WorldWideScience

Sample records for marketing decision makers

  1. Market orientation in the mental models of decision-makers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Trondsen, Torbjørn; Campos, Emilio Gonzalo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study determines whether predictions about different degrees of market orientation in two cross-border value chains also appear in the mental models of decision makers at two levels of these value chains. Design: The laddering method elicits mental models of actors in two value chains......: Norwegian salmon exported to Japan and Danish pork exported to Japan. The analysis of the mental models centers on potential overlap and linkages between actors in the value chain, including elements in the mental models that may relate to the actors' market orientation. Findings: In both value chains......, decision makers exhibit overlap in their views of what drives their business. The pork chain appears dominated by a focus on efficiency, technology, and quality control, though it also acknowledges communication as important. The salmon chain places more emphasis on new product development and good...

  2. Product Life Cycle concept use and application by marketing decision-makers in small South African organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Herbst

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to test the underlying theory of the product life cycle concept with the primary objective of establishing what the use and practical value of the product life cycle concept is in making marketing decisions in small manufacturing and dealer organisations in Gauteng. The main focus was to test the ability of marketing decision-makers in these small organisations to associate their application and use of the product life cycle concept with Kotler's assumptions on marketing characteristics, described marketing objectives and proposed marketing strategies. A major finding was that small organisations tended to display a marketing knowledge level with the existing marketing theory. Another important conclusion of the study was that the current product life cycle concept theory needs to be broadened to include strategies on the expanded marketing mix. Apart from the different use and application by marketing decision-makers in small organisations in South Africa the product life cycle concept theory has potential as a strategic tool and a high likelihood for its future use as a marketing decision-making instrument.

  3. Does the market maker stabilize the market?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, M.; Chiarella, C.; He, X.Z.; Wang, D.

    2009-01-01

    The market maker plays an important role in price formation, but his/her behavior and stabilizing impact on the market are relatively unclear, in particular in speculative markets. This paper develops a financial market model that examines the impact on market stability of the market maker, who acts

  4. Stepping stones to significant market shares for renewables. The European forum for market players and decision makers in the renewable energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This invitation to a two-day European Forum for market players and decision makers in the renewable energy business lists the presentations made at the conference in 2007. The programme included contributions in the following areas: Policies and market deployment initiatives, market trends and experience - from support schemes to market experience, opportunities in a changing framework in Switzerland, instruments and infrastructure requirements - how to make the market work and supply and demand aspects of a growing market. The conference examined how renewable forms of energy can gain significant market shares and reach a quota of 50% renewables in 50 years. The first session examined policies and market deployment initiatives, the second market trends and experiences, the third opportunities for Switzerland in a changing framework. The second day featured sessions on instruments and infrastructure requirements as well as on supply and demand aspects in a growing market. The conference was complemented with four workshops.

  5. Stepping stones to significant market shares for renewables. The European forum for market players and decision makers in the renewable energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This invitation to a two-day European Forum for market players and decision makers in the renewable energy business lists the presentations made at the conference in 2007. The programme included contributions in the following areas: Policies and market deployment initiatives, market trends and experience - from support schemes to market experience, opportunities in a changing framework in Switzerland, instruments and infrastructure requirements - how to make the market work and supply and demand aspects of a growing market. The conference examined how renewable forms of energy can gain significant market shares and reach a quota of 50% renewables in 50 years. The first session examined policies and market deployment initiatives, the second market trends and experiences, the third opportunities for Switzerland in a changing framework. The second day featured sessions on instruments and infrastructure requirements as well as on supply and demand aspects in a growing market. The conference was complemented with four workshops.

  6. Marketing Authorization Procedures for Advanced Cancer Drugs: Exploring the Views of Patients, Oncologists, Healthcare Decision Makers, and Citizens in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protiére, Christel; Baker, Rachel; Genre, Dominique; Goncalves, Anthony; Viens, Patrice

    2017-07-01

    The past decades have seen advances in cancer treatments in terms of toxicity and side effects but progress in the treatment of advanced cancer has been modest. New drugs have emerged improving progression free survival but with little impact on overall survival, raising questions about the criteria on which to base decisions to grant marketing authorizations and about the authorization procedure itself. For decisions to be fair, transparent and accountable, it is necessary to consider the views of those with relevant expertise and experience. We conducted a Q-study to explore the views of a range of stakeholders in France, involving: 54 patients (18 months after diagnosis); 50 members of the general population; 27 oncologists; 19 healthcare decision makers; and 2 individuals from the pharmaceutical industry. Three viewpoints emerged, focussing on different dimensions entitled: 1) 'Quality of life (QoL), opportunity cost and participative democracy'; 2)'QoL and patient-centeredness'; and 3) 'Length of life'. Respondents from all groups were associated with each viewpoint, except for healthcare decision makers, who were only associated with the first one. Our results highlight plurality in the views of stakeholders, emphasize the need for transparency in decision making processes, and illustrate the importance of a re-evaluation of treatments for all 3 viewpoints. In the context of advanced cancer, our results suggest that QoL should be more prominent amongst authorization criteria, as it is a concern for 2 of the 3 viewpoints.

  7. What Attracts Decision Makers' Attention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Eric; Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.

    2011-01-01

    portfolio meetings. The study seeks to investigate how managers allocate their attention and the role of different factors for their attention. Observations also make it possible to compare prior research and expectations with the actual observed behavior of decision makers. Design....../methodology/approach – The present analysis draws on insights from previous research into decision making in product and portfolio management and studies on organizational decision making. The authors frame why the attention of decision makers is so critical in complex situations. Data for this study were collected through direct......Purpose – Managers' attention is a scarce resource in complex innovation settings. Prior research on the factors to which managers pay attention is mostly based on surveys. The present study aims to address the need for knowledge about the behavior of decision makers based on observations from...

  8. Does the market maker stabilize the market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mei; Chiarella, Carl; He, Xue-Zhong; Wang, Duo

    2009-08-01

    The market maker plays an important role in price formation, but his/her behavior and stabilizing impact on the market are relatively unclear, in particular in speculative markets. This paper develops a financial market model that examines the impact on market stability of the market maker, who acts as both a liquidity provider and an active investor in a market consisting of two types of boundedly rational speculative investors-the fundamentalists and trend followers. We show that the market maker does not necessarily stabilize the market when he/she actively manages the inventory to maximize profits, and that rather the market maker’s impact depends on the behavior of the speculators. Numerical simulations show that the model is able to generate outcomes for asset returns and market inventories that are consistent with empirical findings.

  9. Decision Making with Imperfect Decision Makers

    CERN Document Server

    Guy, Tatiana Valentine; Wolpert, David H

    2012-01-01

    Prescriptive Bayesian decision making has reached a high level of maturity and is well-supported algorithmically. However, experimental data shows that real decision makers choose such Bayes-optimal decisions surprisingly infrequently, often making decisions that are badly sub-optimal. So prevalent is such imperfect decision-making that it should be accepted as an inherent feature of real decision makers living within interacting societies. To date such societies have been investigated from an economic and gametheoretic perspective, and even to a degree from a physics perspective. However, lit

  10. Licensing Surrogate Decision-Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosoff, Philip M

    2017-06-01

    As medical technology continues to improve, more people will live longer lives with multiple chronic illnesses with increasing cumulative debilitation, including cognitive dysfunction. Combined with the aging of society in most developed countries, an ever-growing number of patients will require surrogate decision-makers. While advance care planning by patients still capable of expressing their preferences about medical interventions and end-of-life care can improve the quality and accuracy of surrogate decisions, this is often not the case, not infrequently leading to demands for ineffective, inappropriate and prolonged interventions. In 1980 LaFollette called for the licensing of prospective parents, basing his argument on the harm they can do to vulnerable people (children). In this paper, I apply his arguments to surrogate decision-makers for cognitively incapacitated patients, rhetorically suggesting that we require potential surrogates to qualify for this position by demonstrating their ability to make reasonable and rational decisions for others. I employ this theoretical approach to argue that the loose criteria by which we authorize surrogates' generally unchallenged power should be reconsidered.

  11. Market assessment for active solar heating and cooling products. Category B: a survey of decision-makers in the HVAC marketplace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the market for solar heating and cooling products for new and retrofit markets is reported. The emphasis is on the analysis of solar knowledge among HVAC decision makers and a comprehensive evaluation of their solar attitudes and behavior. The data from each of the following sectors are described and analyzed: residential consumers, organizational and manufacturing buildings, HVAC engineers and architects, builders/developers, and commercial/institutional segments. (MHR)

  12. Market orientation in the mental models of decision-makers in two cross-border value chains: A pilot study using the laddering technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Trondsen, Torbjørn; Campos, Emilio Gonzalo

    The laddering method is used to elicit mental models of actors in two cross-border value chains: Norwegian salmon to Japan, and Danish pork to Japan. The mental models are analysed with regard to overlap and linkages between actors in the value chain, with a special view towards elements...... in the mental models that can be related to actors? market orientation. In both value chains decision-makers have a fair degree of overlap in their views on what drives their business. There are also differences, between the chains, in what decision-makers believe are the major success factors. The pork chain...... seems to be dominated by thinking in terms of efficiency, technology and quality control, though communication is also acknowledged as important. In the salmon chain, there is a higher emphasis on new product development and on good relations between the chain partners....

  13. Dynamic Model of Market with Uninformed Market Maker

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Martin; Kopa, Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 5 (2017), s. 922-958 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : market maker * optimal decision * price and inventory * high frequency data * dynamic model Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 0.379, year: 2016 http://www.library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/E/smid-0483753.pdf

  14. Single-photon decision maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Makoto; Berthel, Martin; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge; Aono, Masashi; Hori, Hirokazu; Kim, Song-Ju

    2015-08-01

    Decision making is critical in our daily lives and for society in general and is finding evermore practical applications in information and communication technologies. Herein, we demonstrate experimentally that single photons can be used to make decisions in uncertain, dynamically changing environments. Using a nitrogen-vacancy in a nanodiamond as a single-photon source, we demonstrate the decision-making capability by solving the multi-armed bandit problem. This capability is directly and immediately associated with single-photon detection in the proposed architecture, leading to adequate and adaptive autonomous decision making. This study makes it possible to create systems that benefit from the quantum nature of light to perform practical and vital intelligent functions.

  15. Cost Accounting for Decision Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneklides, Ann L.

    1985-01-01

    Underscores the importance of informed decision making through accurate anticipation of cost incurrence in light of changing economic and environmental conditions. Explains the concepts of cost accounting, full allocation of costs, the selection of an allocation base, the allocation of indirect costs, depreciation, and implications for community…

  16. Middlemen: the visible market makers

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe Watanabe, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a search-theoretic model where middlemen can emerge endogenously to intermediate between ex ante homogeneous buyers and sellers in the presence of coordination frictions. Middlemen set price to compete in the market, and hold an inventory to provide a high matching service. I show that middlemen's inventories can mitigate trade imbalances and interact with price competition, generating an interesting tradeoff for the equilibrium price determination. The competitive limit e...

  17. A scientist's guide to engaging decision makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Being trained as a scientist provides many valuable tools needed to address society's most pressing environmental issues. It does not, however, provide training on one of the most critical for translating science into action: the ability to engage decision makers. Engagement means different things to different people and what is appropriate for one project might not be for another. However, recent reports have emphasized that for research to be most useful to decision making, engagement should happen at the beginning and throughout the research process. There are an increasing number of boundary organizations (e.g., NOAA's Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessment program, U.S. Department of the Interior's Climate Science Centers) where engagement is encouraged and rewarded, and scientists are learning, often through trial and error, how to effectively include decision makers (a.k.a. stakeholders, practitioners, resource managers) in their research process. This presentation highlights best practices and practices to avoid when scientists engage decision makers, a list compiled through the personal experiences of both scientists and decision makers and a literature review, and how this collective knowledge could be shared, such as through a recent session and role-playing exercise given at the Northwest Climate Science Center's Climate Boot Camp. These ideas are presented in an effort to facilitate conversations about how the science community (e.g., AGU researchers) can become better prepared for effective collaborations with decision makers that will ultimately result in more actionable science.

  18. A Hierarchical Analysis of Bridge Decision Makers ... The Role of New Technology Adoption in the Timber Bridge Market: Special Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Smith; Robert J. Bush; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1995-01-01

    Bridge design engineers and local highway officials make bridge replacement decisions across the United States. The Analytical Hierarchy Process was used to characterize the bridge material selection decision of these individuals. State Department of Transportation engineers, private consulting engineers, and local highway officials were personally interviewed in...

  19. Helping decision makers frame, analyze, and implement decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Michael C.; McDonald-Madden, Eve

    2018-01-01

    All decisions have the same recognizable elements. Context, objectives, alternatives, consequences, and deliberation. Decision makers and analysts familiar with these elements can quickly see the underlying structure of a decision.There are only a small number of classes of decisions. These classes differ in the cognitive and scientific challenge they present to the decision maker; the ability to recognize the class of decision leads a decision maker to tools to aid in the analysis.Sometimes we need more information, sometimes we don’t. The role of science in a decision-making process is to provide the predictions that link the alternative actions to the desired outcomes. Investing in more science is only valuable if it helps to choose a better action.Implementation. The successful integration of decision analysis into environmental decisions requires careful attention to the decision, the people, and the institutions involved.

  20. PROBLEMATIC FEATURES OF THE POLITICAL DECISION MAKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey Sergeevih Voynov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: identify the most important features in the process of making political decisions that affect the effectiveness of problem-solving situationsScientific novelty: as a result of the analysis identified the problematic features of major importance for the efficiency of the development and adoption of the most rational solution to a problem situation.Results: the analysis of the most significant features affecting the quality of decisions among them the interest of the person making decisions in the search for causes of the problem situation; decisions from the influence of the immediate environment; populism in decision making, creating a visibility problem-solving; decision making based on personal emotional factor face decision-makers; the perception of the population face decision-makers in relation to the current problem situation and possible ways of its resolution.Defined facts influencing the process of political decision-making such as: corruption, the struggle for influence on the process of political decision-making, lack of qualified specialists, staff shortage, including arose as the result of substitution of notions of "succession" to "nepotism".

  1. The Art of Influencing Decision Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diegmueller, Karen

    1992-01-01

    Influencing educational decision makers requires creating ongoing relationships, keeping everyone informed, and developing persuasive skills. Persuasion requires preparation, refinement, hard work, and a sound understanding of the people being lobbied. Lobbying must be factual and relevant to the audience. The article looks at influence from the…

  2. The Morality of University Decision-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatier, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Ethical failures in UK higher education have recently made the news but are not a recent development. University decision-makers can, in order to adopt an ethical way of reasoning, resort to several ethical traditions. This article focuses, through the use of concrete examples, on three which have had a significant impact in recent higher…

  3. Heterogeneous fundamentalists and market maker inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carraro, Alessandro; Ricchiuti, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a heterogeneous agents model of asset price and inventory with a market maker who considers the excess demand of two groups of agents that employ the same trading rule (i.e. fundamentalists) with different beliefs on the fundamental value. The dynamics of our model is driven by a bi-dimensional discrete non-linear map. We show that the market maker has a destabilizing role when she actively manages the inventory. Moreover, inventory share and the distance between agents’ beliefs strongly influence the results: market instability and periodic, or even, chaotic price fluctuations can be generated. Finally, we show through simulations that endogenous fluctuations of the fractions of agents may trigger instability for a larger set of parameters.

  4. Market Makers' Supply and Pricing of Financial Market Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Pu; Starr, Ross M.

    2000-01-01

    This study models the bid-ask spread in financial markets as a function of asset price variability and order flow. The market-maker is characterized as passively accepting orders to buy and to sell a security at the market's prevailing price (plus or minus half the bid-ask spread). The bid-ask spread adjusts to cover market-makers' average costs. The bid-ask spread then varies positively with: the security's price volatility, the volatility of order flow, and the absolute value of the market-...

  5. Quantum decision-maker theory and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Michail; Meyers, Ronald E.; Deacon, Keith S.

    2000-07-01

    A quantum device simulating the human decision making process is introduced. It consists of quantum recurrent nets generating stochastic processes which represent the motor dynamics, and of classical neural nets describing the evolution of probabilities of these processes which represent the mental dynamics. The autonomy of the decision making process is achieved by a feedback from the mental to motor dynamics which changes the stochastic matrix based upon the probability distribution. This feedback replaces unavailable external information by an internal knowledge- base stored in the mental model in the form of probability distributions. As a result, the coupled motor-mental dynamics is described by a nonlinear version of Markov chains which can decrease entropy without an external source of information. Applications to common sense based decisions as well as to evolutionary games are discussed. An example exhibiting self-organization is computed using quantum computer simulation. Force on force and mutual aircraft engagements using the quantum decision maker dynamics are considered.

  6. An Investigation into the Decision Makers's Risk Attitude Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Investigation into the Decision Makers's Risk Attitude Index Ranking Technique for Fuzzy Critical Path Analysis. ... Nigerian Journal of Technology ... for a benchmark problem, the decision maker's risk attitude index ranking method produces unrealistic results when the decision maker's attitude towards risk was neutral.

  7. Women as decision and policy makers. Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The focus of this news brief is on the Community-based Sustainable Family Planning/Maternal and Child Health (FP/MCH) Project promoted in Bangladesh, Laos, Nepal, and the Philippines. The project emphasizes women's involvement as policy makers and evaluators. The aim is to involve women at all project levels as part of an effort to correct gender imbalances. Programs are being directed toward sustainability. Women are placed in positions at each level of the tiered system of steering committees, which range from local village committees to central committees. Men may still retain the top positions, but women are given decision making power at the highest levels of policy and program development and implementation. The Asia region is challenged by quality of care issues related to reproductive health services. Program expansion is proceeding into rural areas with outreach services and fee charging. Projects are community-based, which means mobilization of community people. The community approach is suitable to an Asian culture that does not adhere to strict rules of privacy. Women's groups are eager to discuss sensitive issues such as contraception and to offer personal experiences and solutions to problems. Mass meetings and individual counseling sessions are available. IEC materials are available to the Asian FP/MCH program from JOICFP. Some of these materials promote the concept of the Asian community spirit as a building block of development. The Asian approach is an alternative to Western models and may be valid for other regions.

  8. Nuclear power: the decision makers speak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.L.; Lichter, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    In October 1980, the authors surveyed selected scientific experts, decision-makers in financial and regulatory communities and Congress, and directors of major activist groups for national environmental organizations. Questions concerned policy preferences for and general attitudes toward nuclear energy, problems, energy resources, and considerations important to most influential groups in nuclear development. The survey revealed, surprisingly, that most regulators, congressional leaders, outside experts, and financiers are as united in their support of nuclear energy development as are industry executives, Three Mile Island notwithstanding. The antinuclear perspective is represented almost entirely by the heads of activist groups and a few scattered allies in Congress, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Department of Energy. A relatively few dissenters have played a major role in blocking nuclear development. Implications for the regulatory process from these survey results are that cost-benefit analyses and empirical findings on nuclear power issues will not convince activists and their followers; it appears that they have acquired a kind of veto over nuclear development. Through actively political behavior in the contest for nuclear energy's future, and through sympathetic media, activists have won the American public to their side. 7 tables

  9. Criminal Liability of Political Decision-Makers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelhoed, Willem; Zimmermann, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Dutch criminal law does not provide for criminal liability for a political decision-maker who decides to build a bridge, if thereafter the project runs out of control or the bridge appears not to justify the funds spent on the project. This is most probably even the case if the decision-maker knew

  10. Learning a decision maker's utility function from (possibly) inconsistent behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn Verner

    2004-01-01

    developed for learning the probabilities from a database.However, methods for learning the utilities have only received limitedattention in the computer science community. A promising approach for learning a decision maker's utility function is to takeoutset in the decision maker's observed behavioral...... patterns, and then find autility function which (together with a domain model) can explainthis behavior. That is, it is assumed that decision maker's preferences arereflected in the behavior. Standard learning algorithmsalso assume that the decision maker is behavioralconsistent, i.e., given a model ofthe...... decision problem, there exists a utility function which canaccount for all the observed behavior. Unfortunately, this assumption israrely valid in real-world decision problems, and in these situationsexisting learning methods may only identify a trivial utilityfunction. In this paper we relax...

  11. A Database of Adversary Decision Makers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ward, Tyrone

    2001-01-01

    ...). The database design and development process is elaborated in detail, database administration guidelines are documented, and a migration path is presented for incorporating relevant decision support...

  12. PROBLEMATIC FEATURES OF THE POLITICAL DECISION MAKERS

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksey Sergeevih Voynov

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: identify the most important features in the process of making political decisions that affect the effectiveness of problem-solving situationsScientific novelty: as a result of the analysis identified the problematic features of major importance for the efficiency of the development and adoption of the most rational solution to a problem situation.Results: the analysis of the most significant features affecting the quality of decisions among them the interest of the person making deci...

  13. Information processing by networks of quantum decision makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Yukalova, E. P.; Sornette, D.

    2018-02-01

    We suggest a model of a multi-agent society of decision makers taking decisions being based on two criteria, one is the utility of the prospects and the other is the attractiveness of the considered prospects. The model is the generalization of quantum decision theory, developed earlier for single decision makers realizing one-step decisions, in two principal aspects. First, several decision makers are considered simultaneously, who interact with each other through information exchange. Second, a multistep procedure is treated, when the agents exchange information many times. Several decision makers exchanging information and forming their judgment, using quantum rules, form a kind of a quantum information network, where collective decisions develop in time as a result of information exchange. In addition to characterizing collective decisions that arise in human societies, such networks can describe dynamical processes occurring in artificial quantum intelligence composed of several parts or in a cluster of quantum computers. The practical usage of the theory is illustrated on the dynamic disjunction effect for which three quantitative predictions are made: (i) the probabilistic behavior of decision makers at the initial stage of the process is described; (ii) the decrease of the difference between the initial prospect probabilities and the related utility factors is proved; (iii) the existence of a common consensus after multiple exchange of information is predicted. The predicted numerical values are in very good agreement with empirical data.

  14. Bridging the gap among healthcare workers and decision-makers ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Bridging the gap among healthcare workers and decision-makers through improved ... Through this project, researchers will build on insights gained from previous ... and identify the critical factors required for the scale-up and integration of the ...

  15. Czech experience with market maker trading system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousek, Jan; Podpiera, R.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2004), s. 177-191 ISSN 0939-3625 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 595 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : trading systems * informed trading * emerging markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  16. Hierarchical analysis of bridge decision makers : the role of new technology adoption in the timber bridge market : special project fiscal year 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Bridge design engineers and local highway officials make bridge replacement decisions across the : United States. The Analytical Hierarchy Process was used to characterize the bridge material selection : decision of these individuals. State Departmen...

  17. Overcoming Fear: Helping Decision Makers Understand Risk in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haras, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The long history of outdoor education does little to alleviate the fears of many parents, teachers, principals and superintendents who believe that outdoor education is too risky. These decision makers often lack both the knowledge to make informed decisions and the time and resources to investigate their assumptions. Pair these circumstances with…

  18. Educational Goods and Values: A Framework for Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighouse, Harry; Ladd, Helen F.; Loeb, Susanna; Swift, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This article articulates a framework suitable for use when making decisions about education policy. Decision makers should establish what the feasible options are and evaluate them in terms of their contribution to the development, and distribution, of educational goods in children, balanced against the negative effect of policies on important…

  19. Corporate Choice of Banks: Decision Factors, Decision Maker, and Decision Process – First Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongena, S.; Tumer Alkan, G.; Vermeer, B.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how firms choose their banks. We focus on the role played by the decision factors, the decision maker and the decision process in determining firm-bank relationships. We have access to a unique survey that was run by a major bank in the Czech Republic. We find that

  20. Training Conservation Practitioners to be Better Decision Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred A. Johnson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional conservation curricula and training typically emphasizes only one part of systematic decision making (i.e., the science, at the expense of preparing conservation practitioners with critical skills in values-setting, working with decision makers and stakeholders, and effective problem framing. In this article we describe how the application of decision science is relevant to conservation problems and suggest how current and future conservation practitioners can be trained to be better decision makers. Though decision-analytic approaches vary considerably, they all involve: (1 properly formulating the decision problem; (2 specifying feasible alternative actions; and (3 selecting criteria for evaluating potential outcomes. Two approaches are available for providing training in decision science, with each serving different needs. Formal education is useful for providing simple, well-defined problems that allow demonstrations of the structure, axioms and general characteristics of a decision-analytic approach. In contrast, practical training can offer complex, realistic decision problems requiring more careful structuring and analysis than those used for formal training purposes. Ultimately, the kinds and degree of training necessary depend on the role conservation practitioners play in a decision-making process. Those attempting to facilitate decision-making processes will need advanced training in both technical aspects of decision science and in facilitation techniques, as well as opportunities to apprentice under decision analysts/consultants. Our primary goal should be an attempt to ingrain a discipline for applying clarity of thought to all decisions.

  1. How do the EMA and FDA decide which anticancer drugs make it to the market? A comparative qualitative study on decision makers' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafuri, G; Stolk, P; Trotta, F; Putzeist, M; Leufkens, H G; Laing, R O; De Allegri, M

    2014-01-01

    The process leading to a regulatory outcome is guided by factors both related and unrelated to the data package, defined in this analysis as 'formal and informal factors', respectively. The aim of this qualitative study was to analyse which formal and informal factors drive the decision-making process of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulators with regard to anticancer drugs, using in-depth semi-structured interviews with regulators of the two agencies. In line with the theory and practice of qualitative research, no set sample size was defined a priori. Respondent enrolment continued until saturation and redundancy were reached. Data were collected through means of in-depth semi-structured interviews conducted either in a face-to-face setting or via Skype(®) with each regulator. The interviews were audio-recorded and verbatim transcribed. The analysis was manually carried out on the transcribed text. Data were independently coded and categorized by two researchers. Interpretation of the findings emerged through a process of triangulation between the two. Seven EMA and six FDA regulators, who had extensive experience with making decisions about anticancer medicines, were interviewed between April and June 2012. There is an open dialogue between the FDA and EMA, with the two moving closer and exchanging information, not opinions. Differences in decision-making between the agencies may be due to a different evaluation of end points. Different interaction modalities with industry and patients represent an additional source of divergence with a potential impact on decision-making. The key message of our respondents was that the agencies manage uncertainty in a different way: unlike the EMA, the FDA has a prevailing attitude to take risks in order to guarantee quicker access to new treatments. Although formal factors are the main drivers for regulatory decisions, the influence of informal factors plays an important role in

  2. Rade-aid: an operational tool for decision-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagenaar, G.; van den Bosch, C.J.H.; Ehrhardt, J.; Steinhauer, C.; Morrey, M.; Robinson, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    If an accidental release of radionuclides occurs, decisions on countermeasures are required. Since the making of a decision involves many competing factors (for instance, the health risk versus the costs relating to a countermeasure), the decision-maker faces a problem. The aim of the RADE-AID (Radiological Accident DEcision AIDing) project is the development of a computer decision support system which can be used in the formulation of decisions. The theoretical background of the decision technique and its methods are outlined, together with the practical application of the technique in the form of the software package developed. Both the benefits of formal techniques and computerized tools in this field are discussed. In order to explore the appropriateness of the decision technique for the management of radiological emergencies, illustrative, but stylized, applications were carried out. Conclusions from these applications are discussed

  3. On avoiding framing effects in experienced decision makers.

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Retamero, R; Dhami, MK

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) demonstrate the effect of positive-negative framing on experienced criminal justice decision makers, (b) examine the debiasing effect of visually structured risk messages, and (c) investigate whether risk perceptions mediate the debiasing effect of visual aids on decision making. In two phases, 60 senior police officers estimated the accuracy of a counterterrorism technique in identifying whether a known terror suspect poses an imminent danger and decided whethe...

  4. Market Makers' Recognition of Key Success Factors in Electronic Marketplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Stockdale

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the recognition and use of critical success factors by market makers in electronic marketplaces. A content analysis of e-marketplace websites enabled an examination of how these factors have been incorporated into marketplace sites. Evidence of market makers’ awareness of the success factors was found in all the sites although there remain questions and issues to be addressed. Awareness of the need for critical mass and privacy were very evident, but the key factors of security, technological infrastructure and neutrality were identified as areas of concern. Evidence of an awareness of the importance of trust by market makers was found, but more effective signalling of trust to buyers and sellers within the marketplaces is required.

  5. On avoiding framing effects in experienced decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Dhami, Mandeep K

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) demonstrate the effect of positive-negative framing on experienced criminal justice decision makers, (b) examine the debiasing effect of visually structured risk messages, and (c) investigate whether risk perceptions mediate the debiasing effect of visual aids on decision making. In two phases, 60 senior police officers estimated the accuracy of a counterterrorism technique in identifying whether a known terror suspect poses an imminent danger and decided whether they would recommend the technique to policy makers. Officers also rated their confidence in this recommendation. When information about the effectiveness of the counterterrorism technique was presented in a numerical format, officers' perceptions of accuracy and recommendation decisions were susceptible to the framing effect: The technique was perceived to be more accurate and was more likely to be recommended when its effectiveness was presented in a positive than in a negative frame. However, when the information was represented visually using icon arrays, there were no such framing effects. Finally, perceptions of accuracy mediated the debiasing effect of visual aids on recommendation decisions. We offer potential explanations for the debiasing effect of visual aids and implications for communicating risk to experienced, professional decision makers.

  6. Strategic issues in information technology international implications for decision makers

    CERN Document Server

    Schütte, Hellmut

    1988-01-01

    Strategic Issues in Information Technology: International Implications for Decision Makers presents the significant development of information technology in the output of components, computers, and communication equipment and systems. This book discusses the integration of information technology into factories and offices to increase productivity.Organized into six parts encompassing 12 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the advancement towards an automated interpretation communication system to achieve real international communication. This text then examines the main determining

  7. Eco-informatics for decision makers advancing a research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, J.B.; Wilson, T.; Brandt, L.; Gregg, V.; Spengler, S.; Borning, A.; Delcambre, L.; Bowker, G.; Frame, M.; Fulop, J.; Hert, C.; Hovy, E.; Jones, J.; Landis, E.; Schnase, J.L.; Schweik, C.; Sonntag, W.; ,

    2005-01-01

    Resource managers often face significant information technology (IT) problems when integrating ecological or environmental information to make decisions. At a workshop sponsored by the NSF and USGS in December 2004, university researchers, natural resource managers, and information managers met to articulate IT problems facing ecology and environmental decision makers. Decision making IT problems were identified in five areas: 1) policy, 2) data presentation, 3) data gaps, 4) tools, and 5) indicators. To alleviate those problems, workshop participants recommended specific informatics research in modeling and simulation, data quality, information integration and ontologies, and social and human aspects. This paper reports the workshop findings, and briefly compares these with research that traditionally falls under the emerging eco-informatics rubric. ?? Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005.

  8. Geographic information systems for the Chernobyl decision makers in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palko, S.; Glieca, M.; Dombrowski, A.

    1997-01-01

    Following numerous national and international studies conducted on the overall impact of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster, decision-makers of the affected countries have oriented their efforts on environmental clean-up and population safety. They have focused on activities leading to a better understanding of radionuclide contamination and to the development of effective environmental rehabilitation programs. Initial developments involved the use of domestic USSR technologies consisting of mainframe IBM computers and DEC minicomputers. Later, personal computers with imported software packages were introduced into the decision-making process. Following the breakup of the former USSR, the Ministry of Chernobyl was created in Ukraine in 1991. One of the Ministry's mandate was the elimination of the environmental after-effects of the Chernobyl disaster

  9. Informing the Romanian decision makers on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirica, T.; Sandru, P.

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes the 'pro-nuclear' sector of the Romanian civil society activity to better inform the Romanian Decision Makers on nuclear power issues. The 'Romanian Nuclear Energy Association' - AREN and the Romanian Radioprotection Society - SRRp, having the support of the 'Romanian General Association of Engineers' - AGIR, started on December 1996 a strong campaign to form a correct opinion among the new elected bodies and the new Government of the country, related to the future development of the Romanian Nuclear Program as a national priority and to expedite the restart of the Cernavoda NPP-Unit 2 completion. The paper describes the strategy of this lobby campaign, the objectives assumed and the results. The authors have taken advantage of the OECD - Nuclear Energy Agency information exchange about the Decision Makers informing process about nuclear energy and have the intention to share their experience with other sister societies dealing with similar conditions. This could be also a good experience for other areas of activity. (authors)

  10. Marketing Decisions and Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest

    The marketing literature generally assumes that managers and customers always make rational (reasonable and logical) decisions. In real life, however, decision making process is hardly rational and straight forward. Managers and customers normally make decisions “in-action” – i.e. as they grapple...... students a variety of decision making skills as they prepare themselves to work in international companies. This is the task initiated in this book. It discusses how managers combine both rational and non-rational approaches and tools in their decision making processes, especially in international business...

  11. Sustainable energy catalogue - for European decision-makers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gram, S.; Jacobsen, Soeren

    2006-10-15

    The Green paper - A European Strategy for Sustainable, Competitive and Secure Energy, 2006 states that Europe has a rising dependency on imported energy reserves, which are concentrated in a few countries. The Rising gas and oil prices along with demands on lower emissions of CO2 adds pressure on the need for a new energy future for Europe. EU has since 1990 planned to become world leader in the renewable energy field. Therefore the EU member states have agreed that by 2010 21% of the consumed electricity and 5,75% of the consumed gasoline and diesel should originate from renewable energy sources. If the EU countries are to reach their goals, a commitment on several levels to develop and install energy from sustainable energy sources is needed. The purpose of this catalogue is to offer planners and decision-makers in EU states an inspirational tool to be used during local or regional transition towards sustainable energy technologies. The catalogue can also be used by everyone else who needs an overview of the sustainable energy technologies and their current development level and future potential, among others educational use is relevant. The catalogue provides an introduction to the following technologies that are already or are estimated to become central to a development with renewable energy in EU: Technologies for wind energy, wave energy, geothermal energy, bioenergy, solar energy, hydropower and fuel cells. The catalogue also includes a section about energy systems, which also includes a part about technologies for efficient use of energy. The catalogue could have included a few other technologies as e.g. heating pumps, but due to the size of the catalogue a priority was necessary. The catalogue does not claim to give all answers or to be complete regarding all details about the individual technologies; even so it offers information, which cannot easily be looked up on the Internet. In the back of the catalogue, under 'References and links' there

  12. Communicating Ecological Indicators to Decision Makers and the Public

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Schiller

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological assessments and monitoring programs often rely on indicators to evaluate environmental conditions. Such indicators are frequently developed by scientists, expressed in technical language, and target aspects of the environment that scientists consider useful. Yet setting environmental policy priorities and making environmental decisions requires both effective communication of environmental information to decision makers and consideration of what members of the public value about ecosystems. However, the complexity of ecological issues, and the ways in which they are often communicated, make it difficult for these parties to fully engage such a dialogue. This paper describes our efforts to develop a process for translating the indicators of regional ecological condition used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency into common language for communication with public and decision-making audiences. A series of small-group sessions revealed that people did not want to know what these indicators measured, or how measurements were performed. Rather, respondents wanted to know what such measurements can tell them about environmental conditions. Most positively received were descriptions of the kinds of information that various combinations of indicators provide about broad ecological conditions. Descriptions that respondents found most appealing contained general reference to both the set of indicators from which the information was drawn and aspects of the environment valued by society to which the information could be applied. These findings can assist with future efforts to communicate scientific information to nontechnical audiences, and to represent societal values in ecological programs by improving scientist-public communication.

  13. Knowledge Management Portal: A Simplified Model to Help Decision Makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, I.; Hernandes Tabares, R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present a simplified model that could help the nuclear industry to keep the expertise of safeguards professionals in touch with the state of the art, and also to have available information in the Portal of Knowledge Management. It can also provide indicators and general data for decision makers. Authors have developed the concept based on their own experience through systems running in hydroelectric and gas fired plants, and one exclusive system that manage all courses in one University. It is under development a Portal of Knowledge Management for NPP dealing with information obtained of Strategic Plans, Budgets and Economics, Operation Performance, Maintenance and Surveillance Plans, Training and Education Programs, QA Programs, Operational Experience, Safety Culture, and Engineering of Human Factors. This model will provide indicators for decision makers. Training and education module is prepared according to profile of each individual and his attributes, tasks and capabilities, and training and education programmes. The system could apply self-assessment questionnaires; immersive learning using media (video) classes, and test applications using questions randomly selected from data bank, as well as could make applications to certificate people. All these data are analyzed and generate indicators about strongest and weakness points. Managers could have indication of individual's deficiency even though in training programmes on a real time basis. Another tool that could be applied to the model is the remote operation of supervision equipment. The model is developed using web-based tools, like ASP.NET encrypted by 128 bits, and web site https. Finally, it is important to stress that the model can be customized according to industry preference. (author)

  14. Proxy decision making and dementia: Using Construal Level Theory to analyse the thoughts of decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convey, Helen; Holt, Janet; Summers, Barbara

    2018-03-08

    This study explored the feasibility of using Construal Level Theory to analyse proxy decision maker thinking about a hypothetical ethical dilemma, relating to a person who has dementia. Proxy decision makers make decisions on behalf of individuals who are living with dementia when dementia affects that individual's decision making ability. Ethical dilemmas arise because there is a need to balance the individual's past and contemporary values and views. Understanding of how proxy decision makers respond is incomplete. Construal Level Theory contends that individuals imagine reactions and make predications about the future by crossing psychological distance. This involves abstract thinking, giving meaning to decisions. There is no empirical evidence of Construal Level Theory being used to analyse proxy decision maker thinking. Exploring the feasibility of using Construal Level Theory to understand dementia carer thinking regarding proxy decisions may provide insights which inform the support given. Descriptive qualitative research with semi-structured interviews. Seven participants were interviewed using a hypothetical dementia care scenario in February 2016. Interview transcripts were analysed for themes. Construal Level Theory was applied to analyse participant responses within themes using the Linguistic Category Model. Participants travelled across psychological distance, using abstract thinking to clarify goals and provide a basis for decisions. When thinking concretely participants established boundaries regarding the ethical dilemma. Construal Level Theory gives insight into proxy decision maker thinking and the levels of abstraction used. Understanding what dementia carers think about when making proxy decisions may help nurses to understand their perspectives and to provide appropriate support. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. What do decision makers learn from public forums on climate-related hazards and resilience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, N.; Farooque, M.; Sittenfeld, D.

    2017-12-01

    Public engagement around climate resilience efforts can foster learning for both public audiences and decision makers. On the one hand, public audiences learn about environmental hazards and strategies to increase community resilience through effective public engagement. On the other, decision makers and scientists learn about community members' values and priorities and their relation to environmental hazards and resilience strategies. Evidence from other public engagement efforts involving decision makers suggests that decision maker involvement results in reflection by officials on their own values, capacities, and roles. However, few public engagement exercises evaluate impacts on decision makers. As part of the Science Center Public Forums project, which aims to conduct public forums in eight cities across the country on resiliency to drought, heat, extreme precipitation, and sea level rise, we sought to 1) build partnerships with local decision makers and scientists around public forums and 2) explore how decision makers and scientists interacted with the planning and undertaking of those public forums. We held workshops with decision makers and scientists to inform forum content and identify local resilience issues. We will conduct interviews with local decision makers regarding their involvement in forum planning, their reflections and takeaways from the forum itself, and their perspectives on the value of public engagement for policy making. We will present our model of engagement with decision makers, initial findings from interviews, and lessons learned from connecting decision makers and scientists to public engagement efforts.

  16. A rough set approach for determining weights of decision makers in group decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiang; Du, Ping-An; Wang, Yong; Liang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to present a novel approach for determining the weights of decision makers (DMs) based on rough group decision in multiple attribute group decision-making (MAGDM) problems. First, we construct a rough group decision matrix from all DMs' decision matrixes on the basis of rough set theory. After that, we derive a positive ideal solution (PIS) founded on the average matrix of rough group decision, and negative ideal solutions (NISs) founded on the lower and upper limit matrixes of rough group decision. Then, we obtain the weight of each group member and priority order of alternatives by using relative closeness method, which depends on the distances from each individual group member' decision to the PIS and NISs. Through comparisons with existing methods and an on-line business manager selection example, the proposed method show that it can provide more insights into the subjectivity and vagueness of DMs' evaluations and selections.

  17. A regret theory approach to decision curve analysis: A novel method for eliciting decision makers' preferences and decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Vickers Andrew; Hozo Iztok; Tsalatsanis Athanasios; Djulbegovic Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Decision curve analysis (DCA) has been proposed as an alternative method for evaluation of diagnostic tests, prediction models, and molecular markers. However, DCA is based on expected utility theory, which has been routinely violated by decision makers. Decision-making is governed by intuition (system 1), and analytical, deliberative process (system 2), thus, rational decision-making should reflect both formal principles of rationality and intuition about good decisions. ...

  18. The balance space approach to multicriteria decision making—involving the decision maker

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrgott, M.

    2002-01-01

    The balance space approach (introduced by Galperin in 1990) provides a new view on multicriteria optimization. Looking at deviations from global optimality of the different objectives, balance points and balance numbers are defined when either different or equal deviations for each objective are allowed. Apportioned balance numbers allow the specification of proportions among the deviations. Through this concept the decision maker can be involved in the decision process. In this paper we prov...

  19. Making Invasion models useful for decision makers; incorporating uncertainty, knowledge gaps, and decision-making preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denys Yemshanov; Frank H Koch; Mark Ducey

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty is inherent in model-based forecasts of ecological invasions. In this chapter, we explore how the perceptions of that uncertainty can be incorporated into the pest risk assessment process. Uncertainty changes a decision maker’s perceptions of risk; therefore, the direct incorporation of uncertainty may provide a more appropriate depiction of risk. Our...

  20. Using Cognitive Conflict to Promote the Use of Dialectical Learning for Strategic Decision-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Jeffrey G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model that uses dialectical inquiry (DI) to create cognitive conflict in strategic decision-makers for the purpose of improving strategic decisions. Activation of the dialectical learning process using DI requires strategic decision-makers to integrate conflicting information causing…

  1. The effects of the introduction of market makers in the Brazilian equity market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Perlin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to analyze the empirical effects of the introduction of market makers in the Brazilian stock exchange. By aggregating information regarding the dates of the market maker’s contract and the use of a privileged high frequency database, it was possible to execute an event study to check the effect of the introduction of liquidity agents. As expected, the period after the beginning of the market maker’s contract presented a significant increase in the liquidity of the stocks. The study reports an average increase of 31% in the number of trades in the period before and after the start of the contract. Another result is that the work of a liquidity agent can change significantly the autocorrelation of the trade signs in approximately 10%. Such a result is stronger for the stocks with lower liquidity. The investigation also shows heterogeneous results for the performance of the liquidity provision when the analysis based itself on the financial institution of the market maker. Such information is particularly important for companies that are seeking to contract market making services.

  2. Emodnet Med Sea Check-Point - Indicators for decision- maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besnard, Sophie; Claverie, Vincent; Blanc, Frédérique

    2015-04-01

    The Emodnet Checkpoint projects aim is to assess the cost-effectiveness, reliability and utility of the existing monitoring at the sea basin level. This involves the development of monitoring system indicators and a GIS Platform to perform the assessment and make it available. Assessment or production of Check-Point information is made by developing targeted products based on the monitoring data and determining whether the products are meeting the needs of industry and public authorities. Check-point users are the research community, the 'institutional' policy makers for IMP and MSFD implementation, the 'intermediate users', i.e., users capable to understand basic raw data but that benefit from seeing the Checkpoint targeted products and the assessment of the fitness for purpose. We define assessment criteria aimed to characterize/depict the input datasets in terms of 3 territories capable to show performance and gaps of the present monitoring system, appropriateness, availability and fitness for purpose. • Appropriateness: What is made available to users? What motivate/decide them to select this observation rather than this one. • Availability: How this is made available to the user? Place to understand the readiness and service performance of the EU infrastructure • Fitness for use / fitness for purpose: Ability for non-expert user to appreciate the data exploitability (feedback on efficiency & reliability of marine data) For each territory (appropriateness, Availability and Fitness for purpose / for use), we define several indicators. For example, for Availability we define Visibility, Accessibility and Performance. And Visibility is itself defined by "Easily found" and "EU service". So these indicators can be classified according to their territory and sub-territory as seen above, but also according to the complexity to build them. Indicators are built from raw descriptors in 3 stages:  Stage 1: to give a neutral and basic status directly computed from

  3. A regret theory approach to decision curve analysis: a novel method for eliciting decision makers' preferences and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Hozo, Iztok; Vickers, Andrew; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2010-09-16

    Decision curve analysis (DCA) has been proposed as an alternative method for evaluation of diagnostic tests, prediction models, and molecular markers. However, DCA is based on expected utility theory, which has been routinely violated by decision makers. Decision-making is governed by intuition (system 1), and analytical, deliberative process (system 2), thus, rational decision-making should reflect both formal principles of rationality and intuition about good decisions. We use the cognitive emotion of regret to serve as a link between systems 1 and 2 and to reformulate DCA. First, we analysed a classic decision tree describing three decision alternatives: treat, do not treat, and treat or no treat based on a predictive model. We then computed the expected regret for each of these alternatives as the difference between the utility of the action taken and the utility of the action that, in retrospect, should have been taken. For any pair of strategies, we measure the difference in net expected regret. Finally, we employ the concept of acceptable regret to identify the circumstances under which a potentially wrong strategy is tolerable to a decision-maker. We developed a novel dual visual analog scale to describe the relationship between regret associated with "omissions" (e.g. failure to treat) vs. "commissions" (e.g. treating unnecessary) and decision maker's preferences as expressed in terms of threshold probability. We then proved that the Net Expected Regret Difference, first presented in this paper, is equivalent to net benefits as described in the original DCA. Based on the concept of acceptable regret we identified the circumstances under which a decision maker tolerates a potentially wrong decision and expressed it in terms of probability of disease. We present a novel method for eliciting decision maker's preferences and an alternative derivation of DCA based on regret theory. Our approach may be intuitively more appealing to a decision-maker, particularly

  4. A regret theory approach to decision curve analysis: A novel method for eliciting decision makers' preferences and decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickers Andrew

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision curve analysis (DCA has been proposed as an alternative method for evaluation of diagnostic tests, prediction models, and molecular markers. However, DCA is based on expected utility theory, which has been routinely violated by decision makers. Decision-making is governed by intuition (system 1, and analytical, deliberative process (system 2, thus, rational decision-making should reflect both formal principles of rationality and intuition about good decisions. We use the cognitive emotion of regret to serve as a link between systems 1 and 2 and to reformulate DCA. Methods First, we analysed a classic decision tree describing three decision alternatives: treat, do not treat, and treat or no treat based on a predictive model. We then computed the expected regret for each of these alternatives as the difference between the utility of the action taken and the utility of the action that, in retrospect, should have been taken. For any pair of strategies, we measure the difference in net expected regret. Finally, we employ the concept of acceptable regret to identify the circumstances under which a potentially wrong strategy is tolerable to a decision-maker. Results We developed a novel dual visual analog scale to describe the relationship between regret associated with "omissions" (e.g. failure to treat vs. "commissions" (e.g. treating unnecessary and decision maker's preferences as expressed in terms of threshold probability. We then proved that the Net Expected Regret Difference, first presented in this paper, is equivalent to net benefits as described in the original DCA. Based on the concept of acceptable regret we identified the circumstances under which a decision maker tolerates a potentially wrong decision and expressed it in terms of probability of disease. Conclusions We present a novel method for eliciting decision maker's preferences and an alternative derivation of DCA based on regret theory. Our approach may

  5. [The Intentions Affecting the Medical Decision-Making Behavior of Surrogate Decision Makers of Critically Ill Patients and Related Factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Szu-Huei; Wu, Li-Min

    2018-04-01

    The severity of diseases and high mortality rates that typify the intensive care unit often make it difficult for surrogate decision makers to make decisions for critically ill patients regarding whether to continue medical treatments or to accept palliative care. To explore the behavioral intentions that underlie the medical decisions of surrogate decision makers of critically ill patients and the related factors. A cross-sectional, correlation study design was used. A total of 193 surrogate decision makers from six ICUs in a medical center in southern Taiwan were enrolled as participants. Three structured questionnaires were used, including a demographic datasheet, the Family Relationship Scale, and the Behavioral Intention of Medical Decisions Scale. Significantly positive correlations were found between the behavioral intentions underlying medical decisions and the following variables: the relationship of the participant to the patient (Eta = .343, p = .020), the age of the patient (r = .295, p medical decisions of the surrogate decision makers, explaining 13.9% of the total variance. In assessing the behavioral intentions underlying the medical decisions of surrogate decision makers, health providers should consider the relationship between critical patients and their surrogate decision makers, patient age, the length of ICU stay, and whether the patient has a pre-signed advance healthcare directive in order to maximize the effectiveness of medical care provided to critically ill patients.

  6. A Framework for Investigating Influence of Organizational Decision Makers on Data Mining Process Achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanieh Hajisafari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, few studies deal with evaluation of data mining plans in context of solvng organizational problems. A successful data miner is searching to solve a fully defined business problem. To make the data mining (DM results actionable, the data miner must explain them to the business insider. The interaction process between the business insiders and data miners is actually a knowledge-sharing process. In this study through representing a framwork, influence of organizational decision makers on data mining process and results investigated. By investigating research literature, the critical success factors of data mining plans was identified and the role of organizational decision makers in each step of data mining was investigated.‌ Then, the conceptual framework of influence of organizational decision makers on data mining process achievement was designed. By getting expert opinions, the proposed framework was analyzed and evantually designed the final framework of influence of organizational decision makers on data mining process achievement. Analysis of experts opinions showed that by knowledge sharing of data ming results with decision makers, "learning", "action or internalization" and "enforcing/unlearning" will become as critical success factors. Also, results of examining importance of decision makers' feedback on data mining steps showed that getting feedback from decision makers could have most influence on "knowledge extraction and representing model" step and least on "data cleaning and preprocessing" step.

  7. The use of control charts by laypeople and hospital decision-makers for guiding decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, K A; Watson, D G; Vlaev, I

    2017-07-01

    Graphs presenting healthcare data are increasingly available to support laypeople and hospital staff's decision making. When making these decisions, hospital staff should consider the role of chance-that is, random variation. Given random variation, decision-makers must distinguish signals (sometimes called special-cause data) from noise (common-cause data). Unfortunately, many graphs do not facilitate the statistical reasoning necessary to make such distinctions. Control charts are a less commonly used type of graph that support statistical thinking by including reference lines that separate data more likely to be signals from those more likely to be noise. The current work demonstrates for whom (laypeople and hospital staff) and when (treatment and investigative decisions) control charts strengthen data-driven decision making. We present two experiments that compare people's use of control and non-control charts to make decisions between hospitals (funnel charts vs. league tables) and to monitor changes across time (run charts with control lines vs. run charts without control lines). As expected, participants more accurately identified the outlying data using a control chart than using a non-control chart, but their ability to then apply that information to more complicated questions (e.g., where should I go for treatment?, and should I investigate?) was limited. The discussion highlights some common concerns about using control charts in hospital settings.

  8. Are team members less inequality averse than individual decision makers?

    OpenAIRE

    Haoran He; Marie Claire Villeval

    2014-01-01

    révision Août 2015; We compare inequality aversion in individuals and teams by means of both within- and between-subject experimental designs, and we investigate how teams aggregate individual preferences. We find that team decisions reveal less inequality aversion than individual initial proposals in team decision-making. However, teams are no more selfish than individuals who decide in isolation. Individuals express strategically more inequality aversion in their initial proposals in team d...

  9. Are group members less inequality averse than individual decision makers?

    OpenAIRE

    He, Haoran; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2017-01-01

    International audience; We compare inequality aversion in individuals and teams by means of both within- and between-subject experimental designs, and we investigate how teams aggregate individual preferences. We find that team decisions reveal less inequality aversion than individual initial proposals in team decision-making. However, teams are no more selfish than individuals who decide in isolation. Individuals express strategically more inequality aversion in their initial proposals in te...

  10. Challenges to decision makers after urban contamination: The Chernobyl experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhtarev, I.; Ilyin, L.

    2000-01-01

    The real history of the Chernobyl decisions will probably be published in ten or fifty years after the death of the politicians who made those decisions and the soviet scientists who were there creating them. But that is not out of the possibility that real and tragic history will never be published at all. This is mainly because the most hard and responsible Chernobyl decisions which had to be made in the situation of acute time, skill and information deficit, had been marked by the stamp of time and society where all of us, including the authors, were living. Never before, and I hope very much, never in the future, has humanity faced the industrial nuclear-radiation accident with the scale like Chernobyl NPP accident. So it's extremely important to summarise and put together not only the scientific but human experience of the scientists which directly formed the large-scale decisions. It is very important to explain to society not only the scientific background of those decisions but also the scientists' personal views, their personal impressions as at the time of decision making as in eight years after the accident. (author)

  11. Mapping a Research Agenda for Home Care Safety: Perspectives from Researchers, Providers, and Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Marilyn; Lang, Ariella; MacDonald, Jo-Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive design was to explore the perspectives of researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers on key risks, concerns, and emerging issues related to home care safety that would inform a line of research inquiry. Defining safety specifically in this home care context has yet to be…

  12. Family Communication about End-of-Life Decisions and the Enactment of the Decision-Maker Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April R. Trees

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available End-of-life (EOL decisions in families are complex and emotional sites of family interaction necessitating family members coordinate roles in the EOL decision-making process. How family members in the United States enact the decision-maker role in EOL decision situations was examined through in-depth interviews with 22 individuals who participated in EOL decision-making for a family member. A number of themes emerged from the data with regard to the enactment of the decision-maker role. Families varied in how decision makers enacted the role in relation to collective family input, with consulting, informing and collaborating as different patterns of behavior. Formal family roles along with gender- and age-based roles shaped who took on the decision-maker role. Additionally, both family members and medical professionals facilitated or undermined the decision-maker’s role enactment. Understanding the structure and enactment of the decision-maker role in family interaction provides insight into how individuals and/or family members perform the decision-making role within a cultural context that values autonomy and self-determination in combination with collective family action in EOL decision-making.

  13. Reforming Paper Pushers and Avoiding Free Agents: The Teacher as a Constrained Decision Maker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Sharon C.

    1988-01-01

    This article examines the problem of maintaining an effective balance between the bureaucratic and professional models of school management in the context of teachers as constrained decision-makers. (TE)

  14. Outsourced Investment Management: An Overview for Institutional Decision-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, John S.; Jarvis, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Outsourcing of investment management is a growing trend among institutional investors. With a broad range of institutions using or exploring the outsourced chief investment officer (OCIO) model, portfolio size is no longer the determining factor driving the outsourcing decision. For all but the largest institutional investors--those with deep…

  15. Emotional Decision-Makers and Anomalous Attitudes towards Information

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Barigozzi; Rosella Levaggi

    2008-01-01

    We use a simple version of the Psychological Expected Utility Model (Caplin and Leahy, QJE, 2001) to analyze the optimal choice of information accuracy by an individual who is concerned with anticipatory feeling. The individual faces the following trade-off: on the one hand information may lead to emotional costs, on the other the higher the information accuracy, the higher the efficiency of decision-making. We completely and explicitly characterize how anticipatory utility depends on informa...

  16. Handbook of Marketing Decision Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Wierenga (Berend)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis book presents the state of the art in marketing decision models, dealing with new modeling areas such as customer relationship management, customer value and online marketing, but also describes recent developments in other areas. In the category of marketing mix models, the latest

  17. Improving Communication With Surrogate Decision-Makers: A Pilot Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Ellen C; Shi, Zhenzhen; Suppes, Alexandra; Hersh, Jennifer E; Orlander, Jay D; Calhoun, Aaron W; Tung, Judy; Logio, Lia; Manna, Ruth; Bialer, Philip A; Acres, Cathleen A; Fins, Joseph J

    2017-08-01

    Difficult conversations in medical care often occur between physicians and patients' surrogates, individuals entrusted with medical decisions for patients who lack the capacity to make them. Poor communication between patients' surrogates and physicians may exacerbate anxiety and guilt for surrogates, and may contribute to physician stress and burnout. This pilot study assesses the effectiveness of an experiential learning workshop that was conducted in a clinical setting, and aimed at improving resident physician communication skills with a focus on surrogate decision-making. From April through June 2016, we assessed internal medicine residents' baseline communication skills through an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) with actors representing standardized surrogates. After an intensive, 6-hour communication skills workshop, residents were reassessed via an OSCE on the same day. A faculty facilitator and the surrogate evaluated participants' communication skills via the expanded Gap Kalamazoo Consensus Statement Assessment Form. Wilcoxon signed rank tests (α of .05) compared mean pre- and postworkshop scores. Of 44 residents, 33 (75%) participated. Participants' average preworkshop OSCE scores ( M  = 3.3, SD = 0.9) were significantly lower than postworkshop scores ( M  = 4.3; SD = 0.8; Z  = 4.193; P  decision-making benefit from focused interventions. Our pilot assessment of a workshop showed promise, and additionally demonstrated the feasibility of bringing OSCEs and simulated encounters into a busy clinical practice.

  18. Crisis management: an extended reference framework for decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carone, Alessandro; Iorio, Luigi Di

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses a reference framework for capabilities supporting effective crisis management. This framework has been developed by joining experiences in the field and knowledge of organisational models for crisis management, and executives' empowerment, coaching and behavioural analysis. The paper is aimed at offering further insight to executives on critical success factors and means for managing crisis situations by extending the scope of analysis to human behaviour, to emotions and fears and their correlation with decision making. It is further intended to help familiarise them and to facilitate approaching a path towards emotional awareness.

  19. Information paradox of new product development: A case of decision-makers' focus of attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    Drawing on theory of bounded rationality and the attention-based view of the company, decision-makers' focus of attention is examined within the new product development process. Attention, defined as something which occupies individual consciousness, should be directed at selecting development...... activities and applying information resulting from these activities to go/no-go decision-making. Based on the information behavior of 42 development managers collected through a virtual role-play simulation of new product development, this research finds two information paradoxes of new product development....... First, competitive behavior makes decision-makers apply logic of reassurances in their implementation of NPD activities. Second, the information processing competence of decision-makers is unbalanced as information increases uncertainty in the concrete decision-making situation....

  20. Combining communication technology utilization and organizational innovation: evidence from Canadian healthcare decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jbilou, Jalila; Landry, Réjean; Amara, Nabil; El Adlouni, Salaheddine

    2009-08-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and Organizational Innovation (OI) are seen as the miracle of post-modernity in organizations. In this way, they are supposed to resolve most organizational problems, efficiently and rapidly. OI is highly dependent on the capacity and the investment in knowledge management (internal and external) to support decision making process and to implement significant changes. We know what explains ICT utilization (ICTU) and what determines OI development (OID) in healthcare services. Moreover, the literature tends to link ICTU to OID and vice versa. However, this dependency has never been explored empirically through the lens of roles combination. To identify the existing combined roles profiles of ICTU and OID among healthcare decision makers and determine factors of the shift from a profile to another. We did the following: (1) a structured review of the literature on healthcare management by focusing on ICTU and OID which allowed us to build two indexes and a comprehensive framework; (2) a copula methodology to identify with high precision the thresholds for ICTU and OID; and (3) a cross-sectional study based on a survey done with a sample of 942 decision makers from Canadian healthcare organizations through a multinomial logit model to identify determinants of the shift. ICTU and OID are correlated at 22% (Kendal's Tau). The joint distribution (combination) of ICTU and OID shows that four major profiles exist among decision makers in Canadian healthcare organizations: the traditional decision maker, the innovative decision maker, the technologic decision maker and the contemporary decision maker. We found out that classic factors act as barriers to the shift from one profile to the desired profile (from 1 to 4, from 2 to 4 and from 3 to 4). We have identified that the attitude toward research and relational capital are transversal barriers of shift. We have also found that some factors have a specific impact such as

  1. Coping Strategies and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Post-ICU Family Decision Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrinec, Amy B; Mazanec, Polly M; Burant, Christopher J; Hoffer, Alan; Daly, Barbara J

    2015-06-01

    To assess the coping strategies used by family decision makers of adult critical care patients during and after the critical care experience and the relationship of coping strategies to posttraumatic stress symptoms experienced 60 days after hospitalization. A single-group descriptive longitudinal correlational study. Medical, surgical, and neurological ICUs in a large tertiary care university hospital. Consecutive family decision makers of adult critical care patients from August 2012 to November 2013. Study inclusion occurred after the patient's fifth day in the ICU. None. Family decision makers of incapacitated adult ICU patients completed the Brief COPE instrument assessing coping strategy use 5 days after ICU admission and 30 days after hospital discharge or death of the patient and completed the Impact of Event Scale-Revised assessing posttraumatic stress symptoms 60 days after hospital discharge. Seventy-seven family decision makers of the eligible 176 completed all data collection time points of this study. The use of problem-focused (p=0.01) and emotion-focused (pstress symptoms than coping strategies 5 days after ICU admission (R2=0.30, p=0.001) controlling for patient and decision-maker characteristics. The role of decision maker for a parent and patient death were the only noncoping predictors of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Avoidant coping use 30 days after hospitalization mediated the relationship between patient death and later posttraumatic stress symptom severity. Coping strategy use is a significant predictor of posttraumatic stress symptom severity 60 days after hospitalization in family decision makers of ICU patients.

  2. 49 CFR 1503.659 - Petition to reconsider or modify a final decision and order of the TSA decision maker on appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and order of the TSA decision maker on appeal. 1503.659 Section 1503.659 Transportation Other... Practice in TSA Civil Penalty Actions § 1503.659 Petition to reconsider or modify a final decision and order of the TSA decision maker on appeal. (a) General. Any party may petition the TSA decision maker to...

  3. 49 CFR 1515.11 - Review by administrative law judge and TSA Final Decision Maker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review by administrative law judge and TSA Final... Review by administrative law judge and TSA Final Decision Maker. (a) Scope. This section applies to the following applicants: (1) An applicant who seeks review of a decision by TSA denying a request for a waiver...

  4. Concordance Between Veterans' Self-Report and Documentation of Surrogate Decision Makers: Implications for Quality Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Kimberly K; Dubbert, Patricia; Lensing, Shelly; Sullivan, Dennis H

    2017-01-01

    The Measuring What Matters initiative of the American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine and the Hospice and Palliative Nurses Association identified documentation of a surrogate decision maker as one of the top 10 quality indicators in the acute hospital and hospice settings. To better understand the potential implementation of this Measuring What Matters quality measure #8, Documentation of Surrogate in outpatient primary care settings by describing primary care patients' self-reported identification and documentation of a surrogate decision maker. Examination of patient responses to self-assessment questions from advance health care planning educational groups conducted in one medical center primary care clinic and seven community-based outpatient primary care clinics. We assessed the concordance between patient reports of identifying and naming a surrogate decision maker and having completed an advance directive (AD) with presence of an AD in the electronic medical record. Of veterans without a documented AD on file, more than half (66%) reported that they had talked with someone they trusted and nearly half (52%) reported that they had named someone to communicate their preferences. Our clinical project data suggest that many more veterans may have initiated communications with surrogate decision makers than is evident in the electronic medical record. System changes are needed to close the gap between veterans' plans for a surrogate decision maker and the documentation available to acute care health care providers. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Rationality versus reality: the challenges of evidence-based decision making for health policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Deirdre; Bruning, Nealia S

    2010-05-26

    Current healthcare systems have extended the evidence-based medicine (EBM) approach to health policy and delivery decisions, such as access-to-care, healthcare funding and health program continuance, through attempts to integrate valid and reliable evidence into the decision making process. These policy decisions have major impacts on society and have high personal and financial costs associated with those decisions. Decision models such as these function under a shared assumption of rational choice and utility maximization in the decision-making process. We contend that health policy decision makers are generally unable to attain the basic goals of evidence-based decision making (EBDM) and evidence-based policy making (EBPM) because humans make decisions with their naturally limited, faulty, and biased decision-making processes. A cognitive information processing framework is presented to support this argument, and subtle cognitive processing mechanisms are introduced to support the focal thesis: health policy makers' decisions are influenced by the subjective manner in which they individually process decision-relevant information rather than on the objective merits of the evidence alone. As such, subsequent health policy decisions do not necessarily achieve the goals of evidence-based policy making, such as maximizing health outcomes for society based on valid and reliable research evidence. In this era of increasing adoption of evidence-based healthcare models, the rational choice, utility maximizing assumptions in EBDM and EBPM, must be critically evaluated to ensure effective and high-quality health policy decisions. The cognitive information processing framework presented here will aid health policy decision makers by identifying how their decisions might be subtly influenced by non-rational factors. In this paper, we identify some of the biases and potential intervention points and provide some initial suggestions about how the EBDM/EBPM process can be

  6. Rationality versus reality: the challenges of evidence-based decision making for health policy makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruning Nealia S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current healthcare systems have extended the evidence-based medicine (EBM approach to health policy and delivery decisions, such as access-to-care, healthcare funding and health program continuance, through attempts to integrate valid and reliable evidence into the decision making process. These policy decisions have major impacts on society and have high personal and financial costs associated with those decisions. Decision models such as these function under a shared assumption of rational choice and utility maximization in the decision-making process. Discussion We contend that health policy decision makers are generally unable to attain the basic goals of evidence-based decision making (EBDM and evidence-based policy making (EBPM because humans make decisions with their naturally limited, faulty, and biased decision-making processes. A cognitive information processing framework is presented to support this argument, and subtle cognitive processing mechanisms are introduced to support the focal thesis: health policy makers' decisions are influenced by the subjective manner in which they individually process decision-relevant information rather than on the objective merits of the evidence alone. As such, subsequent health policy decisions do not necessarily achieve the goals of evidence-based policy making, such as maximizing health outcomes for society based on valid and reliable research evidence. Summary In this era of increasing adoption of evidence-based healthcare models, the rational choice, utility maximizing assumptions in EBDM and EBPM, must be critically evaluated to ensure effective and high-quality health policy decisions. The cognitive information processing framework presented here will aid health policy decision makers by identifying how their decisions might be subtly influenced by non-rational factors. In this paper, we identify some of the biases and potential intervention points and provide some initial

  7. Rationality versus reality: the challenges of evidence-based decision making for health policy makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Current healthcare systems have extended the evidence-based medicine (EBM) approach to health policy and delivery decisions, such as access-to-care, healthcare funding and health program continuance, through attempts to integrate valid and reliable evidence into the decision making process. These policy decisions have major impacts on society and have high personal and financial costs associated with those decisions. Decision models such as these function under a shared assumption of rational choice and utility maximization in the decision-making process. Discussion We contend that health policy decision makers are generally unable to attain the basic goals of evidence-based decision making (EBDM) and evidence-based policy making (EBPM) because humans make decisions with their naturally limited, faulty, and biased decision-making processes. A cognitive information processing framework is presented to support this argument, and subtle cognitive processing mechanisms are introduced to support the focal thesis: health policy makers' decisions are influenced by the subjective manner in which they individually process decision-relevant information rather than on the objective merits of the evidence alone. As such, subsequent health policy decisions do not necessarily achieve the goals of evidence-based policy making, such as maximizing health outcomes for society based on valid and reliable research evidence. Summary In this era of increasing adoption of evidence-based healthcare models, the rational choice, utility maximizing assumptions in EBDM and EBPM, must be critically evaluated to ensure effective and high-quality health policy decisions. The cognitive information processing framework presented here will aid health policy decision makers by identifying how their decisions might be subtly influenced by non-rational factors. In this paper, we identify some of the biases and potential intervention points and provide some initial suggestions about how the

  8. The Decision-Makers' Forum on a new paradigm for nuclear energy. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motloch, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    The Decision-Makers' Forum on a New Paradigm for Nuclear Energy was created in response to the challenge by Sen. Pete V. Domenici to begin, ''a new dialogue with serious discussion about the full range of nuclear technologies.'' Sponsored by the Senate Nuclear Issues Caucus, the Forum was organized and facilitated by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The participants were decision-makers and key staff from industry, government, the national laboratories, academia and professional societies. Overall, the Forum was designed to capture the ideas of a large number of decision-makers about the high priority actions recommended to help set a new national agenda for nuclear energy. The Forum recommended 10 priority actions toward this end

  9. Communication among scientists, decision makers and society: Developing policy-relevant global climate change research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernabo, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Defining the research most relevant to policy is not simply a technical task that can be answered by scientists. Decision makers need and value information differently than curiosity-driven scientists. In order to link science more effectively to policy, the two communities must gain a greater mutual understanding. Decision makers must define their needs so that scientists can determine how, and by when, research can address these needs. This vital dialogue between communities typically has been more ad hoc than systematic. The complexity and urgency of the global climate change issue necessitate ongoing communication between scientists and decision makers on the information needed for policy development and what research can provide The results of relevant science policy dialogues are discussed herein. Effective communication between researchers and decision makers is a crucial ingredient for successfully addressing society's pressing environmental concerns. The increase in policy makers' demands for research that is relevant to solving societal issues highlights the communication gap between the technical and policy communities. The gap, largely caused by lack of mutual understanding, results in flawed and inadequate communication that hinders decision making and confuses the public. This paper examines the cause of this communication gap and describes the significance of recent efforts to develop more fruitful science-policy dialogues on the issue of global climate change. First, the post-Cold War shift in government priorities for research funding is described; then the underlying relationship between science and policy is explored to identify key sources of ongoing mis-communication. The paper then explains the importance of defining policy-relevant science questions that research can address. Finally, three projects are described involving the elicitation of decision makers' information needs in The United States, The Netherlands, and internationally

  10. On the state of the art: risk communication to decision-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bier, V.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art on risk communication to decision-makers, with an emphasis on issues involved in communicating technical results. In particular, the paper discusses the treatment of uncertainty, variability, and dependence. It also reviews suggestions from the literature regarding the appropriate format of risk communication messages to decision-makers. Due to the lack of detailed empirical investigations and definitive results about this topic, the paper is not intended to be a comprehensive review, but rather as an exploration of key issues in this area

  11. Supplementing quantitative risk assessments with a stage addressing the risk understanding of the decision maker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, Terje

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative probabilistic risk assessment produces a conditional risk description given the knowledge of the analysts (formulated to a large extent through assumptions). However, important aspects of the risk may be concealed in the background knowledge of the analyst and the assumptions. This paper discusses this issue, the main purpose being to present a two-stage risk assessment approach where the second stage addresses the risk understanding of the decision maker. This second-stage is to a large extent qualitative. The approach is novel with its separation between the analysts' conditional risk descriptions using probability judgments, and the decision maker's risk understanding. The approach aims at improving the use of risk assessment in practical decision making by ensuring that the results of the risk assessments are properly interpreted and the key aspects of risk, uncertainty and knowledge are brought to attention for the decision makers. Examples are used to illustrate the approach. - Highlights: • A quantitative risk assessment produces a conditional risk description. • The decision maker (DM) needs to address risk beyond this description. • The paper presents a related two-stage process, covering analyst and DM judgments. • The second stage relates to the DM's risk understanding. • Strength of knowledge judgments are included in both stages.

  12. A Reward-Maximizing Spiking Neuron as a Bounded Rational Decision Maker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibfried, Felix; Braun, Daniel A

    2015-08-01

    Rate distortion theory describes how to communicate relevant information most efficiently over a channel with limited capacity. One of the many applications of rate distortion theory is bounded rational decision making, where decision makers are modeled as information channels that transform sensory input into motor output under the constraint that their channel capacity is limited. Such a bounded rational decision maker can be thought to optimize an objective function that trades off the decision maker's utility or cumulative reward against the information processing cost measured by the mutual information between sensory input and motor output. In this study, we interpret a spiking neuron as a bounded rational decision maker that aims to maximize its expected reward under the computational constraint that the mutual information between the neuron's input and output is upper bounded. This abstract computational constraint translates into a penalization of the deviation between the neuron's instantaneous and average firing behavior. We derive a synaptic weight update rule for such a rate distortion optimizing neuron and show in simulations that the neuron efficiently extracts reward-relevant information from the input by trading off its synaptic strengths against the collected reward.

  13. Decision-makers' Risk Perception in the Internationalisation of Small and Medium-Sized Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eduardsen, Jonas Strømfeldt; Marinova, Svetla Trifonova

    2016-01-01

    awareness exists, decision-makers do not perceive internationalisation as risky behaviour. Findings highlight the importance of decision-makers’ background, including cognitive and psychological characteristics, such as self-efficacy and locus of control, and their experiences in explaining risk perceptions......This study examines the risk perception of decision-makers in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and the factors underlying these perceptions in the process of internationalization of their firms. While risk perception has been identified as a potential predictor variable...... in internationalisation research, very little work has been done exploring the factors and processes that shape decision-makers’ perception of risk. A qualitative interview-based approach was adopted by collecting data from thirty-two Danish SMEs operating in four different industries. Findings suggest that while risk...

  14. Students as Rational Decision-Makers: The Question of Beliefs and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Alice

    2006-01-01

    Rational choice theorists have analysed rates of participation in post-compulsory education, and, in particular, class differentials in these rates. Various claims have been made about the motivations of student decision-makers, but these claims have not been grounded empirically. This paper will assess the question of whether students' attitudes…

  15. Adopting Cut Scores: Post-Standard-Setting Panel Considerations for Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisinger, Kurt F.; McCormick, Carina M.

    2010-01-01

    Standard-setting studies utilizing procedures such as the Bookmark or Angoff methods are just one component of the complete standard-setting process. Decision makers ultimately must determine what they believe to be the most appropriate standard or cut score to use, employing the input of the standard-setting panelists as one piece of information…

  16. Decision Maker Perception of Information Quality: A Case Study of Military Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Grayson B.

    2013-01-01

    Decision maker perception of information quality cues from an "information system" (IS) and the process which creates such meta cueing, or data about cues, is a critical yet un-modeled component of "situation awareness" (SA). Examples of common information quality meta cueing for quality criteria include custom ring-tones for…

  17. Monitoring Values and Practices of Oak Woodland Decision Makers on the Urban Fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Stewart

    1991-01-01

    Concern over oak woodlands has shifted away from ranch management towards residential areas. This shift has been accompanied by the involvement of decision makers who previously had little involvement with rangeland policies and practices. A survey of three recent Cooperative Extension workshops illustrates a number of important patterns regarding interest and...

  18. Designing "Real-World" trials to meet the needs of health policy makers at marketing authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Melanie; Wood, John; Freemantle, Nick

    2011-07-01

    There is increasing interest in conducting "Real-World" trials that go beyond traditional assessment of efficacy and safety to examine market access and value for money questions before marketing authorization of a new pharmaceutical product or health technology. This commentary uses practical examples to demonstrate how high-quality evidence of the cost-effectiveness of an intervention may be gained earlier in the development process. Issues surrounding the design and analysis of "Real-World" trials to demonstrate relative cost-effectiveness early in the life of new technologies are discussed. The modification of traditional phase III trial designs, de novo trial designs, the combination of trial-based and epidemiological data, and the use of simulation model-based approaches to address reimbursement questions are described. Modest changes to a phase III trial protocol and case report form may be undertaken at the design stage to provide valid estimates of health care use and the benefits accrued; however, phase III designs often preclude "real-life" practice. Relatively small de novo trials may be used to address adherence to therapy or patient preference, although simply designed studies with active comparators enrolling large numbers of patients may provide evidence on long-term safety and rare adverse events. Practical examples demonstrate that it is possible to provide high-quality evidence of the cost-effectiveness of an intervention earlier in the development process. Payers and decision makers should preferentially adopt treatments with such evidence than treatments for which evidence is lacking or of lower quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Constructing Perceptions of Climate Change: a case study of regional political decision makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, D.

    2012-12-01

    This case study of climate change communications assesses the salient means of communication and the message adopted by regional political decision makers on the German Baltic coast. Realizing that cultural factors and local values (and not simply knowledge) are significant influences in explaining attitudes towards climate change, this analysis draws from the records of regional weather, from scientists with a specific focus on the region, from the political decision makers for that region, and the media message reaching the decision makers, ensuring all elements of the analysis are drawn from the same socioeconomic, geophysical, political and cultural context. This is important as the social dynamics surrounding the trust in science is of critical importance and, as such, all elements of the case study are specifically contained within a common context. If the utility of climate change knowledge is to prompt well conceived adaptation/mitigation strategies then the political decision process, or at least the perceptions shaping it, can best be understood by locating it within the world view of the decision makers involved in the production process. Using the results of two survey questionnaires, one of regional climate scientists and one of regional political decision makers, ten years of local weather records, and a summary of the message from mass media circulation, the discord in perceptions of regional climate change are quantitatively explored. The conclusions drawn from the analysis include, compared to the scientific assessment: The decision makers' perceptions of recent past differ from actual observations. The decision makers' perceptions of the future differ from scientific assessments. The decision makers tend to over estimate the magnitude of regional climate change and its impacts. The decision makers tend to over estimate the sense of immediacy for adaptation measures. The conclusions drawn suggest that in the regional political realm, it is often a

  20. Clarity versus complexity: land-use modeling as a practical tool for decision-makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, Terry L.; Claggett, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The last decade has seen a remarkable increase in the number of modeling tools available to examine future land-use and land-cover (LULC) change. Integrated modeling frameworks, agent-based models, cellular automata approaches, and other modeling techniques have substantially improved the representation of complex LULC systems, with each method using a different strategy to address complexity. However, despite the development of new and better modeling tools, the use of these tools is limited for actual planning, decision-making, or policy-making purposes. LULC modelers have become very adept at creating tools for modeling LULC change, but complicated models and lack of transparency limit their utility for decision-makers. The complicated nature of many LULC models also makes it impractical or even impossible to perform a rigorous analysis of modeling uncertainty. This paper provides a review of land-cover modeling approaches and the issues causes by the complicated nature of models, and provides suggestions to facilitate the increased use of LULC models by decision-makers and other stakeholders. The utility of LULC models themselves can be improved by 1) providing model code and documentation, 2) through the use of scenario frameworks to frame overall uncertainties, 3) improving methods for generalizing key LULC processes most important to stakeholders, and 4) adopting more rigorous standards for validating models and quantifying uncertainty. Communication with decision-makers and other stakeholders can be improved by increasing stakeholder participation in all stages of the modeling process, increasing the transparency of model structure and uncertainties, and developing user-friendly decision-support systems to bridge the link between LULC science and policy. By considering these options, LULC science will be better positioned to support decision-makers and increase real-world application of LULC modeling results.

  1. Negative Attitudes toward Older Workers and Hiring Decisions: Testing the Moderating Role of Decision Makers' Core Self-Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasbender, Ulrike; Wang, Mo

    2016-01-01

    Organizational hiring practices have been charged for unfair treatment on the grounds of age. Drawing on theories of planned behavior and core self-evaluations, this research investigated the impact of negative attitudes toward older workers on hiring decisions and examined the moderating role of decision-makers' core self-evaluations. We tested our hypotheses based on a structured online questionnaire and a vignette study using a sample of 102 participants working in human resource management across different industries. As predicted, negative attitudes toward older workers were positively related to avoidance of hiring older people, which in turn was negatively related to the likelihood to select the oldest candidate. Because hiring decisions are not only about the hiring subject but also about the decision-maker, we tested the moderating role of decision-makers' core self-evaluations. Results showed that core self-evaluations buffered the relationship between negative attitudes toward older workers and avoidance of hiring older people. Theoretical implications of the findings with regard to hiring decisions about older people and practical recommendations to improve diversity management strategies and age-balanced hiring practices in organizations are discussed.

  2. Getting ocean acidification on decision makers' to-do lists: dissecting the process through case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Sarah R.; Jewett, Elizabeth B.; Reichert, Julie; Robbins, Lisa L.; Shrestha, Gyami; Wieczorek, Dan; Weisberg, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Much of the detailed, incremental knowledge being generated by current scientific research on ocean acidification (OA) does not directly address the needs of decision makers, who are asking broad questions such as: Where will OA harm marine resources next? When will this happen? Who will be affected? And how much will it cost? In this review, we use a series of mainly US-based case studies to explore the needs of local to international-scale groups that are making decisions to address OA concerns. Decisions concerning OA have been made most naturally and easily when information needs were clearly defined and closely aligned with science outputs and initiatives. For decisions requiring more complex information, the process slows dramatically. Decision making about OA is greatly aided (1) when a mixture of specialists participates, including scientists, resource users and managers, and policy and law makers; (2) when goals can be clearly agreed upon at the beginning of the process; (3) when mixed groups of specialists plan and create translational documents explaining the likely outcomes of policy decisions on ecosystems and natural resources; (4) when regional work on OA fits into an existing set of priorities concerning climate or water quality; and (5) when decision making can be reviewed and enhanced.

  3. An analytical framework to assist decision makers in the use of forest ecosystem model predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Guy R.; Bhatti, Jagtar S.; Ascough, J.C.; Liu, J.; Luckai, N.; Mailly, D.; Archambault, L.; Gordon, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    The predictions from most forest ecosystem models originate from deterministic simulations. However, few evaluation exercises for model outputs are performed by either model developers or users. This issue has important consequences for decision makers using these models to develop natural resource management policies, as they cannot evaluate the extent to which predictions stemming from the simulation of alternative management scenarios may result in significant environmental or economic differences. Various numerical methods, such as sensitivity/uncertainty analyses, or bootstrap methods, may be used to evaluate models and the errors associated with their outputs. However, the application of each of these methods carries unique challenges which decision makers do not necessarily understand; guidance is required when interpreting the output generated from each model. This paper proposes a decision flow chart in the form of an analytical framework to help decision makers apply, in an orderly fashion, different steps involved in examining the model outputs. The analytical framework is discussed with regard to the definition of problems and objectives and includes the following topics: model selection, identification of alternatives, modelling tasks and selecting alternatives for developing policy or implementing management scenarios. Its application is illustrated using an on-going exercise in developing silvicultural guidelines for a forest management enterprise in Ontario, Canada.

  4. Climate science information needs among natural resource decision-makers in the Northwest US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Allen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing water resources, air quality, forests, rangelands and agricultural systems in the context of climate change requires a new level of integrated knowledge. In order to articulate a role for university-based research teams as providers of climate services, this paper analyzes environmental change concerns and expectations about climate models among natural resources decision-makers in the Northwest US. Data were collected during a series of workshops organized by researchers from BioEarth, a regional earth systems modeling initiative. Eighty-three stakeholders from industry, government agencies and non-governmental organizations engaged with a team of academic researchers developing integrated biophysical and economic climate modeling tools. Analysis of transcripts of workshop discussions, surveys, and questionnaires reveals diverse attitudes among stakeholders about: 1 preferred modes of engaging in climate science research, 2 specific concerns and questions about climate change impacts, and 3 the most relevant and usable scope and scale of climate change impacts projections. Diverse concerns and information needs among natural resource decision-makers highlight the need for research teams to define clear and precise goals for stakeholder engagement. Utilizing the skills of research team members who have communication and extension expertise is pivotally important. We suggest impactful opportunities for research teams and natural resource decision-makers to interface and learn from one another. Effective approaches include structuring group discussions to identify gaps in existing climate change impacts information, explicitly considering changing policies, technologies and management practices, and exploring possible unintended consequences of decisions.

  5. Decision makers' experiences of prioritisation and views about how to finance healthcare costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werntoft, Elisabet; Edberg, Anna-Karin

    2009-10-01

    Prioritisation in healthcare is an issue of growing importance due to scarcity of resources. The aims of this study were firstly to describe decision makers' experience of prioritisation and their views concerning willingness to pay and how to finance healthcare costs. An additional aim was to compare the views of politicians and physicians. The study was a cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire administered to 700 Swedish politicians and physicians. This was analysed using both quantitative and qualitative methods. A majority of the decision makers (55%) suggested that increasing costs should be financed through higher taxation but more physicians than politicians thought that higher patient fees, private health insurance and a reduction in social expenditure were better alternatives. Prioritisation aroused anxiety; politicians were afraid of displeasing voters while physicians were afraid of making medically incorrect decisions. This study do not answer the question about how to make prioritisation in health care but the result highlights the different ways that the decision makers view the subject and thereby elicit that publicly elected politicians and physicians perhaps not always work with the same goal ahead. There are needs for more research but also more media focus on the subject so the citizens will be aware and take part in the debate.

  6. Ethical challenges related to elder care. High level decision-makers' experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kihlgren Mona

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few empirical studies have been found that explore ethical challenges among persons in high public positions that are responsible for elder care. The aim of this paper was to illuminate the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care as experienced by high level decision-makers. Methods A phenomenological-hermeneutic method was used to analyse the eighteen interviews conducted with political and civil servant high level decision-makers at the municipality and county council level from two counties in Sweden. The participants worked at a planning and control as well as executive level and had both budget and quality of elder care responsibilities. Results Both ethical dilemmas and the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care were revealed. No differences were seen between the politicians and the civil servants. The ethical dilemmas mostly concerned dealings with extensive care needs and working with a limited budget. The dilemmas were associated with a lack of good care and a lack of agreement concerning care such as vulnerable patients in inappropriate care settings, weaknesses in medical support, dissimilar focuses between the caring systems, justness in the distribution of care and deficient information. Being in ethically difficult situations was challenging. Associated with them were experiences of being exposed, having to be strategic and living with feelings such as aloneness and loneliness, uncertainty, lack of confirmation, the risk of being threatened or becoming a scapegoat and difficult decision avoidance. Conclusion Our paper provides further insight into the ethical dilemmas and ethical challenges met by high level decision-makers', which is important since the overall responsibility for elder care that is also ethically defensible rests with them. They have power and their decisions affect many stakeholders in elder care. Our results can be used to

  7. Ethical challenges related to elder care. High level decision-makers' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamhidir, Anna-Greta; Kihlgren, Mona; Sorlie, Venke

    2007-04-10

    Few empirical studies have been found that explore ethical challenges among persons in high public positions that are responsible for elder care. The aim of this paper was to illuminate the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care as experienced by high level decision-makers. A phenomenological-hermeneutic method was used to analyse the eighteen interviews conducted with political and civil servant high level decision-makers at the municipality and county council level from two counties in Sweden. The participants worked at a planning and control as well as executive level and had both budget and quality of elder care responsibilities. Both ethical dilemmas and the meaning of being in ethically difficult situations related to elder care were revealed. No differences were seen between the politicians and the civil servants. The ethical dilemmas mostly concerned dealings with extensive care needs and working with a limited budget. The dilemmas were associated with a lack of good care and a lack of agreement concerning care such as vulnerable patients in inappropriate care settings, weaknesses in medical support, dissimilar focuses between the caring systems, justness in the distribution of care and deficient information. Being in ethically difficult situations was challenging. Associated with them were experiences of being exposed, having to be strategic and living with feelings such as aloneness and loneliness, uncertainty, lack of confirmation, the risk of being threatened or becoming a scapegoat and difficult decision avoidance. Our paper provides further insight into the ethical dilemmas and ethical challenges met by high level decision-makers', which is important since the overall responsibility for elder care that is also ethically defensible rests with them. They have power and their decisions affect many stakeholders in elder care. Our results can be used to stimulate discussions between high level decision-makers and health

  8. NPD gate decision criteria - a consequence of strategic orientation or decision-maker expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Helle Alsted Søndergård; Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    2008-01-01

    criteria at the decision gates. Results from a sample of 132 NPD practitioners studied a simulated NPD process show that the importance of decision criteria is influenced by both the strategic orientation of the company and individual decision-making expertise. Especially the proactive and aggressive...... strategic orientations influence the prioritisation of decision criteria....

  9. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS REGARDING THE DECISION-MAKERS IN TERMS OF TOURISM PROMOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna-Ioana GAVRA JURAVLE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to obtain qualitative information from the decision-makers in Bucovina in order to identify their attitude in terms of tourism promotion and their level of information regarding promotion, tourism and tourists. We set four objectives: analyzing the level of awareness regarding the benefits provided by tourism for the municipality and the locality; identifying the level of information regarding the range of services available for tourists in the localities where the mayors carry out their activities; determining the attitude of the decision-makers vis-à-vis promotion and identifying the perceptions of the interviewees regarding the place of promotion in tourism development. The research method we used is qualitative research, namely the in-depth interview.

  10. The Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA): A tool to aid developers and decision makers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabille, E

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ): A tool to aid developers and decision makers Eugene Mabille The WASA Project Team SANEDI South African National Energy Development Institute • executing agency – contracting the implementing partners • coordination and dissemination UCT... to produce wind atlas for generalised surface conditions (uniform terrain and roughness). Files compatible with WAsP software.  Used for the first WASA published in 2012.  KAMM/WAsP method, numerically very cheap, gives good results  underestimation...

  11. Culturally acceptable health care services for Saudi's elderly population: the decision-maker's perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Shammari, S A; Felemban, F M; Jarallah, J S; Ali el-S; al-Bilali, S A; Hamad, J M

    1995-01-01

    This article reports on a study carried out in 1993 to elicit the opinions of decision makers (medical and non-medical) as to the types of facilities, locations and culturally acceptable levels of health care appropriate for the elderly in Saudi Arabia. In addition, the study sought to find out the procedures and likely constraints in the development of future health care services for the elderly. An opinion survey was carried out on a randomly selected sample of decision makers, drawn from: hospitals of 100-bed capacity or more; and, from directorates of education, agriculture, police, municipalities, commerce, transport and media, in each of the regions of Saudi Arabia. A predesigned Arabic questionnaire was completed by the respondents during February-April, 1993. Of the 244 respondents, the most important categories of elderly to be cared for were considered to be those with handicaps, the chronically ill, and those without family support. The non-medical decision makers gave higher scores to these alternatives than did the medical decision makers (P < 0.05). Use of the family home for elderly health care was rated as the most appropriate, followed by medical rehabilitation centres, and only then by hospitals. Non-medical respondents gave more emphasis on rehabilitation centres (P < 0.02). Medical respondents thought that primary care doctors (87.2%), physiotherapists (87.2%) and general nurses (78.2%) can adequately fulfil the needs of most elderly patients. In contrast, non-medical respondents demanded the presence of specialist doctors (72.3%), specialist nurses (78.9%), laboratory and X-ray facilities to run such services (P < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Potentials of Tracking and Tracing Technologies - The Perspective of IT Decision Makers in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Knebel, Uta;Leimeister, Jan Marco;Krcmar, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    RFID-technologies have been described as major enabling technologies for automated, contactless data collection. We conveyed a quantitative survey of 463 executives across various industries in Germany to investigate about the perceived strategic importance of RFID among IT decision makers,current RFID usage, companies' intentions to invest in RFID and visions of RFID application. The survey results showed that: - RFID is currently not very widespread. - The importance of RFID will rise signi...

  13. Liquidity Shocks, Market Maker Turnover, and Bidding Behavior in Treasury Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Eiras, Martin; Rudiger, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    aggressively. They also bid more aggressively for existing securities that are reissued when the regulation tightens the requirements for secondary market participation. Consistent with regulations which imply that auctioned securities are not a prime source of liquidity, we find that banks which face...... liquidity needs bid less aggressively for them. A novel implication of our results is that in institutional settings that feature turnover of market makers, bidding behavior should be modeled in a dynamic setting. We introduce a dynamic model and show that static estimates over-predict true valuations when...

  14. Energizing Government Decision-Makers with the Facts on Solar Technology, Policy, and Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The Solar Technical Assistance Team (STAT) is a network of solar technology and implementation experts who provide timely, unbiased expertise to assist policymakers and regulators in making informed decisions about solar programs and policies. Government officials can submit requests directly to the STAT for technical assistance. STAT then partners with experts in solar policy, regulation, finance, technology, and other areas to deliver accurate, up-to-date information to state and local decision makers. The STAT responds to requests on a wide range of issues -- including, but not limited to, feed-in tariffs, renewable portfolio standards, rate design, program design, workforce and economic impacts of solar on jurisdictions, and project financing.

  15. Gender inequalities in the workplace: the effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers' sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamarski, Cailin S; Son Hing, Leanne S

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality in organizations is a complex phenomenon that can be seen in organizational structures, processes, and practices. For women, some of the most harmful gender inequalities are enacted within human resources (HRs) practices. This is because HR practices (i.e., policies, decision-making, and their enactment) affect the hiring, training, pay, and promotion of women. We propose a model of gender discrimination in HR that emphasizes the reciprocal nature of gender inequalities within organizations. We suggest that gender discrimination in HR-related decision-making and in the enactment of HR practices stems from gender inequalities in broader organizational structures, processes, and practices. This includes leadership, structure, strategy, culture, organizational climate, as well as HR policies. In addition, organizational decision makers' levels of sexism can affect their likelihood of making gender biased HR-related decisions and/or behaving in a sexist manner while enacting HR practices. Importantly, institutional discrimination in organizational structures, processes, and practices play a pre-eminent role because not only do they affect HR practices, they also provide a socializing context for organizational decision makers' levels of hostile and benevolent sexism. Although we portray gender inequality as a self-reinforcing system that can perpetuate discrimination, important levers for reducing discrimination are identified.

  16. Ecological rationality: a framework for understanding and aiding the aging decision maker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Rui; Pachur, Thorsten; von Helversen, Bettina; Hertwig, Ralph; Rieskamp, Jörg; Schooler, Lael

    2012-01-01

    The notion of ecological rationality sees human rationality as the result of the adaptive fit between the human mind and the environment. Ecological rationality focuses the study of decision making on two key questions: First, what are the environmental regularities to which people's decision strategies are matched, and how frequently do these regularities occur in natural environments? Second, how well can people adapt their use of specific strategies to particular environmental regularities? Research on aging suggests a number of changes in cognitive function, for instance, deficits in learning and memory that may impact decision-making skills. However, it has been shown that simple strategies can work well in many natural environments, which suggests that age-related deficits in strategy use may not necessarily translate into reduced decision quality. Consequently, we argue that predictions about the impact of aging on decision performance depend not only on how aging affects decision-relevant capacities but also on the decision environment in which decisions are made. In sum, we propose that the concept of the ecological rationality is crucial to understanding and aiding the aging decision maker.

  17. Training Decision Makers for Complex Environments: Implications of the Naturalistic Decision Making Perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Canon-Bowers, Janis A; Bell, Herbert H

    1997-01-01

    Perhaps the most significant contribution of the Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM) perspective is that it has forced researchers to reevaluate the assumptions they hold about how people make decisions in "real" environments...

  18. Mapping of multiple criteria for priority setting of health interventions: an aid for decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tromp Noor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rationing decisions in health, many criteria like costs, effectiveness, equity and feasibility concerns play a role. These criteria stem from different disciplines that all aim to inform health care rationing decisions, but a single underlying concept that incorporates all criteria does not yet exist. Therefore, we aim to develop a conceptual mapping of criteria, based on the World Health Organization’s Health Systems Performance and Health Systems Building Blocks frameworks. This map can be an aid to decision makers to identify the relevant criteria for priority setting in their specific context. Methods We made an inventory of all possible criteria for priority setting on the basis of literature review. We categorized the criteria according to both health system frameworks that spell out a country’s health system goals and input. We reason that the criteria that decision makers use in priority setting exercises are a direct manifestation of this. Results Our map includes thirty-one criteria that are distributed among five categories that reflect the goals of a health system (i.e. to improve level of health, fair distribution of health, responsiveness, social & financial risk protection and efficiency and leadership/governance one category that reflects feasibiliy based on the health system building blocks (i.e. service delivery, health care workforce , information, medical products, vaccines & technologies, financing and. Conclusions This conceptual mapping of criteria, based on well-established health system frameworks, will further develop the field of priority setting by assisting decision makers in the identification of multiple criteria for selection of health interventions.

  19. Ecological Rationality: A Framework for Understanding and Aiding the Aging Decision Maker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui eMata

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecological rationality sees human rationality as the result of the adaptive fit between the human mind and the environment. The concept of ecological rationality focuses the study of cognition on two key questions: First, what are the environmental regularities to which people’s decision strategies are matched, and how frequently do these regularities occur in natural environments? Second, how well can people adapt their use of specific strategies to particular environments? Research on aging suggests a number of changes in cognitive function, for instance, deficits in learning and memory that may impact decision-making skills. However, it has been shown that simple strategies can work well in many natural environments, which suggests that age-related deficits in strategy use may not necessarily translate into diminished decision performance. Consequently, we argue that predictions about the impact of aging on decision performance depend not only on how aging affects decision-relevant capacities but also on the decision ecology in which decisions are made. In sum, we propose that the concept of the ecological rationality is crucial to understanding and aiding the aging decision maker.

  20. Decision conflict and regret among surrogate decision makers in the medical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jesse J; Morris, Peter; Files, D Clark; Gower, Emily; Young, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Family members of critically ill patients in the intensive care unit face significant morbidity. It may be the decision-making process that plays a significant role in the psychological morbidity associated with being a surrogate in the ICU. We hypothesize that family members facing end-of-life decisions will have more decisional conflict and decisional regret than those facing non-end-of-life decisions. We enrolled a sample of adult patients and their surrogates in a tertiary care, academic medical intensive care unit. We queried the surrogates regarding decisions they had made on behalf of the patient and assessed decision conflict. We then contacted the family member again to assess decision regret. Forty (95%) of 42 surrogates were able to identify at least 1 decision they had made on behalf of the patient. End-of-life decisions (defined as do not resuscitate [DNR]/do not intubate [DNI] or continuation of life support) accounted for 19 of 40 decisions (47.5%). Overall, the average Decision Conflict Scale (DCS) score was 21.9 of 100 (range 0-100, with 0 being little decisional conflict and 100 being great decisional conflict). The average DCS score for families facing end-of-life decisions was 25.5 compared with 18.7 for all other decisions. Those facing end-of-life decisions scored higher on the uncertainty subscale (subset of DCS questions that indicates level of certainty regarding decision) with a mean score of 43.4 compared with all other decisions with a mean score of 27.0. Overall, very few surrogates experienced decisional regret with an average DRS score of 13.4 of 100. Nearly all surrogates enrolled were faced with decision-making responsibilities on behalf of his or her critically ill family member. In our small pilot study, we found more decisional conflict in those surrogates facing end-of-life decisions, specifically on the subset of questions dealing with uncertainty. Surrogates report low levels of decisional regret. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  1. EDUCATION MANAGEMENT DECISION-MAKERS IN EUROPEAN PRE – UNIVERSITY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRAȘCU DANUȚ DUMITRU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available EDUCATION MANAGEMENT DECISION-MAKERS IN EUROPEAN PRE – UNIVERSITY EDUCATION Ana Tuºa, 1 Affiliation , “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu, Faculty of Economics, Department of management Claudiu Sorin Voinia 2 , Affiliation, “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Engineering Dãnuþ Dumitru Dumitraºcu 3 Affiliation, “Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu, Faculty of Economics, Department of management The theme paper consists in a comparative analysis of European preuniveristary education decision makers. Decision makers in preuniversity education management remain the key issue in the political agenda of most European countries. The diversity of educational policies in each European country aims to increase school autonomy, in a way that allows comparison of their main elements of management. Scientific research carried out aimed both theoretical and practical terms: - comparative analysis of how the makers of European schools are responsible for the management practiced in the educational institution. - identification of the achievement of school autonomy. Lately, in terms of policy makers and school autonomy, schools have gone through many reforms. It was felt the need to improve the democratic management and the quality of the educational process. The analysis and the approaches differ in terms of pace of reform, scale transfer of authority and areas that apply. No approach can be chosen as the ideal one or more effective than others, because the contexts in which they were made are so diverse. However, as it moves along, educational policy makers can learn from the approaches and experiences of others. The methodology was based on: the study of scientific literature from the country and abroad, on the theory and practice regarding the decision in the management of school education activities. Comparative analysis was conducted based on questionnaires

  2. Decision making in quasi-markets: a pedagogic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P R; Cullis, J G

    1996-04-01

    The objective of the 1991 NHS reforms was to reduce "excessive" vertical integration by constructing a quasi-market in which incentive structures and increased availability of information would enable decision makers make better use of resources. There is, however, no overall framework in which to consider the welfare gains which result from the introduction of a quasi-market or the welfare losses which arise from distortions in a quasi-market. This paper offers an analysis which can be applied to illustrate the difficulty of estimating the welfare loss from cream skimming and also to consider the impact of local monopoly.

  3. Residents' perceptions about surrogate decision makers' financial conflicts of interest in ventilator withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wastila, Lisa J; Farber, Neil J

    2014-05-01

    There have been no studies to date that examine physicians' decisions to withdraw life-sustaining treatment for patients based on their surrogates' financial gain. The authors' objective was to ascertain physician attitudes about withdrawing life-sustaining treatment when financial considerations are involved. A survey was developed and pretested containing eight scenarios in which a terminally ill patient's spouse had a decision to make regarding withdrawal of the ventilator, which was deemed medically futile. Nested variables included agreement or disagreement between the spouse and patient, decision to withdraw or continue the ventilator, and financial gain or no financial gain for the spouse. The authors surveyed all internal medicine residents at the University of California, San Diego in the autumn of 2011 and winter of 2012. The responses on each of the three variables for which respondents were likely to withdraw the ventilator were analyzed via student's t-tests. Residents were more likely to withdraw the ventilator when requested to do so than when it was requested to be continued. They were also more likely to withdraw the ventilator when there was agreement in the decision between the spouse and the patient. Residents were more likely to withdraw the ventilator when the spouse would not benefit financially. Internal medicine residents make some decisions about whether to withdraw life-sustaining treatment based on financial considerations. There needs to be ongoing communication with residents about end-of-life decisions where conflicts may exist between the surrogate decision makers and patients or physicians.

  4. Counseling Model Application: A Student Career Development Guidance for Decision Maker and Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwan; Gustientiedina; Sunarti; Desnelita, Yenny

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to design a counseling model application for a decision-maker and consultation system. This application as an alternative guidance and individual career development for students, that include career knowledge, planning and alternative options from an expert tool based on knowledge and rule to provide the solutions on student’s career decisions. This research produces a counseling model application to obtain the important information about student career development and facilitating individual student’s development through the service form, to connect their plan with their career according to their talent, interest, ability, knowledge, personality and other supporting factors. This application model can be used as tool to get information faster and flexible for the student’s guidance and counseling. So, it can help students in doing selection and making decision that appropriate with their choice of works.

  5. Putting research in place: an innovative approach to providing contextualized evidence synthesis for decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bornstein

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Contextualized Health Research Synthesis Program (CHRSP, developed in 2007 by the Newfoundland and Labrador Centre for Applied Health Research, produces contextualized knowledge syntheses for health-system decision makers. The program provides timely, relevant, and easy-to-understand scientific evidence; optimizes evidence uptake; and, most importantly, attunes research questions and evidence to the specific context in which knowledge users must apply the findings. Methods As an integrated knowledge translation (KT method, CHRSP: Involves intensive partnerships with senior healthcare decision makers who propose priority research topics and participate on research teams; Considers local context both in framing the research question and in reporting the findings; Makes economical use of resources by utilizing a limited number of staff; Uses a combination of external and local experts; and Works quickly by synthesizing high-level systematic review evidence rather than primary studies. Although it was developed in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, the CHRSP methodology is adaptable to a variety of settings with distinctive features, such as those in rural, remote, and small-town locations. Results CHRSP has published 25 syntheses on priority topics chosen by the provincial healthcare system, including: Clinical and cost-effectiveness: telehealth, rural renal dialysis, point-of-care testing; Community-based health services: helping seniors age in place, supporting seniors with dementia, residential treatment centers for at-risk youth; Healthcare organization/service delivery: reducing acute-care length of stay, promoting flu vaccination among health workers, safe patient handling, age-friendly acute care; and Health promotion: diabetes prevention, promoting healthy dietary habits. These studies have been used by decision makers to inform local policy and practice decisions. Conclusions By asking the health

  6. Learning environment simulator: a tool for local decision makers and first responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclaire, Rene J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hirsch, Gary B [CLE, INCORPORATED

    2009-01-01

    The National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) has developed a prototype learning environment simulator (LES) based on the Critical Infrastructure Protection Decision Support System (CIPDSS) infrastructure and scenario models. The LES is designed to engage decision makers at the grass-roots level (local/city/state) to deepen their understanding of an evolving crisis, enhance their intuition and allow them to test their own strategies for events before they occur. An initial version is being developed, centered on a pandemic influenza outbreak and has been successfully tested with a group of hospital administrators and first responders. LES is not a predictive tool but rather a simulated environment allowing the user to experience the complexities of a crisis before it happens. Users can contrast various approaches to the crisis, competing with alternative strategies of their own or other participants. LES is designed to assist decision makers in making informed choices by functionally representing relevant scenarios before they occur, including impacts to critical infrastructures with their interdependencies, and estimating human health & safety and economic impacts. In this paper a brief overview of the underlying models are given followed by a description of the LES, its interface and usage and an overview of the experience testing LES with a group of hospital administrators and first responders. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the work remaining to make LES operational.

  7. Moving towards tangible decision-making tools for policy makers: Measuring and monitoring energy access provision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanot, Jaya; Jha, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    Access to energy services has been recognised as central to achieving economic growth and sustainable development. However, almost 1.3 billion people in the world still lack access to electricity and 2.7 billion lack access to clean cooking facilities. In this backdrop, the issue of energy access is receiving more interest than ever before and this has brought to the fore, the need for a robust decision support tool for policy makers to measure the progress of energy access provision and also to provide direction for future policy making. The paper studies existing definitions of energy access and identifies the key requirements for an appropriate decision-making tool to measure and monitor energy access provision. In this context the paper assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the metrics currently being used to measure energy access in policy, as well as of contemporary monitoring and evaluation frameworks being used in other sectors. Based on these insights, a dashboard of indicators is proposed as an alternate decision support tool for policy makers to measure energy access. The paper concludes with a discussion on what is needed to operationalise this proposed framework. - Highlights: ► No one indicator or metric can successfully capture progress on energy access. ► A service oriented approach is necessary to measure energy access. ► Socio-economic and political contexts influence success of energy access policies.

  8. Decision maker perceptions of resource allocation processes in Canadian health care organizations: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Neale; Mitton, Craig; Bryan, Stirling; Davidson, Alan; Urquhart, Bonnie; Gibson, Jennifer L; Peacock, Stuart; Donaldson, Cam

    2013-07-02

    Resource allocation is a key challenge for healthcare decision makers. While several case studies of organizational practice exist, there have been few large-scale cross-organization comparisons. Between January and April 2011, we conducted an on-line survey of senior decision makers within regional health authorities (and closely equivalent organizations) across all Canadian provinces and territories. We received returns from 92 individual managers, from 60 out of 89 organizations in total. The survey inquired about structures, process features, and behaviours related to organization-wide resource allocation decisions. We focus here on three main aspects: type of process, perceived fairness, and overall rating. About one-half of respondents indicated that their organization used a formal process for resource allocation, while the others reported that political or historical factors were predominant. Seventy percent (70%) of respondents self-reported that their resource allocation process was fair and just over one-half assessed their process as 'good' or 'very good'. This paper explores these findings in greater detail and assesses them in context of the larger literature. Data from this large-scale cross-jurisdictional survey helps to illustrate common challenges and areas of positive performance among Canada's health system leadership teams.

  9. Affective Decision Making in Insurance Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Anat Bracha

    2004-01-01

    This paper suggests incorporating affective considerations into decision making theory and insurance decision in particular. I describe a decision maker with two internal accounts - the rational account and the mental account. The rational account decides on insurance to maximize expected (perceived) utility, while the mental account chooses risk perceptions which then affect the perceived expected utility. The two accounts interact to reach a decision which is composed of both risk perceptio...

  10. Decision-Makers As Messengers Of Climate Change Impacts And Ambassadors For Their Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudrias, M. A.; DeBenedict, C.; Bruce, L.; Estrada, M.; Hedge, N.; Silva-Send, N. J.

    2016-12-01

    Over the past several years there have been many coordinated efforts to improve climate change literacy of diverse audiences. The challenge has been to balance science content with audience-specific messaging with a goal to reach solutions and build community resilience. In the San Diego Region, Climate Education Partners (CEP) has been working with business leaders, elected officials, tribal leaders, and other community leaders to develop a suite of programs and activities to enhance the channels of communication outside traditional settings. CEP has employed a multidisciplinary approach that integrates climate science, social and learning sciences and effective communication strategies to create innovative resources and new approaches to climate change communication in order to engage audiences more effectively. We have interviewed over 140 key San Diego leaders and invited them to serve as ambassadors to the project by engaging them directly in the creation of a variety of innovative educational resources as well as serving as spokespersons for outreach activities. Our program has evolved from having only scientists, educators and community practitioners serve as presenters to strategically and deliberately engaging a mix of scientists, educators and decision makers as the conveyers of key messages. Our protocol for events includes preparing all speakers in advance, researching our audience, creating a script, immediate debriefs of each activity and a qualitative and quantitative assessment of each event. Two examples of this integrated approach will show how to engage decision-makers more deeply: (1) coastal flooding tour as a place-based activity and (2) impact videos that blend climate science, local personal stories and key messages from decision makers themselves. For climate change communication to be successful in the future, we will need creative and coordinated approaches.

  11. Effective Decision Maker-Scientist Engagement:Climate Change Vulnerability Analysis of California's Water System to Using Decision Scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, A. M.; Ray, P.; Brown, C.; Wi, S.

    2016-12-01

    For nearly 2 years the California Department of Water Resources (CDWR) has been working with the University of Massachusetts Amherst (UMass) to evaluate climate change vulnerabilities to the California State Water Project. Working cooperatively, the team has developed tools and methods to employ a decision scaling approach to CDWR's existing water system model (CalSim-II/CalLite 3.0). This presentation will discuss how and why this partnership came to be, the co-production model the team has developed to share expertise, the new understanding of the system that has been gained through the process, and current and future efforts to influence planning and investments based on the findings of the work. This cooperative decision-maker-with-scientist engagement is unique in that CDWR has not outsourced the application of the science to their systems, and instead has worked directly with UMass researchers to develop the process, produce results, and interpret findings. Further, CDWR staff has worked with UMass researchers to present results in ways that are more useable and actionable for decision-makers. As will be shown, many of these graphics allow the team to use the science differently to improve decision making.

  12. Economic assessment of flood forecasts for a risk-averse decision-maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, Simon; Boucher, Marie-Amélie; Boucher, Vincent; Fortier-Filion, Thomas-Charles

    2017-04-01

    A large effort has been made over the past 10 years to promote the operational use of probabilistic or ensemble streamflow forecasts. It has also been suggested in past studies that ensemble forecasts might possess a greater economic value than deterministic forecasts. However, the vast majority of recent hydro-economic literature is based on the cost-loss ratio framework, which might be appealing for its simplicity and intuitiveness. One important drawback of the cost-loss ratio is that it implicitly assumes a risk-neutral decision maker. By definition, a risk-neutral individual is indifferent to forecasts' sharpness: as long as forecasts agree with observations on average, the risk-neutral individual is satisfied. A risk-averse individual, however, is sensitive to the level of precision (sharpness) of forecasts. This person is willing to pay to increase his or her certainty about future events. In fact, this is how insurance companies operate: the probability of seeing one's house burn down is relatively low, so the expected cost related to such event is also low. However, people are willing to buy insurance to avoid the risk, however small, of loosing everything. Similarly, in a context where people's safety and property is at stake, the typical decision maker is more risk-averse than risk-neutral. Consequently, the cost-loss ratio is not the most appropriate tool to assess the economic value of flood forecasts. This presentation describes a more realistic framework for assessing the economic value of such forecasts for flood mitigation purposes. Borrowing from economics, the Constant Absolute Risk Aversion utility function (CARA) is the central tool of this new framework. Utility functions allow explicitly accounting for the level of risk aversion of the decision maker and fully exploiting the information related to ensemble forecasts' uncertainty. Three concurrent ensemble streamflow forecasting systems are compared in terms of quality (comparison with

  13. International exchange of emergency phase information and assessments: an aid to inter/national decision makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear accidents/incidents cause significant fear in citizens perceived to be (potentially) impacted. Such events challenge national governments and international agencies to quickly and confidently provide assurance and protection advice. Based on the experience of several radiological accidents, e.g., Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, Algeciras, etc., it is evident that large areas, frequently transboundary, and numbers of citizens have the potential to be impacted. Additionally, as a consequence of current 'globalization', i.e. governmental, business, education and leisure travel, most nations now daily host numerous international visitors whose national government embassies have a responsibility to advise and project them from hazards. This mixture of large area, transboundary and international mobility presents a significant challenge to the decision maker community in order to deliver the best consistent advice to all those potentially impacted by a nuclear accident (and assure those not impacted). Post-Chernobyl there has been definitive progress and agreement in the determination of dose protection thresholds. In the same time period there has been a proliferation of dispersion models and assessment systems (from the local to the international scale) to support decision makers at all levels of government. Unfortunately, due to the varying parameters of scale, resolution, input data, and physics assumptions, the consequent assessment results can vary substantially enough [Atmes] to potentially cause confusion and even contradiction when presented to decision makers. Such a circumstance potentially leads to wrong decisions, undercuts confidence and negates all the work and benefits of good assessment calculations. From 1996 to 1999 Japan (JAERI) and the USA (LLNL) investigated, developed and tested an initial capability to share basic event information (start time, source/rates, local meteorology, local measurements, etc.) and calculated assessment

  14. Charting a path forward: building AGU's capacity to help foster scientist-decision maker engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vano, J. A.; Behar, D. H.; Mote, P.; Ferguson, D. B.; Pandya, R.

    2016-12-01

    Most research proposals, papers, and presentation abstracts begin with the motivation that the new science presented will benefit society. Behind this, beyond making good on the promises to get funding, is a sincere effort to contribute our knowledge and talent to build a better (safer, sustainable, more resilient) world. For this to happen, however, the science needs to be connected to people in communities who make decisions. While this happens in a variety of ways, often for research to be most useful to society, engagement with decision makers should occur at the beginning and throughout the research process. Increasingly this is being recognized as important, as evidenced by the growing number of boundary organizations (e.g., U.S. Department of the Interior's Climate Science Centers, NOAA's Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessment programs). Even within AGU, in recent years there has been a number of new activities and networks that suggest a growing community of practice for those doing work at the science-society interface (e.g., The Thriving Earth Exchange, the Water and Society Technical Committee in the Hydrology Section). In this presentation, we highlight what these activities are and share insights from those involved. We evaluate trends (e.g., have the number of abstracts on this topic increased?) and present responses from AGU members to questions on where this community of practice should go next (e.g., What is the most important task the AGU community should do to improve decision maker-scientist engagement?). The goal of this presentation is to promote a conversation about how the AGU community can be better prepared to foster engagement with decision makers that will lead to more actionable science. This will help us ensure our science is useful to society, fulfilling our motivations, and arguably responsibilities, both individually and as a community. It will also serve to prepare new scientists for a broader range of careers beyond

  15. Science in Society: Bridging the gap to connect science to decision makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.; Bwarie, J.; Pearce, I.

    2016-12-01

    The gap between science and decision making in our society can be large and multi-faceted, involving communication, process, cultural and even subconscious differences. In sweeping generalization, scientists reject anecdotes, focus on uncertainty and details, and expect conflict as part of the scientific process, while non-scientists respond to stories, want certainty and the big picture, and see conflict as a reason to reject the message. Bridging this gap often requires ongoing collaboration to find the intersection of three independent domains: what science can provide, the technical information decision makers need to make the most effective choices and what information decision makers need to motivate action. For ten years, the USGS has experimented with improving the usefulness of its science through the SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Project and its predecessor, the Multi Hazards Demonstration Project in Southern California. Through leading and participating in these activities, we have recognized 3 steps that have been essential to successful partnerships between scientists and decision makers. First, determining what makes for a successful product cannot be done in isolation by either scientists or users. The users may want something science cannot produce (e.g., accurate short-term earthquake predictions), while the scientists can fail to see that the product they know how to make may not be relevant to the decisions that need to be made. Real discussions with real exchange and absorption of information on both sides makes for the most useful products. Second, most scientific results need work beyond what belongs in a journal to create a product that can be used. This is not just a different style of communication, but analyses that focus on the community's local questions rather than on scientific advances. Third, probabilities of natural hazards almost never motivate action to mitigate. The probabilities are usually low on human time

  16. Information transfer: what do decision makers want and need from researchers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Law Mary

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The purpose of this study was to undertake a systematic assessment of the need for research-based information by decision-makers working in community-based organizations. It is part of a more comprehensive knowledge transfer and exchange strategy that seeks to understand both the content required and the format/methods by which such information should be presented. Methods This was a cross-sectional telephone survey. Questions covered current practices, research use, and demographic information, as well as preferences for receiving research information. Three types of organizations participated: Children's Treatment Centres of Ontario (CTCs; Ontario Community Care Access Centres (CCACs; and District Health Councils (DHCs. The analysis used descriptive statistics and analyses of variance (ANOVA to describe and explore variations across organizations. Results The participation rate was 70%. The highest perception of barriers to the use of research information was reported by the CCAC respondents, followed by CTCs and DHCs. The CTCs and DHCs reported greater use of research evidence in planning decisions as compared to the CCACs. Four sources of information transfer were consistently identified. These were websites, health-related research journals, electronic mail, and conferences and workshops. Preferred formats for receiving information were executive summaries, abstracts, and original articles. Conclusion There were a number of similarities across organization type with respect to perceived barriers to research transfer, as well as the types of activities the organizations engaged in to promote research use in decision-making. These findings support the importance of developing interactive, collaborative knowledge transfer strategies, as well as the need to foster relationships with health care decision-makers, practitioners and policymakers.

  17. Technical note: An approach to derive breeding goals from the preferences of decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, L

    2016-11-01

    This paper deals with the use of the Choquet integral to identify breeding objectives and construct an aggregate genotype. The Choquet integral can be interpreted as an extension of the aggregate genotype based on profit equations, substituting the vector of economic weights by a monotone function, called capacity, which allows the aggregation of traits based, for instance, on the preferences of decision makers. It allows the aggregation of traits with or without economic value, taking into account not only the importance of the breeding value of each trait but also the interaction among them. Two examples have been worked out for pig and dairy cattle breeding scenarios to illustrate its application. It is shown that the expression of stakeholders' or decision makers' preferences, as a single ranking of animals or groups of animals, could be sufficient to extract information to derive breeding objectives. It is also shown that coalitions among traits can be identified to evaluate whether a linear additive function, equivalent of the Hazel aggregate genotype where economic values are replaced by Shapley values, could be adequate to define the net merit of breeding animals.

  18. Computerized clinical decision support systems for chronic disease management: a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshanov, Pavel S; Misra, Shikha; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Garg, Amit X; Sebaldt, Rolf J; Mackay, Jean A; Weise-Kelly, Lorraine; Navarro, Tamara; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian

    2011-08-03

    The use of computerized clinical decision support systems (CCDSSs) may improve chronic disease management, which requires recurrent visits to multiple health professionals, ongoing disease and treatment monitoring, and patient behavior modification. The objective of this review was to determine if CCDSSs improve the processes of chronic care (such as diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of disease) and associated patient outcomes (such as effects on biomarkers and clinical exacerbations). We conducted a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid's EBM Reviews database, Inspec, and reference lists for potentially eligible articles published up to January 2010. We included randomized controlled trials that compared the use of CCDSSs to usual practice or non-CCDSS controls. Trials were eligible if at least one component of the CCDSS was designed to support chronic disease management. We considered studies 'positive' if they showed a statistically significant improvement in at least 50% of relevant outcomes. Of 55 included trials, 87% (n = 48) measured system impact on the process of care and 52% (n = 25) of those demonstrated statistically significant improvements. Sixty-five percent (36/55) of trials measured impact on, typically, non-major (surrogate) patient outcomes, and 31% (n = 11) of those demonstrated benefits. Factors of interest to decision makers, such as cost, user satisfaction, system interface and feature sets, unique design and deployment characteristics, and effects on user workflow were rarely investigated or reported. A small majority (just over half) of CCDSSs improved care processes in chronic disease management and some improved patient health. Policy makers, healthcare administrators, and practitioners should be aware that the evidence of CCDSS effectiveness is limited, especially with respect to the small number and size of studies measuring patient outcomes.

  19. Development of policies for Natura 2000 sites: a multi-criteria approach to support decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Carla; Boggia, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to present a methodology to support decision makers in the choice of Natura 2000 sites needing an appropriate management plan to ensure a sustainable socio-economic development. In order to promote sustainable development in the Natura 2000 sites compatible with nature preservation, conservation measures or management plans are necessary. The main issue is to decide when only conservation measures can be applied and when the sites need an appropriate management plan. We present a case study for the Italian Region of Umbria. The methodology is based on a multi-criteria approach to identify the biodiversity index (BI), and on the development of a human activities index (HAI). By crossing the two indexes for each site on a Cartesian plane, four groups of sites were identified. Each group corresponds to a specific need for an appropriate management plan. Sites in the first group with a high level both of biodiversity and human activities have the most urgent need of an appropriate management plan to ensure sustainable development. The proposed methodology and analysis is replicable in other regions or countries by using the data available for each site in the Natura 2000 standard data form. A multi-criteria analysis is especially suitable for supporting decision makers when they deal with a multidimensional decision process. We found the multi-criteria approach particularly sound in this case, due to the concept of biodiversity itself, which is complex and multidimensional, and to the high number of alternatives (Natura 2000 sites) to be assessed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Establishing the connection between crowd-sourced data and decision makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, L. J.; Swartz, W.; Strong, S. B.; Nix, M. G.; Schaefer, R. K.; Weiss, M.

    2014-12-01

    There are many challenges in using, developing, and ensuring the viability of crowd-sourced data. Establishing and maintaining relevance is one of them but each participant in the challenge has different criteria for relevance. Consider, for example, the collection of data using smart phones. Some participants just like to contribute to something they consider good for the community. How do you engender that commitment? This becomes especially problematic when an additional sensor may need to be added to the smart phone. Certainly the humanitarian-egalitarian may be willing to "buy-in" but what value does it hold for the entrepreneurial-individualist? Another challenge is that of the crowd-sourced data themselves. Most readily available apps collect only one kind of data. The frontier lies in not only aggregating the data from those devices but in fusing the data with other data types (e.g. satellite imagery, installed sensors, radars, etc.). Doing this requires resources and the establishment and negotiation of data rights, how data are valued, how data are used, and the model used for support of the process (e.g. profit-driven, communal, scientific, etc.). In this talk we will discuss a few problems that we have looked at wherein distributed sensor networks provide potential value, data fusion is a "value multiplier" of those crowd-sourced data and how we make that connection to decision makers. We have explored active decision making through our Global Assimilation of Information for Action project (see our old website http://gaia.jhuapl.edu) and the use of "serious games" to establish affinities and illuminate opportunities and issues. We assert that the field of dreams approach ("build it and they will come") is not a sufficiently robust approach; the decision-makers (or paying customers) must be involved in the process of defining the data system products and quantifying the value proposition for their clients.

  1. What criteria do decision makers in Thailand use to set priorities for vaccine introduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooripussarakul, Siriporn; Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Bishai, David; Muangchana, Charung; Tantivess, Sripen

    2016-08-02

    There is a need to identify rational criteria and set priorities for vaccines. In Thailand, many licensed vaccines are being considering for introduction into the Expanded Program on Immunization; thus, the government has to make decisions about which vaccines should be adopted. This study aimed to set priorities for new vaccines and to facilitate decision analysis. We used a best-worst scaling study for rank-ordering of vaccines. The candidate vaccines were determined by a set of criteria, including burden of disease, target age group, budget impact, side effect, effectiveness, severity of disease, and cost of vaccine. The criteria were identified from a literature review and by in-depth, open-ended interviews with experts. The priority-setting model was conducted among three groups of stakeholders, including policy makers, healthcare professionals and healthcare administrators. The vaccine data were mapped and then calculated for the probability of selection. From the candidate vaccines, the probability of hepatitis B vaccine being selected by all respondents (96.67 %) was ranked first. This was followed, respectively, by pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-13 (95.09 %) and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (90.87 %). The three groups of stakeholders (policy makers, healthcare professionals and healthcare administrators) showed the same ranking trends. Most severe disease, high fever rate and high disease burden showed the highest coefficients for criterion levels being selected by all respondents. This result can be implied that a vaccine which can prevent most severe disease with high disease burden and has low safety has a greater chance of being selected by respondents in this study. The priority setting of vaccines through a multiple-criteria approach could contribute to transparency and accountability in the decision-making process. This is a step forward in the development of an evidence-based approach that meets the need of developing country. The

  2. Communicating Glacier Change and Associated Impacts to Communities and Decision-makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, K.; Hood, E. W.; O'Neel, S.; Wolken, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    A critical, but often overlooked, part of making cryosphere science relevant to decision makers is ensuring that the communication and translation of scientific information is deliberate, dialogic, and the product of careful planning. This presentation offers several lessons learned from a team of scientists and a communication professional who have collaboratively produced several award-winning and repeatedly used communication products. Consisting of illustrations (for presentations, publications, and other uses), posters, and fact sheets, the products communicate how Alaska's glaciers are changing, how changing glaciers influence nearby ecosystems, and the natural hazards that emerge as glaciers recede and thin to a range of audiences, including community members, business owners, resource managers, and other decision makers. The success of these communication products can be attributed in part to six broad characteristics of the development process, which are based on the literature from science communication research and reflections from the team: connect, design, respect, iterate, share, and reflect. For example, connecting with other people is important because effective science communication is usually the product of a team of researchers and communication professionals. Connecting with the audience or stakeholders is also important for developing an understanding of their information needs. In addition, respect is essential, as this process relies on the diverse skills, experience, and knowledge that everyone brings to the endeavor. Also for consideration, developing a shared language and executing a scientifically accurate design takes synthesis and iteration, which must be accounted for in the project timeline. Taken together, these factors and others that will be described in the presentation can help improve the communication of cryosphere science and expand its utility for important societal decisions.

  3. Six-Month Market Exclusivity Extensions To Promote Research Offer Substantial Returns For Many Drug Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesselheim, Aaron S; Rome, Benjamin N; Sarpatwari, Ameet; Avorn, Jerry

    2017-02-01

    To incentivize pharmaceutical manufacturers to invest in areas of unmet medical need, policy makers frequently propose extending the market exclusivity period of desired drugs. Some such proposals are modeled after the pediatric exclusivity patent extension program, which since 1997 has provided six additional months of market exclusivity for drugs studied in children. The most recent proposal would encourage rare disease research by providing six months of extended exclusivity for any existing drug that is granted subsequent FDA approval for a new rare disease indication. Yet the economic impact of such proposals is rarely addressed. We found that for the thirteen FDA-approved drugs that gained supplemental approval for a rare disease indication from 2005 through 2010, the median projected cost of clinical trials leading to approval was $29.8 million. If the exclusivity extension had been in place, the median discounted financial gain to manufacturers would have been $94.6 million. Median net returns would have been $82.4 million, with higher returns for drugs with higher annual sales. Extending market exclusivity would provide substantial compensation to many manufacturers, particularly for top-selling products, far in excess of the cost of conducting these trials. Alternative strategies to incentivize the study of approved drugs for rare diseases may offer similar benefits at a lower cost. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  4. Decision Makers' Allocation of Home-Care Therapy Services: A Process Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poss, Jeff; Egan, Mary; Rappolt, Susan; Berg, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To explore decision-making processes currently used in allocating occupational and physical therapy services in home care for complex long-stay clients in Ontario. Method: An exploratory study using key-informant interviews and client vignettes was conducted with home-care decision makers (case managers and directors) from four home-care regions in Ontario. The interview data were analyzed using the framework analysis method. Results: The decision-making process for allocating therapy services has four stages: intake, assessment, referral to service provider, and reassessment. There are variations in the management processes deployed at each stage. The major variation is in the process of determining the volume of therapy services across home-care regions, primarily as a result of financial constraints affecting the home-care programme. Government funding methods and methods of information sharing also significantly affect home-care therapy allocation. Conclusion: Financial constraints in home care are the primary contextual factor affecting allocation of therapy services across home-care regions. Given the inflation of health care costs, new models of funding and service delivery need to be developed to ensure that the right person receives the right care before deteriorating and requiring more costly long-term care. PMID:24403672

  5. The influence of science funding agencies in support of effective decision-maker scientist partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, J. C.; Lemos, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    A wealth of evidence supports the idea that collaboration between scientists and decision-makers is an influential factor in generating actionable knowledge. Nevertheless, persistent obstacles across the research-policy-practice interface limit the amount of engagement that may be necessary to satisfy demands for information to support decisions. Funding agencies have been identified as one possible driver of change, but few multi-year studies have been conducted to trace the influence of program designs on research practices or other outcomes. To fill this gap, we examine a body of applied science projects (n=120) funded through NOAA's National Estuarine Research Reserve System from 1998-2014. Periodic innovation in the structure of this funding program, including requirements for end user engagement and the inclusion of collaboration specialists, offers a natural experiment from which to test hypotheses about the how funding program design influences research practice, utilization, and broader impacts. Using content analysis of project reports and interviews of project team members, end users, and program managers (n=40), we produce a data that can be analyzed through both statistical and qualitative methods. We find that funder mandates significantly influence the intensity of interaction between researchers and practitioners as well as affect long-term change in research cultures. When interaction intensifies, corresponding gains appear in the readiness of research to support decision-making and the readiness of user groups to incorporate findings into their work. While collaborative methods transform research practice and positively influence the applied contexts in which partnerships occur, it remains less clear whether this actually increases the direct use of scientific to inform decisions. For example, collaboration may lead to outcomes other than new knowledge or knowledge application, yielding many positive outcomes that are distinct from knowledge use

  6. 17 CFR 240.3b-8 - Definitions of “Qualified OTC Market Maker, Qualified Third Market Maker” and “Qualified Block...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Market Maker, Qualified Third Market Makerâ and âQualified Block Positionerâ. 240.3b-8 Section 240.3b-8... “Qualified Block Positioner”. For the purposes of Regulation U under the Act (12 CFR part 221): (a) The term... inventory turnover in such security. (c) The term Qualified Block Positioner means a dealer who (1) is a...

  7. MARKET EVALUATION MODEL: TOOL FORBUSINESS DECISIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Porlles Loarte, José; Yenque Dedios, Julio; Lavado Soto, Aurelio

    2014-01-01

    In the present work the concepts of potential market and global market are analyzed as the basis for strategic decisions of market with long term perspectives, when the implantation of a business in certain geographic area is evaluated. On this conceptual frame, the methodological tool is proposed to evaluate a commercial decision, for which it is taken as reference the case from the brewing industry in Peru, considering that this industry faces in the region entrepreneurial reorderings withi...

  8. Surrogate decision makers' perspectives on preventable breakdowns in care among critically ill patients: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kimberly A; Ahmad, Sumera; Jackson, Madeline; Mazor, Kathleen M

    2016-10-01

    To describe surrogate decision makers' (SDMs) perspectives on preventable breakdowns in care among critically ill patients. We screened 70 SDMs of critically ill patients for those who identified a preventable breakdown in care, defined as an event where the SDM believes something "went wrong", that could have been prevented, and resulted in harm. In-depth interviews were conducted with SDMs who identified an eligible event. 32 of 70 participants (46%) identified at least one preventable breakdown in care, with a total of 75 discrete events. Types of breakdowns involved medical care (n=52), communication (n=59), and both (n=40). Four additional breakdowns were related to problems with SDM bedside access to the patient. Adverse consequences of breakdowns included physical harm, need for additional medical care, emotional distress, pain, suffering, loss of trust, life disruption, impaired decision making, and financial expense. 28 of 32 SDMs raised their concerns with clinicians, yet only 25% were satisfactorily addressed. SDMs of critically ill patients frequently identify preventable breakdowns in care which result in harm. An in-depth understanding of the types of events SDMs find problematic and the associated harms is an important step towards improving the safety and patient-centeredness of healthcare. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Ising Decision Maker: a binary stochastic network for choice response time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonck, Stijn; Tuerlinckx, Francis

    2014-07-01

    The Ising Decision Maker (IDM) is a new formal model for speeded two-choice decision making derived from the stochastic Hopfield network or dynamic Ising model. On a microscopic level, it consists of 2 pools of binary stochastic neurons with pairwise interactions. Inside each pool, neurons excite each other, whereas between pools, neurons inhibit each other. The perceptual input is represented by an external excitatory field. Using methods from statistical mechanics, the high-dimensional network of neurons (microscopic level) is reduced to a two-dimensional stochastic process, describing the evolution of the mean neural activity per pool (macroscopic level). The IDM can be seen as an abstract, analytically tractable multiple attractor network model of information accumulation. In this article, the properties of the IDM are studied, the relations to existing models are discussed, and it is shown that the most important basic aspects of two-choice response time data can be reproduced. In addition, the IDM is shown to predict a variety of observed psychophysical relations such as Piéron's law, the van der Molen-Keuss effect, and Weber's law. Using Bayesian methods, the model is fitted to both simulated and real data, and its performance is compared to the Ratcliff diffusion model. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Development of the England Wildlife Health Strategy--a framework for decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, M; Lysons, R

    2011-02-12

    Diseases in wildlife have been recognised as having the potential to affect human health, livestock health and species conservation. In order to assess and respond to these potential risks in an effective and a proportionate way, the UK Government initiated development of the Wildlife Health Strategy to provide a framework for decision making. The England Wildlife Health Strategy (EWHS) has been developed through extensive consultation. Discussions and negotiations with government departments, agencies, non-governmental public bodies and wildlife organisations were held to obtain advice and input on specific and specialised aspects of wildlife health. A series of workshops to investigate the application of innovative science to wildlife health policy contributed further. A formal public consultation was held that proposed a range of actions to implement the strategy. A summary of responses to this consultation was published in October 2007. The EWHS was published in June 2009 and provides a framework for a generic four-stage approach to wildlife health that can be adopted by decision makers both within and outside government.

  11. Scaling up success to improve health: Towards a rapid assessment guide for decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Paltzer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Evidence-based health interventions exist and are effectively implemented throughout resource-limited settings. The literature regarding scale-up strategies and frameworks is growing. The purpose of this paper is to identify and systematically document the variation in scale-up strategies to develop a rapid assessment tool for decision-makers looking to identify the most appropriate strategy for their organizational and environmental contexts. Methods A list of scale-up strategies and frameworks were identified through an in-depth literature review and conversations with scale-up and quality improvement leaders. The literature search included a broad range of terms that might be used interchangeably with scale-up of best practices. Terms included: implementation research, knowledge translation, translational research, quality improvement research, health systems improvement, scale-up, best practices, improvement collaborative, and community based research. Based on this research, 18 strategies and frameworks were identified, and nine met our inclusion criteria for scale-up of health-related strategies. We interviewed the key contact for four of the nine strategies to obtain additional information regarding the strategy’s scale-up components, targets, underlying theories, evaluation efforts, facilitating factors, and barriers. A comparative analysis of common elements and strategy characteristics was completed by two of the authors on the nine selected strategies. Key strategy characteristics and common factors that facilitate or hinder the strategy’s success in scaling up health-related interventions were identified. Results Common features of scale-up strategies include: 1 the development of context-specific evidence; 2 collaborative partnerships; 3 iterative processes; and 4 shared decision-making. Facilitating factors include strong leadership, community engagement, communication, government collaboration, and a focus on

  12. What criteria do decision makers in Thailand use to set priorities for vaccine introduction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriporn Pooripussarakul

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need to identify rational criteria and set priorities for vaccines. In Thailand, many licensed vaccines are being considering for introduction into the Expanded Program on Immunization; thus, the government has to make decisions about which vaccines should be adopted. This study aimed to set priorities for new vaccines and to facilitate decision analysis. Methods We used a best-worst scaling study for rank-ordering of vaccines. The candidate vaccines were determined by a set of criteria, including burden of disease, target age group, budget impact, side effect, effectiveness, severity of disease, and cost of vaccine. The criteria were identified from a literature review and by in-depth, open-ended interviews with experts. The priority-setting model was conducted among three groups of stakeholders, including policy makers, healthcare professionals and healthcare administrators. The vaccine data were mapped and then calculated for the probability of selection. Results From the candidate vaccines, the probability of hepatitis B vaccine being selected by all respondents (96.67 % was ranked first. This was followed, respectively, by pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-13 (95.09 % and Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (90.87 %. The three groups of stakeholders (policy makers, healthcare professionals and healthcare administrators showed the same ranking trends. Most severe disease, high fever rate and high disease burden showed the highest coefficients for criterion levels being selected by all respondents. This result can be implied that a vaccine which can prevent most severe disease with high disease burden and has low safety has a greater chance of being selected by respondents in this study. Conclusions The priority setting of vaccines through a multiple-criteria approach could contribute to transparency and accountability in the decision-making process. This is a step forward in the development of an evidence

  13. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  14. How to Reach Decision Makers: Build a network of educators and practitioners with common goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudrias, M. A.; Estrada, M.; Anders, S.; Silva-Send, N. J.; Gershunov, A.

    2013-12-01

    In San Diego County, the Climate Education Partners (CEP) includes climate scientists, science educators, behavioral scientists, environmental practitioners and community organizations that are dedicated to providing local decision makers (elected officials, business leaders, community leaders) with sound climate science learning opportunities and resources that promote informed decision making. Their work over the past three years has found that effective climate education programs are designed for specific audiences with tailored information that is relevant to them, while simultaneously building community efficacy, identity and values. An integrated approach that blends rigorous scientific facts, local climate change impact, and social science education theory is contributing towards the development of a cadre of engaged leaders and communities. To track project progress and to inform the project strategy, local Key Influentials are being interviewed to gauge their current understanding of climate change and their interest in either becoming messengers to their community or becoming the portal to their constituency. Innovation comes from productive collaboration. For this reason, CEP has been working with leading scientists (climatologists, hydrologists, meteorologists, ecologists), environmental groups, museums and zoos, media experts and government agencies (Water Authority, CalFire) to develop and refine a program of learning activities and resources geared specifically for Key Influentials. For example, a water tour has been designed to bring 25 key influential leaders in San Diego County to a dam, a pumping station and a reservoir and provide climate change facts, impacts and potential solutions to the critical issue of water supply for the San Diego Region. While learning local facts about the causes and impacts of climate change, participants also learn about what they can do (increasing efficacy), that they can be a part of a solution centered community

  15. Procuring Stationary Fuel Cells For CHP: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, David P [ORNL; McGervey, Joseph [SRA International, Inc.; Curran, Scott [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    Federal agency leaders are expressing growing interest in using innovative fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) technology at their sites, motivated by both executive branch sustainability targets and a desire to lead by example in the transition to a clean energy economy. Fuel cell CHP can deliver reliable electricity and heat with 70% to 85% efficiency. Implementing this technology can be a high efficiency, clean energy solution for agencies striving to meet ambitious sustainability requirements with limited budgets. Fuel cell CHP systems can use natural gas or renewable fuels, such as biogas. Procuring Stationary Fuel Cells for CHP: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers presents an overview of the process for planning and implementing a fuel cell CHP project in a concise, step-by-step format. This guide is designed to help agency leaders turn their interest in fuel cell technology into successful installations. This guide concentrates on larger (100 kW and greater) fuel cell CHP systems and does not consider other fuel cell applications such as cars, forklifts, backup power supplies or small generators (<100 kW). Because fuel cell technologies are rapidly evolving and have high up front costs, their deployment poses unique challenges. The electrical and thermal output of the CHP system must be integrated with the building s energy systems. Innovative financing mechanisms allow agencies to make a make versus buy decision to maximize savings. This guide outlines methods that federal agencies may use to procure fuel cell CHP systems with little or no capital investment. Each agency and division, however, has its own set of procurement procedures. This guide was written as a starting point, and it defers to the reader s set of rules if differences exist. The fuel cell industry is maturing, and project developers are gaining experience in working with federal agencies. Technology improvements, cost reductions, and experienced project developers are making

  16. Context before implementation: a qualitative study of decision makers' views of a peer-led healthy lifestyle intervention for people with serious mental illness in supportive housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Stefancic, Ana

    2018-04-04

    People with serious mental illness die at an earlier age than people in the general population largely due to cardiovascular disease. Healthy lifestyle interventions can help reduce this health inequity. In this qualitative study, we examined the perceptions that decision makers in supportive housing agencies had toward a peer-led healthy lifestyle intervention and their views of contextual factors that could shape implementation at these agencies. A purposive sample of 12 decision makers from three supportive housing agencies was recruited. We presented participants a vignette describing our peer-led intervention and used semistructured qualitative interviews to examine their views. Interviews were recorded, professionally transcribed, and analyzed using directed content analysis. Participants reported positive views toward the intervention with the most valued intervention attributes being relative advantage over existing services, compatibility to clients' needs, ability to pilot the intervention, and cost. A model emerged from our data depicting multilevel contextual factors believed to shape the implementation of our intervention at these agencies, including system- (funding, marketability, and external regulations), organization- (leadership support, fit with organization, staff buy-in and burden), and client-level (adaptability to clients' needs, and clients' buy-in) factors. Study findings illustrate the importance of understanding the context of practice before implementation. This examination can help identify critical views from decision makers that could undermine or advance the integration of peer-led interventions in supportive housing agencies and help identify structures, policies, and organizational practices that can inform the implementation process.

  17. Trusting families: Responding to Mary Ann Meeker, "Responsive care management: family decision makers in advanced cancer".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, James Lindemann

    2011-01-01

    Mary Ann Meeker's article admirably reminds readers that family members are involved in--or "responsively manage"--the care of relatives with severe illness in ways that run considerably beyond the stereotypes at play in many bioethical discussions of advance directives. Her observations thus make thinking about the role of families in healthcare provision more adequate to the facts, and this is an important contribution. There's reason to be worried, however, that one explicit aim of the article--to ease the standing anxieties that many clinicians and ethicists have about the reliability of family members as proxy decision makers--will be frustrated by its very success. Those already inclined to suspicion may tend to think that the more intricate and pervasive the ways in which families influence the healthcare decision making of their sick, the more chances they have for altering the connection between patients' interests and the actions of professional providers. To determine whether and when such alterations are something to be concerned about, we'll need to supplement a better grasp of the pertinent facts with a deeper sense of how human agency works and why we value it. We may also need some reminders about the defensibility of diverse moral understandings. Although both professionals and family members may profess an ethic that sets patients' interests above those of non-patients--as Meeker's own results suggest--any strict allegiance to such a framework may be more notional than normative--as her findings also hint. The actual working norms (among professionals, as well as within families) will likely be more complex, but not necessarily any the less defensible for that.

  18. The need for a better approach to business energy management: engaging decision makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jutsen, Jonathan [EnVinta Corporation, Chicago, IL (United States); Feldman, Shel [Shel Feldman Management Consulting, Middleton, WI (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Many programs have achieved success in stimulating companies to increase their purchase, installation, and use of energy-efficient equipment (e.g., fluorescent lighting, premium efficient motors). However, few can claim having moved companies to manage energy efficiency as an ongoing part of their practices, procedures, and culture. Recently, a program has been developed and implemented in the UK, Australia, Canada, and the U.S. that is aimed specifically at educating and motivating corporate decision-makers in this direction. This program targets senior management; it not only engages their interest and concern with energy-related issues, but also guides them to set priorities based on a structured gap analysis, and to establish and commit to a plan of action. By focusing on the business needs of the target companies and gaining executive commitment to a structured, systematic implementation plan, it motivates these companies both to seek immediate savings and to a process for continuous improvement that includes sustainable long-term energy efficiency. This paper illustrates specific aspects of the program, the way it helps drive outcomes in participating companies, and its implementation by government and utilities. In addition, the paper discusses needed changes in program evaluation methods to systematically monitor and value the cost-efficiency of this type of intervention which a) does not focus on equipment efficiencies, b) directs clients to other providers of energy efficiency services, c) helps build the infrastructure for such services, and d) motivates long-term energy reductions through the adoption of a sustainable energy-savings ethic in ongoing corporate planning and decisions.

  19. The need for a better approach to business energy management: engaging decision makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jutsen, Jonathan; Feldman, Shel

    2003-01-01

    Many programs have achieved success in stimulating companies to increase their purchase, installation, and use of energy-efficient equipment (e.g., fluorescent lighting, premium efficient motors). However, few can claim having moved companies to manage energy efficiency as an ongoing part of their practices, procedures, and culture. Recently, a program has been developed and implemented in the UK, Australia, Canada, and the U.S. that is aimed specifically at educating and motivating corporate decision-makers in this direction. This program targets senior management; it not only engages their interest and concern with energy-related issues, but also guides them to set priorities based on a structured gap analysis, and to establish and commit to a plan of action. By focusing on the business needs of the target companies and gaining executive commitment to a structured, systematic implementation plan, it motivates these companies both to seek immediate savings and to a process for continuous improvement that includes sustainable long-term energy efficiency. This paper illustrates specific aspects of the program, the way it helps drive outcomes in participating companies, and its implementation by government and utilities. In addition, the paper discusses needed changes in program evaluation methods to systematically monitor and value the cost-efficiency of this type of intervention which a) does not focus on equipment efficiencies, b) directs clients to other providers of energy efficiency services, c) helps build the infrastructure for such services, and d) motivates long-term energy reductions through the adoption of a sustainable energy-savings ethic in ongoing corporate planning and decisions

  20. Scenarios use to engage scientists and decision-makers in a changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, O. A.; Eicken, H.; Payne, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Scenarios provide a framework to develop more adaptive Arctic policies that allow decision makers to consider the best available science to address complex relationships and key uncertainties in drivers of change. These drivers may encompass biophysical factors such as climate change, socioeconomic drivers, and wild-cards that represent low likelihood but influential events such as major environmental disasters. We outline some of the lessons learned from the North Slope Science Initiative (NSSI) scenarios project that could help in the development of adaptive science-based policies. Three spatially explicit development scenarios were identified corresponding to low, medium and high resource extraction activities on the North Slope and adjacent seas. In the case of the high energy development scenario science needs were focused on new technology, oil spill response, and the effects of offshore activities on marine mammals important for subsistence. Science needs related to community culture, erosion, permafrost degradation and hunting and trapping on land were also identified for all three scenarios. The NSSI science needs will guide recommendations for future observing efforts, and data from these observing activities could subsequently improve policy guidance for emergency response, subsistence management and other issues. Scenarios at pan-Arctic scales may help improve the development of international policies for resilient northern communities and encourage the use of science to reduce uncertainties in plans for adapting to change in the Arctic.

  1. International exchange of emergency phase information and assessments: An aid to national/international decision makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T. J.; Chino, M.; Ehrhardt, J.; Shershakov, V.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses a collaborative project (1) to demonstrate the feasibility and benefit of a system seeking early review, in a 'quasi peer review' mode, of nuclear accident plume and dose assessment predictions by four major international nuclear accident emergency response systems before release of calculations to respective national authorities followed by (2) sharing these results with responsible national/international authorities, (3) development of an affordable/accessible system to distribute results to countries without prediction capabilities and (4) utilisation for exercises and collaboration studies. The project exploits Internet browser technology and low-cost PC hardware, incorporates an Internet node, with access control, for depositing a minimal set of XML-based graphics files for presentation in an identical map format. Side-by-side viewing and tele-video conferencing will permit rapid evaluation, data elaboration and recalculation (if necessary) and should produce strong consensus among decision makers. Successful completion affords easy utilisation by national/international organisations and non-nuclear states at risk of trans-boundary incursion. (authors)

  2. Integrated risk management in a commercial market-maker bank using the 'cash flow at risk' approach

    OpenAIRE

    Voloshyn, Ihor; Voloshyn, Mykyta

    2013-01-01

    In this article, on the basis of the "cash flow at risk" approach, the system of the integrated (credit, market, operational and liquidity risks) risk management in a market-maker commercial bank is developed. This system guarantees reaching profitability, liquidity and coverage of banking risks and thus allows the fullest protection of the interests of depositors, creditors and shareholders of the bank providing its sustainable development.

  3. Children's Participation in Decision-Making in the Philippines: Understanding the Attitudes of Policy-Makers and Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessell, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the ideas about children's participation in decision-making held by government officials and non-government representatives engaged in promoting children's participation in the Philippines. It suggests that the ideas that policy-makers and service deliverers hold about children's participation are heterogeneous, diverse and…

  4. The Current Mind-Set of Federal Information Security Decision-Makers on the Value of Governance: An Informative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup, Jay Walter

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mind-set or perceptions of organizational leaders and decision-makers is important to ascertaining the trends and priorities in policy and governance of the organization. This study finds that a significant shift in the mind-set of government IT and information security leaders has started and will likely result in placing a…

  5. Overview of EPA tools for supporting local- and regional-scale decision makers addressing energy and environmental issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD) has been developing tools and illustrative case studies for decision makers in local and regional authorities who are facing challenges of establishing resilience to extreme weather events, aging built environment and infrastru...

  6. Evaluation of an Interactive Workshop Designed to Teach Practical Welfare Techniques to Beef Cattle Caretakers and Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewell, Reneé; Hanthorn, Christy; Danielson, Jared; Burzette, Rebecca; Coetzee, Johann; Griffin, D. Dee; Ramirez, Alejandro; Dewell, Grant

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to evaluate the use of an interactive workshop designed to teach novel practical welfare techniques to beef cattle caretakers and decision makers. Following training, respondents reported being more likely to use or recommend use of local anesthesia for dehorning and castration and were more inclined to use meloxicam…

  7. Socially responsible marketing decisions - scale development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Lončarić

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to develop a measurement scale for evaluating the implementation level of the concept of social responsibility in taking marketing decisions, in accordance with a paradigm of the quality-of-life marketing. A new scale of "socially responsible marketing decisions" has been formed and its content validity, reliability and dimensionality have been analyzed. The scale has been tested on a sample of the most successful Croatian firms. The research results lead us to conclude that the scale has satisfactory psychometric characteristics but that it is necessary to improve it by generating new items and by testing it on a greater number of samples.

  8. Transferring knowledge from observations and models to decision makers: an overview and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Nokra, Nada A.

    2004-02-01

    Over the last 25 years, a tremendous progress has been made in the Earth science space-based remote sensing observations, technologies and algorithms. Such advancements have improved the predictability by providing lead-time and accuracy of forecast in weather, climate, natural hazards, and natural resources. It has further reduced or bounded the overall uncertainties by partially improving our understanding of planet Earth as an integrated system that is governed by non-linear and chaotic behavior. Many countries such US, European Community, Japan, China and others have invested billions of dollars in developing and launching space-based assets in the low earth (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) orbits. However, the wealth of this scientific knowledge that has potential of extracting monumental socio-economic benefits from such large investments have been slow in reaching the public and decision makers. For instance, there are a number of areas such as energy forecasting, aviation safety, agricultural competitiveness, disaster management, homeland security, air quality and public health, which can directly take advantage. Nevertheless, we all live in a global economy that depends on access to the best available Earth Science information for all inhabitants of this planet. This paper surveys and examines a number such applications in terms of their architecture, maturity and economic applicability as they apply to the societal needs. A detailed analysis is also presented of various challenges and issues that pertain to a number of areas such as: (1) difficulties in making a speedy transition of data and information from observations and models to relevant Decision Support Systems (DSS) or tools, (2) data and models inter-operability issues, (3) limitations of spatial, spectral and temporal resolution,(4) communication limitations as dictated by the availability of image processing and data compression techniques. Additionally, the most critical element amongst all is

  9. Strategies for Teaching Regional Climate Modeling: Online Professional Development for Scientists and Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, P.; Yarker, M. B.; Mesquita, M. D. S.; Otto, F. E. L.

    2014-12-01

    structures of both courses, evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of each, along with the educational approaches used. We conclude by proposing a framework for the develop of educationally robust online professional development programs that actively supports decision makers in understanding, developing and applying regional climate models.

  10. Transferring Knowledge from Observations and Models to Decision Makers: An Overview and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid; Nokra, Nada Abu

    2003-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, a tremendous progress has been made in the Earth science space-based remote sensing observations, technologies and algorithms. Such advancements have improved the predictability by providing lead-time and accuracy of forecast in weather, climate, natural hazards, and natural resources. It has further reduced or bounded the overall uncertainties by partially improving our understanding of planet Earth as an integrated system that is governed by non-linear and chaotic behavior. Many countries such US, European Community, Japan, China and others have invested billions of dollars in developing and launching space-based assets in the low earth (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) orbits. However, the wealth of this scientific knowledge that has potential of extracting monumental socio-economic benefits from such large investments have been slow in reaching to public and decision makers. For instance, there are a number of areas such as energy forecasting, aviation safety, agricultural competitiveness, disaster management, security, air quality and public health can directly take advantage. Nevertheless, we all live in a global economy that depends on access to the best available Earth Science information for all inhabitants of this planet. This paper surveys and examines a number such applications in terms of their architecture, maturity and economic applicability as they apply to the societal needs. A detailed analysis is also presented of various challenges and issues that pertain to a number of areas such as: (1) difficulties in making a speedy transition of data and information from observations and models to relevant Decision Support Systems (DSS) or tools, (2) data and models inter-operability issues, (3) limitations of spatial, spectral and temporal resolution, (4) communication limitations as dictated by the availability of image processing and data compression techniques. Additionally, the most critical element amongst all is the organizational

  11. Eyetracking and consumer decision research in marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oppewal, Harmen; Mueller Loose, Simone

    friendliness of eyetracking equipment. Eyetracking, or the monitoring of eye movements, is of interest because eye movements indicate where consumers focus their attention when searching for information and making their purchase decisions. There are several marketing academics in Australia/ NZ who have started......This session will concentrate on the use of eyetracking for studying consumer decision making research in marketing. Eyetracking has been applied in marketing since the early 90s but only more recently the use of this technology has started to increase, due to lower cost and greater user....... The present session will discuss issues and recent progress in eyetracking studies in relation to studies of consumer decision making, especially in relation to decision making as studied in discrete choice experiments. The session will facilitate the sharing of experiences and thereby help develop the level...

  12. Marketing data, models and decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wedel, M; Kamakura, W; Bockenholt, U

    Our comments about the paper by Leeflang and Wittink [Internat. J. Res. Marketing, 17 (2000) 105] comprise of two components: first, we address two issues on which we disagree with Leeflang and Wittink: soft versus hard data, and individual-level versus segment-level models. Secondly, we supplement

  13. Producing More Actionable Science Isn't the Problem; It's Providing Decision-Makers with Access to Right Actionable Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, M.

    2017-12-01

    Policy-makers today have almost infinite climate-relevant scientific and other information available to them. The problem for climate change decision-making isn't missing science or inadequate knowledge of climate risks; the problem is that the "right" climate change actionable knowledge isn't getting to the right decision-maker, or is getting there too early or too late to effectively influence her decision-making. Actionable knowledge is not one-size-fit-all, and for a given decision-maker might involve scientific, economic, or risk-based information. Simply producing more and more information as we are today is not the solution, and actually makes it harder for individual decision-makers to access "their" actionable knowledge. The Climatographers began building the Climate Web five years ago to test the hypothesis that a knowledge management system could help navigate the gap between infinite information and individual actionable knowledge. Today the Climate Web's more than 1,500 index terms allow instant access to almost any climate change topic. It is a curated public-access knowledgebase of more than 1,000 books, 2,000 videos, 15,000 reports and articles, 25,000 news stories, and 3,000 websites. But it is also much more, linking together tens of thousands of individually extracted ideas and graphics, and providing Deep Dives into more than 100 key topics from changing probability distributions of extreme events to climate communications best practices to cognitive dissonance in climate change decision-making. The public-access Climate Web is uniquely able to support cross-silo learning, collaboration, and actionable knowledge dissemination. The presentation will use the Climate Web to demonstrate why knowledge management should be seen as a critical component of science and policy-making collaborations.

  14. Modelling of adaptation to climate change and decision-makers behaviours for the Veluwe forest area in the Netherlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousefpour, Rasoul; Didion, Markus; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    2015-01-01

    We apply Bayesian updating theory to model how decision-makers may gradually learn about climate change and make use of this information in making adaptive forest management decisions. We develop modelling steps to i) simulate observation of a multi-dimensional climate system, ii) apply updating...... production as a measure of management performance. The results illustrate the benefits of updating beliefs to eventually utilize the positive effects and limit negative impacts of climate change on forest biomass production. We find that adaptive decision-making results in switching decisions over time...... rules for beliefs about climate trends, iii) evaluate the performance of adaptive strategies, and iv) apply (i)–(iii) at the local and forest landscape scale to find and compare individual versus joint adaptive decisions. We search for optimal forest management decisions maximizing total biomass...

  15. RaCon - decision maker's support for RAdiation CONsequences prediction and for crisis management optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svanda, J.; Tschiesche, J.; Fiser, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Emergencies, especially in nuclear accidents, put high demands an intervening personnel and on decision makers. There are lot of things to do in time stress and lack of information and data are usually not 'good' enough to justify implementation of interventions and countermeasures in a simple way. Computerized tools play important role in this process and the quality of user interface and unambiguous presentation of results are the dominant issues for mitigation of an accident. The RaCon (Radiological Consequences) system, developed by NRI Rez, is one of the representatives of advanced supporting tools, which allows to predict, what can happen during emergencies accompanied by real or possible release of radioactive substances and how to response on it. System is presented by databases of input and output data and by the program tool for fast prognostic evaluation of urgent emergency countermeasures at nuclear facilities radiation accidents. System is based on fast evaluation of radiation doses to population and emergency teams after an accidental release of radioactive material into atmosphere in early phase of accident and near region around the facilities. System is designed to process all available data and to communicate with user in a 'simple' way that can reduce misunderstanding and misinterpretation. The aim of the tool is to give prediction of urgent countermeasures as fast as possible before the radioactive cloud has come when the countermeasures are the most effective. Database of the most probable source terms for individual nuclear installation, calculated by advanced qualified codes, is integral part of the software. Most important outputs are maps presentations of affected area, table presentation of settlement with doses to population exceeding limits for countermeasures given by 'Czech Regulatory Authority' and table presentation of dose rates and doses in defined location and time for mobile monitoring and emergency teams. Proposals of

  16. Computerized clinical decision support systems for therapeutic drug monitoring and dosing: A decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weise-Kelly Lorraine

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some drugs have a narrow therapeutic range and require monitoring and dose adjustments to optimize their efficacy and safety. Computerized clinical decision support systems (CCDSSs may improve the net benefit of these drugs. The objective of this review was to determine if CCDSSs improve processes of care or patient outcomes for therapeutic drug monitoring and dosing. Methods We conducted a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review. Studies from our previous review were included, and new studies were sought until January 2010 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews, and Inspec databases. Randomized controlled trials assessing the effect of a CCDSS on process of care or patient outcomes were selected by pairs of independent reviewers. A study was considered to have a positive effect (i.e., CCDSS showed improvement if at least 50% of the relevant study outcomes were statistically significantly positive. Results Thirty-three randomized controlled trials were identified, assessing the effect of a CCDSS on management of vitamin K antagonists (14, insulin (6, theophylline/aminophylline (4, aminoglycosides (3, digoxin (2, lidocaine (1, or as part of a multifaceted approach (3. Cluster randomization was rarely used (18% and CCDSSs were usually stand-alone systems (76% primarily used by physicians (85%. Overall, 18 of 30 studies (60% showed an improvement in the process of care and 4 of 19 (21% an improvement in patient outcomes. All evaluable studies assessing insulin dosing for glycaemic control showed an improvement. In meta-analysis, CCDSSs for vitamin K antagonist dosing significantly improved time in therapeutic range. Conclusions CCDSSs have potential for improving process of care for therapeutic drug monitoring and dosing, specifically insulin and vitamin K antagonist dosing. However, studies were small and generally of modest quality, and effects on patient outcomes were uncertain, with no convincing

  17. Who to Blame: Irrational Decision-Makers or Stupid Modelers? (Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Kaveh

    2016-04-01

    Water management benefits from a suite of modelling tools and techniques that help simplifying and understanding the complexities involved in managing water resource systems. Early water management models were mainly concerned with optimizing a single objective, related to the design, operations or management of water resource systems (e.g. economic cost, hydroelectricity production, reliability of water deliveries). Significant improvements in methodologies, computational capacity, and data availability over the last decades have resulted in developing more complex water management models that can now incorporate multiple objectives, various uncertainties, and big data. These models provide an improved understanding of complex water resource systems and provide opportunities for making positive impacts. Nevertheless, there remains an alarming mismatch between the optimal solutions developed by these models and the decisions made by managers and stakeholders of water resource systems. Modelers continue to consider decision makers as irrational agents who fail to implement the optimal solutions developed by sophisticated and mathematically rigours water management models. On the other hand, decision makers and stakeholders accuse modelers of being idealist, lacking a perfect understanding of reality, and developing 'smart' solutions that are not practical (stable). In this talk I will have a closer look at the mismatch between the optimality and stability of solutions and argue that conventional water resources management models suffer inherently from a full-cooperation assumption. According to this assumption, water resources management decisions are based on group rationality where in practice decisions are often based on individual rationality, making the group's optimal solution unstable for individually rational decision makers. I discuss how game theory can be used as an appropriate framework for addressing the irrational "rationality assumption" of water

  18. Marketing Decision Making and Decision Support: Challenges and Perspectives for Successful Marketing Management Support Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H. van Bruggen (Gerrit); B. Wierenga (Berend)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMarketing management support systems (MMSS) are computer-enabled devices that help marketers to make better decisions. Marketing processes can be quite complex, involving large numbers of variables and mostly outcomes are the results of the actions of many different stakeholders (e.g.,

  19. How to form on food and nutritional security for decision makers of communities and cooperative on Cuban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Margarita Torres Rivero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to support a training strategy for policy decision makers and managers of local projects Integrated in Alimentary and Nutritional Security (SAN in communities and cooperative, sustained on a pedagogical approach, based on the relationship between the components of the SAN, the government official's functions (FG and the administration of local projects integrated as way of performance of this subject. The objective of the strategy is to achieve that decision makers of Pinar del Rio province, can appropriate the knowledge, abilities and values for facilitating their integral preparation related with the SAN, and can negotiate the existent potentialities in communities and cooperative, develop local projects in SAN that supplement the emanated politics from state upper level, then the strategy allows a pertinent acting that impacts in the town that is an inevitable necessity for Cuba and specifically for this province, which is the most vulnerable province to environmental changes that so much influences in SAN.

  20. Gaining Momentum: How Media Influences Public Opinion To Push Civil-Military Decision Makers Into Formulating Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    1 AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY GAINING MOMENTUM: HOW MEDIA INFLUENCES PUBLIC OPINION TO PUSH CIVIL-MILITARY DECISION MAKERS INTO...engagements from the past, evidence suggest the media or press does have an influence over public opinion, especially during times of war and humanitarian...changes and that leaders must take into consideration that public opinion and the media may provide a large amount of influence over how the nation

  1. Offering strategy of a price-maker energy storage system in day-ahead and balancing markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vespermann, Niklas Peter René Erich; Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    . The offering strategy of a price-maker ESS operator is formulated as a bilevel model, where the upper-level problem represents the profit maximization of the ESS operator and the lower-level problem simulates the market-clearing outcome. This methodological framework can be used either to assess market...... efficiency distortion or as a trading strategy from the perspective of the ESS operator. Our analysis shows that adopting strategic behavior may improve ESS expected profit but reduces social welfare, especially for high ESS energy-to-power ratios....

  2. Low-frequency electrical and magnetic fields: The precautionary principle for national authorities. Guidance for decision-makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This publication is intended as a support for making decisions on health hazards and electromagnetic fields. It is based on the strength of scientific findings hitherto, at the same time as technical and economic aspects of possible measures are considered in the light of limited community resources. The national authorities recommend a precautionary principle based primarily on non-discountable cancer risks. Similar principles should also be applied to other suspected effects on health. The guide offers supportive documentation to decision-makers` tasks with assessing what is reasonable in each individual case, balancing possible hazards against technical and economic considerations. 6 refs

  3. A Rational Decision Maker with Ordinal Utility under Uncertainty: Optimism and Pessimism

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Ji

    2009-01-01

    In game theory and artificial intelligence, decision making models often involve maximizing expected utility, which does not respect ordinal invariance. In this paper, the author discusses the possibility of preserving ordinal invariance and still making a rational decision under uncertainty.

  4. Using the Logistic Regression model in supporting decisions of establishing marketing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel CONSTANTIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about an instrumental research regarding the using of Logistic Regression model for data analysis in marketing research. The decision makers inside different organisation need relevant information to support their decisions regarding the marketing strategies. The data provided by marketing research could be computed in various ways but the multivariate data analysis models can enhance the utility of the information. Among these models we can find the Logistic Regression model, which is used for dichotomous variables. Our research is based on explanation the utility of this model and interpretation of the resulted information in order to help practitioners and researchers to use it in their future investigations

  5. E-mail as the Appropriate Method of Communication for the Decision-Maker When Soliciting Advice for an Intellective Decision Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prahl, Andrew; Dexter, Franklin; Swol, Lyn Van; Braun, Michael T; Epstein, Richard H

    2015-09-01

    For many problems in operating room and anesthesia group management, there are tasks with optimal decisions, and yet experienced personnel tend to make decisions that are worse or no better than random chance. Such decisions include staff scheduling, case scheduling, moving cases among operating rooms, and choosing patient arrival times. In such settings, operating room management leadership decision-making should typically be autocratic rather than participative. Autocratic-style decision-making calls for managers to solicit and consider feedback from stakeholders in the decision outcome but to make the decision themselves using their expert knowledge and the facts received. For this to be effective, often the manager will obtain expert advice from outside the organization (e.g., health system). In this narrative review, we evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using prompt asynchronous written communication (i.e., e-mail) as a communication channel for such interaction between a decision-maker (manager) and advisor. A detailed Appendix (Supplemental Digital Content, http://links.lww.com/AA/B72) lists each observational and experimental result. We find that the current ubiquitous role of e-mail for such communication is appropriate. Its benefits include improved time management via asynchronicity, low cognitive load (e.g., relative to Web conferencing), the ability to hide undesirable and irrelevant cues (e.g., physical appearance), the appropriateness of adding desirable cues (e.g., titles and degrees), the opportunity to provide written expression of confidence, and the ability for the advisor to demonstrate the answer for the decision-maker. Given that the manager is e-mailing an advisor whose competence the manager trusts, it is unnecessary to use a richer communication channel to develop trust. Finally, many of the limitations of e-mail can be rectified through training. We expect that decades from now, e-mail (i.e., asynchronous writing) between an

  6. Scientific publications: now a marketing decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists have been publishing in journals related to their disciplines. Now with the advent of the internet, many more options are now available and scientific publication has become a marketing decision. Scientific journals are rated by "impact factor" which is based on the average number of cita...

  7. THE TAKING OF MARKETING DECISIONS IN CONDITIONS OF UNCERTAINTY AND RISK

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir GROSU

    2011-01-01

    The choice of method of developing marketing decision alternatives and their evaluation depends significantly on the availability of initial information. The decision maker may not possess all the information or possess insufficiently precise information about external environmental conditions and their changes in the future. Such a situation is often observed in the case of macro-environment factors, but can also refer to the company's microenvironment. Given these circumstances, in differen...

  8. Moving beyond the cost-loss ratio: economic assessment of streamflow forecasts for a risk-averse decision maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, Simon; Boucher, Marie-Amélie; Boucher, Vincent; Fortier Filion, Thomas-Charles

    2017-06-01

    A large effort has been made over the past 10 years to promote the operational use of probabilistic or ensemble streamflow forecasts. Numerous studies have shown that ensemble forecasts are of higher quality than deterministic ones. Many studies also conclude that decisions based on ensemble rather than deterministic forecasts lead to better decisions in the context of flood mitigation. Hence, it is believed that ensemble forecasts possess a greater economic and social value for both decision makers and the general population. However, the vast majority of, if not all, existing hydro-economic studies rely on a cost-loss ratio framework that assumes a risk-neutral decision maker. To overcome this important flaw, this study borrows from economics and evaluates the economic value of early warning flood systems using the well-known Constant Absolute Risk Aversion (CARA) utility function, which explicitly accounts for the level of risk aversion of the decision maker. This new framework allows for the full exploitation of the information related to a forecasts' uncertainty, making it especially suited for the economic assessment of ensemble or probabilistic forecasts. Rather than comparing deterministic and ensemble forecasts, this study focuses on comparing different types of ensemble forecasts. There are multiple ways of assessing and representing forecast uncertainty. Consequently, there exist many different means of building an ensemble forecasting system for future streamflow. One such possibility is to dress deterministic forecasts using the statistics of past error forecasts. Such dressing methods are popular among operational agencies because of their simplicity and intuitiveness. Another approach is the use of ensemble meteorological forecasts for precipitation and temperature, which are then provided as inputs to one or many hydrological model(s). In this study, three concurrent ensemble streamflow forecasting systems are compared: simple statistically dressed

  9. Anchor effects in decision making can be reduced by the interaction between goal monitoring and the level of the decision maker's executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebener, Johannes; Wegmann, Elisa; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Brand, Matthias

    2012-11-01

    Models of decision making postulate that interactions between contextual conditions and characteristics of the decision maker determine decision-making performance. We tested this assumption by using a possible positive contextual influence (goals) and a possible negative contextual influence (anchor) in a risky decision-making task (Game of Dice Task, GDT). In this task, making advantageous choices is well known to be closely related to a specific decision maker variable: the individual level of executive functions. One hundred subjects played the GDT in one of four conditions: with self-set goal for final balance (n = 25), with presentation of an anchor (a fictitious Top 10 list, showing high gains of other participants; n = 25), with anchor and goal definition (n = 25), and with neither anchor nor goal setting (n = 25). Subjects in the conditions with anchor made more risky decisions irrespective of the negative feedback, but this anchor effect was influenced by goal monitoring and moderated by the level of the subjects' executive functions. The findings imply that impacts of situational influences on decision making as they frequently occur in real life depend upon the individual's cognitive abilities. Anchor effects can be overcome by subjects with good cognitive abilities.

  10. How do researchers influence decision-makers? Case studies of Mexican policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trostle, J; Bronfman, M; Langer, A

    1999-06-01

    Though the problems translating or applying research in policy-making are legion, solutions are rare. As developing countries increase their capacities to develop effective local solutions to their health problems, they confront the research/policy dilemma. Yet few descriptive studies of research-policy links can be found from developing countries, and the relevance of European and North American models and data is questionable. We report the results of a descriptive study from Mexico of the relationship between health research and policy in four vertical programmes (AIDS, cholera, family planning, immunization). We interviewed 67 researchers and policy-makers from different institutions and levels of responsibility. We analyzed interviewee responses looking for factors that promoted or impeded exchanges between researchers and policy-makers. These were, in turn, divided into emphases on content, actors, process, and context. Many of the promoting factors resembled findings from studies in industrialized countries. Some important differences across the four programmes, which also distinguish them from industrialized country programmes, included extent of reliance on formal communication channels, role of the mass media in building social consensus or creating discord, levels of social consensus, role of foreign donors, and extent of support for biomedical versus social research. We recommend various ways to increase the impact of research on health policy-making in Mexico. Some of the largest challenges include the fact that researchers are but one of many interest groups, and research but one input among many equally legitimate elements to be considered by policy-makers. Another important challenge in Mexico is the relatively small role played by the public in policy-making. Further democratic changes in Mexico may be the most important incentive to increase the use of research in policy-making.

  11. A Conceptual Framework for Defense Acquisition Decision Makers: Giving the Schedule its Due

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Principles from microeconomic theory and operations research can provide insight into acquisition decisions to produce military capabili- ties in an...models based on economic and operations research principles can yield valuable insight into defense acquisition decisions. This article focuses on models...Department Edmund Conrow (1995) developed an excellent microeconomic framework to investigate the incentives of buyers and sellers in the defense

  12. Pedagogical case study: strategic methodologies to be used by decision makers: TAP portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Falcato, Miguel dos Prazeres

    2016-01-01

    JEL classification system:  L10: General Market structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance  G39: General Corporate Finance and Governance The importance of sustainable, profitable companies for the economy offering growth and development is immense. The sustainability and profitability can be understood as the companies’ performance, where, as expected, higher performances are related to higher positive impacts in the economy of the countries but it should also revea...

  13. Toward actionable science: Empowering ecologists to engage in the process of translation through decision-maker and stakeholder partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquist, C.; Jackson, S. T.; Garfin, G. M.

    2017-12-01

    Translational ecology is an approach by which ecologists, stakeholders, and decision-makers work collaboratively to develop and deliver ecological research that, ideally, results in actionable science that leads to improved environmental decision-making. We analyzed a diverse array of real-world case studies and distilled six principles that characterize the practice of translational ecology: communication, commitment, collaboration, engagement, process, and decision-framing. In this talk, we highlight a subset of the case studies that illustrate these principles. Notably, we found that translational ecology is distinct from both basic and applied ecological research. As a practice, the approach deliberately extends research beyond theory or opportunistic applications, motivated by a search for outcomes that directly serve the needs of natural resource managers and decision-makers. Translational ecology is also distinct from knowledge co-production in that it does not require deep engagement between collaborators, although incorporating differing modes of co-production relative to the decision context, associated time frame, and available financial resources can greatly enhance the translational approach. Although there is a need for incentives to pursue in this type of work, we found that the creativity and context-specific knowledge of resource managers, practitioners, and decision-makers informs and enriches the scientific process, helping shape actionable science. Moreover, the process of addressing research questions arising from on-the-ground management issues, rather than from the top-down or expert-oriented perspectives of traditional science, can foster the long-term trust and commitment that is critical for long-term, sustained engagement between partners. Now, perhaps more than ever, the climate and environmental issues facing society are complex, often politicized, and value-laden. We argue that ecological science should play a key role in informing

  14. Defining products for a new health technology assessment agency in Madrid, Spain: a survey of decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andradas, Elena; Blasco, Juan-Antonio; Valentín, Beatriz; López-Pedraza, María-José; Gracia, Francisco-Javier

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the needs and requirements of decision makers in our regional healthcare system for health technology assessment (HTA) products to support portfolio development planning for a new HTA agency in Madrid, Spain. A Delphi study was conducted during 2003. Questionnaires were developed based on a review of products and services offered by other agency members of the International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment, and included preference and prioritization questions to evaluate twenty-two different products and services. The initial Delphi panel involved eighty-seven experts from twenty-one public hospitals, eleven primary healthcare centers, six private hospitals, and eight departments of the Regional Ministry of Health of the Community of Madrid. The global participation rate was 83.9 percent. Ten of the twenty-two possible products were rated of high interest by more than 80 percent of respondents. Important differences in preferences and priorities were detected across different settings. Public hospitals and primary healthcare centers shared a more "micro" perspective, preferring classic technology-centered HTA products, whereas private hospitals and Ministry representatives demanded more "macro" products and services such as organizational model and information system assessments. The high participation rate supports the representativeness of the results for our regional context. The strategic development of an HTA portfolio based on decision makers' needs and requirements as identified in this type of exercise should help achieve a better impact on policy development and decision making.

  15. Perspectives of policy and political decision makers on access to formal dementia care: expert interviews in eight European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broda, Anja; Bieber, Anja; Meyer, Gabriele; Hopper, Louise; Joyce, Rachael; Irving, Kate; Zanetti, Orazio; Portolani, Elisa; Kerpershoek, Liselot; Verhey, Frans; Vugt, Marjolein de; Wolfs, Claire; Eriksen, Siren; Røsvik, Janne; Marques, Maria J; Gonçalves-Pereira, Manuel; Sjölund, Britt-Marie; Woods, Bob; Jelley, Hannah; Orrell, Martin; Stephan, Astrid

    2017-08-03

    As part of the ActifCare (ACcess to Timely Formal Care) project, we conducted expert interviews in eight European countries with policy and political decision makers, or representatives of relevant institutions, to determine their perspectives on access to formal care for people with dementia and their carers. Each ActifCare country (Germany, Ireland, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Sweden, United Kingdom) conducted semi-structured interviews with 4-7 experts (total N = 38). The interview guide addressed the topics "Complexity and Continuity of Care", "Formal Services", and "Public Awareness". Country-specific analysis of interview transcripts used an inductive qualitative content analysis. Cross-national synthesis focused on similarities in themes across the ActifCare countries. The analysis revealed ten common themes and two additional sub-themes across countries. Among others, the experts highlighted the need for a coordinating role and the necessity of information to address issues of complexity and continuity of care, demanded person-centred, tailored, and multidisciplinary formal services, and referred to education, mass media and campaigns as means to raise public awareness. Policy and political decision makers appear well acquainted with current discussions among both researchers and practitioners of possible approaches to improve access to dementia care. Experts described pragmatic, realistic strategies to influence dementia care. Suggested innovations concerned how to achieve improved dementia care, rather than transforming the nature of the services provided. Knowledge gained in these expert interviews may be useful to national decision makers when they consider reshaping the organisation of dementia care, and may thus help to develop best-practice strategies and recommendations.

  16. European electricity markets - policy deficiencies, design deficiencies, and opportunities for policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettzuge, Marc Oliver

    2013-11-01

    Paraphrasing a well-known dictum, one can say that 'design follows policies'. Therefore, before discussing questions of market design, one has to clarify the policies which the desired market design is supposed to implement. Hence, this paper starts by briefly reviewing the status of current policies for the electricity sector. Specifically, it will discuss political objectives, the choice of the basic regulatory paradigm, and the issue of subsidiarity between the EU and the member states

  17. Ecological rationality: a framework for understanding and aiding the aging decision maker

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Rui; Pachur, Thorsten; von Helversen, Bettina; Hertwig, Ralph; Rieskamp, Jörg; Schooler, Lael

    2012-01-01

    The notion of ecological rationality sees human rationality as the result of the adaptive fit between the human mind and the environment. Ecological rationality focuses the study of decision making on two key questions: First, what are the environmental regularities to which people’s decision strategies are matched, and how frequently do these regularities occur in natural environments? Second, how well can people adapt their use of specific strategies to particular environmental regularities...

  18. The Strategically Manageable University: Perceptions of Strategic Choice and Strategic Change among Key Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frølich, Nicoline; Stensaker, Bjørn; Scordato, Lisa; Bótas, Paulo Charles Pimentel

    2014-01-01

    One common way of conceptualising recent changes in university governance is by stating that the universities are being pushed towards a market-like setting where the uniqueness of each university's strategy and capacity for introducing organizational change is seen as necessary to improve the functioning of the university. We argue that the…

  19. Communication with U.S. federal decision makers : a primer with notes on the use of computer models as a means of communication.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Erik Karl; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2009-10-01

    This document outlines ways to more effectively communicate with U.S. Federal decision makers by outlining the structure, authority, and motivations of various Federal groups, how to find the trusted advisors, and how to structure communication. All three branches of Federal governments have decision makers engaged in resolving major policy issues. The Legislative Branch (Congress) negotiates the authority and the resources that can be used by the Executive Branch. The Executive Branch has some latitude in implementation and prioritizing resources. The Judicial Branch resolves disputes. The goal of all decision makers is to choose and implement the option that best fits the needs and wants of the community. However, understanding the risk of technical, political and/or financial infeasibility and possible unintended consequences is extremely difficult. Primarily, decision makers are supported in their deliberations by trusted advisors who engage in the analysis of options as well as the day-to-day tasks associated with multi-party negotiations. In the best case, the trusted advisors use many sources of information to inform the process including the opinion of experts and if possible predictive analysis from which they can evaluate the projected consequences of their decisions. The paper covers the following: (1) Understanding Executive and Legislative decision makers - What can these decision makers do? (2) Finding the target audience - Who are the internal and external trusted advisors? (3) Packaging the message - How do we parse and integrate information, and how do we use computer simulation or models in policy communication?

  20. Examining Tensions That Affect the Evaluation of Technology in Health Care: Considerations for System Decision Makers From the Perspective of Industry and Evaluators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desveaux, Laura; Shaw, James; Wallace, Ross; Bhattacharyya, Onil; Bhatia, R Sacha; Jamieson, Trevor

    2017-12-08

    Virtual technologies have the potential to mitigate a range of challenges for health care systems. Despite the widespread use of mobile devices in everyday life, they currently have a limited role in health service delivery and clinical care. Efforts to integrate the fast-paced consumer technology market with health care delivery exposes tensions among patients, providers, vendors, evaluators, and system decision makers. This paper explores the key tensions between the high bar for evidence prior to market approval that guides health care regulatory decisions and the "fail fast" reality of the technology industry. We examine three core tensions: balancing user needs versus system needs, rigor versus responsiveness, and the role of pre- versus postmarket evidence generation. We use these to elaborate on the structure and appropriateness of evaluation mechanisms for virtual care solutions. Virtual technologies provide a foundation for personalized, patient-centered medicine on the user side, coupled with a broader understanding of impact on the system side. However, mechanisms for stakeholder discussion are needed to clarify the nature of the health technology marketplace and the drivers of evaluation priorities. ©Laura Desveaux, James Shaw, Ross Wallace, Onil Bhattacharyya, R Sacha Bhatia, Trevor Jamieson. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http://medinform.jmir.org), 08.12.2017.

  1. Networking CD-ROMs: The Decision Maker's Guide to Local Area Network Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshami, Ahmed M.

    In an era when patrons want access to CD-ROM resources but few libraries can afford to buy multiple copies, CD-ROM local area networks (LANs) are emerging as a cost-effective way to provide shared access. To help librarians make informed decisions, this manual offers information on: (1) the basics of LANs, a "local area network primer";…

  2. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Cloud Storage by Information Technology Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation uses a survey methodology to determine the factors behind the decision to adopt cloud storage. The dependent variable in the study is the intent to adopt cloud storage. Four independent variables are utilized including need, security, cost-effectiveness and reliability. The survey includes a pilot test, field test and statistical…

  3. Data quality for decision makers a dialog between a board member and a DQ expert

    CERN Document Server

    Morbey, Guilherme

    2014-01-01

    Currently many companies are confronted with the decision how to deal with the new data quality requirements of the regulatory authorities. Future data quality statements for enterprise key figures and their origins are being demanded. Applying methods of a data quality management system can produce these statements best. Guilherme Morbey explains the introduction of such a system in the form of a dialogue.

  4. Methods for providing decision makers with optimal solutions for multiple objectives that change over time

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greeff, M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision making - with the goal of finding the optimal solution - is an important part of modern life. For example: In the control room of an airport, the goals or objectives are to minimise the risk of airplanes colliding, minimise the time that a...

  5. Science communication and vernal pool conservation: a study of local decision maker attitudes in a knowledge-action system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreavy, Bridie; Webler, Thomas; Calhoun, Aram J K

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we describe local decision maker attitudes towards vernal pools to inform science communication and enhance vernal pool conservation efforts. We conducted interviews with town planning board and conservation commission members (n = 9) from two towns in the State of Maine in the northeastern United States. We then mailed a questionnaire to a stratified random sample of planning board members in August and September 2007 with a response rate of 48.4% (n = 320). The majority of survey respondents favored the protection and conservation of vernal pools in their towns. Decision makers were familiar with the term "vernal pool" and demonstrated positive attitudes to vernal pools in general. General appreciation and willingness to conserve vernal pools predicted support for the 2006 revisions to the Natural Resource Protection Act regulating Significant Vernal Pools. However, 48% of respondents were unaware of this law and neither prior knowledge of the law nor workshop attendance predicted support for the vernal pool law. Further, concerns about private property rights and development restrictions predicted disagreement with the vernal pool law. We conclude that science communication must rely on specific frames of reference, be sensitive to cultural values, and occur in an iterative system to link knowledge and action in support of vernal pool conservation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Working with Decision Makers to Improve Energy-Water System Resiliency in the Lower Hudson River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, J. D.; Schoonen, M. A.; Pullen, J.; González, J. E.; Saleh, F.; Bhatt, V.

    2017-12-01

    Nearly half of the 180 million people living in the eastern U.S. reside in coastal watershed or shoreline counties. The population density of these areas continues to increase, driving an increase in energy-water (EW) system demand and expansion of critical infrastructure. Along with population, these areas are also being stressed by environmental and technology stresses, including climate change. We have been working with decision makers in the Lower Hudson River Basin (LHRB) to develop the tools and data needed to better understand and improve the resiliency of LHRB EW systems facing these kinds of stresses. The LHRB represents: 1) a coastal environment subject to sea level rise that is among the fastest in the East; 2) one of the steepest gradients in population density in the US, with Manhattan the most densely populated coastal county in the nation; 3) a EWN infrastructure serving the largest metropolitan area in the US and the financial center of the world; 4) a history of environmental impacts, ranging from heatwaves, hurricanes to localized storms, that can be used to hindcast; and 5) a wealth of historic and real-time data, extensive monitoring facilities and existing specific sector models that can be leveraged. This presentation will focus on the lessons learned working with the LHRB decision makers.

  7. Partnering Community Decision Makers with Early Career Scientists - The NASA DEVELOP Method for Dual Capacity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, K. W.; Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Cripps, G. S.; Clayton, A.; Remillard, C.; Watkins, L. E.; Allsbrook, K. N.; Rogers, L.; Ruiz, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA DEVELOP National Program carries out many projects every year with the goal of bringing the benefits of NASA Earth science to bear on decision-making challenges that are local in scale. Every DEVELOP project partners end users with early/transitioning science professionals. Many of these projects invited communities to consider NASA science data in new ways to help them make informed decisions. All of these projects shared three characteristics: they were rapid, nimble and risk-taking. These projects work well for some communities, but might best be suited as a feasibility studies that build community/institutional capacity towards eventual solutions. This presentation will discuss DEVELOP's lessons learned and best practices in conducting short-term feasibility projects with communities, as well as highlight several past successes.

  8. Valuation of ecosystem services: paradox or Pandora’s box for decision-makers?

    OpenAIRE

    Nijnik,Maria; Miller,David

    2017-01-01

    The valuation of ecosystem services (ES) employs a range of methods. Based on a literature review and selected empirical examples, we consider major opportunities and challenges in ecosystem services valuation. We analyse when different valuation methods are appropriate and most useful. We demonstrate that mechanisms to capture benefits and costs are needed; and that the use of valuation should be incorporated more widely in decision-making. However, we argue that ecosystems are complex syste...

  9. Critical care physicians’ approaches to negotiating with surrogate decision makers: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush, David R.; Brown, Crystal E.; Alexander, G. Caleb

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe how critical care physicians manage conflicts with surrogates about withdrawing or withholding patients’ life support. Design Qualitative analysis of key informant interviews with critical care physicians during 2010. We transcribed interviews verbatim and used grounded theory to code and revise a taxonomy of themes and to identify illustrative quotes. Setting 3 academic medical centers, 1 academic-affiliated medical center and 4 private practice groups or private hospitals in a large Midwestern city Subjects 14 critical care physicians Measurements and main results Physicians reported tailoring their approach to address specific reasons for disagreement with surrogates. Five common approaches were identified: (1) building trust, (2) educating and informing, (3) providing surrogates more time, (4) adjusting surrogate and physician roles, and (5) highlighting specific values. When mistrust was an issue, physicians endeavored to build a more trusting relationship with the surrogate before re-addressing decision making. Physicians also reported correcting misunderstandings by providing targeted education, and some reported highlighting specific patient, surrogate, or physician values that they hoped would guide surrogates to agree with them. When surrogates struggled with decision making roles, physicians attempted to reinforce the concept of substituted judgment. Physicians noted that some surrogates needed time to “come to terms” with the patent’s illness before agreeing with physicians. Many physicians had witnessed colleagues negotiate in ways they found objectionable, such as providing misleading information, injecting their own values into the negotiation, or behaving unprofessionally towards surrogates. While some physicians viewed their efforts to encourage surrogates’ agreement as persuasive, others strongly denied persuading surrogates and described their actions as “guiding” or “negotiating.” Conclusions Physicians

  10. A Framework for Investigating Influence of Organizational Decision Makers on Data Mining Process Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Hanieh Hajisafari; Shaaban Elahi

    2012-01-01

    Currently, few studies deal with evaluation of data mining plans in context of solvng organizational problems. A successful data miner is searching to solve a fully defined business problem. To make the data mining (DM) results actionable, the data miner must explain them to the business insider. The interaction process between the business insiders and data miners is actually a knowledge-sharing process. In this study through representing a framwork, influence of organizational decision mak...

  11. Reducing Energy Subsidies in China, India and Russia: Dilemmas for Decision Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Overland

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines and compares efforts to reduce energy subsidies in China, India and Russia. Despite dissimilarities in forms of governance, these three states have followed surprisingly similar patterns in reducing energy subsidies, characterised by two steps forward, one step back. Non-democratic governments and energy importers might be expected to be more likely to halt subsidies. In fact, the degree of democracy and status as net energy exporters or importers does not seem to significantly affect these countries’ capacity to reduce subsidies, as far as can be judged from the data in this article. Politicians in all three fear that taking unpopular decisions may provoke social unrest.

  12. The adoption of children from out-of-home care: The understandings of key decision makers in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butlinski, Anna; Rowe, Heather; Goddard, Christopher; Freezer, Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Adoption is one of a range of options that can provide children in out-of-home care with permanency when they are unable to be reunified with their birth parents. This paper reports on how the adoption of children from out-of-home care is understood by professionals involved in making decisions about the permanent placement of children in out-of-home care in Victoria, Australia, where adoption is rarely used. Data were collected through a single, face-to-face semi-structured interview with 21 professionals; eight child welfare specialists, eight adoption and permanent care specialists and five judicial officers. The adoption of children from out-of-home care was primarily understood as a child-centered practice that can afford children stability and a sense of belonging. Adoption was largely viewed as a voluntary process dependent upon the consent of a child's birth parents. Adoption and permanent care specialists were the only group to refer to the dispensation of parental consent as a means of obtaining an adoption order. Most decision makers understood that contact between children and their birth parents is possible following adoption, but this was not understood by all judicial officers or all child welfare specialists. Children's connection to their cultural heritage was viewed as important to the consideration of adoption for children in out-of-home care. This research provides insight into the foundations upon which decision makers may appraise adoption, within a hierarchy of options, as a potential outcome for children in need of permanency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing the Value of New Treatments for Hepatitis C: Are International Decision Makers Getting this Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Beth; Faria, Rita; Griffin, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Health systems worldwide are facing difficult choices about the use of a series of highly effective but costly new treatments for hepatitis C. In this paper we discuss how the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence in England and Wales, the Common Drug Review in Canada and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee (PBAC) in Australia have approached the appraisal of these drugs. We argue that with the exception of the PBAC, assessments of the new drugs have not adequately accounted for their large financial burden. Given the potential health system impact of reimbursing these drugs, the use of lower cost-effectiveness thresholds should be considered. None of the decision-making processes included a comparison of the full range of treatment pathways. In particular, comparisons of using the new drugs as first- versus second-line drugs were omitted from all appraisals, as were comparisons with delayed treatment strategies whereby treatment is withheld until more severe disease stages. Omission of comparators leads to inaccurate estimates of cost effectiveness and potentially sub-optimal decision making. Lessons learned from these appraisals should be considered in future appraisals, particularly the upcoming assessments of the 'blockbuster' PCSK9 inhibitors for hypercholesterolaemia.

  14. Effects of computerized clinical decision support systems on practitioner performance and patient outcomes: methods of a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, R Brian; Wilczynski, Nancy L

    2010-02-05

    Computerized clinical decision support systems are information technology-based systems designed to improve clinical decision-making. As with any healthcare intervention with claims to improve process of care or patient outcomes, decision support systems should be rigorously evaluated before widespread dissemination into clinical practice. Engaging healthcare providers and managers in the review process may facilitate knowledge translation and uptake. The objective of this research was to form a partnership of healthcare providers, managers, and researchers to review randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of computerized decision support for six clinical application areas: primary preventive care, therapeutic drug monitoring and dosing, drug prescribing, chronic disease management, diagnostic test ordering and interpretation, and acute care management; and to identify study characteristics that predict benefit. The review was undertaken by the Health Information Research Unit, McMaster University, in partnership with Hamilton Health Sciences, the Hamilton, Niagara, Haldimand, and Brant Local Health Integration Network, and pertinent healthcare service teams. Following agreement on information needs and interests with decision-makers, our earlier systematic review was updated by searching Medline, EMBASE, EBM Review databases, and Inspec, and reviewing reference lists through 6 January 2010. Data extraction items were expanded according to input from decision-makers. Authors of primary studies were contacted to confirm data and to provide additional information. Eligible trials were organized according to clinical area of application. We included randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effect on practitioner performance or patient outcomes of patient care provided with a computerized clinical decision support system compared with patient care without such a system. Data will be summarized using descriptive summary measures, including proportions

  15. Effects of computerized clinical decision support systems on practitioner performance and patient outcomes: Methods of a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilczynski Nancy L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computerized clinical decision support systems are information technology-based systems designed to improve clinical decision-making. As with any healthcare intervention with claims to improve process of care or patient outcomes, decision support systems should be rigorously evaluated before widespread dissemination into clinical practice. Engaging healthcare providers and managers in the review process may facilitate knowledge translation and uptake. The objective of this research was to form a partnership of healthcare providers, managers, and researchers to review randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of computerized decision support for six clinical application areas: primary preventive care, therapeutic drug monitoring and dosing, drug prescribing, chronic disease management, diagnostic test ordering and interpretation, and acute care management; and to identify study characteristics that predict benefit. Methods The review was undertaken by the Health Information Research Unit, McMaster University, in partnership with Hamilton Health Sciences, the Hamilton, Niagara, Haldimand, and Brant Local Health Integration Network, and pertinent healthcare service teams. Following agreement on information needs and interests with decision-makers, our earlier systematic review was updated by searching Medline, EMBASE, EBM Review databases, and Inspec, and reviewing reference lists through 6 January 2010. Data extraction items were expanded according to input from decision-makers. Authors of primary studies were contacted to confirm data and to provide additional information. Eligible trials were organized according to clinical area of application. We included randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effect on practitioner performance or patient outcomes of patient care provided with a computerized clinical decision support system compared with patient care without such a system. Results Data will be summarized

  16. Did the Italian Decision Makers Understand that Nuclear Is Not Business as Usual?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorzoli, G.B.

    2017-01-01

    In the 1950s, the confrontation on the nationalization of the electricity power system and the belief that nuclear energy would reach a dominant share in electric power production induced many Italian players to enter the nuclear business. After the nationalization of the electricity power system in 1962, even ENEL was not interested in continuing building nuclear plants. After the 1973 oil crisis, an ambitious nuclear program was issued, which omitted any choice on technologies, any information on plant siting and on the sharing of responsibilities among operators. The only decision taken was the commissioning of a boiling water reactor plant, which was never completed: after the 1987 referendum the Italian Parliament, besides stopping the building of new nuclear plants, closed the existing units. The 2008 farcical attempt to revamp nuclear power was defeated by the 2011 referendum.

  17. The female community health volunteer programme in Nepal: decision makers' perceptions of volunteerism, payment and other incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenton, Claire; Scheel, Inger B; Pradhan, Sabina; Lewin, Simon; Hodgins, Stephen; Shrestha, Vijaya

    2010-06-01

    The Female Community Health Volunteer (FCHV) Programme in Nepal has existed since the late 1980s and includes almost 50,000 volunteers. Although volunteer programmes are widely thought to be characterised by high attrition levels, the FCHV Programme loses fewer than 5% of its volunteers annually. The degree to which decision makers understand community health worker motivations and match these with appropriate incentives is likely to influence programme sustainability. The purpose of this study was to explore the views of stakeholders who have participated in the design and implementation of the Female Community Health Volunteer regarding Volunteer motivation and appropriate incentives, and to compare these views with the views and expectations of Volunteers. Semi-structured interviews were carried out in 2009 with 19 purposively selected non-Volunteer stakeholders, including policy makers and programme managers. Results were compared with data from previous studies of Female Community Health Volunteers and from interviews with four Volunteers and two Volunteer activists. Stakeholders saw Volunteers as motivated primarily by social respect, religious and moral duty. The freedom to deliver services at their leisure was seen as central to the volunteer concept. While stakeholders also saw the need for extrinsic incentives such as micro-credit, regular wages were regarded not only as financially unfeasible, but as a potential threat to the Volunteers' social respect, and thereby to their motivation. These views were reflected in interviews with and previous studies of Female Community Health Volunteers, and appear to be influenced by a tradition of volunteering as moral behaviour, a lack of respect for paid government workers, and the Programme's community embeddedness. Our study suggests that it may not be useful to promote a generic range of incentives, such as wages, to improve community health worker programme sustainability. Instead, programmes should ensure that

  18. Towards a single European electricity market. A structured approach to regulatory mode decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the processes through which the rules and regulations that govern European electricity markets - and inherently, their integration process - are established. So far, European policy makers have largely followed a 'trial-and-error' approach to finding an appropriate regulatory mode (process) for dealing effectively with market integration issues. This unstructured approach to regulatory mode selection leads to several problems: - Today's trial-and-error strategy of shifting from one regulatory mode to another is time-consuming. - In the regulatory mode selection process, certain key principles of good governance are insufficiently considered. - European regulatory processes are experienced as vague, intransparent, and illegitimate by 'outside' stakeholders. This study develops a 'structured approach to regulatory mode decision-making' (STARMODE) based on the theory of decision modelling in policy management and a case study exploring three key market integration issues in the field of electricity markets: interconnector investment, congestion management and market transparency. The main objective is to present a systematic and comprehensive framework for analysing and improving regulatory mode decision-making in the context of the European Union, focusing on electricity market integration. The STARMODE approach is generally applicable to (and relevant for) European market integration issues in industries characterized by a natural monopoly and/or an essential service. The approach may also contribute to national regulatory mode decision-making and multi-state decision-making in other continents.

  19. Resource allocation within the National AIDS Control Program of Pakistan: a qualitative assessment of decision maker's opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Masood

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited resources, whether public or private, demand prioritisation among competing needs to maximise productivity. With a substantial increase in the number of reported HIV cases, little work has been done to understand how resources have been distributed and what factors may have influenced allocation within the newly introduced Enhanced National AIDS Control Program of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to identify perceptions of decision makers about the process of resource allocation within Pakistan's Enhanced National AIDS Control Program. Methods A qualitative study was undertaken and in-depth interviews of decision makers at provincial and federal levels responsible to allocate resources within the program were conducted. Results HIV was not considered a priority issue by all study participants and external funding for the program was thought to have been accepted because of poor foreign currency reserves and donor agency influence rather than local need. Political influences from the federal government and donor agencies were thought to manipulate distribution of funds within the program. These influences were thought to occur despite the existence of a well-laid out procedure to determine allocation of public resources. Lack of collaboration among departments involved in decision making, a pervasive lack of technical expertise, paucity of information and an atmosphere of ad hoc decision making were thought to reduce resistance to external pressures. Conclusion Development of a unified program vision through a consultative process and advocacy is necessary to understand goals to be achieved, to enhance program ownership and develop consensus about how money and effort should be directed. Enhancing public sector expertise in planning and budgeting is essential not just for the program, but also to reduce reliance on external agencies for technical support. Strengthening available databases for effective

  20. Resource allocation within the National AIDS Control Program of Pakistan: a qualitative assessment of decision maker's opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Sara; Kadir, Masood; Fatmi, Zafar

    2007-01-23

    Limited resources, whether public or private, demand prioritisation among competing needs to maximise productivity. With a substantial increase in the number of reported HIV cases, little work has been done to understand how resources have been distributed and what factors may have influenced allocation within the newly introduced Enhanced National AIDS Control Program of Pakistan. The objective of this study was to identify perceptions of decision makers about the process of resource allocation within Pakistan's Enhanced National AIDS Control Program. A qualitative study was undertaken and in-depth interviews of decision makers at provincial and federal levels responsible to allocate resources within the program were conducted. HIV was not considered a priority issue by all study participants and external funding for the program was thought to have been accepted because of poor foreign currency reserves and donor agency influence rather than local need. Political influences from the federal government and donor agencies were thought to manipulate distribution of funds within the program. These influences were thought to occur despite the existence of a well-laid out procedure to determine allocation of public resources. Lack of collaboration among departments involved in decision making, a pervasive lack of technical expertise, paucity of information and an atmosphere of ad hoc decision making were thought to reduce resistance to external pressures. Development of a unified program vision through a consultative process and advocacy is necessary to understand goals to be achieved, to enhance program ownership and develop consensus about how money and effort should be directed. Enhancing public sector expertise in planning and budgeting is essential not just for the program, but also to reduce reliance on external agencies for technical support. Strengthening available databases for effective decision making is required to make financial allocations based on real

  1. The Experience of Surrogate Decision Makers on Being Approached for Consent for Patient Participation in Research. A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Karen E A; Prats, Clara Juando; Maione, Maria; Lanceta, Mary; Zubrinich, Celia; Jeffs, Lianne; Smith, Orla M

    2017-02-01

    Recruitment in critical care research differs from other contexts in important ways: patients lack decision-making capacity, uncertainty exists regarding patient prognosis, and critical illnesses are often associated with appreciable morbidity and mortality. We aimed to describe the experiences of surrogate decision makers (SDMs) in being approached for consent for critically ill patients to participate in research. A multicenter, qualitative study involving semistructured interviews with 26 SDMs, who provided or declined surrogate consent for research participation, at 5 Canadian centers nested within a multicenter observational study of research recruitment practices. Transcripts were reviewed by three qualitative researchers, and data were analyzed using grounded theory and a narrative critical analysis. SDMs were guided by an overarching desire for the patient to live. Surrogate research decision-making involved three sequential stages: (1) being approached; (2) reflecting on participation; and (3) making a decision. In stage 1, SDMs identified factors (their expectations, how they were approached, the attributes of the person approaching, and study risks and benefits) that characterized their consent encounter and affirmed a preference to be approached in person. If SDMs perceived the risk of participation to be too high or felt patients may not benefit from participation, they did not contemplate further. In stage 2, SDMs who knew the patient's wishes or had a deeper understanding of research prioritized the patient's wishes and the perceived benefits of participation. Without this information, SDMs prioritized obtaining more and better care for the patient, considered what was in their mutual best interests, and valued healthcare professional's knowledge. Trust in healthcare professionals was essential to proceeding further. In stage 3, SDMs considered six factors in rendering decisions. SDMs engaged in three sequential stages and considered six factors in

  2. The CAULDRON game: Helping decision makers understand extreme weather event attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, P.; Otto, F. E. L.

    2014-12-01

    There is a recognition from academics and stakeholders that climate science has a fundamental role to play in the decision making process, but too frequently there is still uncertainty about what, when, how and why to use it. Stakeholders suggest that it is because the science is presented in an inaccessible manner, while academics suggest it is because the stakeholders do not have the scientific knowledge to understand and apply the science appropriately. What is apparent is that stakeholders need support, and that there is an onus on academia to provide it. This support is even more important with recent developments in climate science, such as extreme weather event attribution. We are already seeing the impacts of extreme weather events around the world causing lost of life and damage to property and infrastructure with current research suggesting that these events could become more frequent and more intense. If this is to be the case then a better understanding of the science will be vital in developing robust adaptation and business planning. The use of games, role playing and simulations to aid learning has long been understood in education but less so as a tool to support stakeholder understanding of climate science. Providing a 'safe' space where participants can actively engage with concepts, ideas and often emotions, can lead to deep understanding that is not possible through more passive mechanisms such as papers and web sites. This paper reports on a game that was developed through a collaboration led by the Red Cross/Red Crescent, University of Oxford and University of Reading to help stakeholders understand the role of weather event attribution in the decision making process. The game has already been played successfully at a number of high profile events including COP 19 and the African Climate Conference. It has also been used with students as part of a postgraduate environmental management course. As well as describing the design principles of the

  3. Objective evaluation of situation awareness for dynamic decision makers in teleoperations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Mica R.

    1991-01-01

    Situation awareness, a current mental mode of the environment, is critical to the ability of operators to perform complex and dynamic tasks. This should be particularly true for teleoperators, who are separated from the situation they need to be aware of. The design of the man-machine interface must be guided by the goal of maintaining and enhancing situation awareness. The objective of this work has been to build a foundation upon which research in the area can proceed. A model of dynamic human decision making which is inclusive of situation awareness will be presented, along with a definition of situation awareness. A method for measuring situation awareness will also be presented as a tool for evaluating design concepts. The Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) is an objective measure of situation awareness originally developed for the fighter cockpit environment. The results of SAGAT validation efforts will be presented. Implications of this research for teleoperators and other operators of dynamic systems will be discussed.

  4. Interfacing An Intelligent Decision-Maker To A Real-Time Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, D. C.; Smith, D. M.; Staros, C. J.

    1984-06-01

    This paper discusses some of the practical aspects of implementing expert systems in a real-time environment. There is a conflict between the needs of a process control system and the computational load imposed by intelligent decision-making software. The computation required to manage a real-time control problem is primarily concerned with routine calculations which must be executed in real time. On most current hardware, non-trivial AI software should not be forced to operate under real-time constraints. In order for the system to work efficiently, the two processes must be separated by a well-defined interface. Although the precise nature of the task separation will vary with the application, the definition of the interface will need to follow certain fundamental principles in order to provide functional separation. This interface was successfully implemented in the expert scheduling software currently running the automated chemical processing facility at Lockheed-Georgia. Potential applications of this concept in the areas of airborne avionics and robotics will be discussed.

  5. Sharing NASA Science with Decision Makers: A Perspective from NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, A. I.; Blevins, B.; Hook, E.

    2015-12-01

    NASA ARSET http://arset.gsfc.nasa.gov has been providing applied remote sensing training since 2008. The goals of the program are to develop the technical and analytical skills necessary to utilize NASA resources for decision-support. The program has reached over 3500 participants, with 1600 stakeholders from 100 countries in 2015 alone. The target audience for the program are professionals engaged in environmental management in the public and private sectors, such as air quality forecasters, public utilities, water managers and non-governmental organizations engaged in conservation. Many program participants have little or no expertise in NASA remote sensing, and it's frequently their very first exposure to NASA's vast resources. One the key challenges for the program has been the evolution and refinement of its approach to communicating NASA data access, research, and ultimately its value to stakeholders. We discuss ARSET's best practices for sharing NASA science, which include 1) training ARSET staff and other NASA scientists on methods for science communication, 2) communicating the proper amount of scientific information at a level that is commensurate with the technical skills of program participants, 3) communicating the benefit of NASA resources to stakeholders, and 4) getting to know the audience and tailoring the message so that science information is conveyed within the context of agencies' unique environmental challenges.

  6. Renewable electricity production costs-A framework to assist policy-makers' decisions on price support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinica, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent progress, the production costs for renewable electricity remain above those for conventional power. Expectations of continuous reductions in production costs, typically underpin governments' policies for financial support. They often draw on the technology-focused versions of the Experience Curve model. This paper discusses how national-contextual factors also have a strong influence on production costs, such as geographic, infrastructural, institutional, and resource factors. As technologies mature, and as they reach significant levels of diffusion nationally, sustained increases in production costs might be recorded, due to these nationally contextual factors, poorly accounted for in policy-making decisions for price support. The paper suggests an analytical framework for a more comprehensive understanding of production costs. Based on this, it recommends that the evolution of specific cost levels and factors be monitored to locate 'sources of changes'. The paper also suggests policy instruments that governments may use to facilitate cost decreases, whenever possible. The application of the framework is illustrated for the diffusion of wind power in Spain during the past three decades. - Highlights: → Models, frameworks for policy-making on price support for renewable electricity production costs. → Policy instruments to help reduce production costs. → Limits to the influence of policies of production costs reductions.

  7. Electricity Storage and Renewables for Island Power. A Guide for Decision Makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komor, P; Glassmire, J [University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Energy is a key issue for sustainable development. In island and remote communities, where grid extension is difficult and fuel transportation and logistics are challenging and costly, renewable energy is emerging as the energy supply solution for the 21st century, ensuring reliable and secure energy supply in such communities. The deployment of renewable energy technologies is increasing globally, supported by rapidly declining prices and government policies and strategies in many countries, resulting in renewable energy solutions being the most cost-effective option in many markets today. For example, in 2011 the Special Report of the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation showed that approximately 50% of new electricity generation capacity added globally between 2008 and 2009 came from renewable energy sources. Therefore, the future of renewables as the base energy source for islands and remote communities looks very bright. However, as the share of renewables in power supply increases, the natural variability of some renewable energy sources must be tackled appropriately to ensure continuous availability and efficient use of the energy generated. Successful strategies to manage this variability can encompass a range of measures, such as a balanced supply technology portfolio, geographical spread of supply, better forecasting tools, demand-side management and appropriate storage solutions. Traditionally, large scale electricity storage systems were based on pumped hydropower installations. New solutions are emerging, including affordable and long-lasting batteries. This technology field is developing rapidly and prices are falling. IRENA has developed this report as a practical guide to the available energy storage solutions and their successful applications in the context of islands communities. The report also includes various best practice cases and different scenarios and strategies. It is

  8. A comparison of workplace safety perceptions among financial decision-makers of medium- vs. large-size companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Leamon, Tom B; Courtney, Theodore K; Chen, Peter Y; DeArmond, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This study, through a random national survey in the U.S., explored how corporate financial decision-makers perceive important workplace safety issues as a function of the size of the company for which they worked (medium- vs. large-size companies). Telephone surveys were conducted with 404 U.S. corporate financial decision-makers: 203 from medium-size companies and 201 from large companies. Results showed that the patterns of responding for participants from medium- and large-size companies were somewhat similar. The top-rated safety priorities in resource allocation reported by participants from both groups were overexertion, repetitive motion, and bodily reaction. They believed that there were direct and indirect costs associated with workplace injuries and for every dollar spent improving workplace safety, more than four dollars would be returned. They perceived the top benefits of an effective safety program to be predominately financial in nature - increased productivity and reduced costs - and the safety modification participants mentioned most often was to have more/better safety-focused training. However, more participants from large- than medium-size companies reported that "falling on the same level" was the major cause of workers' compensation loss, which is in line with industry loss data. Participants from large companies were more likely to see their safety programs as better than those of other companies in their industries, and those of medium-size companies were more likely to mention that there were no improvements needed for their companies. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An exploratory study identifying where local government public health decision makers source their evidence for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneham, Melissa; Dodds, James

    2014-08-01

    The Western Australian (WA) Public Health Bill will replace the antiquated Health Act 1911. One of the proposed clauses of the Bill requires all WA local governments to develop a Public Health Plan. The Bill states that Public Health Plans should be based on evidence from all levels, including national and statewide priorities, community needs, local statistical evidence, and stakeholder data. This exploratory study, which targeted 533 WA local government officers, aimed to identify the sources of evidence used to generate the list of public health risks to be included in local government Public Health Plans. The top four sources identified for informing local policy were: observation of the consequences of the risks in the local community (24.5%), statewide evidence (17.6%), local evidence (17.6%) and coverage in local media (16.2%). This study confirms that both hard and soft data are used to inform policy decisions at the local level. Therefore, the challenge that this study has highlighted is in the definition or constitution of evidence. SO WHAT? Evidence is critical to the process of sound policy development. This study highlights issues associated with what actually constitutes evidence in the policy development process at the local government level. With the exception of those who work in an extremely narrow field, it is difficult for local government officers, whose role includes policymaking, to read the vast amount of information that has been published in their area of expertise. For those who are committed to the notion of evidence-based policymaking, as advocated within the WA Public Health Bill, this presents a considerable challenge.

  10. Learned helplessness among families and surrogate decision-makers of patients admitted to medical, surgical, and trauma ICUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Donald R; Liu, Xinggang; Corwin, Douglas S; Verceles, Avelino C; McCurdy, Michael T; Pate, Drew A; Davis, Jennifer M; Netzer, Giora

    2012-12-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence of and clinical variables associated with learned helplessness, a psychologic state characterized by reduced motivation, difficulty in determining causality, and depression, in family members of patients admitted to ICUs. We conducted an observational survey study of a prospectively defined cohort of family members, spouses, and partners of patients admitted to surgical, medical, and trauma ICUs at a large academic medical center. Two validated instruments, the Learned Helplessness Scale and the Perceived Stress Scale, were used, and self-report of patient clinical characteristics and subject demographics were collected. Four hundred ninety-nine family members were assessed. Of these, 238 of 460 (51.7%) had responses consistent with a significant degree of learned helplessness. Among surrogate decision-makers, this proportion was 50% (92 of 184). Characteristics associated with significant learned helplessness included grade or high school education (OR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.29-8.27; P = .01) and Perceived Stress Scale score > 18 (OR, 4.15; 95% CI, 2.65-6.50; P learned helplessness (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.32-0.98; P = .05). The majority of family members of patients in the ICU experience significant learned helplessness. Risk factors for learned helplessness include lower educational levels, absence of an advance directive or DNR order, and higher stress levels among family members. Significant learned helplessness in family members may have negative implications in the collaborative decision-making process.

  11. Development and formative evaluation of a visual e-tool to help decision makers navigate the evidence around health financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Pulkki-Brännström, Anni-Maria; Utley, Martin; Kembhavi, Gayatri; Bricki, Nouria; Dutoit, Xavier; Rosato, Mikey; Pagel, Christina

    2012-12-21

    There are calls for low and middle income countries to develop robust health financing policies to increase service coverage. However, existing evidence around financing options is complex and often difficult for policy makers to access. To summarize the evidence on the impact of financing health systems and develop an e-tool to help decision makers navigate the findings. After reviewing the literature, we used thematic analysis to summarize the impact of 7 common health financing mechanisms on 5 common health system goals. Information on the relevance of each study to a user's context was provided by 11 country indicators. A Web-based e-tool was then developed to assist users in navigating the literature review. This tool was evaluated using feedback from early users, collected using an online survey and in-depth interviews with key informants. The e-tool provides graphical summaries that allow a user to assess the following parameters with a single snapshot: the number of relevant studies available in the literature, the heterogeneity of evidence, where key evidence is lacking, and how closely the evidence matches their own context. Users particularly liked the visual display and found navigating the tool intuitive. However there was concern that a lack of evidence on positive impact might be construed as evidence against a financing option and that the tool might over-simplify the available financing options. Complex evidence can be made more easily accessible and potentially more understandable using basic Web-based technology and innovative graphical representations that match findings to the users' goals and context.

  12. Barriers and challenges in adopting Saudi telemedicine network: The perceptions of decision makers of healthcare facilities in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaboudi, Abdulellah; Atkins, Anthony; Sharp, Bernadette; Balkhair, Ahmed; Alzahrani, Mohammed; Sunbul, Tamara

    Despite emerging evidence about the benefits of telemedicine, there are still many barriers and challenges to its adoption. Its adoption is often cited as a failed project because 75% of them are abandoned or 'failed outright' and this percentage increases to 90% in developing countries. The literature has clarified that there is neither one-size-fit-all framework nor best-practice solution for all ICT innovations or for all countries. Barriers and challenges in adopting and implementing one ICT innovation in a given country/organisation may not be similar - not for the same ICT innovation in another country/organisation nor for another ICT innovation in the same country/organisation. To the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive scientific study has investigated these challenges and barriers in all Healthcare Facilities (HCFs) across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This research, which is undertaken based on the Saudi Telemedicine Network roadmap and in collaboration with the Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH), is aimed at identifying the principle predictive challenges and barriers in the context of the KSA, and understanding the perspective of the decision makers of each HCF type, sector, and location. Three theories are used to underpin this research: the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), the Technology-Organisation-Environment (TOE) theoretical framework, and the Evaluating Telemedicine Systems Success Model (ETSSM). This study applies a three-sequential-phase approach by using three mixed methods (i.e., literature review, interviews, and questionnaires) in order to utilise the source triangulation and the data comparison analysis technique. The findings of this study show that the top three influential barriers to adopt and implement telemedicine by the HCF decision makers are: (i) the availability of adequate sustainable financial support to implement, operate, and maintain the telemedicine system, (ii) ensuring conformity of

  13. Barriers and challenges in adopting Saudi telemedicine network: The perceptions of decision makers of healthcare facilities in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulellah Alaboudi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Despite emerging evidence about the benefits of telemedicine, there are still many barriers and challenges to its adoption. Its adoption is often cited as a failed project because 75% of them are abandoned or ‘failed outright’ and this percentage increases to 90% in developing countries. The literature has clarified that there is neither one-size-fit-all framework nor best-practice solution for all ICT innovations or for all countries. Barriers and challenges in adopting and implementing one ICT innovation in a given country/organisation may not be similar – not for the same ICT innovation in another country/organisation nor for another ICT innovation in the same country/organisation.To the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive scientific study has investigated these challenges and barriers in all Healthcare Facilities (HCFs across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. This research, which is undertaken based on the Saudi Telemedicine Network roadmap and in collaboration with the Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH, is aimed at identifying the principle predictive challenges and barriers in the context of the KSA, and understanding the perspective of the decision makers of each HCF type, sector, and location. Three theories are used to underpin this research: the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT, the Technology–Organisation–Environment (TOE theoretical framework, and the Evaluating Telemedicine Systems Success Model (ETSSM. This study applies a three-sequential-phase approach by using three mixed methods (i.e., literature review, interviews, and questionnaires in order to utilise the source triangulation and the data comparison analysis technique. The findings of this study show that the top three influential barriers to adopt and implement telemedicine by the HCF decision makers are: (i the availability of adequate sustainable financial support to implement, operate, and maintain the telemedicine system, (ii

  14. Breast Cancer Risk Estimation and Personal Insurance: A Qualitative Study Presenting Perspectives from Canadian Patients and Decision Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratien Dalpé

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic stratification approaches in personalized medicine may considerably improve our ability to predict breast cancer risk for women at higher risk of developing breast cancer. Notwithstanding these advantages, concerns have been raised about the use of the genetic information derived in these processes, outside of the research and medical health care settings, by third parties such as insurers. Indeed, insurance applicants are asked to consent to insurers accessing their medical information (implicitly including genetic to verify or determine their insurability level, or eligibility to certain insurance products. This use of genetic information may result in the differential treatment of individuals based on their genetic information, which could lead to higher premium, exclusionary clauses or even the denial of coverage. This phenomenon has been commonly referred to as “Genetic Discrimination” (GD. In the Canadian context, where federal Bill S-201, An Act to prohibit and prevent genetic discrimination, has recently been enacted but may be subject to constitutional challenges, information about potential risks to insurability may raise issues in the clinical context. We conducted a survey with women in Quebec who have never been diagnosed with breast cancer to document their perspectives. We complemented the research with data from 14 semi-structured interviews with decision-makers in Quebec to discuss institutional issues raised by the use of genetic information by insurers. Our results provide findings on five main issues: (1 the reluctance to undergo genetic screening test due to insurability concerns, (2 insurers' interest in genetic information, (3 the duty to disclose genetic information to insurers, (4 the disclosure of potential impacts on insurability before genetic testing, and (5 the status of genetic information compared to other health data. Overall, both groups of participants (the women surveyed and the decision-makers

  15. Collaborative Decision Model on Stockpile Material of a Traditional Market Infrastructure using Value-Based HBU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utomo, C.; Rahmawati, Y.; Pararta, D. L.; Ariesta, A.

    2017-11-01

    Readiness of infrastructure establishment is needed in the early phase of real estate development. To meet the needs of retail property in the form of traditional markets, the Government prepares to build a new 1300 units. Traditional market development requires infrastructure development. One of it is the preparation of sand material embankment as much as ± 200,000 m3. With a distance of 30 km, sand material can be delivered to the project site by dump trucks that can only be operated by 2 trip per day. The material is managed by using stockpile method. Decision of stockpile location requires multi person and multi criteria in a collaborative environment. The highest and the best use (HBU) criteria was used to construct a value-based decision hierarchy. Decision makers from five stakeholders analyzed the best of three locations by giving their own preference of development cost and HBU function. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) based on satisfying options and cooperative game was applied for agreement options and coalition formation on collaborative decision. The result indicates that not all solutions become a possible location for the stockpile material. It shows the ‘best fit’ options process for all decision makers.

  16. Determinants of decision to participate in cocoyam marketing among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents the Estimates of Factors Influencing Decision to Participate in Cocoyam Marketing in Abia State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of this study are to estimate factors influencing the decision to participate in cocoyam marketing in Abia State. Primary and secondary data were used in the survey. The primary ...

  17. A hierarchical Markov decision process modeling feeding and marketing decisions of growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pourmoayed, Reza; Nielsen, Lars Relund; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is the most important cost in the production of growing pigs and has a direct impact on the marketing decisions, growth and the final quality of the meat. In this paper, we address the sequential decision problem of when to change the feed-mix within a finisher pig pen and when to pick pigs...... for marketing. We formulate a hierarchical Markov decision process with three levels representing the decision process. The model considers decisions related to feeding and marketing and finds the optimal decision given the current state of the pen. The state of the system is based on information from on...

  18. Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market. What the Research Says For... Government & Policy-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Buchanan, John; Yu, Serena

    2015-01-01

    This summary brings together the relevant key findings for government and policy-makers from the research program "Vocations: The Link between Post-Compulsory Education and the Labour Market." The program was comprised of three different strands: (1) pathways from VET in Schools, (2) pathways within and between vocational education and…

  19. "To me it's just another tool to help understand the evidence": public health decision-makers' perceptions of the value of geographical information systems (GIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Kerry

    2009-09-01

    While geographical information systems (GIS) have applications in a range of diverse fields, they remain underused by decision-makers in health settings. Through analysis of data captured in semi-structured interviews, the paper explores four thematic areas (the ontological, power, functionality and collaboration discourses) to understand how GIS are perceived and valued by public health decision-makers. The findings suggest that although GIS are viewed as useful tools to inform decision-making, they are in no way a panacea for practice. Participants' concerns that GIS outputs can potentially be misinterpreted or used erroneously might partly explain resistance to their use. GIS are, therefore, likely to be most effective in decision-making when applied in a multi-disciplinary context to facilitate sharing of data, knowledge and expertise across the public health landscape.

  20. The Influence of Color Perception on Marketing Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šliburytė Laimona

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines colour (sight marketing as one of the element of sensory marketing highlighting the importance of its perception and use in marketing decisions. Theoretical studies reveal that seeking to influence consumer behaviour, colour is used in setting linkages with characteristics of the product, as well as defining product packaging, advertising, point of sale, and brand communication.

  1. Joint research project to develop a training course or nuclear policy decision makers and planners in developing countries between KAERI and IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. J.; Suh, I. S.; Lee, H. Y. and others

    2000-12-01

    KAERI developed training course curricula on nuclear power policy and planning for decision makers and planners in developing countries under the assistance of the IAEA. It was utilized two IAEA staff members and a Korean consultation group were utilized for the development of curricula. Curriculum consists of training objectives, training contents in modular basis, detailed contents of each training module, training setting, training duration, session hours, and entry requirements of audience. One is workshop on nuclear energy policy for high-level decision makers in developing countries. The other is training course on nuclear power planning and project management for middle level managers in developing countries. The textbook in English will be printed by the end of February in 2001. Developed curricula will be implemented for Vietnam high level nuclear decision makers, middle level managers in developing countries and north Korea nuclear high level decision makers in 2001. These training courses' curricula and textbook will be utilized as basic technical documents to promote the national nuclear bilateral technical cooperation programs with Morocco, Egypt, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Ukraine, etc.

  2. State Decision-Makers Guide for Hazardous Waste Management: Defining Hazardous Wastes, Problem Recognition, Land Use, Facility Operations, Conceptual Framework, Policy Issues, Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Alan; And Others

    Presented are key issues to be addressed by state, regional, and local governments and agencies in creating effective hazardous waste management programs. Eight chapters broadly frame the topics which state-level decision makers should consider. These chapters include: (1) definition of hazardous waste; (2) problem definition and recognition; (3)…

  3. Joint research project to develop a training course or nuclear policy decision makers and planners in developing countries between KAERI and IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E. J.; Suh, I. S.; Lee, H. Y. and others

    2000-12-01

    KAERI developed training course curricula on nuclear power policy and planning for decision makers and planners in developing countries under the assistance of the IAEA. It was utilized two IAEA staff members and a Korean consultation group were utilized for the development of curricula. Curriculum consists of training objectives, training contents in modular basis, detailed contents of each training module, training setting, training duration, session hours, and entry requirements of audience. One is workshop on nuclear energy policy for high-level decision makers in developing countries. The other is training course on nuclear power planning and project management for middle level managers in developing countries. The textbook in English will be printed by the end of February in 2001. Developed curricula will be implemented for Vietnam high level nuclear decision makers, middle level managers in developing countries and north Korea nuclear high level decision makers in 2001. These training courses' curricula and textbook will be utilized as basic technical documents to promote the national nuclear bilateral technical cooperation programs with Morocco, Egypt, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Ukraine, etc

  4. Pre-assessment to assess the match between cost-effectiveness results and decision makers' information needs: an illustration using two cases in rehabilitation medicine in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman, M.J.; Reuzel, R.P.B.; Severens, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if a pre-assessment can be used to establish whether cost-effectiveness results would meet the actual information needs of Dutch healthcare decision makers. METHODS: Two recent studies in rehabilitation medicine served as study material. Based on Wholey, a limited

  5. Application of a General Risk Management Model to Portfolio Optimization Problems with Elliptical Distributed Returns for Risk Neutral and Risk Averse Decision Makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Kaynar; S.I. Birbil (Ilker); J.B.G. Frenk (Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper portfolio problems with linear loss functions and multivariate elliptical distributed returns are studied. We consider two risk measures, Value-at-Risk and Conditional-Value-at-Risk, and two types of decision makers, risk neutral and risk averse. For Value-at-Risk, we show

  6. The effect of prognostic data presentation format on perceived risk among surrogate decision makers of critically ill patients: a randomized comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Andy R; Litton, Edward; Chamberlain, Jenny; Ho, Kwok M

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether varying the format used to present prognostic data alters the perception of risk among surrogate decision makers in the intensive care unit (ICU). This was a prospective randomized comparative trial conducted in a 23-bed adult tertiary ICU. Enrolled surrogate decision makers were randomized to 1 of 2 questionnaires, which presented hypothetical ICU scenarios, identical other than the format in which prognostic data were presented (eg, frequencies vs percentages). Participants were asked to rate the risk associated with each prognostic statement. We enrolled 141 surrogate decision makers. The perception of risk varied significantly dependent on the presentation format. For "quantitative data," risks were consistently perceived as higher, when presented as frequencies (eg, 1 in 50) compared with equivalent percentages (eg, 2%). Framing "qualitative data" in terms of chance of "death" rather than "survival" led to a statistically significant increase in perceived risks. Framing "quantitative" data in this way did not significantly affect risk perception. Data format had a significant effect on how surrogate decision makers interpreted risk. Qualitative statements are interpreted widely and affected by framing. Where possible, multiple quantitative formats should be used for presenting prognostic information. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Health System Decision Makers' Feedback on Summaries and Tools Supporting the Use of Systematic Reviews: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, Moriah E.; Lavis, John N.; Wilson, Michael G.; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Haynes, R. Brian; Ouimet, Mathieu; Raina, Parminder; Gruen, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Health system managers and policy makers need timely access to high quality, policy-relevant systematic reviews. Our objectives were to obtain managers' and policy makers' feedback about user-friendly summaries of systematic reviews and about tools related to supporting or assessing their use. Our interviews identified that participants prefer key…

  8. Do Women Have a Choice? Care Providers' and Decision Makers' Perspectives on Barriers to Access of Health Services for Birth after a Previous Cesarean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Sarah; Kornelsen, Jude; Corbett, Kitty; Wilcox, Elizabeth; Bansback, Nick; Janssen, Patricia

    2017-06-01

    Repeat cesarean delivery is the single largest contributor to the escalating cesarean rate worldwide. Approximately 80 percent of women with a past cesarean are candidates for vaginal birth after a cesarean (VBAC), but in Canada less than one-third plan VBAC. Emerging evidence suggests that these trends may be due in part to nonclinical factors, including care provider practice patterns and delays in access to surgical and anesthesia services. This study sought to explore maternity care providers' and decision makers' attitudes toward and experiences with providing and planning services for women with a previous cesarean. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with family physicians, midwives, obstetricians, nurses, anesthetists, and health service decision makers recruited from three rural and two urban Canadian communities. Constructivist grounded theory informed iterative data collection and analysis. Analysis of interviews (n = 35) revealed that the factors influencing decisions resulted from interactions between the clinical, organizational, and policy levels of the health care system. Physicians acted as information providers of clinical risks and benefits, with limited discussion of patient preferences. Decision makers serving large hospitals revealed concerns related to liability and patient safety. These stemmed from competing access to surgical resources. To facilitate women's increased access to planned VBAC, it is necessary to address the barriers perceived by care providers and decision makers. Strategies to mitigate concerns include initiating decision support immediately after the primary cesarean, addressing the social risks that influence women's preferences, and managing perceptions of patient and litigation risks through shared decision making. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Utilizing Ultrasound Technology to Improve Livestock Marketing Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Jayson L. Lusk; Randall Little; Allen Williams; John Anderson; Blair McKinley

    2003-01-01

    This study estimates the value of using ultrasound technology to improve cattle marketing decisions by optimally choosing a particular marketing method. For the particular group of cattle analyzed, results indicate that using ultrasound information to selectively market cattle could have increased revenue by $25.53/head, $4.98/head, or $32.90/head, compared with simply marketing all animals on a live weight, dressed weight, or grid basis, respectively. Even if producers incorporate such infor...

  10. Corporate financial decision makers' perceptions of their company's safety performance, programs and personnel: Do company size and industry injury risk matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeArmond, Sarah; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Chen, Peter Y; Courtney, Theodore K

    2010-01-01

    Top-level managers make important decisions about safety-related issues, yet little research has been done involving these individuals. The current study explored corporate financial decisions makers' perceptions of their company's safety and their justifications for these perceptions. This study also explored whether their perceptions and justifications varied as a function of company size or industry injury risk. A total of 404 individuals who were the most senior managers responsible for making decisions about property and casualty risk at their companies participated in this study. The participants took part in a telephone survey. The results suggest that corporate financial decision makers have positive views of safety at their companies relative to safety at other companies within their industries. Further, many believe their company's safety is influenced by the attention/emphasis placed on safety and the selection and training of safety personnel. Participants' perceptions varied somewhat based on the size of their company and the level of injury risk in their industry. While definitive conclusions about corporate financial decision makers' perceptions of safety cannot be reached as a result of this single study, this work does lay groundwork for future research aimed at better understanding the perceptions top-level managers.

  11. Methodology for the selection of routes for international cross-border line projects involving multiple objectives and decision-makers in the analyses of restrictions and environmental possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel S, Enrique; Cadena, Luis Fernando

    2005-01-01

    A scheme was developed and applied to select the optimum environmental route for international cross-border line projects, in a decision making context involving multiple objectives and multiple decision-makers, the project studied was the electricity interconnection for central America (SIEPAC) for which a prospective assessment was carried out regarding the restrictions and possibilities in the light of the Colombian environmental dimensions management model. The methodology proposed followed these stages: Definition and approval of the structure of environmental restriction and criticality variables, sectorization and selection of complex sections, definition of decision-makers for multi-objective analysis; design and application of consultation tool; definition and modeling of options applying SIG; sensitivity analysis of alternative routes and project's environment management. Different options were identified for insertion and permanence of the project according to the criteria of various interest groups and actors consulted: environmental authorities, electricity companies, scientific community and civil society

  12. Bridging the gap between the economic evaluation literature and daily practice in occupational health: a qualitative study among decision-makers in the healthcare sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Continued improvements in occupational health can only be ensured if decisions regarding the implementation and continuation of occupational health and safety interventions (OHS interventions) are based on the best available evidence. To ensure that this is the case, scientific evidence should meet the needs of decision-makers. As a first step in bridging the gap between the economic evaluation literature and daily practice in occupational health, this study aimed to provide insight into the occupational health decision-making process and information needs of decision-makers. Methods An exploratory qualitative study was conducted with a purposeful sample of occupational health decision-makers in the Ontario healthcare sector. Eighteen in-depth interviews were conducted to explore the process by which occupational health decisions are made and the importance given to the financial implications of OHS interventions. Twenty-five structured telephone interviews were conducted to explore the sources of information used during the decision-making process, and decision-makers’ knowledge on economic evaluation methods. In-depth interview data were analyzed according to the constant comparative method. For the structured telephone interviews, summary statistics were prepared. Results The occupational health decision-making process generally consists of three stages: initiation stage, establishing the need for an intervention; pre-implementation stage, developing an intervention and its business case in order to receive senior management approval; and implementation and evaluation stage, implementing and evaluating an intervention. During this process, information on the financial implications of OHS interventions was found to be of great importance, especially the employer’s costs and benefits. However, scientific evidence was rarely consulted, sound ex-post program evaluations were hardly ever performed, and there seemed to be a need to advance the economic

  13. Decision Making and Training: A Review of Theoretical and Empirical Studies of Decision Making and Their Implications for the Training of Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    13-C-0128-] Pruitt, 1961; Schrenk, 1964; Snapper & Peterson, 1971; Swots & Birdsall, 1967). Thc results of most of these studies suggest that although...numerous attempts to apply decision trees and flow diaqrams to the solution of decision problems (e.g., Baker, 1967; Clarkson, 1963; Dutton & Starbuck ...Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1968, 28-43. i 192 6• NAVTRAEQUTPCEN 73-C-0128-1 Dutton, J. M. & Starbuck , W. H. Finding Charlie’s run time estimator. In J

  14. Modeling strategic investment decisions in spatial markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenczik, Stefan; Malischek, Raimund

    2014-01-01

    Markets for natural resources and commodities are often oligopolistic. In these markets, production capacities are key for strategic interaction between the oligopolists. We analyze how different market structures influence oligopolistic capacity investments and thereby affect supply, prices and rents in spatial natural resource markets using mathematical programing models. The models comprise an investment period and a supply period in which players compete in quantities. We compare three models, one perfect competition and two Cournot models, in which the product is either traded through long-term contracts or on spot markets in the supply period. Tractability and practicality of the approach are demonstrated in an application to the international metallurgical coal market. Results may vary substantially between the different models. The metallurgical coal market has recently made progress in moving away from long-term contracts and more towards spot market-based trade. Based on our results, we conclude that this regime switch is likely to raise consumer rents but lower producer rents. The total welfare differs only negligibly.

  15. Modeling strategic investment decisions in spatial markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenczik, Stefan; Malischek, Raimund [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Trueby, Johannes [International Energy Agency, 75 - Paris (France)

    2014-04-15

    Markets for natural resources and commodities are often oligopolistic. In these markets, production capacities are key for strategic interaction between the oligopolists. We analyze how different market structures influence oligopolistic capacity investments and thereby affect supply, prices and rents in spatial natural resource markets using mathematical programing models. The models comprise an investment period and a supply period in which players compete in quantities. We compare three models, one perfect competition and two Cournot models, in which the product is either traded through long-term contracts or on spot markets in the supply period. Tractability and practicality of the approach are demonstrated in an application to the international metallurgical coal market. Results may vary substantially between the different models. The metallurgical coal market has recently made progress in moving away from long-term contracts and more towards spot market-based trade. Based on our results, we conclude that this regime switch is likely to raise consumer rents but lower producer rents. The total welfare differs only negligibly.

  16. Designing evaluation studies to optimally inform policy: what factors do policy-makers in China consider when making resource allocation decisions on healthcare worker training programmes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shishi; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Spencer, Julia; Coker, Richard James; Khan, Mishal Sameer

    2018-02-23

    In light of the gap in evidence to inform future resource allocation decisions about healthcare provider (HCP) training in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and the considerable donor investments being made towards training interventions, evaluation studies that are optimally designed to inform local policy-makers are needed. The aim of our study is to understand what features of HCP training evaluation studies are important for decision-making by policy-makers in LMICs. We investigate the extent to which evaluations based on the widely used Kirkpatrick model - focusing on direct outcomes of training, namely reaction of trainees, learning, behaviour change and improvements in programmatic health indicators - align with policy-makers' evidence needs for resource allocation decisions. We use China as a case study where resource allocation decisions about potential scale-up (using domestic funding) are being made about an externally funded pilot HCP training programme. Qualitative data were collected from high-level officials involved in resource allocation at the national and provincial level in China through ten face-to-face, in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions consisting of ten participants each. Data were analysed manually using an interpretive thematic analysis approach. Our study indicates that Chinese officials not only consider information about the direct outcomes of a training programme, as captured in the Kirkpatrick model, but also need information on the resources required to implement the training, the wider or indirect impacts of training, and the sustainability and scalability to other settings within the country. In addition to considering findings presented in evaluation studies, we found that Chinese policy-makers pay close attention to whether the evaluations were robust and to the composition of the evaluation team. Our qualitative study indicates that training programme evaluations that focus narrowly on direct training

  17. Marketing Decision Support Systems: Adoption, Use and Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Wierenga (Berend); P.A.M. Oude Ophuis (Peter)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThis paper deals with marketing decision support systems (MDSS) in companies. In a conceptual framework five categories of factors are distinguished that potentially affect adoption, use, and satisfaction: external environment factors, organizational factors, task environment factors,

  18. Marketing decision support systems: Adoption, use and satisfaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, B.; Oude Ophuis, P.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with marketing decision support systems (MDSS) in companies. In a conceptual framework five categories of factors are distinguished that potentially affect adoption, use, and satisfaction: external environment factors, organizational factors, task environment factors, user factors

  19. Connecting Systems Model Design to Decision-Maker and Stakeholder Needs: Lessons from Louisiana's Coastal Master Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, J. R.; Johnson, D.

    2017-12-01

    of policy makers and CPRA managers. While changes will be illustrated through examples from Louisiana's 2017 Coastal Master Plan, we endeavor to provide generalizable and actionable insights about how modeling choices should be guided by the decision support process being used by planners.

  20. Making Market Decisions in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Stephen A.

    1986-01-01

    Computer software that will help intermediate and secondary social studies students learn to make rational decisions about personal and societal concerns are described. The courseware places students in the roles of business managers who make decisions about operating their firms. (RM)

  1. Decision Support Systems as the Bridge between Marketing Models and Marketing Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Wierenga (Berend)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe field of marketing decision models emerged about fifty years ago. In the beginning, optimization techniques from the field of Operations Research (OR) were dominant, but soon, the modeling of marketing phenomena and marketing problems became interesting in itself, irrespective of

  2. Voice in Political Decision-Making: The Effect of Group Voice on Perceived Trustworthiness of Decision Makers and Subsequent Acceptance of Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwel, Bart W.; Harinck, Fieke; Ellemers, Naomi; Daamen, Dancker D. L.

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of carbon dioxide capture and storage technology (CCS) is considered an important climate change mitigation strategy, but the viability of this technology will depend on public acceptance of CCS policy decisions. The results of three experiments with students as participants show that whether or not interest groups receive an…

  3. Antagonistic and Bargaining Games in Optimal Marketing Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovetsky, S.

    2007-01-01

    Game theory approaches to find optimal marketing decisions are considered. Antagonistic games with and without complete information, and non-antagonistic games techniques are applied to paired comparison, ranking, or rating data for a firm and its competitors in the market. Mix strategy, equilibrium in bi-matrix games, bargaining models with…

  4. Building models for marketing decisions : Past, present and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, PSH; Wittink, DR

    We review five eras of model building in marketing, with special emphasis on the fourth and the fifth eras, the present and the future. At many firms managers now routinely use model-based results for marketing decisions. Given an increasing number of successful applications, the demand for models

  5. Finding common ground to achieve a "good death": family physicians working with substitute decision-makers of dying patients. A qualitative grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Amy; Manca, Donna

    2013-01-22

    Substitute decision-makers are integral to the care of dying patients and make many healthcare decisions for patients. Unfortunately, conflict between physicians and surrogate decision-makers is not uncommon in end-of-life care and this could contribute to a "bad death" experience for the patient and family. We aim to describe Canadian family physicians' experiences of conflict with substitute decision-makers of dying patients to identify factors that may facilitate or hinder the end-of-life decision-making process. This insight will help determine how to best manage these complex situations, ultimately improving the overall care of dying patients. Grounded Theory methodology was used with semi-structured interviews of family physicians in Edmonton, Canada, who experienced conflict with substitute decision-makers of dying patients. Purposeful sampling included maximum variation and theoretical sampling strategies. Interviews were audio-taped, and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts, field notes and memos were coded using the constant-comparative method to identify key concepts until saturation was achieved and a theoretical framework emerged. Eleven family physicians with a range of 3 to 40 years in clinical practice participated.The family physicians expressed a desire to achieve a "good death" and described their role in positively influencing the experience of death.Finding Common Ground to Achieve a "Good Death" for the Patient emerged as an important process which includes 1) Building Mutual Trust and Rapport through identifying key players and delivering manageable amounts of information, 2) Understanding One Another through active listening and ultimately, and 3) Making Informed, Shared Decisions. Facilitators and barriers to achieving Common Ground were identified. Barriers were linked to conflict. The inability to resolve an overt conflict may lead to an impasse at any point. A process for Resolving an Impasse is described. A novel framework for developing

  6. Designing a decision support model for the LNG market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Steve; Dullaert, Wout

    2010-01-01

    As the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) market is supply-driven and subject to longterm contracts, both liquefaction companies and shipowners need to make strategic decisions on fleet chartering requirements. These planning decisions become ever more difficult in light of the transformations permeating

  7. Decision Support Systems as the Bridge between Marketing Models and Marketing Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Wierenga, Berend

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe field of marketing decision models emerged about fifty years ago. In the beginning, optimization techniques from the field of Operations Research (OR) were dominant, but soon, the modeling of marketing phenomena and marketing problems became interesting in itself, irrespective of whether they could be solved with a known OR technique. The field of marketing models developed its own identity and became an important academic field (Wierenga 2008b). Somewhat later the term "marke...

  8. Marketing decision support systems for strategy building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S K

    2000-01-01

    Brand teams charged with the commercialization of pharmaceutical products in the pipeline operate in an uncertain environment. Market, customer and competitive interrelationships undergo changes, often in ways that are unpredictable with conventional research practices. This article describes a framework whereby such uncertainty can be managed more effectively in the context of ongoing business needs.

  9. Computerized clinical decision support systems for primary preventive care: a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review of effects on process of care and patient outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Nathan M; Sebaldt, Rolf J; Mackay, Jean A; Prorok, Jeanette C; Weise-Kelly, Lorraine; Navarro, Tamara; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian

    2011-08-03

    Computerized clinical decision support systems (CCDSSs) are claimed to improve processes and outcomes of primary preventive care (PPC), but their effects, safety, and acceptance must be confirmed. We updated our previous systematic reviews of CCDSSs and integrated a knowledge translation approach in the process. The objective was to review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of CCDSSs for PPC on process of care, patient outcomes, harms, and costs. We conducted a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid's EBM Reviews Database, Inspec, and other databases, as well as reference lists through January 2010. We contacted authors to confirm data or provide additional information. We included RCTs that assessed the effect of a CCDSS for PPC on process of care and patient outcomes compared to care provided without a CCDSS. A study was considered to have a positive effect (i.e., CCDSS showed improvement) if at least 50% of the relevant study outcomes were statistically significantly positive. We added 17 new RCTs to our 2005 review for a total of 41 studies. RCT quality improved over time. CCDSSs improved process of care in 25 of 40 (63%) RCTs. Cumulative scientifically strong evidence supports the effectiveness of CCDSSs for screening and management of dyslipidaemia in primary care. There is mixed evidence for effectiveness in screening for cancer and mental health conditions, multiple preventive care activities, vaccination, and other preventive care interventions. Fourteen (34%) trials assessed patient outcomes, and four (29%) reported improvements with the CCDSS. Most trials were not powered to evaluate patient-important outcomes. CCDSS costs and adverse events were reported in only six (15%) and two (5%) trials, respectively. Information on study duration was often missing, limiting our ability to assess sustainability of CCDSS effects. Evidence supports the effectiveness of CCDSSs for screening and

  10. Computerized clinical decision support systems for primary preventive care: A decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review of effects on process of care and patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilczynski Nancy L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computerized clinical decision support systems (CCDSSs are claimed to improve processes and outcomes of primary preventive care (PPC, but their effects, safety, and acceptance must be confirmed. We updated our previous systematic reviews of CCDSSs and integrated a knowledge translation approach in the process. The objective was to review randomized controlled trials (RCTs assessing the effects of CCDSSs for PPC on process of care, patient outcomes, harms, and costs. Methods We conducted a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid's EBM Reviews Database, Inspec, and other databases, as well as reference lists through January 2010. We contacted authors to confirm data or provide additional information. We included RCTs that assessed the effect of a CCDSS for PPC on process of care and patient outcomes compared to care provided without a CCDSS. A study was considered to have a positive effect (i.e., CCDSS showed improvement if at least 50% of the relevant study outcomes were statistically significantly positive. Results We added 17 new RCTs to our 2005 review for a total of 41 studies. RCT quality improved over time. CCDSSs improved process of care in 25 of 40 (63% RCTs. Cumulative scientifically strong evidence supports the effectiveness of CCDSSs for screening and management of dyslipidaemia in primary care. There is mixed evidence for effectiveness in screening for cancer and mental health conditions, multiple preventive care activities, vaccination, and other preventive care interventions. Fourteen (34% trials assessed patient outcomes, and four (29% reported improvements with the CCDSS. Most trials were not powered to evaluate patient-important outcomes. CCDSS costs and adverse events were reported in only six (15% and two (5% trials, respectively. Information on study duration was often missing, limiting our ability to assess sustainability of CCDSS effects. Conclusions

  11. The Marketing Mix Decision Under Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Harsharanjeet S. Jagpal; Ivan E. Brick

    1982-01-01

    This paper develops a marketing mix model under uncertainty using the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) valuation framework. The model is general because it treats price, advertising and personal selling simultaneously, and allows for general patterns of uncertainty. Because the manager often lacks precise quantitative information about the sales response function, the analysis focuses on the qualitative properties of the model. The methodology of comparative statics is used to determine how...

  12. I don't want to be the one saying 'we should just let him die': intrapersonal tensions experienced by surrogate decision makers in the ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Yael; Crowley-Matoka, Megan; Dohan, Daniel; Tiver, Greer A; Arnold, Robert M; White, Douglas B

    2012-12-01

    Although numerous studies have addressed external factors associated with difficulty in surrogate decision making, intrapersonal sources of tension are an important element of decision making that have received little attention. To characterize key intrapersonal tensions experienced by surrogate decision makers in the intensive care unit (ICU), and explore associated coping strategies. Qualitative interview study. Thirty surrogates from five ICUs at two hospitals in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, who were actively involved in making life-sustaining treatment decisions for a critically ill loved one. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with surrogates, focused on intrapersonal tensions, role challenges, and coping strategies. We analyzed transcripts using constant comparative methods. Surrogates experience significant emotional conflict between the desire to act in accordance with their loved one's values and 1) not wanting to feel responsible for a loved one's death, 2) a desire to pursue any chance of recovery, and 3) the need to preserve family well-being. Associated coping strategies included 1) recalling previous discussions with a loved one, 2) sharing decisions with family members, 3) delaying or deferring decision making, 4) spiritual/religious practices, and 5) story-telling. Surrogates' struggle to reconcile personal and family emotional needs with their loved ones' wishes, and utilize common coping strategies to combat intrapersonal tensions. These data suggest reasons surrogates may struggle to follow a strict substituted judgment standard. They also suggest ways clinicians may improve decision making, including attending to surrogates' emotions, facilitating family decision making, and eliciting potential emotional conflicts and spiritual needs.

  13. The effect of social cues on marketing decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, H. G. E.; Pan, Jiening; Family, Fereydoon; Zhang, Zhenyu; Song, Yiping

    2012-02-01

    We address the question as to what extent individuals, when given information in marketing polls on the decisions made by the previous Nr individuals questioned, are likely to change their original choices. The processes can be formulated in terms of a Cost function equivalent to a Hamiltonian, which depends on the original likelihood of an individual making a positive decision in the absence of social cues p0; the strength of the social cue J; and memory size Nr. We find both positive and negative herding effects are significant. Specifically, if p0>1/2 social cues enhance positive decisions, while for p0cues reduce the likelihood of a positive decision.

  14. MED SUV TASK 6.3 Capacity building and interaction with decision makers: Improving volcanic risk communication through volcanic hazard tools evaluation, Campi Flegrei Caldera case study (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, Rosella; Isaia, Roberto; Sandri, Laura; Cristiani, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    In the communication chain between scientists and decision makers (end users), scientific outputs, as maps, are a fundamental source of information on hazards zoning and the related at risk areas definition. Anyway the relationship between volcanic phenomena, their probability and potential impact can be complex and the geospatial information not easily decoded or understood by not experts even if decision makers. Focusing on volcanic hazard the goal of MED SUV WP6 Task 3 is to improve the communication efficacy of scientific outputs, to contribute in filling the gap between scientists and decision-makers. Campi Flegrei caldera, in Neapolitan area has been chosen as the pilot research area where to apply an evaluation/validation procedure to provide a robust evaluation of the volcanic maps and its validation resulting from end users response. The selected sample involved are decision makers and officials from Campanian Region Civil Protection and municipalities included in Campi Flegrei RED ZONE, the area exposed to risk from to pyroclastic currents hazard. Semi-structured interviews, with a sample of decision makers and civil protection officials have been conducted to acquire both quantitative and qualitative data. The tested maps have been: the official Campi Flegrei Caldera RED ZONE map, three maps produced by overlapping the Red Zone limit on Orthophoto, DTM and Contour map, as well as other maps included a probabilistic one, showing volcanological data used to border the Red Zone. The outcomes' analysis have assessed level of respondents' understanding of content as displayed, and their needs in representing the complex information embedded in volcanic hazard. The final output has been the development of a leaflet as "guidelines" that can support decision makers and officials in understanding volcanic hazard and risk maps, and also in using them as a communication tool in information program for the population at risk. The same evaluation /validation process

  15. Decision modelling tools for utilities in the deregulated energy market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makkonen, S. [Process Vision Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    This thesis examines the impact of the deregulation of the energy market on decision making and optimisation in utilities and demonstrates how decision support applications can solve specific encountered tasks in this context. The themes of the thesis are presented in different frameworks in order to clarify the complex decision making and optimisation environment where new sources of uncertainties arise due to the convergence of energy markets, globalisation of energy business and increasing competition. This thesis reflects the changes in the decision making and planning environment of European energy companies during the period from 1995 to 2004. It also follows the development of computational performance and evolution of energy information systems during the same period. Specifically, this thesis consists of studies at several levels of the decision making hierarchy ranging from top-level strategic decision problems to specific optimisation algorithms. On the other hand, the studies also follow the progress of the liberalised energy market from the monopolistic era to the fully competitive market with new trading instruments and issues like emissions trading. This thesis suggests that there is an increasing need for optimisation and multiple criteria decision making methods, and that new approaches based on the use of operations research are welcome as the deregulation proceeds and uncertainties increase. Technically, the optimisation applications presented are based on Lagrangian relaxation techniques and the dedicated Power Simplex algorithm supplemented with stochastic scenario analysis for decision support, a heuristic method to allocate common benefits and potential losses of coalitions of power companies, and an advanced Branch- and-Bound algorithm to solve efficiently nonconvex optimisation problems. The optimisation problems are part of the operational and tactical decision making process that has become very complex in the recent years. Similarly

  16. Development of an integrated model for energy systems planning and carbon dioxide mitigation under uncertainty - Tradeoffs between two-level decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S W; Li, Y P; Xu, L P

    2018-07-01

    A bi-level fuzzy programming (BFLP) method was developed for energy systems planning (ESP) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) mitigation under uncertainty. BFLP could handle fuzzy information and leader-follower problem in decision-making processes. It could also address the tradeoffs among different decision makers in two decision-making levels through prioritizing the most important goal. Then, a BFLP-ESP model was formulated for planning energy system of Beijing, in which the upper-level objective is to minimize CO 2 emission and the lower-level objective is to minimize the system cost. Results provided a range of decision alternatives that corresponded to a tradeoff between system optimality and reliability under uncertainty. Compared to the single-level model with a target to minimize system cost, the amounts of pollutant/CO 2 emissions from BFLP-ESP were reduced since the study system would prefer more clean energies (i.e. natural gas, LPG and electricity) to replace coal fuel. Decision alternatives from BFLP were more beneficial for supporting Beijing to adjust its energy mix and enact its emission-abatement policy. Results also revealed that the low-carbon policy for power plants (e.g., shutting down all coal-fired power plants) could lead to a potentially increment of imported energy for Beijing, which would increase the risk of energy shortage. The findings could help decision makers analyze the interactions between different stakeholders in ESP and provide useful information for policy design under uncertainty. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Incorporating Medium-Range Weather Forecasts in Seasonal Crop Scenarios over the Greater Horn of Africa to Support National/Regional/Local Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S.; Husak, G. J.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The USAID's Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) provides seasonal assessments of crop conditions over the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) and other food insecure regions. These assessments and current livelihood, nutrition, market conditions and conflicts are used to generate food security scenarios that help national, regional and local decision makers target their resources and mitigate socio-economic losses. Among the various tools that FEWS NET uses is the FAO's Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI). The WRSI is a simple yet powerful crop assessment model that incorporates current moisture conditions (at the time of the issuance of forecast), precipitation scenarios, potential evapotranspiration and crop parameters to categorize crop conditions into different classes ranging from "failure" to "very good". The WRSI tool has been shown to have a good agreement with local crop yields in the GHA region. At present, the precipitation scenarios used to drive the WRSI are based on either a climatological forecast (that assigns equal chances of occurrence to all possible scenarios and has no skill over the forecast period) or a sea-surface temperature anomaly based scenario (which at best have skill at the seasonal scale). In both cases, the scenarios fail to capture the skill that can be attained by initial atmospheric conditions (i.e., medium-range weather forecasts). During the middle of a cropping season, when a week or two of poor rains can have a devastating effect, two weeks worth of skillful precipitation forecasts could improve the skill of the crop scenarios. With this working hypothesis, we examine the value of incorporating medium-range weather forecasts in improving the skill of crop scenarios in the GHA region. We use the NCEP's Global Ensemble Forecast system (GEFS) weather forecasts and examine the skill of crop scenarios generated using the GEFS weather forecasts with respect to the scenarios based solely on the climatological forecast

  18. Including values in evidence-based policy making for breast screening: An empirically grounded tool to assist expert decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    Values are an important part of evidence-based decision making for health policy: they guide the type of evidence that is collected, how it is interpreted, and how important the conclusions are considered to be. Experts in breast screening (including clinicians, researchers, consumer advocates and senior administrators) hold differing values in relation to what is important in breast screening policy and practice, and committees may find it difficult to incorporate the complexity and variety of values into policy decisions. The decision making tool provided here is intended to assist with this process. The tool is modified from more general frameworks that are intended to assist with ethical decision making in public health, and informed by data drawn from previous empirical studies on values amongst Australian breast screening experts. It provides a structured format for breast screening committees to consider and discuss the values of themselves and others, suggests relevant topics for further inquiry and highlights areas of need for future research into the values of the public. It enables committees to publicly explain and justify their decisions with reference to values, improving transparency and accountability. It is intended to act alongside practices that seek to accommodate the values of individual women in the informed decision making process for personal decision making about participation in breast screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Price-Maker Wind Power Producer Participating in a Joint Day-Ahead and Real-Time Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Papakonstantinou, Athanasios; Ordoudis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    The large scale integration of stochastic renewable energy introduces significant challenges for power system operators and disputes the efficiency of the current market design. Recent research embeds the uncertain nature of renewable sources by modelling electricity markets as a two...... Constraints (MPEC) that is reformulated as a single-level Mixed-Integer Linear Program (MILP), which can be readily solved. Our analysis shows that adopting strategic behaviour may improve producer’s expected profit as the share of wind power increases. However, this incentive diminishes in power systems...... where available flexible capacity is high enough to ensure an efficient market operation....

  20. Use of a knowledge synthesis by decision makers and planners to facilitate system level integration in a large Canadian provincial health authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Suter

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study is an examination of how a knowledge synthesis, conducted to fill an information gap identified by decision makers and planners responsible for integrating health systems in a western Canadian health authority, is being used within that organisation. Methods: Purposive sampling and snowball technique were used to identify 13 participants who were interviewed about how they are using the knowledge synthesis for health services planning and decision-making. Results: The knowledge synthesis is used by those involved in the strategic direction of the provincial healthcare organisation and those tasked with the operationalization of integration at the provincial or local level. Both groups most frequently use the ten key principles for integration, followed by the sections on integration processes, strategies and models. The key principles facilitate discussion on priority areas to be considered and provide a reference point for a desired future state. Perceived information gaps relate to a lack of detail on "how to" strategies, tools and processes that would lead to successful integration. Discussion and conclusion: The current project demonstrates that decision makers and planners will effectively use a knowledge synthesis if it is timely, relevant and accessible. The information can be applied at strategic and operations levels. Attention needs to be paid to include more information on implementation strategies and processes. Including knowledge users in identifying research questions will increase information uptake.

  1. Comparing the sustainability impacts of solar thermal and natural gas combined cycle for electricity production in Mexico: Accounting for decision makers' priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Serrano, Irene; Caldés, Natalia; Oltra, Christian; Sala, Roser

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to conduct a comprehensive sustainability assessment of the electricity generation with two alternative electricity generation technologies by estimating its economic, environmental and social impacts through the "Framework for Integrated Sustainability Assessment" (FISA). Based on a Multiregional Input Output (MRIO) model linked to a social risk database (Social Hotspot Database), the framework accounts for up to fifteen impacts across the three sustainability pillars along the supply chain of the electricity production from Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) and Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) technologies in Mexico. Except for value creation, results show larger negative impacts for NGCC, particularly in the environmental pillar. Next, these impacts are transformed into "Aggregated Sustainability Endpoints" (ASE points) as a way to support the decision making in selecting the best sustainable project. ASE points obtained are later compared to the resulting points weighted by the reported priorities of Mexican decision makers in the energy sector obtained from a questionnaire survey. The comparison shows that NGCC achieves a 1.94 times worse negative score than STE, but after incorporating decision makerś priorities, the ratio increases to 2.06 due to the relevance given to environmental impacts such as photochemical oxidants formation and climate change potential, as well as social risks like human rights risks.

  2. Use of a knowledge synthesis by decision makers and planners to facilitate system level integration in a large Canadian provincial health authority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Suter

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The study is an examination of how a knowledge synthesis, conducted to fill an information gap identified by decision makers and planners responsible for integrating health systems in a western Canadian health authority, is being used within that organisation.Methods: Purposive sampling and snowball technique were used to identify 13 participants who were interviewed about how they are using the knowledge synthesis for health services planning and decision-making.Results: The knowledge synthesis is used by those involved in the strategic direction of the provincial healthcare organisation and those tasked with the operationalization of integration at the provincial or local level. Both groups most frequently use the ten key principles for integration, followed by the sections on integration processes, strategies and models. The key principles facilitate discussion on priority areas to be considered and provide a reference point for a desired future state. Perceived information gaps relate to a lack of detail on "how to" strategies, tools and processes that would lead to successful integration.Discussion and conclusion: The current project demonstrates that decision makers and planners will effectively use a knowledge synthesis if it is timely, relevant and accessible. The information can be applied at strategic and operations levels. Attention needs to be paid to include more information on implementation strategies and processes. Including knowledge users in identifying research questions will increase information uptake.

  3. Dynamic Decision Making in Agricultural Futures and Options Markets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattos, F.; Garcia, P.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of sequential decision-making in agricultural futures and options markets. Analysis of trading records of 12 traders identified considerable heterogeneity in individual dynamic trading behavior. Using risk measures derived from the deltas and vegas of traderâ¿¿s

  4. The potential of green power trading. The key forum for business and policy makers in a growing market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report summarises the information presented at the European Conference on Green Power Marketing held in 2004 in Lausanne, Switzerland. It takes a look at the market chances of ecologically produced electricity for use in Switzerland and for export. The opinions of experts from the areas of business, science, politics and marketing that were presented at the meeting are summarised. Future power shortages are discussed and the development of electricity consumption and production are examined. Foreseeable discrepancies between consumption and production that will lead to increases in the price for power are discussed, as is the carbon dioxide emissions question. The European Union's power source declaration directive is examined and the effects it could have on the demand for ecologically produced electricity are discussed. Labelling systems for green power and mechanisms for their validation are also discussed

  5. Development of An Analytic Approach to Determine How Environmental Protection Agency’s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Is Used by Non-EPA Decision Makers (Final Contractor Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the availability of the final contractor report entitled, Development of an Analytic Approach to Determine How Environmental Protection Agency’s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Is Used By Non EPA Decision Makers. This contractor report analyzed how ...

  6. District Decision-Makers' Considerations of Equity and Equality Related to Students' Opportunities to Learn Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth A.; Keazer, Lindsay; Traynor, Anne

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: In this article we explore equity issues related to school district decision-making about students' opportunities to learn algebra. We chose algebra because of the important role it plays in the U.S. as a gatekeeper to future academic success. Current research has not yet explored issues of equity in district-level…

  7. To notify or not to notify : Decision aid for policy makers on whether to make an infectious disease mandatorily notifiable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijkerk, Paul; Fanoy, E. B.; Kardamanidis, K.; van der Plas, S. M.; te Wierik, M. J.; Kretzschmar, M. E.; Haringhuizen, G. B.; van Vliet, H. J.; van der Sande, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Mandatory notification can be a useful tool to support infectious disease prevention and control. Guidelines are needed to help policymakers decide whether mandatory notification of an infectious disease is appropriate. We developed a decision aid, based on a range of criteria previously used in the

  8. The Labour Market Relevance of PhDs: An Issue for Academic Research and Policy-Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    In the difficult current socio-economic context, overqualified graduates are increasingly facing challenges in terms of entering the job market and finding jobs which fit their levels of qualifications and satisfaction. Grounded in an auto-ethnography approach, this paper reflects on the challenges that the author (a young female European PhD…

  9. The Myth of the Rational Decision Maker: A Framework for Applying and Enhancing Heuristic and Intuitive Decision Making by School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephen H.

    2004-01-01

    This article takes a critical look at administrative decision making in schools and the extent to which complex decisions conform to normative models and common expectations of rationality. An alternative framework for administrative decision making is presented that is informed, but not driven, by theories of rationality. The framework assumes…

  10. Knowledge Translation to Advance the Nurse Practitioner Role in British Columbia: Researchers and decision-makers conduct policy-relevant research to guide legislative and regulatory development and the design of a nurse practitioner education program.

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, Marjorie; Regan, Sandra; Davidson, Heather; Schreiber, Rita; Crickmore, Jane; Moss, Lesley; Pinelli, Janet; Pauly, Bernadette

    2006-01-01

    This project brought together a team of researchers and decision-makers to conduct policy-relevant research to support the introduction of advanced nursing practice roles in British Columbia. All team members, including decision-makers, were actively involved in the conceptualization, design, data collection, analysis and interpretation of the study. This level of engagement, coupled with ongoing knowledge translation (KT) activities, led to the implementation by stakeholders of a majority of...

  11. A Perspective on Consumers 3.0: They Are Not Better Decision-Makers Than Previous Generations

    OpenAIRE

    Petr eHoudek; Petr eHoudek; Petr eHoudek

    2016-01-01

    This perspective article builds upon the theory of local thinking in interpretation and prediction of consumer behavior in a contemporary world of information overload. It is shown that even informed and socially and environmentally responsible consumers (consumers 3.0) exhibit selective recall, limited attention and bounded search in the perception and interpretation of price and quality of purchases. Their decisions fall into local cognitive frames, which specifically focus attention only o...

  12. A Perspective on Consumers 3.0: They Are Not Better Decision-Makers than Previous Generations

    OpenAIRE

    Houdek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    This perspective article builds upon the theory of local thinking in interpretation and prediction of consumer behavior in a contemporary world of information overload. It is shown that even informed and socially and environmentally responsible consumers (consumers 3.0) exhibit selective recall, limited attention, and bounded search in the perception and interpretation of price and quality of purchases. Their decisions fall into local cognitive frames, which specifically focus attention only ...

  13. Characteristics and use of urban health indicator tools by municipal built environment policy and decision-makers: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineo, Helen; Glonti, Ketevan; Rutter, Harry; Zimmermann, Nicole; Wilkinson, Paul; Davies, Michael

    2017-01-13

    There is wide agreement that there is a lack of attention to health in municipal environmental policy-making, such as urban planning and regeneration. Explanations for this include differing professional norms between health and urban environment professionals, system complexity and limited evidence for causality between attributes of the built environment and health outcomes. Data from urban health indicator (UHI) tools are potentially a valuable form of evidence for local government policy and decision-makers. Although many UHI tools have been specifically developed to inform policy, there is poor understanding of how they are used. This study aims to identify the nature and characteristics of UHI tools and their use by municipal built environment policy and decision-makers. Health and social sciences databases (ASSIA, Campbell Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Scopus, Social Policy and Practice and Web of Science Core Collection) will be searched for studies using UHI tools alongside hand-searching of key journals and citation searches of included studies. Advanced searches of practitioner websites and Google will also be used to find grey literature. Search results will be screened for UHI tools, and for studies which report on or evaluate the use of such tools. Data about UHI tools will be extracted to compile a census and taxonomy of existing tools based on their specific characteristics and purpose. In addition, qualitative and quantitative studies about the use of these tools will be appraised using quality appraisal tools produced by the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and synthesised in order to gain insight into the perceptions, value and use of UHI tools in the municipal built environment policy and decision-making process. This review is not registered with PROSPERO. This systematic review focuses specifically on UHI tools that assess the physical environment's impact on health (such as transport, housing, air quality and greenspace

  14. Getting Decision Makers to the Table: Digestible Facts, a Few Good Friends and Sharing Recipes for Solutions to Climate Change Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudrias, M. A.; Estrada, M.; Gershunov, A.; Silva-Send, N. J.; Young, E.

    2014-12-01

    Decision makers and community leaders are key audiences to engage in our efforts to improve climate literacy. Climate Education Partners has been working with business leaders, elected officials, tribal leaders, and other Key Influentials in the San Diego Region to enhance the channels of communication outside traditional settings. Over the past year we have interviewed over 90 Key Influential San Diego leaders asking them about their knowledge of climate change and their personal and professional efforts to adapt to and/or mitigate the impacts of climate change. We also engaged them directly in the creation of an innovative educational resource called "San Diego, 2050 is Calling. How will we answer?" Results of the interviews indicate that 90% of these leaders are concerned about climate change, more than 50% are already doing something about the impacts, and the majority of them want more information, greater dialogue and examples of actions taken by other community leaders. We found that repeated engagement of leaders at the San Diego County Water Authority went from basic collaboration in our water tours, to greater participation of their top leaders in a water tour for top decision makers from the City of San Diego, finally culminating with full support of and participation in the 2050 report. The 2050 report represents an integrated approach blending local climate change science, social science education theory and presentation of a suite of solution-driven opportunities for local leaders. The report includes science infographics that illustrate rigorous scientific facts, statements from expert scientists and direct quotes from decision makers, and examples of successful climate change adaptation actions from companies, government groups and others. The video and photography sessions for the 2050 report led to many unexpected discussion among leaders with differing opinions on climate change, greater enthusiasm to participate in outreach activities with other

  15. The DEVELOP National Program: Building Dual Capacity in Decision Makers and Young Professionals Through NASA Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, L. M.; Rogers, L.; Favors, J.; Ruiz, M.

    2012-12-01

    Through the years, NASA has played a distinct/important/vital role in advancing Earth System Science to meet the challenges of environmental management and policy decision making. Within NASA's Earth Science Division's Applied Sciences' Program, the DEVELOP National Program seeks to extend NASA Earth Science for societal benefit. DEVELOP is a capacity building program providing young professionals and students the opportunity to utilize NASA Earth observations and model output to demonstrate practical applications of those resources to society. Under the guidance of science advisors, DEVELOP teams work in alignment with local, regional, national and international partner organizations to identify the widest array of practical uses for NASA data to enhance related management decisions. The program's structure facilitates a two-fold approach to capacity building by fostering an environment of scientific and professional development opportunities for young professionals and students, while also providing end-user organizations enhanced management and decision making tools for issues impacting their communities. With the competitive nature and growing societal role of science and technology in today's global workplace, DEVELOP is building capacity in the next generation of scientists and leaders by fostering a learning and growing environment where young professionals possess an increased understanding of teamwork, personal development, and scientific/professional development and NASA's Earth Observation System. DEVELOP young professionals are partnered with end user organizations to conduct 10 week feasibility studies that demonstrate the use of NASA Earth science data for enhanced decision making. As a result of the partnership, end user organizations are introduced to NASA Earth Science technologies and capabilities, new methods to augment current practices, hands-on training with practical applications of remote sensing and NASA Earth science, improved remote

  16. A decision support tool for the analysis of pricing, investment and regulatory processes in a decentralized electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasaoglu Kilanc, Guzay; Or, Ilhan

    2008-01-01

    After the liberalization of the electricity generation industry, capacity expansion decisions are made by multiple self-oriented power companies. Unlike the centralized environment, decision-making of market participants is now guided by price signal feedbacks and by an imperfect foresight of the future market conditions (and competitor actions) that they will face. In such an environment, decision makers need to better understand long-term dynamics of the supply and demand sides of the power market. In this study, a system dynamics model is developed, to better understand and analyze the decentralized and competitive electricity market dynamics in the long run. The developed simulation model oversees a 20-year planning horizon; it includes a demand module, a capacity expansion module, a power generation module, an accounting and finance module, various competitors, a regulatory body and a bidding mechanism. Many features, singularities and tools of decentralized markets, such as; capacity withholding, enforced divestment, long-term contracts, price-elastic demands, incentives/disincentives, are also incorporated into the model. Public regulators and power companies are potential users of the model, for learning and decision support in policy design and strategic planning. Results of scenario analysis are presented to illustrate potential use of the model

  17. Risk communication and trust in decision-maker action: a case study of the Giant Mine Remediation Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia G. Jardine

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. The development and implementation of a remediation plan for the residual arsenic trioxide stored at the former Giant Mine site in the Canadian Northwest Territories has raised important issues related to trust. Social and individual trust of those responsible for making decisions on risks is critically important in community judgements on risk and the acceptability of risk management decisions. Trust is known to be affected by value similarity and confidence in past performance, which serve as interacting sources of cooperation in acting toward a common goal. Objective. To explore the elements of trust associated with the development and implementation of the Giant Mine Remediation Plan. Design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight purposively selected key informants representing both various interested and affected parties and the two government proponents. Results. Five primary issues related to trust were identified by the participants: (1 a historical legacy of mistrust between the community (particularly Aboriginal peoples and government; (2 barriers to building trust with the federal government; (3 limited community input and control over the decision-making process; (4 the conflicted and confounded role of the government agencies being both proponent and regulator, and the resulting need for independent oversight; and (5 distrust of the government to commit to the perpetual care required for the remediation option selected. Conclusions. The dual-mode model of trust and confidence was shown to be a useful framework for understanding the pivotal role of trust in the development of the Giant Mine Remediation Plan. Failure to recognize issues of trust based on value dissimilarity and lack of confidence based on past performance have resulted in a lack of cooperation characterized by delayed remediation and a prolonged and expensive consultation process. Government recognition of the importance of trust to these

  18. Consumer decision making in the individual health insurance market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, M Susan; Buntin, Melinda Beeuwkes; Escarce, José J; Kapur, Kanika; Louis, Thomas A; Yegian, Jill M

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results from a study of consumer decision making in California's individual health insurance market. We conclude that price subsidies will have only modest effects on participation and that efforts to reduce nonprice barriers might be just as effective. We also find that there is substantial pooling in the individual market and that it increases over time because people who become sick can continue coverage without new underwriting. Finally, we show that people prefer more-generous benefits and that it is difficult to induce people in poor health to enroll in high-deductible health plans.

  19. Effects of computerized clinical decision support systems on practitioner performance and patient outcomes: Methods of a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Wilczynski Nancy L; Haynes R Brian

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Computerized clinical decision support systems are information technology-based systems designed to improve clinical decision-making. As with any healthcare intervention with claims to improve process of care or patient outcomes, decision support systems should be rigorously evaluated before widespread dissemination into clinical practice. Engaging healthcare providers and managers in the review process may facilitate knowledge translation and uptake. The objective of this...

  20. A Perspective on Consumers 3.0: They Are Not Better Decision-Makers than Previous Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    This perspective article builds upon the theory of local thinking in interpretation and prediction of consumer behavior in a contemporary world of information overload. It is shown that even informed and socially and environmentally responsible consumers (consumers 3.0) exhibit selective recall, limited attention, and bounded search in the perception and interpretation of price and quality of purchases. Their decisions fall into local cognitive frames, which specifically focus attention only on a narrow structure and content of the choice. The cognitive frames can be established by recent or regular purchases, but also extreme or primary purchase experiences. The article includes a short conceptual review of car, food, clothing, insurance, drugs, paintings, and other product purchases showing that the local cognitive frames often lead to bad bargains across various sectors. The article presents several suggestions for future research.

  1. Biodosimetry: Medicine, Science, and Systems to Support the Medical Decision-Maker Following a Large Scale Nuclear or Radiation Incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C. Norman; Koerner, John F.

    2016-01-01

    The public health and medical response to a radiological or nuclear incident requires the capability to sort, assess, treat, triage and to ultimately discharge, refer or transport people to their next step in medical care. The size of the incident and scarcity of resources at the location of each medical decision point will determine how patients are triaged and treated. This will be a rapidly evolving situation impacting medical responders at regional, national and international levels. As capabilities, diagnostics and medical countermeasures improve, a dynamic system-based approach is needed to plan for and manage the incident, and to adapt effectively in real time. In that the concepts and terms can be unfamiliar and possibly confusing, resources and a concept of operations must be considered well in advance. An essential underlying tenet is that medical evaluation and care will be managed by health-care professionals with biodosimetry assays providing critical supporting data. (authors)

  2. A Perspective on Consumers 3.0: They Are Not Better Decision-Makers than Previous Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houdek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    This perspective article builds upon the theory of local thinking in interpretation and prediction of consumer behavior in a contemporary world of information overload. It is shown that even informed and socially and environmentally responsible consumers (consumers 3.0) exhibit selective recall, limited attention, and bounded search in the perception and interpretation of price and quality of purchases. Their decisions fall into local cognitive frames, which specifically focus attention only on a narrow structure and content of the choice. The cognitive frames can be established by recent or regular purchases, but also extreme or primary purchase experiences. The article includes a short conceptual review of car, food, clothing, insurance, drugs, paintings, and other product purchases showing that the local cognitive frames often lead to bad bargains across various sectors. The article presents several suggestions for future research. PMID:27375527

  3. A Perspective on Consumers 3.0: They Are Not Better Decision-Makers Than Previous Generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr eHoudek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This perspective article builds upon the theory of local thinking in interpretation and prediction of consumer behavior in a contemporary world of information overload. It is shown that even informed and socially and environmentally responsible consumers (consumers 3.0 exhibit selective recall, limited attention and bounded search in the perception and interpretation of price and quality of purchases. Their decisions fall into local cognitive frames, which specifically focus attention only on a narrow structure and content of the choice. The cognitive frames can be established by recent or regular purchases, but also extreme or primary purchase experiences. The article includes a short conceptual review of car, food, clothing, insurance, drugs, paintings and other product purchases showing that the local cognitive frames often lead to bad bargains across various sectors. The article presents several suggestions for future research.

  4. How seasonal forecast could help a decision maker: an example of climate service for water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, Christian; Beaulant, Anne-Lise; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel; Céron, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The FP7 project EUPORIAS was a great opportunity for the climate community to co-design with stakeholders some original and innovative climate services at seasonal time scales. In this framework, Météo-France proposed a prototype that aimed to provide to water resource managers some tailored information to better anticipate the coming season. It is based on a forecasting system, built on a refined hydrological suite, forced by a coupled seasonal forecast model. It particularly delivers probabilistic river flow prediction on river basins all over the French territory. This paper presents the work we have done with "EPTB Seine Grands Lacs" (EPTB SGL), an institutional stakeholder in charge of the management of 4 great reservoirs on the upper Seine Basin. First, we present the co-design phase, which means the translation of classical climate outputs into several indices, relevant to influence the stakeholder's decision making process (DMP). And second, we detail the evaluation of the impact of the forecast on the DMP. This evaluation is based on an experiment realised in collaboration with the stakeholder. Concretely EPTB SGL has replayed some past decisions, in three different contexts: without any forecast, with a forecast A and with a forecast B. One of forecast A and B really contained seasonal forecast, the other only contained random forecasts taken from past climate. This placebo experiment, realised in a blind test, allowed us to calculate promising skill scores of the DMP based on seasonal forecast in comparison to a classical approach based on climatology, and to EPTG SGL current practice.

  5. The Heat Is On: Decision-Maker Perspectives on When and How to Issue a Heat Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, M.; Sampson, N.; McCormick, S.; Rood, R. B.; Buxton, M.; Ebi, K. L.; Gronlund, C. J.; Zhang, K.; Catalano, L.; White-Newsome, J. L.; Conlon, K. C.; Parker, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    To better understand how to prevent illness and deaths during hot weather, particularly among at-risk populations, we conducted a study in Detroit, Michigan; Phoenix, Arizona; New York, New York, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Our aims were to characterize and better understand how heatwave and health early warning systems (HHWS) and related prevention and sustainability programs can be more widely and effectively implemented. Specifically, we here report on the scientific evidence, expert judgments and the process used in deciding to trigger a HHWS and activate public health and social services interventions. We conducted interviews with public officials who decide if and when heat advisories/warnings are issued. After transcribing the interviews, we used a qualitative analysis software, QSR NVivo 9.0, to assign codes to portions of text from each transcript and allow analysis of information with common themes across the data. For example, several sentences in a transcript discussing a heat index might be coded as 'definition of heat wave'. A common theme across cities was that deciding what type of weather is dangerous to health is not straightforward. The time in season that heat occurs; the duration of the heat; the level of humidity and other meteorological factors; the extent to which temperatures drop at night, allowing people to cool off; and prevailing weather conditions all play a role. A single 'safe' threshold is unrealistic because people's individual sensitivity, housing, surrounding environments, behaviors, and access to air conditioning can differ greatly. However, choices must be made as to the trigger for the HHWS. Although quantitative analysis with health data (mortality, hospital admissions) can inform the design of the triggers, historical analysis has limitations, and decisions to issue heat warnings are sometimes related to planned activities, such as parades or fairs, that may expose large numbers of people to heat. The HHWS approach

  6. I-tese newsletter No. 22 - Summer 2014. Quarterly newsletter of the Institute of Technique-Economics of Energetic Systems for scientists, managers, supervisors and decision-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behar, Christophe; Bigot, Bernard; Cany, Camille; De Jouvenel, Hugues; Devezeaux, Jean-Guy; Duquesnoy, Thierry; Mansilla, Christine; Monnet, Antoine; Plassat, Gabriel; Popiolek, Nathalie; Saab, Assaad; Sido, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    This publication first proposes texts of interventions in a meeting on the contribution of prospective approaches to energetic decision. The contributors discuss the perspective for a society without fossil energies, the future of nuclear energy in the 21. century, the issue of energy prospective, the prospective approach, the role of prospective as a support to decision making, and prospective applied to car and mobility. Two articles report the content of two round tables. The first one addressed the methods and results of energy prospective, and the second discussed whether the prospective approach answers the expectations of decision-makers. An article comments the content of a report by the French Court of Auditors (Cour des Comptes) on the production cost of nuclear energy which notably discusses how this production cost is assessed, highlights the maintenance costs and discusses the issue of extension of the exploitation duration beyond 40 years, the perspective of evolution of the production cost during the extension period, and the sensitivity to the evolutions of future expenses

  7. The Impact of Marketing Advisory Service Recommendations on Producers' Marketing Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Isengildina, O.; Irwin, S.H.; Good, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract To date, there is only fragmented and anecdotal information about the impact of the recommendations of market advisory services (MAS) on producers¿ decision-making. A conceptual framework is developed in which, among others, producers¿ risk attitudes and risk perceptions; producers¿

  8. The Impact of Market Advisory Service Recommendation on Producers' Marketing Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Isengildina, O.; Irwin, S.; Good, D.

    2004-01-01

    A conceptual framework was developed that provides insight into the factors affecting the impact of these recommendations on producer pricing decisions. Data from 656 U.S. producers reveal that the perceived performance of the Market Advisory Services (MAS), the way in which MAS recommendations are

  9. The cost of diabetes in Latin America and the Caribbean in 2015: Evidence for decision and policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelo, Alberto; Arredondo, Armando; Gordillo-Tobar, Amparo; Segovia, Johanna; Qiang, Anthony

    2017-12-01

    . Diabetes represented a major economic burden to the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean in 2015. The estimates presented here are key information for decision-making that can be used in the formulation of policies and programs to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness in the use of resources for diabetes prevention in the 29 countries of LAC.

  10. Developmental changes in decision making under risk: The role of executive functions and reasoning abilities in 8- to 19-year-old decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebener, Johannes; García-Arias, María; García-Villamisar, Domingo; Cabanyes-Truffino, Javier; Brand, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that children and adolescents often tend toward risky decisions despite explicit knowledge about the potential negative consequences. This phenomenon has been suggested to be associated with the immaturity of brain areas involved in cognitive control functions. Particularly, "frontal lobe functions," such as executive functions and reasoning, mature until young adulthood and are thought to be involved in age-related changes in decision making under explicit risk conditions. We investigated 112 participants, aged 8-19 years, with a frequently used task assessing decisions under risk, the Game of Dice Task (GDT). Additionally, we administered the Modified Card Sorting Test assessing executive functioning (categorization, cognitive flexibility, and strategy maintenance) as well as the Ravens Progressive Matrices assessing reasoning. The results showed that risk taking in the GDT decreased with increasing age and this effect was not moderated by reasoning but by executive functions: Particularly, young persons with weak executive functioning showed very risky decision making. Thus, the individual maturation of executive functions, associated with areas in the prefrontal cortex, seems to be an important factor in young peoples' behavior in risky decision-making situations.

  11. The Statistical Value Chain - a Benchmarking Checklist for Decision Makers to Evaluate Decision Support Seen from a Statistical Point-Of-View

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Henningsen, Geraldine; Wood, Christian D.

    2013-01-01

    quantitative methods exist for evaluating uncertainty—for example, Monte Carlo simulation—and such methods work very well when the AN is in full control of the data collection and model-building processes. In many cases, however, the AN is not in control of these processes. In this article we develop a simple...... method that a DM can employ in order to evaluate the process of decision support from a statistical point-of-view. We call this approach the “Statistical Value Chain” (SVC): a consecutive benchmarking checklist with eight steps that can be used to evaluate decision support seen from a statistical point-of-view....

  12. The True Cost of Electric Power. An Inventory of Methodologies to Support Future Decision-making in Comparing the Cost and Competitiveness of Electricity Generation Technologies. Summary for policy-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtraw, Dallas; Krupnick, Alan

    2012-06-01

    investments are directed at the electricity generation methods with the lowest true costs to investors and society. The aim of the report is to provide the background for policy-makers and investors who want to incorporate the concept of 'true costs' into the discussion of electricity generation. In some geographic areas, adequate data and methods exist to make a solid estimate of the total social costs of energy production. In those places where the data or methods (or both) are less robust, it is possible to use a benefits transfer approach that still gives stakeholders important guidance about the scale of the true costs of their investments and to get started in formulating policies to incorporate those costs into the market price. Whatever the state of the data and methods, the process of the analysis and stakeholder discussion can be just as important as the final results in providing guidance to decision-makers. Consideration of the true costs should be a component of decision-making for all energy investment worldwide. (authors)

  13. [Requirements for and expectations of health technology assessment in Galicia (Spain). A qualitative study from the perspective of decision-makers and clinicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Lema, Leonor; Merino, Gerardo Atienza; García, Marisa López; Martínez, María Vidal; Triana, Elena Gervas; Mota, Teresa Cerdá

    2011-01-01

    To explore perceptions of the use of health technology assessment (HTA) in the Galician public health system, identify opinions on the usefulness of the products and services developed by the Galician Health Technology Assessment Agency (avalia-t), and determine the barriers and facilitators to the transfer of results to clinical practice. We performed a qualitative study based on in-depth semi-structured interviews of 20 intentionally selected experts (10 health care professionals and 10 hospital decision makers). The interviews were tape recorded and transcribed for inductive thematic analysis. Interest in HTA activities was high, but most informants considered these activities to be underused as a tool to aid decision making in clinical practice. A series of key factors was identified to guarantee HTA use: greater dissemination of HTA activities and availability of the results, increased involvement and communication among health care professionals in the selection and prioritization of relevant research, contextualization and adaptation of results to the local context, increased organizational support and greater financial resources. The present study allows end-userś opinions on the utility of the various products/services offered by HTA agencies to be contrasted in order to adapt HTA activity to their needs and requirements. The involvement of health care professionals in all HTA fields is perceived as one of the main lines of action for HTA agencies. Such involvement could be achieved by reinforcing personal contact and increasing feedback to collaborators. Copyright © 2010 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Is there a role for physician involvement in introducing research to surrogate decision makers in the intensive care unit? (The Approach trial: a pilot mixed methods study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, K E A; Rizvi, L; Smith, O M; Lee, Y; Lee, J; Wang, M; Brown, M; Parker, M; Premji, A; Leung, D; Hammond Mobilio, M; Gotlib-Conn, L; Nisenbaum, R; Santos, M; Li, Y; Mehta, S

    2015-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of conducting a randomized trial comparing two strategies [physician (MD) vs. non-physician (non-MD)] for approaching substitute decision makers (SDMs) for research and to evaluate SDMs' experiences in being approached for consent. A pilot mixed methods study of first encounters with SDMs. Of 137 SDMs (162 eligibility events), 67 and 70 were randomized to MD and non-MD introductions, respectively. Eighty SDMs (98 events) provided consent and 21 SDMs (24 events) declined consent for studies, including 2 SDMs who provided and declined consent. We identified few missed introductions [4/52 (7.7 %)] and protocol violations [6/117 (5.1 %)], high comfort, satisfaction and acceptance scores and similar consent rates in both arms. SDMs provided consent significantly more often when a patient update was provided in the MD arm. Most SDMs (85.7 %) felt that physician involvement was inconsequential and preferred physician time to be dedicated to patient care; however, SDM experiences were closely related to their recall of being approached and recall was poor. SDMs highlighted 7 themes of importance to them in research surrogate decision-making. SDMs prioritized the personal attributes of the person approaching them over professional designation and preferred physician time to be dedicated to patient care. A mixed methods design evaluated intervention fidelity and provided the rationale for not proceeding to a larger trial, despite achieving all feasibility metrics in the pilot trial. NCT01232621.

  15. Farmers’ export market participation decisions in transition economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bobojonov, Ihtiyor; Teuber, Ramona; Hasanov, Shavkat

    2016-01-01

    The Russian import ban on Western food products has stimulated a discussion about whether and how countries in Central Asia and Caucasus might benefit from this political decision by expanding their agrifood exports to Russia. Given this background, our study compares farmers’ willingness...... to participate in export markets in Armenia and Uzbekistan. Discussions are based on the analysis of surveys of 400 farmers from each country conducted in the spring of 2015. The results show that farmers already participating in local markets have a higher motivation to engage in the production of exportable...... commodities when a sudden export opportunity emerges. Beyond this general finding, the relative importance of farm and infrastructure characteristics were identified under different commercialization levels. Although both types of factors have been identified as important determinants in the existing...

  16. Risk analysis for CHP decision making within the conditions of an open electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mansour, Fouad; Kozuh, Mitja

    2007-01-01

    Decision making under uncertainty is a difficult task in most areas. Investment decisions for combined heat and power production (CHP) are certainly one of the areas where it is difficult to find an optimal solution since the payback period is several years and parameters change due to different perturbing factors of economic and mostly political nature. CHP is one of the most effective measures for saving primary energy and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The implementation of EU directives on the promotion of cogeneration based on useful heat demand in the internal energy market will accelerate CHP installation. The expected number of small CHP installations will be very high in the near future. A quick, reliable and simple tool for economic evaluation of small CHP systems is required. Since evaluation is normally made by sophisticated economic computer models which are rather expensive, a simple point estimate economic model was developed which was later upgraded by risk methodology to give more informative results for better decision making. This paper presents a reliable computer model entitled 'Computer program for economic evaluation analysis of CHP' as a tool for analysis and economic evaluation of small CHP systems with the aim of helping the decision maker. The paper describes two methods for calculation of the sensitivity of the economic results to changes of input parameters and the uncertainty of the results: the classic/static method and the risk method. The computer program uses risk methodology by applying RISK software on an existing conventional economic model. The use of risk methodology for economic evaluation can improve decisions by incorporating all possible information (knowledge), which cannot be done in the conventional economic model due to its limitations. The methodology was tested on the case of a CHP used in a smaller hospital

  17. Effectively marketing prepaid medical care with decision support systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgionne, G A

    1991-01-01

    The paper reports a decision support system (DSS) that enables health plan administrators to quickly and easily: (1) manage relevant medical care market (consumer preference and competitors' program) information and (2) convert the information into appropriate medical care delivery and/or payment policies. As the paper demonstrates, the DSS enables providers to design cost efficient and market effective medical care programs. The DSS provides knowledge about subscriber preferences, customer desires, and the program offerings of the competition. It then helps administrators structure a medical care plan in a way that best meets consumer needs in view of the competition. This market effective plan has the potential to generate substantial amounts of additional revenue for the program. Since the system's data base consists mainly of the provider's records, routine transactions, and other readily available documents, the DSS can be implemented at a nominal incremental cost. The paper also evaluates the impact of the information system on the general financial performance of existing dental and mental health plans. In addition, the paper examines how the system can help contain the cost of providing medical care while providing better services to more potential beneficiaries than current approaches.

  18. Kids Market and Children Effects on Family Decisions: The Case of Marmaris

    OpenAIRE

    KARADAĞ, Levent

    2011-01-01

    Papers about family decision making process based on some teories like all members of family participate to decision, only parents participate to decision or one of parents dominated to decision. However at the present the children have effected family consumption decision. Nonetheless companies perceive the children as a new market and they have increased new marketing and selling strategies. The purpose of this paper is children effects on family - live in Marmaris and have at least one ki...

  19. Empowering Local Organizations and Decision-makers in a Changing Climate: EO-guided Environmental Surveillance of Cholera and Rotavirus for South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, A. S.; Hasan, M. A.; Jutla, A.; Aziz, S.; Alam, M.; Ahsan, G. U.; Huq, A.; Colwell, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    Despite significant advancements in scientific research, diarrheal diseases remain a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the developing world. Although under-5 child mortality due to such diseases is dropping, prevalence of most diarrheal diseases has increased over past decades, exerting a terrible toll on global public health. Providing safe water and sanitation access, and a safe and clean environment in a sustainable manner remains a critical challenge in the face of rapid population growth, urbanization and increasing threats of natural hazards in a changing climate. We focus on the Bengal Delta region of South Asia, where Cholera and Rotavirus diarrhea continue to have a devastating impact on the public health burden. Climatic change and anthropogenic forcings have greatly affected available water quantity and quality, while the lack of effective institutions and capacity have greatly affected the water-sanitation and public health sectors. The region suffers from recurring dry season freshwater scarcity and temperature extremes, salinity intrusion in coastal areas, inland flooding during monsoons, and resulting water contamination across the delta region. We use earth observation (EO) datasets and techniques to develop a series of tools for surveillance, analysis and decision support to empower government, academic, and non-government stakeholder organizations in South Asia to monitor changes in environmental conditions related to the two most devastating diarrheal diseases, cholera and rotavirus. The developed tools will enable decision makers and stakeholders to significantly increase their understanding of the threats to public health and environmental and climatic conditions related to these diseases, ways to monitor future projections of disease risk, and help identify required policy interventions and strategies to strengthen prevention efforts and limit disease burden in near- (tactical) and long- (strategic) terms.

  20. Pre-assessment to assess the match between cost-effectiveness results and decision makers'information needs: (An Illustration Using Two Cases in Rehabilitation Medicine in The Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Reuzel, Robert P.B.; Severens, Hans L.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine if a pre-assessment can be used to establish whether cost-effectiveness results would meet the actual information needs of Dutch healthcare decision makers. Methods: Two recent studies in rehabilitation medicine served as study material. Based on Wholey, a limited

  1. Climate Change 2013. The Physical Science Basis. Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - Abstract for decision-makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, Thomas F.; Qin, Dahe; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Tignor, Melinda M.B.; Allen, Simon K.; Boschung, Judith; Nauels, Alexander; Xia, Yu; Bex, Vincent; Midgley, Pauline M.; Alexander, Lisa V.; Allen, Simon K.; Bindoff, Nathaniel L.; Breon, Francois-Marie; Church, John A.; Cubasch, Ulrich; Emori, Seita; Forster, Piers; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gillett, Nathan; Gregory, Jonathan M.; Hartmann, Dennis L.; Jansen, Eystein; Kirtman, Ben; Knutti, Reto; Kumar Kanikicharla, Krishna; Lemke, Peter; Marotzke, Jochem; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Meehl, Gerald A.; Mokhov, Igor I.; Piao, Shilong; Plattner, Gian-Kasper; Dahe, Qin; Ramaswamy, Venkatachalam; Randall, David; Rhein, Monika; Rojas, Maisa; Sabine, Christopher; Shindell, Drew; Stocker, Thomas F.; Talley, Lynne D.; Vaughan, David G.; Xie, Shang-Ping; Allen, Myles R.; Boucher, Olivier; Chambers, Don; Hesselbjerg Christensen, Jens; Ciais, Philippe; Clark, Peter U.; Collins, Matthew; Comiso, Josefino C.; Vasconcellos de Menezes, Viviane; Feely, Richard A.; Fichefet, Thierry; Fiore, Arlene M.; Flato, Gregory; Fuglestvedt, Jan; Hegerl, Gabriele; Hezel, Paul J.; Johnson, Gregory C.; Kaser, Georg; Kattsov, Vladimir; Kennedy, John; Klein Tank, Albert M.G.; Le Quere, Corinne; Myhre, Gunnar; Osborn, Timothy; Payne, Antony J.; Perlwitz, Judith; Power, Scott; Prather, Michael; Rintoul, Stephen R.; Rogelj, Joeri; Rusticucci, Matilde; Schulz, Michael; Sedlacek, Jan; Stott, Peter A.; Sutton, Rowan; Thorne, Peter W.; Wuebbles, Donald

    2013-10-01

    The Working Group I contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides a comprehensive assessment of the physical science basis of climate change. It builds upon the Working Group I contribution to the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report in 2007 and incorporates subsequent new findings from the Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation, as well as from research published in the extensive scientific and technical literature. The assessment considers new evidence of past, present and projected future climate change based on many independent scientific analyses from observations of the climate system, paleo-climate archives, theoretical studies of climate processes and simulations using climate models. During the process of scoping and approving the outline of its Fifth Assessment Report, the IPCC focussed on those aspects of the current understanding of the science of climate change that were judged to be most relevant to policy-makers. In this report, Working Group I has extended coverage of future climate change compared to earlier reports by assessing near-term projections and predictability as well as long-term projections and irreversibility in two separate chapters. Following the decisions made by the Panel during the scoping and outline approval, a set of new scenarios, the Representative Concentration Pathways, are used across all three Working Groups for projections of climate change over the 21. century. The coverage of regional information in the Working Group I report is expanded by specifically assessing climate phenomena such as monsoon systems and their relevance to future climate change in the regions. The Working Group I Report is an assessment, not a review or a text book of climate science, and is based on the published scientific and technical literature available up to 15 March 2013. Underlying all aspects of the report is a

  2. MARKETING CHANNELS AND DISTRIBUTION DECISIONS IN THE SPORT BUSINESS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The sport business must determine how to get its products from the manufacturer or producer to the consumer. Additionally, in this industry, there are products produced at a point where the consumer must be present at its production to consume the product. These products are sports events, such as a professional basketball game, a football match, or a super cross race. In these types of products, the event - the product - is staged at a facility where fans will gather to watch. The sport business will have made decisions regarding the facility in relation to location and other factors that will make the facility attractive to the consumer as a place in which to consume these types of products. This paper presents a brief overview about distribution in the sport business industry, the role of distribution in marketing strategy, the selection of a distribution network, and the types of distribution intermediaries available for moving and / or offering sport business industry products.

  3. Exploring the experiences of substitute decision-makers with an exception to consent in a paediatric resuscitation randomised controlled trial: study protocol for a qualitative research study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laat, Sonya; Schwartz, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prospective informed consent is required for most research involving human participants; however, this is impracticable under some circumstances. The Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans (TCPS) outlines the requirements for research involving human participants in Canada. The need for an exception to consent (deferred consent) is recognised and endorsed in the TCPS for research in individual medical emergencies; however, little is known about substitute decision-maker (SDM) experiences. A paediatric resuscitation trial (SQUEEZE) (NCT01973907) using an exception to consent process began enrolling at McMaster Children's Hospital in January 2014. This qualitative research study aims to generate new knowledge on SDM experiences with the exception to consent process as implemented in a randomised controlled trial. Methods and analysis The SDMs of children enrolled into the SQUEEZE pilot trial will be the sampling frame from which ethics study participants will be derived. Design: Qualitative research study involving individual interviews and grounded theory methodology. Participants: SDMs for children enrolled into the SQUEEZE pilot trial. Sample size: Up to 25 SDMs. Qualitative methodology: SDMs will be invited to participate in the qualitative ethics study. Interviews with consenting SDMs will be conducted in person or by telephone, taped and professionally transcribed. Participants will be encouraged to elaborate on their experience of being asked to consent after the fact and how this process occurred. Analysis: Data gathering and analysis will be undertaken simultaneously. The investigators will collaborate in developing the coding scheme, and data will be coded using NVivo. Emerging themes will be identified. Ethics and dissemination This research represents a rare opportunity to interview parents/guardians of critically ill children enrolled into a resuscitation trial without their knowledge or prior consent

  4. Exploring the experiences of substitute decision-makers with an exception to consent in a paediatric resuscitation randomised controlled trial: study protocol for a qualitative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Melissa J; de Laat, Sonya; Schwartz, Lisa

    2016-09-13

    Prospective informed consent is required for most research involving human participants; however, this is impracticable under some circumstances. The Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans (TCPS) outlines the requirements for research involving human participants in Canada. The need for an exception to consent (deferred consent) is recognised and endorsed in the TCPS for research in individual medical emergencies; however, little is known about substitute decision-maker (SDM) experiences. A paediatric resuscitation trial (SQUEEZE) (NCT01973907) using an exception to consent process began enrolling at McMaster Children's Hospital in January 2014. This qualitative research study aims to generate new knowledge on SDM experiences with the exception to consent process as implemented in a randomised controlled trial. The SDMs of children enrolled into the SQUEEZE pilot trial will be the sampling frame from which ethics study participants will be derived. Qualitative research study involving individual interviews and grounded theory methodology. SDMs for children enrolled into the SQUEEZE pilot trial. Up to 25 SDMs. Qualitative methodology: SDMs will be invited to participate in the qualitative ethics study. Interviews with consenting SDMs will be conducted in person or by telephone, taped and professionally transcribed. Participants will be encouraged to elaborate on their experience of being asked to consent after the fact and how this process occurred. Data gathering and analysis will be undertaken simultaneously. The investigators will collaborate in developing the coding scheme, and data will be coded using NVivo. Emerging themes will be identified. This research represents a rare opportunity to interview parents/guardians of critically ill children enrolled into a resuscitation trial without their knowledge or prior consent. Findings will inform implementation of the exception to consent process in the planned definitive SQUEEZE

  5. Regional decision-makers as potential users of Extreme Weather Event Attribution - Case studies from the German Baltic Sea coast and the Greater Paris area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Schwab

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Extreme Event Attribution has raised increasing attention in climate science in the last years. It means to judge the extent to which certain weather-related extreme events have changed due to human influences on climate with probabilistic statements. Extreme Event Attribution is often anticipated to spur more than just scientific ambition. It is able to provide answers to a commonly asked questions after extreme events, namely, ‘can we blame it on climate change’ and is assumed to support decision-making of various actors engaged in climate change mitigation and adaptation. More in-depth research is widely lacking about who these actors are; in which context they can make use of it; and what requirements they have, to be able to actually apply Extreme Event Attribution. We have therefore addressed these questions with two empirical case studies looking at regional decision-makers who deal with storm surge risks in the German Baltic Sea region and heat waves in the Greater Paris area. Stakeholder interviews and workshops reveal that fields of application and requirements are diverse, difficult to explicitly identify, and often clearly associated with stakeholders' specific mandate, the hazard background, and the regional socio-economic setting. Among the considered stakeholders in the Baltic Sea region, Extreme Event Attribution is perceived to be most useful to awareness-raising, in particular for climate change mitigation. They emphasised the importance of receiving understandable information - and that, rather later, but with smaller uncertainties than faster, but with higher uncertainties. In the Paris case, we typically talked to people engaged in adaptation with expertise in terms of climate science, but narrowly defined mandates which is typical for the Paris-centred political system with highly specialised public experts. The interviewees claimed that Extreme Event Attribution is most useful to political leverage and public

  6. The relationship between marketing intelligence and strategic marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peet Venter

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance attached to MI and other marketing information functions, surprisingly few studies have explicitly examined the relationship between MI and strategic marketing decision-making. This article reports on a study conducted with the aim of determining the relationship between marketing intelligence (MI and strategic marketing in South African organisations. A quantitative survey was conducted among 166 South African marketing decision-makers. The findings suggest a substantial gap between the importance and availability of key types of MI. Marketing decision-makers found the traditional MI and marketing tools of great value in supporting marketing decision-making, but the value of several of the newer MI tools and technologies was less clear. An analysis of MI practices suggested that MI quality and particularly information and communication technology (ICT support for MI are areas requiring further attention.

  7. Educational Quasi-Market in Chile: The Discourse of Policy Makers Cuasi mercado educacional en Chile: el discurso de los tomadores de decisión.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Almonacid

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean educational system is characterized by the functioning of a cuasi (free market, in which increasing degrees of administrative, financial and curricular decentralization take place within a context where two constitutional rights are in conflict: the right to (free education and the freedom of teaching. This conflict arose from the design and implementation of said decentralization policy due to its negative effects in the processes of social inclusion of children and youngsters. In order to understand why those two constitutional rights are in conflict, it must be taken into account that such decentralization policy was designed by the military regime (1973-1990 as one of several neoliberal policies implemented in many different fields of the Chilean society, and that said policy has been kept in effect by the subsequent administrations of the “Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia” (Coalition of Parties for Democracy (since 1990 to present in a so called “transition process to democracy.” This research paper is intended to understand how the process of educational decentralization was conceived and how the system is in effect up to the present, as well as to understand the effects it has had on the process of social exclusion. To do that, the views of selected policy makers who have had active participation in this process are analyzed. First, there is a reference to the way the Chilean educational system works, and then the opinions of several educational policy makers about the processes of educational decentralization and social exclusion are analyzed. El sistema educacional chileno se caracteriza por el funcionamiento de un cuasi mercado en donde existen crecientes grados de descentralización administrativa, financiera y curricular, coexistiendo dos principios en tensión: el derecho a la educación y la libertad de enseñanza. Esta tensión se encuentra presente desde el diseño de esta política educativa

  8. Towards a single European electricity market : A structured approach to regulatory mode decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the processes through which the rules and regulations that govern European electricity markets - and inherently, their integration process - are established. So far, European policy makers have largely followed a 'trial-and-error' approach to finding an appropriate regulatory

  9. Decision support for choice optimal power generation projects: Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model based on the electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Zhihong; Yang Kun; Sun Yaowei; Yuan Jiahai; Zhang Hongwei; Zhang Zhizheng

    2006-01-01

    In 2002, China began to inspire restructuring of the electric power sector to improve its performance. Especially, with the rapid increase of electricity demand in China, there is a need for non-utility generation investment that cannot be met by government finance alone. However, a first prerequisite is that regulators and decision-makers (DMs) should carefully consider how to balance the need to attract private investment against the policy objectives of minimizing monopoly power and fostering competitive markets. So in the interim term of electricity market, a decentralized decision-making process should eventually replace the centralized generation capacity expansion planning. In this paper, firstly, on the basis of the current situation, a model for evaluating generation projects by comprehensive utilization of fuzzy appraisal and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is developed. Secondly, a case study of generation project evaluation in China is presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the model in selecting optimal generation projects and attracting private investors. In the case study, with considerations of attracting adequate private investment and promoting energy conservation in China, five most promising policy instruments selected as evaluation factors include project duration, project costs, predicted on-grid price level, environmental protection, enterprise credit grading and performance. Finally, a comprehensive framework that enables the DM to have better concentration and to make more sound decisions by combining the model proposed with modern computer science is designed

  10. The Mexican hydro-meteorological disasters and climate network (redesclim) as model on outreach decision makers on disaster public policy in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh-Rodriguez, C. M.; Rodriguez-Estevez, J. M., Sr.; Romo-Aguilar, M. D. L.; Brito-Castillo, L.; Salinas-Prieto, A.; Gonzalez-Sosa, E.; Pérez-Campuzano, E.

    2017-12-01

    REDESCLIM was designed and develop in 2011 due to a public call from The Science and Technology Mexican Council (CONACYT); CONACYT lead the activities for its organization and development among the academic community. REDESCLIM was created to enhance the capacity of response to hydro-meteorological disasters and climate events through an integrative effort of researchers, technologists, entrepreneurs, politicians and society. Brief summary of our objectives: 1) Understand the causes of disasters, to reduce risks to society and ecosystems 2) Support research and interdisciplinary assessment of the physical processes in natural and social phenomena to improve understanding of causes and impacts 3) Strengths collaboration with academic, government, private and other interdisciplinary networks from Mexico and other countries 4) Build human capacity and promote the development of skills 5) Recommend strategies for climate hazard prevention, mitigation and response, especially for hazard with the greatest impacts in Mexico, such as hurricanes, floods, drought, wild fires and other extremes events. We provide a continues communication channel on members research results to provide scientific information that could be used for different proposes, specificaly for decision makers who are dealing with ecological and hydro meteorological problems that can result in disasters, and provide a services menu based on the members scientific projects, publications, teaching courses, in order to impact public policy as final result. http://www.redesclim.org.mx. So far we have some basic results: Fiver national meetings (participants from 35 countries around the world), 7 Workshops and seminars (virtual and in-person), Climatic data platforms ( http://clicom.mex.cicese.mx, http://clicom-mex.cicese.mx/malla, http://atlasclimatico.unam.mx/REDESCLIM2/ ), climate change scenarios for the general public at http://escenarios.inecc.gob.mx, 14 seed projects, one model to hurricane simulation

  11. Market participation decision of smallholder farmers and its determinants in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gani Osmani Ataul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the market participation decision of smallholder farmers in Bangladesh and tries to sort out the most important factors that influence smallholder farmers' decision to participate in the output market to sell their produce in Bangladesh. To examine the relationship between the smallholder farmers' decision to participate in the market and the factors that affect these farmers' decision, a Probit regression model is employed. For this purpose this study uses primary data collected from 100 smallholder farmers of Durgapur Upazila under Rajshahi District. Main findings of this study indicate that there is moderate level of market participation by the households who decide to participate in the market with 57% sales of their produced crops. It is found that farm size, household labour, income from livestock and farm income might be the main factors that affect the smallholder farmers' decision to participate in the output market. These findings also suggest that the smallholder farmers would participate more and more in the output market, if farm size, household labour and farm income are increased in one hand and income from livestock is decreased on the other hand. The originality of this paper is that it examines the phenomenon of smallholder farmers' commercialization in Bangladesh from the perspectives of market participation, which may create an opportunity for further constructive debate. Finally, development market infrastructure, provision of marketing incentives to smallholder farmers and development of an institutionalized marketing information service are recommended to enhance commercialization of agriculture in Bangladesh.

  12. Do Decision 2003/54/EC and Decision no. 1229/2003/EC result in a European market for electricity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenting, F.

    2004-01-01

    In the summer of 2003 the European Parliament and the European Council issued a new Directive with respect to the internal market for electricity (Directive 2003/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2003 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity) and Guidelines for trans-European networks in the energy sector (Decision no. 1229/2003/EC). The question is whether these decisions will lead to a European and free market for electricity. It is concluded that this is not yet the case [nl

  13. Differences in decision-making criteria towards the return on marketing investment: A project business perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Smyth, H.; Lecoeuvre, L.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the value of marketing to a business remains a thorny issue in theory and practice. Decision-making at the finance–marketing interface is under-researched, particularly for project businesses. Confronted by demands of accountability concerning the allocation of resources to meet competitive pressures, the paper examines the quality and extent of dialogue in investment decision-making. The return on investment (ROI) and marketing-specific investment (ROMI) are important factors at th...

  14. ANALYZING SOCIAL NETWORKS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF MARKETING DECISIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Logica BANICA; Victoria-Mihaela BRINZEA; Magdalena RADULESCU

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the Web became more than a space for product presentation, but also a capitalization market (e-commerce) and an efficient way to know the customer preferences and to meet their requirements. Large companies have the financial potential to use various marketing strategies and, in particular, digital-marketing. Instead, small businesses are looking for lower cost or no cost methods (also called guerrilla marketing). A small company can compete with a large company by approaching a par...

  15. Memento of decision makers: the national organizations involved in the mastery of greenhouse gas emissions; Memento des decideurs: les collectivites territoriales engagees dans la maitrise des emissions de gaz a effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In front of the risks linked with the increase of the greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere, the decision makers must take into consideration first, the scientific advice of climatic change experts, and second, the considerable inertia of the climatic system. Thus, any action implemented so far will have an impact all along the 21. century and later whatever the future human activities. The aim of this memento is to sensibilize the decision makers about the possible consequences of their choice in terms of volume of greenhouse gases and of medium- and long-term evolution: 1 - stakes, role of local decision-makers (greenhouse effect and climatic change, France's international commitment, stakes, liabilities of local decision makers, decentralization laws, local plans of fight against greenhouse effect, public information and dialogue); 2 - urbanism and transports (urban displacements, alternatives to individual cars, collective transportation systems, parking, inter-region transports, goods transport, local urbanization plan, localization of activities, vehicle fleets of local authorities, companies transportation plans); 3 - buildings (energy conservation and consumption in municipal and social buildings, high environmental quality approach, management of maintenance and exploitation contracts, choice of building materials and space heating systems, air-conditioning and space cooling, mastery of power demand, recreational, cultural, school and public health buildings, insulation of buildings); 4 - energy utilities, production and distribution (public lighting, water treatment, municipal wastes, use of renewable energies, cogeneration, district heating networks, power distribution in rural areas: mastery of consumptions and decentralized production, wood-fuel and biomass valorization); 5 - other possible domains of action (tourism, agriculture, forestry and by-products, north-south solidarity with new partnerships). (J.S.)

  16. Memento of decision makers: the national organizations involved in the mastery of greenhouse gas emissions; Memento des decideurs: les collectivites territoriales engagees dans la maitrise des emissions de gaz a effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In front of the risks linked with the increase of the greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere, the decision makers must take into consideration first, the scientific advice of climatic change experts, and second, the considerable inertia of the climatic system. Thus, any action implemented so far will have an impact all along the 21. century and later whatever the future human activities. The aim of this memento is to sensibilize the decision makers about the possible consequences of their choice in terms of volume of greenhouse gases and of medium- and long-term evolution: 1 - stakes, role of local decision-makers (greenhouse effect and climatic change, France's international commitment, stakes, liabilities of local decision makers, decentralization laws, local plans of fight against greenhouse effect, public information and dialogue); 2 - urbanism and transports (urban displacements, alternatives to individual cars, collective transportation systems, parking, inter-region transports, goods transport, local urbanization plan, localization of activities, vehicle fleets of local authorities, companies transportation plans); 3 - buildings (energy conservation and consumption in municipal and social buildings, high environmental quality approach, management of maintenance and exploitation contracts, choice of building materials and space heating systems, air-conditioning and space cooling, mastery of power demand, recreational, cultural, school and public health buildings, insulation of buildings); 4 - energy utilities, production and distribution (public lighting, water treatment, municipal wastes, use of renewable energies, cogeneration, district heating networks, power distribution in rural areas: mastery of consumptions and decentralized production, wood-fuel and biomass valorization); 5 - other possible domains of action (tourism, agriculture, forestry and by-products, north-south solidarity with new partnerships). (J.S.)

  17. Support Vector Machines for decision support in electricity markets׳ strategic bidding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Tiago; Sousa, Tiago M.; Praça, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    . The ALBidS system allows MASCEM market negotiating players to take the best possible advantages from the market context. This paper presents the application of a Support Vector Machines (SVM) based approach to provide decision support to electricity market players. This strategy is tested and validated...... by being included in ALBidS and then compared with the application of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN), originating promising results: an effective electricity market price forecast in a fast execution time. The proposed approach is tested and validated using real electricity markets data from MIBEL......׳ research group has developed a multi-agent system: Multi-Agent System for Competitive Electricity Markets (MASCEM), which simulates the electricity markets environment. MASCEM is integrated with Adaptive Learning Strategic Bidding System (ALBidS) that works as a decision support system for market players...

  18. Are pharmaceutical marketing decisions calibrated to communications effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavusgil, Erin; Calantone, Roger

    2011-10-01

    Marketing managers continually struggle with how to maximize the effects of an integrated marketing communications strategy. The growing number of available communication outlets, as well as highly varying competitive landscapes, adds further complexity to this challenge. This empirical study examines the differential impact within a pharmaceutical market therapeutic category where both "push" and "pull" communication strategies operate on consumers and gatekeepers alike, in an atmosphere of unrelenting product innovation and broad competition. Furthermore, we explore how two contingency variables-(a) the competitive landscape, and (b) the product's length of time on the market-interact with these communication efforts and affect brand and category sales.

  19. Interdependencies Between the Capital Market and the Monetary Policy Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Guni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The declared scope of this work is to highlight the main correlations between the monetary and the capital market, including identifying the adequate objective of monetary policy which might positively influence over the offer on the capital market. The main target of the monetary market consists in the stability of the prices. The link between monetary policy and stock market is extremely important. The stock prices are sensible to economical conditions. Moreover, these prices rapidly change, thus there is a chance for a deviation from the fundamental value, with side-effects for economy.

  20. Cultural change and environmentalism: a cross-national approach of mass publics and decision makers Mudança cultural e ambientalismo: uma abordagem transnacional sobre opinião pública e agentes decisórios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ester

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of this study - the Global Environmental Survey (GOES - is the impact of cultural influences on environmental attitudes. GOES examines the cultural impact from a basic cross-national perspective, investigating the impact of cultural change and value shifts on environmental concern, attitudes, and behavior in both Western and non-Western societies. This study provides cross-national insights in how mass publics and decision makers in both developed and developing countries frame environmental problems and solutions. In addition, the project has shown how leading environmental decision makers and opinion leaders assess the environmental beliefs and attitudes of the public. Apparently, citizens are not yet ready to translate pro-environmental concerns into acceptance of far-reaching environmental policy measures. Citizens in both developed and developing countries seem to prefer voluntary lifestyle changes. Moving from environmental concern via policy support to actual (reported environmental behavior, we can conclude that persistent pro-environmental behavior does not describe citizens' environmental involvement and commitment. Our data indicate that environmentally relevant behaviors (e.g., transportation, energy use, recycling, household purchases, political activism do not form a consistent and coherent pattern. Practice of one type of ecologically conscious behavior does not predict engagement in another. It is not that people reserve a distinctive spot in their mental software for judging the environmental impact of habitual behaviors. Their mental mapping probably consists of manifold decisional heuristics, including comfort, health, safety, price, efficiency, effectiveness, and social responsibility, which are likely to be hierarchically ordered and in competition with environmental heuristics. A focus on specific behaviors, though, reveals that citizens may be deeply involved in "green" behavior. This is related in part to

  1. Do economic policy decisions affect stock market development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Efficient Market Hypothesis proposes that macroeconomic policy actions do not influence stock market development but the Tobin's q theory argues otherwise. This paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) technique to investigate the impact of macroeconomic policy on the development of the Ghana Stock ...

  2. Cassava Market Participation Decisions of Producing Households in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is a basic staple and a major source of farm income for the people of sub-Saharan Africa. Efficiency in cassava marketing therefore becomes a very important determinant of both consumer's living cost and producer's income. At the farmer's level, which is the beginning of the marketing chain, food must produced in reasonable quantity to attract enough market participants that will make for efficient distribution. The use of food price policy to stimulate short-run marketed surplus of producing households has often been questioned. This is because some households are deficit producers who purchase crops they also produce. Increasing producer prices will therefore have adverse distributional effects on food buying, while bypassing autarkic households. An alternative would therefore be to find non-price strategic variables that motivate farm households to participate in commodity markets. This is the objective of this paper. The paper is based on primary data collected within the framework by the collaborative study of cassava in Africa (COSCA. Good market access conditions, improved market information especially on prices, the production of granules instead of dried roots or pastes increased market participation for sellers, while rising grain prices, younger and less educated heads of households encouraged participation for buyers.

  3. Decision Making in the Stock Market: Incorporating Psychology with Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Abhijeet

    2008-01-01

    The decision-making by individual investors is usually based on their age, education, income, investment portfolio, and other demographic factors. The impact of behavioural aspect of investing is, however, often ignored. The objective of this paper is to explore the impact of behavioural factors and investor’s psychology on their decision-making, and to examine the relationship between investor’s attitude towards risk and behavioural decision-making. The research uses the literature relevant ...

  4. Decision making in a competitive power system market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.P.

    2004-01-01

    This study presents an innovative method for predicting energy prices for the Ontario electricity market using artificial intelligence such as neural networks, fuzzy logic and a combination of both. In particular, it presents a methodology to develop optimal bidding curves for a thermal power plant according to the degree of risk aversion based on a given forecasted market-clearing price and the expected system demand. The degree of risk varied according to participant's risk aversion or risk seeking. There is much desire to forecast market-clearing price because it is a relevant variable to find optimal bidding curves. This study also compared the new method with existing methods. Various factors that influence market-clearing prices were also examined with respect to Ontario's electricity market

  5. ANALYZING SOCIAL NETWORKS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF MARKETING DECISIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logica BANICA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the Web became more than a space for product presentation, but also a capitalization market (e-commerce and an efficient way to know the customer preferences and to meet their requirements. Large companies have the financial potential to use various marketing strategies and, in particular, digital-marketing. Instead, small businesses are looking for lower cost or no cost methods (also called guerrilla marketing. A small company can compete with a large company by approaching a particular range of products that excel in quality, and also by inventiveness in the marketing strategy. During 2010-2015 the potential of Information Technology and Communications (IT&C sector was proved for the companies which aimed towards modernization of technologies and introduced new strategies in order to commercialize new products. An important challenge for companies was to be aware of the changes in customer behaviour, using social networks software. Finally, research centers have set up new IT&C services and improved marketing and communications following the crisis. More and more companies invest in analytic tools to monitor their marketing strategies and Big Data becomes extremely useful for this purpose, using information like customer demographics and spending habits, oscillation between simplicity, comfort and glamour. There are various tools that can transform in a very short time, massive amounts of data into real business value in a very short time, helping companies and retailers to understand, at any point in the product lifecycle, which trends are gaining and which are losing ground. These insights give them the possibility to reduce the risk of not selling their products by making adjustments to the design, production or promotional strategies, before putting the goods on the market. In this paper we aim to present the advantages of exploring customer requirements from social media for marketing strategy of an enterprise, by using SNA

  6. The influence of prices on market participation decisions of poultry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Kenya Agricultural Research Institute Naivasha, P.O Box 25, Naivasha. 2 ... study also investigates the probability of market participation by employing a binary logistic ..... Diseases, Socio Economics, Production and Biodiversity Unit, FAO.

  7. Choices and decisions: Locating the poor in urban land markets

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wanjiku Kihato, C

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ). In trying to understand growing poverty in the global economy, leading economist Dani Rodrik contends that the increasing asymmetry between capital and labour values, the decoupling of markets and regulatory institutions, and growing informalisation of work...

  8. Public Marketing: An Alternative Policy Decision-Making Idea for Small Cities. Community Development Research Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, James; And Others

    The concept of public marketing presents a strategy for the systems approach to community development that would facilitate the community decision making process via improved communication. Basic aspects of the social marketing process include: (1) product policy; (2) channels of distribution; (3) pricing (perceived price vs quality and quantity…

  9. How Feedback Can Improve Managerial Evaluations of Model-based Marketing Decision Support Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    U. Kayande (Ujwal); A. de Bruyn (Arnoud); G.L. Lilien (Gary); A. Rangaswamy (Arvind); G.H. van Bruggen (Gerrit)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractMarketing managers often provide much poorer evaluations of model-based marketing decision support systems (MDSSs) than are warranted by the objective performance of those systems. We show that a reason for this discrepant evaluation may be that MDSSs are often not designed to help users

  10. FAmily CEntered (FACE) advance care planning: Study design and methods for a patient-centered communication and decision-making intervention for patients with HIV/AIDS and their surrogate decision-makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Allison L; Wang, Jichuan; Scott, Rachel K; Briggs, Linda; Lyon, Maureen E

    2015-07-01

    Although the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has become a chronic illness, disease-specific advance care planning has not yet been evaluated for the palliative care needs of adults with HIV/AIDS. This prospective, longitudinal, randomized, two-arm controlled clinical trial aims to test the efficacy of FAmily CEntered advance care planning among adults living with AIDS and/or HIV with co-morbidities on congruence in treatment preferences, healthcare utilization, and quality of life. The FAmily CEntered intervention arm is two face-to-face sessions with a trained, certified facilitator: Session 1) Disease-Specific Advance Care Planning Respecting Choices Interview; Session 2) Completion of advance directive. The Healthy Living Control arm is: Session 1) Developmental/Relationship History; Session 2) Nutrition. Follow-up data will be collected at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months post-intervention. A total of 288 patient/surrogate dyads will be enrolled from five hospital-based, out-patient clinics in Washington, District of Columbia. Participants will be HIV positive and ≥ 21 years of age; surrogates will be ≥ 18 years of age. Exclusion criteria are homicidality, suicidality, psychosis, and impaired cognitive functioning. We hypothesize that this intervention will enhance patient-centered communication with a surrogate decision-maker about end of life treatment preferences over time, enhance patient quality of life and decrease health care utilization. We further hypothesize that this intervention will decrease health disparities for Blacks in completion of advance directives. If proposed aims are achieved, the benefits of palliative care, particularly increased treatment preferences about end-of-life care and enhanced quality of life, will be extended to people living with AIDS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Trends in Fashion Marketing and their influence to consumer buying decision

    OpenAIRE

    Votočková, Pavlína

    2017-01-01

    This master's thesis deals with Trends in Fashion Marketing and their influence to consumer buying decision. The aim of the thesis is to analyse consumer's attitude to fashion marketing and it's current trends: Fast Fashion, online shopping, co-branding and influence of social sites. The thesis is devided into a theoretical and a practical part. The theoretical part deals with consumer behavior, specification of current situation on the fashion market, locating of production and supply chain ...

  12. Health and Marketing: Essays on Physician and Patient Decision-Making

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho, Nuno

    2011-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, I focus on physician and patient behavior. I model patient and physician decisions by integrating robust insights from different behavioral sciences (e.g. economics, psychology and sociology) in econometric models calibrated on individual data. This approach allows me to bring novel insights for managers, policy-makers and patients about: (1) how physicians learn from patient feedback about a new drug (in particular, how switching patients are 7 to 10 times m...

  13. Behavioural biases among real estate investment decision makers: Has anyone seen my neo-cortex? I'm sure I left it here somewhere.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Ryan; Matthew Richardson

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – To examine whether investors in commercial real estate exhibit some important behavioural biases, namely: anchoring, herding, framing/nudging, loss aversion and over-confidence. If so, are there steps that investors and their agents ( fund managers and advisors) could take (a) to temper the effects of their own biases and (b) to exploit the presence of such biases in other market participants?Design/methodology/approach – Analysis of historic data sources at asset and market levels ...

  14. Aspects of capital budgeting decision-making process of emerging markets transnational corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Alieva, D.

    2012-01-01

    Considers present-day aspects of capital budgeting decision-making in investment projects by transnational corporations (TNCs) in emerging markets. Discusses peculiarities of cash flows of TNC mother and project companies which influence the decision-making in project investment. A number of effective valuation techniques for multicurrency projects has been proposed, taking into account adjustments for various factors.

  15. Moral Hypocrisy on the Basis of Construal Level: To Be a Utilitarian Personal Decision Maker or to Be a Moral Advisor?

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Wei; Wu, Qing; Yang, Qun; Zhou, Liang; Jiang, Yuan; Zhang, Jiaxi; Miao, Danmin; Peng, Jiaxi

    2015-01-01

    Background People encounter various moral issues that involve making decisions for others by giving advice. Objective This study investigated the characteristics of providing suggestions for oneself versus providing suggestions for others in ethical decision-making and the differences between them based on Construal Level Theory (CLT). Methods A total of 768 undergraduate students from three universities in China were randomly assigned to eight groups on the basis of a grid of two Construal L...

  16. Beyond Needs Assessments: Marketing as Change Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piland, William E.

    1984-01-01

    Views marketing techniques as agents of change providing valuable assistance to community college decision makers. Discusses the importance of a balance among the four P's of marketing (i.e., promotion, price, place, and product); and seven procedural steps in developing a sound marketing strategy. (DMM)

  17. Moral Hypocrisy on the Basis of Construal Level: To Be a Utilitarian Personal Decision Maker or to Be a Moral Advisor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Wu, Qing; Yang, Qun; Zhou, Liang; Jiang, Yuan; Zhang, Jiaxi; Miao, Danmin; Peng, Jiaxi

    2015-01-01

    Background People encounter various moral issues that involve making decisions for others by giving advice. Objective This study investigated the characteristics of providing suggestions for oneself versus providing suggestions for others in ethical decision-making and the differences between them based on Construal Level Theory (CLT). Methods A total of 768 undergraduate students from three universities in China were randomly assigned to eight groups on the basis of a grid of two Construal Levels (self or others) by two different numbers of people saved (5 people or 15 people) by two problem situations (trolley problem vs. footbridge problem). The investigation examined participants’ decisions to opt to take action or refrain from action that would have the consequence of saving more people. Results The main effects of Construal Level (F1, 752 = 6.46, p = .011), saving number (F1, 752 = 35.81, p utilitarian reasoning in the decision-making, and their behaviors appeared more utilitarian at low Construal Levels (CLs) compared to high. Conclusion CLs, saving numbers, and problem situation significantly affected moral decision-making and exhibited significant interaction. Making decisions for oneself (low-construal) rather than giving advice to others (high-construal) was one important factor that determined whether the people were utilitarian or not. Utilitarian considerations are more relevant in impersonal dilemmas. PMID:25689521

  18. Moral hypocrisy on the basis of construal level: to be a utilitarian personal decision maker or to be a moral advisor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Wu, Qing; Yang, Qun; Zhou, Liang; Jiang, Yuan; Zhang, Jiaxi; Miao, Danmin; Peng, Jiaxi

    2015-01-01

    People encounter various moral issues that involve making decisions for others by giving advice. This study investigated the characteristics of providing suggestions for oneself versus providing suggestions for others in ethical decision-making and the differences between them based on Construal Level Theory (CLT). A total of 768 undergraduate students from three universities in China were randomly assigned to eight groups on the basis of a grid of two Construal Levels (self or others) by two different numbers of people saved (5 people or 15 people) by two problem situations (trolley problem vs. footbridge problem). The investigation examined participants' decisions to opt to take action or refrain from action that would have the consequence of saving more people. The main effects of Construal Level (F1, 752 = 6.46, p = .011), saving number (F1, 752 = 35.81, p utilitarian reasoning in the decision-making, and their behaviors appeared more utilitarian at low Construal Levels (CLs) compared to high. CLs, saving numbers, and problem situation significantly affected moral decision-making and exhibited significant interaction. Making decisions for oneself (low-construal) rather than giving advice to others (high-construal) was one important factor that determined whether the people were utilitarian or not. Utilitarian considerations are more relevant in impersonal dilemmas.

  19. Opinions of decision-makers on the liberalization of abortion laws in Mexico Opiniones de tomadores de decisiones sobre la liberalización de la ley del aborto en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke G van Dijk

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In the last decade, important advances were made in the struggle for reproductive rights in Mexico. The goal of this study was to discover the opinions of decision-makers about the grounds for legal abortion as well as to explore their perceptions about further liberalization of abortion laws countrywide. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In-depth interviews were conducted with eight prominent decision-makers working in governmental health, law and social institutions as well as representatives of political parties. RESULTS: Six decision-makers favored a further liberalization of abortion laws. They proposed several strategies to move forward with liberalization. Two decision-makers were against abortion under all circumstances. CONCLUSIONS: Three factors seem to play a key role in the liberalization of abortion: a liberal party governing at the state level, a favorable public opinion and the pressure of NGOs promoting reproductive rights. A state-by-state approach seems more effective for generating changes in abortion laws.OBJETIVO: En la última década se realizaron avances importantes en la lucha por los derechos reproductivos en México. El objetivo del estudio fue conocer las opiniones de tomadores de decisiones (TD sobre las causales para un aborto legal, así como explorar sus percepciones sobre la liberalización de las leyes en todo el país. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizaron entrevistas a profundidad con ocho TD de instituciones gubernamentales de asuntos sociales, legales y de salud, así como representantes de partidos políticos. RESULTADOS: Seis entrevistados favorecieron la liberalización de las leyes y propusieron varias estrategias para realizarla. Dos entrevistados estuvieron en contra del aborto bajo cualquier circunstancia. CONCLUSIONES: En la liberalización del aborto, tres factores parecen tener un papel relevante: un partido liberal gobernando estatalmente, una opinión pública favorable y la presión de ONG que

  20. Non-market forest ecosystem services and decision support in Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filyushkina, Anna; Strange, Niels; Löf, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    The need to integrate non-market ecosystem services into decision-making is widely acknowledged. Despite the exponentially growing body of literature, trade-offs between services are still poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review of published literature in the Nordic countries (Denmark......, Norway, Sweden and Finland) on the integration of non-market forest ecosystem services into decision-making. The aim of the review was two-fold: (1) to provide an overview of coverage of biophysical and socio-economic assessments of non-market ecosystem services in relation to forest management; (2......) to determine the extent of the integration of biophysical and socio-economic models of these services into decision support models. Our findings reveal the need for wider coverage of non-market ecosystem services and evidence-based modelling of how forest management regimes affect ecosystem services...

  1. Transaction costs and marketing decision: a case study of smallholder tomato farmers in Makurdi, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel O. Osebeyo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of transaction costs and other institutional and socio-economic factors on smallholder tomato farmers marketing decision in Makurdi Local Government Area, Benue State, Nigeria. The study used a survey data from 165 randomly selected farm households. Using a Logit model, the study found that the probability of market participation is significantly affected by transaction cost variables (namely access to market information, market distance and transport cost. Education and dependency ratio also had significant effect on decision to sell in the market. While access to market information and education significantly increase the probability of tomato farmers’ participation in the market, transport cost, market distance and dependency ratio significantly decrease the probability. The study stresses the need for government intervention by means of providing the necessary infrastructures that will help to reduce transaction costs and thus increase farmers’ participation in the market. Also policies to provide adequate and timely information about the market situations as well as polices to enhance access to education are advocated.

  2. A decision theoretic framework for profit maximization in direct marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muus, L.; van der Scheer, H.; Wansbeek, T.J.; Montgomery, A.; Franses, P.H.B.F.

    2002-01-01

    One of the most important issues facing a firm involved in direct marketing is the selection of addresses from a mailing list. When the parameters of the model describing consumers' reaction to a mailing are known, addresses for a future mailing can be selected in a profit-maximizing way. Usually,

  3. Decisions about design and selection of marketing channels

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara; Temjanovski, Riste

    2016-01-01

    The significance of the distribution strategy stems from its participation in the costs included in the price, the conditioning of the information in the promotional message, the connection with the desired market position of the product. The distribution includes management of all functions (physical flow, promotion, ordering and payment information, negotiation, risk taking) involved in the channel. Distribution channel...

  4. The Powerful Triangle of Marketing Data, Managerial Judgment, and Marketing Management Support Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H. van Bruggen (Gerrit); A. Smidts (Ale); B. Wierenga (Berend)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we conceptualize the impact of information technology on marketing decision-making. We argue that developments in information technology affect the performance of marketing decision-makers through different routes. Advances in information technology enhance the

  5. Applying Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis to Comparative Benefit-Risk Assessment : Choosing among Statins in Primary Prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tervonen, Tommi; Naci, Huseyin; van Valkenhoef, Gert; Ades, Anthony E.; Angelis, Aris; Hillege, Hans L.; Postmus, Douwe

    2015-01-01

    Decision makers in different health care settings need to weigh the benefits and harms of alternative treatment strategies. Such health care decisions include marketing authorization by regulatory agencies, practice guideline formulation by clinical groups, and treatment selection by prescribers and

  6. The evolution of the market for commercial computerized physician order entry and computerized decision support systems for prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffar, Hajar; Williams, Robin; Cresswell, Kathrin; Morrison, Zoe; Bates, David W; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-03-01

    To understand the evolving market of commercial off-the-shelf Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE) and Computerized Decision Support (CDS) applications and its effects on their uptake and implementation in English hospitals. Although CPOE and CDS vendors have been quick to enter the English market, uptake has been slow and uneven. To investigate this, the authors undertook qualitative ethnography of vendors and adopters of hospital CPOE/CDS systems in England. The authors collected data from semi-structured interviews with 11 individuals from 4 vendors, including the 2 most entrenched suppliers, and 6 adopter hospitals, and 21 h of ethnographic observation of 2 user groups, and 1 vendor event. The research and analysis was informed by insights from studies of the evolution of technology fields and the emergence of generic COTS enterprise solutions. Four key themes emerged: (1) adoption of systems that had been developed outside of England, (2) vendors' configuration and customization strategies, (3) localized adopter practices vs generic systems, and (4) unrealistic adopter demands. Evidence for our over-arching finding concerning the current immaturity of the market was derived from vendors' strategies, adopters' reactions to the technology, and policy makers' incomplete insights. The CPOE/CDS market in England is still in an emergent phase. The rapid entrance of diverse products, triggered by federal policy initiatives, has resulted in premature adoption of systems that do not yet adequately meet the needs of hospitals. Vendors and adopters lacked understanding of how to design and implement generic solutions to meet diverse user needs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE IN DECISION MAKING ON THE LABOR MARKET OF THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina GLOBA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of the business intelligence concept is enabling new opportunities for the labor market research and management. Labor market intelligence means a competent decision making process in the labor market. Such process should be based on the comprehensive set of analytical technologies and tools. The analysis of online information available at websites of state organizations working in the labor market of the Republic of Moldova has shown that many them are still at the very beginning of the effective data using.

  8. Moral hypocrisy on the basis of construal level: to be a utilitarian personal decision maker or to be a moral advisor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiao

    Full Text Available People encounter various moral issues that involve making decisions for others by giving advice.This study investigated the characteristics of providing suggestions for oneself versus providing suggestions for others in ethical decision-making and the differences between them based on Construal Level Theory (CLT.A total of 768 undergraduate students from three universities in China were randomly assigned to eight groups on the basis of a grid of two Construal Levels (self or others by two different numbers of people saved (5 people or 15 people by two problem situations (trolley problem vs. footbridge problem. The investigation examined participants' decisions to opt to take action or refrain from action that would have the consequence of saving more people.The main effects of Construal Level (F1, 752 = 6.46, p = .011, saving number (F1, 752 = 35.81, p < .001, and problem situation type (F1, 752 = 330.55, p < .001 were all significant. The interaction of the problem situation and saving number (F1, 752 = 1.01, p = .31, and social distance and saving number (F1, 752 = 0.85, p = .36, and interaction of the three independent factors (F1, 752 = 0.47, p = .49 were not significant. However, the interaction of social distance and problem situation (F1, 752 = 9.46, p = .002 was significant. Results indicated the participants utilized a component of utilitarian reasoning in the decision-making, and their behaviors appeared more utilitarian at low Construal Levels (CLs compared to high.CLs, saving numbers, and problem situation significantly affected moral decision-making and exhibited significant interaction. Making decisions for oneself (low-construal rather than giving advice to others (high-construal was one important factor that determined whether the people were utilitarian or not. Utilitarian considerations are more relevant in impersonal dilemmas.

  9. The Use of land evaluation information by land use planners and decision-makers; a case study in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bacic, I.L.Z.; Rossiter, D.G.; Bregt, A.K.

    2003-01-01

    Land evaluation is the prediction of land performance over time under specific uses, to guide strategic land use decisions. Modern land evaluation has a 30 year history, yet the results have often been disappointing. Land users and planners have been reported to ignore land evaluations, perhaps

  10. What's on a decision makers mind? - Identifying barriers in information flows between actors in integrated water management using mental model mapping. Poster.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, Rien; van Os, A.G.; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.; van der Veen, A.

    2004-01-01

    This research studies the relation between mental models and the decision process outcome, in the specific case of the Zwolle storm surge barrier. Differences in mental models between stakeholders will result in different lines of argumentation leading to different solution alternatives. The final

  11. Bridging the gap between the economic evaluation literature and daily practice in occupational health: A qualitative study among decision-makers in the healthcare sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, J.M. van; Tompa, E.; Clune, L.; Sarnocinska-Hart, A.; Bongers, P.M.; Tulder, M.W. van; Beek, A.J. van der; Wier, M.F. van

    2013-01-01

    Background: Continued improvements in occupational health can only be ensured if decisions regarding the implementation and continuation of occupational health and safety interventions (OHS interventions) are based on the best available evidence. To ensure that this is the case, scientific evidence

  12. Market Segmentation in the Decision Making Process in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra VINEREAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I examine the responses of 154 tourists in relation to their predisposition to purchase and the patterns and habits that are usually decisive in the decision making process regarding tourism services or products. For this research, I conducted a selective direct research, whose purpose was to obtain a segmentation of consumers who purchase tourism services based on specific dimensions of behavior. This research also implied studying the behavior of current and potential customers who purchase travel services depending on several variables for establishing different consumption habits. Thus, to establish a more detailed image of the tourists who participated in this direct and selective research, the analysis involved a factor analysis and a cluster analysis.

  13. Fuzzy Specification in Real Estate Market Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Lopez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a software tool designed as a decision aid system for all actors being involved when buying or selling real state, client and realtor, where a main objective for the commercial is to concentrate the client preferences into few alternatives. Since the required previous analysis implies a number of fuzzy concepts, the general procedure here presented considers fuzzy logic to deal with specifications. As a consequence, time devoted to elicitation and requirement analysis is reduced.

  14. Probabilistic decision model of wind power investment and influence of green power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillenwater, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from a model of a representative wind power investor's decision making process using a Monte Carlo simulation of a project financial analysis. Data, in the form of probability distribution functions (PDFs) for key input variables were collected from interviews with investors and other professionals active in the U.S. wind power industry using a formal expert elicitation protocol. This study presents the first quantitative estimates of the effect of the U.S. voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) market on renewable energy generation. The results indicate that the investment decisions of wind power project developers in the United States are unlikely to have been altered by the voluntary REC market. The problem with the current voluntary REC market is that it does not offer developers a reliable risk-adjusted revenue stream. Consequently, the claims by U.S. green power retailers and promoters that voluntary market RECs result in additional wind power projects lack credibility. Even dramatic increases in voluntary market REC prices, in the absence of long-term contracts, were found to have only a small effect on investor behavior. - Highlights: • I use a formal expert elicitation to collect data from wind power investors. • I use a Monte Carlo model to look at the influence of Renewable Energy Certificates on investment. • Investment decisions are unlikely to have been altered by the voluntary REC market. • Claims that the U.S. green power market result in additional wind power lack credibility

  15. Duopoly Market Analysis within One-Shot Decision Framework with Asymmetric Possibilistic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peijun Guo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a newly emerging duopoly market with a short life cycle is analyzed. The partially known information of market is characterized by the possibility distribution of the parameter in the demand function. Since the life cycle of the new product is short, how many products should be produced by two rival firms is a typical one-shot decision problem. Within the one-shot decision framework, the possibilistic Cournot equilibrium is obtained for the optimal production level of each firm in a duopoly market with asymmetrical possibilistic information. The analysis results show that the proposed approaches are reasonable for one-shot decision problems, which are extensively encountered in business and economics.

  16. Inverse Optimization and Forecasting Techniques Applied to Decision-making in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez Gallego, Javier

    patterns that the load traditionally exhibited. On the other hand, this thesis is motivated by the decision-making processes of market players. In response to these challenges, this thesis provides mathematical models for decision-making under uncertainty in electricity markets. Demand-side bidding refers......This thesis deals with the development of new mathematical models that support the decision-making processes of market players. It addresses the problems of demand-side bidding, price-responsive load forecasting and reserve determination. From a methodological point of view, we investigate a novel...... approach to model the response of aggregate price-responsive load as a constrained optimization model, whose parameters are estimated from data by using inverse optimization techniques. The problems tackled in this dissertation are motivated, on one hand, by the increasing penetration of renewable energy...

  17. Forecasting and decision-making in electricity markets with focus on wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Tryggvi

    This thesis deals with analysis, forecasting and decision making in liberalised electricity markets. Particular focus is on wind power, its interaction with the market and the daily decision making of wind power generators. Among recently emerged renewable energy generation technologies, wind power...... derivation of practically applicable tools for decision making highly relevant. The main characteristics of wind power differ fundamentally from those of conventional thermal power. Its effective generation capacity varies over time and is directly dependent on the weather. This dependency makes future...... has become the global leader in terms of installed capacity and advancement. This makes wind power an ideal candidate to analyse the impact of growing renewable energy generation capacity on the electricity markets. Furthermore, its present status of a significant supplier of electricity makes...

  18. Toward systematic reviews to understand the determinants of wait time management success to help decision-makers and managers better manage wait times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomey, Marie-Pascale; Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Sanmartin, Claudia; Decoster, Carolyn; Clavel, Nathalie; Warren, Elaine; Drew, Madeleine; Noseworthy, Tom

    2013-06-06

    Long waits for core specialized services have consistently been identified as a key barrier to access. Governments and organizations at all levels have responded with strategies for better wait list management. While these initiatives are promising, insufficient attention has been paid to factors influencing the implementation and sustainability of wait time management strategies (WTMS) implemented at the organizational level. A systematic review was conducted using the main electronic databases, such as CINAHL, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, to identify articles published between 1990 and 2011 on WTMS for scheduled care implemented at the organizational level or higher and on frameworks for analyzing factors influencing their success. Data was extracted on governance, culture, resources, and tools. We organized a workshop with Canadian healthcare policy-makers and managers to compare our initial findings with their experience. Our systematic review included 47 articles: 36 related to implementation and 11 to sustainability. From these, we identified a variety of WTMS initiated at the organizational level or higher, and within these, certain factors that were specific to either implementation or sustainability and others common to both. The main common factors influencing success at the contextual level were stakeholder engagement and strong funding, and at the organizational level, physician involvement, human resources capacity, and information management systems. Specific factors for successful implementation at the contextual level were consultation with front-line actors and common standards and guidelines, and at the organizational level, financial incentives and dedicated staffing. For sustainability, we found no new factors. The workshop participants identified the same major factors as found in the articles and added others, such as information sharing between physicians and managers. Factors related to implementation were studied

  19. Pizza makers' contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembo, Serena; Lembo, Claudio; Patruno, Cataldo; Balato, Anna; Balato, Nicola; Ayala, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Contact eczema to foods, spices, and food additives can occur in occupational and nonoccupational settings in those who grow, handle, prepare, or cook food. Pizza is one of the most eaten foods in every continent, and pizza making is a common work in many countries. We aimed to evaluate the occurrence and the causes of contact dermatitis in pizza makers in Naples. We performed an observational study in 45 pizza makers: all the enrolled subjects had to answer a questionnaire designed to detect personal history of respiratory or cutaneous allergy, atopy; work characteristics and timing were also investigated. Every subject attended the dermatology clinic for a complete skin examination, and when needed, patients were patch tested using the Italian baseline series of haptens integrated with an arbitrary pizza makers series. Our results reported that 13.3% of the enrolled pizza makers (6/45) presented hand eczema, and that 8.9% (4/45) were affected by occupational allergic contact dermatitis. Diallyl disulfide and ammonium persulfate were the responsible substances. Performing patch tests in pizza makers and food handlers affected by hand contact dermatitis is useful. We propose a specific series of haptens for this wide working category.

  20. Implementing of the multi-objective particle swarm optimizer and fuzzy decision-maker in exergetic, exergoeconomic and environmental optimization of a benchmark cogeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayyaadi, Hoseyn; Babaie, Meisam; Farmani, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    Multi-objective optimization for design of a benchmark cogeneration system namely as the CGAM cogeneration system is performed. In optimization approach, Exergetic, Exergoeconomic and Environmental objectives are considered, simultaneously. In this regard, the set of Pareto optimal solutions known as the Pareto frontier is obtained using the MOPSO (multi-objective particle swarm optimizer). The exergetic efficiency as an exergetic objective is maximized while the unit cost of the system product and the cost of the environmental impact respectively as exergoeconomic and environmental objectives are minimized. Economic model which is utilized in the exergoeconomic analysis is built based on both simple model (used in original researches of the CGAM system) and the comprehensive modeling namely as TTR (total revenue requirement) method (used in sophisticated exergoeconomic analysis). Finally, a final optimal solution from optimal set of the Pareto frontier is selected using a fuzzy decision-making process based on the Bellman-Zadeh approach and results are compared with corresponding results obtained in a traditional decision-making process. Further, results are compared with the corresponding performance of the base case CGAM system and optimal designs of previous works and discussed. -- Highlights: → A multi-objective optimization approach has been implemented in optimization of a benchmark cogeneration system. → Objective functions based on the environmental impact evaluation, thermodynamic and economic analysis are obtained and optimized. → Particle swarm optimizer implemented and its robustness is compared with NSGA-II. → A final optimal configuration is found using various decision-making approaches. → Results compared with previous works in the field.

  1. Model of Risk Forewarn and Investment Decision in Stock Markets and Its Realization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Hui-wen; TANG Bing-yong; WANG Li-ping; XU Guang-wei

    2004-01-01

    Based on the discussion of characteristic and mechanism of the stock prices volatility in Chinese emerging stock markets, this research designs an index system for risk forewarn, and builds up an investment decision model based on the forewarn of the market risk signal. Then, on probing into the structure and function of the realization of the model, the paper presents the method of data interface.

  2. Impact of Public Market Information System (PMIS) on Farmers Food Marketing Decisions: Case of Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Kpenavoun Chogou, Sylvain; Lebailly, Philippe; Adegbidi, Anselme; Gandonou, Esaie

    2009-01-01

    To sell their surpluses of maize, the main staple in Benin, farmers may choose among three modes of transaction: they may sell under a contract with itinerant traders, or they may sell without a contract at the farmgate or on distant markets. It has been postulated that farmers may choose a profitable mode of transaction if they have good access to information on the prevailing market conditions. Using detailed farm household survey data from Benin, this paper applies the Nested Logit model t...

  3. Simulation based decision support for strategic communication and marketing management concerning the consumer introduction of smart energy meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen STRAGIER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Communication and marketing professionals make strategic decisions in highly complex and dynamic contexts. These decisions are highly uncertain on the outcome and process level when, for example, consumer behaviour is at stake. Decision support systems can provide insights in these levels of uncertainty and the professional process of decision making. However, literature describing decision support tools for strategic communication and marketing management that provide clear insights in uncertainty levels is lacking. This study therefore aims at developing a consumer behaviour simulation module as an important element of such a future decision support tool. The consumer behaviour simulation we propose in this paper is based on data collected from a survey among 386 households with which a behavioural change model was calibrated. We show how various decision scenarios for strategic communication and marketing challenges can be explored and how such a simulation based decision support system can facilitate strategic communication and marketing management concerning the introduction of a smart energy meter.

  4. What are decision making styles for international apparel brands in a large emerging market?

    OpenAIRE

    De Mattos, Claudio; Salciuviene, Laura; Auruskeviciene, Vilte; Juneja, Garima

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the paper is to identify consumer decision making styles based on Sproles & Kendall's (1986) framework in a large emerging market for international apparel brands. An online questionnaire-based survey with individual Indian consumers was conducted. The results of this study identify five consumer decision making styles among Indian consumers when selecting international apparel brands. The findings also suggest significant statistical differences between males and fema...

  5. Effect Of Marketing Communications, Brand Equity, Brand Awareness Attitudes And Decision Of Customers PT. Mortgage In South Sulawesi

    OpenAIRE

    Mustari; Kadir, Abd. Rahman; Asdar, Muhammad; Sudirman, Indrianty

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze and assess (1) the impact of marketing communications on consumer attitudes, (2) the impact of marketing communication to the consumer decision, (3) the impact of brand equity on consumer attitude, (4) the effect of brand equity to the consumer decision, (5) the effect of brand awareness on consumer attitude, (6) the effect of brand awareness on consumer decisions, (7) the impact of consumer attitudes towards consumer decision, (8) the impact o...

  6. Usefulness of the discrete choice methodology for marketing decision-making in New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Linadrakis, M.; Mamalis, S.

    2010-01-01

    functional children's snacks marketed in Greece. Using a very simple discrete choice experimental design, the authors aim (a) to provide an example of consumer research implementation in food-related NPD and to assess its marketing value, and (b) to evaluate the quality of the acquired consumer......-related information for marketing decision-making in food consumer-led NPD processes against a number of criteria set in the relevant literature. ''Functionality'' is found to be a statistically significant attribute for all three children's snacks of the research design compared to other attributes such as flavor...

  7. Sandberg : Key Strategic Decisions in Regards to Entry on the Japanese Market -

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Anna; Wennberg, Gustaf

    2006-01-01

    Problem: What key strategic decisions are required when choosing the right entry mode for a small Swedish firm, with a high-end jewellery brand, on the complex Japanese market? Purpose: The purpose of this research is to investigate different strategic choices in regards to the entry mode and the introduction of an exclusive brand on the Japanese market. The research will be supported by analysing the current situation of Sandberg and its aim to enter new markets. The authors of this thesis a...

  8. Decision makers, scientists and the public as stakeholders: the connection between traffic intervention policy and air quality in a local context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiand, L.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Schmitz, S.; Niehoff, N.

    2017-12-01

    Urban mobility is a key issue to make cities more inclusive, safer, and more environmentally friendly. To ensure a sustainable future, local policy should, among other actions, aim to improve access to sustainable transport systems and enhance mobility opportunities, while at the same time addressing critical environmental and health targets. In order to assess whether these objectives are met, measures should be informed and evaluated from a social and environmental perspective. Citizens' opinions and the acceptance of environmental policies are crucial to successful implementation of urban mobility measures. The complexity of urban air quality issues require transparent decision-making processes that are grounded in evidence-based research and embrace local knowledge. From this basis, our research group and the city council collaborated to assess a new policy action intended to address environmental and health targets. This talk will present the results from the assessment of this new policy, that was implemented in large part to alleviate air quality exceedances, from the perspective of public acceptability of the measure and the approach taken by the city council to implement the measure. Parallel to assessing the effect of this policy on the recorded levels of air pollution and traffic counts, we conducted a social survey to examine public opinions of this measure, as well as the link between air quality awareness and mobility decisions. 4661 responses were collected over a one month period. Survey participants were those most affected by the traffic measure, including commuters and local residents. The results show that there is an overall low acceptance rate of the measure (8%) as well as low concern for air quality (2,90 - where 1 = not concerned and 6 = very concerned). We also found that there is a negative relationship between air quality rating and air quality concern. A similar approach was taken to understand climate change concern, which will be

  9. The Effects of Spatial and Temporal Decisions on Orange Marketing in Babol County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Najafi Alamdarlo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the fact that farmers are in the surrounding factors such as cultural, social and economic environment, these factors can influence the attitudes and decisions to accept or reject the innovation. Farmer`s opinion over time, also, have a significant role in making new decisions. Therefore, absent a model which would assess the temporal and spatial factors in the decision - making process by growing citrus is strongly needed. This study aims to identify and measure the factors affecting the sales channel chosen by farmers and considers the impact of neighboring on farmers’ decisions using the spatial probit model and finally provides some strategies to improve and increase the efficiency of distribution channels in the product market. One of the aims of this research is to assess the effects of accumulated decisions in the minds of farmers on the choosing of marketing channel. Another innovation of this study is evaluating the spatial factors on orange marketing which examines the effects of diffusive decisions in adjacent villages. Materials and Methods: The data used in this study were collected by questionnaire form 99 gardeners in 9 villages in Babol in 1391-92. In this paper, three distribution channels including retail, sales to middle man and sales to whole sale are evaluated at Babol County. For testing these three channels, probit panel data and spatial approach were used. Therefore, in this model the effects of age, experience, education, amount of sales, price, spatial and temporal effects variables have been modeled. To get the spatial effects, the weighted contiguity matrix was used. Results and Discussion: Age has a positive effect on wholesale approach. In sales to middleman approach, age has also positive effect, but its effect is more than wholesale and retail, because as the age increased, risk acceptance decreased. In retail, this variable (age has a negative effect. In this way, due to higher marketing

  10. Decisions on the way to the future energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, R.

    1975-01-01

    The transition to new energy systems, and in this connection the obligatory restructuring of the energy market, will take at last 30 years, as completely new techniques will have to be developed. The energy demand is at present on the increase and will be saturated in about 80 years' time. Recommendations regarding the primary energies to be used in the FRG in the future came to the effect that the import of liquid fossil fuels should be decreased and the money thus saved be spent on further developing the use of nuclear energy combined with inland coal and on the creation of new jobs resulting from this. New en ergy systems which are to be considered: a) nuclear district heating in the form of chemically bound energy, b) coal gasification, c) short-distance supply with hot water, and d) the release of the secondary energy carrier hydrogen by means of the at present still hypothetical thermolysis of water. The real problems resulting from the use of nuclear energy are waste disposal, nuclear fusion, and nuclear fuel supply. Some energy centers located over the whole of the FRG could be in a position to solve these problems in an optimal way. The article ends by going into the question of when a new energy system will be introduced. (GG/LN) [de

  11. POWERS. Simulation of pricing and investment decisions in a liberalized Dutch electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijkers, F.A.M.; Battjes, J.J.; Janszen, F.H.A.; Kaag, M.

    2001-02-01

    With the liberalisation of the Dutch electricity market the electricity price will be divided into a network component and a commodity component. Further, liberalisation will change the determination of the commodity price. Before liberalisation the commodity price was centrally determined by the Sep (Samenwerkende Electriciteitsproductiebedrijven or Dutch Electricity Generating Board), but with the introduction of liberalisation prices will be determined by the market itself. To analyse the liberalised market a new model (POWERS) has been developed in which the new structure of the electricity market is incorporated and the increasing competition between energy companies is taken into account. An overview of the POWERS-model is presented in this report. The model is based on the system dynamics. This means that the decisions (regarding production volume, allocation of the plants, price setting) made by each market player is based on information from the previous period. Optimisation models that are based on the assumption of 'perfect foresight' do not apply to the electricity market. Currently, the model contains a detailed description of the production capacity of the current market players in the Netherlands. Among other purposes the model is suitable for determining an outlook of forward prices on the Dutch electricity market and for analysing the impacts of alternative strategies of the different market players on their profits. 4 refs

  12. An examination of the factors affecting consumer’s purchase decision in the Malaysian retail market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Rajeh Hanaysha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of corporate social responsibility, social media marketing, sales promotion, store environment and perceived value on a purchase decision in the retail sector. Design/methodology/approach – A quantitative research methodology was used and the data were collected from 278 customers of retail stores in Malaysia. The collected data were analysed using SPSS 19 and structural equation modelling on AMOS. Findings – The findings showed that corporate social responsibility has significant positive effects on a purchase decision, whereas sales promotion has a negative effect on purchase decision. The outcomes of this study also indicated that store environment has a significant positive effect on consumers’ purchase decisions. Contrary to expectations, the findings revealed that the effect of social media marketing on purchase decision is insignificant. Finally, the results showed that perceived value has a significant positive effect on a purchase decision. Originality/value – The findings of this study contribute to an understanding of the importance of the selected factors in affecting a consumer’s purchase decision in the retail industry.

  13. Development of OLI+S Entry Decision Model for Construction Firms in International Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Maznah Binti Mat Isa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to provide a holistic approach to address how construction firms make decisions covering all three domains (location, timing and mode across country, market, firm and project factors within the Ownership, Locational and Internalisation plus Specialty (OLI+S paradigm. Questionnaires were administered to 62 project managers based on a sampling frame provided by the Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia. The findings provide empirical and theoretical insights on how the OLI+S model addresses firms’ entry decisions to penetrate international markets. It suggests that the ownership-entry decision factors focus on firms’ internal transferable advantages. The locational-entry decision factors emphasise attractiveness of certain locations where firms decided to invest and operate. The internalisation– entry decision factors emphasise the extent to which firms were able to manipulate their internal competitive assets (firm’s resources and capabilities. Finally, the specialty-entry decision factors emphasise on firms’ competency in project management and specialist expertise to handle complex projects based on their previous project experience. An example of construction firms’ unique characteristics, namely, specialty advantages based on the original Dunning’s OLI eclectic paradigm has been adopted. The established OLI+S entry decision model could be investigated to further refine other related internationalisation theory.

  14. Highest and best use decision-making in a multifunctional agricultural land market

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reed, LL

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available to the concepts of HBU and market value and problems associated with the application of these terms within the valuation context. The need for deferring the decision of a HBU, together with the use of a multiple perspective approach to inform the choice of a HBU...

  15. Choosing to Work? Mothers Return-to-Work Decisions, Social Class, and the Local Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina Sihto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the ways in which social class shapes the return-to-work decisions of Finnish working-class and middle-class mothers, and how these decisions are structured by the constraints and opportunities mothers face in the local labor market. The focus of the study is in the local labor market of the city of Jyväskylä. The data consist of two semi-structured focus group interviews of 14 employed mothers of below school-age children. Using the framework of “gendered moral rationalities,” the study shows that there are similarities in mothers’ experiences, while the structural constraints mothers faced when deciding about the timing of returning back to work differ. The analysis highlights that the differences were not only dependent on social class but also on the situation in the local labor market. For working-class mothers, the most crucial issue was the financial strain that their staying at home caused to their families. For middle-class mothers, finding employment opportunities that would match their educational qualifications in the local labor market had been challenging, which affected their timing of returning back to work. The paper concludes that local labor market plays an important role in mother’s return-to-work decisions and should be explored further in differing geographical contexts.

  16. Stock Market Liquidity and Investment Decisions of Non-Financial Quoted Companies in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiu Oyesola Salawu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the impact of market liquidity on investment decision of 50 non-financial quoted companies in Nigeria between 2006 and 2012. The study employed secondary source of data collection. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics such as pool OLS and fixed effect model. The results showed that Size of the Firm (FS and Firms’ Age (FAGE were the only significant determinants of Return on Investment (ROI. The turnover ratio (TOR which is a proxy for market liquidity had positive but insignificant effect on ROI. Based on the above findings, the study concluded that for most of the companies operating in the non-financial sector of the Nigerian economy, the influence of market liquidity on investment decision is positive, but not significant. The study recommended that management should place more emphasis on the firm age and in particular firm size as they can be employed to predict the return on investment.

  17. Forecast Informed Reservoir Operations: Bringing Science and Decision-Makers Together to Explore Use of Hydrometeorological Forecasts to Support Future Reservoir Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, F. M.; Jasperse, J.

    2017-12-01

    Forecast Informed Reservoir Operations (FIRO) is a proposed strategy that is exploring inorporation of improved hydrometeorological forecasts of land-falling atmospheric rivers on the U.S. West Coast into reservoir operations. The first testbed for this strategy is Lake Mendocino, which is located in the East Fork of the 1485 mi2 Russian River Watershed in northern California. This project is guided by the Lake Mendocino FIRO Steering Committee (SC). The SC is an ad hoc committee that consists of water managers and scientists from several federal, state, and local agencies, and universities who have teamed to evaluate whether current or improved technology and scientific understanding can be utilized to improve water supply reliability, enhance flood mitigation and support recovery of listed salmon for the Russian River of northern California. In 2015, the SC created a detailed work plan, which included a Preliminary Viability Assessment, which has now been completed. The SC developed a vision that operational efficiency would be improved by using forecasts to inform decisions about releasing or storing water. FIRO would use available reservoir storage in an efficient manner by (1) better forecasting inflow (or lack of inflow) with enhanced technology, and (2) adapting operation in real time to meet the need for storage, rather than making storage available just in case it is needed. The envisioned FIRO strategy has the potential to simultaneously improve water supply reliability, flood protection, and ecosystem outcomes through a more efficient use of existing infrastructure while requiring minimal capital improvements in the physical structure of the dam. This presentation will provide an overview of the creation of the FIRO SC and how it operates, and describes the lessons learned through this partnership. Results in the FIRO Preliminary Viability Assessment will be summarized and next steps described.

  18. "Good idea but not feasible" – the views of decision makers and stakeholders towards strategies for better palliative care in Germany: a representative survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Nils

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Statements on potential measures to improve palliative care in Germany predominantly reflect the points of view of experts from specialized palliative care organizations. By contrast, relatively little is known about the views of representatives of organizations and institutions that do not explicitly specialize in palliative care, but are involved to a relevant extent in the decision-making and policy-making processes. Therefore, for the first time in Germany, we carried out a representative study of the attitudes of a broad range of different stakeholders acting at the national or state level of the health care system. Methods 442 organizations and institutions were included and grouped as follows: patient organizations, nursing organizations, medical associations, specialized palliative care organizations, political institutions, health insurance funds and others. Using a standardized questionnaire, the participants were asked to rate their agreement with the World Health Organization's definition of palliative care (five-point scale: 1 = completely agree, 5 = completely disagree and to evaluate 18 pre-selected improvement measures with regard to their general meaningfulness and the feasibility of their introduction into the German health care system (two-point scale: 1 = good, 2 = poor. Results The response rate was 67%. Overall, the acceptance of the aims of palliative care in the WHO definition was strong. However, the level of agreement among health insurance funds' representatives was significantly less than that among representatives of the palliative care organizations. All the improvement measures selected for evaluation were rated significantly higher in respect of their meaningfulness than of their feasibility in Germany. In detail, the meaningfulness of 16 measures was evaluated positively (70–100% participants chose the answer "good"; for six of these measures feasibility was evaluated negatively (0–30

  19. Etude statistique des brevets: un nouvel outil d'aide à la décision Patent Statistics: a New Tool for Decision Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moureau M.

    2006-11-01

    . Such analyses then fall within the scope of decision-making tools, since they bring to light a certain interpretation of the past and can be used for forecasts in the future.

  20. Commercial exchanges in B2B Dyads. A new model of decision-making in fast changing markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno Bragado, Elisa

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation presents a Model of Commercial Exchanges in B2B Dyads. This model explains how buying and selling decisions are made in industrial markets that are subject to continuous change, particularly the market for telecommunication products and services.Buying and selling decision-making

  1. The unsustainable Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Arvidsson

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Makers is the latest novel of the American science fiction writer, blogger and Silicon Valley intellectual Cory Doctorow. Set in the 2010s, the novel describes the possible impact of the present trend towards the migration of modes of production and organization that have emerged online into the sphere of material production. Called New Work, this movement is indebted to a new maker culture that attracts people into a kind of neo-artisan, high tech mode of production. The question is: can a corporate-funded New Work movement be sustainable? Doctorow seems to suggest that a capitalist economy of abundance is unsustainable because it tends to restrict the reach of its value flows to a privileged managerial elite.

  2. A Comparative Review of Marketing Authorization Decisions in Switzerland, the EU, and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Torre Di Sanguinetto, Simon; Heinonen, Esa; Antonov, Janine; Bolte, Claus

    2018-01-01

    In this study we compared Swissmedic's (SMC's) regulatory marketing authorization decisions to those of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European drug regulatory authorities (EU). We investigated the overall similarity of the regulatory decisions, approval, and postmarketing withdrawal rates in the 3 jurisdictions. In case regulatory decisions diverged, we analyzed the reasons for rejection of marketing authorization applications (MAAs). The study comprises 255 new molecular entity (NME) MAAs assessed by SMC by the EU and FDA between 2005 through 2014. Study parameters included the regulatory decision, postmarketing withdrawal rates, and the official reasons for rejection. Regulatory decisions converged to a high degree among all 3 agencies (between 84% and 90%). SMC's average approval rate (84%) was slightly lower than those of the FDA (87%) and the EU (91%). Postmarketing withdrawal rates were generally low (4%-5%) but were 3 to 5 times higher when decisions among the drug regulatory authorities (DRAs) diverged. SMC's primary grounds for rejection were lack of efficacy (45%) and safety (40%). The 3 investigated DRAs adhere largely to the same scientific principles and regulatory guidelines; therefore, remaining disparities ought to be considered in a cultural, legal and public health priority context.

  3. MARKETING MIX ANALYSIS OF NATURAL TOURISM AREA 'KAWAH PUTIH’ AND ITS EFFECT ON VISITORS’ DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isyana Rahayu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Kawah Putih is one of the leading tourist places in Bandung which has significantly contributed to the revenue of travel business division in the Forestry Housing as the manager. The revenue obtained depends on the marketing mix strategy conducted by the management because the marketing mix is the elements which become a consideration basis when making marketing communication strategy services in order to understand the demands of tourists. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to obtain and understand information and analyze the visitors’ responses on the natural tourism area related to the marketing mix that has been implemented by the management. The dependent variables included the elements of marketing mix, that involves 7P – product, price, place, promotion, people, procees and physical evidence, while the independent variable included the visitors’ decision. From the validity and tests, it is revealed that the overall regression model bring effects or at least there is one variable of the marketing mix factors that influences the decision of the visitors. From the data analysis, it is found that the process variables and physical appearance do not significantly affect the decision of the visitors. The other variables. that involve variables of product, price, place, promotion, and human have significantly influence the visitors’ decision.Keywords: Marketing mix, Kawah Putih, decision of visitors, touristsABSTRAKKawah Putih merupakan salah satu wisata unggulan Kota Bandung dan telah berkontribusi cukup signifikan untuk pendapatan divisi bisnis wisata Perum Perhutani. Pendapatan yang diperoleh tergantung dari strategi bauran pemasaran yang dilakukan oleh pengelola karena pada bauran pemasaran terdapat unsur atau elemen yang menjadi dasar pertimbangan pembuatan strategi komunikasi pemasaran jasa dalam rangka untuk memahami tuntutan dari wisatawan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah memperoleh informasi, memahami dan menganalisis

  4. Managing costs, managing benefits: employer decisions in local health care markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Jon B; Trude, Sally

    2003-02-01

    To better understand employer health benefit decision making, how employer health benefits strategies evolve over time, and the impact of employer decisions on local health care systems. Data were collected as part of the Community Tracking Study (CTS), a longitudinal analysis of health system change in 12 randomly selected communities. This is an observational study with data collection over a six-year period. The study used semistructured interviews with local respondents, combined with monitoring of local media, to track changes in health care systems over time and their impact on community residents. Interviewing began in 1996 and was carried out at two-year intervals, with a total of approximately 2,200 interviews. The interviews provided a variety of perspectives on employer decision making concerning health benefits; these perspectives were triangulated to reach conclusions. The tight labor market during the study period was the dominant consideration in employer decision making regarding health benefits. Employers, in managing employee compensation, made independent decisions in pursuit of individual goals, but these decisions were shaped by similar labor market conditions. As a result, within and across our study sites, employer decisions in aggregate had an important impact on local health care systems, although employers' more highly visible public efforts to bring about health system change often met with disappointing results. General economic conditions in the 1990s had an important impact on the configuration of local health systems through their effect on employer decision making regarding health benefits offered to employees, and the responses of health plans and providers to those decisions.

  5. 75 FR 10121 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Final Decision on Proposed Amendments to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... marketing areas. The other 8 orders have no similar route disposition limit. The 3 southeastern orders... Part IV Department of Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 1000, 1001, 1005, et al. Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Final Decision on Proposed Amendments to...

  6. Política de autogestión hospitalaria en Chile: percepciones de los tomadores de decisiones Hospital self-management policy in Chile: perceptions of decision-makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Méndez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Conocer las percepciones de los tomadores de decisiones respecto de la etapa de implementación de la política de autogestión hospitalaria en dos hospitales de alta complejidad del sur de Chile. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio cualitativo descriptivo y exploratorio basado en entrevistas semiestructuradas en profundidad a tomadores de decisiones de los hospitales Regional de la ciudad de Valdivia y San José de la ciudad de Osorno, durante el período de agosto de 2010 a diciembre de 2011. Se seleccionó una muestra por conveniencia de 26 tomadores de decisiones. Las 26 entrevistas fueron grabadas y transcritas en forma literal. El análisis de la información se hizo utilizando la técnica de análisis de contenido, en su aproximación inductiva. RESULTADOS: Para los entrevistados, la conceptualización de la autogestión está determinada por la autonomía para la toma de decisiones respecto de la asignación de recursos y el financiamiento de la provisión de servicios de salud en las instituciones hospitalarias. También manifestaron que para mejorar la etapa de implementación se deben incluir políticas de recursos humanos y de financiamiento de la función de provisión de servicios de salud. A las debilidades, por su parte, las relacionaron con la ausencia de capacidades organizacionales y competencias gerenciales de los equipos de salud para la implementación de los cambios. CONCLUSIONES: La política de autogestión hospitalaria es conceptualizada desde la autonomía financiera, y su implementación está determinada por las brechas de capacidad que persisten en el diseño de la política.OBJECTIVE: To learn the perceptions of decision-makers concerning the imple­men­t­ation stage of a hospital self-management policy in two highly complex hospitals in southern Chile. METHODS: A descriptive, exploratory, qualitative study based on semi-structured in-depth interviews of decision-makers at the Regional Hospital of Valdivia

  7. Fuzzy inference game approach to uncertainty in business decisions and market competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oderanti, Festus Oluseyi

    2013-01-01

    The increasing challenges and complexity of business environments are making business decisions and operations more difficult for entrepreneurs to predict the outcomes of these processes. Therefore, we developed a decision support scheme that could be used and adapted to various business decision processes. These involve decisions that are made under uncertain situations such as business competition in the market or wage negotiation within a firm. The scheme uses game strategies and fuzzy inference concepts to effectively grasp the variables in these uncertain situations. The games are played between human and fuzzy players. The accuracy of the fuzzy rule base and the game strategies help to mitigate the adverse effects that a business may suffer from these uncertain factors. We also introduced learning which enables the fuzzy player to adapt over time. We tested this scheme in different scenarios and discover that it could be an invaluable tool in the hand of entrepreneurs that are operating under uncertain and competitive business environments.

  8. THE IMPACT OF PRODUCTION DECISIONS ON THE BALANCE PERFECT MARKET. AN INTERACTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharia Marian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Given that the market equilibrium at a given time t is the result of ratio of product demand, at the same moment of time t, and the supply launched at an earlier time t − Δt , and given that the product remains on the market until the sale was full, rationality of supply decision, by future sizing anticipating of demand, has a fundamental influence on the stability and equilibrium of product market. This paper provides an interactive version for study of sizing impact on offer, based from three dynamic models of perfect markets, derived from Kaldor's cobweb model. Using the same values of marginal demand, marginal supply and incompressible demand and supply are presented interactively the influences of the producer decision on the stability of the product market. IT produs, dezvoltat pentru acest scop poate fi utilizat, de asemenea, în cereri şi cursuri practice în microeconomie, dinamica economică, luarea deciziilor şi altele.

  9. Simulation based decision support for strategic communication and marketing management concerning the consumer introduction of smart energy meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Sanden, M.C.A.; Van Dam, K.H.; Stragier, J.; Kobus, C.B.A.

    2013-01-01

    Communication and marketing professionals make strategic decisions in highly complex and dynamic contexts. These decisions are highly uncertain on the outcome and process level when, for example, consumer behaviour is at stake. Decision support systems can provide insights in these levels of

  10. Factors Which Influence The Fish Purchasing Decision: A study on Traditional Market in Riau Mainland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswati, Latifa; Putri, Asgami

    2018-05-01

    The purposes of the research are to analyze and assess the factors which influence fish purchasing by the community at Tenayan Raya district Pekanbaru.Research methodology which used is survey method, especially interview and observation technique or direct supervision on the market which located at Tenayan Raya district. Determination technique of sampling location/region is done by purposive sampling. The sampling method is done by accidental sampling. Technique analysis of factors which used using the data that derived from the respondent opinion to various fish variable. The result of this research are the factors which influence fish purchasing decision done in a traditional market which located at Tenayan Raya district are product factor, price factors, social factor and individual factor. Product factor which influences fish purchasing decision as follows: the eyelets condition, the nutrition of fresh fish, the diversity of sold fish. Price factors influence the fish purchasing decision, such as: the price of fresh fish, the convincing price and the suitability price and benefits of the fresh fish. Individual factors which influence a fish purchasing decision, such as education and income levels. Social factors which influence a fish purchasing decision, such as family, colleagues and feeding habits of fish.

  11. Decision Making in Reference to Model of Marketing Predictive Analytics – Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Tarka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this paper is to describe concepts and assumptions of predictive marketing analytics in reference to decision making. In particular, we highlight issues pertaining to the importance of data and the modern approach to data analysis and processing with the purpose of solving real marketing problems that companies encounter in business. Methodology: In this paper authors provide two study cases showing how, and to what extent predictive marketing analytics work can be useful in practice e.g., investigation of the marketing environment. The two cases are based on organizations operating mainly on Web site domain. The fi rst part of this article, begins a discussion with the explanation of a general idea of predictive marketing analytics. The second part runs through opportunities it creates for companies in the process of building strong competitive advantage in the market. The paper article ends with a brief comparison of predictive analytics versus traditional marketing-mix analysis. Findings: Analytics play an extremely important role in the current process of business management based on planning, organizing, implementing and controlling marketing activities. Predictive analytics provides the actual and current picture of the external environment. They also explain what problems are faced with the company in business activities. Analytics tailor marketing solutions to the right time and place at minimum costs. In fact they control the effi ciency and simultaneously increases the effectiveness of the firm. Practical implications: Based on the study cases comparing two enterprises carrying business activities in different areas, one can say that predictive analytics has far more been embraces extensively than classical marketing-mix analyses. The predictive approach yields greater speed of data collection and analysis, stronger predictive accuracy, better obtained competitor data, and more transparent models where one can

  12. Customer Purchasing Behavior Analysis as Alternatives for Supporting In-Store Green Marketing Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alex Syaekhoni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing concerns about environmental protection, the environmental sustainability of businesses has been widely considered in the manufacturing and supply chain context. Further, its adoption has been implemented in the retail industry for marketing field, including green product promotion. This study aimed to propose a customer purchasing behavior analysis as an alternative for supporting decision-making in order to promote green products in retail stores. Hence, right-on-target marketing strategies can be implemented appropriately. The study was carried out using shopping path data collected by radio frequency identification (RFID from a large retail store in Seoul, South Korea. In addition, the store layout and its traffic were also analyzed. This method is expected to help experts providing appropriate decision alternatives. In addition, it can help retailers in order to increase product sales and achieve high levels of customer satisfaction.

  13. African Researchers and Decision-makers

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    International Institute of Information Technology, Ghana ..... findings or may even censure or control research for political and ideological reasons. .... IDRC has conducted a comprehensive internal review of its funded research in order to ... practices”; rather, any impact is the result of a confluence of several dynamic factors.

  14. A A Women in The Labour Market and Decision Making in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Arapi, Dena; Vardari, Luan; Gashi, Rrezarta

    2018-01-01

    Gender equality is defined as a prerequisite for European integration and as such the Action Plan for European Partnership is listed on Political Criteria. The Government of Kosovo in April 2008 approved the Kosovo Program for Gender Equality GENERAL six goals and eight specific objectives. With this objective case for women in the labor market and decision-making requires a greater commitment of all stakeholders. This study provides an overview of the rough that evaluates the legal framew...

  15. An examination of the factors affecting consumer’s purchase decision in the Malaysian retail market

    OpenAIRE

    Jalal Rajeh Hanaysha

    2018-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of corporate social responsibility, social media marketing, sales promotion, store environment and perceived value on a purchase decision in the retail sector. Design/methodology/approach – A quantitative research methodology was used and the data were collected from 278 customers of retail stores in Malaysia. The collected data were analysed using SPSS 19 and structural equation modelling on AMOS. Findings – The findings showed th...

  16. The effect of green marketing mix on purchase decision-making styles of customers

    OpenAIRE

    Golrokh Azimi; Mohammad Shabani

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of green marketing mix on purchase decision-making styles of customers in appliance stores in Sanandaj. In this study, a standard questionnaire was used to collect the data of independent variable and assess the dependent variable. The present study is applied in terms of purpose and is also descriptive-survey in terms of data collection. The customers of appliance stores in Sanandaj were studied as the statistical population of this stud...

  17. Behavioral Economics and Marketing in Aid of Decision Making Among the Poor

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Marianne; Shafir, Eldar; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2006-01-01

    This article considers several aspects of the economic decision making of the poor from the perspective of behavioral economics, and it focuses on potential contributions from marketing. Among other things, the authors consider some relevant facets of the social and institutional environments in which the poor interact, and they review some behavioral patterns that are likely to arise in these contexts. A behaviorally more informed perspective can help make sense of what might otherwise be co...

  18. Collective Decision Mechanisms and Efficient Stock Market Allocations: Existence of a Participation Equilibrium.

    OpenAIRE

    Forsythe, Robert; Suchanek, Gerry L

    1984-01-01

    The recent literature on economies with an incomplete set of markets has been devoted to the study of the efficiency properties of collective stockholder decision mechanisms for guiding the behavior of firms when the restrictive Ekern-Wilson spanning condition is not satisfied. The results have been essentially negative; a majority voting rule and controlling interest rules will not yield efficient equilibrium allocations in general. However, in a recent paper, Helpman and Razin (1978) sugges...

  19. Environmental change challenges decision-making during post-market environmental monitoring of transgenic crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanvido, Olivier; Romeis, Jörg; Bigler, Franz

    2011-12-01

    The ability to decide what kind of environmental changes observed during post-market environmental monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops represent environmental harm is an essential part of most legal frameworks regulating the commercial release of GM crops into the environment. Among others, such decisions are necessary to initiate remedial measures or to sustain claims of redress linked to environmental liability. Given that consensus on criteria to evaluate 'environmental harm' has not yet been found, there are a number of challenges for risk managers when interpreting GM crop monitoring data for environmental decision-making. In the present paper, we argue that the challenges in decision-making have four main causes. The first three causes relate to scientific data collection and analysis, which have methodological limits. The forth cause concerns scientific data evaluation, which is controversial among the different stakeholders involved in the debate on potential impacts of GM crops on the environment. This results in controversy how the effects of GM crops should be valued and what constitutes environmental harm. This controversy may influence decision-making about triggering corrective actions by regulators. We analyse all four challenges and propose potential strategies for addressing them. We conclude that environmental monitoring has its limits in reducing uncertainties remaining from the environmental risk assessment prior to market approval. We argue that remaining uncertainties related to adverse environmental effects of GM crops would probably be assessed in a more efficient and rigorous way during pre-market risk assessment. Risk managers should acknowledge the limits of environmental monitoring programmes as a tool for decision-making.

  20. The Influence Of Planning Decisions Regarding Land Evaluation Based On A Selected Local Real Estate Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foryś Iwona

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the influence of planning decisions on changes taking place on the local real estate market. Three stages of the planning process are studied in particular, i.e.: the passing of the study of conditions and directions of spatial development, the Commune Council Resolution on initiating the formulation of a local spatial development plan, and finally the Resolution on accepting the local plan, as well as the effects of these activities on the land value in a given real estate market in Stargard Szczeciński, in the West-Pomeranian (Zachodniopomorskie Province of Poland. The object of the research is to identify the indicated relationships on a given real estate market, on which respective spatial planning stages can be distinguished, as well as the strength and course of the analyzed relationships. The study will verify the research hypothesis regarding the strength and directions of the effects of planning decisions as the direct and indirect reasons behind price changes on the real estate market. The analysis uses data from the Price Register and the District Starosty Values, along with statistical and public information data and the authors' own studies.

  1. Optimal Decision Making Framework of an Electric Vehicle Aggregator in Future and Pool markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rashidizadeh-Kermani, Homa; Najafi, Hamid Reza; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad

    2018-01-01

    An electric vehicle (EV) aggregator, as an agent between power producers and EV owners, participates in the future and pool market to supply EVs’ requirement. Because of uncertain nature of pool prices and EVs’ behavior, this paper proposed a two stage scenario-based model to obtain optimal decis...... electricity markets, a sensitivity analysis over risk factor is performed. The numerical results demonstrate that with the application of the proposed model, the aggregator can supply EVs with lower purchases from markets....... decision making of an EV aggregator. To deal with mentioned uncertainties, the aggregator’s risk aversion is applied using conditional value at risk (CVaR) method in the proposed model. The proposed two stage risk-constrained decision making problem is applied to maximize EV aggregator’s expected profit...... in an uncertain environment. The aggregator can participate in the future and pool market to buy required energy of EVs and offer optimal charge/discharge prices to the EV owners. In this model, in order to assess the effects of EVs owners’ reaction to the aggregator’s offered prices on the purchases from...

  2. An examination of how the market entry decision influences the business ability to internationalise and survive in a foreign market\\ud (The case study of Diageo in African market)

    OpenAIRE

    Kwabo, Fodio Umar

    2014-01-01

    2014 dissertation for MBA in International Business. Selected by academic staff as a good example of a masters level dissertation. This research is design to examine the market entry decision and how it can influences the business ability to internationalize and survive in a foreign market. The researcher has chosen the case study methodology for this research; the case study is on Diageo PLC upon how they took their decisions to select a particular entry mode on African markets. Diageo is on...

  3. A Women in The Labour Market and Decision Making in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dena ARAPI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gender equality is defined as a prerequisite for European integration and as such the Action Plan for European Partnership is listed on Political Criteria. The Government of Kosovo in April 2008 approved the Kosovo Program for Gender Equality GENERAL six goals and eight specific objectives. With this objective case for women in the labor market and decision-making requires a greater commitment of all stakeholders. This study provides an overview of the rough that evaluates the legal framework and cross-sectoral policies and positioning of women in conformity with their school preparation in decision-making positions. Economic independence remains as one of the main key to the realization of the equal right to decision-making positions. Although Kosovo with gender representation in decision-making level of the seventeenth in the world counted in the labor market situation remains a challenge that requires a great commitment to the local factor and even international. Therefore, the research enables the opening of discussions, improving the working environment and the implementation of the Action Plan for Empowering Women in Economy as a key factor of the welfare of family and society.

  4. Market Efficiency and Real Efficiency: The Connect and Disconnect via Feedback Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Liyan Yang; Itay Goldstein

    2014-01-01

    We study a model to explore the (dis)connect between market efficiency and real efficiency when real decision makers learn information from the market to guide their actions. We emphasize two channels that determine whether the two efficiency concepts are aligned. The "externality channel" says that individual learning outcomes may not always map into real efficiency because the presence of externality causes real decision makers to overuse the price information. The "(mis)match channel" emph...

  5. Coordination and decision making of regulation, operation, and market activities in power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Tomoaki

    Electric power has been traditionally supplied to customers at regulated rates by vertically integrated utilities (VIUs), which own generation, transmission, and distribution systems. However, the regulatory authorities of VIUs are promoting competition in their businesses to lower the price of electric energy. Consequently, in new deregulated circumstances, many suppliers and marketers compete in the generation market, and conflict of interest may often occur over transmission. Therefore, a neutral entity, called an independent system operator (ISO), which operates the power system independently, has been established to give market participants nondiscriminatory access to transmission sectors with a natural monopoly, and to facilitate competition in generation sectors. Several types of ISOs are established at present, with their respective regions and authorities. The ISO receives many requests from market participants to transfer power, and must evaluate the feasibility of their requests under the system's condition. In the near future, regulatory authorities may impose various objectives on the ISOs. Then, based on the regulators' policies, the ISO must determine the optimal schedules from feasible solutions, or change the market participants' requests. In a newly developed power market, market participants will conduct their transactions in order to maximize their profit. The most crucial information in conducting power transactions is price and demand. A direct transaction between suppliers and consumers may become attractive because of its stability of price, while in a power exchange market, gaming and speculation of participants may push up electricity prices considerably. To assist the consumers in making effective decisions, suitable methods for forecasting volatile market price are necessary. This research has been approached from three viewpoints: Firstly, from the system operator's point of view, desirable system operation and power market structure

  6. The role of pharmaceutical marketing and other factors in prescribing decisions: the Yemeni experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Areefi, Mahmoud Abdullah; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham B

    2013-01-01

    Prescribing decisions are a complex phenomenon and influenced by many pharmacological and non-pharmacological factors. Little is known about the actual prescribing behaviors of physicians or the factors behind their prescribing decisions. The objective of this study was to explore the factors that influence physicians' prescribing decisions and the role of the marketing activities by pharmaceutical companies in this decision-making process. A semi-structured interview with the critical incident technique method was used to encourage physicians to describe the particular situations of prescribing for specific newly marketed drugs. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematic content analysis with systematic and comprehensive coding was employed to identify categories of physicians' reasons for either prescribing or not of the study drugs. Factors that influence prescribing of the study drugs (223 critical incidents) were categorized in six major themes. Drug characteristics, the most frequently mentioned by physicians as reasons of prescribe, were implicated in 70 (31.4%) incidents, followed by pharmaceutical company mentioned in 53 (23.8%) incidents, indications, 31 (13.9%) incidents, and patient contexts, 26 (11.7%) incidents. Environmental factors as information and evidence were implicated in 22 (9.9%) incidents, and physician factor, 21 (9.4%) incidents. Prescribing is a complex process and physicians integrate different factors. Although physicians make a considerable on patient contexts and treatment outcomes, they still rely on their personal experiences when making prescribing in addition to firms' source of information and firms' marketing activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pricing decision research for TPL considering different logistics service level influencing the market demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: With the rapid development of economy and the support of government policy, the development of the logistics industry has become a new economic growth engine. As we all know, the reasonable price of logistics service is the most critical factor for logistics enterprises to win market share and make profit. At the same time, the service level is one of the most important factors which will influence the size of the market share. Therefore, this paper constructs a pricing model considering a situation that the logistics service level affects the market demand. This model helps the enterprises to make scientific decisions.Methodology: To achieve this objective, this paper constructs the TPL service and the pricing decision models based on the game theory.Findings: The conclusion shows that under the situation of independent decision-making, the enterprise which has strong ability of logistics service does not necessarily have a competitive advantage, while pricing equilibrium under the situation of joint decision-making, not only make both sides get more income, but also be conducive to improve the level of service.Research limitations: In this research, there are some assumptions that might affect the accuracy the model such as there are only two TPL enterprises to participate in, and considerations are taken under the condition of complete information environment. These assumptions can be relaxed in the future work.Originality: In this research, logistics service level is taken account into the areas of logistics service pricing, which makes the models more practical and more perfect. And this paper constructs game models based on game theory to make up the limitations of traditional pricing theories in logistics service pricing.

  8. Business management practices in the power industry: Decision making in a market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.H. [Fieldstone Private Capital Group, New York, NY (United States); Rosel, V. [Fieldstone Private Capital Group, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Management of a free market power industry, or managing the transition from a planned economy to a free market one, is driven by a fundamental economic premise - it is unrealistic (and economically unsound) to try to shelter end users (manufacturers or otherwise) from the true cost of energy: (i) energy prices are a function of fuel inputs (ii) fuel inputs are world priced (iii) end users must pay prices based on true costs Trying to counter any of these dictates will cause economic inefficiencies and misallocations. Managers of energy production in a free market economy must therefore learn to acquire data, and learn to extrapolate. As information is never complete, or perfect, managers must learn to consider contingencies, alternatives and options. In a free market economy, the decision to build a power facility is not controlled simply by the recognition of a perceived need for more power in an area. Because survival in a free market economy requires making a profit, as part for the decision process managers must: (i) talk to their customers to determine power needs into the future (ii) talk to their input suppliers, and arrange contracts (iii) make sure that there is a spread between cost and revenue As stated this is a simple recipe, but is difficult in practice. To perform any forecasting, managers must acquire control over cost, so as to have a base from which to judge the continued profitability or potential profitability, of any current activity or future ventures. It should be noted that planning for the future is difficult at any time but even more so when moving through an era where in the entire economy is undergoing systemic changes. Historic customer base, and historic supply arrangements, may not mean much. Therefore, managers must keep acquiring information, and updating forecasts.

  9. How are investment decisions in the steam coal market affected by demand uncertainty and buyer-side market power?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, Moritz

    2012-02-15

    During the last decade, China has evolved into the largest consumer by far and one of the largest importers of coal. The main driver for the increase in coal demand in China has been economic growth. Future Chinese growth rates, and therefore coal consumption and coal imports, are highly uncertain, which may affect profitability of new investments of international mining companies. Furthermore, China has actively employed an array of instruments to control coal trade flows in the last years. In this paper, we analyse the potential impact of increased Chinese coal import volatility and of potential exertion of Chinese market power on global mining investment decisions. For this purpose, we develop a multi-stage stochastic equilibrium model which is able to simulate investments under uncertainty and a monopolistic player in addition to a competitive fringe. We find that accounting for Chinese demand uncertainty yields significant costs for investors and also leads to a delay in investments. Additionally, the exertion of Chinese market power further reduces overall investment activity.

  10. How are investment decisions in the steam coal market affected by demand uncertainty and buyer-side market power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, Moritz

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade, China has evolved into the largest consumer by far and one of the largest importers of coal. The main driver for the increase in coal demand in China has been economic growth. Future Chinese growth rates, and therefore coal consumption and coal imports, are highly uncertain, which may affect profitability of new investments of international mining companies. Furthermore, China has actively employed an array of instruments to control coal trade flows in the last years. In this paper, we analyse the potential impact of increased Chinese coal import volatility and of potential exertion of Chinese market power on global mining investment decisions. For this purpose, we develop a multi-stage stochastic equilibrium model which is able to simulate investments under uncertainty and a monopolistic player in addition to a competitive fringe. We find that accounting for Chinese demand uncertainty yields significant costs for investors and also leads to a delay in investments. Additionally, the exertion of Chinese market power further reduces overall investment activity.

  11. The Influence of Marketing Mix and Service Quality on Corporate Reputation and Its Impact on Repurchase Decision

    OpenAIRE

    Bastaman, Aam; Royyansyah, Mufti

    2017-01-01

    . Retail business is a growing Industry in Indonesia. Among others there aretwo important variables in retail business: Marketing mix and service quality. Thisresearch are aimed first to know and to analysis the influence of marketing mix andservice quality on corporate reputation and its impact on repurchase decision directlyand indirectly. Secondly, to analysis which variables affect mostly on corporatereputation and on repurchase decision. The research approaches using quantitativeapproach...

  12. Physicians' decision process for drug prescription and the impact of pharmaceutical marketing mix instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Katia; De Staebel, Odette; Gijsbrechts, Els; van Waterschoot, Walter

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an in-depth, qualitative analysis of the physicians' decision process for drug prescription. Drugs in the considered therapeutic classes are mainly prescribed by specialists, treating patients with obligatory medical insurance, for a prolonged period of time. The research approach is specifically designed to capture the full complexity and sensitive nature of the physician's choice behavior, which appears to be more hybrid and less rational in nature than is often assumed in quantitative, model-based analyses of prescription behavior. Several interesting findings emerge from the analysis: (i) non-compensatory decision rules seem to dominate the decision process, (ii) consideration sets are typically small and change-resistant, (iii) drug cost is not a major issue for most physicians, (iv) detailing remains one of the most powerful pharmaceutical marketing instruments and is highly appreciated as a valuable and quick source of information, and (v) certain types of non-medical marketing incentives (such as free conference participation) may in some situations also influence drug choices.

  13. The Reddy maker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nof, Doron; Paldor, Nathan; Gorder, Stephen Van

    2002-09-01

    alterations bring the outflow closer and closer to the critical condition and it is, therefore, argued that all outflows ultimately reach the critical point (unless diffusion and mixing destroy them prior to that stage). It is suggested that Reddies (i.e., isolated lenses containing Red Sea water) are formed by the above processes. Namely, we propose that the "Reddy maker" is a combination of three processes, the natural reduction in the bottom slope which the outflow senses as it approaches the bottom of the ocean, the entrainment-induced increase in the outflow's thickness, and the entrainment-induced decrease in the outflow's density. An animation of the eddy generation process can be viewed at http://doronnof.net/features.html#video (click on "Reddy maker video").

  14. Economic impact assessment and operational decision making in emission and transmission constrained electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanduri, Vishnu; Kazemzadeh, Narges

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We develop a bilevel game-theoretic model for allowance and electricity markets. ► We solve the model using a reinforcement learning algorithm. ► Model accounts for transmission constraints, cap-and-trade constraints. ► Study demonstrated on 9-bus electric power network. ► Obtain insights about supply shares, impact of transmission constraints, and cost pass through. -- Abstract: Carbon constrained electricity markets are a reality in 10 northeastern states and California in the US, as well as the European Union. Close to a Billion US Dollars have been spent by entities (mainly generators) in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative in procuring CO 2 allowances to meet binding emissions restrictions. In the near future, there are expected to be significant impacts due to the cap-and-trade program, especially when the cap stringency increases. In this research we develop a bilevel, complete-information, matrix game-theoretic model to assess the economic impact and make operational decisions in carbon-constrained restructured electricity markets. Our model is solved using a reinforcement learning approach, which takes into account the learning and adaptive nature of market participants. Our model also accounts for all the power systems constraints via a DC-OPF problem. We demonstrate the working of the model and compute various economic impact indicators such as supply shares, cost pass-through, social welfare, profits, allowance prices, and electricity prices. Results from a 9-bus power network are presented.

  15. The Impact of Corporate Culture, the Reward System, and Perceived Moral Intensity on Marketing Students' Ethical Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nill, Alexander; Schibrowsky, John A.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study how marketing students' ethical decision making was influenced by their perceived moral intensity (PMI), corporate culture, and the reward system. The findings indicate that levels of awareness of the ethical consequences of a decision, the corporate culture, and the reward system all significantly affect…

  16. Consumer-generated versus marketer-generated websites in consumer decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Bronner, F.; de Hoog, R.

    2010-01-01

    Internet users are encouraged to rate and review all kinds of services and products. These kinds of reviews are described as eWOM (electronic wordof- mouth). Our central question is ‘Are consumers using these reviews, and what is the role of eWOM as compared with commercial-marketer-generated information and advertising on the internet?’ The vacation decision process was used as the domain of investigation, but these results are also compared with four other domains. The conclusion is that th...

  17. The Effect of Central Bank Policy Decisions on Stock Market Returns in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés A. Acuña

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the stock-market response to monetary policy decisions made by the Central Bank of Chile.  We use a methodology designed for the study of low frequency events and monthly data from September 2001 to December 2013 to estimate the effect of anticipated and unanticipated changes in the Chilean monetary policy interest rate on stock returns.  In contrast to the research findings in the literature for the U.S., we find no evidence that monetary surprises affect Chilean stock returns.

  18. Interactive Online Advertising: The Effectiveness of Marketing Strategy towards Customers Purchase Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizam Nurul Zarirah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing of IT industry made many companies used Internet as their mediators on advertising platform to control over the promotion materials and it possess greater reliability and flexibility. Internet also becoming an important stop point for customers in finding their needs and wants. This study has been designed to measures how significant is the online advertising effectiveness in terms of attitude towards ads, ability to recall ads and frequency of clicking ads in explaining purchase decision in Malacca, Malaysia. A series of survey was conducted from 200 respondents and were analyzed quantatively. The results showed among the attitude towards ads, ability to recall and frequency of clicking ads had significantly gave impact to the purchasing decision by the customers. For the recommendations discussed to the advertisers to have good understanding on how to advertise effectively (using marketing strategy program and do some innovation of the products in terms of the products association.

  19. The Decision-Oriented Interview (DOI as a Marketing Instrument for Obtaining Information about Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Westhoff

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our article is not to report an empirical study but to present a toolkit which can help to collect valid information about brands. The Decision-Oriented Interview, hereafter, DOI presents empirically proven behavior regularities in interviews as a collection of checklists. The DOI has shown its usefulness in different fields of interviewing e.g. as a selection interview, in forensic assessment or a method for oral examinations. The DOI collection of explicit rules for interview design, execution and summary is described as a toolkit for collecting information relevant in marketing. The purchase decisions are presented as a basis for describing brand-differentiating situations. The use of the rules collected in the DOI checklists has clear advantages over the conventional approach in which success depends on the experience of individual project managers.

  20. Localization Decisions of Entrepreneurs: The Role of Path Dependency and Market Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylak, Korneliusz; Majerek, Dariusz

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the role of path dependency and market forces in the localization decisions of entrepreneurs from different industries. We hypothesize that most industries develop new entities based on the number of companies from the same industry that already exist in a region. We also hypothesize that entrepreneurs create new entities based on related industries operating within the same knowledge pool. To test these hypotheses, we used the machine learning decision tree method. The input variables are the number of companies from 86 industries located in 2,531 communities in Poland in 2009. The target values are the number of new companies from these industries created in the years 2009-2015. The principal results show that localization decisions are mostly based on demand and supply industries, in which manufacturing industries play crucial role. Path dependency appears in less than half of the industries’ models and thus is not the main factor influencing decisions regarding the creation of new companies. The highest share of path-dependent industries is in manufacturing sector, but the degree of the dependence is lower than in the service sector. The service sector seems to be the least path-dependent, as services usually serve other industries. Competition in industries is a rare factor in new company creation; however, if it appears, it usually shrinks the industry.

  1. Model For Marketing Strategy Decision Based On Multicriteria Decicion Making: A Case Study In Batik Madura Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, I. D.; Cahyadi, I.; Yakin, A.

    2018-01-01

    Selection of marketing strategy is a prominent competitive advantage for small and medium enterprises business development. The selection process is is a multiple criteria decision-making problem, which includes evaluation of various attributes or criteria in a process of strategy formulation. The objective of this paper is to develop a model for the selection of a marketing strategy in Batik Madura industry. The current study proposes an integrated approach based on analytic network process (ANP) and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) to determine the best strategy for Batik Madura marketing problems. Based on the results of group decision-making technique, this study selected fourteen criteria, including consistency, cost, trend following, customer loyalty, business volume, uniqueness manpower, customer numbers, promotion, branding, bussiness network, outlet location, credibility and the inovation as Batik Madura marketing strategy evaluation criteria. A survey questionnaire developed from literature review was distributed to a sample frame of Batik Madura SMEs in Pamekasan. In the decision procedure step, expert evaluators were asked to establish the decision matrix by comparing the marketing strategy alternatives under each of the individual criteria. Then, considerations obtained from ANP and TOPSIS methods were applied to build the specific criteria constraints and range of the launch strategy in the model. The model in this study demonstrates that, under current business situation, Straight-focus marketing strategy is the best marketing strategy for Batik Madura SMEs in Pamekasan.

  2. Prices need no preferences: social trends determine decisions in experimental markets for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaev, Ivo; Seymour, Ben; Chater, Nick; Winston, Joel S; Yoshida, Wako; Wright, Nicholas; Symmonds, Mkael; Dolan, Ray

    2014-01-01

    A standard view in health economics is that, although there is no market that determines the "prices" for health states, people can nonetheless associate health states with monetary values (or other scales, such as quality adjusted life year [QALYs] and disability adjusted life year [DALYs]). Such valuations can be used to shape health policy, and a major research challenge is to elicit such values from people; creating experimental "markets" for health states is a theoretically attractive way to address this. We explore the possibility that this framework may be fundamentally flawed-because there may not be any stable values to be revealed. Instead, perhaps people construct ad hoc values, influenced by contextual factors, such as the observed decisions of others. The participants bid to buy relief from equally painful electrical shocks to the leg and arm in an experimental health market based on an interactive second-price auction. Thirty subjects were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions where the bids by "others" were manipulated to follow increasing or decreasing price trends for one, but not the other, pain. After the auction, a preference test asked the participants to choose which pain they prefer to experience for a longer duration. Players remained indifferent between the two pain-types throughout the auction. However, their bids were differentially attracted toward what others bid for each pain, with overbidding during decreasing prices and underbidding during increasing prices. Health preferences are dissociated from market prices, which are strongly referenced to others' choices. This suggests that the price of health care in a free-market has the capacity to become critically detached from people's underlying preferences. 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  3. Market surveillance for the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Brunsø, Karen

    1993-01-01

    , intraorganizational decision processes, and organizational resources. 8. For end users, cognitive structures can be measured by the instrument food-related life style, intraorganizational decision processes refer to family decision-making, and organizational resources to households' equipment with time and money. 9....... For distributors, decision-makers' cognitive structures may be measured by an instrument termed retail supplier evaluation style, intraorganizational decision processes refer to retail purchasing routines, and organizational resources to distributors overall sales, profit, number of outlets etc. 10....... For competitors, decision-makers' cognitive structures refer to their subjective key success factors, intraorganizational decision processes to managerial decision-making, and organizational resources to companies' scores on the market's key success factors....

  4. The influence of the NPD architecture on NPD decision-making in high and low technology markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    on the market. Therefore the paper investigates the influence of a stage-gate structure and cross-functional teamwork on the go/no-go decision-making within the phases of the development process for different market conditions. Data is collected with an Internet survey questionnaire from 43 large companies...... and controlling the decision-making in the NPD process thereby reducing the risk of new products failing on the market. Research finds that the structure of the new product development process and a high interaction between organizational units when developing new products enhance the likelihood of success...... on high and low technology market producing consumer products. Results reveal that the survival of product ideas within the NPD process is significant different for companies in high and low technology markets, but that the stage-gate structure of the new product development process is of less importance...

  5. Standards as a tool aiding the decision processes in market economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tabor

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The long–lasting process of adaptation of the Polish standardisation system to the conditions of the European Community has not beencompleted yet. Its logical consequence is the need to shape the mentality of the entrepreneurs and make them understand the importance of standards and their value in a competitive market. It is the intention of the authors of this study to disclose the main aspects of standardisation at both Polish and European level, explain the model of standardisation system currently functioning in Poland, and against this background highlight the priorities in the standardisation policy adopted by the European Union, especially as regards some specific subjects, including – among others – problems related with environmental protection and occupational safety. In standardisation system, the problems of occupational safety and environmental protection are dealt with by a large group of standards harmonised with the New Approach Directive, which touches on the safety–related issues. Our knowledge of standards speaking the language of business is the challenge of modern times that should not be rejected, as in many cases it determines our competitiveness in the common market. The synthetic knowledge comprised in standards creates conditions for good decisions supporting the process of company development, strengthening its position in the European market, and creating the image of a successful modern enterprise ready to start cooperation with other enterprises, making – moreover – an important contribution to the economic management of products manufactured by varioustechnological processes.

  6. Programming of a refinery from the perspective of the decision makers: trade-offs analysis for corporate and technical guidelines; A programacao de uma refinaria sob a otica do decisor: uma analise dos trade-offs diante das orientacoes tecnicas e corporativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiegel, Thais; Caulliraux, Heitor Mansur; Proenca, Adriano [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Refineries usually gather a set of activities that shape how complex and dynamic it is. Adding to the complexity of the refining process, there is also a great freedom in the refinery operations, multiple arrangements possible to convert certain oil in derivatives. In this context, this article focuses on decision-making processes that lead refineries of an integrated oil company in their day to day. As decision-making, the text refers to a process that always brings a kind of conflict resolution, in which contradictory goals have to be negotiated and reconciled. The object of analysis is inserted in hierarchical decision-making processes, ie a process of disintegration, which begins with a comprehensive assessment, and then divides the decision in elements smaller and more defined, so that they are interdependent. The output at an aggregate level shall be the input in the next detailed level. In each level of the hierarchical, decision-making is the result of a problem, presented in a given context to a decision maker. Decision maker will be the responsible for the direction of the refinery production to which it is allocated. The programmer of each refinery is general guidelines that should be considered, albeit non-explicit or non-configurable, in some cases these take the form of technical criteria and in other situations derived from the business. From these, this article presents a critical and analytical in the face of dilemmas that emerge in front of decision makers search for converging a production schedule that meets both the criteria set. (author)

  7. Rural emergency care 360°: mobilising healthcare professionals, decision-makers, patients and citizens to improve rural emergency care in the province of Quebec, Canada: a qualitative study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet, Richard; Dupuis, Gilles; Fortin, Jean-Paul; Gravel, Jocelyn; Ouimet, Mathieu; Poitras, Julien; Légaré, France

    2017-08-17

    -priority recommendations enabling decision-makers in emergency care to implement improvements in rural emergency care in Quebec. This protocol has been approved by the CSSS Alphonse-Desjardins research ethics committee (Project number: MP 2017-009). The qualitative material will be kept confidential and the data will be presented in a way that respects confidentiality. The dissemination plan for the study includes publications in scientific and professional journals. We will also use social media to disseminate our findings and activities such as communications in public conferences. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. The utilisation of the product life cycle concept in South African banks dealing with mortgage products and markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Herbst

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study as demarcated in this article was to test the use of the product life cycle concept (PLC theory among marketing decision-makers and product decision-makers dealing with mortgage products and markets in the leading South African Banks. The main focus was to test the application and likelihood to use the PLC assumptions provided by Kotler (2003:340 on marketing characteristics, described marketing objectives and the proposed marketing strategies in the four PLC phases. A major finding was that the majority of these decision-makers in banks indicated a high likelihood of continuing to use the product life cycle concept. Another important conclusion of this study was that further empirical research is needed to develop product life cycle concept assumptions to be inclusive of the intangible nature linked to the marketing of services.

  9. A decision support system for real-time hydropower scheduling in a competitive power market environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawwash, Ziad Khaled Elias

    2000-10-01

    The electricity supply market is rapidly changing from a monopolistic to a competitive environment. Being able to operate their system of reservoirs and generating facilities to get maximum benefits out of existing assets and resources is important to the British Columbia Hydro Authority (B.C. Hydro). A decision support system has been developed to help B.C. Hydro operate their system in an optimal way. The system is operational and is one of the tools that are currently used by the B.C. Hydro system operations engineers to determine optimal schedules that meet the hourly domestic load and also maximize the value B.C. Hydro obtains from spot transactions in the Western U.S. and Alberta electricity markets. This dissertation describes the development and implementation of the decision support system in production mode. The decision support system consists of six components: the input data preparation routines, the graphical user interface (GUI), the communication protocols, the hydraulic simulation model, the optimization model, and the results display software. A major part of this work involved the development and implementation of a practical and detailed large-scale optimization model that determines the optimal tradeoff between the long-term value of water and the returns from spot trading transactions in real-time operations. The postmortem-testing phase showed that the gains in value from using the model accounted for 0.25% to 1.0% of the revenues obtained. The financial returns from using the decision support system greatly outweigh the costs of building it. Other benefits are the savings in the time needed to prepare the generation and trading schedules. The system operations engineers now can use the time saved to focus on other important aspects of their job. The operators are currently experimenting with the system in production mode, and are gradually gaining confidence that the advice it provides is accurate, reliable and sensible. The main lesson

  10. Beginning RPG Maker VX Ace

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, Darrin

    2014-01-01

    Beginning RPG Maker VX Ace takes you through the process of using the RPG Maker VX Ace game development engine to create your very own role playing game. The book has been designed with the complete beginner in mind who has little to no experience with the engine. Tutorials and exercises will take you from installing the software to putting the final touches upon your first project. Game design can be quite a daunting challenge, as it generally involves a large amount of programming know-how on top of having to plan everything out that makes a good game what it is. RPG Maker VX Ace

  11. Analyzing The Effect Of Marketing Mix, Service Quality And Brand Equity On Consumer Buying Decision In Indomaret Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Tumewu, Ferdinand J; Mongdong, Vilanri G

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays retail industry has been growing quite fast supported by the consumer behavior that has begun to shift from traditional to modern retail market. APRINDO predicted that the growth would be around 10% by 2015. Indomaret franchise is the pioneer in Indonesia. The objective of this research is to identify the effect of marketing mix, service quality and brand equity on consumer buying decision. In this research, the population refers to the consumer of Indomaret Manado with cluster sampl...

  12. Present supply and demand on the world uranium market and decision of the nuclear fuel cycle policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Luqing

    1994-01-01

    The present supply and demand relationship on the world uranium market due to the change of international situation in the last years is described and the falling price on the world uranium market is estimated. It is pointed out that the falling price would continue for a long time. Based on it the three different policy decisions on the back-end of nuclear fuel cycle are analysed

  13. To what extent does weather influence individuals’ financial decision-making behaviour? Evidence from the spread-trading market

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shaosong

    2016-01-01

    This thesis, which is divided into 3 papers, investigates the relationship between weather and individuals’ trading behaviour in the spread-trading market. The spread-trading market offers the opportunity of examining individuals’ trading records, and thus enables the exploration of the impact of weather on individuals’ financial decision-making behaviours. The first paper investigates the effect of a range of weather variables on individual spread traders’ hourly trading volumes and their pr...

  14. Carbon market risks and rewards: Firm perceptions of CDM investment decisions in Brazil and India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultman, Nathan E.; Pulver, Simone; Guimarães, Leticia; Deshmukh, Ranjit; Kane, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The carbon market experiences of Brazil and India represent policy success stories under several criteria. A careful evaluation, however, reveals challenges to market development that should be addressed in order to make the rollout of a post-2012 CDM more effective. We conducted firm-level interviews covering 82 CDM plants in the sugar and cement sectors in Brazil and India, focusing on how individual managers understood the potential benefits and risks of undertaking clean development mechanism (CDM) investments. Our results indicate that the CDM operates in a far more complex way in practice than that of simply adding a marginal increment to a project's internal rate of return. Our results indicate the following: first, although anticipated revenue played a central role in most managers' decisions to pursue CDM investments, there was no standard practice to account for financial benefits of CDM investments; second, some managers identified non-financial reputational factors as their primary motivation for pursuing CDM projects; and third, under fluctuating regulatory regimes with real immediate costs and uncertain CDM revenue, managers favored projects that often did not require carbon revenue to be viable. The post-2012 CDM architecture can benefit from incorporating these insights, and in particular reassess goals for strict additionality and mechanisms for achieving it.

  15. A decision-maker's view on future research decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catania, M.; McGeorge, L.; Smith, R.; Tucker, R.; Moser, F.; Telford, S.

    1992-01-01

    Partly as a result of its strategic geographic location as a northeastern port state, New Jersey has long been a heavily industrialized state. The potential, as well as actual, severity of the hazardous waste problem in New Jersey is demonstrated by an evaluation of the extent of industrial use of toxic substances, the significant number of actual hazardous waste generators and treatment facilities, and the extensive number of known or suspected hazardous waste sites in the state. In a 1987 report environmental contamination from hazardous and toxic waste was listed as the issue New Jersey citizens consider to be of the greatest importance. In response to the severity of the problems and citizen concerns, New Jersey's Hazardous Waste Program has assumed one of the most aggressive roles in the nation and has become the most successful state program for site remediation and control. As a result, the Hazardous Waste Program in New Jersey has been emulated by other states and by the US EPA in the development of its federal programs. Since its establishment, New Jersey has cleaned up nearly 1,000 non-national priorities list (non-NPL) sites and is in the process of cleaning up another 700 sites, including 109 in the NPL. New Jersey has cleaned up more hazardous waste sites than any other state or the federal government; in fact, three times as many sites as the next closest state and more than the next 14 states combined. This active program has amassed over $2.5 billion in public and private funds for its work. The program has also received several awards over the years for its outstanding efforts and its ability to incorporate innovative technologies and policies into its approaches

  16. Logistical modelling of managerial decisions in social and marketing business systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Velychko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Logistical modelling of business systems within the context of mathematical logistics, logistical management, operational research as well as rationalistic provision of logistics at an enterprise have been considered in the article. The research was carried out on the methodological basis which included the authors’ developments and implied conveying familiar knowledge on new objects within the field of linear programming. Scientific novelty concerns the development of categorical toolkit as well as the existing methodical approaches of rationalistic logistics to managerial decisions. Rational areas of using terms “logistical model” and “model of logistics” in business environment have been determined. The authors’ methodology of constructing logistical models in management of separate social and marketing systems of enterprises according to minimization and maximization criteria is presented. Ways of using modelling at not conventional objects of logistical support for managerial decisions have been suggested in the context of studying the moral psychological climate of staff and complex estimation of socioeconomic measures of staff management improvement. The procedure of logistical optimization in the system of distributing and advertising activity of the enterprise has been developed. Approbation of the developed models has been carried out and possibilities for further model’s complication by output data, variables, and limitations under specific practical conditions have been grounded.

  17. Communicating the Needs of Climate Change Policy Makers to Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Lovell, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will describe the challenges that earth scientists face in developing science data products relevant to decision maker and policy needs, and will describe strategies that can improve the two-way communication between the scientist and the policy maker. Climate change policy and decision making happens at a variety of scales - from local government implementing solar homes policies to international negotiations through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Scientists can work to provide data at these different scales, but if they are not aware of the needs of decision makers or understand what challenges the policy maker is facing, they are likely to be less successful in influencing policy makers as they wished. This is because the science questions they are addressing may be compelling, but not relevant to the challenges that are at the forefront of policy concerns. In this chapter we examine case studies of science-policy partnerships, and the strategies each partnership uses to engage the scientist at a variety of scales. We examine three case studies: the global Carbon Monitoring System pilot project developed by NASA, a forest biomass mapping effort for Silvacarbon project, and a forest canopy cover project being conducted for forest management in Maryland. In each of these case studies, relationships between scientists and policy makers were critical for ensuring the focus of the science as well as the success of the decision-making.

  18. Samsung Smartphone strategic marketing : analysis of Samsung Smartphone marketing strategy decisions and the consumer perception to the implemented strategies.

    OpenAIRE

    Wambui, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This thesis research is going to analyze the marketing strategy Samsung has used for some of its smartphone devices in the Smartphone market. The thesis will look into products introduced within the last two years. This approach seems reasonable due to the rapid change of technology in high tech market and continuous introduction of new innovative products within a short period of time. The research will start by understanding the mission and goals of the company. Then it will continue in exp...

  19. Intelligent Decision-Making System with Green Pervasive Computing for Renewable Energy Business in Electricity Markets on Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park JongHyuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the intelligent decision-making system for the smart grid based electricity market which requires distributed decision making on the competitive environments composed of many players and components. It is very important to consider the renewable energy and emission problem which are expected to be monitored by wireless communication networks. It is very difficult to predict renewable energy outputs and emission prices over time horizon, so it could be helpful to catch up those data on real time basis using many different kinds of communication infrastructures. On this backgrounds this paper provides an algorithm to make an optimal decision considering above factors.

  20. Pool Strategy of a Price-Maker Wind Power Producer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zugno, Marco; Morales González, Juan Miguel; Pinson, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of a wind power producer trading energy in short-term electricity markets. The producer is a price-taker in the day-ahead market, but a price-maker in the balancing market, and aims at optimizing its expected revenues from these market floors. The problem is formulated...... or median forecast of wind power distribution. Finally, sensitivity analyses are carried out to assess the impact on the offering strategy of the producer's penetration in the market, of the correlation between wind power production and residual system deviation, and of the shape of the forecast...

  1. Standardisation vs. adaption : a conjoint experiment on the influence of psychic, cultural and geographical distance on international marketing mix decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraus, Sascha; Meier, Fabian; Eggers, Felix; Bouncken, Ricarda B.; Schuessler, Felix

    2016-01-01

    This paper delivers new insights into how psychic, cultural and geographical distance influence international marketing mix decisions on the basis of a choice-based conjoint analysis with 96 managers from Switzerland and Liechtenstein. In this experiment, the managers had to decide whether the four

  2. Long-term dynamics of investment decisions in electricity markets with variable renewables development and adequacy objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitet, Marie

    2016-01-01

    In liberalised electricity systems, power markets are expected to ensure the long-term coordination of investments in order to guarantee security of supply, sustainability and competitiveness. In the reference energy-only market, it relies on the ability of power markets - where the hourly price is aligned with the marginal cost of the system - to provide an adequate price-signal for investors. However, in practice, questions have been raised about its ability to trigger investments in Low-Carbon Technologies (LCT) including in particular Renewable Energy Sources of Electricity (RES-E), and its ability to ensure capacity adequacy. After a characterisation of these market failures, this dissertation tackles the two research topics within a methodological framework based on a System Dynamics model developed to simulate private investment decisions in power markets. First, the results show that substituting out-of-market support mechanisms for RES-E by market-based investments helped by the sole implementation of a carbon price appears as a feasible solution to trigger RES-E development providing that there is a political commitment on a high carbon price. Second, it also appears that the energy-only market with price cap is ineffective to ensure capacity adequacy in a context of mature markets with conventional thermal power plants under transition paths which involve a stable electricity demand thank to energy efficiency efforts and the exogenous development of RES-E thanks to support mechanisms in the absence of a high and fixed carbon price. Adding a capacity market or removing the price cap both bring benefits in terms of Loss Of Load Expectation (LOLE) and social welfare. Moreover, considering two various energy transition scenarios and different assumptions about the risk aversion of private investors, the capacity market is identified as the best option for regulators among the considered market designs. (author) [fr

  3. Decision-making in product portfolios of pharmaceutical research and development – managing streams of innovation in highly regulated markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jekunen A

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Antti Jekunen Vaasa Oncology Clinic, Vaasa, Finland Abstract: Decision-making is a core function of any drug development firm. Developing drugs demands a firm to be highly innovative, while at the same time the activity is strictly regulated. Successful drug development offers the right to apply for a long-term patent that confers exclusive marketing rights. This article addresses the issue of what constitutes an adequate portfolio of drugs for a drug development firm and how it might be managed successfully. The paper investigates decision-making in the industry and specifically in the development of oncology drugs from various perspectives: the need for decisions, their timing, decision-making at the project level, the optimal portfolio, tools for portfolio analysis, the evaluation of patents, and finally the importance of the drug portfolio. Drug development decisions as important organizational elements should get more emphasis, and decisions in drug portfolio using modern decision-making methods should be used more widely than what currently happens. Structured, informed decisions would help avoiding late terminations of drugs in Phase III development. An improved research and development pipeline and drug portfolio management are the major elements in the general strategy targeting success. Keywords: decision-making, drug development, clinical oncology, product management, pipeline, portfolio, portfolio analysis, company organization

  4. Does reviewing lead to better learning and decision making? Answers from a randomized stock market experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessa, Patrick; Holliday, Ian E

    2012-01-01

    The literature is not univocal about the effects of Peer Review (PR) within the context of constructivist learning. Due to the predominant focus on using PR as an assessment tool, rather than a constructivist learning activity, and because most studies implicitly assume that the benefits of PR are limited to the reviewee, little is known about the effects upon students who are required to review their peers. Much of the theoretical debate in the literature is focused on explaining how and why constructivist learning is beneficial. At the same time these discussions are marked by an underlying presupposition of a causal relationship between reviewing and deep learning. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether the writing of PR feedback causes students to benefit in terms of: perceived utility about statistics, actual use of statistics, better understanding of statistical concepts and associated methods, changed attitudes towards market risks, and outcomes of decisions that were made. We conducted a randomized experiment, assigning students randomly to receive PR or non-PR treatments and used two cohorts with a different time span. The paper discusses the experimental design and all the software components that we used to support the learning process: Reproducible Computing technology which allows students to reproduce or re-use statistical results from peers, Collaborative PR, and an AI-enhanced Stock Market Engine. The results establish that the writing of PR feedback messages causes students to experience benefits in terms of Behavior, Non-Rote Learning, and Attitudes, provided the sequence of PR activities are maintained for a period that is sufficiently long.

  5. Google Trends as a Resource for Informing Plastic Surgery Marketing Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Brittany; Ward, Max; Paskhover, Boris

    2018-04-01

    Celebrities have long influenced the medical decisions of the general population. By analyzing Google search data using Google Trends, we measured the impact of highly publicized plastic surgery-related events on the interest level of the general population in specific search terms. Additionally, we investigated seasonal and geographic trends around interest in rhinoplasties, which is information that physicians and small surgical centers can use to optimize marketing decisions. Google Trends was used to access search data histories for three separate areas of interest: Kylie Jenner and lip fillers, Joan Rivers and plastic surgery, and rhinoplasty, which were then analyzed using two-tailed, two-sample equal variance t-tests. The average interest level in fillers increased by 30.31 points after Kylie Jenner announced that she received Juvéderm lip injections. The interest level in plastic surgery was decreased by 21.3% the month after Joan Rivers' death. Between January 2004 and May 2017, the average interest level for rhinoplasty was significantly different in January/December (67.91 ± 20.68) and June/July (70.12 ± 18.89) from the remaining calendar months (63.58 ± 19.67). Los Angeles, New York City, and Miami showed consistently high interest levels throughout the time period, while Tulsa, OK, showed a major interest increase between 2015 to 2016 of 65 points. A noticeable impact was observed in both celebrity cases on search term volume, and a seasonal effect is apparent for rhinoplasty searches. As many surgeons already employ aggressive Internet marketing strategies, understanding and utilizing these trends could help optimize their investments, increase social engagement, and increase practice awareness by potential patients. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www

  6. FileMaker Pro 9

    CERN Document Server

    Coffey, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    FileMaker Pro 9: The Missing Manual is the clear, thorough and accessible guide to the latest version of this popular desktop database program. FileMaker Pro lets you do almost anything with the information you give it. You can print corporate reports, plan your retirement, or run a small country -- if you know what you're doing. This book helps non-technical folks like you get in, get your database built, and get the results you need. Pronto.The new edition gives novices and experienced users the scoop on versions 8.5 and 9. It offers complete coverage of timesaving new features such as the Q

  7. MakerBot projects blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Larson, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    MakerBot Projects Blueprints is a project-based book, with each chapter taking you through the creation of an awesome stand-alone project. MakerBot Project Blueprints is for anyone with an interest in the 3D printing revolution and the slightest bit of computer skills. Whether you own a 3D printer or not you can design for them. All it takes is Blender, a free 3D modeling tool, this book and a little creativity and someday you'll be able to hold something you designed in the computer in your hands.

  8. The impact of industry environment on early market entry decisions by B2B managers in the U.S. and Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calantone, R.J.; Benedetto, Di A.C.; Song, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Managers form simplified mental models to cope with market environment uncertainties and to process information. A critical decision is whether to enter a high-potential market early. Large innovation and development investments involved in this decision increase uncertainty. We examine the

  9. The Influence of Entry Mode Decisions on International Marketing Policies. A Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Musso

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies on firms' marketing strategy in foreign markets revealed inconsistent resultsregarding the relationship between entry mode strategies and the adoption of marketing policies. Thisinconsistency was due to the diversity of assumptions used for the conceptualization of the influence of entrymodes on marketing strategies. The purpose of this paper is to offer a conceptual model that can support theanalysis of how the firm’s choice of entry mode may influence the adoption of marketing tools in the selectedmarket.

  10. A decision support system for generation expansion planning in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Adelino J.C.; Saraiva, Joao Tome

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to address the generation expansion-planning problem in order to help generation companies to decide whether to invest on new assets. This approach was developed in the scope of the implementation of electricity markets that eliminated the traditional centralized planning and lead to the creation of several generation companies competing for the delivery of power. As a result, this activity is more risky than in the past and so it is important to develop decision support tools to help generation companies to adequately analyse the available investment options in view of the possible behavior of other competitors. The developed model aims at maximizing the expected revenues of a generation company while ensuring the safe operation of the power system and incorporating uncertainties related with price volatility, with the reliability of generation units, with the demand evolution and with investment and operation costs. These uncertainties are modeled by pdf functions and the solution approach is based on Genetic Algorithms. Finally, the paper includes a Case Study to illustrate the application and interest of the developed approach. (author)

  11. A decision support system for generation expansion planning in competitive electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Adelino J.C. [Departamento de Engenharia Electrotecnica, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Coimbra, Instituto Politecnico de Coimbra, Rua Pedro Nunes, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); Saraiva, Joao Tome [INESC Porto and Departamento de Engenharia Electrotecnica e Computadores, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Campus da FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2010-07-15

    This paper describes an approach to address the generation expansion-planning problem in order to help generation companies to decide whether to invest on new assets. This approach was developed in the scope of the implementation of electricity markets that eliminated the traditional centralized planning and lead to the creation of several generation companies competing for the delivery of power. As a result, this activity is more risky than in the past and so it is important to develop decision support tools to help generation companies to adequately analyse the available investment options in view of the possible behavior of other competitors. The developed model aims at maximizing the expected revenues of a generation company while ensuring the safe operation of the power system and incorporating uncertainties related with price volatility, with the reliability of generation units, with the demand evolution and with investment and operation costs. These uncertainties are modeled by pdf functions and the solution approach is based on Genetic Algorithms. Finally, the paper includes a Case Study to illustrate the application and interest of the developed approach. (author)

  12. A Market Equilibrium Supply Chain Model for Supporting Self-Manufacturing or Outsourcing Decisions in Prefabricated Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhu Han

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Prefabricated construction is a sustainable alternative to traditional on-site construction methods. However, many challenges still exist in the prefabricated construction process. For example, self-manufacturing or outsourcing decisions are vital to the industrial structure and organization of the prefabricated construction industry, and the company’s production and operation decision-making. This paper considers a prefabricated construction supply chain, which is composed of one upstream component manufacturing company and two downstream contractors. The large contractor can get the precast component through self-manufacturing or outsourcing, while the small and medium-sized enterprise (SME contractor can only buy components from the component manufacturer. A comprehensive game model (Cournot-Stackelberg model under different decisions, that is, component self-manufacturing or outsourcing, was established. By solving the profit functions of different companies in the prefabricated construction supply chain, the equilibrium solutions of output, price and profit can be achieved. These solutions of equilibrium indicate the optimal decision on the production and operation, and the profit’s boundary conditions. After assuming relevant parameters, the profit levels of the companies in the supply chain are analyzed via a dynamic simulation in the changing process of prefabricated construction market size under different behavioral decisions. The conclusions are as follows: (1 the profit levels of all supply chain enterprises and the whole supply chain are increasing with an increase of market size; (2 the downstream contractors and the whole supply chain have a higher profit level under the component self-manufacturing decision, however, on the contrary, the upstream component suppliers get a higher profit level under the component outsourcing decision; (3 the equilibrium output of the SME contractor is reduced under the outsourcing decision of

  13. Decision-making in product portfolios of pharmaceutical research and development--managing streams of innovation in highly regulated markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekunen, Antti

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making is a core function of any drug development firm. Developing drugs demands a firm to be highly innovative, while at the same time the activity is strictly regulated. Successful drug development offers the right to apply for a long-term patent that confers exclusive marketing rights. This article addresses the issue of what constitutes an adequate portfolio of drugs for a drug development firm and how it might be managed successfully. The paper investigates decision-making in the industry and specifically in the development of oncology drugs from various perspectives: the need for decisions, their timing, decision-making at the project level, the optimal portfolio, tools for portfolio analysis, the evaluation of patents, and finally the importance of the drug portfolio. Drug development decisions as important organizational elements should get more emphasis, and decisions in drug portfolio using modern decision-making methods should be used more widely than what currently happens. Structured, informed decisions would help avoiding late terminations of drugs in Phase III development. An improved research and development pipeline and drug portfolio management are the major elements in the general strategy targeting success.

  14. Decision-making in product portfolios of pharmaceutical research and development – managing streams of innovation in highly regulated markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekunen, Antti

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making is a core function of any drug development firm. Developing drugs demands a firm to be highly innovative, while at the same time the activity is strictly regulated. Successful drug development offers the right to apply for a long-term patent that confers exclusive marketing rights. This article addresses the issue of what constitutes an adequate portfolio of drugs for a drug development firm and how it might be managed successfully. The paper investigates decision-making in the industry and specifically in the development of oncology drugs from various perspectives: the need for decisions, their timing, decision-making at the project level, the optimal portfolio, tools for portfolio analysis, the evaluation of patents, and finally the importance of the drug portfolio. Drug development decisions as important organizational elements should get more emphasis, and decisions in drug portfolio using modern decision-making methods should be used more widely than what currently happens. Structured, informed decisions would help avoiding late terminations of drugs in Phase III development. An improved research and development pipeline and drug portfolio management are the major elements in the general strategy targeting success. PMID:25364229

  15. The market and the economics of large oil tankers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golomer, O.

    1996-01-01

    The document aims to assist decision makers in the tanker industry to make effective management strategies for the future deployment of Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCC) in a time of financial uncertainty and environmental awareness. The VLCC market is described and the factors influencing decision-makers are discussed. Financial considerations including shipping assets and company financial security are reviewed together with the financial implications of operating VLCCs. Environmental pressures, such as international regulations an oil pollution reduction measures are then discussed. The document closes with a review of decision-making for shipowning companies in this complex milieu. (UK)

  16. Banking regulation and market making

    OpenAIRE

    Cimon, David A.; Garriott, Corey

    2017-01-01

    We present a model of market makers subject to recent banking regulations: liquidity and capital constraints in the style of Basel III and a position limit in the style of the Volcker Rule. Regulation causes market makers to reduce their intermediation by refusing principal positions. However, it can improve the bid-ask spread because it induces new market makers to enter. Since market makers intermediate less, asset prices exhibit a liquidity premium. Costs of regulation can be assessed by m...

  17. Conference Reports:Strategies for marketing natural gas in the era of the mega-marketer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This Insight conference was held to review the legal aspects of marketing strategies within the natural gas industry in light of the current trend of mergers and alliance activity within the energy industry. The deregulation of the natural gas industry, the resulting competitive marketplace, and the changes in marketing strategies resulting from these developments were the principal themes. The changing roles of decision makers, management and consultants within the industry were scrutinized

  18. EFFECT OF MIX MARKETING ON RE–PURCHASE DECISION OF MUSLIM DRESS IN BOGOR (MUSLIM CLOTHING PRODUCT OF KEKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indarto Setiawan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the factors that determines consumers in their purchasing decisions Muslim dress and recommend the proposed marketing mix strategy affects customer satisfaction and loyalty which can have an impact on purchasing decisions / repurchase (repurchase by consumers. The analytical methods used in this study Chi-Square Test, Thurstone Case-V Analysis, Correspondence Analysis, and Structural Equation Model. The results showed the purchasing decisions Muslim clothing there is a relationship between level of education and average revenue / expenditure per month with custom usage Muslim clothing, there are five sequences attribute Muslim clothing that is essential according to the respondents, the underwear model, quality of materials, patterns typical, leisure time used as well as an attractive packaging design. Muslim clothing brand Ke'ke is purchased by consumers because the ads fit the facts, reasonably priced, there are many models of quality koko and containerized, while shortcomings are in the variation of the veil / hijab and less spread of sales outlets. The products are very dominant. They influence purchasing decisions of consumers so that the superiority of the product should be maintained and even improved.Keywords: muslim clothing, the mix marketing, re-purchasing decisions

  19. Experiments on asset markets & decision making : The role of information and time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Yilong

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation applies experimental methods to answer a number of questions in economics. Chapter 2 studies whether mispricing in an asset market can be mitigated by introducing a futures market and how trading behaviors in these markets relate to individuals’ cognitive ability. Chapter 3 answers

  20. Information support of decision-making in the early stages of new product development when approaching marketing management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tishhenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal. To create theoretical and practical approaches to information support of the decision making procedure at the initial stages of developing a new product with a marketing management approach that allows to improve the quality of management decisions on the product. Material and methods. The projected software package on the basis of expert assessments and fuzzy sets, allows to automate the decision to implement innovation at an early stage. The work used such scientific methods as generalization of scientific literature in the field of shaping and taking into account the features of innovation, Solutions in the initial stages of development, methods of expert evaluation and elements of fuzzy sets. Results and its discussion. The article presents the rationale and possibilities for informational support of the decision-making procedure for innovative products. The authors also proposed a methodology for making a decision when developing a new product based on expert and predictive assessments of innovation at the initial stages of its creation. A software package has been developed that automates the decision to manufacture a new product at the initial stages of production. Conclusion. Despite a large number of theoretical developments in innovative management, the risk associated with the release of new products remains quite high. The developed methodology of information support for decision-making at the initial stages of the development of a new product will reduce the risk of the lack of demand for innovation.

  1. International benchmaking: Supplying the information for product efficiency policy makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siderius, H.P.; Jeffcott, S.; Blok, K.

    2012-01-01

    In the development of effective product efficiency policy, the critical element for policy makers is comprehensive, independent information. However, easily accessible, reliable information on the energy performance of products and policies is often scarce within a particular market, and rarer still

  2. Decision Making Models in the Financial Market: A Study in the Light of Prospect Theory and Limited Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Diego Souza Queiroz; Marilia Oliveira dos Reis; Joseilton Silveira da Rocha

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the decision-making models present in Prospect Theory and the theory of limited rationality could help managers of financial institutions identify and control the emotions and rational limitations involved in the credit granting process in the financial market. To this end, a study was carried out with 17 bank managers as experimental group and 31 other managers from different areas as control group. Adopting a quantitative approach to rese...

  3. Business Intelligence from User Generated Content: Online Opinion Formation in Purchasing Decisions in High-Tech Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Setiya , Karan; Ubacht , Jolien; Cunningham , Scott; Oruç , Sertaç

    2016-01-01

    Part 6: Data Acquisition, Management and Analytics; International audience; User Generated Content (UGC) requires new business intelligence methods to understand the influence of online opinion formation on customer purchasing decisions. We developed a conceptual model for deriving business intelligence from tweets, based on the Classical Model of Consensus Formation and the Theory of Planned Behaviour. We applied the model to the dynamic high-tech smartphone market by means of three case stu...

  4. Budget-makers and health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Health programs are shaped by the decisions made in budget processes, so how budget-makers view health programs is an important part of making health policy. Budgeting in any country involves its own policy community, with key players including budgeting professionals and political authorities. This article reviews the typical pressures on and attitudes of these actors when they address health policy choices. The worldview of budget professionals includes attitudes that are congenial to particular policy perspectives, such as the desire to select packages of programs that maximize population health. The pressures on political authorities, however, are very different: most importantly, public demand for health care services is stronger than for virtually any other government activity. The norms and procedures of budgeting also tend to discourage adoption of some of the more enthusiastically promoted health policy reforms. Therefore talk about rationalizing systems is not matched by action; and action is better explained by the need to minimize blame. The budget-maker's perspective provides insight about key controversies in healthcare policy such as decentralization, competition, health service systems as opposed to health insurance systems, and dedicated vs. general revenue finance. It also explains the frequency of various "gaming" behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A critical review of recent US market level health care strategy literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, R; Banaszak-Holl, J

    2000-09-01

    In this review, we argue that it would be profitable if the neoclassical economic theories that have dominated recent US market level health care strategy research could be complemented by greater use of sociological frameworks. Sociological theory can address three central questions that neoclassical economic theories have tended to slight: (1) how decision-makers' preferences are determined; (2) who the decision-makers are; and (3) how decision-makers' plans are translated into organizational action. We suggest five sociological frameworks that would enable researchers to address these issues better relative to market level strategy in health care. The frameworks are (1) institutional theory, (2) organizational ecology, (3) social movements, (4) social networks, and (5) internal organizational change. A recent global trend toward privatization of health care provision makes US market level strategy research increasingly applicable to non-US readers.

  6. The marketer-a complex specialist, a man of concept, decision and action

    OpenAIRE

    Pop, Nicolae Al.; Vlădoi, Anca-Daniela

    2009-01-01

    Over the last fifty years, the theory and practice of contemporary marketing have been influenced by the focus of its applicative approach over a major landmark of the business world. A short characterization of its different orientations, from consumer oriented marketing to holistic marketing, can only lead to the conclusion regarding the formative complexity of the specialist working in this field. The profile of this specialist is to be understood in such a manner as to have a competitive ...

  7. Influence of culture on decisions in marketing mix in the international context

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin Sasu

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the impact of cultural dimensions on the four marketing mix variables (product, price, distribution, promotion) The cultural dimensions will be treated as independent variables affecting the behaviour of marketing mix variables which are seen as dependent variables. This in turn will provide the opportunity to assess the state of the art in this area both from the viewpoint of marketing practitioners, and of researchers. Concluding comments cover research issues and man...

  8. Post-marketing access to orphan drugs: a critical analysis of health technology assessment and reimbursement decision-making considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskrov G

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Georgi Iskrov, Rumen Stefanov Department of Social Medicine and Public Health, Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria Abstract: This study aims to explore the current rationale of post-marketing access to orphan drugs. As access to orphan medicinal products depends on assessment and appraisal by health authorities, this article is focused on health technology assessment (HTA and reimbursement decision-making considerations for orphan drugs. A critical analysis may identify important factors that could predetermine the combined outcomes of these two processes. Following this objective, an analytical framework was developed, comprising three overlaying issues: to outline what is currently done and what needs to be done in the field of HTA of orphan drugs, to synthesize important variables relevant to the reimbursement decision-making about orphan drugs, and to unveil relationships between theory and practice. Methods for economic evaluation, cost-effectiveness threshold, budget impact, uncertainty of evidence, criteria in reimbursement decision-making, and HTA research agenda are all explored and discussed from an orphan drug perspective. Reimbursement decision-making for orphan drugs is a debate of policy priorities, health system specifics, and societal attitudes. Health authorities need to pursue a multidisciplinary analysis on a range of criteria, ensuring an explicit understanding of the trade-offs for decisions related to eligibility for reimbursement. The only reasonable way to accept a higher valuation of orphan drug benefits is if these are demonstrated empirically. Rarity means that the quality of orphan drug evidence is not the same as for conventional therapies. Closing this gap is another crucial point for the timely access to these products. The generation of evidence goes far beyond pre-market authorization trials and requires transnational cooperation and coordination. Early constructive dialogue among orphan drug

  9. Build loyalty in business markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayandas, Das

    2005-09-01

    Companies often apply consumer marketing solutions in business markets without realizing that such strategies only hamper the acquisition and retention of profitable customers. Unlike consumers, business customers inevitably need customized products, quantities, or prices. A company in a business market must therefore manage customers individually, showing how its products or services can help solve each buyer's problems. And it must learn to reap the enormous benefits of loyalty by developing individual relationships with customers. To achieve these ends, the firm's marketers must become aware of the different types of benefits the company offers and convey their value to the appropriate executives in the customer company. It's especially important to inform customers about what the author calls nontangible nonfinancial benefits-above-and-beyond efforts, such as delivering supplies on holidays to keep customers' production lines going. The author has developed a simple set of devices-the benefit stack and the decision-maker stack-to help marketers communicate their firm's myriad benefits. The vendor lists the benefits it offers, then lists the customer's decision makers, specifying their concerns, motivations, and power bases. By linking the two stacks, the vendor can systematically communicate how it will meet each decision-maker's needs. The author has also developed a tool called a loyalty ladder, which helps a company determine how much time and money to spend on relationships with various customers. As customers become increasingly loyal, they display behaviors in a predictable sequence, from growing the relationship and providing word-of-mouth endorsements to investing in the vendor company. The author has found that customers follow the same sequence of loyalty behaviors in all business markets.

  10. 77 FR 37086 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... size of the Market Maker Peg Order below one round lot, the market maker would need to enter a new... New Market Maker Peg Order Available to Exchange Market Makers June 14, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b... of the Proposed Rule Change The Exchange proposes to adopt a new Market Maker Peg Order to provide...

  11. MARKET DECISION PREFERENCES OF DAIRY FARMERS TOWARDS TRADITIONAL AND MODERN CHANNELS OF MILK MARKETING: AN EVIDENCE FROM PUNJAB PROVINCE OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhir Nadeem Ishaq

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was specifically conducted in the four districts of Punjab province of Pakistan. The principal objective was to identify major explanatory variables that might influence dairy farmers’ market participation decisions regarding the selection of traditional and modern channels of milk marketing. Data was collected from field survey and the sample size comprised of 320 dairy farmers, randomly selected from study area. Multinomial logit model was used an econometric tool to estimate the impacts of fourteen independent variables on the dependent variable (selection of milk marketing channel. Model results showed that eight factors like gender, old aged farmers, long distance between dairy farm and urban market, easy milk selling at door step, advance cash payment, lack of quality inspection, strong social relationship with milk collectors, and better milk price were important predictors influencing milk producers to choose traditional channels for the sale of their milk produce. Impacts of these variables were significant at 5% of significance level except long distance which was significant at 1%. Conversely to this, fourfactors such as high education level of dairy farmers, large herd size, provision of extension services, and purchase of evening milk were motivating dairy farmers to sell milk through modern channels. Traditional milk channels were preferred by majority of milk producers but these channels were lacking in delivering the quality milk to consumers. Policy implication for sustainable milk marketing might be the provision of dairy advisory services, advance payment framework, improving logistic infrastructure, and enforcement of milk quality inspection could ensure milk safety along sustainable milk supply.

  12. Behavior and asset markets : Individual decisions, emotions and fundamental value trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breaban, A.G.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis consists of four chapters related to individual- and market- level behavior in experimental financial markets. The first three chapters analyze asset pricing and, in particular, stylized facts such as bubbles and crashes, as well as some of the factors that influence such phenomena. In

  13. U.S. Government Electronic Data Sources for Global Marketing Decisions: An Evaluation and Classroom Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Vaughan C.; Tims, Betty J.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. government publishes considerable information applicable to business people interested in global marketing opportunities, much of which is available via the Internet and CD-ROMs. Evaluates the usefulness of four of the government's electronic sources of global marketing information (e.g., the World Fact Book), describing workshops using…

  14. The role of coordinated marketing-operations strategy in services : Implications for managerial decisions and execution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, M.; Rhee, van der B.; Karniouchina, E.; Verma, R.; Victorino, L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of a coordinated marketing and operations strategy in goods and service producing business organizations. Customer engagement and co-production are imperative service delivery considerations, and therefore an aligned marketing and operations

  15. An Investigation of Strategic Decision Making in Service Marketing through Case Study Development and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosetti, Joseph L.; Maceiko, Meghan

    2009-01-01

    Through the collaborative efforts of an undergraduate student and a professor of marketing, this paper focuses on a case study and corresponding teaching notes developed as a final component of an independent study in service marketing. The case utilizes the hospitality industry as the template for analysis of the appropriateness of marketing…

  16. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  17. Influence of factors of consumer behavior on process of making decision on purchase in the market of pharmaceutical cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Kachagin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research of consumer behavior for the purpose of its formation and effective impact on it becoming a key element of the marketing activities of modern enterprises, working on a wide variety of goods and services markets. Currently, there is a tendency of convergence of cosmetics to pharmaceuticals and a new product appears which combines the quality of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, and called "cosmeceuticals" or pharmaceutical cosmetics. When providing services in the market of pharmaceutical cosmetics the knowledge of regularities and factors of consumer behavior, and ability to adapt to its changes is of great importance. Now in the conditions of dynamically developing market environment, the system research of factors of consumer behavior in the market of pharmaceutical cosmetics is necessary, including the problem resolution of its identification, forecasting of their dynamics and the impact directed to them is required. At the same time, there are no reliable theoretical and methodical bases for such decisions. The insufficient readiness of methodical tools for identification and assessment of factors of consumer behavior interferes with improvement of quality of the rendered services in the sphere of medical services in case of sale of pharmaceutical cosmetics. Besides, one of important components of modern system of complex service marketing is automation of means of its implementation that assumes the maximum automation of process of conducting personal selling by means of which influence of a human factor is minimized and working hours are significantly saved. However, its successful implementation requires expansion of methodical approaches to system of an efficiency evaluation in the sphere of medical services in relation to the market of retail trade by pharmaceutical cosmetics.

  18. Market research on factors influencing women's preferences in investment decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Abhishek.; Douglas, Tony.; Jaworski, Piotr.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to gain knowledge on the factors that influence the investment decision making of women in Singapore. The research explores the fact that investment decision is being affected by the demographic, psychographic factors of the individuals. The individuals may be equal in all aspects but their investment decision varies with their own perception towards various investment plans. The research was conducted among 200 respondents through a survey so as to get an empirical findings o...

  19. Applying the marketing mix (5 ps) to bionanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    This chapter, based on concepts developed for my book, NanoInnovation (Tomczyk, Nanoinnovation: What Every Manager Needs to Know, 2011), is one of the first attempts to evaluate nanotechnology in the context of the "marketing mix" - a conceptual challenge given that nanotechnology is not one product or even a set of products, but rather a technology that is incorporated in an expanding list exceeding a 1,000 products - encompassing materials, structures, processes, and devices. My purpose is to use this context to identify some of the critical issues and factors that will influence development of "nanotechnology markets" at this very early stage in the evolution of nanotechnology, and more specifically, bionanotechnology. As technological innovations continue to promote the market growth for nanotechnology, especially in the field of medicine and healthcare, sensemaking frameworks are needed to help decision makers keep pace with these evolving markets. One of the best frameworks is the "marketing mix" which has been used for decades to identify the controllable factors that decision makers can influence through marketing strategies. With so many game-changing innovations poised to move from nanotech research to commercialization, marketing issues are becoming increasingly important to decision makers in science/academia, business/venture development, and government/policymaking.

  20. Motivating your patients: marketing dental services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönroos, C; Masalin, K

    1990-02-01

    In most industrialized countries the issues of unemployment or under-employment are becoming more critical for the members of the dental associations. In some countries this is creating greater competition between the private practitioners and public health dentists as well as between private dental practitioners themselves. Modern marketing, especially service marketing theory and models, can provide dentists and dental associations with tools to improve their position in relation to patients, political decision makers and other public agencies. However, marketing has to be understood correctly as a philosophy providing a means of approaching the establishing, maintaining and enhancing patient or customer relationships and not as a narrowly defined set of tools. As long as marketing is considered to be external campaigns, such as advertising and not much else, it is bound to fail. Other dimensions of marketing, such as interactive marketing and internal marketing, are of much greater importance to dental practitioners.