to shift electrical loads from high-peak to off-peak hours, thus serving as a powerful tool in demand-side management (DSM). This paper analyzes heat pumps with radiators or underfloor heating distribution systems coupled with TES with a view to showing how a heat pump system behaves and how it influences the building occupants' thermal comfort under a DSM strategy designed to flatten the shape of the electricity load curve by switching off the heat pump during peak hours (16:00–19:00). The reference scenario for the analysis was Northern Ireland (UK). The results showed that the heat pump is a good tool for the purposes of DSM, also thanks to the use of TES systems, in particular with heating distribution systems that have a low thermal inertia, e.g. radiators. It proved possible to achieve a good control of the indoor temperature, even if the heat pump was turned off for 3 h, and to reduce the electricity bill if a “time of use” tariff structure was adopted. -- Highlights: ► Heat pump heating systems with thermal energy storage are considered. ► System behavior is investigated during a DSM strategy for reducing peak energy demand. ► Heat pump heating systems demonstrate to be able to have an active role in DSM programs. ► A TES system must be coupled with the heat pump in presence of low thermal inertia heating distribution systems. ► Central role played by incentives schemes to promote this technology

  7. Supply- and demand-side effects of power sector planning with demand-side management options and SO2 emission constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, R.M.; Marpaung, C.O.P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of SO 2 emission mitigation constraints in the power sector planning in Indonesia--a developing country--during 2003-2017 from a long term integrated resource planning perspective. A decomposition model is developed to assess the contributions of supply- and demand-side effects to the total changes in CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x emissions from the power sector due to constraints on SO 2 emissions. The results of the study show that both the supply- and demand-side effects would act towards the reduction of CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x emissions. However, the supply-side effect would play the dominant role in emission mitigations from the power sector in Indonesia. The average incremental SO 2 abatement cost would increase from US$ 970 to US$ 1271 per ton of SO 2 , while electricity price would increase by 2-18% if the annual SO 2 emission reduction target is increased from 10% to 25%

  8. Economic and environmental impacts from the implementation of an intelligent demand side management system at the European level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannis, G.; Dagoumas, A.; Lettas, N.; Dokopoulos, P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis on the economic and environmental impacts of the application of an intelligent demand side management system, called the Energy Consumption Management System (ECMS), in the European countries. The ECMS can be applied for the control of individual, widely distributed electric loads, using the power distribution network as the command communication channel. The system can be applied in public lighting, in the tertiary and residential sectors, as well as in the industry. A top-down analysis investigates the possible penetration levels in each application area. The long-term impacts following the application of system are evaluated using the LEAP2006 platform. The WASP IV model is also used for the optimization of the power generation expansion and the corresponding calibration of LEAP2006. Several operational strategies combining variable market penetration of the ECMS and expected energy savings are examined. Results show that, under a logical market penetration, a reduction of 1-4% in primary energy, of 1.5-5% in CO 2 emissions and a 2-8% saving in investment costs for power generation expansion is to be expected for the EU-15. The results also justify that innovative devices may be attractive to end users and also help in the implementation of global energy-saving policies

  9. Determining optimum levels of DSM [demand-side management] as a supply-side resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giles, S.H.; Mitchell, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    San Diego Gas and Electric Company (SDGE) recommends the evaluation of demand-side management as a supply-side resource. The advantages of concurrent economic analysis of DSM options with other traditional sources represents a significant improvement over analysis either before or after the development of a resource plan. The evaluation of utility-sponsored DSM programs that provide system benefits that include deferment of capacity additions and improvements in more efficient system operation should be evaluated side-by-side with traditional resources that provide similar benefits. The utility decision to either provide capital costs to construct a power plant or make demand payments for a power purchase is directly analogous to the decision to provide funding for a DSM program that would defer these same investments. Both types of decision represent utility control over investment decisions that allow the utility to provide reliable, low-cost power to its customers. SDGE has also had experience with using generation expansion scenarios to test different levels of pre-selected packages of DSM programs, attempting to evaluate the total costs of system expansion for each of the different packages. This method was fraught with problems, and the best information that could be gained was if the selection of DSM packages happened to bracket a lower cost scenario, when it could reasonably be assumed that both smaller and larger levels of DSM were not as cost effective as the intermediate level. However, in many cases the selection of DSM programs did not produce this result and the important question of whether individual DSM programs were worthwhile when evaluated individually, or whether the lowest cost scenario would be improved with more or less DSM, could not be answered

  10. Financial incentives for DSM [demand-side management]: Theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Recent efforts to provide incentives for electric utilities in the USA to undertake demand-side management (DSM) programs are reviewed. The major need for incentives is seen as the overcoming of disincentives inherent in traditional regulation that affect utilities' interest in, and motivation for, DSM programs. These disincentives include the failure to recover all program costs, loss of revenues, and loss of financial opportunity. In addition, utilities seldom perceive DSM as a low-risk proposition; principal areas of concern include regulatory risk, competitive risk, and balance sheet risk. In view of these disincentives and risks, any DSM program therefore should provide for full and timely recovery of all program costs; adjust for DSM-induced revenue losses; and counterbalance risk and loss of financial opportunity by providing a bonus above cost. Three utility-specific incentive proposals are presented for the case of utilities in New York, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania. Each of these programs meets the goal of overcoming the disincentives that surround utility DSM programs. The most significant differences across the mechanisms are found in the bonus component. Mechanisms that reduce the utility's uncertainty about the receipt of a bonus by providing it in a lump sum will likely prove more powerful motivators than those that spread the bonus out over a period of years. Use of preapproved per-unit or per-customer impact measurements reduces uncertainty and thus increases the apparent value of the bonus. Annual review of program plans and assumed impacts, supported by continuing evaluation activities, minimizes the risk that the utilities will gamble with the system or receive excessive awards. 6 refs

  11. DEMONSTRATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND DEMAND-SIDE MANAGEMENT BENEFITS OF GRID-CONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the pollutant emission reduction and demand-side management potential of 16 photovoltaic (PV) systems installed across the U.S. in 1993 and 1994. The project was sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and 11 electric utilities. This ar...

  12. A novel microgrid demand-side management system for manufacturing facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Terance J.

    Thirty-one percent of annual energy consumption in the United States occurs within the industrial sector, where manufacturing processes account for the largest amount of energy consumption and carbon emissions. For this reason, energy efficiency in manufacturing facilities is increasingly important for reducing operating costs and improving profits. Using microgrids to generate local sustainable power should reduce energy consumption from the main utility grid along with energy costs and carbon emissions. Also, microgrids have the potential to serve as reliable energy generators in international locations where the utility grid is often unstable. For this research, a manufacturing process that had approximately 20 kW of peak demand was matched with a solar photovoltaic array that had a peak output of approximately 3 KW. An innovative Demand-Side Management (DSM) strategy was developed to manage the process loads as part of this smart microgrid system. The DSM algorithm managed the intermittent nature of the microgrid and the instantaneous demand of the manufacturing process. The control algorithm required three input signals; one from the microgrid indicating the availability of renewable energy, another from the manufacturing process indicating energy use as a percent of peak production, and historical data for renewable sources and facility demand. Based on these inputs the algorithm had three modes of operation: normal (business as usual), curtailment (shutting off non-critical loads), and energy storage. The results show that a real-time management of a manufacturing process with a microgrid will reduce electrical consumption and peak demand. The renewable energy system for this research was rated to provide up to 13% of the total manufacturing capacity. With actively managing the process loads with the DSM program alone, electrical consumption from the utility grid was reduced by 17% on average. An additional 24% reduction was accomplished when the microgrid

  13. Evaluating demand side measures in simulation models for the power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfgang, Ove; Doorman, Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Increased energy efficiency is one of the pillars for reducing CO 2 emissions. However, in models for the electricity market like unit commitment and dispatch models, increased efficiency of demand results in a paradoxical apparent reduction of the total economic surplus. The reason is that these are partial models for the electricity market, which do not take into account the effect of the changes in other markets. This paper shows how the calculation of the consumer surplus in the electricity market should be corrected to take into account the effect in other markets. In different cases we study shifts in the demand curve that are caused by increased energy efficiency, reduced cost for substitutes to electricity and real-time monitoring of demand, and we derive the necessary correction. The correction can easily be included in existing simulation models, and makes it possible to assess the effect of changes in demand on economic surplus. (author)

  14. The future of the photovoltaic market (demand side/supply side)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi, A.

    1998-01-01

    At present the main PV application market sectors are communications, leisure, boating, solar home systems, and water pumping. It is predicted that in the future, the largest photovoltaic market segments will be solar home photovoltaic systems, grid-connected small-scale photovoltaic systems, grid-connected medium-to-large scale photovoltaic systems, the communications sector and in the electrification of remote and isolated areas. The main factors favoring photovoltaic technology in remote and isolated areas result from: the high costs of conventional energy sources in remote locations; the loss of a scale-economy effect, which means specific costs of small photovoltaic systems are not much higher than those of larger photovoltaic systems; price of fuel, fuel transportation and spare part supplies. The major factors inhibiting the photovoltaic technology include high initial costs, lack of skilled man power, lack of good quality data and social acceptance. A roof top mounted photovoltaic system is one type of PV system which has attracted lots of interest among the people of north America and Europe. The generation of electricity by this system is attractive because: generation is on-site. This results in reduction of transmission costs and transmission losses; the cost of roofing tiles can be eliminated by using mounted PV systems instead; there is no need for additional land for power generation; visual impacts are limited. The objective of this paper is to review the development of the photovoltaic market in the recent 10 year period and discuss the future markets for this technology with respect to supply and demand

  15. Demand side of international students tourism market : Case of Umeå - Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlak, Agata

    2013-01-01

    Students are very important part of tourism sector. Especially international ones are distinctive group whose travel behaviours may differ from others. The study emphasise why understanding students behaviour is important and how it can influence travel market in area. Using Internet based survey collection and an interview, study examines and analyses students travel behaviours, the constraints that students are facing (connected to travel), reasons to choose the destination and changes in t...

  16. Aggregation of demand side flexibility in a smart grid: A review for European market design

    OpenAIRE

    Eid , Cherrelle; Codani , Paul; Chen , Yurong; Perez , Yannick; Hakvoort , Rudi

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The increased share of renewable generation and the integration of Distributed Generation (DG) require more electricity system flexibility. One way to increase this flexibility is to use the potentials of demand response (DR). In order to activate the full range of customers in DR, a new market intermediary actor is needed to aggregate the resources in an adequate technical and economical format. These actors, so called " aggregators " , can act as flexibility provider...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF THE E-GOVERNMENT MARKET IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: AN ANALYSIS OF THE SUPPLY VERSUS DEMAND SIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veghes Calin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available E-government represents one of the most palpable results of the dynamic development of the information and communication technology. Defined mostly as an intensive use of information technologies to provide public services, e-government has been approached in the literature rather from a technological perspective, with a significant importance given to the supply and a lower attention paid to the demand side. The increasing interest in taking into consideration the demand side in the development of the e-government initiatives and projects has created the foundation for a shift in the way the conceptual framework for e-government planning and implementation is defined, from the technology infrastructure and costs to the customer-centric character of all the efforts done. The European Union put e-government on its agenda aiming to improve access to the public information and services, increase transparency of public administration, exploit effectively the information technology within public administration, and establishing e-procurement. The development of the e-government services in the Member States, as it is expressed by the data regarding the supply and demand side, has been conducted in a more or less different manner that led, at the Unions level, to a relatively high availability but a rather low usage of the specific services. The paper explores the relationship between the e-government supply and demand based on the secondary data referring to the public services available to the citizens (as these are defined by the Eurostat methodology and the usage of these services by the individuals, integrating them through an analytical matrix inspired by the BCG model. Probably the most important conclusion of this analysis states that development of the e-government services has not been accompanied by measures meant to stimulate their usage in the most of the European Union Member States. The analytical matrix allowed also the identification

  18. The energy efficiency and demand side management programs as implemented by the energy efficiency division of the department of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anunciacion, Jesus C.

    1997-01-01

    The thrust of the Philippine energy sector. specifically the government side, is to involve the active participation of not only all the government agencies involved in energy activities but the private sector as well. This participation shall mean technical and financial participation, directly and indirectly. The Department of Energy is on the process involving the continuing update and development of a Philippine Energy Plan (PEP) which has a 30-year time scope, which will help the country monitor and determine energy supply and demand vis-a-vis the growing demands of an industrializing country like the Philippines. Among the most vital component of the PEP is the thrust to pursue national programs for energy efficiency and demand-side management. Seven energy efficiency sub-programs have been identified for implementation, with a target savings of 623 million barrels of fuel oil equivalent (MMBFOE). A cumulative net savings of 237 billion pesos shall be generated against a total investment cost of 54.5 billion pesos. The Philippine energy sector will continue to develop and implement strategies to promote the efficient utilization of energy which will cover all aspects of the energy industry. The plan is focussed on the training and education of the various sectors on the aspects involved in the implementation of energy efficiency and demand-side management elements on a more aggressive note. The implementation of technical strategies by the department will continue on a higher and more extensive level, these are: energy utilization monitoring, consultancy and engineering services, energy efficiency testing and labelling program, and demand-side management programs for each sector. In summary, the PEP, as anchored in energy efficiency and demand-side management tools, among others, will ensure a continuous energy supply at affordable prices while incorporating environmental and social considerations. (author)

  19. Demand side management program evaluation based on industrial and commercial field data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Demand Response is increasingly viewed as an important tool for use by the electric utility industry in meeting the growing demand for electricity. There are two basic categories of demand response options: time varying retail tariffs and incentive Demand Response Programs. is applying the time varying retail tariffs program, which is not suitable according to the studied load curves captured from the industrial and commercial sectors. Different statistical studies on daily load curves for consumers connected to 22 kV lines are classified. The load curve criteria used for classification is based on peak ratio and night ratio. The data considered here is a set of 120 annual load curves corresponding to the electric power consumption (the western area in the King Saudi Arabia (KSA)) of many clients in winter and some months in the summer (peak period). The study is based on real data from several Saudi customer sectors in many geographical areas with larger commercial and industrial customers. The study proved that the suitable Demand Response for the ESC is the incentive program. - Highlights: → Study helps in selecting the proper demand side program. → A credit will be given for the customers during summer months. → Reduction in the electric bill. → Monthly bill credit is decreased based on customers' peak load reduction. → Guide for applying the proper demand side program suitable for the utility and customers.

  20. An Integrated Decentralized Energy Planning Model considering Demand-Side Management and Environmental Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahmood Kazemi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Decentralized energy planning (DEP is looked upon as an indisputable opportunity for energy planning of villages, isolated islands, and far spots. Nonetheless, at this decentralized planning level, the value of demand-side resources is not fairly examined, despite enjoying great advantages. Therefore, the core task of this study is to integrate demand-side resources, as a competing solution against supply-side alternatives, with decentralized energy planning decisions and demonstrate the rewarding role it plays. Moreover, sustainability indicators (SIs are incorporated into DEP attempts in order to attain sustainable development. It is emphasized that unless these indicators are considered at lower energy planning levels, they will be ignored at higher planning levels as well. Hence, to the best knowledge of the authors, this study for the first time takes into account greenhouse gas (GHG emissions produced by utilization of renewable energies in DEP optimization models. To address the issues mentioned previously, multiobjective linear programming model along with a min-max goal programming approach is employed. Finally, using data taken from the literature, the model is solved, and the obtained results are discussed. The results show that DSM policies have remarkably contributed to significant improvements especially in terms of environmental indicators.

  1. Barriers and Opportunities to Broader Adoption of Integrated Demand Side Management at Electric Utilities: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, Jennifer [Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, Honolulu, HI (United States); Stuart, Elizabeth [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.; Cappers, P [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Analysis and Environmental Impacts Div.

    2018-02-13

    Integrated demand-side management (IDSM) is a strategic approach to designing and delivering a portfolio of demand side management (DSM) programs to customers. IDSM typically delivers customer centric strategies with the goal of increasing the amount of DSM in the field, but doing so in a way that integrates various measures and technologies to improve their collective performance and/or penetration. Specifically, IDSM can be defined as the integrated or coordinated delivery of three or more of: (1) energy efficiency (EE), (2) demand response (DR), (3) distributed generation (DG), (4) storage, (5) electric vehicle (EV) technologies, and (6) time-based rate programs to residential and commercial electric utility customers. The electric industry’s limited experience deploying IDSM to date suggests that significant barriers may exist. A Berkeley Lab report “Barriers and Opportunities to Broader Adoption of Integrated Demand Side Management at Electric Utilities: A Scoping Study” explores recent electric utility experience with IDSM to provide an assessment of the barriers and potential benefits perceived or experienced by program administrators in their attempts to implement integrated programs. The research draws on surveys and interviews with eleven staff from a sample of eight DSM program administrators and program implementers who were currently implementing or had previously attempted to implement an IDSM program or initiative. Respondents provided their perspectives on drivers for IDSM and barriers to broader deployment. They also reported on actions they had undertaken to promote expanded delivery of IDSM and provided their assessments of the most important under-tapped opportunities for expanding IDSM efforts, both for program administrator and regulatory organizations.

  2. Impact on energy requirements and emissions of heat pumps and micro-cogenerators participating in demand side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Samuel J.G.; Hammond, Geoffrey P.; McManus, Marcelle C.; Rogers, John G.

    2014-01-01

    The potential impacts of participating in demand side management (DSM) on the performance of air source heat pumps (ASHP) and micro-combined heat and power (mCHP) units are considered by this study. As significant consumers and generators of electricity at the distribution level, large numbers of heat pumps and micro-cogenerators would provide considerable scope for participation in DSM systems. However, it is possible that operating regimes which are optimised for grid considerations will not achieve the maximum performance that is possible from the units. Modelling has been conducted to investigate the significance of this effect, considering the case where local distribution constraints are the main driver for demand side interventions. A model of domestic electrical demand has been adapted to consider a neighbourhood of 128 dwellings in order to identify when interventions are necessary. This has been combined with dynamic models of two combustion engine micro-cogenerators, a solid oxide fuel cell micro-cogenerator and two ASHPs. A simple thermal model of each building is combined with a range of user preferences in order to determine the preferred operating profiles of the heating units. The DSM scheme analysed here is likely to have minimal impact on the emissions and energy requirements associated with each heating unit. Its effect is similar to that which occurs without DSM if the control system gain is relaxed such that equivalent thermal comfort is achieved. DSM can reduce the peak electrical demand of the neighbourhood. However, in the scenarios investigated, it is unlikely that the peaks can be reduced sufficiently such that they do not exceed the capacity of the local distribution transformer if ASHPs are used in all dwellings. By using a combination of mCHP units with ASHPs, it is possible to supply heating to all dwellings without exceeding this capacity. In this case, the use of DSM can increase the ratio of ASHPs used. In the context of a low

  3. A Novel Prosumer-Based Energy Sharing and Management (PESM Approach for Cooperative Demand Side Management (DSM in Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Razzaq

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing population and modern lifestyle have raised energy demands globally. Demand Side Management (DSM is one important tool used to manage energy demands. It employs an advanced power infrastructure along with bi-directional information flow among utilities and users in order to achieve a balanced load curve and minimize demand-supply mismatch. Traditionally, this involves shifting the electricity demand from peak hours to other times of the day in an optimized manner. Multiple users equipped with renewable resources work in coordination with each other in order to achieve mutually beneficial energy management. This, in turn, has generated the concept of cooperative DSM. Such users, called prosumers, consume and produce energy using renewable resources (solar, wind etc.. Prosumers with surplus energy sell to the grid as well as to other consumers. In this paper, a novel Prosumer-based Energy Sharing and Management (PESM scheme for cooperative DSM has been proposed. A simulation model has been developed for testing the proposed method. Different variations of the proposed methodology have been experimented with different criteria. The results show that the proposed energy sharing scheme achieves DSM purposes in a useful manner.

  4. Cost benefit analysis of the demand side management programs; Analise de custos e beneficios economicos de programas de gerencia pelo lado da demanda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechtman, R; Baum, M [PROMON Engenharia SA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1990-12-31

    The several cost and benefit components of the demand side management programs for the society groups, including the concessionaire, consumers and society as a whole are studied. The rule evaluations of management programs by demand side, used by North American concessionaire are also discussed. Finally, the numerical examples, that consolidating the concepts and rules evaluation are presented. (C.G.C.). 5 refs, 1 fig, 3 tabs.

  5. On the importance of the supply side in demand-side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Carolyn

    2005-01-01

    We discuss how the structure of market supply affects the evaluation of policies to promote energy efficiency in household appliances. If competitive markets offer the levels that consumers demand, product standards inefficiently restrict choice. If suppliers price discriminate, minimum standards can restrict the inefficient use of energy intensity to segment consumers. We also compare the effects of average intensity standards, energy prices and innovation, and consider what the different behavioral predictions imply for empirical studies of energy efficiency. Good policymaking requires knowing not only how consumers value energy efficiency in their decision-making, but also how producers respond to those values

  6. On the importance of the supply side in demand-side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, C.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss how the structure of market supply affects the evaluation of policies to promote energy efficiency in household appliances. If competitive markets offer the levels that consumers demand, product standards inefficiently restrict choice. If suppliers price discriminate, minimum standards can restrict the inefficient use of energy intensity to segment consumers. We also compare the effects of average intensity standards, energy prices and innovation, and consider what the different behavioral predictions imply for empirical studies of energy efficiency. Good policy making requires knowing not only how consumers value energy efficiency in their decision-making, but also how producers respond to those values. (author)

  7. Demand side and battery management in SOLARKIOSKs. Simulation and operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resch, Matthias [Reiner Lemoine Institut gGmbH, Berlin (Germany); SOLARKIOSK GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Wolff, Miro; Wiik, Caspar; Schnorr, Felix; Breyer, Christian [Reiner Lemoine Institut gGmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    More than 80 % of the people without access to electricity live in rural regions of developing countries. The SOLARKIOSK is designed to empower these people to create an autonomous business based on PV energy. The main business will be done by charging solar lanterns, mobile phones and external batteries, but also cooling services can be provided. It is especially designed to be transportable far off-grid and to be modular, so in case of a successful business an internet cafe or water purification can be added. The worldwide PV-based off-grid market potential is estimated to be about 70 GW. For economic reasons and due to the high solar irradiation Ethiopia is chosen for the first implementation of the SOLAKIOSK.

  8. Lessons learned from new construction utility demand side management programs and their implications for implementing building energy codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, B.K.; Hughes, K.R.; Danko, S.L.; Gilbride, T.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report was prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Codes and Standards by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) through its Building Energy Standards Program (BESP). The purpose of this task was to identify demand-side management (DSM) strategies for new construction that utilities have adopted or developed to promote energy-efficient design and construction. PNL conducted a survey of utilities and used the information gathered to extrapolate lessons learned and to identify evolving trends in utility new-construction DSM programs. The ultimate goal of the task is to identify opportunities where states might work collaboratively with utilities to promote the adoption, implementation, and enforcement of energy-efficient building energy codes.

  9. Electric Boiler and Heat Pump Thermo-Electrical Models for Demand Side Management Analysis in Low Voltage Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    The last fifteen years many European countries have integrated large percentage of renewable energy on their electricity generation mix. In Denmark the 21.3% of the electricity consumed nowadays is produced by the wind, and it has planned to be the 50% by 2025. In order to front future challenges...... on the power system control and operation, created by this unstable way of generation, Demand Side Management turns to be a promising solution. The storage capacity from thermo-electric units, like electric boilers and heat pumps, allows operating them with certain freedom. Hence they can be employed under...... certain coordination, to actively respond to the power system fluctuations. The following paper presents two simple thermo-electrical models of an electrical boiler and an air-source CO2 heat pump system. The purpose is using them in low voltage grids analysis to assess their capacity and flexibility...

  10. Distributed demand-side management optimisation for multi-residential users with energy production and storage strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Chifuel Manasseh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study considers load control in a multi-residential setup where energy scheduler (ES devices installed in smart meters are employed for demand-side management (DSM. Several residential end-users share the same energy source and each residential user has non-adjustable loads and adjustable loads. In addition, residential users may have storage devices and renewable energy sources such as wind turbines or solar as well as dispatchable generators. The ES devices exchange information automatically by executing an iterative distributed algorithm to locate the optimal energy schedule for each end-user. This will reduce the total energy cost and the peak-to-average ratio (PAR in energy demand in the electric power distribution. Users possessing storage devices and dispatchable generators strategically utilise their resources to minimise the total energy cost together with the PAR. Simulation results are provided to evaluate the performance of the proposed game theoretic-based distributed DSM technique.

  11. Challenges of using model predictive control for active demand side management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yi; You, Shi; Hu, Junjie

    2015-01-01

    When there is a high penetration of renewables in the power system, it requires coordinated management of large numbers of distributed and demand response resources, intermittent resources to maintain the grid reliability and improve operational economics. This paper presents a hierarchical...... and dynamic power price signals....

  12. Potential of Demand Side Management to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions Associated with the Operation of Heat Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J. G. Cooper

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work considers the potential reduction in the carbon dioxide emissions associated with the operation of Air Source Heat Pump which could be achieved by using demand side management. In order to achieve significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, it is widely envisioned that electrification of the heating sector will need to be combined with decarbonisation of the electrical supply. By influencing the times at when electric heat pumps operate such that they coincide more with electricity generation which has a low marginal carbon emissions factor, it has been suggested that these emissions could be reduced further. In order to investigate this possibility, models of the UK electrical grid based on scenarios for 2020 to 2050 have been combined with a dynamic model of an air source heat pump unit and thermal models of a population of dwellings. The performance and carbon dioxide emissions associated with the heat pumps are compared both with and without demand side management interventions intended to give preference to operation when the marginal emissions factor of the electricity being generated is low. It is found that these interventions are unlikely to be effective at achieving further reductions in emissions. A reduction of around 3% was observed in scenarios based around 2035 but in other scenarios the reduction was insignificant. In the scenarios with high wind generation (2050, the DSM scheme considered here tends to improve thermal comfort (with minimal increases in emissions rather than achieving a decrease in emissions. The reasons for this are discussed and further recommendations are made.

  13. Balancing renewable electricity. Energy storage, demand side management, and network extension from an interdisciplinary perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste-Franke, Bert [Europaeische Akademie zur Erforschung von Folgen Wissenschaftlich-Technischer Entwicklungen GmbH, Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler (Germany); Paal, Boris P.; Rehtanz, Christian; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Schneider, Jens-Peter; Schreurs, Miranda; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    A significant problem of integrating renewable energies into the electricity system is the temporally fluctuating energy production by wind and solar power plants. Thus, in order to meet the ambitious long-term targets on CO{sub 2} emission reduction, long-term viable low-carbon options for balancing electricity will be needed. This interdisciplinary study analyses published future energy scenarios in order to get an impression of the required balancing capacities and shows which framework conditions should be modified to support their realisation. The authors combine their perspectives from energy engineering, technology assessment, political science, economical science and jurisprudence and address science, politics, actors in the energy sector and the interested public. Respectively, requirements for the balancing systems are analysed, considering the case of Germany as a large country with high ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, an approach to investigate the optimal design of the technical system for balancing electricity over Europe is sketched. Looking at the challenges of a future energy system a mix of complementary technologies will prospectively become prevalent. In order to foster the needed innovation processes adequately, several funding mechanisms and legal regulations should be adapted. The authors give recommendations to handle major challenges in the development of the technical infrastructure, for the design of market conditions and for specific support of the application of balancing technologies. (orig.)

  14. Policy redesign for solving the financial bottleneck in demand side management (DSM) in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yongzhen

    2010-01-01

    DSM is one of the best and most practical policy tools for China to balance environmental protection and economic growth. However, the bottleneck lies in the lack of long-term, stable, sufficient and gradually increasing funds to flow into DSM projects. The author redesigns the practical 'system benefit charge (SBC)' policy, which will provide long-term and stable funding for DSM, the policy to facilitate the financial support from banking sector and capital market, and investigates the possibility of DSM funding from CDM projects. SBC is the best way to boost long-term stable and sufficient funding for DSM at present in China. The current low inflation rate and natural resource price are favored to expedite the implementation of SBC and DSM developments. With regard to the uneven development, China needs to design relative policies to offset the impact in different areas, such as tax reduction and fiscal subsides. It is time for China to develop a definite and clear target and timetable to implement DSM, which will give the public and enterprises a definite and clear expectation for the future. The government should publicize a clear and integrated DSM development plan and relative policy outline in the near, medium, and long term. (author)

  15. Handbook of evaluation of utility DSM programs. [Demand-Side Management (DSM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.; Reed, J. (eds.); Bronfman, B.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Hicks, E.; Hirst, E.; Hoffman, M.; Keating, K.; Michaels, H.; Nadel, S.; Peters, J.; Reed, J.; Saxonis, W.; Schoen, A.; Violette, D.

    1991-12-01

    Program evaluation has become a central issue in the world of utility integrated resource planning. The DSM programs that utilities were operating to meet federal requirements or to improve customer relations are now becoming big business. DSM is being considered an important resource in a utility's portfolio of options. In the last five years, the amount of money that utilities have invested in DSM has grown exponentially in most regulatory jurisdictions. Market analysts are now talking about DSM being a $30 billion industry by the end of the decade. If the large volume of DSM-program investments was not enough to highlight the importance of evaluation, then the introduction of regulatory incentives has really focused the spotlight. This handbook was developed through a process that involved many of those people who represent the diverse constituencies of DSM-program evaluation. We have come to recognize the many technical disciplines that must be employed to evaluate DSM programs. An analysis might start out based on the principles of utility load research to find out what happened, but a combination of engineering and statistical methods must be used to triangulate'' an estimate of what would have happened without the program. The difference, of course, is that elusive but prized result of evaluation: what happened as the direct result of the DSM program. Technical performance of DSM measures is not the sole determinant of the answer, either. We also recognize the importance of such behavioral attributes of DSM as persistence and free ridership. Finally, DSM evaluation is meaningless without attention to planning an approach, communicating results to relevant decision-makers, and focusing as much on the process as the impacts of the program. These topics are all covered in this handbook.

  16. Local government involvement in long term resource planning for community energy systems. Demand side management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    A program was developed to coordinate governmental, research, utility, and business energy savings efforts, and to evaluate future potential actions, based on actual field data obtained during the implementation of Phase I of the State Resource Plan. This has lead to the establishment of a state conservation and energy efficiency fund for the purpose of establishing a DSM Program. By taking a state wide perspective on resource planning, additional savings, including environmental benefits, can be achieved through further conservation and demand management. This effort has already blossomed into a state directive for DSM programs for the natural gas industry.

  17. A Multi-Objective Demand Side Management Considering ENS Cost in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousefi Khanghah, Babak; Ghassemzadeh, Saeid; Hosseini, Seyed Hossein

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a new method is presented to achieve economic exploitation and proper usage of network capacity by exerting controlling actions over flexible loads and energy storage (ES) equipment. Multi-objective planning for demand response programs (DRP) and battery management policies is carried...... out by considering energy not supplied (ENS). In order to achieve an optimal scheduling, charge/discharge control for batteries, demand response programs and dispatch of controllable distributed generations (DGs) are also considered. Then, the balanced cost and benefits of participants are evaluated...

  18. Review of Strategies and Technologies for Demand-Side Management on Isolated Mini-Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, Meg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This review provides an overview of strategies and currently available technologies used for demandside management (DSM) on mini-grids throughout the world. For the purposes of this review, mini-grids are defined as village-scale electricity distribution systems powered by small local generation sources and not connected to a main grid.1 Mini-grids range in size from less than 1 kW to several hundred kW of installed generation capacity and may utilize different generation technologies, such as micro-hydro, biomass gasification, solar, wind, diesel generators, or a hybrid combination of any of these. This review will primarily refer to AC mini-grids, though much of the discussion could apply to DC grids as well. Many mini-grids include energy storage, though some rely solely on real-time generation.

  19. Market-pull report. Measures on the demand side accelerate development and market introduction of energy-saving technologies. Swiss examples in the international context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, C.; Aebischer, B.

    1995-09-01

    International Energy Agency (IEA) experts met in Zurich in order to further develop international projects for the coordinated procurement of energy-saving technologies. On the occasion of this meeting, Swiss specialists from business and administrative circles presented examples of how the market can be purposefully influenced by implementing measures on the demand side. In order to ensure success, it is vital that all parties concerned - from the manufacturers to the consumers - are taken into account, and that tools are applied that have been adapted to each individual market. An international coordination of activities that are aimed at bringing about a change in procurement behaviour contributes considerably to an acceleration of the various processes. For the manufacturers, most of whom are active on an international level, it becomes simpler and more worthwhile to react. This applies in particular when instruments such as quality seals (labels) and target values are applied. (author) figs., tabs

  20. A future Demand Side Management (DSM) opportunity for utility as variable renewable penetrate scale up using agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ines, A.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Modi, V.; Robertson, A. W.; Lall, U.; Kocaman Ayse, S.; Chaudhary, S.; Kumar, A.; Ganapathy, A.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, V.

    2015-12-01

    Energy demand management, also known as demand side management (DSM), is the modification of consumer demand for energy through various methods such as smart metering, incentive based schemes, payments for turning off loads or rescheduling loads. Usually, the goal of demand side management is to encourage the consumer to use less power during periods of peak demand, or to move the time of energy use to off-peak times. Peak demand management does not necessarily decrease total energy consumption, but could be expected to reduce the need for investments in networks and/or power plants for meeting peak demands. Electricity use can vary dramatically on short and medium time frames, and the pricing system may not reflect the instantaneous cost as additional higher-cost that are brought on-line. In addition, the capacity or willingness of electricity consumers to adjust to prices by altering elasticity of demand may be low, particularly over short time frames. In the scenario of Indian grid setup, the retail customers do not follow real-time pricing and it is difficult to incentivize the utility companies for continuing the peak demand supply. A question for the future is how deeper penetration of renewable will be handled? This is a challenging problem since one has to deal with high variability, while managing loss of load probabilities. In the case of managing the peak demand using agriculture, in the future as smart metering matures with automatic turn on/off for a pump, it will become possible to provide an ensured amount of water or energy to the farmer while keeping the grid energized for 24 hours. Supply scenarios will include the possibility of much larger penetration of solar and wind into the grid. While, in absolute terms these sources are small contributors, their role will inevitably grow but DSM using agriculture could help reduce the capital cost. The other option is of advancing or delaying pump operating cycle even by several hours, will still ensure

  1. Utilizing a programmatic focus on energy efficiency and customer feedback to improve the effectiveness of demand side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.; Tharp, A.

    2006-01-01

    A project to encourage effective demand side management (DSM) programs through price-responsive load management was presented. The project was conducted through literature searches, surveys of utility programs and interviews with experts. National security, environmental awareness and economic factors were identified as the primary drivers for DSM. A overview of DSM strategies included details of: price responsive programs; power buyback; direct load control; and conservation-based rebates. Target sectors for DSM programs were divided into 4 sectors: (1) residential; (2) agricultural; (3) commercial/industrial; and (4) institutional. A customer decision cycle for DSM was presented, and various programs were evaluated. A comparison between DR and energy efficiency programs in the United States suggested that an increased focus on energy efficiency will benefit DR programs. However, perception of risk due to pricing exposure and the potential for loss of comfort are significant barriers to effective DSM. Studies have shown that DSM is most effective when participants receive direct feedback on consumption. Simple mechanisms for alerting participants of peak periods were recommended, as well as disaggregation tools to highlight areas of high energy usage and spotlight corrective measures. National and regional coordination of DSM activities was also recommended. It was concluded that DSM programs are successful when both customers and suppliers have an equal stake in their success. refs., tabs., figs

  2. Metering systems and demand-side management models applied to hybrid renewable energy systems in micro-grid configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasques, L.C.M.; Pinho, J.T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a demand-side management model integrated to a metering system for hybrid renewable energy systems in micro-grid configuration. The proposal is based on the management problems verified in most of this kind of renewable hybrid systems installed in Brazil. The main idea is the implementation of a pre-paid metering system with some control functions that directly act on the consumer demand, restricting the consumption proportionally to the monthly availability of renewable energy. The result is a better distribution of the electricity consumption by month and by consumer, preventing that only one user, with larger purchasing power, consumes all the renewable energy available at some time period. The proportionality between the consumption and the renewable energy's availability has the objective to prevent a lack of energy stored and a high use of the diesel generator-set on months of low renewable potential. This paper also aims to contribute to the Brazilian regulation of renewable energy systems supplying micro-grids. - Highlights: ► Review of the Brazilian electricity regulation for small-scale isolated systems. ► Renewable systems are the most feasible option in several isolated communities. ► One proposal is to guarantee government subsidies for renewable energy systems. ► Smart electronic meters to create electricity restrictions for the consumers.

  3. Simulation of the Demand Side Management impacts: resolution enhancement of the input parameters at the local scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imbert, P.

    2011-01-01

    Following the integrated energy planning paradigm in the 90's and the recent renewal of decentralized energy planning interests, Demand Side Management (DSM) actions are expected to take a significant role on energy planning activities in the future. Indeed the DSM actions represent a relevant option to achieve environmental and energy commitments or to alleviate some specific problems of electricity supply. DSM actions at the local scale at least in the French context is observed today. There is a need for appropriate methods and tools to assess the impacts of such MDE programs at local level. The local scale involves taking into account the specificities of the territories (physical, social, geographical, economical, institutional, etc.) The objective of this thesis is to improve the spatial resolution of input variables for the use in DSM action simulation tools. Based on a case study in France (PREMIO project: smart architecture for load management applied to a district) and an existing simulation tool we will study the impacts of this local experience to several municipalities. (author)

  4. An Algorithmic Game Approach for Demand Side Management in Smart Grid with Distributed Renewable Power Generation and Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Shiou Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of minimizing electricity cost and the peak system load in smart grids with distributed renewable energy resources is studied. Unlike prior research works that either assume all of the jobs are interruptible or power-shiftable, this paper focuses on more challenging scenarios in which jobs are non-interruptible and non-power-shiftable. In addition, as more and more newly-built homes have rooftop solar arrays, it is assumed that all users are equipped with a solar-plus-battery system in this paper. Thus, power can be drawn from the battery as needed to reduce the cost of electricity or to lower the overall system load. With a quadratic load-dependent cost function, this paper first shows that the electricity cost minimization problem in such a setting is NP-hard and presents a distributed demand-side management algorithm, called DDSM, to solve this. Experimental results show that the proposed DDSM algorithm is effective, scalable and converges to a Nash equilibrium in finite rounds.

  5. Impact of Demand-Side Management on Thermal Comfort and Energy Costs in a Residential nZEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Q. Péan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, simulation work has been carried out to investigate the impact of a demand-side management control strategy in a residential nZEB. A refurbished apartment within a multi-family dwelling representative of Mediterranean building habits was chosen as a study case and modelled within a simulation framework. A flexibility strategy based on set-point modulation depending on the energy price was applied to the building. The impact of the control strategy on thermal comfort was studied in detail with several methods retrieved from the standards or other literature, differentiating the effects on day and night living zones. It revealed a slight decrease of comfort when implementing flexibility, although this was not prejudicial. In addition, the applied strategy caused a simultaneous increase of the electricity used for heating by up to 7% and a reduction of the corresponding energy costs by up to around 20%. The proposed control thereby constitutes a promising solution for shifting heating loads towards periods of lower prices and is able to provide benefits for both the user and the grid sides. Beyond that, the activation of energy flexibility in buildings (nZEB in the present case will participate in a more successful integration of renewable energy sources (RES in the energy mix.

  6. A semi-distributed electric demand-side management system with PV generation for self-consumption enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo-Cagigal, M.; Gutierrez, A.; Monasterio-Huelin, F.; Caamano-Martin, E.; Masa, D.; Jimenez-Leube, J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We have developed a DSM system with PV electricity and battery storage. → To implement the DSM system, we have developed a modular architecture. → Simulations and real experiments have been executed for different weather conditions. → The use of theses technologies increase the self-consumed energy. -- Abstract: This paper presents the operation of an Electrical Demand-Side Management (EDSM) system in a real solar house. The use of EDSM is one of the most important action lines to improve the grid electrical efficiency. The combination between the EDSM and the PV generation performs a new control level in the local electric behavior and allows new energy possibilities. The solar house used as test-bed for the EDSM system owns a PV generator, a lead-acid battery storage system and a grid connection. The electrical appliances are controllable from an embedded computer. The EDSM is implemented by a control system which schedules the tasks commanded by the user. By using the control system, we define the house energy policy and improve the energy behavior with regard to a selected energy criterion, self-consumption. The EDSM system favors self-consumption with regard to a standard user behavior and reduces the energy load from the grid.

  7. Demand-side management project for Tenaga Nasional Berhad. Energy efficiency guidelines. Progress report No. 3. Volume 1. Final report. Export trade information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-05-01

    This study, conducted by the California Energy Commission, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report summarizes a demand-side management study performed for the Tenaga Nasional Berhad Headquarters Building. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate demand side management measures (DSMs) that would reduce energy costs of the facility. Volume 1 is divided into the following sections: (1.0) Executive Summary; (2.0) Facility Background; (3.0) Ventilating and Air Conditioning Systems Description; (4.0) Lightning System Description; Figures, Tables, and Appendices.

  8. The making of a market. Supply- and demand-side perspectives on institutional innovation in Sweden's wood fuel use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This thesis documents and analyses the rapidly increasing wood fuel use in Sweden in five separate studies of prominent actors in the making of the wood fuel market. These studies report government policy, forest owners' incentives, and district heating companies' experiences. The development of wood fuel use is examined as a story of technological and institutional change initially prompted by government policy. The change has involved dedicated action among all of the actors, with the Swedish government initiating new policies, legislation, and information activities, with district heating companies investing in new technology and trading, and with forest owners making new decisions on forest management practices. Institutional change in the wood fuel sector, in other words, is the result of innovation on the part of the actors involved. The papers included in the study identify and analyse concerns of the actors involved in making the wood fuel market. Within the district heating sector, transaction costs, as measured by problems to trade perceived by managements, have decreased with learning. Transformation costs, due to technical problems, are not perceived to have followed this trend. Technical investments in heat production have a long technical life time and demand large investment costs. This in turn means long planning and decision periods. Investments are made for a number of company-specific reasons, perhaps most importantly simply to increase heat and/or electricity generation capacity. Policy instruments may tip a decision in favor of wood fuels, but they could not be the single parameter determining company investments. Two kinds of forest owners selling wood fuels were identified, a forest manager type who acts more on his/her own initiative, and another kind, who relies more on the advice of the traditional timber buyer. Forest owners selling wood fuels contemplating whether to sell wood fuels or not are strongly influenced by soil fertility

  9. Demand side management in South Africa at industrial residence water heating systems using in line water heating methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, R.; Rousseau, P.G.

    2008-01-01

    The South African electrical utility, ESKOM, currently focuses its demand side management (DSM) initiatives on controlling electrical load between 18:00 and 20:00 each day, which is the utility's peak demand period. Funding is provided to energy service companies (ESCo's) to implement projects that can achieve load shifting out of this period. This paper describes how an improved in line water heating concept developed in previous studies was implemented into several real life industrial sanitary water heating systems to obtain the DSM load shift required by ESKOM. Measurements from a selection of these plants are provided to illustrate the significant load reductions that are being achieved during 18:00-20:00. The measured results also show that the peak load reduction is achieved without adversely affecting the availability of sufficient hot water to the persons using the showering and washing facilities served by the water heating system. A very good correlation also exists between these measured results and simulations that were done beforehand to predict the DSM potential of the project. The in line water heater concept provides an improved solution for DSM at sanitary water heating systems due to the stratified manner in which hot water is supplied to the tanks. This provides an improved hot water supply to users when compared to conventional in tank heating systems, even with load shifting being done. It also improves the storage efficiency of a plant, thereby allowing the available storage capacity of a plant to be utilized to its full extent for load shifting purposes

  10. Novel effects of demand side management data on accuracy of electrical energy consumption modeling and long-term forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardakani, F.J.; Ardehali, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel effects of DSM data on electricity consumption forecasting is examined. • Optimal ANN models based on IPSO and SFL algorithms are developed. • Addition of DSM data to socio-economic indicators data reduces MAPE by 36%. - Abstract: Worldwide implementation of demand side management (DSM) programs has had positive impacts on electrical energy consumption (EEC) and the examination of their effects on long-term forecasting is warranted. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of historical DSM data on accuracy of EEC modeling and long-term forecasting. To achieve the objective, optimal artificial neural network (ANN) models based on improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) and shuffled frog-leaping (SFL) algorithms are developed for EEC forecasting. For long-term EEC modeling and forecasting for the U.S. for 2010–2030, two historical data types used in conjunction with developed models include (i) EEC and (ii) socio-economic indicators, namely, gross domestic product, energy imports, energy exports, and population for 1967–2009 period. Simulation results from IPSO-ANN and SFL-ANN models show that using socio-economic indicators as input data achieves lower mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) for long-term EEC forecasting, as compared with EEC data. Based on IPSO-ANN, it is found that, for the U.S. EEC long-term forecasting, the addition of DSM data to socio-economic indicators data reduces MAPE by 36% and results in the estimated difference of 3592.8 MBOE (5849.9 TW h) in EEC for 2010–2030

  11. DEMONSTRATION OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND DEMAND-SIDE MANAGEMENT BENEFITS OF GRID-CONNECTED PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER SYSTEMS SITED ON MILITARY BASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an investigation into the pollutant emission reduction and demand-side management potential of three photovoltaic (PV) systems installed at Ft. Huachuca, AZ, Ft. Dix, NJ, and Hickam Air Force Base, HI, which began operation between January and July 199...

  12. Report of the advisory group on demand-side management and demand response in Ontario in response to the Minister's directive to the Ontario Energy Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Ontario Energy Board was directed in June 2003 to consult with stakeholders to identify and review options for the delivery of demand-side management (DSM) and demand response (DR) activities within the electricity sector, including the role of local distribution companies (distributors) in such activities. A total of 118 stakeholders participated in the consultation process, and 31 representatives from all sectors were then invited to take part in an advisory working group to develop options to be considered by the Board when preparing the recommendations to the Minister. This report presents a consolidation of the Group's working documents and the results of deliberations both as a unit and in small groups. The best way to present the many newly developed models was as a single Central Agency model demonstrating variations in the role of the Central Agency and other players in the electricity market. The paper was divided into the following six sections: introduction; market issues; demand response framework option; central agency framework-alternative models; Ontario Energy Board-wires companies DSM framework; and, general issues

  13. Maximizing Energy Savings Reliability in BC Hydro Industrial Demand-side Management Programs: An Assessment of Performance Incentive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosman, Nathaniel

    For energy utilities faced with expanded jurisdictional energy efficiency requirements and pursuing demand-side management (DSM) incentive programs in the large industrial sector, performance incentive programs can be an effective means to maximize the reliability of planned energy savings. Performance incentive programs balance the objectives of high participation rates with persistent energy savings by: (1) providing financial incentives and resources to minimize constraints to investment in energy efficiency, and (2) requiring that incentive payments be dependent on measured energy savings over time. As BC Hydro increases its DSM initiatives to meet the Clean Energy Act objective to reduce at least 66 per cent of new electricity demand with DSM by 2020, the utility is faced with a higher level of DSM risk, or uncertainties that impact the costeffective acquisition of planned energy savings. For industrial DSM incentive programs, DSM risk can be broken down into project development and project performance risks. Development risk represents the project ramp-up phase and is the risk that planned energy savings do not materialize due to low customer response to program incentives. Performance risk represents the operational phase and is the risk that planned energy savings do not persist over the effective measure life. DSM project development and performance risks are, in turn, a result of industrial economic, technological and organizational conditions, or DSM risk factors. In the BC large industrial sector, and characteristic of large industrial sectors in general, these DSM risk factors include: (1) capital constraints to investment in energy efficiency, (2) commodity price volatility, (3) limited internal staffing resources to deploy towards energy efficiency, (4) variable load, process-based energy saving potential, and (5) a lack of organizational awareness of an operation's energy efficiency over time (energy performance). This research assessed the capacity

  14. An Economic Evalution of Demand-side Energy Storage Systems by using a Multi-agent based Electricity Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Ken; Sugihara, Hideharu; Tsuji, Kiichiro

    Opened wholesale electric power market in April 2005, deregulation of electric power industry in Japan has faced a new competitive environment. In the new environment, Independent Power Producer (: IPP), Power Producer and Supplier (: PPS), Load Service Entity (: LSE) and electric utility can trade electric energy through both bilateral contracts and single-price auction at the electricity market. In general, the market clearing price (: MCP) is largely changed by amount of total load demand in the market. The influence may cause price spike, and consequently the volatility of MCP will make LSEs and their customers to face a risk of revenue and cost. DSM is attracted as a means of load leveling, and has effect on decreasing MCP at peak load period. Introducing Energy Storage systems (: ES) is one of DSM in order to change demand profile at customer-side. In case that customers decrease their own demand at jumped MCP, a bidding strategy of generating companies may be changed their strategy. As a result, MCP is changed through such complex mechanism. In this paper the authors evaluate MCP by multi-agent. It is considered that customer-side ES has an effect on MCP fluctuation. Through numerical examples, this paper evaluates the influence on MCP by controlling customer-side ES corresponding to variation of MCP.

  15. Model Predictive Controller for Active Demand Side Management with PV Self-consumption in an Intelligent Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Yi; Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Kullmann, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) for electrical heaters’ predictive power consumption including maximizing the use of local generation (e.g. solar power) in an intelligent building. The MPC is based on dynamic power price and weather forecast, considering users’ comfort...... settings to meet an optimization objective such as minimum cost and minimum reference temperature error. It demonstrates that this MPC strategy can realize load shifting, and maximize the PV self-consumption in the residential sector. With this demand side control study, it is expected that MPC strategy...

  16. Oh and by the way, you get meter readings too : a look at distribution automation, intelligent grids, and demand side management : getting the real value from your AMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summerlin, T. [Gestalt, Camden, NJ (United States); Ferguson, P.D. [Newmarket Hydro Ltd., Newmarket, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The full value of smart metering programs will be realized when information and communication capabilities are used to enable distribution automation, intelligent grids, and sufficient data management that will transform interval meter data into useful information. By leveraging and managing meter data effectively, utilities can increase their operational efficiency, improve their understanding of customers' needs, and develop more effective demand side management programs. This presentation examined some of the changing priorities of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) strategies, and provided details of meter data management (MDM) technologies developed to help utilities increase efficiency, cut costs and provide better service to their customers. An MDM system is the set of data bases and applications required to provide utilities with a solution for the data retention, analysis and storage repository gaps that will be created when monthly manual meter readings are replaced with AMI systems. In order to resolve storage, functionality and legacy integration gaps, MDM systems must be scalable systems that can support large and small quantities of meter data, and must also conform to industry standard data warehouse designs. Data structure in the systems must support both regulated and deregulated markets, and be capable of providing extensive graphical, tabular and Excel export of the metered and totalized data from the interval to system level. MDM systems can provide improved support for demand response decision-making processes; distribution planning and reliability; outage management; revenue assurance; forecasting; and curtailment. It was concluded that MDM systems can be used to improve processes and provide additional benefits well beyond the meter reading and billing process benefits originally identified by utilities as a primary goal of implementing AMI. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. Grey-box Modelling of a Household Refrigeration Unit Using Time Series Data in Application to Demand Side Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the application of stochastic grey-box modeling to identify electrical power consumption-to-temperature models of a domestic freezer using experimental measurements. The models are formulated using stochastic differential equations (SDEs), estimated by maximum likelihood......) to shift the electricity consumption of a freezer in demand response experiments, thereby addressing the model selection problem also from the application point of view and showing in an experimental context the ability of MPC to exploit the freezer as a demand side resource (DSR)....... estimation (MLE), validated through the model residuals analysis and cross-validated to detect model over-fitting. A nonlinear model based on the reversed Carnot cycle is also presented and included in the modeling performance analysis. As an application of the models, we apply model predictive control (MPC...

  18. Exploring Tradeoffs in Demand-Side and Supply-Side Management of Urban Water Resources Using Agent-Based Modeling and Evolutionary Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lufthansa Kanta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban water supply systems may be managed through supply-side and demand-side strategies, which focus on water source expansion and demand reductions, respectively. Supply-side strategies bear infrastructure and energy costs, while demand-side strategies bear costs of implementation and inconvenience to consumers. To evaluate the performance of demand-side strategies, the participation and water use adaptations of consumers should be simulated. In this study, a Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS framework is developed to simulate consumer agents that change their consumption to affect the withdrawal from the water supply system, which, in turn influences operational policies and long-term resource planning. Agent-based models are encoded to represent consumers and a policy maker agent and are coupled with water resources system simulation models. The CAS framework is coupled with an evolutionary computation-based multi-objective methodology to explore tradeoffs in cost, inconvenience to consumers, and environmental impacts for both supply-side and demand-side strategies. Decisions are identified to specify storage levels in a reservoir that trigger: (1 increases in the volume of water pumped through inter-basin transfers from an external reservoir; and (2 drought stages, which restrict the volume of water that is allowed for residential outdoor uses. The proposed methodology is demonstrated for Arlington, Texas, water supply system to identify non-dominated strategies for an historic drought decade. Results demonstrate that pumping costs associated with maximizing environmental reliability exceed pumping costs associated with minimizing restrictions on consumer water use.

  19. Electricity decision-making: New techniques for calculating statewide economic impacts from new power supply and demand-side management programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegen, Suzanne Isabel Helmholz

    This dissertation introduces new techniques for calculating and comparing statewide economic impacts from new coal, natural gas and wind power plants, as well as from demand-side management programs. The impetus for this work was two-fold. First, reviews of current literature and projects revealed that there was no standard way to estimate statewide economic impacts from new supply- and demand-side electricity options. Second, decision-makers who were interviewed stated that they were overwhelmed with data in general, but also lacked enough specific information about economic development impacts to their states from electricity, to make informed choices. This dissertation includes chapters on electricity decision-making and on economic impacts from supply and demand. The supply chapter compares different electricity options in three states which vary in natural resource content: Arizona, Colorado and Michigan. To account for differing capacity factors, resources are compared on a per-megawatt-hour basis. The calculations of economic impacts from new supply include: materials and labor for construction, operations, maintenance, fuel extraction, fuel transport, as well as property tax, financing and landowner revenues. The demand-side chapter compares residential, commercial and industrial programs in Iowa. Impact calculations include: incremental labor and materials for program planning, installation and operations, as well as sales taxes and electricity saved. Results from supply-side calculations in the three states analyzed indicate that adding new wind power can have a greater impact to a state's economy than adding new gas or coal power due to resource location, taxes and infrastructure. Additionally, demand-side management programs have a higher relative percentage of in-state dollar flow than supply-side solutions, though demand-side programs typically involve fewer MWh and dollars than supply-side generation. Methods for this dissertation include researching

  20. An Efficient Demand Side Management System with a New Optimized Home Energy Management Controller in Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz Majid Hussain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional power grid is inadequate to overcome modern day challenges. As the modern era demands the traditional power grid to be more reliable, resilient, and cost-effective, the concept of smart grid evolves and various methods have been developed to overcome these demands which make the smart grid superior over the traditional power grid. One of the essential components of the smart grid, home energy management system (HEMS enhances the energy efficiency of electricity infrastructure in a residential area. In this aspect, we propose an efficient home energy management controller (EHEMC based on genetic harmony search algorithm (GHSA to reduce electricity expense, peak to average ratio (PAR, and maximize user comfort. We consider EHEMC for a single home and multiple homes with real-time electricity pricing (RTEP and critical peak pricing (CPP tariffs. In particular, for multiple homes, we classify modes of operation for the appliances according to their energy consumption with varying operation time slots. The constrained optimization problem is solved using heuristic algorithms: wind-driven optimization (WDO, harmony search algorithm (HSA, genetic algorithm (GA, and proposed algorithm GHSA. The proposed algorithm GHSA shows higher search efficiency and dynamic capability to attain optimal solutions as compared to existing algorithms. Simulation results also show that the proposed algorithm GHSA outperforms the existing algorithms in terms of reduction in electricity cost, PAR, and maximize user comfort.

  1. Hawaii demand-side management resource assessment. Final report, Reference Volume 3 -- Residential and commercial sector DSM analyses: Detailed results from the DBEDT DSM assessment model; Part 1, Technical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The Hawaii Demand-Side Management Resource Assessment was the fourth of seven projects in the Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES) program. HES was designed by the Department of Business, Economic Development, and Tourism (DBEDT) to produce an integrated energy strategy for the State of Hawaii. The purpose of Project 4 was to develop a comprehensive assessment of Hawaii`s demand-side management (DSM) resources. To meet this objective, the project was divided into two phases. The first phase included development of a DSM technology database and the identification of Hawaii commercial building characteristics through on-site audits. These Phase 1 products were then used in Phase 2 to identify expected energy impacts from DSM measures in typical residential and commercial buildings in Hawaii. The building energy simulation model DOE-2.1E was utilized to identify the DSM energy impacts. More detailed information on the typical buildings and the DOE-2.1E modeling effort is available in Reference Volume 1, ``Building Prototype Analysis``. In addition to the DOE-2.1E analysis, estimates of residential and commercial sector gas and electric DSM potential for the four counties of Honolulu, Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai through 2014 were forecasted by the new DBEDT DSM Assessment Model. Results from DBEDTs energy forecasting model, ENERGY 2020, were linked with results from DOE-2.1E building energy simulation runs and estimates of DSM measure impacts, costs, lifetime, and anticipated market penetration rates in the DBEDT DSM Model. Through its algorithms, estimates of DSM potential for each forecast year were developed. Using the load shape information from the DOE-2.1E simulation runs, estimates of electric peak demand impacts were developed. Numerous tables and figures illustrating the technical potential for demand-side management are included.

  2. Intelligent Demand Side Management within production systems. Towards Industrial Smart Grids; Intelligente Lastverschiebung in der Produktionstechnik. Ein Weg zum Industrial Smart Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schriegel, Sebastian; Pethig, Florian; Jasperneite, Juergen [Fraunhofer-Anwendungszentrum Industrial Automation (IOSB-INA), Lemgo (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Demand Side Management is a key technology of smart grids. Consumers adjust their energy consumption at current time-volatile energy generation capacity. The currently used energy consumption optimizations, such as the use of energy efficient actuators, pause functions and peak load management should be supplemented by a dynamic real-time energy management. For industrial consumers, such an energy management may be established at various levels of the automation pyramid. On plant level energy optimization is based on predictions, on control and field level optimization is based on process variables. The taxonomy of potential energy optimization differentiates between organizational, synchronization and single parameter optimization. This potential can be exploited with intelligent control technology based on qualified process models and tunable control programs. An Industrial Smart Grid results by interlinking the former mentioned intelligent control technologies with the plant infrastructure and thereby provides an optimal energy consumption behavior and a perfect integration into and interaction with the smart grid. (orig.)

  3. Smart grids, demand-side management and decentralised electricity production: Mounting a national R and D programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    of investment RTE, ERDF and EDF-R and D dispose of teams that can identify future R and D needs, pilot and conduct research, and integrate the results, often obtained in collaboration with other parties, in innovative demonstration projects set up by operators. This is no longer the case for many of their European counterparts where research teams have shrunk to a minimum, following cost-cutting decisions and 'rationalisation' of grid activities (decisions made on the basis of short-term business policies, often encouraged by regulators 3). These encouraging observations notwithstanding, transmission and distribution grid operators in France consider that they must acquire further knowledge pertaining to the sizing and operation of electricity networks. Five policy options underlie this vision extending to 2020, a vision aimed at validating new directions for the evolution of these networks: 1 - Strengthen the capacity of the transmission grid to integrate an energy bouquet that complies with European commitments for de-carbonising electricity generation, via the development of renewable energy, 2 - Make the distribution grid flexible and reliable enough to meet the consumer demand and the requirements of energy service vendors, 3 - Coordinate interaction between transmission operators and distributors so as to reinforce the reliability of the grid in France, optimise its energy performance and contribute to building the single electricity market in Europe, 4 - Encourage electricity demand management as an additional source of supply and economic competitiveness, 5 - Expand decentralised generation, particularly to help further reduce energy demand in commercial and residential buildings

  4. Simple models of district heating systems for load and demand side management and operational optimisation; Simple modeller for fjernvarmesystemer med henblik pae belastningsudjaevning og driftsoptimering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, B. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Larsen, H.V. [Risoe National Lab., System Analysis Dept., Roskilde (DK)

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this research project has been to further develop and test simple (aggregated) models of district heating (DH) systems for simulation and operational optimization, and to investigate the influence of Load Management and Demand Side Management (DMS) on the total operational costs. The work is based on physical-mathematical modelling and simulation of DH systems, and is a continuation of previous EFP-96 work. In the present EFP-2001 project the goals have been to improve the Danish method of aggregation by addressing the problem of aggregation of pressure losses, and to test the methods on a much larger data set than in the EFP-1996 project. In order to verify the models it is crucial to have good data at disposal. Full information on the heat loads and temperatures not only at the DH plant but also at every consumer (building) is needed, and therefore only a few DH systems in Denmark can supply such data. (BA)

  5. A Smart Grid Framework for Optimally Integrating Supply-Side, Demand-Side and Transmission Line Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuka Monyei

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A coordinated centralized energy management system (ConCEMS is presented in this paper that seeks to integrate for optimal grid operation—the supply side energy management system (SSEMS, home energy management system (HEMS and transmission line management system (TLMS. ConCEMS in ensuring the optimal operation of an IEEE 30-bus electricity network harmonizes the individual objective function of SSEMS, HEMS and TLMS to evolve an optimal dispatch of participating demand response (DR loads that does not violate transmission line ampacity limits (TLMS constraint while minimizing consumer cost (HEMS constraint and supply side operations cost (SSEMS constraint. An externally constrained genetic algorithm (ExC-GA that is influenced by feedback from TLMS is also presented that intelligently varies the dispatch time of participating DR loads to meet the individual objective functions. Hypothetical day ahead dynamic pricing schemes (Price1, Price2 and Price3 have also been adopted alongside an existing time of use (Price0 pricing scheme for comparison and discussion while a dynamic thermal line rating (DTLR algorithm has also been incorporated to dynamically compute power limits based on real time associated data.

  6. Low-enthalpy geothermal resources for electricity production: A demand-side management study for intelligent communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George A.; Nanaki, Evanthia A.; Koroneos, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The geological conditions in Greece contributed to the creation of important low-enthalpy geothermal energy resources (LEGERs). The resources are divided into low, medium and high enthalpy, or temperature, based on criteria that are generally based on the energy content of the fluid. LEGERs...... and northern part of the country, as well as in many of the Aegean Islands. The aim of this work is to review the options for managing wind load by using low-enthalpy geothermal energy for electricity (through heat pump utilisation) according to the local energy demand....... are those sources of the hot water whose temperature is between 25 and 100°C, which are used for heating residences and in the agricultural or industrial sector. The investigation for the exploitation of low-enthalpy geothermal fluids, which began around 1980, intensified in the last two decades. The low...

  7. Residential Consumer-Centric Demand-Side Management Based on Energy Disaggregation-Piloting Constrained Swarm Intelligence: Towards Edge Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-Chen

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of smart Internet of Things (IoT) devices has highly favored the realization of smart homes in a down-stream sector of a smart grid. The underlying objective of Demand Response (DR) schemes is to actively engage customers to modify their energy consumption on domestic appliances in response to pricing signals. Domestic appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage domestic energy consumption intelligently. Besides, to residential customers for DR implementation, maintaining a balance between energy consumption cost and users’ comfort satisfaction is a challenge. Hence, in this paper, a constrained Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)-based residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method is proposed. The method can be further featured with edge computing. In contrast with cloud computing, edge computing—a method of optimizing cloud computing technologies by driving computing capabilities at the IoT edge of the Internet as one of the emerging trends in engineering technology—addresses bandwidth-intensive contents and latency-sensitive applications required among sensors and central data centers through data analytics at or near the source of data. A non-intrusive load-monitoring technique proposed previously is utilized to automatic determination of physical characteristics of power-intensive home appliances from users’ life patterns. The swarm intelligence, constrained PSO, is used to minimize the energy consumption cost while considering users’ comfort satisfaction for DR implementation. The residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method proposed in this paper is evaluated under real-time pricing with inclining block rates and is demonstrated in a case study. The experimentation reported in this paper shows the proposed residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method can re-shape loads by home appliances in response to DR signals. Moreover, a phenomenal reduction in peak power consumption is achieved

  8. Low-enthalpy geothermal resources for electricity production: A demand-side management study for intelligent communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xydis, George A.; Nanaki, Evanthia A.; Koroneos, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    The geological conditions in Greece contributed to the creation of important low-enthalpy geothermal energy resources (LEGERs). The resources are divided into low, medium and high enthalpy, or temperature, based on criteria that are generally based on the energy content of the fluid. LEGERs are those sources of the hot water whose temperature is between 25 and 100 °C, which are used for heating residences and in the agricultural or industrial sector. The investigation for the exploitation of low-enthalpy geothermal fluids, which began around 1980, intensified in the last two decades. The low-enthalpy geothermal potential in Greece is rather significant as most of the geothermal fields have been found in regions with favourable developmental conditions, and it seems that they do not present serious environmental or technical exploitation problems. LEGER areas are abundant in Greece, mainly in the eastern and northern part of the country, as well as in many of the Aegean Islands. The aim of this work is to review the options for managing wind load by using low-enthalpy geothermal energy for electricity (through heat pump utilisation) according to the local energy demand. -- Highlights: •Approximately 45.43 GWh per year of electricity can be covered from low-enthalpy geothermal energy resources (LEGERs). •In particular, 10% of the electricity demand can be covered from the LEGER N. Kessani (NK). •The needs for LEGER contribution were increased when wind turbine (WT) production was low. •In winter, where there is abundance of wind, LEGER can be used mostly for heating. •During summer, LEGER can assist more in electricity when heating is not needed

  9. Residential Consumer-Centric Demand-Side Management Based on Energy Disaggregation-Piloting Constrained Swarm Intelligence: Towards Edge Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsiu Lin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of smart Internet of Things (IoT devices has highly favored the realization of smart homes in a down-stream sector of a smart grid. The underlying objective of Demand Response (DR schemes is to actively engage customers to modify their energy consumption on domestic appliances in response to pricing signals. Domestic appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage domestic energy consumption intelligently. Besides, to residential customers for DR implementation, maintaining a balance between energy consumption cost and users’ comfort satisfaction is a challenge. Hence, in this paper, a constrained Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO-based residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method is proposed. The method can be further featured with edge computing. In contrast with cloud computing, edge computing—a method of optimizing cloud computing technologies by driving computing capabilities at the IoT edge of the Internet as one of the emerging trends in engineering technology—addresses bandwidth-intensive contents and latency-sensitive applications required among sensors and central data centers through data analytics at or near the source of data. A non-intrusive load-monitoring technique proposed previously is utilized to automatic determination of physical characteristics of power-intensive home appliances from users’ life patterns. The swarm intelligence, constrained PSO, is used to minimize the energy consumption cost while considering users’ comfort satisfaction for DR implementation. The residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method proposed in this paper is evaluated under real-time pricing with inclining block rates and is demonstrated in a case study. The experimentation reported in this paper shows the proposed residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method can re-shape loads by home appliances in response to DR signals. Moreover, a phenomenal reduction in peak power

  10. Residential Consumer-Centric Demand-Side Management Based on Energy Disaggregation-Piloting Constrained Swarm Intelligence: Towards Edge Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsiu; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2018-04-27

    The emergence of smart Internet of Things (IoT) devices has highly favored the realization of smart homes in a down-stream sector of a smart grid. The underlying objective of Demand Response (DR) schemes is to actively engage customers to modify their energy consumption on domestic appliances in response to pricing signals. Domestic appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage domestic energy consumption intelligently. Besides, to residential customers for DR implementation, maintaining a balance between energy consumption cost and users’ comfort satisfaction is a challenge. Hence, in this paper, a constrained Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)-based residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method is proposed. The method can be further featured with edge computing. In contrast with cloud computing, edge computing—a method of optimizing cloud computing technologies by driving computing capabilities at the IoT edge of the Internet as one of the emerging trends in engineering technology—addresses bandwidth-intensive contents and latency-sensitive applications required among sensors and central data centers through data analytics at or near the source of data. A non-intrusive load-monitoring technique proposed previously is utilized to automatic determination of physical characteristics of power-intensive home appliances from users’ life patterns. The swarm intelligence, constrained PSO, is used to minimize the energy consumption cost while considering users’ comfort satisfaction for DR implementation. The residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method proposed in this paper is evaluated under real-time pricing with inclining block rates and is demonstrated in a case study. The experimentation reported in this paper shows the proposed residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method can re-shape loads by home appliances in response to DR signals. Moreover, a phenomenal reduction in peak power consumption is achieved

  11. Comparing Demand Side Management approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Due to increasing energy prices and the greenhouse effect, a more efficient energy supply is desirable, preferably based on renewable sources. To cope with the decrease of flexibility due to the introduction of renewables in production side of the supply chain, a more flexible consumer side is

  12. “Souls of the ancestor that knock us out” and other tales. A qualitative study to identify demand-side factors influencing malaria case management in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Connell Kathryn A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate case management of suspected malaria in Cambodia is critical given anti-malarial drug resistance in the region. Improving diagnosis and the use of recommended malarial treatments is a challenge in Cambodia where self-treatment and usage of drug cocktails is widespread, a notable difference from malaria treatment seeking in other countries. This qualitative study adds to the limited evidence base on Cambodian practices, aiming to understand the demand-side factors influencing treatment-seeking behaviour, including the types of home treatments, perceptions of cocktail medicines and reasons for diagnostic testing. The findings may help guide intervention design. Methods The study used in-depth interviews (IDIs (N = 16 and focus group discussions (FGDs (N = 12 with Cambodian adults from malaria-endemic areas who had experienced malaria fever in the previous two weeks. Data were analysed using NVivo software. Results Findings suggest that Cambodians initially treat suspected malaria at home with home remedies and traditional medicines. When seeking treatment outside the home, respondents frequently reported receiving a cocktail of medicines from trusted providers. Cocktails are perceived as less expensive and more effective than full-course, pre-packaged medicines. Barriers to diagnostic testing include a belief in the ability to self-diagnose based on symptoms, cost and reliance on providers to recommend a test. Factors that facilitate testing include recommendation by trusted providers and a belief that anti-malarial treatment for illnesses other than malaria can be harmful. Conclusions Treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria in Cambodia is complex, driven by cultural norms, practicalities and episode-related factors. Effective malaria treatment programmes will benefit from interventions and communication materials that leverage these demand-side factors, promoting prompt visits to facilities for suspected

  13. Climate-related electricity demand-side management in oil-exporting countries--the case of the United Arab Emirates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Iriani, Mahmoud A.

    2005-01-01

    The oil crisis of the 1970s has increased the concern about the continuity of oil imports flow to major oil-importing developed countries. Numerous policy measures including electricity demand-side management (DSM) programs have been adopted in such countries. These measures aim at reducing the growing need for electricity power that increases the dependency on imported foreign oil and damages the environment. On the other hand, the perception that energy can be obtained at very low cost in oil-rich countries led to less attention being paid to the potential of DSM policies in these countries. This paper discusses such potential using the case of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Since air conditioning is a major source of electric energy consumption, the relationship between climate conditions and electric energy consumption is considered. An electricity demand model is constructed using time series techniques. The fitted model seems to represent these relationships rather well. Forecasts for electricity consumption using the estimated model indicate that a small reduction in cooling degrees requirement might induce a significant reduction in electric energy demand. Hence, a DSM program is proposed with policy actions to include, among others, measures to reduce cooling degrees requirement

  14. Promoting healthcare innovation on the demand side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Rebecca S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Innovation policy often focuses on fortifying the incentives of firms that develop and sell new products by offering them lucrative rights to exclude competitors from the market. Regulators also rely on these same firms—and on similar incentives—to develop information about the effects of their products in patients, despite their obvious conflict of interest. The result may be a distorted understanding that leads to overuse of expensive new medical technologies. Recent technological advances have put healthcare payers in an excellent position to play a larger role in future innovation to improve healthcare and reduce its costs. Insurance companies and integrated healthcare providers have custody of treasure troves of data about healthcare provision and outcomes that can yield valuable insights about the effects of medical treatment without the need to conduct costly clinical trials. Some integrated healthcare systems have seized upon this advantage to make notable discoveries about the effects of particular products that have changed the standard of care. Moreover, to the extent that healthcare payers can profit from reducing costs, they will seek to avoid inappropriate use of costly technologies. Greater involvement of payers in healthcare innovation thus offers a potential counterweight to the incentives of product sellers to promote excessive use of costly new products. In recent years, the federal government has sought to promote innovation through analysis of healthcare records in a series of initiatives; some picture insurers as passive data repositories, while others provide opportunities for insurers to take a more active role in innovation. In this paper, we examine the role of health insurers in developing new knowledge about the provision and effects of healthcare—what we call ‘demand-side innovation’. We address the contours of this underexplored area of innovation and describe the behavior of participating firms. We examine the

  15. Primary Control by ON/OFF Demand-Side Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Hansen, Lars Henrik; Andersen, Palle

    2013-01-01

    We consider an aggregator managing a portfolio of ON/OFF demand-side devices. The devices are able to shift con- sumption in time within certain energy limitations; moreover, the devices are able to measure the system frequency and switch ON and OFF accordingly. We show how the aggregator can...

  16. Demand side participation for frequency containment in the web of cells architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syed, M.H.; Burt, G.M.; Kok, J.K.; Hulst, R. d

    2015-01-01

    A large number of demand side management schemes have been proposed in literature for provision of frequency control ancillary services to the network. However, it is assumed that all the flexible devices within the network are managed and controlled under one demand side management (DSM) scheme. In

  17. Load curve modelling of the residential segment electric power consumption applying a demand side energy management program; Modelagem da curva de carga das faixas de consumo de energia eletrica residencial a partir da aplicacao de um programa de gerenciamento de energia pelo lado da demanda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahde, Sergio Barbosa [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica e Mecatronica]. E-mail: sergio@em.pucrs.br; Kaehler, Jose Wagner [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia]. E-mail: kaehlerjw@pucrs.br

    2000-07-01

    The dissertation aims to offer a current vision on the use of electrical energy inside CEEE's newly defined area of operation. It also intends to propose different alternatives to set up a Demand Side Management (DSM) project to be carried out on the same market segment, through a Residential Load Management program. Starting from studies developed by DNAEE (the Brazilian federal government's agency for electrical energy), to establish the load curve characteristics, as well as from a research on electrical equipment ownership and electricity consumption habits, along with the contribution supplied by other utilities, especially in the US, an evaluation is offered, concerning several approaches to residential energy management, setting up conditions that simulate the residential segment's scenarios and their influence on the general system's load. (author)

  18. Essays on measurement and evaluation of demand side management programs in the electricity industry, and impacts of firm strategy on stock price in the biotechnology industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandres Motola, Miguel A.

    Essay one estimates changes in small business customer energy consumption (kWh) patterns resulting from a seasonally differentiated pricing structure. Econometric analysis leverages cross-sectional time series data across the entire population of affected customers, from 2007 through the present. Observations include: monthly energy usage (kWh), relevant customer segmentations, local daily temperature, energy price, and region-specific economic conditions, among other variables. The study identifies the determinants of responsiveness to seasonal price differentiation. In addition, estimated energy consumption changes occurring during the 2010 summer season are reported for the average customer and in aggregate grouped by relevant customer segments, climate zone, and total customer base. Essay two develops an econometric modeling methodology to evaluate load impacts for short duration demand response events. The study analyzes time series data from a season of direct load control program tests aimed at integrating demand response into the wholesale electricity market. I have combined "fuzzy logic" with binary variables to create "fuzzy indicator variables" that allow for measurement of short duration events while using industry standard model specifications. Typically, binary variables for every hour are applied in load impact analysis of programs dispatched in hourly intervals. As programs evolve towards integration with the wholesale market, event durations become irregular and often occur for periods of only a few minutes. This methodology is innovative in that it conserves the degrees of freedom in the model while allowing for analysis of high frequency data using fixed effects. Essay three examines the effects of strategies, intangibles, and FDA news on the stocks of young biopharmaceutical firms. An event study methodology is used to explore those effects. This study investigates 20,839 announcements from 1990 to 2005. Announcements on drug development

  19. Improved flexibility with large-scale variable renewable power in cities through optimal demand side management and power-to-heat conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salpakari, Jyri; Mikkola, Jani; Lund, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New models for optimal control of shiftable loads and power-to-heat conversion. • Full technical and economic potential with optimal controls. • Detailed time series of shiftable loads based on empirical data. • Case study of Helsinki (Finland) with over 90% share of district heating. • Positive net present values in cost-optimal operation. - Abstract: Solar and wind power are potential carbon-free energy solutions for urban areas, but they are also subject to large variability. At the same time, urban areas offer promising flexibility solutions for balancing variable renewable power. This paper presents models for optimal control of power-to-heat conversion to heating systems and shiftable loads in cities to incorporate large variable renewable power schemes. The power-to-heat systems comprise heat pumps, electric boilers, and thermal storage. The control strategies comprise optimal matching of load and production, and cost-optimal market participation with investment analysis. All analyses are based on hourly data. The models are applied to a case study in Helsinki, Finland. For a scheme providing ca. 50% of all electricity in the city through self-consumption of variable renewables, power-to-heat with thermal storage could absorb all the surplus production. A significant reduction in the net load magnitude was obtained with shiftable loads. Investments to both power-to-heat and load shifting with electric heating and commercial refrigeration have a positive net present value if the resources are controlled cost-optimally.

  20. New Texas utility offers all customers a web-based Demand Side Management tool that helps them lower their electric bills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, V.

    2002-10-01

    The great success achieved by the newly established Sharyland Utilities, by offering all its commercial, industrial and residential consumers the ability to view their daily energy consumption via the Internet, thereby enabling them to make informed energy conservation decisions, is described. Sharyland Utilities operating in Sharyland Plantation, a new community in the heart of the Rio Grande Valley on the Texas-Mexico border, is the first utility in the U. S. to offer these services to all its 650 customers. Expected to stretch to some 22,000 acres when fully developed over the next ten years, Sharyland Plantation is predicted to become the largest integrated master-planned international community anywhere. The utility currently provides AMR-ready metering for the housing market, mass-storage metering for the business sector, as well as a number of fee-based services (through contract with Arlington, Texas-based UDRI/MeterSmart) including, where appropriate, to the class of customer, automatic meter reading, data validation and editing, real-time pricing and billing, load research, data archiving, turnkey load control solutions, on-site technical support, Internet presentation and more. The ability to view their energy use information, in both numeric and graphic form, on the Internet is available to all customers free of charge. Access requires neither dedicated workstations, nor proprietary software nor programming. Additional on-line services are expected to be available on Sharyland's repertoire soon, on a subscription basis. These will include direct-to-the-customer e-mail reports detailing daily, weekly or monthly energy usage, and an energy alarm service that will notify residential and business customers when user-defined maximum energy thresholds have been exceeded.

  1. Demand side management of electric car charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finn, P.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Connolly, David

    2012-01-01

    the purchase of alternative energy vehicles in an effort to achieve 10% EV (electric vehicle) penetration in the country's road fleet by 2020. The replacement of ICE (internal combustion engine) vehicles with EV equivalents poses challenges for grid operators while simultaneously offering opportunities...

  2. Demand Side Management in the Smart Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso

    . Therefore it does not guarantee optimality in the long run. Two approaches are investigated within predictive control: the first is based on grey-box modelling and quadratic Model Predictive Control (MPC), while the second is based on Artificial Intelligence modelling and gradient-free optimisation......, together with the growing urbanisation, the in- creasing popularity of electricity-based climate control systems and electricity-based private transportation, challenges the distribution systems operators to run the low voltage grids with small safety margins. Depending on the customer and the specific...

  3. Demand side management for smart district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Big, Oovidiu; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    between 25% and 35%. By making the light renovation, the heating system needs a minimum supply water temperature of 58ºC in order to cover the thermal comfort. Through extensive renovation, the supply water temperature could be reduced to 50ºC which makes it possible to transform the District Heating...... Temperature into Low Temperature. The building time constant for the extensive renovation is 86 hours which is double than a light building renovation and 53 hours higher than a non-renovated building. In the end of the paper is developed a formula which has the purpose to validate the results of virtual...... simulations. The relative percentage difference between the theoretical calculation and the virtual simulation results are between 2.5% and 17.5%....

  4. Review of US utility demand-side bidding programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, C.A.; Kito, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    In this study, we review utility experiences with demand-side management (DSM) bidding programs. Since 1987, about 35 US utilities have signed long-term contracts with developers of DSM resources (ie energy service companies and customers) to provide a quantity of demand and energy savings at specified prices. Total resource costs range between 5.4 and 8 cents/kWh for DSM bidding programs where complete information on program costs is available. Almost all DSM bidding programs have been cost-effective compared with the utility's own supply-side alternatives, although there is substantial disagreement regarding the value of these programs compared with the utility's own DSM programs. In most bidding programs, payments to bidders account for between 70 and 90% of total program costs. Variation in winning bid prices is influenced primarily by DSM bid ceiling prices, differences in the mix of measures and markets targeted by developers, and the degree of performance risk borne by the DSM developer. Bids targeting residential customers averaged 6.2 cents/kWh compared with about 5.0 cents/kWh for commercial/industrial bids. We also compared the costs of acquiring lighting savings in DSM bidding contracts with a sample of 20 utility sponsored commercial/industrial lighting programs. We found that, on average total resource costs were slightly higher in bidding programs (6.1 vs 5.6 cents/kWh), although ratepayers bear significantly less performance risk in bidding programs compared with traditional utility-sponsored DSM programs. (author)

  5. Marketing Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilke, Ricky

    2012-01-01

    Book review of: Christian Homburg, Sabine Kuester, Harley Krohmer, Marketing Management – A Contemporary Perspective, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009......Book review of: Christian Homburg, Sabine Kuester, Harley Krohmer, Marketing Management – A Contemporary Perspective, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009...

  6. Linking promotion strategies for RES-E and for demand-side conservation in a dynamic European electricity market: Lessons from the EU projects OPTRES, FORRES and GREEN-X. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, Thomas; Resch, Gustav; Haas, Reinhard; Huber, Claus; Ragwitz, Mario

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the derivation of least-cost strategies for an significant increase of electricity generation from renewables (RES-E) with minimal costs for European citizens and to investigate the role of accompanying demand-side conservation (DSC) activities. The analyses are conducted by using the model GREEN-X funded by the EC. It allows analyses for both, the EU as a whole as well as for every single member state. Within the model the most important RES-E (e.g. biomass, wind-onshore and off-shore, geothermal, PV, solar thermal ...) technologies are described for every EU-15 country by means of dynamic cost-resource curves. Demand-side conservation measures are considered by aggregated cost-resource curves. To analyse various scenarios different policy schemes can be selected, (e.g. feed-in tariffs, tendering systems, investment subsidies, tax incentives, quotas, tradable certificates) and modelled in a dynamic framework. The corresponding costs and benefits for companies and consumers are an output.The major result is that DSC plays an important role for increasing the share of RES-E. E.g. the same deployment of RES in a conservation scenario leads to 28 % of RES-E by 2020 while in the BAU-scenario this share is only 20 %. Moreover, a certain quota of RES - e.g. 20 % - can be reached much cheaper if a certain share of money is invested in DSC. The core conclusion of this analysis is: On EU level it is of superior importance to introduce integrated policies - policies focusing on the promotion of RES and on energy conservation simultaneously - to reap the utmost benefits from public money invested

  7. Deep Neural Network Based Demand Side Short Term Load Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghyoung Ryu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the smart grid, one of the most important research areas is load forecasting; it spans from traditional time series analyses to recent machine learning approaches and mostly focuses on forecasting aggregated electricity consumption. However, the importance of demand side energy management, including individual load forecasting, is becoming critical. In this paper, we propose deep neural network (DNN-based load forecasting models and apply them to a demand side empirical load database. DNNs are trained in two different ways: a pre-training restricted Boltzmann machine and using the rectified linear unit without pre-training. DNN forecasting models are trained by individual customer’s electricity consumption data and regional meteorological elements. To verify the performance of DNNs, forecasting results are compared with a shallow neural network (SNN, a double seasonal Holt–Winters (DSHW model and the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA. The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE and relative root mean square error (RRMSE are used for verification. Our results show that DNNs exhibit accurate and robust predictions compared to other forecasting models, e.g., MAPE and RRMSE are reduced by up to 17% and 22% compared to SNN and 9% and 29% compared to DSHW.

  8. Marketing demand management in the commercial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    Ontario Hydro has a marketing strategy for designing and implementing demand side management (DSM) programs, which marks a turnaround from previous years when marketing efforts were concentrated on selling electricity. Starting in the 1980s, marketing activities consisted, in effect, of coordinating relations between the customer, the market, and the utility. To achieve a better understanding of the needs of customers, the nature of the energy market, and the utilization of energy, the utility conducted research on the decision-making process associated with consumer choices of energy systems. To develop relations with its clientele in the commercial sector, the utility published an information bulletin and prepared an energy guide. Along with this initiative, the number of energy advisers to the commercial sector was increased in Ontario Hydro's regional offices. To improve understanding of each segment of the commercial market, the utility contacted organizations representing each segment as well as broader based organizations with the objective of creating opportunities to address this market, for example at conferences. Because of this philosophy of satisfying and understanding customer needs, Ontario Hydro has been in the process of commercializing demand-side management. Its high-efficiency lighting program is a good example in this regard. From a strategy which focused on a simple reduction in lighting in the 1970s, the utility has turned toward promoting efficient high-quality lighting which better responds to industry needs, to the point where industry itself has begun to promote the program. Such a strategy benefits industry, customers, and Ontario Hydro's demand-side management programs

  9. Towards demand-side solutions for mitigating climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutzig, Felix; Roy, Joyashree; Lamb, William F.; Azevedo, Inês M. L.; Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Dalkmann, Holger; Edelenbosch, Oreane Y.; Geels, Frank W.; Grubler, Arnulf; Hepburn, Cameron; Hertwich, Edgar G.; Khosla, Radhika; Mattauch, Linus; Minx, Jan C.; Ramakrishnan, Anjali; Rao, Narasimha D.; Steinberger, Julia K.; Tavoni, Massimo; Ürge-Vorsatz, Diana; Weber, Elke U.

    2018-04-01

    Research on climate change mitigation tends to focus on supply-side technology solutions. A better understanding of demand-side solutions is missing. We propose a transdisciplinary approach to identify demand-side climate solutions, investigate their mitigation potential, detail policy measures and assess their implications for well-being.

  10. Smart grid dispatch strategy for on/off demand-side devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom S.

    2013-01-01

    We consider an aggregator managing a portfolio of runtime and downtime constrained ON/OFF demand-side devices. The devices are able to shift consumption in time within certain energy limitations. We show how the aggregator can manage the portfolio of devices to collectively provide upward...

  11. Demand-Side Flexibility for Energy Transitions: Policy Recommendations for Developing Demand Response

    OpenAIRE

    Nursimulu, Anjali; Florin, Marie-Valentine; Vuille, François

    2016-01-01

    As a follow-up to IRGC's report on demand-side flexibility for energy transitions, this Policy Brief highlights that increasing flexibility in power systems is needed to accommodate higher shares of non-controllable and intermittent renewable generation, and that this requires changes to the market design and regulatory framework, to facilitate the development and deployment of appropriate technologies and market-based instruments (e.g. taxes and subsidies). The Policy Brief focuses on demand...

  12. Demand side integration aspects in active distribution planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvestro, Federico; Baitch, Alex; Pilo, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    will be implemented in practice? How will regulatory frameworks and connection agreements evolve to support ADSs? The present work provides some information about the closer and closer integration between network planning and Demand Side Integration that is foreseen in the future and shows the necessity to develop...

  13. A scoping study: demand side measures on the UK electrical system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The study is intended to eventually bring about a number of improvements in the UK electrical system, particularly in regard to Demand Side Management (DSM). Among the benefits envisaged are (a) increased security of supply when the network is under stress; (b) reduction in costs; (c) simpler outage management; (d) carbon saving and (e) increased energy efficiency. So far, these potential benefits have attracted little attention in the residential and small business sectors of the market: suggested reasons for this are listed. Taking into account the experience of other countries, three options are presented for a UK DSM programme: they are (i) customer initiated; (ii) supplier initiated and (iii) distributor initiated. At present, all the suggested options need further study and to aid the development for small customers, five possible initiatives are suggested. This final report (95 pages) includes a detailed description of the research required and a tender process for a customer-initiated programme. The report was prepared by KEMA Limited under contract to the DTI.

  14. A scoping study: demand side measures on the UK electrical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The study is intended to eventually bring about a number of improvements in the UK electrical system, particularly in regard to Demand Side Management (DSM). Among the benefits envisaged are (a) increased security of supply when the network is under stress; (b) reduction in costs; (c) simpler outage management; (d) carbon saving and (e) increased energy efficiency. So far, these potential benefits have attracted little attention in the residential and small business sectors of the market: suggested reasons for this are listed. Taking into account the experience of other countries, three options are presented for a UK DSM programme: they are (i) customer initiated; (ii) supplier initiated and (iii) distributor initiated. At present, all the suggested options need further study and to aid the development for small customers, five possible initiatives are suggested. This final report (95 pages) includes a detailed description of the research required and a tender process for a customer-initiated programme. The report was prepared by KEMA Limited under contract to the DTI

  15. Destination Marketing and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Kocková, Jitka

    2009-01-01

    Work presents the theoretical aspects of destination management and marketing. It defines the destination management and sustainable development of tourism. The work is applied to destination management and destination marketing in region Sokolovsko. For this destiaci is proposed marketing strategy and marketing mix.

  16. Demand-side financing measures to increase maternal health service utilisation and improve health outcomes: a systematic review of evidence from low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Susan F; Hunter, Benjamin M; Bisht, Ramila; Ensor, Tim; Bick, Debra

    2012-01-01

    In many countries financing for health services has traditionally been disbursed directly from governmental and non-governmental funding agencies to providers of services: the 'supply-side' of healthcare markets. Demand-side financing offers a supplementary model in which some funds are instead channelled through, or to, prospective users. In this review we considered evidence on five forms of demand-side financing that have been used to promote maternal health in developing countries: OBJECTIVES: The overall review objective was to assess the effects of demand-side financing interventions on maternal health service utilisation and on maternal health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. Broader effects on perinatal and infant health, the situation of underprivileged women and the health care system were also assessed. This review considered poor, rural or socially excluded women of all ages who were either pregnant or within 42 days of the conclusion of pregnancy, the limit for postnatal care as defined by the World Health Organization. The review also considered the providers of services.The intervention of interest was any programme that incorporated demand-side financing as a mechanism to increase the consumption of goods and services that could impact on maternal health outcomes. This included the direct consumption of maternal health care goods and services as well as related 'merit goods' such as improved nutrition. We included systems in which potential users of maternal health services are financially empowered to make restricted decisions on buying maternal health-related goods or services - sometimes known as consumer-led demand-side financing. We also included programmes that provided unconditional cash benefits to pregnant women (for example in the form of maternity allowances), or to families with children under five years of age where there was evidence concerning maternal health outcomes.We aimed to include quantitative studies (experimental

  17. The past, present, and future of U.S. utility demand side management programs; Passe, present et avenir des programmes americains de matrise de la demande d`electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

    1996-12-31

    US utility DSM programs have been a highly successful regulatory approach for overcoming shortcomings in the markets for energy services. The foundation for this unique partnership between governmental and utility interests can be traced first to the private-ownership structure of this vertically integrated industry and second to the monopoly franchises granted to it by U.S. state regulators. U.S. electricity industry restructuring calls into question both of these basic conditions, and thus the future of utility DSM programs. This paper describes the range and history of DSM programs offered by U.S. electric utilities, with a focus on the political, economic, and regulatory events that have shaped their evolution. For the future, we expect DSM programs to continue on two parallel paths reflecting both the changing business interests of electric utilities in a restructured industry as well as the continuing public interest in the environmental consequences of electricity generation. (author)

  18. Ex-post evaluation of local energy efficiency and demand-side management operations - State of the art, bottom-up methods, applied examples and approach for the development of an evaluation practical culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broc, J.S.

    2006-12-01

    Energy end-use Efficiency (EE) is a priority for energy policies to face resources exhaustion and to reduce pollutant emissions. At the same time, in France, local level is increasingly involved into the implementation of EE activities, whose frame is changing (energy market liberalization, new policy instruments). Needs for ex-post evaluation of the local EE activities are thus increasing, for regulation requirements and to support a necessary change of scale. Our thesis focuses on the original issue of the ex-post evaluation of local EE operations in France. The state of the art, through the analysis of the American and European experiences and of the reference guidebooks, gives a substantial methodological material and emphasises the key evaluation issues. Concurrently, local EE operations in France are characterized by an analysis of their environment and a work on their segmentation criteria. The combination of these criteria with the key evaluation issues provides an analysis framework used as the basis for the composition of evaluation methods. This also highlights the specific evaluation needs for local operations. A methodology is then developed to complete and adapt the existing material to design evaluation methods for local operations, so that stakeholders can easily appropriate. Evaluation results thus feed a know-how building process with experience feedback. These methods are to meet two main goals: to determine the operation results, and to detect the success/failure factors. The methodology was validated on concrete cases, where these objectives were reached. (author)

  19. Evaluation of flexible demand-side load-following reserves in power systems with high wind generation penetration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paterakis, N.G.; Catalao, J.P.S.; Ntomaris, A.V.; Erdinc, O.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a two-stage stochastic programming joint energy and reserve day-ahead market structure is proposed in order to procure the required load-following reserves to tackle with wind power production uncertainty. Reserves can be procured both from generation and demand-side. Responsive

  20. Marketing and Library Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kurt R.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the role of marketing in the management of libraries. The role of public relations (PR) in the total marketing concept is discussed, surveys that have explored PR efforts in academic and public libraries are described, and changes affecting libraries that marketing efforts could help to manage are discussed. (seven references) (LRW)

  1. Cascaded column generation for scalable predictive demand side management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toersche, Hermen; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2014-01-01

    We propose a nested Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition, combined with dynamic programming, for the distributed scheduling of a large heterogeneous fleet of residential appliances with nonlinear behavior. A cascaded column generation approach gives a scalable optimization strategy, provided that the problem

  2. Demand side load management using a three step optimization methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Vincent; Bosman, M.G.C.; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2010-01-01

    In order to keep a proper functional electricity grid and to prevent large investments in the current grid, the creation, transmission and consumption of electricity needs to be controlled and organized in a different way as done nowadays. Smart meters, distributed generation and -storage and demand

  3. Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems for Demand-Side Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Rasmussen, Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Modeling of supermarket refrigeration systems for supervisory control in the smart grid is presented in this paper. A modular modeling approach is proposed in which each module is modeled and identified separately. The focus of the work is on estimating the power consumption of the system while...

  4. Demand-side management: reflections of an irreverant regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes methods of introducing energy conservation as an alternative to additional generation. Such strategies should be followed if conservation costs less than generation. However, many existing utility conservation programmes have not succeeded because they have increased utility costs while reducing utility sales thus resulting in reduced utility profits. Such programmes have also provided inequities for consumers. The paper compares a traditional conservation programme with an innovative program where utilities are able to charge consumers for energy saved as a result of utility conservation investment. This innovative programme eliminates many of the problems associated with the traditional programmes. 4 tabs

  5. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  6. Design of demand side response model in energy internet demonstration park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Liu, D. N.

    2017-08-01

    The implementation of demand side response can bring a lot of benefits to the power system, users and society, but there are still many problems in the actual operation. Firstly, this paper analyses the current situation and problems of demand side response. On this basis, this paper analyses the advantages of implementing demand side response in the energy Internet demonstration park. Finally, the paper designs three kinds of feasible demand side response modes in the energy Internet demonstration park.

  7. Line managers as marketers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynne, T J

    1986-09-01

    Many hospital administrators and boards of directors, having overcome their initial opposition to advertising and hired a marketing professional, are wondering why their marketing programs have not accomplished all that they had hoped. The answer lies in their perception of who is responsible for marketing. Marketing is not a specialty separate from the disciplines of management--it is a basic management skill. Its goal is to satisfy the customer by providing products and services that meet the customer's needs, wants, and preferences. Line managers must understand the hospital's customers and make the critical day-to-day differences in satisfying them. They are the hospital's front-line marketers, and the marketing department's role is to support them in this function. The marketing department should develop the line managers' marketing skills by furnishing them with the appropriate tools: formats, models, examples, and instructions. In addition, the marketing staff should provide such specialized services as marketing research, ad agency management, and development of communications.

  8. Supply-side and demand-side policies for biosimilars: an overview in 10 European member states

    OpenAIRE

    R?muzat, C?cile; Kapu?niak, Anna; Caban, Aleksandra; Ionescu, Dan; Radi?re, Guerric; Mendoza, Cyril; Toumi, Mondher

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to provide an overview of biosimilar?policies in 10 EU MSs. Methods: Ten EU MS pharmaceutical markets (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the UK) were selected. A comprehensive literature review?was performed to identify supply-side and demand-side policies in place in the selected countries. Results: Supply-side policies for biosimilars commonly include price linkage, price re-evaluation, and tendering; the use of...

  9. Impact of Demand Side Response on a Commercial Retail Refrigeration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M. Saleh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The UK National Grid has placed increased emphasis on the development of Demand Side Response (DSR tariff mechanisms to manage load at peak times. Refrigeration systems, along with HVAC, are estimated to consume 14% of the UK’s electricity and could have a significant role for DSR application. However, characterized by relatively low individual electrical loads and massive asset numbers, multiple low power refrigerators need aggregation for inclusion in these tariffs. In this paper, the impact of the Demand Side Response (DSR control mechanisms on food retailing refrigeration systems is investigated. The experiments are conducted in a test-rig built to resemble a typical small supermarket store. The paper demonstrates how the temperature and pressure profiles of the system, the active power and the drawn current of the compressors are affected following a rapid shut down and subsequent return to normal operation as a response to a DSR event. Moreover, risks and challenges associated with primary and secondary Firm Frequency Response (FFR mechanisms, where the load is rapidly shed at high speed in response to changes in grid frequency, is considered. For instance, measurements are included that show a significant increase in peak inrush currents of approx. 30% when the system returns to normal operation at the end of a DSR event. Consideration of how high inrush currents after a DSR event can produce voltage fluctuations of the supply and we assess risks to the local power supply system.

  10. MARKETING PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Gacsi, Roland; Zeman, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, it has become essential for business managers to have new ways of thinking in order to sustain performance and growth. There is an increased intensification of market competition. This tough “fight” to win customers resulted that marketing has an ever increasing place in businesses’ strategic and operational activities. Marketing is not quite understood at many companies which often rest upon the fact that it has been one of the least measurable function in a business. Theref...

  11. Can demand-side policies stop the tobacco industry's damage? Lessons from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin-Karakas, Derya

    2015-01-01

    Trade and investment liberalisation in the post-1980 period allowed the penetration of transnational tobacco companies into the Turkish market. State control over the market was gradually removed and tobacco farming, manufacturing, trade and consumption were reshaped in line with the needs of transnational tobacco companies. The resultant increase in product proliferation and aggressive marketing strategies led to a dramatic rise in cigarette consumption in the 1990s, making Turkey a market with one of the sharpest consumption increases in the world. While Turkey implemented demand-side tobacco control policies to reduce consumption after 1996, it continued to stimulate manufacturing and trade in a conflicting way. The Turkish case verifies that the liberalisation process facilitated by the state under the auspices of international institutions conflicts with tobacco control. Liberalisation paves the way for market expansions of transnational tobacco companies that resist tobacco control in their drive for profit. Current global tobacco control policies, with no interest in controlling manufacturing, have limited effect on consumption. The Turkish case indicates the necessity of establishing public control over tobacco manufacturing and trade from a public health perspective.

  12. Marketing Management and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book gives readers an understanding of the factors that shape the marketing decisions of managers who operate in African economies. It brings together fifteen African cases written by scholars and executives with rich knowledge of business practices in Africa. By combining theoretical insights...... undergraduate and graduate students in marketing, international strategy and international business who require an understanding of African business...... with practical information from the cases, the reader is introduced to issues relating to marketing strategy formulation, managerial actions in designing and implementing marketing decisions, as well as the operational contexts within which these actions are taken. The book is essential reading for both...

  13. The demand-side innovation policies in the context of small EU member country. Nõudluspoolsed innovatsioonipoliitikad Euroopa Liidu väikese liikmesriigi kontekstis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tõnu Roolaht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Demand-side innovation policies, in the form of regulations, public procurement, subsidies for private demand, and other measures, are often viewed as valuable additions to more traditional supply-side policies. The demand-side innovation policies should enable to facilitate the emergence of vital and sustainable links between innovation outputs and various markets. However, without sufficient institutional framework and policy experiences such measures could also contribute to new market distortions or crowding-out effects, which do not facilitate sustainable growth in innovations. The charting of possible risks of such policies should help to outline the criteria for aiming at sustainable effects. The purpose of this contribution is to offer suggestions about preconditions and policy characteristics, which should help to avoid the misuse of demand-side measures and facilitate the sustainability of desired changes in society. It is predominantly conceptual contribution but draws also extensively on case evidence about the effects of relevant policies and their discontinuation

  14. Strategic Demand-Side Response to Wind Power Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraeepour, Ali; Kazempour, Seyyedjalal; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of allowing large, price-responsive consumers to provide reserves in a power system with significant penetration of wind energy. A bilevel optimization model represents the utility maximization problem of a large consumer, subject to a stochastic day-ahead co......-optimization of energy and reserves that a system operator would solve to clear the market while considering wind power uncertainty. An examination of the market outcomes from both an illustrative and a large-scale study using this model allows analysis of a) the effects of the type of behavior of the large consumer (i...

  15. ADVERTISING AGENCY MARKETING MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Kislov, Yevgenia Horobei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the paper. The goal of this article is to define the nature, specific features and factors pertaining to the advertising agency marketing management. One of the tools is the use of non-standard approaches to management of advertising agencies, which under certain conditions makes it possible to improve the situation and to bring the agency to a new higher level as well as to improve the efficiency of its functioning in the conditions of transformational economy of Ukraine. Methodology. Monitoring of the marketing behavior of agencies that promote advertising services. The results of monitoring and analysis demonstrated that the majority of agencies have a disorganized approach to the agency marketing, which results in sporadic activities related to the use and organization of agency marketing. Only individual agencies begin to form their own marketing strategy for the implementation of which marketing budgets are allocated. The main marketing functions of a Ukrainian advertising agency have been identified. Practical value. Rapid development of technologies, sophistication and increased variety of goods and services, reduction of their life cycle, higher customer demands, the growth of volume and speed of obtaining information, increased competition – all these changes that are taking place in the external environment make the Ukrainian companies that provide advertising services search for new approaches to ensure better adaptation to these conditions. Uncertainty, unpredictability and instability of the external environment will continue to grow. Therefore, the companies that provide advertising services need to constantly adapt not only to the existing conditions but also ensure that they are able to quickly react in the future. The basic precondition for success is stability of the quality that is achieved through strategic planning, fine-tuned search system, efficient management, which encourages creation of a position of quality

  16. Supply-side and demand-side policies for biosimilars: an overview in 10 European member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Kapuśniak, Anna; Caban, Aleksandra; Ionescu, Dan; Radière, Guerric; Mendoza, Cyril; Toumi, Mondher

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to provide an overview of biosimilar policies in 10 EU MSs. Methods : Ten EU MS pharmaceutical markets (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the UK) were selected. A comprehensive literature review was performed to identify supply-side and demand-side policies in place in the selected countries. Results : Supply-side policies for biosimilars commonly include price linkage, price re-evaluation, and tendering; the use of internal or external reference pricing varies between countries; health technology assessment is conducted in six countries. Regarding demand-side policies, pharmaceutical prescription budgets or quotas and monitoring of prescriptions (with potential financial incentives or penalties) are in place in eight and in seven countries respectively. Switching is generally allowed, but is solely the physician's responsibility. Automatic substitution is not recommended, or even forbidden, in most EU MSs. Prescription conditions or guidelines that apply to biosimilars are established in nearly all surveyed EU MSs. Conclusions : Important heterogeneity in policies on biosimilars was seen between (and even within) selected countries, which may partly explain variations in biosimilar uptake. Supply-side policies targeting price have been reported to limit biosimilar penetration in the long term, despite short-term savings, while demand-side policies are considered to positively impact uptake.

  17. Supply-side and demand-side policies for biosimilars: an overview in 10 European member states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Kapuśniak, Anna; Caban, Aleksandra; Ionescu, Dan; Radière, Guerric; Mendoza, Cyril; Toumi, Mondher

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This study aimed to provide an overview of biosimilar policies in 10 EU MSs. Methods: Ten EU MS pharmaceutical markets (Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the UK) were selected. A comprehensive literature review was performed to identify supply-side and demand-side policies in place in the selected countries. Results: Supply-side policies for biosimilars commonly include price linkage, price re-evaluation, and tendering; the use of internal or external reference pricing varies between countries; health technology assessment is conducted in six countries. Regarding demand-side policies, pharmaceutical prescription budgets or quotas and monitoring of prescriptions (with potential financial incentives or penalties) are in place in eight and in seven countries respectively. Switching is generally allowed, but is solely the physician’s responsibility. Automatic substitution is not recommended, or even forbidden, in most EU MSs. Prescription conditions or guidelines that apply to biosimilars are established in nearly all surveyed EU MSs. Conclusions: Important heterogeneity in policies on biosimilars was seen between (and even within) selected countries, which may partly explain variations in biosimilar uptake. Supply-side policies targeting price have been reported to limit biosimilar penetration in the long term, despite short-term savings, while demand-side policies are considered to positively impact uptake. PMID:28740617

  18. Competition Leverage : How the Demand Side Affects Optimal Risk Adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, M.; Boone, J.; Zwart, Gijsbert

    2011-01-01

    We study optimal risk adjustment in imperfectly competitive health insurance markets when high-risk consumers are less likely to switch insurer than low-risk consumers. First, we find that insurers still have an incentive to select even if risk adjustment perfectly corrects for cost differences

  19. Integrating Demand-Side Resources into the Electric Grid: Economic and Environmental Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Michael J.

    Demand-side resources are taking an increasingly prominent role in providing essential grid services once provided by thermal power plants. This thesis considers the economic feasibility and environmental effects of integrating demand-side resources into the electric grid with consideration given to the diversity of market and environmental conditions that can affect their behavior. Chapter 2 explores the private economics and system-level carbon dioxide reduction when using demand response for spinning reserve. Steady end uses like lighting are more than twice as profitable as seasonal end uses because spinning reserve is needed year-round. Avoided carbon emission damages from using demand response instead of fossil fuel generation for spinning reserve are sufficient to justify incentives for demand response resources. Chapter 3 quantifies the system-level net emissions rate and private economics of behind-the-meter energy storage. Net emission rates are lower than marginal emission rates for power plants and in-line with estimates of net emission rates from grid-level storage. The economics are favorable for many buildings in regions with high demand charges like California and New York, even without subsidies. Future penetration into regions with average charges like Pennsylvania will depend greatly on installation cost reductions and wholesale prices for ancillary services. Chapter 4 outlines a novel econometric model to quantify potential revenues from energy storage that reduces demand charges. The model is based on a novel predictive metric that is derived from the building's load profile. Normalized revenue estimates are independent of the power capacity of the battery holding other performance characteristics equal, which can be used to calculate the profit-maximizing storage size. Chapter 5 analyzes the economic feasibility of flow batteries in the commercial and industrial market. Flow batteries at a 4-hour duration must be less expensive on a dollar per

  20. Winning end users active support to demand side response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osorio, Jose [Rede Electrica Nacional, S.A., Lisbon (Portugal); Estanqueiro, Ana [Laboratorio Nacional de Energia e Geologia (LNEG), Lisbon (Portugal)

    2012-07-01

    While objectives proposed for Smart Grids and Smart metering may seem to be able to win easily end user's supports, a considerable amount of studies on social behavior concerning energy efficiency and sustainability show the gap between the values people would like to fulfill and their real life performance. As TSOs envision here a source of System Ancillary Services, measures to make the source really dependable, so that an adequate market design may really work are pointed out. (orig.)

  1. ADVERTISING AGENCY MARKETING MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Kislov, Yevgenia Horobei

    2015-01-01

    Goal of the paper. The goal of this article is to define the nature, specific features and factors pertaining to the advertising agency marketing management. One of the tools is the use of non-standard approaches to management of advertising agencies, which under certain conditions makes it possible to improve the situation and to bring the agency to a new higher level as well as to improve the efficiency of its functioning in the conditions of transformational economy of Ukraine. Methodol...

  2. Demand side resource operation on the Irish power system with high wind power penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keane, A.; Tuohy, A.; Meibom, P.; Denny, E.; Flynn, D.; Mullane, A.; O'Malley, M.

    2011-01-01

    The utilisation of demand side resources is set to increase over the coming years with the advent of advanced metering infrastructure, home area networks and the promotion of increased energy efficiency. Demand side resources are proposed as an energy resource that, through aggregation, can form part of the power system plant mix and contribute to the flexible operation of a power system. A model for demand side resources is proposed here that captures its key characteristics for commitment and dispatch calculations. The model is tested on the all island Irish power system, and the operation of the model is simulated over one year in both a stochastic and deterministic mode, to illustrate the impact of wind and load uncertainty. The results illustrate that demand side resources can contribute to the efficient, flexible operation of systems with high penetrations of wind by replacing some of the functions of conventional peaking plant. Demand side resources are also shown to be capable of improving the reliability of the system, with reserve capability identified as a key requirement in this respect. - Highlights: → Demand side resource model presented for use in unit commitment and dispatch calculations. → Benefits of demand side aggregation demonstrated specifically as a peaking unit and provider of reserve. → Potential to displace or defer construction of conventional peaking units.

  3. Directed graph based carbon flow tracing for demand side carbon obligation allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tao; Feng, Donghan; Ding, Teng

    2016-01-01

    In order to achieve carbon emission abatement, some researchers and policy makers have cast their focus on demand side carbon abatement potentials. This paper addresses the problem of carbon flow calculation in power systems and carbon obligation allocation at demand side. A directed graph based...... method for tracing carbon flow is proposed. In a lossy network, matrices such as carbon losses, net carbon intensity (NCI) and footprint carbon intensity (FCI) are obtained with the proposed method and used to allocate carbon obligation at demand side. Case studies based on realistic distribution...... and transmission systems are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method....

  4. Profitable marketing: marketing for non marketing managers. Ceuta Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Kilburn, David

    2005-01-01

    This workshop was conducted with 20 Managers from Ceuta Healthcare to raise their awareness of the power of marketing and give them a set of marketing tools to improve the success rate of their business development activities

  5. Buildings sector demand-side efficiency technology summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koomey, J.G.; Johnson, F.X.; Schuman, J. [and others

    1994-03-01

    This report provides descriptions of the following energy efficiency technologies: energy management systems; electronic fluorescent ballasts; compact fluorescent lamps; lighting controls; room air conditioners; high albedo materials, coatings and paints; solar domestic water heaters; heat pump water heaters; energy-efficient motors; adjustable-speed drives; energy-efficient refrigerators; daylight control glazing; insulating glazing; solar control glazing; switchable glazing; tree planting; and advanced insulation. For each technology, the report provides a description of performance characteristics, consumer utility, development status, technology standards, equipment cost, installation, maintenance, conservation programs, and environmental impacts.

  6. THE SPORT MARKETING MANAGEMENT MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sport marketing involves marketing fundamentals applied in one industry, the sport business industry. The development of sport marketing fundamentals is therefore based on basic marketing principles. The practice and activities of sport marketing are also based on basic marketing activities, but are modified and adapted to the sport business industry. Therefore, sport marketing is based on its primary and parent discipline - marketing. Sport marketing is one of the most important functions of a sport business. This is because the sport marketing activities will define the business. The growth of the sport industry is phenomenal and shows no signs of slowing. Also, sport marketing is a process. A process is a continuous cycle. Therefore, marketing is a function that never ends. The sport marketing management model is an illustration of the elements and process of sport marketing. It should serve as a guide for managing the company’s marketing functions. The model illustrates the elements of marketing, the succession of elements and functions, the process of managing, and the interdependence of the elements This paper presents an overview of the model, sport marketing management, each element and the process.

  7. Methodology for the analysis and characterization of the demand side energy resources; Metodologia para analise e caracterizacao dos recursos energeticos do lado da demanda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baitelo, Ricardo Lacerda; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia; Burani, Geraldo Francisco; Grimoni, Jose Aquiles Baesso [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Energia e Eletrotecnica

    2006-07-01

    This abstract aims at describing briefly a model for the assessment of demand side energy resources This model intends to comprehend every kind of action and measure related to demand side management and energy conservation, evaluating them in a holistic way, into four dimensions: technical-economical, environmental, social and political. Different aspects regarding the resources are also accounted, such as energetic potentials (theoretical, accomplishable and economic). At last, scenarios concerning the introduction of evaluated resources through a period of time are elaborated. (author)

  8. Addressing maternal healthcare through demand side financial incentives: experience of Janani Suraksha Yojana program in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Saji S; Durairaj, Varatharajan

    2012-09-15

    Demand side financing (DSF) is a widely employed strategy to enhance utilization of healthcare. The impact of DSF on health care seeking in general and that of maternal care in particular is already known. Yet, its effect on financial access to care, out-of-pocket spending (OOPS) and provider motivations is not considerably established. Without such evidence, DSFs may not be recommendable to build up any sustainable healthcare delivery approach. This study explores the above aspects on India's Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) program. This study employed design and was conducted in three districts of Orissa, selected through a three-stage stratified sampling. The quantitative method was used to review the Health Management Information System (HMIS). The qualitative methods included focus groups discussions with beneficiaries (n = 19) and community intermediaries (n = 9), and interviews (n = 7) with Ministry of Health officials. HMIS data enabled to review maternal healthcare utilization. Group discussions and interviews explored the perceived impact of JSY on in-facility delivery, OOPS, healthcare costs, quality of care and performance motivation of community health workers. The number of institutional deliveries, ante-and post-natal care visits increased after the introduction of JSY with an annual net growth of 18.1%, 3.6% and 5% respectively. The financial incentive provided partial financial risk-protection as it could cover only 25.5% of the maternal healthcare cost of the beneficiaries in rural areas and 14.3% in urban areas. The incentive induced fresh out-of-pocket spending for some mothers and it could not address maternal care requirements comprehensively. An activity-based community worker model was encouraging to augment maternal healthcare consumption. However, the existing level of financial incentives and systemic support were inadequate to motivate the volunteers optimally on their performance. Demand side financial incentive could enhance financial

  9. Addressing maternal healthcare through demand side financial incentives: experience of Janani Suraksha Yojana program in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopalan Saji S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Demand side financing (DSF is a widely employed strategy to enhance utilization of healthcare. The impact of DSF on health care seeking in general and that of maternal care in particular is already known. Yet, its effect on financial access to care, out-of-pocket spending (OOPS and provider motivations is not considerably established. Without such evidence, DSFs may not be recommendable to build up any sustainable healthcare delivery approach. This study explores the above aspects on India’s Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY program. Methods This study employed design and was conducted in three districts of Orissa, selected through a three-stage stratified sampling. The quantitative method was used to review the Health Management Information System (HMIS. The qualitative methods included focus groups discussions with beneficiaries (n = 19 and community intermediaries (n = 9, and interviews (n = 7 with Ministry of Health officials. HMIS data enabled to review maternal healthcare utilization. Group discussions and interviews explored the perceived impact of JSY on in-facility delivery, OOPS, healthcare costs, quality of care and performance motivation of community health workers. Results The number of institutional deliveries, ante-and post-natal care visits increased after the introduction of JSY with an annual net growth of 18.1%, 3.6% and 5% respectively. The financial incentive provided partial financial risk-protection as it could cover only 25.5% of the maternal healthcare cost of the beneficiaries in rural areas and 14.3% in urban areas. The incentive induced fresh out-of-pocket spending for some mothers and it could not address maternal care requirements comprehensively. An activity-based community worker model was encouraging to augment maternal healthcare consumption. However, the existing level of financial incentives and systemic support were inadequate to motivate the volunteers optimally on their

  10. Implementation of Demand Side Flexibility from the perspective of Europe’s Energy Directives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edelenbos, Edwin; Togeby, Mikael; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    . Grid operators may provide customers with grid related signals to manage congestion or to keep the frequency of the network stable. Price signals from the market can come from the wholesale market, e.g. day-ahead or intra-day markets. Suppliers or other commercial parties (such as aggregators...

  11. The electric energy demand-side planning: necessity and possibilities of execution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sposito, E.S.

    1991-05-01

    Aiming at reducing the level of investments, is presented a demand-side planning approach, divided into two parts. The first part is an analysis on the actual need of our demand-side approaching. In view of this, is showed a set of data and comments both on economic and technological aspects concerning the electric network and sector, as well as evaluation of the social, ecological and financial aspects which could act against the full expansion of the electric system. In the second part, a demand-side planning methodology is introduced, as well as its main concepts, its variables and its instruments of affecting the demand: energy conservation, replacement of sources, reduction of losses and electric power decentralized generation. Each of them is fully detailed in a set of planning policies and actions. Concluding is presented the basic elements of a National Electric Energy Substitution and Conservation Plan - PLANSCON. (author)

  12. Demand side resource operation on the Irish power system with high wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keane, A.; Tuohy, A.; Meibom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    part of the power system plant mix and contribute to the flexible operation of a power system. A model for demand side resources is proposed here that captures its key characteristics for commitment and dispatch calculations. The model is tested on the all island Irish power system, and the operation...... of the functions of conventional peaking plant. Demand side resources are also shown to be capable of improving the reliability of the system, with reserve capability identified as a key requirement in this respect....... of the model is simulated over one year in both a stochastic and deterministic mode, to illustrate the impact of wind and load uncertainty. The results illustrate that demand side resources can contribute to the efficient, flexible operation of systems with high penetrations of wind by replacing some...

  13. Demand-side bidding in Brazil; Leilao de eficiencia energetica no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Agenor Gomes Pinto

    2008-01-15

    Since the New Electric Sector Model's conception an energy-efficiency auction, like the ones used to buy new energy, was considered. Recently, the subject has been frequently commented in studies and meetings. This thesis discuss the main issues about its implementation in Brazil and proposes a model for this. The first chapter shows the history and the Electric Sector actual frame, with emphasis in the energy planning, resumed after the 2001 electricity shortage, the structure created for the system expansion and analyses the results of the new energy's auctions until now. The second chapter studies how the energy-efficiency auction can affect agents and consumers and presents the auction theory, which is growing fast in recent years, and how it can be applied to the present case, showing the possible agents' behavior - ESCOs, larger consumers and appliance manufacturers, and its implication on the auction shape. The third chapter shows the past world experience in energy-efficiency selling - the USA DSB (demand-side bidding) and its actual results and an IEA (International Energy Agency) study about this market mechanism of energy-efficiency promotion. 'The DSB works but it's not simple' (Geller, 2006) sums up the main conclusion about DSB - it develops the M and V techniques and the ESCO industry, making energy-efficiency as good as new generation for system's growing. The fourth chapter presents a proposal for the energy-efficiency auction's implementation in Brazil - its opportunity, resources source, regional aspects and the steps to get there. The fifth chapter analyses the M and V 's techniques and shows examples of the four options for projects - the M and V is essential for the auction success and its development, on the other hand, can leverage the energy-efficiency market in Brazil. Finally, the last chapter concludes that the energy-efficiency auction can make a great contribution for energy efficiency and energy planning, but it can't be the only

  14. Demand-side bidding in Brazil; Leilao de eficiencia energetica no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Agenor Gomes Pinto

    2008-01-15

    Since the New Electric Sector Model's conception an energy-efficiency auction, like the ones used to buy new energy, was considered. Recently, the subject has been frequently commented in studies and meetings. This thesis discuss the main issues about its implementation in Brazil and proposes a model for this. The first chapter shows the history and the Electric Sector actual frame, with emphasis in the energy planning, resumed after the 2001 electricity shortage, the structure created for the system expansion and analyses the results of the new energy's auctions until now. The second chapter studies how the energy-efficiency auction can affect agents and consumers and presents the auction theory, which is growing fast in recent years, and how it can be applied to the present case, showing the possible agents' behavior - ESCOs, larger consumers and appliance manufacturers, and its implication on the auction shape. The third chapter shows the past world experience in energy-efficiency selling - the USA DSB (demand-side bidding) and its actual results and an IEA (International Energy Agency) study about this market mechanism of energy-efficiency promotion. 'The DSB works but it's not simple' (Geller, 2006) sums up the main conclusion about DSB - it develops the M and V techniques and the ESCO industry, making energy-efficiency as good as new generation for system's growing. The fourth chapter presents a proposal for the energy-efficiency auction's implementation in Brazil - its opportunity, resources source, regional aspects and the steps to get there. The fifth chapter analyses the M and V 's techniques and shows examples of the four options for projects - the M and V is essential for the auction success and its development, on the other hand, can leverage the energy-efficiency market in Brazil. Finally, the last chapter concludes that the energy-efficiency auction can make a great contribution for energy efficiency and

  15. Marketing management : De essentie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotler, P.J.; Keller, K.; Robben, H.S.J.

    2010-01-01

    'Marketingmanagement, de essentie' biedt een volledige introductie in modern marketingmanagement. De nieuwste concepten en onderzoeksresultaten komen aan bod. Zo wordt veel aandacht besteed aan holistische marketing en is de impact van technologische ontwikkelingen op hedendaagse marketing in deze

  16. Demonstrating a small utility approach to demand-side program implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The US DOE awarded a grant to the Burlington Electric Department (B.E.D.) to test a demand-side management (DSM) demonstration program designed to quickly save a significant amount of power with little disruption to the utility's customers or its normal operations. B.E.D. is a small municipal utility located in northern Vermont, with a lengthy history of successful DSM involvement. In our grant application, we proposed to develop a replicable program and approach to DSM that might be useful to other small utilities and to write a report to enable such replication. We believe that this DSM program and/or individual program components are replicable. This report is designed to allow other utilities interested in DSM to replicate this program or specific program design features to meet their DSM goals. We also wanted to use the opportunity of this grant to test the waters of residential heating fuel-switching. We hoped to test the application of one fuel-switching technology, and to benefit from the lessons learned in developing a full-scale DSM program for this end- use. To this end the pilot effort has been very successful. In the pilot pressure we installed direct-vent gas fired space heaters sized as supplemental heating units in 44 residences heated solely by electric resistance heat. We installed the gas space heating units at no cost to the owners or residents. We surveyed participating customers. The results of those surveys are included in this report and preliminary estimates of winter peak capacity load reductions are also noted in this report.

  17. Demonstrating a small utility approach to demand-side program implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The US DOE awarded a grant to the Burlington Electric Department (B.E.D.) to test a demand-side management (DSM) demonstration program designed to quickly save a significant amount of power with little disruption to the utility's customers or its normal operations. B.E.D. is a small municipal utility located in northern Vermont, with a lengthy history of successful DSM involvement. In our grant application, we proposed to develop a replicable program and approach to DSM that might be useful to other small utilities and to write a report to enable such replication. We believe that this DSM program and/or individual program components are replicable. This report is designed to allow other utilities interested in DSM to replicate this program or specific program design features to meet their DSM goals. We also wanted to use the opportunity of this grant to test the waters of residential heating fuel-switching. We hoped to test the application of one fuel-switching technology, and to benefit from the lessons learned in developing a full-scale DSM program for this end- use. To this end the pilot effort has been very successful. In the pilot pressure we installed direct-vent gas fired space heaters sized as supplemental heating units in 44 residences heated solely by electric resistance heat. We installed the gas space heating units at no cost to the owners or residents. We surveyed participating customers. The results of those surveys are included in this report and preliminary estimates of winter peak capacity load reductions are also noted in this report

  18. Demand side management—A simulation of household behavior under variable prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottwalt, Sebastian; Ketter, Wolfgang; Block, Carsten; Collins, John; Weinhardt, Christof

    2011-01-01

    Within the next years, consumer households will be increasingly equipped with smart metering and intelligent appliances. These technologies are the basis for households to better monitor electricity consumption and to actively control loads in private homes. Demand side management (DSM) can be adopted to private households. We present a simulation model that generates household load profiles under flat tariffs and simulates changes in these profiles when households are equipped with smart appliances and face time-based electricity prices. We investigate the impact of smart appliances and variable prices on electricity bills of a household. We show that for households the savings from equipping them with smart appliances are moderate compared to the required investment. This finding is quite robust with respect to variation of tariff price spreads and to different types of appliance utilization patterns. Finally, our results indicate that electric utilities may face new demand peaks when day-ahead hourly prices are applied. However, a considerable amount of residential load is available for shifting, which is interesting for the utilities to balance demand and supply. - Highlights: ► Our model generates residential load profiles that are based on real world data. ► We simulate changes in load profiles when smart appliances and time-of-use tariffs are applied. ► The economic incentive for households to invest in smart appliances is low. ► Time-of-use tariffs create new, even higher peaks. ► Electric utilities have a large amount of the hourly load available for shifting.

  19. Strategic PSYOP Management: A Marketing Management Approach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sokoloski, Joseph A., III

    2005-01-01

    .... The opportunity derived from this study is to adapt principles of civilian marketing management to provide a framework and tools to develop PSYOP campaign management into a more efficient, target audience based mechanism.

  20. Electronic Health Records Prospects in Egypt: A Demand-Side Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Badran; Mona Farid

    2017-01-01

    The present study sheds light on the expected factors that would impact the Electronic Health Records (EHR) service in Egypt from the demand-side perspective, i.e. the health care consumer. This empirical study is motivated by the widespread use of EHR as a method of promoting health services globally, where it is considered as an efficiency enhancing, cost effective technology. Moreover, the healthcare sector in Egypt is gaining momentum, especially that the comprehensive healthcare and soci...

  1. Marketing Capability in Strategy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Distel, Andreas Philipp

    Following the call for a demand-side perspective of strategic management (e.g., Priem et al., 2012), a firm’s marketing capability, i.e. its ability to interact with down-stream stakeholders, becomes a pivotal element in explaining a firm’s competitiveness. While marketing capability is recognized...... in the strategic management literature as an important driver of firm performance, our review of 86 articles reveals a lack of a generally accepted definition of marketing capability, a lack of a common conceptualization as well as differences in the measurement of marketing capability. In order to build a common...... ground for advancing marketing capability research and thus supporting the demand-side perspective in strategic management, we develop an integrative framework to explain the differences and propose a research agenda for developing the field....

  2. A socio-technical investigation of the smart grid: Implications for demand-side activities of electricity service providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Jacqueline Marie

    Enabled by advanced communication and information technologies, the smart grid represents a major transformation for the electricity sector. Vast quantities of data and two-way communications abilities create the potential for a flexible, data-driven, multi-directional supply and consumption network well equipped to meet the challenges of the next century. For electricity service providers ("utilities"), the smart grid provides opportunities for improved business practices and new business models; however, a transformation of such magnitude is not without risks. Three related studies are conducted to explore the implications of the smart grid on utilities' demand-side activities. An initial conceptual framework, based on organizational information processing theory, suggests that utilities' performance depends on the fit between the information processing requirements and capacities associated with a given demand-side activity. Using secondary data and multiple regression analyses, the first study finds, consistent with OIPT, a positive relationship between utilities' advanced meter deployments and demand-side management performance. However, it also finds that meters with only data collection capacities are associated with lower performance, suggesting the presence of information waste causing operational inefficiencies. In the second study, interviews with industry participants provide partial support for the initial conceptual model, new insights are gained with respect to information processing fit and information waste, and "big data" is identified as a central theme of the smart grid. To derive richer theoretical insights, the third study employs a grounded theory approach examining the experience of one successful utility in detail. Based on interviews and documentary data, the paradox of dynamic stability emerges as an essential enabler of utilities' performance in the smart grid environment. Within this context, the frames of opportunity, control, and data

  3. Effectiveness of marketing in management marketing activity agricultural companies

    OpenAIRE

    KUCHER O.

    2012-01-01

    Modern approaches to evaluating the effectiveness of marketing activity are investigated. The influence of marketing expenses on actualization volume of output is analyzed. A methodical approach of defining economic efficiency in marketing sales in management business is offered.

  4. Product management in green markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čajka Zoran

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the concept of green product management. To create a significantly greener economy, there will need to be a range of new and greener products and technologies. Today we are faced with a growth in more innovative "clean technology" solutions. Successful development of new green products requires high levels of communication and integration, good information, early consideration of green issues, support from top management, and benchmarking. The set of controllable tactical marketing tools (product, price, place and promotion that the company blends to produce the response it wants in the target green market, is the matter of the primary importance to the management.

  5. The Marketing Plan: An Integrative Device for Teaching Marketing Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdine, W. R.; Petersen, James C.

    1980-01-01

    The importance of the marketing plan is stressed as an integrative device for teaching marketing management, and a structure is presented to assist students in designing a marketing plan. Components of this plan include marketing objectives, targeting market and buying motives, external environment and competition, product, price, and promotion.…

  6. The Demand Side Response to Multi-zone Tariffs. Consumer Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Olszewski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI is a technologically advanced solution currently implemented by the most innovative distribution system operators. ENERGA-OPERATOR SA set about preparing for smart metering implementation in 2010. So far the company has installed over 400,000 meters in its area, and plans to install a further 450,000 in 2015. Kalisz, the first fully AMI-covered city in Poland, was chosen for an in-depth analysis of the system. In particular, a consumer test was conducted there with the intention of answering the question about the strength of the demand side response to multi-zone tariffs and power reduction. Conclusions from the year-long test show the demand side response to multi-zone tariffs – i.e. the maximum temporary percentage reduction of energy consumption in the time zone with the tariff raised by a min. of 80% – stays within the 5–15% range. In the case of power reduction (the maximum temporary reduction of energy consumption in the time zone when the power available to a household is limited to 1 kW – the demand side response stays within the 10–30% range. An additional effect of tariff diversification and smart metering is a reduction in electricity consumption by 1–4% on working days (i.e. this is the effect of either the consumption reduction or shifting it to weekends. During the test energy consumers were subjected to both price incentives and education. Due to the fact that it is difficult to separate the effects of education and tariff structures, the company plans to continue the research related to verifying the effectiveness of individual activation tools in reducing electricity consumption by households.

  7. Evaluation of Orange and Rockland Utilities, Inc.`s competitive bidding program for demand-side resources. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, J.S.; Stucky, L.; Seratt, P.; Darden-Butler, D. [Barakat and Chamberlin, Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1993-02-01

    The process evaluation reports on the implementation of Orange and Rockland Utilities demand-side bidding program in New York State during 1991 and 1992. The program is implemented by two energy service companies in Orange and rockland`s New York State service territory. The process evaluation methodology included interviews with utility staff (3), energy service company staff (2), and participating (6) and nonparticipating (7) utility customers. The two energy service companies had enrolled 14 customers in the program by summer 1992. One company had achieved 90% of their 2.75 MW bid and the other had achieved less than 90% of their 6.9 MW bid. Critical factors in success were determination of a reasonable bid amount for the market and marketing to the appropriate customers. Customers most interested in the program included those with limited access to capital and medium-sized firms with poor cash flows, particularly schools and hospitals. The findings also show that due to the incentive structure and associated need for substantial customer contributions, lighting measures dominate all installations. Customers, however, were interested in the potential savings and six of the nonparticipants chose to either install measures on their own or enroll in the utility`s rebate program.

  8. A new strategy for DSM and Market Transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, H.

    1996-01-01

    Demand Side Management (DSM) as a utility instrument has been based on the assumption that supply in itself is well run and managed and that corrections should only be made by adjusting demand to a more appropriate level. The entire energy system, however, needs tuning from both the supply side and the demand side. DSM has to be reshaped to fit both the utilities, in a competitive environment, and more general societal purposes. Market Transformation aims at moving the benchmark for performance of products; focusing customer and supplier interest on high performance, thus getting larger volumes for such equipment; and clearing the market of inferior products. (R.P.)

  9. THE TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT OF DEMAND SIDE BIDDING IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN CONTEXT*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Grover

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT:South Africa is currently in the grip of a severe power supply capacity constraint. January 2007 saw blackouts throughout the country, and worse was expected in the months to come. As a measure of immediate remedy Eskom has turned to demand side bidding (DSB, a methodology whereby the demand side has an opportunity to sell back flexible load to the supply side. This paper assesses DSB with the aim of evaluating and gauging the current and potential future standing of DSB as a technology product within the South African context.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Suid-Afrika ervaar tans ’n ernstige vraagstuk in elektrisiteitsvoorsiening. Vanaf Januarie 2007 kom gereelde kragonderbrekings voor, en volgens alle aanduidings lê die ergste nog voor. As ’n korttermynmaatreël beoog ESKOM ’n strategie van aanvraagbestuur en spesifiek aanvraag-bie, ’n metodologie waarvolgens verbruikers die geleentheid kry om elektrisiteit aan die verskaffer terug te verkoop. Hierdie artikel assesseer die metodologie ten einde die huidige en toekomstige gebruikersmoontlikhede daarvan as ’n tegnologieproduk binne Suid-Afrikaanse konteks te bepaal.

  10. A Simulation of Rainwater Harvesting Design and Demand-Side Controls for Large Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence V. Fulton

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Inpatient health buildings in the United States are the most intensive users of water among large commercial buildings. Large facilities (greater than 1 million square feet consume an average of 90 million gallons per building per year. The distribution and treatment of water imposes a significant electrical power demand, which may be the single largest energy requirement for various states. Supply and demand-side solutions are needed, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions where water is scarce. This study uses continuous simulations based on 71 years of historical data to estimate how rainwater harvesting systems and demand-side interventions (e.g., low-flow devices, xeriscaping would offset the demand for externally-provided water sources in a semi-arid region. Simulations from time series models are used to generate alternative rainfall models to account for potential non-stationarity and volatility. Results demonstrate that hospital external water consumption might be reduced by approximately 25% using conservative assumptions and depending on the design of experiment parameters associated with rainfall capture area, building size, holding tank specifications, and conservation efforts.

  11. Multi-objective demand side scheduling considering the operational safety of appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Y.F.; Jiang, L.; Li, Y.Z.; Counsell, J.; Smith, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Operational safety of appliances is introduced in multi-objective scheduling. • Relationships between operational safety and other objectives are investigated. • Adopted Pareto approach is compared with Weigh and Constraint approaches. • Decision making of Pareto approach is proposed for final appliances’ scheduling. - Abstract: The safe operation of appliances is of great concern to users. The safety risk increases when the appliances are in operation during periods when users are not at home or when they are asleep. In this paper, multi-objective demand side scheduling is investigated with consideration to the appliances’ operational safety together with the electricity cost and the operational delay. The formulation of appliances’ operational safety is proposed based on users’ at-home status and awake status. Then the relationships between the operational safety and the other two objectives are investigated through the approach of finding the Pareto-optimal front. Moreover, this approach is compared with the Weigh and Constraint approaches. As the Pareto-optimal front consists of a set of optimal solutions, this paper proposes a method to make the final scheduling decision based on the relationships among the multiple objectives. Simulation results demonstrate that the operational safety is improved with the sacrifice of the electricity cost and the operational delay, and that the approach of finding the Pareto-optimal front is effective in presenting comprehensive optimal solutions of the multi-objective demand side scheduling.

  12. STRATEGIC MARKETING MANAGEMENT IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina ILIESKA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the relationship between the level of marketing organizing and program orientation of a tourist enterprise. The focus is on exploring marketing significance related to the selection of tourist enterprise's program orientation and competitive market position in the context of achieving planned goals. The role of marketing management and related new market concept supporting strategic tourist enterprise development in transition process of Balkan economies are of special importance. Marketing concept is the base of market-oriented business. In competitive economy customers may choose from whom and how to buy, while services program is constantly evolving in accordance with their demands. In order to be successful, the tourist enterprise must always provide superior value, better than competitors, when it comes to quality, price and services. Marketing combination of management activities should find the best way to fulfill customer's needs and follow new organizational changes. New organizational changes denote new internal and external dimensions of marketing. Internal are related to teamwork and creation of data basis about customers and business partners, and external with developing partnership relations, not only with the customers, but with the suppliers and distributors. In the wealthy process of the tourist and hotel management activities especially by the promotion, of the tourist offer, we face ourselves with lots of details which are details only at the first sight, in fact they are very important things from which resides that the very good reputation of the offer depends and it also influences the tourism development.The contemporary market is characterized by very sensitive diversification and the complexity of the relationship in the sphere of the offer and other. That is why the promoted activities become more essential. This necessity is much emphasized in the tourist market

  13. How to introduce demand side resources in the design of low-carbon power systems in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pengcheng; Liu, Yiqun; Zeng, Ming; Sun, Chenjun

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, China's energy demand sustained rapid growth, and the coal-based energy structure has adverse effects on the environment. The flexibility of demand side resource (DSR) will be greatly improved, and DSR can reduce electricity consumption actively and temporarily, and realize energy saving and emission reduction. But there are still some problems to introduce DSR in China. This paper proposes three practices for introducing demand side resources to improve the flexibility of power systems through demand resources.

  14. How to optimize tourism destination supply: A case in Shanghai from perspective of supplier and demand side perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Huaju; Fang, Chengjiang

    2018-02-01

    It is vital to assess the regional tourist supply capability by suppliers and demand groups. The supply side’s evaluation of the regional supply capacity determines the direction of the supply investment in future, the demand side’s evaluation indicates their satisfaction degree of the destination supply and also effects their revisit the tourism destination. Therefore, the assessment of the supply and demand sides is an important reference for the reform of destination supply side, which helps us find the shortage of the destination supply factors and optimize tourism destination supply promptly. This paper through investigating tourism supply and demand groups in Shanghai, used the survey data and constructed tourism supply optimization model, analyzed the current situation of tourism supply factors in Shanghai. Results showed that the environment of Shanghai should be improved first, including improving urban air and water quality, up-grading public sanitation and increasing urban green coverage. Other supply factors improved priority were information and marketing, we should improve the information consultation of scenic spots, increase the intensity of tourism promotion and provide more free travel publicity brochures.

  15. A demand-side approach to the optimal deployment of electric vehicle charging stations in metropolitan areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrenacci, N.; Ragona, R.; Valenti, G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A demand-side approach to the location of charging infrastructure problem is discussed in the paper. • The analysis is based on a large data-set of private vehicle travels within the urban area of Rome. • Cluster analysis is applied to the data to find the optimal location zones for charging infrastructures. • The daily energy demand and the average number of users per day are calculated for each and every charging infrastructure. - Abstract: Despite all the acknowledged advantages in terms of environmental impact reduction, energy efficiency and noise reduction, the electric mobility market is below expectations. In fact, electric vehicles have limitations that pose several important challenges for achieving a sustainable mobility system: among them, the availability of an adequate charging infrastructure is recognized as a fundamental requirement and appropriate approaches to optimize public and private investments in this field are to be delineated. In this paper we consider actual data on conventional private vehicle usage in the urban area of Rome to carry out a strategy for the optimal allocation of charging infrastructures into portions (subareas) of the urban area, based on an analysis of a driver sample under the assumption of a complete switch to an equivalent fleet of electric vehicles. Moreover, the energy requirement for each one of the subareas is estimated in terms of the electric energy used by the equivalent fleet of electric vehicles to reach their destination. The model can be easily generalized to other problems regarding facility allocation based on user demand.

  16. Joint Planning Of Energy Storage and Transmission Considering Wind-Storage Combined System and Demand Side Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.; Liu, B. Z.; Wang, K. Y.; Ai, X.

    2017-12-01

    In response to the new requirements of the operation mode of wind-storage combined system and demand side response for transmission network planning, this paper presents a joint planning of energy storage and transmission considering wind-storage combined system and demand side response. Firstly, the charge-discharge strategy of energy storage system equipped at the outlet of wind farm and demand side response strategy are analysed to achieve the best comprehensive benefits through the coordination of the two. Secondly, in the general transmission network planning model with wind power, both energy storage cost and demand side response cost are added to the objective function. Not only energy storage operation constraints and but also demand side response constraints are introduced into the constraint condition. Based on the classical formulation of TEP, a new formulation is developed considering the simultaneous addition of the charge-discharge strategy of energy storage system equipped at the outlet of the wind farm and demand side response strategy, which belongs to a typical mixed integer linear programming model that can be solved by mature optimization software. The case study based on the Garver-6 bus system shows that the validity of the proposed model is verified by comparison with general transmission network planning model. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the joint planning model can gain more economic benefits through setting up different cases.

  17. Effective managed care marketing strategies for evolving markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, M K

    1997-11-01

    In a world of increased competition and changing consumer expectations, one of the keys to a fiscally sound health plan is having a dynamic marketing strategy that takes into account the shifting attitudes of consumers as managed care markets mature. The primary goal of any health plan marketing strategy should be the acquisition and retention of members. Providing cost-efficient and convenient service for enrollees, offering low or no deductibles, having convenient office locations, and minimizing paper-work are important elements of such a marketing strategy. Factors such as brand awareness and the perceived image of a health plan also are important considerations in acquiring and retaining market share. The relative importance of these consumer satisfaction criteria change as a managed care market evolves and matures. Financial and marketing managers, thus, should ascertain their market's stage of development and respond with appropriate marketing strategies.

  18. HE SCIENTIFIC CONTENT OF MANAGEMENT MARKETING AND MARKETING MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    PAPUC, Mihai; SMEDESCU, Ion

    2012-01-01

    In the last decenniums, economic literature has debated more and more vividly a new concept Management Marketing1. The rightful understanding of this compound noun has to take in consideration the complex content of the two sciences, the way in which their conceptual defining, methods and specific instruments appear in the common relation generated by processes and connections through which the companys activities are organically integrated in its economical and social environment. The presen...

  19. THE SCIENTIFIC CONTENT OF MANAGEMENT MARKETING AND MARKETING MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ion SMEDESCU (In memoriam); Mihai PAPUC

    2012-01-01

    Concept – Management Marketing. The rightful understanding of this compound noun has to take in consideration the complex content of the two sciences, the way in which their conceptual defining, methods and specific instruments appear in the common relation generated by processes and connections through which the company’s activities are organically integrated in its economical and social environment. The present paper brings into discussion some points of view that could contribute to the co...

  20. Integrated design and evaluation of biomass energy system taking into consideration demand side characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Hongbo; Zhou, Weisheng; Nakagami, Ken'ichi; Gao, Weijun

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a linear programming model has been developed for the design and evaluation of biomass energy system, while taking into consideration demand side characteristics. The objective function to be minimized is the total annual cost of the energy system for a given customer equipped with a biomass combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) plant, as well as a backup boiler fueled by city gas. The results obtained from the implementation of the model demonstrate the optimal system capacities that customers could employ given their electrical and thermal demands. As an illustrative example, an investigation addresses the optimal biomass CCHP system for a residential area located in Kitakyushu Science and Research Park, Japan. In addition, sensitivity analyses have been elaborated in order to show how the optimal solutions would vary due to changes of some key parameters including electricity and city gas tariffs, biogas price, electricity buy-back price, as well as carbon tax rate. (author)

  1. Marketing management of sport and tourism - Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Bieger, Thomas; Beritelli, Pietro

    2003-01-01

    Marketing Management of sport and tourism does not just mean marketing of touristic sport products. Marketing management of sport and tourism can be divided into marketing of sport activities, events or infrastructure for people outside the location and marketing of tourism through sport activities, events and sport infrastructure. A system approach is introduced to serve as a model for explaining interrelations between the different elements in the sport and tourism context. As such destinat...

  2. HOLISTIC MARKETING MANAGEMENT AND SOCIAL MEDIA

    OpenAIRE

    William PERTTULA

    2011-01-01

    Social media and social media marketing are real challenges to holistic marketing management approach focusing on real customer value. A distinct problem for social media is making a profit when the standard practice is to not charge the user any money. Social media marketing relies on its similarity to word of mouth marketing which has always been praised for its effectiveness. Social media marketing can be faster and cheaper that other forms of marketing, and should be integrated with the r...

  3. Market-Based Fisheries Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    a timely, critical insight into the social, cultural and economic aspects and consequences of market-based fisheries management. The privatization of fish quotas in Denmark represents one of the most far-reaching and comprehensive privatization schemes of its kind and has been widely promoted as a market......-based system with innovative social safeguards. This work critically examines this privatization of fish resources, combining quantitative and qualitative material to provide new understanding of fish quotas and their social value. Scholars with an interest in privatization and the socio-economic aspects...... of fisheries, and those working with NGOs, fishers and fisheries, and concerned with political conflicts will all value the research presented here....

  4. Congestion management in liberalized market environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper is based on the survey conducted by WG C5.4 on congestion management. It describes market conditions and institutional arrangements in the 18 countries participating in the survey, and internal and cross-border congestion management. The interaction with the electricity market is discussed, considering allocation of transmission capacity, market schedule, congestion management tools and payment for the costs incurred. The survey shows that there is a tendency towards the use of market-based methods. (author)

  5. Consumer-led demand side financing in health and education and its relevance for low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensor, Tim

    2004-01-01

    There is increasing awareness that supply subsidies for health and education services often fail to benefit those that are most vulnerable in a community. This recognition has led to a growing interest in and experimentation with, consumer-led demand side financing systems (CL-DSF). These mechanisms place purchasing power in the hands of consumers to spend on specific services at accredited facilities. International evidence in education and health sectors suggest a limited success of CL-DSF in raising the consumption of key services amongst priority groups. There is also some evidence that vouchers can be used to improve targeting of vulnerable groups. There is very little positive evidence on the effect of CL-DSF on service quality as a consequence of greater competition. Location of services relative to population means that areas with more provider choice, particularly in the private sector, tend to be dominated by higher and middle-income households. Extending CL-DSF in low-income countries requires the development of capacity in administering these financing schemes and also accrediting providers. Schemes could focus primarily on fixed packages of key services aimed at easily identifiable groups. Piloting and robust evaluation is required to fill the evidence gap on the impact of these mechanisms. Extending demand financing to less predictable services, such as hospital coverage for the population, is likely to require the development of a voucher scheme to purchase insurance. This suggests an already developed insurance market and is unlikely to be appropriate in most low-income countries for some time.

  6. How to fit demand side management (DSM) into current Chinese electricity system reform?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yongzhen

    2012-01-01

    DSM is one of the best and most practical policy tools available to China for balancing environmental protection and economic growth. The new round of electricity system reform provides a good opportunity to consolidate and integrate DSM policy and expedite its development and implementation. DSM policy can be upgraded by incorporating it into the current electricity system reform. Comparing the potential acceleration of electricity price reform with the possibility of imposing a System Benefit Charge (SBC), the author argues that support for a SBC would be much easier to gather among policymakers and stakeholders in a short time and would have a much better policy effect in the current situation. The author discusses three kinds of price discrimination related to the DSM development in China: time-based electricity pricing, electricity price discrimination for industrial structure adjustment in China (Fujian Province as a case), and direct power purchases by large customers and preferential tariff policy. These can be well designed to be combined with DSM and energy efficiency policy. - Highlights: ► Elements of DSM have been in place since 1993, but without even and reinforced policy. ► DSM can be upgraded by fitting it into current Chinese electricity system reform. ► Both electricity price reform and SBC would mean increases in electricity payment. ►Imposing SBC is much easier and better than speeding up electricity price reform. ► Three kinds of price discrimination can be well designed to be combined with DSM.

  7. Institutional barriers to DSM (demand side management): Reviewing the regulatory bargain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, W.M.

    1990-09-01

    The paper discusses traditional arguments for utility regulation in the context of the current utility environment. It reviews several DSM delivery options using a matrix of key financial considerations for utilities and consumers. The strengths and weaknesses of each option are discussed and an assessment of current prospects for DSM implementation is provided. The premise of the paper is that adoption of DSM by utilities and consumers has lagged because of technical and behavioral uncertainties. In addition, regulatory practices and DSM delivery mechanisms have not provided adequate means to extract the benefits of DSM and allocate the risks in a way that offers clear advantages over generating options. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the potential for value of service approaches to resolve these problems.

  8. Demand Side Management Using the Internet of Energy Based on LoRaWAN Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahryari, Kolsoom; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Shahryari, Shadi

    2017-01-01

    into cloud because of a long range, low power, wide area and low bit rate wireless telecommunication system which is called LoRaWAN. All devices in fog domain are connected by long range wide area network (LoRa) into a smart gateway. The gateway which bridges fog domain and cloud, is introduced......The smart grid, as a communication network, allows numerous connected devices such as sensors, relays and actuators to interact and cooperate with each other. An Internet-based solution for electricity that provides bidirectional flow of information and power is internet of energy (IoE) which...... is an extension of smart grid concept. A large number of connected devices and the huge amount of data generated by IoE and issues related to data transmission, process and storage, force IoE to be integrated by cloud computing. Furthermore, in order to enhance the performance and reduce the volume of transmitted...

  9. Towards a demand-side smart domestic electrical energy management system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlodlo, N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available systems that could assist the end-user in achieving this goal. This paper addresses the issue of electrical energy conservation in the home through the adoption of smart technologies (one instantiation of smart technologies). Smart objects are everyday...

  10. A Danish Heat Atlas for Supply Strategies and Demand Side Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    The expansion of district heating, the assessment of the impact of heat supply strategies, as well as the analysis of significant heat demand savings require sound decision support at high detail. Data is needed to continuously quantify potentials and costs of measures in the end-use and supply...... heat demand and possible savings. The location of each building relative to heat supply technologies is mapped and used for the assessment of supply strategies by potentials, costs and environmental impact. Both elements can furthermore be used to balance investments in supply with investments...

  11. Demand Side Management Using the Internet of Energy Based on LoRaWAN Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Shahryari, Kolsoom; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Shahryari, Shadi

    2017-01-01

    The smart grid, as a communication network, allows numerous connected devices such as sensors, relays and actuators to interact and cooperate with each other. An Internet-based solution for electricity that provides bidirectional flow of information and power is internet of energy (IoE) which is an extension of smart grid concept. A large number of connected devices and the huge amount of data generated by IoE and issues related to data transmission, process and storage, force IoE to be integ...

  12. Balancing Renewable Electricity Energy Storage, Demand Side Management, and Network Extension from an Interdisciplinary Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Droste-Franke, Bert; Rehtanz, Christian; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Schneider, Jens-Peter; Schreurs, Miranda; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A significant problem of integrating renewable energies into the electricity system is the temporally fluctuating energy production by wind and solar power plants. Thus, in order to meet the ambitious long-term targets on CO2 emission reduction, long-term viable low-carbon options for balancing electricity will be needed. This interdisciplinary study analyses published future energy scenarios in order to get an impression of the required balancing capacities and shows which framework conditions should be modified to support their realisation. The authors combine their perspectives from energy engineering, technology assessment, political science, economical science and jurisprudence and address science, politics, actors in the energy sector and the interested public. Respectively, requirements for the balancing systems are analysed, considering the case of Germany as a large country with high ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, an approach to investigate the optimal design of the techn...

  13. Demand Side Management Using the Internet of Energy based on Fog and Cloud Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahryari, Kolsoom; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad

    2017-01-01

    The smart grid, as a communication network, allows numerous connected devices such as sensors, relays and actuators to interact and cooperate with each other. An Internet-based solution for electricity that provides bidirectional flow of information and power is internet of energy (IoE) which...

  14. Demand-side mitigation options of the agricultural sector: potential, barriers and ways forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunelle Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the potential and barriers of demand-side mitigation options in the agricultural sector based on the recent academic literature and on a survey conducted on a sample of 788 respondents living in France. The mitigation potential of such measures as reducing losses in the food supply chain and shifting diets toward less animal products is estimated to be particularly high, higher, in particular, than supply-side mitigation options. However, to ensure that these measures do not entail a reduction in protein intake, these estimations should consider both caloric and protein units, and take into account the digestibility differentials between protein sources. Our survey shows that people are relatively reluctant to eat more sustainably, preferring to reduce their emissions in other areas such as housing or equipment. This relative reluctance is mainly due to individual perceptions linked to health concerns, taste or habits. Some obstacles could easily be overcome through well-designed policies aiming to, for example, advertise a lower consumption of red meat for health benefits. National governments are, however, rather inactive on this topic, leaving the initiative to the civil society.

  15. The process of marketing management – between the management marketing activities and the operational marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Luminita Zait

    2009-01-01

    The best known definitions provided to the concept of marketing management, in the last decades of the 21st century have in common – the orientation towards the client and the development of successfull relations with the clients, the substantion and operationalization of the mix of marketing, as the basis of the exchange relation, the involvement of all functional areas inside the organisation in managing relations in order to achieve the long term objectives of the organization – but the ma...

  16. TQM management and marketing aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćuzović Sreten D.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of marketing management is to satisfy the needs and desires of consumers. A lot of factors have influenced the consumers and their purchasing. Besides price and assortment factors there are requirements of consumers for the quality of a product. It means that a product should have physical, chemical, designing, aesthetic, ecological and other desirable properties that should be expressed before its use. For that reason the quality in the theory and practice of management is beginning to affirm itself. This has been particularly expressed by the introduction of quality standardization series ISO 9000(9000:2000, ISO 14000. The apply of ISO 9000 makes internationalization of quality system and circulation of goods and services without "physical-fiscal-technical" barrier possible.

  17. The process of marketing management – between the management marketing activities and the operational marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita Zait

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The best known definitions provided to the concept of marketing management, in the last decades of the 21st century have in common – the orientation towards the client and the development of successfull relations with the clients, the substantion and operationalization of the mix of marketing, as the basis of the exchange relation, the involvement of all functional areas inside the organisation in managing relations in order to achieve the long term objectives of the organization – but the main issues are related to four basic activities: - analysis, planning, implementing and controlling marketing activities.

  18. Market based generation: A promising market management option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, R.

    1992-01-01

    It is proposed to ease the tension between demand management and supply side management at electric utilities through the introduction of a concept called market management. Market management provides a framework for developing and evaluating the attractiveness of new products and services such as dispersed generation hardware, implementation services, and complementary pricing structures. A market management strategy is the definition of market segments, creating products for those segments, evaluation of the profitability of the product-segment combinations, commitment of resources to those segments, and development of product and marketing plans for those segments. A brief analysis of backup generation is presented as an example of market management. In this example, the customer that is backed up shares some portion of the capital and maintenance costs of the backup unit through priority service rates; the utility and customers that are not backed up can obtain the use of the generating resource but pay only a portion of its costs. Backup generation programs have been found to provide utilities with the ability to meet peak load requirements more cheaply than by investing in peaking capacity. Other benefits for utilities include protection of market share, more efficient rates, and a new source of revenues. With the advances in the technology of small-scale generation, utilities can examine bundling various pricing options with market based generation to offer alternative value-added service options to customer segments with demand characteristics that make these technologies attractive. 3 figs

  19. Demand-Side Financing in Education: a Critical Examination of a Girls' Scholarship Program in Malawi--(Case Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sineta, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Despite the push for universal education, many disadvantaged and poor children in developing countries still do not have access to basic education. This among other reasons is due to poverty where poor families cannot afford the cost of basic education even when it is "free" of tuition (McDonald, 2007). Demand-side financing…

  20. An evaluation of two large scale demand side financing programs for maternal health in India: the MATIND study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Kristi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High maternal mortality in India is a serious public health challenge. Demand side financing interventions have emerged as a strategy to promote access to emergency obstetric care. Two such state run programs, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSYand Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY, were designed and implemented to reduce financial access barriers that preclude women from obtaining emergency obstetric care. JSY, a conditional cash transfer, awards money directly to a woman who delivers in a public health facility. This will be studied in Madhya Pradesh province. CY, a voucher based program, empanels private obstetricians in Gujarat province, who are reimbursed by the government to perform deliveries of socioeconomically disadvantaged women. The programs have been in operation for the last seven years. Methods/designs The study outlined in this protocol will assess and compare the influence of the two programs on various aspects of maternal health care including trends in program uptake, institutional delivery rates, maternal and neonatal outcomes, quality of care, experiences of service providers and users, and cost effectiveness. The study will collect primary data using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, including facility level questionnaires, observations, a population based survey, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions. Primary data will be collected in three districts of each province. The research will take place at three levels: the state health departments, obstetric facilities in the districts and among recently delivered mothers in the community. Discussion The protocol is a comprehensive assessment of the performance and impact of the programs and an economic analysis. It will fill existing evidence gaps in the scientific literature including access and quality to services, utilization, coverage and impact. The implementation of the protocol will also generate evidence to facilitate decision making

  1. An evaluation of two large scale demand side financing programs for maternal health in India: the MATIND study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney, Kristi; de Costa, Ayesha; Diwan, Vishal; Mavalankar, Dileep V; Smith, Helen

    2012-08-27

    High maternal mortality in India is a serious public health challenge. Demand side financing interventions have emerged as a strategy to promote access to emergency obstetric care. Two such state run programs, Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY)and Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY), were designed and implemented to reduce financial access barriers that preclude women from obtaining emergency obstetric care. JSY, a conditional cash transfer, awards money directly to a woman who delivers in a public health facility. This will be studied in Madhya Pradesh province. CY, a voucher based program, empanels private obstetricians in Gujarat province, who are reimbursed by the government to perform deliveries of socioeconomically disadvantaged women. The programs have been in operation for the last seven years. The study outlined in this protocol will assess and compare the influence of the two programs on various aspects of maternal health care including trends in program uptake, institutional delivery rates, maternal and neonatal outcomes, quality of care, experiences of service providers and users, and cost effectiveness. The study will collect primary data using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, including facility level questionnaires, observations, a population based survey, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions. Primary data will be collected in three districts of each province. The research will take place at three levels: the state health departments, obstetric facilities in the districts and among recently delivered mothers in the community. The protocol is a comprehensive assessment of the performance and impact of the programs and an economic analysis. It will fill existing evidence gaps in the scientific literature including access and quality to services, utilization, coverage and impact. The implementation of the protocol will also generate evidence to facilitate decision making among policy makers and program managers who currently work with or

  2. Understanding international postgraduate studies. Drivers from the supply and the demand side.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Serrano, M M; Gomez-Bruque, J L; Ambrosio-Albala, M J; Llamas-Moreno, B

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the global political and socioeconomic scenario are fostering the internationalization of master and doctoral programme as one of the current priorities for Universities. Changes in European higher education such as those stimulated by the Bologna process and the introduction of double, multiple or joint Master degree programmes together with the Erasmus Mundus programme are enhancing the competition of European universities in the global education market place. Universities compete to attract the best students, both national and international, to their postgraduate programmes. However, the design and launch of international masters or doctorates imply working with a different logic to the one used in national programmes. Complexity, diversity and differentiation are drivers of international education and as happens in complex systems the properties and features of the final products are different from the existing in the individual components. The aim of this paper is to understand international studies as complex systems and to analyze and identify factors affecting to the different components involved in the implementation of these programmes. The new approaches and the interrelations in aspects such as academic, administrative or economic management, quality assurance and marketing issues are examined and drivers, challenges and good practices where possible are identified. The analysis has been carried out considering the point of view of both Universities (supply-led approach) and students and employers (demand-led approach). From the analysis have emerged important questions that show the interrelation pattern and that can be useful when designing and implementing international postgraduate studies. Universities and students tend to agree about many issues however, some divergences have also been identified which make the results of the research more valuable.

  3. Market design for generation adequacy: Healing causes rather than symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, Fabien A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that electricity market reform - particularly the need for complementary mechanisms to remunerate capacity - need to be analysed in the light of the local regulatory and institutional environment. If there is a lack of investment, the priority should be to identify the roots of the problem. The lack of demand-side response, short-term reliability management procedures and non-market ancillary services provision often undermine market reflective scarcity pricing and distort long-term investment incentives. The introduction of a capacity mechanism should come as an optional supplement to wholesale and ancillary markets improvements. Priority reforms should focus on encouraging demand-side responsiveness and reducing scarcity price distortions introduced by balancing and congestion management through better dialog between network engineers and market operators. (author)

  4. Managing creativity in business market relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Kragh, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    The guest editors' introduction to the Special Issue on managing creativity in business market relationships positions the topic at the intersection between interorganizational research and creativity research. It introduces three paradoxes that managers of such processes face: a) the tension...

  5. The Delicate Interface between Management Accounting and Marketing Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Helden, Jan; Alsem, Karel Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the delicate interface between management accounting and marketing management. Based on the scope of their mutual relationship, a distinction is made between two types of interfaces: informing and integrating. Whereas the traditional management accounting domains, such as

  6. Strategic PSYOP Management: A Marketing Management Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    advertising , and public relations. This study will not examine advanced marketing strategies designed for intra- market competition. E. METHODOLOGY The...doctrine, and ultimately develop a national PSYOP marketing strategy . Without accepting these principles PSYOP will be limited to ineffective advertising ...implementations of marketing strategies into U.S. doctrine, a hypothetical case study of recommended changes, and conclusion. G. CONCLUSION U.S. suffers

  7. Supply- and Demand-Side Factors Influencing Utilization of Infant and Young Child Feeding Counselling Services in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Kim, Sunny S; Nguyen, Tuan T; Tran, Lan M; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Frongillo, Edward A; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul; Menon, Purnima

    2016-01-01

    Adequate utilization of services is critical to maximize the impact of counselling on infant and young child feeding (IYCF), but little is known about factors affecting utilization. Our study examined supply- and demand-side factors associated with the utilization of IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam. We used survey data from mothers with children Viet Nam, and may be relevant for increasing and sustaining use of nutrition services in similar contexts.

  8. Risk management in a competitive electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Min; Wu, Felix F.

    2007-01-01

    In a competitive electricity market, it is necessary and important to develop an appropriate risk management scheme for trade with full utilization of the multi-market environment in order to maximize participants' benefits and minimize the corresponding risks. Based on the analyses to trading environments and risks in the electricity market, a layered framework of risk management for electric energy trading is proposed in this paper. Simulation results confirmed that trading among multiple markets is helpful to reduce the complete risk, and VaR provides a useful approach to judge whether the formed risk-control scheme is acceptable. (author)

  9. School of Management, Marketing and Commerce Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Nozdryova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Governance and regulation at the national and international level, the management system of the leading companies in the world, forms and methods of management, and marketing, commercial and advertising work form a relatively new subject field in domestic science. These issues have been introduced into the educational process in Russian universities in the second half of the 1980s. At the MGIMO these research areas have been developed for more than 60 years. Scientific School of the Department of Management and Marketing and the Department of Management Foreign Economic Activity is oriented at the international level and focuses on the development of organizational forms and methods of management, marketing strategy, marketing, and commerce in the context of foreign trade and international activities of domestic firms and organizations on the basis of a comprehensive study of advanced management experience of leading foreign countries. In the early stages of its existence, the school was focused on methodological and practical aspects of international commerce and advertising. But gradually its research encompassed the field of management and marketing, and the scientific school in the field of international management and marketing was established on the basis of examination of relevant theories and experiences of leading foreign countries, and especially multinational companies. Originally these studies were conducted by the Department International Economic Relations of the Faculty of International Economic Relations at MGIMO. The disciplines included studies of the foreign trade operations in global markets, management of foreign economic activities in foreign countries, world commodity markets, and others. The textbook "Organization and technology of foreign trade in the capitalist market" by I.N. Gerchikova, Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation, Doctor of Economic Science, Professor, published in 1977 already contained sections on

  10. THE DILEMMA OF DEMAND SIDE POLICIES VERSUS SUPPLY SIDE POLICIES FOR RELAUNCHING CAPITALIST ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRE PRISECARU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The first important economic recession in this century started in USA with the burst of real estate bubble followed by the bankruptcy of some investment and commercial banks and the collapse of capital market. The financial-banking crisis spilt over the world economy and caused the second deepest economic recession in the last 80 years. The financial crisis has badly affected almost all market economies and was the result of a combination between market failures and mistakes made in macroeconomic policies. In the financial sector there was not enough regulation and supervision of corporate governance while in goods industry the pressure of over-regulation led to higher factor costs and supply contraction. The direct result of supply side policies and particularly of monetarist instruments is seen now clearly in the USA: large deficits, huge debts, reduced savings, heavy dependence on foreign money (capital and resources, relatively low domestic output and supply.

  11. Emission impacts of demand-side programs: What have we achieved so far and how will recent policy decision change program choices?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempchin, R.S.; Van den Berg, A.J.; Geba, V.B.; Felix, C.S.; Goldsmith, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Congress and many state legislatures have been discussing the possibility of regulating carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) and other emissions. Key to these discussions is the recommendation that energy efficiency, and specifically electric utility demand-side management (DSM) programs, be used as an emission control option. Methods for incorporating the social or external costs of energy production into utility planning are being developed, and estimates of potential emission impacts attributed to DSM programs have been calculated. However, little research has calculated the actual emission impacts from existing DSM programs. The increasing need for electric energy services and fossil fuel generation create an apparent conflict with the risks and regulations associated with global climate change and clean air. Electric utility DSM programs can be used to resolve these conflicts by providing equal or better energy services and a net reduction in emissions. This paper summarizes three separate related research projects. The first study, Impacts of Electric Utility Demand-Side Management Programs on Power Plant Emissions, collects utility and state data on existing DSM programs to approximate the level of SO 2 , NO x , and CO 2 reductions on a regional and national basis. Phase 1 of this study is a completed survey of DSM savings by state. The second and third studies, Carbon Dioxide Reduction Through Electrification of the Industrial and Transportation Sectors, and Carbon Dioxide Reduction Through Electrification of the Residential and Commercial Sectors, compare selected high efficiency electric technologies with fossil-fueled alternatives to determine CO 2 emissions. Through these studies, the authors have begun to quantify the emissions impacts from utility DSM programs and efficient electric equipment

  12. Marketing quality and value to the managed care market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmirski, G

    1998-11-01

    Quantifying quality and marketing care delivery have been long-term challenges in the health care market. Insurers, employers, other purchasers of care, and providers face a constant challenge in positioning their organizations in a proactive, competitive niche. Tools that measure patient's self-reported perception of health care needs and expectations have increased the ability to quantify quality of care delivery. When integrated with case management and disease management strategies, outcomes reporting and variance analysis tracking can be packaged to position a provider in a competitive niche.

  13. Malaysia as a Regional Education Hub: A Demand-Side Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ming Yu; Mahmood, Amir; Yeap, Peik Foong

    2013-01-01

    Malaysia is becoming an increasingly active player in international education and ranks as the 11th largest exporter of education in the world. Malaysia's recognisable advantages in the international education market include its strategic location between the East and the West, cultural diversity, and a relatively stable socio-economic…

  14. Hunger and the Externalities of Dietary Preferences: Demand-Side Considerations of the Current Dietary Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Pseiridis

    2012-01-01

    World hunger and the latest increases in global food prices are mainly dealt with by measures aimed at boosting supply and allowing markets to function more effectively. Motivated by the persistence of world hunger, we do not intend to contribute to either theory or empirical analysis in economics; we rather aim to show that current research and policies are locked in a sort of scientific paradigm which takes as given our dietary preferences, which are in fact fundamental in creating resource...

  15. Demand-Side Flexibility for Energy Transitions: Ensuring the Competitive Development of Demand Response Options

    OpenAIRE

    Nursimulu, Anjali; Florin, Marie-Valentine; Vuille, François

    2015-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the current debates about demand response development, focusing primarily on Europe, with some comparisons to the United States. ‘Demand response’ includes strategies that involve end-use customers adapting or altering their electricity demand in response to grid conditions or market prices. It is viewed as a multi-purpose power-system resource that enhances the energy system’s capacity to cope with increasing demand, rising costs of conventional transmissi...

  16. Strategic management approach to marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jović Mile B.

    2004-01-01

    The marketing concept is not a theory of marketing, but a philosophy of business. It affirms that the key to meeting the objectives of stake-holders is to satisfy customers. In competitive manners this means that success goes to those firms which are best in meeting the needs of its customers. A business that fails to do this in a competitive economy will not survive because customers will go elsewhere. Business that are good at satisfying customer needs have the best opportunities to grow an...

  17. Individual-motivational factors in the acceptability of demand-side and supply-side measures to reduce carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poortinga, Wouter; Spence, Alexa; Demski, Christina; Pidgeon, Nick F.

    2012-01-01

    As more than a third of all carbon dioxide emissions in the UK are generated by the domestic sector, individuals need to make drastic changes to their current lifestyle in order to play their part in climate change mitigation. Not only do they need to change their personal behaviour, they also have to accept new low-carbon technologies in order to decarbonise the energy they are using. This study uses an adapted version of the Value–Belief-Norm (VBN) model () to examine individual-motivational factors in the acceptability of demand-side and supply-side strategies to reduce carbon emissions. The study found that environmental identity, climate change concern, and personal norms are all significantly associated with the acceptability of both demand-side measures and supply-side technologies. While personal values were also important, their associations were mediated by more specific factors. Overall, the adapted VBN model was better able to explain the acceptability of low-carbon behaviours than of low-carbon energy-supply technologies. Concern about energy security appeared to be of limited importance. It was negatively associated with the willingness to engage in low-carbon behaviours, suggesting that a shift in focus towards energy security issues may not necessarily help a transition to a low-carbon society. - Highlights: ► An adapted VBN model is proposed to study environmentally significant behaviour.► Environmental identity is important for both demand-side and supply-side measures.► Energy security concern is of limited importance to support for supply-side measures.► Energy security concern reduces the willingness to engage in low-carbon behaviours.

  18. The facilities management market in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2010-01-01

    for researching the market but particular the definition of space including acquisition as well as development, administration, operation, maintenance and utilities in the same main product is problematic. Research limitations/implications: The market research is limited to the Danish market, but the results......Purpose: To present the results of market surveys in Denmark, which have been based on and used to test a proposal for a new European standard for a taxonomy of Facilities Management (FM). Design/methodology: The market research included surveys of both the client side and the provider side...... and was carried out by a management consultant company by telephone interviews based on definitions developed from drafts for the European FM taxonomy standard by a university researcher, who is a member of the standardisation work group. Findings: The proposed taxonomy for FM is in general a good basis...

  19. Management of electricity markets in European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamfir, A.; Florescu, M.S.

    2007-01-01

    The challenges facing energy markets in Europe were discussed with particular reference to the need to integrate and interconnect national energy markets. The Romanian power market evolution since 2000 was also analyzed, taking into account the fact that the strategic objective of the Romanian Government is to assume the role of Regional Exchange in the South-East European region. A common approach to energy is needed to enable the European Union (EU) to compete in global markets, to improve sustainability in the EU and to secure energy supply. An overall framework is needed in order to achieve these objectives. This paper presented the general measures needed to complete the internal gas and electricity markets in Europe. It also proposed measures to ensure that the EU's internal energy market guarantees security of supply and solidarity between Member States. The guiding principles that an approach to information management and market transparency should be based on were described. The authors suggested that an integrated and competitive electricity and gas markets should be established to promote efficient energy services and diversify the energy mix. The measures needed in order to achieve the goal of a genuine single market at EU level were described along with the actions needed to stimulate investments in infrastructure and generation capacity. Measures to prevent or manage energy supply crises were also proposed. 4 refs., 1 tab

  20. Marketing Approach to Management of Spatial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniil Petrovich Frolov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Marketing of territories is a modern mechanism of management of spatial entities› development (cities, regions, etc., which is based on the principles of regulated self-organization and cultivation of self-generating trends. In this paper territories are considered as socially responsible multistakeholder quasi-corporations that produce specific goods and promote their own brands. But it is not clear yet what marketing of territories is – the function or ideology of regional administration? How do regional marketing and branding correlate? What is «the product of the territory» and who are its› consumers? Why are instituting territorial goods so important? How do the traditional socio- economic development strategy and marketing strategy of the region relate? What is the action mechanism of the regional marketing? The article presents the author›s answers to these and other issues of theory and practice of regional marketing in the context of new methodological approaches

  1. Social marketing in travel demand management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2013-01-01

    Social marketing is an increasingly popular means of Travel Demand Management (TDM) for promoting non-car modes of travel that has proven to be effective, in particular if combined with structural improvements. Successful social marketing is based on a thorough understanding of targeted people......’s needs, wants, and perceived barriers. It uses a combination of means to create an attractive offering tailored to these needs, wants, and perceived barriers. It applies established marketing techniques for catching attention to the offerings. However, there are limits to what social marketing can...... accomplish. In particular, social marketing is limited to cases where only perceived and not real barriers prevent people from using alternative travel modes. A review is given of research on and practical experiences of social marketing in TDM as a basis for evaluating its usefulness....

  2. Optometry services in Ontario: supply - and demand-side factors from 2011 to 2036.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Philip Sj; Sweetman, Arthur; Zhang, Xue Helen

    2014-01-01

    Optometric labour market projections are provided. First, population growth and ageing-based estimates of the rate of increase of eye-care services in Ontario from 2011 to 2$ are presented, holding the age-sex structure of utilization constant. Then, using data on the 2011 supply and working hours of Ontario's optometrists, the number of optometrists needed to keep the level of optometric services per age-sex-adjusted person comparable over time is estimated. The projections suggest that the number of Ontario optometrists should grow by approximately 30-40 full-time equivalents per year; to offset retirements and account for decreasing work hours, this suggests 77-90 new practitioners are required each year. However, in recent years, the number of Ontario optometrists has been growing faster than this, suggesting either that demand has exceeded supply and/or surpluses will accumulate if this trend continues. Copyright © 2014 Longwoods Publishing.

  3. An Internal, Demand-Side Approach Toward Implementing Strategic Sourcing: Political, Legal, and Economic Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Architecture, DASN (RDT&E)  Program Executive Officer, Littoral Combat Ships James B. Greene Jr. Keith F. Snider, PhD Rear Admiral, U.S. Navy (Ret...Personnel Management. Andreski, S. (1994). Max Weber’s insights and errors. London, UK: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Chan, T. C. T., & Chin, K. S. (2007

  4. Citation Classics from Industrial Marketing Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgreen, Adam; Di Benedetto, C. Anthony

    2017-01-01

    , system sellers and systems integrator, third-party logistics providers, and value). Finally, each of the 30 citation classics is introduced, and the classics' theoretical implications to business-to-business marketing management and fields related to (e.g., supply chain management, strategic management......This article proposes a categorization of what constitutes a citation classic. General observations reveal, with regard to the top 30 citation classics from Industrial Marketing Management, the number of authors per article, country of origin of the lead author, and type of article (literature...... review, qualitative methodology, or quantitative methodology). In addition, these citation classics can be classified by topic (firm performance, goods-dominant and service-dominant logics, Internet and high-technology markets, product innovation, relationships and business networks, supply chains...

  5. Relationship marketing's role in managing the firm-investor dyad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A.O.I.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Wies, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops an interdisciplinary conceptual framework demonstrating the role of marketing in managing investor relationships. The framework illustrates how companies can turn investor relationships into market-based assets by analyzing and managing them from a relationship marketing and

  6. Electrical Market Management Considering Power System Constraints in Smart Distribution Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poria Hasanpor Divshali

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rising demand, climate change, growing fuel costs, outdated power system infrastructures, and new power generation technologies have made renewable distribution generators very attractive in recent years. Because of the increasing penetration level of renewable energy sources in addition to the growth of new electrical demand sectors, such as electrical vehicles, the power system may face serious problems and challenges in the near future. A revolutionary new power grid system, called smart grid, has been developed as a solution to these problems. The smart grid, equipped with modern communication and computation infrastructures, can coordinate different parts of the power system to enhance energy efficiency, reliability, and quality, while decreasing the energy cost. Since conventional distribution networks lack smart infrastructures, much research has been recently done in the distribution part of the smart grid, called smart distribution grid (SDG. This paper surveys contemporary literature in SDG from the perspective of the electricity market in addition to power system considerations. For this purpose, this paper reviews current demand side management methods, supply side management methods, and electrical vehicle charging and discharging techniques in SDG and also discusses their drawbacks. We also present future research directions to tackle new and existing challenges in the SDG.

  7. Cyclical properties of supply-side and demand-side shocks in oil-based commodity markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křehlík, Tomáš; Baruník, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 1 (2017), s. 208-218 ISSN 0140-9883 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-14179S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Connectedness * Cycles * Spectral analysis Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics , Econometrics Impact factor: 3.199, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/E/barunik-0478478.pdf

  8. Stratum Electricity Markets: Toward Multi-temporal Distributed Risk Management for Sustainable Electricity Provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiyong (Richard)

    Motivated by the overall challenge of ensuring long-term sustainable electricity service, we view this challenge as a long-term decision making problem under uncertainties. We start by recognizing that, independent of the industry organization, the uncertainties are enormous and often exogenous to the energy service providers. They are multi-dimensional and are result of fundamental drivers, ranging from the supply side, through the demand side, to the regulatory and policy sides. The basic contribution of this thesis comes from the recognition that long-term investments for ensuring reliable and stable electricity service critically depend on how these uncertainties are perceived, valued and managed by the different stakeholders within the complex industry organization such as the electric power industry. We explain several reasons why price signals obtained from current short-term electricity markets alone are not sufficient enough for long-term sustainable provision. Some enhancements are presented in the thesis to improve the short-term electricity market price signals to reflect the true cost of operation. New market mechanisms and instruments are needed to facilitate the stakeholders to better deal with long-term risks. The problems of ensuring long-term stable reliable service in the sense of the traditional resource adequacy requirements are revisited in both the restructuring industry and regulated industry. We introduce a so-called Stratum Electricity Market (SEM) design as the basic market mechanism for solving the problem of long-term reliable electricity service through a series of interactive multi-lateral market exchange platforms for risks communication, management and evaluations over various time horizons and by the different groups of stakeholders. In other words, our proposed SEM is a basic IT-enabled framework for the decision making processes by various parties over different time. Because of the uniqueness of electricity as a commodity, the

  9. Traditional Market Accounting: Management or Financial Accounting?

    OpenAIRE

    Wiyarni, Wiyarni

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the area of accounting in traditional market. There are two areas of accounting: management and financial accounting. Some of traditional market traders have prepared financial notes, whereas some of them do not. Their financial notes usually consist of receivables, payables, customer orders, inventories, sales and cost price, and salary expenses. The purpose of these financial notes is usually for decision making. It is very rare for the traditional ma...

  10. Environmental marketing within organic agriculture system management

    OpenAIRE

    O. Shkuratov; V. Kyporenko

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with economic content of environmental marketing in the management system organic agriculture that allows operators of organic market to effectively plan the production of organic agricultural products and ensure the optimal balance between social and economic indicators throughout the life cycle of the product. Structural-logical scheme on the formation of environmentally oriented motivation of organic agricultural products consumer behavior has been grounded.

  11. Marketing: Managing the Marketing Mix. Courseware Evaluation for Vocational and Technical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Lian; And Others

    This courseware evaluation rates the Marketing: Managing the Marketing Mix program developed by Control Data Limited. (This program--not contained in this document--is designed to introduce decisions made by marketing managers during the implementation phase of marketing.) Part A describes the program in terms of subject area (marketing, decision…

  12. Importance of marketing activities in a company : the management perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Urbonavičius, Sigitas; Dikčius, Vytautas

    2008-01-01

    The article analyses how managers of companies see the importance of the overall marketing function as the importance of certain types of marketing activities. These types include typical areas of 4 Ps as well as marketing planning and marketing research activities. The research is based on a survey of 205 managers of primarily manufacturing and trading companies that operate in Lithuania. Managers evaluated marketing planning and distribution as the most important marketing functions, while ...

  13. The Problems of Estonian R&D and Innovation Strategy and the Demand-Side Innovation Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tõnu Roolaht

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The second larger Estonian R&D and Innovation Strategy ‘Knowledge-based Estonia 2007-2013’ is aimed at continuing the advancement of research and development efforts towards an innovative knowledge-based society and economic system in Estonia. Fostering of knowledge-based high-tech industries is seen as paramount for retaining country’s competitive advantage. However, the mid-term evaluations indicate that several goals of the strategy might not be achievable by 2013. In fact, the policy measures have been much more successful in developing scientific research, as indicated by increased international publication, number of patents, and number of researchers and engineers. The advances in development of high-tech products and services through innovations are noticeable but less prominent. The purpose of this study is to suggest the role for demand-side innovation policies in helping to advance commercial development and innovation

  14. Earnings Management: Obvious Phenomenon in Albanian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuta Llukani

    2013-07-01

    This paper is focused on reviewing the existing literature with regard to the Earnings Management in response to the growing pressure of investors, policy makers, and companies’ governance reform mechanisms to curb opportunistic behavior of the managers of these companies. It also examines the existence of this phenomenon in Albanian context as well as tests the importance of Modified Jones Model as an efficient tool for detection of abnormal accruals, used as a proxy for earnings management. The results show that firms in the Albanian market are engaged in earnings management initiatives.

  15. From price theory to marketing management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Kloppenborg; Pedersen, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Historical School, an essential precondition for the Copenhagen approach was the second wave of microeconomic theory of the 1930s. The article argues that it was a marketing management school, and that it offered early contributions to the development of marketing theory. Originality/value – Relatively......Purpose – The purpose of this article is to show how a particular marketing paradigm developed in Denmark from the 1920s through the 1960s. It peaked in the mid-1950s and faded out with one major publication in the early 1970s. The article provides a relatively detailed study of the initial phases...... of the school and its key ideas. Design/methodology/approach – The study is based on primary sources, i.e. the writings of the scholars who shaped and developed the school. A significant part of the sources are available in Danish only. Findings – While American marketing theory developed from the German...

  16. Managing companies in an open energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeser, A.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a comparison of management methods in the electricity supply industry in Germany and Switzerland and of the measures that can be taken in order to meet the new regulatory demands resulting from the opening of the electricity market. The development of legislation on the opening of the electricity market in Switzerland is briefly looked at and the situation to be found in many Swiss companies in the energy sector is looked at. The equivalent situation to be found in Germany is also reviewed as well as various prerequisites for the unbundling of the market, including the so-called 'revenue-cap' method. Quality-assurance in this area is also looked at, as are performance management and other controlling aspects. Also, transport lines and mains-usage are discussed, along with their appropriate regulation. An example is given of a system that allows computer access to the relevant data

  17. Market-Driven Management: the Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Bellini, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    The first policy implication of the diffusion of a Market-Driven Management approach is the same as the spreading of globalization, i.e. the obsolescence of industrial policies as traditionally designed and managed by Nation-States with the established toolbox of protectionism and subsidies, picking 'national champions', etc. The growing asymmetry between the physical jurisdiction of political bodies and the global operation space of modern corporations feeds the apparent trend toward company...

  18. Trends in Marketing: Customer Relationship Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okula, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Describes the basics of Customer Relationship Management, a process whereby the customer interacts with the company, the company responds by learning to meet that individual's needs, and the customer is more likely to become loyal. Suggests how marketing students can learn the fundamentals of it. (JOW)

  19. Enrollment Management: A Market-Centered Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsbeek, David H.; Hossler, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Enrollment management, the authors suggested in earlier essays, is a deliberate process of achieving an institution's preferred enrollment profile, starting by identifying the strategic purposes and mission of the institution, and then orchestrating the marketing, recruitment, admissions, pricing and aid, retention programs, academic support…

  20. The Principles of Marketing and Relationship Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soules, Aline

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the concepts of marketing and relationship management as they apply to libraries. Topics include perceptions of the profession; environments that libraries operate in; connecting content and users through access and services; and the need for reliable and consistent collection of effective data. (Author/LRW)

  1. Poor understanding of marketing principles has led to poor marketing management performance: Consideration of four marketing myths.

    OpenAIRE

    Pickton, David W.; Wright, Sheila

    2000-01-01

    Marketing is accused of poor management practice. This paper argues that this is grounded in a confusion of marketing thinking and marketing action which results from widely held beliefs and myths that surround the marketing management process, making it difficult for marketing to develop as a coherent management discipline and profession. Barriers to its successful implementation are created at both strategic and tactical levels. The paper presents an exploration of four myths which are oft...

  2. The integration of marketing problem-solving modes and marketing management support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Wierenga (Berend); G.H. van Bruggen (Gerrit)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractFocuses on the issue of problem solving in marketing and develops a classification of marketing problem-solving modes (MPSMs). Typology of MPSMs; Relationship among MPSMs; Marketing management support systems.

  3. Ex-post evaluation of local energy efficiency and demand-side management operations - State of the art, bottom-up methods, applied examples and approach for the development of an evaluation practical culture; L'evaluation ex-post des operations locales de maitrise de la demande en energie - Etat de l'art, methodes bottom-up, exemples appliques et approche du developpement d'une culture pratique de l'evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broc, J S

    2006-12-15

    Energy end-use Efficiency (EE) is a priority for energy policies to face resources exhaustion and to reduce pollutant emissions. At the same time, in France, local level is increasingly involved into the implementation of EE activities, whose frame is changing (energy market liberalization, new policy instruments). Needs for ex-post evaluation of the local EE activities are thus increasing, for regulation requirements and to support a necessary change of scale. Our thesis focuses on the original issue of the ex-post evaluation of local EE operations in France. The state of the art, through the analysis of the American and European experiences and of the reference guidebooks, gives a substantial methodological material and emphasises the key evaluation issues. Concurrently, local EE operations in France are characterized by an analysis of their environment and a work on their segmentation criteria. The combination of these criteria with the key evaluation issues provides an analysis framework used as the basis for the composition of evaluation methods. This also highlights the specific evaluation needs for local operations. A methodology is then developed to complete and adapt the existing material to design evaluation methods for local operations, so that stakeholders can easily appropriate. Evaluation results thus feed a know-how building process with experience feedback. These methods are to meet two main goals: to determine the operation results, and to detect the success/failure factors. The methodology was validated on concrete cases, where these objectives were reached. (author)

  4. Ex-post evaluation of local energy efficiency and demand-side management operations - State of the art, bottom-up methods, applied examples and approach for the development of an evaluation practical culture; L'evaluation ex-post des operations locales de maitrise de la demande en energie - Etat de l'art, methodes bottom-up, exemples appliques et approche du developpement d'une culture pratique de l'evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broc, J.S

    2006-12-15

    Energy end-use Efficiency (EE) is a priority for energy policies to face resources exhaustion and to reduce pollutant emissions. At the same time, in France, local level is increasingly involved into the implementation of EE activities, whose frame is changing (energy market liberalization, new policy instruments). Needs for ex-post evaluation of the local EE activities are thus increasing, for regulation requirements and to support a necessary change of scale. Our thesis focuses on the original issue of the ex-post evaluation of local EE operations in France. The state of the art, through the analysis of the American and European experiences and of the reference guidebooks, gives a substantial methodological material and emphasises the key evaluation issues. Concurrently, local EE operations in France are characterized by an analysis of their environment and a work on their segmentation criteria. The combination of these criteria with the key evaluation issues provides an analysis framework used as the basis for the composition of evaluation methods. This also highlights the specific evaluation needs for local operations. A methodology is then developed to complete and adapt the existing material to design evaluation methods for local operations, so that stakeholders can easily appropriate. Evaluation results thus feed a know-how building process with experience feedback. These methods are to meet two main goals: to determine the operation results, and to detect the success/failure factors. The methodology was validated on concrete cases, where these objectives were reached. (author)

  5. Corporate Sustainability Management and Its Market Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonhyun Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of firms around the world are applying corporate sustainability management (CSM to their business operations, and the research interest on the effect of CSM in terms of the capital market benefit has grown rapidly under the different research settings across various countries. This study investigates whether CSM contributes to increasing firm value and improving the market response to earnings disclosure, using Korean firms as the sample. The test results show that firms with CSM reporting outperform the other firms in terms of Tobin’s Q and the market-adjusted stock returns over a year. Further, investors respond more strongly to the earnings announcement events of the CSM firms than the non-CSM firms, which is more likely to be attributed to the enhanced corporate disclosure practice of the CSM firms than an improvement in earnings quality. Our findings indicate that the shareholders of firms with CSM reporting can enjoy relatively higher market valuations and enhanced information content of earnings disclosures. In conclusion, the results show that the CSM activities in pursuit of a harmonious relationship with the various stakeholders bring different forms of market benefits to shareholders as well.

  6. Management, marketing concept and intellectual capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Dragan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work describes the strong influence the development of the management theory to the complex nature of modern marketing concept and intellectual capital. Often, in the contemporary conversation we hear the word organizational behavior that is closely related to the concept of modern business philosophy and importance of human capital. Sudden development of human thought in the beginning of the twentieth century has a great impact on all areas of social life, and specially on the promotion of all areas of business and the impact of the application of marketing, its development and implementation as a basis for achieving global competitiveness. Changes caused by the development of management in the business have led to the interactive relationship between organizations and consumers, but also to the development of relations within the organization between employees. .

  7. Endoscopy Practice Management, Fee Structures, and Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divers, Stephen J

    2015-09-01

    Although our knowledge and appreciation of endoscopic procedures in exotic pets is extensive, associated management practices, including equipment preferences and fee structures, have rarely been discussed. This short article highlights the results of a small survey of 35 experienced exotic animal endoscopists and details their equipment ownership/preferences and fee structures. The importance of marketing is also emphasized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The demand-side innovation policies and sustainable development in the small EU country. Nõudluspoolsed innovatsioonipoliitikad ja jätkusuutlik areng Euroopa Liidu väikeriigis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tõnu Roolaht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Various regulations, standards, public procurement activities, subsidies for private demand, and other similar support measures form the demand-side innovation policies. In the modern era, countries and governments dedicate more and more attention to the economic, social, and environmental sustainability of development and entrepreneurship. Sustainable development aims to meet human needs so that economic and social conditions will improve or at least not deteriorate and environment is preserved in order to allow future generations to meet their needs as well. Several demand-side innovation policy measures target also sustainability either as primary or secondary goal. Such policy measures tend to suffer from overshooting effects or fail to influence the behaviour in a desired manner. The purpose of this study is to offer suggestions concerning demand-side policy measures in order to improve their impact on the sustainability of development

  9. Electrical network capacity support from demand side response: Techno-economic assessment of potential business cases for small commercial and residential end-users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez Ceseña, Eduardo A.; Good, Nicholas; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2015-01-01

    Demand Side Response (DSR) is recognised for its potential to bring economic benefits to various electricity sector actors, such as energy retailers, Transmission System Operators (TSOs) and Distribution Network Operators (DNOs). However, most DSR is provided by large industrial and commercial consumers, and little research has been directed to the quantification of the value that small (below 100 kW) commercial and residential end-users could accrue by providing DSR services. In particular, suitable models and studies are needed to quantify potential business cases for DSR from small commercial and residential end-users. Such models and studies should consider the technical and physical characteristics of the power system and demand resources, together with the economic conditions of the power market. In addition, the majority of research focuses on provision of energy arbitrage or ancillary services, with very little attention to DSR services for network capacity support. Accordingly, this paper presents comprehensive techno-economic methodologies for the quantification of three capacity-based business cases for DSR from small commercial and residential end-users. Case study results applied to a UK context indicate that, if the appropriate regulatory framework is put in place, services for capacity support to both DNOs and TSOs can result into potentially attractive business cases for DSR from small end-users with minimum impact on their comfort level. -- Highlights: •We present three business cases for DSR from domestic and commercial end-users. •A comprehensive techno-economic methodology is proposed for the quantification of each DSR business cases. •The regulatory implications associated with each business case are discussed

  10. Managements and marketing in Korca tourist destination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Shkira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is characterized as being a sector that stands out as one of the business activities with the greatest potential for worldwide expansion and as an engine for economic growth. If at the national level, the appeal of tourism is significant, on the local level this sector presents itself as an essential tool in regional development, as a means to avoid regional desertification and stagnation, stimulating the potential of more undeveloped regions. In such a competitive sector as tourism, companies should develop synergies and achieve competitive advantage. This paper reports on experiences and activities that are taken in destination management and marketing in Korça tourist region. Primarily it is told about importance of management and the role of marketing in the development of tourist destination and how to be combined them to grow up competitive advantages. Then are described all main problems of destination management and marketing in Korça region and all problems that are viewed in tourist villages of this region. In the end is suggested a model that can be used to develop sustainable tourism, to grow up profits and to reduce negative impacts that would come from this industry.

  11. Managing commodity markets: the case of OPEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, R.; Ferroukhi, R.

    1993-01-01

    Since primary commodity producers first took control of their natural resources, they have attempted to utilize production/price management with varying degrees of success. As a tool aimed at regulating, rather than controlling, commodity markets, this type of resource management is an essential means of achieving realistic economic returns, which, in the long run, serves the interests of the producer of the commodity in question, as well as its consumer. By regulating commodity markets in times of stable prices producing countries would benefit from a steady and constant level of export earnings, thus allowing them to achieve a sustainable level of economic development. As far as the oil market is concerned, stable prices, set in a range favourable to both producers and consumers, would give investors the confidence needed for long-term exploration. This is particularly important for a commodity such as oil, at a time when the lead time between exploration starting and actual production getting under way is increasing. Not only would producers benefit from stable export earnings, which are an essential requirement for the planning of their development process, but consuming countries would at the same time benefit in two ways: first, they would gain security of supply; and second, as fluctuations in their expenditure for this commodity are reduced, they would be a position to manage their economies more efficiently. (author)

  12. A framework for marketing image management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barich, H; Kotler, P

    1991-01-01

    Managers know that the customer's impression of an organization is important. And sometimes companies attempt to determine just what that impression is. They conduct ad hoc surveys and focus groups. But too often the data is insubstantial, or difficult to analyze, or even inaccurate. Barich and Kotler introduce the concept of "marketing image" and describe a system of image management: designing a study, collecting data, analyzing image problems, modifying the image, and tracking responses to that image. They argue that only a systematic approach will yield useful and accurate information that a company can translate into action.

  13. Benefits of Demand-Side Response in Providing Frequency Response Service in the Future GB Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Fei, E-mail: fei.teng09@imperial.ac.uk; Aunedi, Marko; Pudjianto, Danny; Strbac, Goran [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-18

    The demand for ancillary service is expected to increase significantly in the future Great Britain (GB) electricity system due to high penetration of wind. In particular, the need for frequency response, required to deal with sudden frequency drops following a loss of generator, will increase because of the limited inertia capability of wind plants. This paper quantifies the requirements for primary frequency response and analyses the benefits of frequency response provision from demand-side response (DSR). The results show dramatic changes in frequency response requirements driven by high penetration of wind. Case studies carried out by using an advanced stochastic generation scheduling model suggest that the provision of frequency response from DSR could greatly reduce the system operation cost, wind curtailment, and carbon emissions in the future GB system characterized by high penetration of wind. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the benefit of DSR shows significant diurnal and seasonal variation, whereas an even more rapid (instant) delivery of frequency response from DSR could provide significant additional value. Our studies also indicate that the competing technologies to DSR, namely battery storage, and more flexible generation could potentially reduce its value by up to 35%, still leaving significant room to deploy DSR as frequency response provider.

  14. Benefits of Demand-Side Response in Providing Frequency Response Service in the Future GB Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Fei; Aunedi, Marko; Pudjianto, Danny; Strbac, Goran

    2015-01-01

    The demand for ancillary service is expected to increase significantly in the future Great Britain (GB) electricity system due to high penetration of wind. In particular, the need for frequency response, required to deal with sudden frequency drops following a loss of generator, will increase because of the limited inertia capability of wind plants. This paper quantifies the requirements for primary frequency response and analyses the benefits of frequency response provision from demand-side response (DSR). The results show dramatic changes in frequency response requirements driven by high penetration of wind. Case studies carried out by using an advanced stochastic generation scheduling model suggest that the provision of frequency response from DSR could greatly reduce the system operation cost, wind curtailment, and carbon emissions in the future GB system characterized by high penetration of wind. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the benefit of DSR shows significant diurnal and seasonal variation, whereas an even more rapid (instant) delivery of frequency response from DSR could provide significant additional value. Our studies also indicate that the competing technologies to DSR, namely battery storage, and more flexible generation could potentially reduce its value by up to 35%, still leaving significant room to deploy DSR as frequency response provider.

  15. THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF MOBILE MARKETING IN THE SYSTEM OF MARKETING MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ninčević, Šime; Krajnović, Aleksandra; Bosna, Jurica

    2015-01-01

    Mobile marketing is a relatively new branch of marketing, referring to the two-way marketing communication between company and customers that takes place via mobile devices. The effectiveness of marketing campaigns has been greatly increased when mobile devices have been used in conjunction with traditional media and in that case potential customers show more intention to purchase. Implementation of mobile marketing strategy in marketing management is a complex and demanding process. To make ...

  16. Marketing resources management in conditions of domestic enterprises’ innovative development

    OpenAIRE

    E.A. Belovodskaya; Ya.A. Kovalenko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the article. In the article the urgency of differentiation of concepts marketing potential and marketing resource is examined. The appropriateness of marketing resources allocation into a separate part of the resource base of innovation-directed enterprises is defined. Theoretical bases of marketing resources management for innovation-oriented enterprise are investigated. The author's approach to classification of marketing resources and formation of principles of their management ...

  17. A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.H.

    2001-07-15

    Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively participate in competitive energy markets? In the short run, modified and/or improved operation of load management programs may be the most effective form of demand-side response available to the electricity system today. However, in light of recent technological advances in metering, communication, and load control, utility load management programs must be carefully reviewed in order to determine appropriate investments to support this transition. This report investigates the feasibility of and options for modifying an existing utility load management system so that it might provide reliability services (i.e. ancillary services) in the competitive markets that have resulted from electricity industry restructuring. The report is a case study of Southern California Edison's (SCE) load management programs. SCE was chosen because it operates one of the largest load management programs in the country and it operates them within a competitive wholesale electricity market. The report describes a wide range of existing and soon-to-be-available communication, control, and metering technologies that could be used to facilitate the evolution of SCE's load management programs and systems to provision of reliability services. The fundamental finding of this report is that, with modifications, SCE's load management infrastructure could be transitioned to provide critical ancillary services in competitive electricity markets, employing currently or soon-to-be available load control technologies.

  18. Spatial heterogeneity in utilities, equity and collective efficiency: the case of rural electrification and demand side management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadaud, F.

    2005-11-01

    This thesis has for object the evolution of the economic optimum in the electric industry under spatial equity constraint that present a strong spatial heterogeneity of its supply conditions. One analyses the evolution of the rural electrification regime in France both in terms of economic and social efficiency. We examine the rationality of extending the sectoral optimization under equity constraint to the rationalization of electricity end-uses in the heterogeneous space of rural electricity supply. To this question are given two responses. The firsts pertains to modify the incentives in the institutional regime of rural electrification so the MDE may be integrated in the strategies of rural electrification syndicates. One inspire from incentives mechanisms of the anglo-saxon DSM practice. The second is statistical zoning method of demand and distribution grid whose object is to localize action basins for large scale MDE projects. (author)

  19. DSM对配电网规划的影响%Influence of demand side management on distribution network planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付万明; 宋晓辉

    2006-01-01

    电力需求侧管理(DSM)的实施对电力系统及用户产生了广泛的影响.为充分发挥DSM的作用,在分析DSM的多种手段对电力负荷、供电量等方面影响的基础上,探讨了DSM对配电网规划的影响,并对配电网规划中DSM影响的处理方式进行了讨论,以期能提高DSM条件下配电网规划建设的经济合理性.

  20. The Use of Marketing Management Tools in E-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Svatošová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing management increasingly occupies an important position in the world of business as well as in the sphere of e-commerce. However, some companies underestimate the importance of marketing support. This paper focuses on the e-commerce marketing management and its importance that is currently in theory and practice underestimated. Based on the analysis of the current state, synthesis of knowledge are literature research, quantitative survey was conducted using questionnaires, which aims to determine the use of marketing management tools, weaknesses and effectiveness of the marketing management concept among Internet companies, focusing on online retailing. The results of the survey reject or not reject the hypotheses (by the Pearson’s χ2-test of independence, the Chi-square test, Friedman test, Nemenyi test of multiple comparisons and the Wilcoxon matched pairs test. The results of the survey show that the concept of e-commerce marketing management is not used effectively as well as marketing management tools. The survey founded out that the analysis phase, compared to other phases, the e-commerce marketing management is significantly undervalued. The survey also showed that the e-commerce marketing management concept is used at the tactical level, strategic tools are used to a limited extent. However, marketing management concept in e-commerce is not used in most cases (53.84%. The survey also has confirmed that the marketing activities of Internet companies are limited to Internet marketing, which is controlled only at the tactical level.

  1. Dynamics of energy-related CO2 emissions in China during 1980-2002: the relative importance of energy supply-side and demand-side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libo Wu; Kaneko, Shinji; Matsuoka, Shunji

    2006-01-01

    Based on a newly developed model that integrates energy production, transformation and consumption processes, this paper compares the relative importance of some traditionally recognized factors operating on the energy demand side with a body of newly defined factors on the supply side, in terms of their contribution to trends in China's CO 2 emissions related to the total primary energy supply (C-TPES). Before 1996, changes in China's C-TPES were mainly driven by changes on the energy demand side. Factors operating on the energy supply side played trivial roles. During the period 1996-2000, however, increasing demand-side effects declined dramatically and at the same time decreasing effects from supply side expanded significantly. Such changes resulted directly in a decline in the C-TPES. The decreasing effects from international trade as well as statistical imbalances between supply and demand reinforced the declining trend. The shrinkage of demand side effects mainly arose from the slowdown of economic growth and speed of decrease in energy intensity. The expansion of supply-side effects was principally attributed to the speed of decrease in gross unit consumption in transformation sectors, especially in electricity sector. Therefore, the acceleration of efficiency improvements in end-use and transformation sectors accounted for the decline in the C-TPES over the period 1996-2000. (author)

  2. Demand-Side Financing--A Focus on Vouchers in Post-Compulsory Education and Training: Discussion Paper and Case Studies. CEDEFOP Dossier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Anne; Sparkes, Jo; Balabanov, Todor

    The use of demand-side financing mechanisms and vouchers for postcompulsory secondary-level education was examined through case studies of funding practices in the following countries: Austria; France; the United Kingdom; the United States; and Wallonia (the French community of Belgium). Different models of voucher use were identified in the…

  3. [Management of Chinese materia medica market based on information asymmetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Nuo; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Yong-Yan; Huang, Lu-Qi; Liu, Jin-Xin

    2013-12-01

    Pharmaceutical market is a typical market with information asymmetry, and which can lead to "lemons" problem. In all developed countries, firms must receive regulatory approval to market a pharmaceutical product. Such administrative department including SFDA, EMA, FDA and so on. Chinese materia medica is a special part of pharmaceutical market in China. The management of Chinese materia medica is a special challenge in China.

  4. Survey of Models on Demand, Customer Base-Line and Demand Response and Their Relationships in the Power Market

    OpenAIRE

    Heshmati, Almas

    2012-01-01

    The increasing use of demand-side management as a tool to reliably meet electricity demand at peak time has stimulated interest among researchers, consumers and producer organizations, managers, regulators and policymakers, This research reviews the growing literature on models used to study demand, consumer baseline (CBL) and demand response in the electricity market. After characterizing the general demand models, it reviews consumer baseline based on which further study the demand response...

  5. Prediction Markets as a Way to Manage Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    volume helps management set production levels, but if management increases advertising it will undermine the market . This becomes critical for the DoD...34 Corporate Strategy Board. Gaspoz, C. (2008). "Prediction markets as an innovative way to manage R&D portfolios." CAiSE Doctoral Consortium. Montpellier...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT Prediction Markets as a Way to Manage Acquisition

  6. GREEN MARKETING ROLE IN WASTE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Anamaria IOAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study have exploratory character, aiming to conduct an analysis of the terminology used in the ecomarketing, and the way to approach green- marketing and waste collection activities in Romania. Aside from ecological waste management process and we consider the economic component of sustainable development, supported component of the legal aspects related to the subject. In other words, in this paper we intend to analyze in terms of terminology, legal and environmental policies but the most important aspects of waste management in companies in Romania. The importance of the study is on both the analysis corroborated information relating to waste collection in Romania, and the SWOT analysis performed on the present situation in Romania.

  7. EUROPEAN TRADITIONAL FOOD PRODUCERS AND MARKETING CAPABILITIES: AN APPLICATION OF MARKETING MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Banterle, Alessandro; Cavaliere, Alessia; Stranieri, Stefanella; Carraresi, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the marketing management capabilities of SMEs producing traditional food products, in order to analyse the market orientation of SMEs in the food industry. Following the theoretical approach of Market Orientation, our analysis is based on an assessment of the marketing management process. The methodology refers to a survey developed through a questionnaire published on the web, and a sample of 371 firms based in Belgium, Italy, Spain, the Czech Republi...

  8. Flexible investment under uncertainty in smart distribution networks with demand side response: Assessment framework and practical implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schachter, Jonathan A.; Mancarella, Pierluigi; Moriarty, John; Shaw, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Classical deterministic models applied to investment valuation in distribution networks may not be adequate for a range of real-world decision-making scenarios as they effectively ignore the uncertainty found in the most important variables driving network planning (e.g., load growth). As greater uncertainty is expected from growing distributed energy resources in distribution networks, there is an increasing risk of investing in too much or too little network capacity and hence causing the stranding and inefficient use of network assets; these costs are then passed on to the end-user. An alternative emerging solution in the context of smart grid development is to release untapped network capacity through Demand-Side Response (DSR). However, to date there is no approach able to quantify the value of ‘smart’ DSR solutions against ‘conventional’ asset-heavy investments. On these premises, this paper presents a general real options framework and a novel probabilistic tool for the economic assessment of DSR for smart distribution network planning under uncertainty, which allows the modeling and comparison of multiple investment strategies, including DSR and capacity reinforcements, based on different cost and risk metrics. In particular the model provides an explicit quantification of the economic value of DSR against alternative investment strategies. Through sensitivity analysis it is able to indicate the maximum price payable for DSR service such that DSR remains economically optimal against these alternatives. The proposed model thus provides Regulators with clear insights for overseeing DSR contractual arrangements. Further it highlights that differences exist in the economic perspective of the regulated DNO business and of customers. Our proposed model is therefore capable of highlighting instances where a particular investment strategy is favorable to the DNO but not to its customers, or vice-versa, and thus aspects of the regulatory framework which may

  9. Vouchers as demand side financing instruments for health care: a review of the Bangladesh maternal voucher scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jean-Olivier; Ensor, Tim; Hossain, Atia; Khan, Salam

    2010-07-01

    Demand side financing (DSF) mechanisms transfer purchasing power to specified groups for defined goods and services in order to increase access to specified services. This is an important innovation in health care systems where access remains poor despite substantial subsidies towards the supply side. In Bangladesh, a maternal health DSF pilot in 33 sub-districts was launched in 2007. We report the results of a rapid review of this scheme undertaken during 2008 after 1 year of its setup. Quantitative data collected by DSF committees, facilities and national information systems were assessed alongside qualitative data, i.e. key informant interviews and focus group discussions with beneficiaries and health service providers on the operation of the scheme in 6 sub-districts. The scheme provides vouchers to women distributed by health workers that entitle mainly poor women to receive skilled care at home or a facility and also provide payments for transport and food. After initial setbacks voucher distribution rose quickly. The data also suggest that the rise in facility based delivery appeared to be more rapid in DSF than in other non-DSF areas, although the methods do not allow for a strict causal attribution as there might be co-founding effects. Fears that the financial incentives for surgical delivery would lead to an over emphasis on Caesarean section appear to be unfounded although the trends need further monitoring. DSF provides substantial additional funding to facilities but remains complex to administer, requiring a parallel administrative mechanism putting additional work burden on the health workers. There is little evidence that the mechanism encourages competition due to the limited provision of health care services. The main question outstanding is whether the achievements of the DSF scheme could be achieved more efficiently by adapting the regular government funding rather than creating an entirely new mechanism. Also, improving the quality of health

  10. Measuring and managing customer relationship risk in business markets.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryals, Lynette; Knox, Simon

    2007-01-01

    There have been repeated calls from top management and marketing academics for greater accountability in marketing so that the financial returns of marketing investments can be more robustly evaluated. These are coalescing around the issue of whether or not marketing delivers shareholder value. One promising line of enquiry explores customer lifetime value and the profitable management of these relationships. Although helpful, this approach fails to make the final link with ...

  11. Unarticulated expertise: tacit knowledge production and the marketing manager

    OpenAIRE

    Ardley, Barry; Taylor, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to analyse the central characteristics of tacit knowledge in marketing decision making. Little empirical or theoretical work in marketing specifically addresses this area. Design\\methods: The study reports on a series of in depth interviews with marketing managers, using discourse analysis as a method of framing their accounts of practice. Findings: Managers in this study offer up a rich alternative discourse to much current mainstream theory in market...

  12. MARKETING IN HOTEL CORPORATION AND SPORT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag Koprivica

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Sportsmen are customers of hotel services, therofore sports managers must have about their organization and work. In the hotel business there are at least three involved parties, and each one of them has one or more main goals. Main goal of the hotel owners is to make profit, hotel employees is to earn their salaries and the hotel guests main goal is to get the satisfac- tion through the services that hotel offers. Main assignment of the hotel management is to create business strategy which would lead to satisfaction of all three involved parties. Favoring one of the involved party’s needs that leads to other parties disadvanta- ge is not a formula of successful management. Mission and vision of the hotel business are determined by the hotel owners them- selves. The goal of the hotel management is to “translate” the general business philo- sophy into goals, plans and measures in order to achieve the before mentioned philo- sophy. Determining of the (really achievable vision, “dream of success” if you will, is the foundation of the total and successful business politics in the hotelier business. The goal of this work is to answer the questions of the usefulness of the hotels marketing mix, diverse commercial tools and the resource size which hotels use for mar- keting. All in the function of general alignment of the universal business politics and concrete plans and functions.

  13. Conceptions of Marketing Management and Strategic Planning at the Market of Cellular Communication Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vladimirovna Perevoznikova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study and analysis of marketing management and strategic planning of the companies working in the field of cellular communication services. The article represented the concept of marketing management and strategic planning, and their importance in the business development. Objectives and tasks of marketing management in the telecommunications are considered. Тhe conceptions of marketing management and the advisability of their use in the market of cellular communication are described. Relationship of marketing management and strategic planning at activities of the organization are determined. The stages of strategic planning and types of global and corporate development strategies of companies in the telecommunication market are analyzed. The application features of the marketing management concepts and development strategies in the telecommunications sector are considered. The evaluation criteria and mobile operators performance indicators (data are formed. The conclusions about the role of the effective marketing management and strategic planning in the activities of mobile operators are formulated, that allows keeping marginality and high level of business profitability, creating competitive advantages in the conditions of highly competitive market, forming effective purchasing, sales activities and promotional activities, determining the correct tactics of behavior at the market.

  14. Managing the market risk in pipeline capacity positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simard, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    Managing the risk involved in adding new pipeline capacity was explored in this presentation. Topics discussed included: (1) pipeline capacity positions as basis swaps, (2) physical capacity versus basis transactions, (3) managing the market price risk in a capacity position, and (4) sharing of pipeline market risk. Pipeline owners were advised to recognize that pipeline capacity carries significant market price risk, that basis markets can sometimes be more volatile than outright markets, and to treat physical capacity market risk the same way as one would treat a financial basis position. 2 figs

  15. A review of efforts to restructure Texas' electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnikau, Jay

    2005-01-01

    Comparisons suggest that Texas has been relatively successful in its efforts to introduce greater competition and customer choice into its unique electricity market (Center for Advancement of Electricity Markets, 2002). Yet, Texas has defied many of the common prescriptions in designing its market. Texas has yet to establish a nodal congestion management system that directly assigns local congestion costs to entities responsible for creating transmission congestion. A liquid power exchange or spot market is absent. Programs designed to encourage demand side responsiveness had a slow start. Market concentration remains high. Market oversight activities are poorly funded. A generation adequacy mechanism or planning reserve margin requirement remains under debate. Has Texas simply been lucky in averting any real disasters? Or are these market features less important than commonly recognized? This article reviews the restructuring initiative and reports some key lessons learned following the first twenty months under the new wholesale market structure and fifteen months of retail competition

  16. A review of efforts to restructure Texas' electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnikau, J.

    2005-01-01

    Comparisons suggest that Texas has been relatively successful in its efforts to introduce greater competition and customer choice into its unique electricity market (Center for Advancement of Electricity Markets, 2002). Yet, Texas has defied many of the common prescriptions in designing its market. Texas has yet to establish a nodal congestion management system that directly assigns local congestion costs to entities responsible for creating transmission congestion. A liquid power exchange or spot market is absent. Programs designed to encourage demand side responsiveness had a slow start. Market concentration remains high. Market oversight activities are poorly funded. A generation adequacy mechanism or planning reserve margin requirement remains under debate. Has Texas simply been lucky in averting any real disasters? Or are these market features less important than commonly recognized? This article reviews the restructuring initiative and reports some key lessons learned following the first twenty months under the new wholesale market structure and fifteen months of retail competition. (author)

  17. Integrating watershed hydrology and economics to establish a local market for water quality improvement: A field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Emi; Swallow, Stephen K; Gold, Arthur; Opaluch, James; Kafle, Achyut; Merrill, Nathaniel; Michaud, Clayton; Gill, Carrie Anne

    2018-04-01

    Innovative market mechanisms are being increasingly recognized as effective decision-making institutions to incorporate the value of ecosystem services into the economy. We present a field experiment that integrates an economic auction and a biophysical water flux model to develop a local market process consisting of both the supply and demand sides. On the supply side, we operate an auction with small-scale livestock owners who bid for contracts to implement site-specific manure management practices that reduce phosphorus loadings to a major reservoir. On the demand side, we implement a real money, multi-unit public good auction for these contracts with residents who potentially benefit from reduced water quality risks. The experiments allow us to construct supply and demand curves to find an equilibrium price for water quality improvement. The field experiments provide a proof-of-concept for practical implementation of a local market for environmental improvements, even for the challenging context of nonpoint pollution.

  18. Key determinants of managing the marketing asset of global companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Tsygankova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of organization and summarization of key concepts of evolution of the marketing tools of global companies, the authors determined the role of the marketing assets in the system of modern marketing management (as a dialectically higher stage of development of the analyzed tools, which will allow overcoming the antagonistic contradiction of “P- and C-vectors” of their development. The article identified the optimal set of key elements of the system of marketing assets, which are the brand, customer loyalty, reputation, network cooperation, marketing strategy, internal marketing, marketing information system and marketing innovation. Due to correlation and regression analysis of the impact of each system elements on performance of global companies, the model of the "marketing asset octagon" was built as an integrative management tool. Also, as a result of construction of the said model, the authors identified the most profitable marketing assets, return on investment and development of competencies in the field of efficient management will bring the highest profit to the company. On the basis of summarizing the regional and branch features of managing the disparate elements of the marketing assets of global companies, the key regional and sectoral priorities of formation, development and improvement of existing concepts of the international marketing management were identified, particularly in terms of building an author’s integrative octagon model.

  19. Conceptual model innovation management: market orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Ya. Maljuta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights issues that determine the beginning of the innovation process. Determined that until recently in Ukraine at all levels of innovation management (regional, sectoral, institutional dominated grocery orientation innovation that focus on production innovation and found that the transition to a market economy, the restructuring of production and complexity of social needs led to the strengthening of the consumer. It is proved that innovation itself – not the ultimate goal, but only a means of satisfying consumer needs. It proved that changing production conditions, complications of social needs and the need to improve the competitiveness of innovations require finding new forms of innovation. In this regard, proposed to allocate such basic scheme (model of innovation in small businesses, individual entrepreneurs, venture capital firms, eksplerents, patients, violents and commutants, spin-offs and spin-out company, network (or shell company and a network of small businesses.

  20. Congestion management rules and trading strategies in the Spanish electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furio, Dolores; Lucia, Julio J. [Departamento de Economia Financiera y Actuarial, Universidad de Valencia, Avda. Los Naranjos, s/n, 46022 - Valencia (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    This paper analyses the economic incentives embodied in the rules governing the resolution of transmission constraints in the Spanish wholesale electricity market and the way these incentives may have influenced on the trading behaviour of both the generators and the demand side. The evidence obtained is consistent with them responding to these incentives. In particular, buyers would respond to the way congestion costs are billed to them by abandoning the daily market in favour of the intraday market as far as possible. Additionally, some strategic generators may have been prompted the system operator to require them to inject electricity into the system to solve network congestions. Finally, these results may contribute to shed light on what should be expected of the reform in the aforementioned rules. (author)

  1. Congestion management rules and trading strategies in the Spanish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furio, Dolores; Lucia, Julio J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the economic incentives embodied in the rules governing the resolution of transmission constraints in the Spanish wholesale electricity market and the way these incentives may have influenced on the trading behaviour of both the generators and the demand side. The evidence obtained is consistent with them responding to these incentives. In particular, buyers would respond to the way congestion costs are billed to them by abandoning the daily market in favour of the intraday market as far as possible. Additionally, some strategic generators may have been prompted the system operator to require them to inject electricity into the system to solve network congestions. Finally, these results may contribute to shed light on what should be expected of the reform in the aforementioned rules. (author)

  2. Perceptions of Sustainable Marketing Management by Export Companies in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran I Čajka

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present research paper deals with perceptions of sustainable marketing management in the strategies of export companies in Serbia. The objectives in this paper are manifold. They are to emphasize the importance of green marketing management in export activities of domestic companies which pursue their green management plan; to evaluate the company’s share in specific marketing segments, and to highlight the significance of successful green marketing management in modern business. Domestic green-oriented companies, which export their products to many different countries, look into the possibility of increasing their sales volumes. The findings in the paper support the hypotheses that domestic companies are perceptive of sustainable marketing issues in their business activities, and sustainable marketing management is becoming an important factor in business activities of modern companies.

  3. Marketing Decision Making and Decision Support: Challenges and Perspectives for Successful Marketing Management Support Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H. van Bruggen (Gerrit); B. Wierenga (Berend)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMarketing management support systems (MMSS) are computer-enabled devices that help marketers to make better decisions. Marketing processes can be quite complex, involving large numbers of variables and mostly outcomes are the results of the actions of many different stakeholders (e.g.,

  4. Foundations of Constructing a Marketing Data Base; Profitable Applications of the Computer to Marketing Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podell, Harold J.

    An introduction into the foundations of constructing a marketing data base is presented for the systems and marketing executives who are familiar with basic computer technology methods. The techniques and concepts presented are now being implemented by major organizations in the development of Management Information Systems (MIS). A marketing data…

  5. Electricity market design and risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschi, Federico; Cervigni, Guido

    2005-01-01

    We show that each wholesale electricity market design trades-off between efficiency and liquidity. Efficiency requires that the product traded in the wholesale market closely reflect the physical features of electricity. Liquidity requires standardization of the products that ore traded on the wholesale market. We stress that Iiquidity comes at a cost since an excessive degree of standardization may lead to significant inefficiencies and forge wealth transfers among market participants [it

  6. Key determinants of managing the marketing asset of global companies

    OpenAIRE

    Tatyana Tsygankova; Roman Ponomarenko

    2016-01-01

    As a result of organization and summarization of key concepts of evolution of the marketing tools of global companies, the authors determined the role of the marketing assets in the system of modern marketing management (as a dialectically higher stage of development of the analyzed tools, which will allow overcoming the antagonistic contradiction of “P- and C-vectors” of their development). The article identified the optimal set of key elements of the system of marketing assets, which are th...

  7. Marketing a managed care plan: achieving product differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, N C

    1996-01-01

    The health care marketplace is changing dramatically, even without federal reform measures. This is a volatile, yet promising, time to market a managed care plan. Before marketing the product, it is critical that the competition is thoroughly evaluated and consumer and employer needs are researched. The final product should be distinguishable from the competition and address market needs. Promotion can then begin, utilizing a proactive public relations and advertising campaign in addition to traditional methods of marketing.

  8. FORMATION OF MARKETING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF THE ENTERPRISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Tkachenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to find out the level of effectiveness of marketing management and create an effective system, it becomes evident that a more in-depth study of the management of marketing activity as a process that occurs under the influence of a set of factors, which consideration can enable to better detect and solve existing problems, is necessary. The subject of the study is the theoretical and methodological foundations of management of the marketing activities of an enterprise and methods for evaluating its effectiveness. The purpose of the study is to build a system for managing marketing activities of an enterprise. In order to achieve the purpose of the study, the following tasks are set and solved: to substantiate theoretical and methodological foundations of the formation of the management system of marketing activity of enterprise, to specify components of this system, and to identify types of links between the components of the management system of marketing activity of enterprise and the factors influencing it and its efficiency, to determine composition of indicators of efficiency of marketing management system of enterprise. Methodology. The paper uses the following methods and approaches to research: marketing approach, abstract-logical approach used in the study of theoretical and methodological foundations of interaction management, analysis of theoretical approaches to the formation of a management system for marketing activities of enterprise, inductive and deductive (used in determining factors influencing the formation of a management system for marketing activities of enterprise, systematization and generalization (to clarify the concept of “marketing management”, methods of science abstraction (to form a system of indicators characterizing the efficiency of enterprise marketing management. Results. Most approaches to the formation of marketing management systems are of a procedural nature, that is, they focus only on the

  9. Marketing the Masters of Executive Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    market themselves to attract new students ( Kotler , 2003). The format of this chapter continues with an outline of the different strategic phases...Implementation H. Evaluation and Control Source: Developed from (Kerin & Peterson, 2004), ( Kotler , 2003) Figure 1. MEM Marketing Plan...strategically evaluate which market they are actually operating in. According to ( Kotler , 2003), “organizations develop mission statements to share

  10. Hospital marketing orientation and managed care processes: are they coordinated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K R; Thompson, J M; Patel, U B

    2001-01-01

    The hospital marketing function has been widely adopted as a way to learn about markets, attract sufficient resources, develop appropriate services, and communicate the availability of such goods to those who may be able to purchase such services. The structure, tasks, and effectiveness of the marketing function have been the subject of increased inquiry by researchers and practitioners alike. A specific understanding of hospital marketing in a growing managed care environment and the relationship between marketing and managed care processes in hospitals is a growing concern. Using Kotler and Clarke's framework for assessing marketing orientation, we examined the marketing orientation of hospitals in a single state at two points in time--1993 and 1999. Study findings show that the overall marketing orientation score decreased from 1993 to 1999 for the respondent hospitals. The five elements of the Kotler and Clarke definition of marketing orientation remained relatively stable, with slightly lower scores related to customer philosophy. In addition, we evaluated the degree to which selected managed care activities are carried out as part of its marketing function. A significant (p marketing function was evident from 1993 to 1999. With increasing numbers of managed care plan enrollees, hospitals are likely focusing on organizational buyers as important customers. In order to appeal to organizational buyers, hospital executives may be focusing more on clinical quality and cost efficiency in the production of services, which will improve a hospital's position with organizational buyers.

  11. Managing and reallocating inventory across two markets with local information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiliotopoulou, E.

    2018-01-01

    Consider a firm that controls inventory centrally for two separate markets that are managed by regional managers having local demand information. The central planner provides a dedicated inventory level to each market, to ensure a minimum service level, but can reallocate inventory once associated

  12. Risk management of power supply in open electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinta-Runsala, E.; Kiviniemi, J.

    1999-12-01

    The open electricity market has increased the need of risk management in electric utilities. In this publication the concepts of risk assessment and measures mostly concentrating on market risks for power supply companies are reported. An essential past of the risk management includes the electricity derivates and trade

  13. Private Forests: Management and Policy in a Market Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick W. Cubbage; Anthony G. Snider; Karen Lee Abt; Robert L. Moulton

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discusses privately owned forests and timber management in a market economy, including private property rights and tenure, landowner objectives and characteristics, markets, and government policies. Private forest land ownership and management-whether it be industrial or nonindustrial-is often assumed to represent the classic model of atomistic competition...

  14. Managed Care, Distance Traveled, and Hospital Market Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Frech, Ted E

    1998-01-01

    Most scholars and antitrust cases have defined hospital service markets as primarily local. But, two recent decisions have greatly expanded geographic markets, incorporating hospitals as far as 100 miles apart. Managed care plans, now important in most markets, were believed to shift patients to distant hospitals to capture lower prices. We examine distance traveled and its connection to managed care penetration. In contrast to earlier literature, we examine both direct and indirect effects. ...

  15. Innovation and Market-Driven Management in Fast Fashion Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Arrigo

    2010-01-01

    In hyper-competitive markets, innovation is critical for the growth of market-driven companies. An examination of case studies of highly competitive global companies in the fast fashion sector, reveals that detailed understanding of the market, deriving from direct management of their stores, enables Zara, Gap and H&M to develop an innovation management capability. This is a fundamental competitive driver for the company's success.

  16. Modern plant management in the competitive market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, B.; Franke, U.; Freitag, J.U. [E.ON Kraftwerke GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    Forced by the deregulation of the energy market and the big drop of electricity prices E.ON Kraftwerke was completely reorganised. Small, flexible units that are focussed on their key tasks were formed. Costs for electricity generation in our plants were reduced. Power plants that are currently not economically efficient are temporarily shut down. Power plants that are permanently not economically efficient are totally shut down. We have now reached a point at which energy prices slowly start to rise again. With our new plant management organization we have a lasting effect on further successfully operating power plants and a positive development of our company. Looking into the future does not create fear about what to do but positive believe that we will soon start new projects. This is the fundament for a stable, successful power plant company. (orig.) [German] Unter dem erheblichen Kostendruck, dem alle Energieversorger derzeit ausgesetzt sind, wurde die Aufbauorganisation von E.ON Energie grundlegend veraendert. Bei E.ON Kraftwerke wurden durch die Schaffung kleiner, flexibler Einheiten und eine klare Konzentration auf das Kerngeschaeft die Kosten fuer die Stromerzeugung in den eigenen Anlagen deutlich gesenkt. Die Auslastung vorhandener wirtschaftlicher Bloecke ist durch die Konservierung von derzeit nicht wirtschaftlichen bzw. durch die Stillegung langfristig nicht wirtschaftlicher Anlagen erheblich verbessert worden. Nachhaltig wurde damit eine Betriebsfuehrungsstrategie entwickelt, die den Bestand und eine positive Entwicklung der Kraftwerksgesellschaft sichert. (orig.)

  17. Risk management and portfolio optimization in volatile energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ramly, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Characteristics of competitive markets, especially as they relate to the deregulated electricity market, are explained in terms of pricing, contracting, operation, the types of physical and financial products and services, and procurement decisions. The importance of market monitoring, organization monitoring and analysis, the understanding of market dynamics and the impacts of market data, price volatility and risk, and how they affect and are used in decision making are reviewed in some detail. A variety of proprietary task-specific power tools such as the ZE Data Manager, ZE XML Importer, ZE Market Analyzer, ZE Forward Price Models, ZE Trade Manager, and ZE Credit Risk Manager are described, and their application demonstrated. The inter-relatedness of price volatility and risk is discussed, along with the need to understand, monitor, quantify and deal with it on a continuous basis

  18. Managing Licensing in a Market for Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arora, Ashish; Rønde, Thomas; Fosfuri, Andrea

    the technology makes licensing decisions—to centralized licensing. The business unit has superior information about licensing opportunities but may not have the appropriate incentives because its rewards depend upon product market performance. If licensing is decentralized, the business unit forgoes valuable...... licensing opportunities since the rewards for licensing are (optimally) weaker than those for product market profits. This distortion is stronger when production-based incentives are more powerful, making centralization more attractive. Growth of technology markets favors centralization and drives higher...

  19. Expanding health insurance scheme in the informal sector in Nigeria: awareness as a potential demand-side tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewole, David Ayobami; Akanbi, Saidat Abisola; Osungbade, Kayode Omoniyi; Bello, Segun

    2017-01-01

    The implementation and expansion of a health insurance scheme in the informal sector, particularly in developing countries, is a challenge. With the aid of an innovative Information-Education and Communication model, titled 'Understanding the concept of health insurance: An innovative social marketing tool', an assessment of the awareness and perception of the scheme among market women was carried out. This is a cross-sectional descriptive survey, carried out among market women in Ibadan, Nigeria. In a multi-stage sampling technique, a total of 351 women were interviewed using an interviewer-administered, semi-structured questionnaire. The data was analysed using SPSS version 16. Chi-square test was used to test associations between selected variables of interest. Logistic regression model was used to determine predictors of awareness of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). A model controlling for participants' enrolment status was built and Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) reported. Level of statistical significance was set at p market women aged 18 years and above participated in the study, a response rate of 98.0%. Respondents' educational status was the only predictor significantly associated with awareness of the NHIS. Respondents with post-primary education had 10 times the odds of being aware of the NHIS than respondents with no education or only primary education (Adjusted Odds Ratio = 10.3; 95% CI = 4.1-26.0). Innovative models to enable potential beneficiaries, especially among the informal sector, to better comprehend and accept the concept of prepayment methods of financing healthcare costs is important in efforts to implement and expand a social health insurance scheme.

  20. 2008 Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremper, C.

    2009-07-01

    This report assesses the market for Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) services as it existed in FY 2008. It discusses Federal energy management goal progress in FY 2008, and examines the environment in which agencies implemented energy management projects over the last three years. The report also discusses some recent events that will increase the market for FEMP services, and outlines FEMP's major strategies to address these changes in FY 2009 and beyond.

  1. Sustainable Market Involvement in Transport Infrastructure Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leendertse, Willem; Arts, Jos; de Ridder, Hennes

    2016-01-01

    The construction industry is going through hard times in many countries. This is certainly true in the Netherlands as all big Dutch contractors face disappointing results. The market policies of major (public) clients are held accountable by politics and the market for this situation. However, for

  2. Sustainable Market Involvement in Transport Infrastructure Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leendertse, W.L.; Arts, Jos; de Ridder, H.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    The construction industry is going through hard times in many countries. This is certainly true in the Netherlands as all big Dutch contractors face disappointing results. The market policies of major (public) clients are held accountable by politics and the market for this situation. However,

  3. Market architecture and power demand management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rious, Vincent; Roques, Fabien

    2014-12-01

    Demand response is a cornerstone problem in electricity markets considering climate change constraint. Most liberalized electricity markets have a poor track record at developing demand response. In Europe, different models are considered for demand response, from a development under a regulated regime to a development under competitive perspectives. In this paper, focusing on demand response for mid-size and small consumers, we investigate which types of market signals should be sent to demand response aggregators to see demand response emerge as a competitive activity. Using data from the French power system over eight years, we compare the possible market design options to allow demand response to develop. Our simulations demonstrate that with the current market rules, demand response is not a profitable activity in the French electricity industry. Introducing a capacity remuneration could bring additional revenues to demand response aggregators if the power system has no over-capacity

  4. Effects of top management involvement in integrated marketing communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Hočevar

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available There is scarce empirical evidence in the academic literature of how top management involvement influences the degree of integrated marketing communications. At the same time, some authors believe that this relationship should be explored more extensively.In this paper we present one possible approach to investigating the relationship between top management involvement and the degree of integrated marketing communications. Our research established that a greater involvement of top management in marketing communications could be associated with a higher degree of IMC. Investigating the relationship between management and IMC is indeed at a very early stage. We suggest that this study has provided a basis for future research on the relationship between top management involvement in marketing communications and the degree of IMC.

  5. Importance of marketing management in the world pfarmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Kesič

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The world pharmaceutical industry has changed tremendously in the last decade. Globalization processes reinforce a consolidation of the world pharmaceutical industry. Mergers and acquisitions prevail more and more as a strategic orientation of numerous world pharmaceutical companies. In our research we found out that marketing management has been playing an increasingly important or even a crucial role in day-today activities and strategic business operations of the world pharmaceutical companies. We may point out that a rapid consolidation of the world pharmaceutical industry is definitely a market-driven process, one conditioned by typical strategic marketing management issues, such as a lack of brand new products, intense competitiveness, globalization processes, increased global marketing and sales activities, changing structure of global competitors as well as a furious fight for global market shares and customers’ loyalty. We estimate that marketing management is to play an even more important and, especially, the top priority strategic role in the future globalization and concentration processes of the world pharmaceutical industry. Some experiences and lessons from the global perspective of the world pharmaceutical industry could also be useful to the management of pharmaceutical companies in the transition countries of the Central and Eastern European region. Taking into consideration the current market position of these companies, some marketing management guidelines for their marketing management policies and strategies could be suggested. We conclude that underestimating, or even complete neglect of the importance of marketing management issues may pose the greatest threat to the future strategic orientation and performance of the world pharmaceutical industry.

  6. Role of marketing metrics in strategic brand management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamula Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the role and importance of a brand as a strategic instrument of a company, that ensures sustainability of company's performance in the market on a longer-term basis. To achieve brand competitiveness, it is necessary to manage its equity, which is presented in this paper as an imperative of everyday business operations. Brand evaluation in strategic management is conducted by measuring brand performance in the market, finding measures and ways to manage the brand successfully in order to increase its equity using the set of marketing metric indicators.

  7. Social media marketing : Acquiring customer loyalty and relationship management using social media as a marketing channel

    OpenAIRE

    Saqib, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Social media is a marketing phenomenon that is growing very fast. Social media helps creating value for customers in broadcasting the advertising among social networks. Blog posts, videos, pictures, reviews and ratings all have a significant impact on marketing. The purpose of the thesis is to investigate how companies can achieve customer loyalty and customer relationship management using social media marketing and if companies can target new customers by social media. An inductive ...

  8. Contrariety of Private Monopoly and Open Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terzic, B.

    2011-01-01

    America's evolving electricity markets offer significant lessons for the European Union and non-EU countries aspiring to introduce competition into the electricity sector of their economies. These lessons must be understood, however, in the context of the United States' unique mix of asset ownership, regulatory bifurcation between state and federal agencies and its national energy and electricity policy history. It is in the context that lessons can be drawn from the period of 1999-2002 where the US saw the failure of one large power market in California and the success of a similary sized market in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Maryland (the PJM). Subsequent state policy decisions to move ahead with subsidized renewable energy production, demand-side management and 'smart grid' improvements have further complicated state and federal relations and federal regulations of wholesale power markets. (author)

  9. Identifying and Managing Engineering Design Requirements for Emerging Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xuemeng

    , especially for those companies originally from developed markets, to acquire an in-depth understanding of particular design requirements in emerging markets in order to adapt both company products and approaches in such contexts. Prior studies on the identification and management of design requirements have...... predominantly been conducted in the context of developed countries and relatively affluent markets. Emerging markets are distinct from developed markets in terms of numerous contextual factors, e.g., regulatory environments and competitive landscapes. These factors influence the requirement identification...... attention. There is a need for an overview of different perspectives in requirement identification for manufacturing companies and their corresponding assessments in the context of emerging markets. Therefore, this research project is motivated to 1) investigate the process of identifying and managing...

  10. Risk and investment management in liberalized electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Jacob Kjærgaard

    2005-01-01

    markets affects the nancial risk related to different decision problems within the areas of risk management and investments in liberalized electricity markets. Focus is on applied microeconomics and analyzes of the interplay between market design parameters and the technical characteristics...... of the electricity system. Theory, literature and introduction to speci c problem areas related to risk management and investments is provided in two separate introductory chapters. Contributions to research within specific problems areas is then subsequently provided by five research papers. The two topics...... are relatively broad, however the two chapters and ve papers all share analyzes of nancial risk in liberalized electricity markets as a common underlying theme. The risk management part of the thesis focusses on modelling and measurement of financial risk in electricity markets. Key topics are electricity price...

  11. MANAGING RISK BY COORDINATING INVESTMENT, MARKETING, AND PRODUCTION STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Donald A.; Boehlje, Michael

    1983-01-01

    This study of the farm firm integrates long run investment and financial decisions, and short-run production and marketing decisions into a single decision framework that includes both time and risk. The results suggest that the use of various strategies for managing market risks allow the entrepreneur to accept mores risk in investing and producing; and that an integrated analysis of production, marketing and investment-financing alternatives is essential to make accurate recommendations abo...

  12. [Marketing as a tool in the medical institution management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, N G; Balokhina, S A

    2009-01-01

    The contemporary social economic conditions dictate the necessity to change tactics and strategy of functioning of medical institutions of different property forms. Marketing, alongside with management is to become a leading concept of administration of medical institutions. It should be a framework for systematic collection, registration and analysis of data relevant to the medical services market. The issues of the implementation of marketing concept in the practical everyday activities of commercial medical organization providing cosmetology services to population of metropolis.

  13. School Principals as Marketing Managers: The Expanding Role of Marketing for School Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anast-May, Linda; Mitchell, Mark; Buckner, Barbara Chesler; Elsberry, Cindy

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relative importance that school principals attach to aspects of their role as marketing managers for their schools and their relative satisfaction with their efforts to date. The study included 60 principals from two school districts. Findings suggest that principals are aware of the importance of marketing in today's…

  14. Medical group management: a marketing orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, K D; Allcorn, S

    1986-09-01

    This article considers the pragmatic aspects of conducting a situation/marketing audit for group medical practices. This audit is a key component in the formulation of a competitive strategy and the development of a marketing program. Given are a series of questions that may be used by medical groups to guide assessment of the opportunities and threats present in the environment as well as the strengths and weaknesses of the organization in meeting the environmental challenges. Furthermore, the article provides a framework for thinking about strategy and the variables that should be considered and aligned to achieve effective implementation of strategy. Finally, the parameters are outlined for deciding on a marketing program: the mix of marketing tools (service design, distribution channels, pricing and promotion) that should be employed to offensively and/or defensively position the medical group in the competitive marketplace.

  15. Marketing the Masters of Executive Management Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barrera, Mark A; Karriker, Timothy W

    2007-01-01

    ... with these requirements and, if not, what changes to curriculum should be considered. Information collected was then used to determine prospective customers while creating a detailed marketing strategy for the GSBPP...

  16. Corporate citizenship : let not relationship marketing escape the management toolbox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindgreen, A.; Swaen, V.

    2005-01-01

    There has been a continual proliferation of marketing concepts and `paradigms' that supposedly offer solutions to the challenges that companies are facing. Relationship marketing is one such concept that has moved to the forefront of research and practice; it promises companies a management tool to

  17. Efficiently Inefficient Markets for Assets and Assets Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garleanu, Nicolae; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We consider a model where investors can invest directly or search for an asset manager, information about assets is costly, and managers charge an endogenous fee. The efficiency of asset prices is linked to the efficiency of the asset management market: if investors can find managers more easily......, more money is allocated to active management, fees are lower, and asset prices are more efficient. Informed managers outperform after fees, uninformed managers underperform after fees, and the net performance of the average manager depends on the number of "noise allocators." Finally, we show why large...

  18. Managing total corporate electricity/energy market risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henney, A.; Keers, G.

    1998-01-01

    The banking industry has developed a tool kit of very useful value at risk techniques for hedging risk, but these techniques must be adapted to the special complexities of the electricity market. This paper starts with a short history of the use of value-at-risk (VAR) techniques in banking risk management and then examines the specific and, in many instances, complex risk management challenges faced by electric companies from the behavior of prices in electricity markets and from the character of generation and electric retailing risks. The third section describes the main methods for making VAR calculations along with an analysis of their suitability for analyzing the risks of electricity portfolios and the case for using profit at risk and downside risk as measures of risk. The final section draws the threads together and explains how to look at managing total corporate electricity market risk, which is a big step toward managing total corporate energy market risk

  19. The New Fundamentals Of Marketing | Smith | LBS Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Topics addressed include: marketing and brand metrics, launching of a new brand, the evolving role ... creation of customer loyalty and/or commitment, customer intelligence, and positioning. ... LBS Management Review Vol.8(1) 2003: 28-55 ...

  20. Management and marketing of sporting events: Nike Premier Cup Project

    OpenAIRE

    Nedbal, Jakub

    2008-01-01

    Title: Management and marketing ofsporting events: Nike Premier Cup project Points of thesis: Publish the Nike Premier Cup promotion campaign project and point out improvement possibilities for upcoming years based on analysis ofpast and present state. Methods: Data will be obtained by interview, observation, description analysis and SWOT analysis Results: Promotion campaign, improvement possibilities, final day schedule Keywords: SWOT analysis, promotion, management, marketing, Nike Premier ...

  1. Load Management of Data Centers as Regulation Capacity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders; Ghatikar, Girish; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2014-01-01

    are of special interest as they account for 500 GWh of consumption in Denmark or nearly 2% of the total electricity consumption. This paper performs an analysis on load management capabilities of data centers in Denmark based on the experiences in the U.S. We characterize the load management capabilities...... for transmission system operators and distribution system operators and balance errors in forecasts made by balance responsible parties. By enabling the demand-side to adapt consumption to match power generation, we can address this in a cost-effective and environmental sound way. In this context, data centers...... of the data centers based on their types, technology, and their application as grid management resources. Further, we identify demand-side entry barriers towards market participation. Our findings suggest that groups of data centers can offer dynamic load flexibility as virtual power plants, and thereby...

  2. Management and marketing for the general practice dental office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Earl; Bhatia, Sanjeev

    2008-07-01

    This article reviews trends in the dental marketplace. Marketing is an essential element of dentistry. Communicating treatment options with patients is one aspect of marketing. Treatment planning helps patients understand the relationships between oral health, occlusion, temporomandibular joint function, and systemic health. Through marketing, dental practice owners inform patients of ever-changing treatment modalities. Understanding treatment options allows patients to make better, informed choices. More options leads to a higher level of care and more comprehensive dental treatment. Managing a practice requires tracking its financial health. Economic statistics measure the effect of management decisions that mark the direction of a dental practice.

  3. MARKETING ASPECTS IN STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING

    OpenAIRE

    Dario Dunkovic; Durdica Juric; Tereza Nikolic

    2010-01-01

    Strategic management accounting has an important role to play in providing information about the major sources of competitive advantage of an enterprise. In increasingly dynamic environments the provision of strategically relevant information is of paramount importance for the formulation and execution of business strategies. Management control systems together with traditional management accounting represent a starting point for the development of modern management accounting concepts. There...

  4. Managing risks of market price uncertainty for a microgrid operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Sriram

    After deregulation of electricity in the United States, the day-ahead and real-time markets allow load serving entities and generation companies to bid and purchase/sell energy under the supervision of the independent system operator (ISO). The electricity market prices are inherently uncertain, and can be highly volatile. The main objective of this thesis is to hedge against the risk from the uncertainty of the market prices when purchasing/selling energy from/to the market. The energy manager can also schedule distributed generators (DGs) and storage of the microgrid to meet the demand, in addition to energy transactions from the market. The risk measure used in this work is the variance of the uncertain market purchase/sale cost/revenue, assuming the price following a Gaussian distribution. Using Markowitz optimization, the risk is minimized to find the optimal mix of purchase from the markets. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer quadratic program. The microgrid at Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) in Chicago, IL was used as a case study. The result of this work reveals the tradeoff faced by the microgrid energy manager between minimizing the risk and minimizing the mean of the total operating cost (TOC) of the microgrid. With this information, the microgrid energy manager can make decisions in the day-ahead and real-time markets according to their risk aversion preference. The assumption of market prices following Gaussian distribution is also verified to be reasonable for the purpose of hedging against their risks. This is done by comparing the result of the proposed formulation with that obtained from the sample market prices randomly generated using the distribution of actual historic market price data.

  5. Women, Livestock Markets and Income Management

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    resource allocation. Men and women play different roles in agricultural ... income on their family while men spend 30-40% of their income, even ... egg sales becoming more male-dominated. In Kenya, most ... markets, including issues of mobility, balancing household ... Development programmes need to work with men and ...

  6. Operations Management in Short Term Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide-Jørgensen, Ditte Mølgård

    Electricity market models have often been modelled as deterministic or at most two-stage stochastic models with an hourly time resolution. This thesis looks into possible ways of extending such models and formulating new models to handle both higher time resolution than hourly and stochastics wit...

  7. A Study on Marketing Management Tool use of Customer Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Barsalini Martins

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the relation between management tools of Relationship Marketing (RM with customers. The auxiliary tools in the process of Relationship Marketing were analyzed: Customer Relationship Management (CRM, Loyalty Programs, Endomarketing and Marketing Research. This study presented a multicase comparative in six companies, in which three of them have already deployed the management of Relationship Marketing with their clients, and the other three companies that were in the preliminary phase of deployment of these. The data collection was made from semi-structured interviews with professionals who worked in three hierarchical levels (strategic, tactical, and operational of each participating company, using both the technique of data collection by e-mail and personal interview. The approach was qualitative, with phenomenological analysis. It was found that the deployment of Relationship Marketing by the organizations surveyed takes place in a significant amount of time, where investments have occurred by pressure of the environment, in particular by loss of market share, the need to promote customer loyalty, to improve competitiveness and concern with the customer. It was not clear that the process of deployment of Relationship Marketing originated from the strategic planning and used proactively.

  8. Managing congestion and intermittent renewable generation in liberalized electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Friedrich

    2013-02-27

    This dissertation focuses on selected aspects of network congestion arising in liberalized electricity markets and their management methods with a special weight placed on the integration of increased renewable generation in Europe and Germany. In a first step, the theoretical concepts of congestion management are introduced complemented by a review of current management regimes in selected countries. In the second step, the European approach of managing congestion on international as well as national transmission links is analyzed and the benefits of an integrated congestion management regime are quantified. It is concluded that benefits can be achieved by a closer cooperation of national transmission system operators (TSOs). Thirdly, the German congestion management regime is investigated and the impact of higher renewable generation up to 2020 on congestion management cost is determined. It is shown that a homogeneous and jointly development of generation and transmission infrastructure is a prerequisite for the application of congestion alleviation methods and once they diverge congestion management cost tend to increase substantially. Lastly, the impact of intermittent and uncertain wind generation on electricity markets is analyzed. A stochastic electricity market model is described, which replicates the daily subsequent clearing of reserve, day ahead, and intraday market typical for European countries, and numerical results are presented.

  9. Let the market help prescribe forest management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Zinn; Edward Pepke

    1989-01-01

    To obtain the best economic returns from a hardwood forest, you must consider markets. Management decisions made now will affect a stand's future character and value, whether or not the decision results in immediate timber sales. Progressive forest landowners will have a management plan for their woodlots. Typically, such plans are largely land- and resource-...

  10. Customer experience management in digital channels with marketing automation

    OpenAIRE

    Mattila, J. (Juho)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Superior customer experience and successful customer experience management can create a competitive advantage that is difficult to match by the competitors. However managing customer experience successfully the customer experience needs to be considered in the context of multiple marketing channels and multiple customer segments which requires a lot of resources. With the difficult financial conditions today the us...

  11. Market analysis and risk management of EU emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollikainen, M.; Ollikka, K.; Aatola, P.; Ahonen, H.M.; Pohjola, T.; Kumpulainen, A.; Lappalainen, E.

    2006-01-01

    The first EU emissions trading period commenced on 1 January 2005. It implies new challenges to companies included in the scheme. A central challenge is the uncertainty related to the markets. In order to manage risks and profitability companies need to be able to estimate future price developments of emission allowances. University of Helsinki is conducting a research project in cooperation with Helsinki University of Technology that will provide necessary information for analyzing emission allowance markets and create risk management competence. The objectives of the research project are 1) to develop a price estimation model for EU emission allowances and 2) to develop risk management competence related to EU emission allowances. With the price estimation model the short-term price developments of EU emission allowances can be estimated. By utilizing the model companies can reduce uncertainties related to the markets. The project will also deliver a general risk management model for emission allowances that aims at improving competitiveness of companies. (orig.)

  12. Marketing and strategic management: integrating skills for a better hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, S S

    1987-05-01

    Participants in a 1985 one-day seminar sponsored by the American Hospital Association's Society for Hospital Planning and Marketing were asked two questions: How many of the hospitals represented here have conducted marketing surveys in the recent past? How many of you were satisfied with the results of the survey or could integrate it into the strategic management of your institution? While all but two of the 125 participants answered yes to the first question, only two responded affirmatively to the second. A gap between having a survey done and implementing the results had been identified. The administrators had probably rushed into "marketing" with little forethought and even less effort to comprehend how this management skill fits into existing institutional skills, capabilities, roles, and goals. To close the gap between marketing theory and practice an institution must adopt a more far-reaching, proactive stance toward integrating marketing into the management routine at an early stage. This article presents a case study that may help health care administrators rethink the role of marketing in management and its place in the sequence of strategic decision making for their institution.

  13. Mathematics, Pricing, Market Risk Management and Trading Strategies for Financial Derivatives (2/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Coffey, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Market Trading and Risk Management of Vanilla FX Options - Measures of Market Risk - Implied Volatility - FX Risk Reversals, FX Strangles - Valuation and Risk Calculations - Risk Management - Market Trading Strategies

  14. Managing gas plant margins through the financial commodities market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, D.; Lafferty, L.

    1995-01-01

    Gas processors invest capital in gas plants to condition raw natural gas for market. They also attempt to upgrade the value of natural gas streams by removing gas liquids contained in these streams and selling them for a profit. Unfortunately, this is not always possible. Gas processing profit margins swing up and down in line with the volatility of the natural gas and gas liquids markets. Consequently the return on gas processors invested capital also swings up and down through ''good years'' and ''bad years''. Until recently, gas processors have had to bear the risk associated with these swings in margins. While an efficient market exists for products like crude oil on the New York Mercantile Exchange, no similar market has been available for gas liquids. The NYMEX propane contract has not developed sufficient liquidity for year round hedging of propane, much less the other gas liquids. Processors in regions without access to the Belvieu market encounter an even more difficult task attempting to use the NYMEX contract to hedge. Today this inability to manage risk is beginning to change. The natural gas markets have led the way since their deregulation with an actively traded over-the-counter forwards market firmly established. An over-the-counter forwards market for gas liquids has also started to emerge. It is through these new and emerging markets that a gas plant's profitability can be hedged

  15. Efficiently Inefficient Markets for Assets and Asset Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garleanu, Nicolae; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    We consider a model where investors can invest directly or search for an asset manager, information about assets is costly, and managers charge an endogenous fee. The efficiency of asset prices is linked to the efficiency of the asset management market: if investors can find managers more easily......, more money is allocated to active management, fees are lower, and asset prices are more efficient. Informed managers outperform after fees, uninformed managers underperform after fees, and the net performance of the average manager depends on the number of "noise allocators." Small investors should...... be passive, but large and sophisticated investors benefit from searching for informed active managers since their search cost is low relative to capital. Hence, managers with larger and more sophisticated investors are expected to outperform....

  16. Multiple policies to enhance prescribing efficiency for established medicines in Europe with a particular focus on demand-side measures: findings and future implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eGodman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The appreciable growth in pharmaceutical expenditure has resulted in multiple initiatives across Europe to lower generic prices and enhance their utilisation. However, considerable variation in their use and prices. Objective: Assess the influence of multiple supply and demand-side initiatives across Europe for established medicines to enhance prescribing efficiency before a decision to prescribe a particular medicine. Subsequently utilise the findings to suggest potential future initiatives that countries could consider. Method: Analysis of different methodologies involving cross national and single country retrospective observational studies on reimbursed use and expenditure of PPIs, statins and renin-angiotensin inhibitor drugs among European countries. Results: Nature and intensity of the various initiatives appreciably influenced prescribing behaviour and expenditure, e.g. multiple measures resulted in reimbursed expenditure for PPIs in Scotland in 2010 56% below 2001 levels despite a 3 fold increase in utilisation and in the Netherlands, PPI expenditure fell by 58% in 2010 vs. 2000 despite a 3-fold increase in utilisation. A similarly picture was seen with prescribing restrictions, i.e. (i more aggressive follow-up of prescribing restrictions for patented statins and ARBs resulted in a greater reduction in the utilisation of patented statins in Austria vs. Norway and lower utilisation of patented ARBs vs. generic ACEIs in Croatia than Austria. However, limited impact of restrictions on esomeprazole in Norway with the first prescription or recommendation in hospital where restrictions do not apply. Similar findings when generic losartan became available in Western Europe. Conclusions: Multiple demand-side measures are needed to influence prescribing patterns. When combined with supply-side measures, activities can realise appreciable savings. Health authorities cannot rely on a ‘spill over’ effect between classes to affect

  17. Integrating internal communications, human resource management and marketing concepts into the new internal marketing philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Sinčić, Dubravka; Pološki Vokić, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Successful companies attach great importance to human resource management and internal communications, because they are aware of the value of those activities and of strategic advantage they can bring to the organization. They should also realize that it is necessary to live internal marketing philosophy, if they stream to offer quality products and services to both markets: internal and external. The idea of satisfied employees for the benefit of satisfied customers is accepted and developed...

  18. The utility target market model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leng, G.J.; Martin, J.

    1994-01-01

    A new model (the Utility Target Market Model) is used to evaluate the economic benefits of photovoltaic (PV) power systems located at the electrical utility customer site. These distributed PV demand-side generation systems can be evaluated in a similar manner to other demand-side management technologies. The energy and capacity values of an actual PV system located in the service area of the New England Electrical System (NEES) are the two utility benefits evaluated. The annual stream of energy and capacity benefits calculated for the utility are converted to the installed cost per watt that the utility should be willing to invest to receive this benefit stream. Different discount rates are used to show the sensitivity of the allowable installed cost of the PV systems to a utility's average cost of capital. Capturing both the energy and capacity benefits of these relatively environmentally friendly distributed generators, NEES should be willing to invest in this technology when the installed cost per watt declines to ca $2.40 using NEES' rated cost of capital (8.78%). If a social discount rate of 3% is used, installation should be considered when installed cost approaches $4.70/W. Since recent installations in the Sacramento Municipal Utility District have cost between $7-8/W, cost-effective utility applications of PV are close. 22 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  19. Power plant operation and management in a deregulated market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carraretto, Cristian [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia, 1-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2006-05-15

    This paper analyzes the influence of electricity deregulation on the design, operation and management of the power plants owned by strategic and non-strategic producers. After a sensitivity analysis aimed at finding market conditions of profitable operation for thermal and hydroelectric power plants, a Nash-equilibrium market model is used to determine producers' optimum strategies, depending on their relative market power and overall production characteristics. Attention is then focused on the operation of single thermal power plants. Their short-term management plans and consequent effects on emission levels and residual life are described. The available reserve for primary and secondary control deriving from producers' market strategies is discussed. Some design options to improve combined cycles contribution to reserve service are finally described. The paper discusses these problems with a general approach, and uses many cases and examples derived from the current Italian scenario. (author)

  20. Power plant operation and management in a deregulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carraretto, Cristian

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of electricity deregulation on the design, operation and management of the power plants owned by strategic and non-strategic producers. After a sensitivity analysis aimed at finding market conditions of profitable operation for thermal and hydroelectric power plants, a Nash-equilibrium market model is used to determine producers' optimum strategies, depending on their relative market power and overall production characteristics. Attention is then focused on the operation of single thermal power plants. Their short-term management plans and consequent effects on emission levels and residual life are described. The available reserve for primary and secondary control deriving from producers' market strategies is discussed. Some design options to improve combined cycles contribution to reserve service are finally described. The paper discusses these problems with a general approach, and uses many cases and examples derived from the current Italian scenario. (author)

  1. Retailers' risk management and vertical arrangements in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroumand, Raphaël Homayoun; Zachmann, Georg

    2012-01-01

    The failure of the asset-light retailer's organizational model is indicative of the incapacity of this organizational structure to manage efficiently the combination of sourcing and market risks in the current market environment. Because of the structural dimensions of electricity's market risks, a retailer's level of risk exposure is unknown ex ante and will only be revealed ex post when consumption is known. In contrast to the “textbook model” of electricity reforms, the paper demonstrates through numerical simulations that in the current market context pure portfolios of contracts are incomplete risk management instruments compared to physical hedging. The latter is critical to overcome the asset-light retailer's curse. - Highlights: ► The paper analyses the risks faced by electricity retailers. ► We study the limits of contractual hedging. ► Through numerical simulations, we compare the risk profiles of different portfolios of hedging. ► We demonstrate the superior efficiency of physical hedging.

  2. Business continuity management in emerging markets: the case of Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawalha, Ihab H; Anchor, John R

    2012-01-01

    Despite their considerable growth in last few decades, emerging markets (EM) face numerous risks that have the potential to slow down or obstruct their development. Three main issues are discussed in this paper: first, the risks facing organisations operating in emerging markets and Jordan in particular; secondly, the role of business continuity management (BCM) in emerging markets; and thirdly, potential factors that underpin the role of BCM in emerging markets. These issues are significant, as they represent the role of BCM in highly dynamic and fast changing business environments. The paper provides a discussion of the significance of BCM in reducing or preventing risks facing organisations operating in emerging markets, especially those in Jordan.

  3. Conservation markets for wildlife management with case studies from whaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Leah R; Costello, Christopher; Gaines, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    Although market-based incentives have helped resolve many environmental challenges, conservation markets still play a relatively minor role in wildlife management. Establishing property rights for environmental goods and allowing trade between resource extractors and resource conservationists may offer a path forward in conserving charismatic species like whales, wolves, turtles, and sharks. In this paper, we provide a conceptual model for implementing a conservation market for wildlife and evaluate how such a market could be applied to three case studies for whales (minke [Balaenoptera acutorostrata], bowhead [Balaena mysticetus], and gray [Eschrictius robustus]). We show that, if designed and operated properly, such a market could ensure persistence of imperiled populations, while simultaneously improving the welfare of resource harvesters.

  4. Optimization Under Uncertainty for Management of Renewables in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco

    -by-price. In a similar setup, the optimal trading (and pricing) problem for a retailer connected to flexible consumers is considered. Finally, market and system operators are challenged by the increasing penetration of renewables, which put stress on markets that were designed to accommodate a generation mix largely......This thesis deals with the development and application of models for decision-making under uncertainty to support the participation of renewables in electricity markets. The output of most renewable sources, e.g., wind, is intermittent and, furthermore, it can only be predicted with a limited...... accuracy. As a result of their non-dispatchable and stochastic nature, the management of renewables poses new challenges as compared to conventional sources of electricity. Focusing in particular on short-term electricity markets, both the trading activities of market participants (producers, retailers...

  5. Strategic marketing audit in business management

    OpenAIRE

    Yalovega Natalya I.

    2011-01-01

    The author of the article presents own definition of the term «strategic marketing audit», identifies its goals and aims and considers stages of the process of strategic marketing audit.В статье приведено авторское определение понятия «стратегический маркетинговый аудит», определены его цель и задачи, обоснованы этапы процесса стратегического маркетингового аудита....

  6. Strategies for risk management using the paper markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annesley, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the significant milestones in the evolution of the oil markets, with emphasis on the reasons for the changing structures of the markets, and the roles of different types of participant. After explaining the current structure of the oil markets - futures - forwards - options and derivatives the paper then explains some basic strategies. Finally some of the favourite strategies of refiners, producers and end users will be explored. Some cautionary comments on deal tracking, control systems and other associated risk management requirements will round off this paper. (author)

  7. The market for electric vehicles. Political and economic boundary conditions of the supply and demand sides; Der Markt fuer Elektrofahrzeuge. Politisch-wirtschaftliche Rahmenbedingungen der Angebots- und Nachfrageseite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunnert, Stefan; Steyer, Maria-Alexandra [Stadtwerke Muenchen GmbH (Germany); Hoberg, Patrick; Leimeister, Stefanie [Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany). fortiss An-Institut; Krcmar, Helmut [Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany). fortiss An-Institut; Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Wirtschaftsinformatik

    2010-11-15

    Electromobility is an issue of discussion currently, and the discussion is getting increasingly polarizing. As the petroleum resources worldwide are decreasing, road vehicles have come into focus as one of the biggest pollution sources. It is necessary to make mobility environmentally acceptable and also sustainable. So far, however, there are many challenges and a lack of information that make it difficult to assess the fitness for future of this mobility concept. (orig.)

  8. Risk management in electricity markets emphasizing transmission congestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, Tarjei

    2004-01-01

    This thesis analyzes transmission pricing, transmission congestion risks and their associated hedging instruments as well as mechanisms for stimulating investments in transmission expansion. An example of risk management in the case of a hydropower producer is included. After liberalization and restructuring of electricity markets, risk management has become important. In particular the thesis analyzes risks due to transmission congestion both in the short- and long-term (investments) for market players such as generators, loads, traders, independent system operators and merchant investors. The work is focused on the northeastern United States electricity markets and the Nordic electricity markets. The first part of the thesis reviews the literature related to the eight research papers in the thesis. This describes the risks that are relevant for an electricity market player and how these can be managed. Next, the basic ingredients of a competitive electricity market are described including the design of the system operator. The transmission pricing method is decisive for hedging against transmission congestion risks and there is an overview of transmission pricing models considering their similarities and differences. Depending on the transmission pricing method used, locational or area (zonal) pricing, the electricity market players can use financial transmission rights or Contracts for Differences, respectively. In the long-term it is important to create mechanisms for investments in transmission expansion and the thesis describes one possible approach and its potential problems. The second part comprises eight research papers. It presents empirical analyses of existing markets for transmission congestion derivatives, theoretical analyses of transmission congestion derivatives, modeling of merchant long-term financial transmission rights, theoretical analysis of the risks of the independent system operator in providing financial transmission rights, an analysis

  9. Public Sector Reforms: New Public Management without Marketization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfgren, Karl; Pedersen, John Storm

    2012-01-01

    Is it possible to imagine New Public Management without marketization? In Denmark the present liberal-conservative Government has, throughout its 10 years in power, designed and implemented more than 15 major management reforms in the public sector. Although most of the reforms are rhetorically...... firmly rooted in neo-liberal ideologies they have, in practice, promoted tools and mechanisms of the “traditional,” or Old, Public Management. Based on an empirical study of the reforms, we suggest that the notion of “pragmatic” New Public Management is introduced to enhance the current understanding...... of New Public Management in the Western industrialized societies....

  10. A golden age or a false dawn? Energy efficiency in UK competitive energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyre, N.

    1998-01-01

    Liberalisation of energy markets may affect the prospects for energy efficiency in a variety of ways. Downward pressure on prices will reduce incentives for efficiency and the end of a supply monopoly makes more difficult mandating demand side management programmes. On the other hand, the removal of price controls could end some regulatory disincentives, and liberalisation enables suppliers to market energy efficiency bundled with energy units. The overall effects of liberalisation for energy efficiency are therefore complex. This paper focuses on the effects of liberalisation on those characteristics of energy markets which underpin long-term energy inefficiency. These barriers to energy efficiency have been shown to arise from fundamental features of traditional utility markets - notably centralisation, commoditization and the complexity of demand side investment. The extent to which these will be altered in liberalised markets in the UK is considered. It is concluded that some important market imperfections are not addressed by competition in the supply of energy commodities. However, more fundamental changes may in the longer term encourage more differentiation in supply markets, in which there could be higher priority for energy efficiency. The policy measures which might encourage the process are discussed. (author)

  11. Incentivizing secondary raw material markets for sustainable waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Maximilian; Wagner, Jeffrey

    2017-09-01

    Notwithstanding several policy initiatives in many countries over a number of years, there remains a general sense that too much municipal solid waste is generated and that too much of the waste that is generated is landfilled. There is an emerging consensus that a sustainable approach to waste management requires further development of secondary raw material markets. The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical economic model that focuses upon this stage of a sustainable waste management program and explores policy options that could motivate efficiency in secondary raw material markets. In particular, we show how firm profit and social welfare optimizing objectives can be reconciled in a two-product market of waste management processes: landfilling and material reclamation. Our results provide theoretical support for building out recent Circular Economy initiatives as well as for the relatively recent emergence of landfill mining as a means for procuring secondary raw materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Managing Licensing in a Market for Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arora, Ashish; Fosfuri, Andrea; Rønde, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    , we find that interdependency across business units may result in more, not less, decentralization. Furthermore, even though centralization results in less information, centralized licensing deals are larger. Our model conforms to the existing evidence that reports heterogeneity across firms in both......Technology licensing is an important means for companies to extract more value from their intellectual assets. We build a model that helps understand how licensing activity should be organized within large corporations. More specifically, we compare decentralization—where the business unit using...... the technology makes licensing decisions—to centralized licensing. The business unit has superior information about licensing opportunities but may not have the appropriate incentives because its rewards depend on product market performance. If licensing is decentralized, the business unit forgoes valuable...

  13. Market Demand for Sustainability in Management Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitsham, Matthew; Clark, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to contribute to the ongoing debate about the relevance of sustainability in management education through exploration of the needs and expectations of a key group of business schools' stakeholders--senior executives of leading corporations. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents findings from a survey regarding…

  14. Liberalising energy markets: Cost management using measurement data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girsberger, H.

    2000-01-01

    This article looks at the various factors involved in assuring good cost management and customer relations in the liberalised energy market such as price levels, additional services and added value for the customer. The additional information required by the utilities to be able to implement such customer-oriented strategies is considered and ways of collecting and processing the data on energy consumption, customer profiles and trends are described. The further analysis of the data and the compilation of reports for management, marketing, engineering and quality assurance departments are discussed, as are the information technology and equipment interfaces required to do this

  15. Marketing the Masters of Executive Management program

    OpenAIRE

    Barrera, Mark A.; Karriker, Timothy W.

    2007-01-01

    MBA Professional Report The purpose of this MBA project was to review the current Masters of Executive Management education curriculum at NPS. An internal analysis of the current program was conducted to fully understand the strategic goals of the program and the existing curriculum. An environmental scan of current and potential military customers was conducted to assess requirements for junior executive education and determine whether the MEM program corresponds with these requiremen...

  16. The role of knowledge management in mobile marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukowski, Wojciech

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile marketing is one of the fastest growing channels of marketing information. Mobile terminal devices and mobile networks allow for mass personalisation of content transmitted to individual recipients thereby facilitating recipient segmentation within one-to-one marketing. Mobile marketing means using interactive wireless media to provide clients with personal information with precise profiling using geo-location, time, and often associated with their interests, sex or other attributes, promoting goods, services and ideas, thus, also generating added value for all the process participants. Mobile media has completely transformed the present concept of marketing campaigns and has opened up a wide array of new opportunities for advertisers. They have also brought new challenges for companies using CRM and KM. In a study involving a group of students, efforts were made to determine the factors which are likely to contribute to finding the answer to the question of how to effectively run mobile marketing campaigns and what should be taken into account when using the tools and knowledge offered by knowledge management and customer relationship management.

  17. The Islamic Capital Market Response to the Real Earnings Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Yuliana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to prove the effect of the company's status, i.e membership on the Islamic capital market and the status as suspect firm, as a determinant of real earnings management (REM. REM is conducted by abnormally increasing sales, increasing production and reducing discretionary costs in order to achieve a certain earnings target. This study uses Earnings Distribution Analysis (EDA technique, which refers to the Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979 to identify the suspect firms. Suspect firms are companies that have small positive earnings. The samples of this research are companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2011 and 2012. Based on the result of regression analysis, hypothesis testing results show that the suspect firms conduct real earnings management in all three types of activities more aggressively than the non-suspect firms. Furthermore, this study also showed empirical evidence that there are differences in real earnings management actions between companies listed in the Islamic capital market compared to conventional capital markets. Then, this study also showed that the Islamic capital market is more appropriate in response to the REM than the conventional capital market.

  18. MARKETING AND MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION ON MEGATRENDS IN MODERN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Hrabrovski-Tomic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During recent five decades, remarkable growth of tourist traffic and tourist spending was recorded in the international scale so, eventually the tourist market recorded great changes. The appearance of the mega trends in the tourist market is a direct consequence of rapid expansion of the entire tourism industry and the development of global tourism supply and demand has contributed to the improvement of many tourism products customized only for needs of modern consumers. These mega trends are primarily related to: timesharing, incentive travel, and frequent user programs. As the phenomena that largely determined development of global tourism, mentioned trends are presented in this paper, mostly from the aspect of marketing and management in tourism but with special emphasis on the elements of their marketing mix (product, price, promotion and distribution.

  19. Managing and operating the reserve market as one insurance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Youfei; Cai, Bin; Wu, F.F.; Ni, Y.X.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, it is suggested that the preference of an individual consumer for its power supply reliability should be considered when scheduling the system reserve. The mechanism of 'provider insurance' is introduced and the reserve market is to be managed as an insurance system. In our modeling, the generator who provides the insurance of reliable power supply via its reserve, should always collect the payment (the premium), and be rewarded with the spot market price for its called reserve. The consumer who buys the insurance, pays premium and thus obtains a reliable power supply (the claim). It is argued that such a market mechanism will result in the maximum social welfare. Moreover, it is shown that there is a kind of 'moral hazard in reverse' fact that will further improve the market efficiency. Later on, discussions on implementing the proposed method are given, and an illustrative example is provided to show basic features of the proposed method. (author)

  20. EARNINGS MANAGEMENT: DETERMINANT FACTORS AND STOCK PRICE IN DEVELOPING MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Fanani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to prove whether manager coped its earnings for the purpose ofinformative or target opportunistic. Research also investigated whether investment opportunity setinfl uenced the choice of manager to report as opportunistic to hide performance, or to report earningmore informative concerning with debt, political cost, market share, and earning. Sample of thisresearch was chosen by using purposive sampling of 350 manufacturing business listed in the JakartaStock Exchange, started from 1997 up to 2002. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM by using programof Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS was considered as the appropriate statistical technique toexamine pattern relation of formed model. The results showed that earning management conductedby manager in Developing Market such as Indonesia represented informative earning managementwhich meant all investors had more own belief in earning reporting, but this research could notprove that company owning high investment opportunity set tended to conduct informative earningmanagement.

  1. Transmission congestion management in the electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we mainly discuss how to optimize the arrangement to decrease the loss of each line when the power generation side of the system transmission congestion occurs in a safe and economical manner. We respectively set the adjust model if the transmission can be eliminated which can calculate the best scheme and safety margin model when transmission cannot be eliminated which is a multi-objective planning problem. We solve the two models on the condition of the load power demands are 982.4MW and 1052.8 MW by Lingo and get the optimal management scheme.

  2. Reactive power management and voltage control in deregulated power markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Robert G.

    The research that is the subject of this dissertation is about the management of reactive power and voltage support in the wholesale open access power markets in the United States (US). The purpose of this research is to place decisions about open access market structures, as they relate to reactive power and voltage control, on a logical and consistent economic basis, given the engineering needs of a commercial electric power system. An examination of the electricity markets operating in the US today reveals that current approaches to reactive power management and voltage support are extensions of those based on historical, regulated monopoly electric service. A case for change is built by first looking at the subject of reactive power from an engineering viewpoint and then from an economic perspective. Ultimately, a set of market rules for managing reactive power and voltage support is proposed. The proposal suggests that cost recovery for static and dynamic VARs is appropriately accomplished through the regulated transmission cost of service. Static VAR cost recovery should follow traditional rate recovery methodologies. In the case of dynamic VARs, this work provides a methodology based on the microeconomic theory of the firm for determining such cost. It further suggests that an operational strategy that reduces and limits the use of dynamic VARs, during normal operations, is appropriate. This latter point leads to an increase in the fixed cost of the transmission network but prevents price spikes and short supply situations from affecting, or being affected by, the reactive capability limitations associated with dynamic VARs supplied from synchronous generators. The rules are consistent with a market structure that includes competitive generation and their application will result in the communication of a clear understanding of the responsibilities, related to voltage control, of each type of market entity. In this sense, their application will contribute to

  3. Efficiency of Management and Marketing Strategies within The Dental Office

    OpenAIRE

    Oprea Valentin BUSU; Elena Cristina ANDREI

    2017-01-01

    This article is based on research about the management and marketing strategies within the dental office and how we can better understand its importance. One of the major problems faced by dentists today is the management of the dental office. Certainly, from the outside, individuals perceive the dentist's office as a simple medical unit in which medical staff operate. However, people living in the field face each day multiple problems of both medical and bureaucratic nature. For the dentist/...

  4. Managerial Stress Management as an Asset in People Management Being a Marketing Strategy Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Radnović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Any service organization operating under turbulent market conditions must have a successful marketing strategy. A successful marketing strategy implies proper management of all elements within a marketing mix: service package, price, distribution channels, promotion, service process, service ambience and people. People, i.e. primarily the employed within an organization are one of the elements that must be appropriately considered when drawing up and implementing a marketing strategy. Proper personnel management must nowadays include good management of managerial stress. Adequate managerial stress management is preconditioned by successful identification of sources of managerial stress. The aim of this paper is to present the importance of proper and timely identification of sources of managerial stress. The paper demonstrates the carried out scientific research based on a method that is universal for all types of organizations, regardless of their type and activity, in order to precisely identify the sources of managerial stress and define its proper management, as an asset in people management, which is an element of marketing strategy. The research was conducted using a survey, sampling 100 employees in 13 organizations throughout Serbia. Survey results indicated that the most important sources of managerial stress are: participation in decision-making, selection process, earnings, and time and deadlines pressure. Therefore, recommendations are provided for directing identified sources of managerial stress towards successful management of people as an element of marketing strategy.

  5. Non-market pricing for an improved solid waste management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-market pricing for an improved solid waste management system in Arba Minch ... in Arba Minch, a tourist hub and one of the rapidly growing towns in Ethiopia. ... The mean WTP estimated in this survey can serve as a guide for municipal ...

  6. Marketing a national forest: the resource manager's dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard A. Clonts; Jeffrey R. Hibbert

    1995-01-01

    National Forests throughout the United States are facing critical management decisions regarding optimal resource use amidst strong countervailing pressures for access. Visitors to Talladega National Forest in Alabama were surveyed to develop appropriate marketing strategies. Cluster analysis showed that separate homogeneous user groups exist. This information was...

  7. Textbooks in Management, Marketing and Finance: An Analysis of Readability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Daniel J.; Thompson, G. Rodney

    1982-01-01

    Examines the readability of texts in basic junior level college courses in the fields of management, marketing, and finance. The readability model is described, along with its application and results. Specific texts and how they fared are listed in accompanying tables. (CT)

  8. Program Management Educational Needs of Idaho Business and Marketing Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchel, Allen; Cannon, John; Duncan, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived program management professional development needs of Idaho secondary business/marketing teachers (N = 233) in order to guide pre-service curriculum development and in-service training activities. Sixty-two percent (n = 146) of the 233 teachers completed a modified version of Joerger's (2002)…

  9. Ohio Marketing Management and Research. Technical Competency Profile (TCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Gayl M.; Wilson, Nick; Mangini, Rick

    This document provides a framework for a broad-based secondary and postsecondary curriculum to prepare students for employment in marketing management and research (MMR). The first part of the technical competency profile (TCP) contains the following items: an explanation of the purpose and scope of Ohio's TCPs; college tech prep program…

  10. Student Guide for Documenting Experiential Learning: Sales and Marketing Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastline Community Coll., Fountain Valley, CA.

    Coastline Community College has developed a series of guides to assist adults who wish to obtain college credit or advanced standing in evaluating and verifying their non-college learning experiences. This guide lists the competency requirements of six courses in the Sales and Marketing Management program: Principles of Accounting, Salesmanship,…

  11. Student Guide for Documenting Experiential Learning: Business Management and Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastline Community Coll., Fountain Valley, CA.

    Coastline Community College has developed a series of guides to assist adults who wish to obtain college credit or advanced standing in evaluating and verifying their non-college learning experiences. This guide lists the competency requirements of seven courses within the Business Management and Marketing program: Principles of Accounting,…

  12. Essays on Market Microstructure, Behavioral Finance, and Asset Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochec, Marek

    2009-01-01

    This is a study on various aspects of market microstructure, behavioral finance and asset management. In the first chapter we put the PIN variable (Probability of Information-based trading) to test. The PIN variable has been used extensively in the microstructure literature despite the fact that its construction is based on rather strong…

  13. Managing fleet capacity effectively under second-hand market redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillérou, Emmanuelle; Roudaut, Nolwenn; Guyader, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    Fishing capacity management policies have been traditionally implemented at national level with national targets for capacity reduction. More recently, capacity management policies have increasingly targeted specific fisheries. French fisheries spatially vary along the French coastline and are associated to specific regions. Capacity management policies, however, ignore the capital mobility associated with second-hand vessel trade between regions. This is not an issue for national policies but could limit the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies. A gravity model and a random-effect Poisson regression model are used to analyze the determinants and spatial extent of the second-hand market in France. This study is based on panel data from the French Atlantic Ocean between 1992 and 2009. The trade flows between trading partners is found to increase with their sizes and to be spatially concentrated. Despite the low trade flows between regions, a net impact analysis shows that fishing capacity is redistributed by the second-hand market to regions on the Channel and Aquitaine from central regions. National capacity management policies (constructions/destructions) have induced a net decrease in regional fleet capacity with varying magnitude across regions. Unless there is a change of policy instruments or their scale of implementation, the operation of the second-hand market decreases the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies in regions on the Channel and Aquitaine.

  14. Towards a synergic innovation management model: the interplay of market, technology, and management innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Tchuta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a model of firm innovation management known as the synergic innovation management model. Building on the theory of dynamic capabilities and core competence, the paper suggest three capabilities of firms namely market, technology, management capabilities that drive firms’ innovations. The combination of these three capabilities creates a unique configuration for a firm known as the firm’s core competence that informs the firm's strategic decisions. The synergic innovation management model guides firm in the simultaneous exploration of market, technology, and management innovations required for sustainable business. The paper concludes with limitations of the model and suggestions for further research.

  15. THE MANAGEMENT OF BRAND EQUITY IN EDUCATIONAL MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Kazue Kagawa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify what the factors that motivate and influence a student to remain in a IES - Higher Education Institutions, through marketing concepts applied to educational marketing along with a survey of 508 students UERGS - State University of Rio Grande do Sul, enrolled in the second half of 2013. Among the theoretical frameworks: Philip Kotler in the study of strategies for managing brand equity, Sonia Simões Colombo in educational marketing and Valter Afonso Vieira scales in marketing. The research by attitudes was based Mattar (2003 the result of the analysis was obtained through a questionnaire with Likert scales of constructs that allowed us to identify which are the desires, needs and positive perceptions in relation to the expectations of current students in aspects cognitive, affective and behavioral, as well as the perception of the image and quality of Uergs in view of these students. And so the strengths that enable strengthen your image in the educational market and weaknesses that can be improved with management of brand equity without losing focus on quality and its main product were identified, knowledge.

  16. Examining the potential of natural gas demand-side measures to benefit customers, the distribution utility, and the environment: two case studies from Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, A.T. de; Carvalho, A.; Mariano, J.; Broege, M.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how integrated resource planning (IRP) oriented to the gas sector can be applied both in new networks and in mature networks, and to present the advantages of its application. One case study is described, in the western central region of Portugal, to illustrate the results of a pilot project on natural gas IRP implementation in a new network in the European Union (EU). The city of Burg, Germany, with a mature gas network with district heating was also analysed in terms of IRP potential. The most important phases of the integrated resource plan definition and implementation (especially those oriented to the demand-side) are presented, namely, the definition of the most efficient technologies (including solar energy), fuel-switching possibilities, a detailed study of the impacts in the economy, environment and society, and the policy incentives necessary to motivate the gas utility companies to perform IRP. In the main case study, the suggested implementation plan would lead to a reduction of around 4.7% in natural gas consumption. Additionally, 13.3% of cost-effective fuel switching from other competing forms of energy to natural gas can be achieved. A proposed EU energy services directive on mandatory energy-efficiency activities for gas and electricity distribution utilities in the EU, will promote the large-scale implementation of the proposed approach in Europe. (author)

  17. A study protocol: using demand-side financing to meet the birth spacing needs of the underserved in Punjab Province in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmat, Syed Khurram; Ali, Moazzam; Hameed, Waqas; Mustafa, Ghulam; Abbas, Ghazanfer; Ishaque, Muhammad; Bilgrami, Mohsina; Temmerman, Marleen

    2014-05-30

    High fertility rates, unwanted pregnancies, low modern contraceptive prevalence and a huge unmet need for contraception adversely affect women's health in Pakistan and this problem is compounded by limited access to reliable information and quality services regarding birth spacing especially in rural and underserved areas. This paper presents a study protocol that describes an evaluation of a demand-side financing (DSF) voucher approach which aims to increase the uptake of modern contraception among women of the lowest two wealth quintiles in Punjab Province, Pakistan. This study will use quasi-experimental design with control arm and be implemented in: six government clinics from the Population Welfare Department; 24 social franchise facilities branded as 'Suraj' (Sun), led by Marie Stopes Society (a local non-governmental organization); and 12 private sector clinics in Chakwal, Mianwali and Bhakkar districts. The study respondents will be interviewed at baseline and endline subject to voluntary acceptance and medical eligibility. In addition, health service data will record each client visit during the study period. The study will examine the impact of vouchers in terms of increasing the uptake of modern contraception by engaging private and public sector service providers (mid-level and medical doctors). If found effective, this approach can be a viable solution to satisfying the current demand and meeting the unmet need for contraception, particularly among the poorest socio-economic group.

  18. A study protocol: using demand-side financing to meet the birth spacing needs of the underserved in Punjab Province in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background High fertility rates, unwanted pregnancies, low modern contraceptive prevalence and a huge unmet need for contraception adversely affect women’s health in Pakistan and this problem is compounded by limited access to reliable information and quality services regarding birth spacing especially in rural and underserved areas. This paper presents a study protocol that describes an evaluation of a demand-side financing (DSF) voucher approach which aims to increase the uptake of modern contraception among women of the lowest two wealth quintiles in Punjab Province, Pakistan. Methods/Design This study will use quasi-experimental design with control arm and be implemented in: six government clinics from the Population Welfare Department; 24 social franchise facilities branded as ‘Suraj’ (Sun), led by Marie Stopes Society (a local non-governmental organization); and 12 private sector clinics in Chakwal, Mianwali and Bhakkar districts. The study respondents will be interviewed at baseline and endline subject to voluntary acceptance and medical eligibility. In addition, health service data will record each client visit during the study period. Discussion The study will examine the impact of vouchers in terms of increasing the uptake of modern contraception by engaging private and public sector service providers (mid-level and medical doctors). If found effective, this approach can be a viable solution to satisfying the current demand and meeting the unmet need for contraception, particularly among the poorest socio-economic group. PMID:24885657

  19. Transmission dispatch and congestion management in open market systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Risheng

    This thesis is located in the domain of electricity supply industry restructuring. It deals with emerging issues, whose understanding is essential to advancing knowledge of open access transmission theory and proceeds to develop approaches for solving the transmission dispatch and congestion management problem. An overview of current trends and experiences in utility restructuring and the main models for restructuring, as well as the classifications of system operators, is first presented. A fully unbundled competitive electricity market model, called the bilateral/multilateral trades model, is then developed. A survey of current research in transmission dispatch and congestion management is included with discussion of transmission capacity and ancillary services. A methodology for the power dispatch problem in a structure dominated by bilateral and multilateral transmission contracts is presented. Group structures are mathematically formulated and explored and three basic types of curtailment strategies proposed for use by market participants. A more complex model is then developed, which takes into account the co-existence of bilateral and multilateral contracts with pool type dynamic supplies and demands based on bids and market clearing prices. An integrated dispatch strategy to reconcile all three types of transactions (bilateral, multilateral and pool) is then developed. Prioritization of electricity transactions and related curtailment strategies are explored and a mechanism for coordination between market participants to achieve additional economic advantages is described. A theory of security based rescheduling is presented in order to investigate the security-related aspects of operation in an unbundled and deregulated system. The impact of post-contingency corrective capability on optimal rescheduling results has been identified and the advantage of incorporating post-contingency corrective rescheduling into the objective function demonstrated. Finally

  20. Efficiency of Management and Marketing Strategies within The Dental Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oprea Valentin BUSU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on research about the management and marketing strategies within the dental office and how we can better understand its importance. One of the major problems faced by dentists today is the management of the dental office. Certainly, from the outside, individuals perceive the dentist's office as a simple medical unit in which medical staff operate. However, people living in the field face each day multiple problems of both medical and bureaucratic nature. For the dentist/manager, the dental office is perceived as a dual-purpose unit: providing oro-dental care and earning profit.