WorldWideScience

Sample records for market operation cleansweep

  1. Marketing co-operatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); C.P. Veerman (Cees)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractMarketing co-operatives (MCs) are analysed from an incomplete contracting perspective. The requirement of the domination of control by the members of a MC is a threat to the survival of a MC in markets where the level of asset specificity at the processing stage of production is

  2. Design and Operation of Distribution Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhizi, Sina

    The growing penetration of distributed prosumers especially microgrids poses new challenges to the operation of wholesale markets and distribution power systems. Price spikes and higher uncertainty are among these consequences. Distribution markets are envisioned as a remedy to streamline integration of distributed resources and microgrids in the electricity market. This dissertation offers an analytical formulation of electricity markets in the distribution level, considering various prevailing aspects of the market operation problem. The prevailing challenges in regards to integration of microgrids in the electricity markets are illustrated first, and the distribution market operator (DMO) construct is outlined. The day-ahead scheduling of a microgrid participating in a DMO market is formulated and studied. Then the operation of distribution markets integrated with large numbers of responsive participants is considered, and its transactions with the distribution market participants on one hand, and the wholesale market on the other hand are modeled and studied. The market settlement and clearing, essential in operation of distribution markets, is considered and solved. The pricing mechanism in a distribution market is proposed and the relation of distribution and transmission and distribution prices is studied. A more advanced pricing mechanism considering voltages and reactive power is developed and studied. In order to offer a more accurate pricing structure within the distribution system, a linearized distribution power flow is utilized. The performance of the proposed methods is analyzed and the results are presented. Markets have been recently envisioned to be a suitable instrument for integration of distributed energy resources in the distribution system, but most of the discussions surrounding this topic is at the conceptual level. In this work, it is demonstrated that distribution markets are effective in integrating microgrids and distributed resources

  3. Smartphone's Operating Systems and market share

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreras Andreu, Javier

    2011-01-01

    During the last decades, mobile phone’s market has changed people’s communication ways. Several technological improvements have been reached mainly in the last fifteen years, making possible to add new features to mobile phones. As devices became more popular and included new services, a market grew around them. The following pages contain a market analysis from the different members of the mobile phone’s industry: manufacturers, operating system companies, operators, developers and custom...

  4. Operation Market-Garden: Ultra Intelligence Ignored

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeffson, Joel

    2002-01-01

    .... Is this really the case? Operation Market-Garden, the plan envisioned by Field Marshal Montgomery, would open the gate into Germany and simultaneously force General Eisenhower to abandon his broad-front strategy in favor...

  5. Money Market Operations in Fiscal 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Financial Markets Department

    2008-01-01

    Throughout fiscal 2007, the Bank of Japan conducted money market operations with the uncollateralized overnight call rate as the operating target. The target level for the uncollateralized overnight call rate remained at "around 0.5 percent" throughout all of fiscal 2007. During this period, the basic loan rate applied to the complementary lending facility was 0.75 percent.

  6. Money Market Operations in FY2000

    OpenAIRE

    Open Market Operations Division

    2001-01-01

    In FY2000, the Bank of Japan changed the level of its interest rate target on two occasions, and switched its operating target from the overnight call rate to the aggregate balance of current account deposits held at the Bank. Furthermore, facing a major change to the settlement system with the introduction of RTGS (real-time gross settlement) for current accounts at the Bank and JGSs, the Bank realized the importance for the Bank's market operations to be both timely and flexible as ever bef...

  7. Hydrocarbon control strategies for gasoline marketing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, R.L.; Sakaida, R.R.; Yamada, M.M.

    1978-05-01

    This informational document provides basic and current descriptions of gasoline marketing operations and methods that are available to control hydrocarbon emissions from these operations. The three types of facilities that are described are terminals, bulk plants, and service stations. Operational and business trends are also discussed. The potential emissions from typical facilities, including transport trucks, are given. The operations which lead to emissions from these facilities include (1) gasoline storage, (2) gasoline loading at terminals and bulk plants, (3) gasoline delivery to bulk plants and service stations, and (4) the refueling of vehicles at service stations. Available and possible methods for controlling emissions are described with their estimated control efficiencies and costs. This report also includes a bibliography of references cited in the text, and supplementary sources of information.

  8. Spanish Power Exchange Market Concepts and Operating Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J. J.; Gamito, C.

    2000-01-01

    On January, 1st, 1998, the Spanish Electricity Market started operations. All generators, distributors, commercialization companies, and final consumers negotiate al power exchanges either through the spot market or using bilateral contracts. The Spanish Power Exchange Market Operator (Compania Operadora del Mercado Espanol de electricidad, OMEL) is responsible for the management of the market and for the economic settlement and billing of a transactions on the Power Exchange market, and the technical operational process handled by the System Operator. This paper describes in detail the Spanish market principles and the experience gathered through the design, installation and first two years of market operation. The paper presents also the Spanish market results from January 1998 up to December 1999 indicating each specific market results and aggregate statistics. (Author)

  9. Operational Management of Intraday and Balancing Markets - a survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jeanne; K. Detlefsen, Nina

    changes and challenges, which may be better addressed with closer collaboration. In order to evaluate the benefits of cross-border balancing, it is essential to have an understanding of the mechanisms and operations of the European markets and how they interact. Therefore, this paper aims at describing...... electricity markets in Europe: day-ahead markets and markets with shorter time spans. The focus will be on balancing markets and how these are used operationally. The most promising theoretical models found in the literature with applications to balancing will be presented. The purpose of this is to identify...

  10. Operational management of intraday and balancing markets. A survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Jeanne [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark). Dept. of Economics and Business, Business and Social Sciences; Detlefsen, Nina K. [Energinet.dk, Fredericia (Denmark). Systems Analysis

    2011-07-01

    Lately, there has been increased attention on the challenges that will appear when balancing the electricity in the future and the benefits of integrated markets between countries and regions. This is among other things due to the fact that electricity markets in the future will experience major changes and challenges, which may be better addressed with closer collaboration. In order to evaluate the benefits of cross-border balancing, it is essential to have an understanding of the mechanisms and operations of the European markets and how they interact. Therefore, this paper aims at describing electricity markets in Europe: day-ahead markets and markets with shorter time spans. The focus will be on balancing markets and how these are used operationally. The most promising theoretical models found in the literature with applications to balancing will be presented. The purpose of this is to identify the tools necessary to analyze future balancing of power systems. (orig.)

  11. Analysis of the results of the energy market operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovska, V.; Diankov, M.

    2006-01-01

    The paper focuses on the results of the market operation. It includes: analysis of the active market participants and steps to be undertaken in respect of access to the grid and registration on the market, as well as a comparative analysis of the trade at regulated and freely negotiated prices. This report analyses the imbalances of the consumers of energy, generators, including generators operating with one unit. Information about the special role of the public supplier as a main provider of balancing energy, market interruption in case of emergency situation and force major events, circumstances for the parties and contractual relationship is also included. (authors)

  12. Simplified stock markets described by number operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagarello, F.

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we continue our systematic analysis of the operatorial approach previously proposed in an economical context and we discuss a mixed toy model of a simplified stock market, i.e. a model in which the price of the shares is given as an input. We deduce the time evolution of the portfolio of the various traders of the market, as well as of other observable quantities. As in a previous paper, we solve the equations of motion by means of a fixed point like approximation.

  13. Operations Management in Short Term Power Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide-Jørgensen, Ditte Mølgård

    Electricity market models have often been modelled as deterministic or at most two-stage stochastic models with an hourly time resolution. This thesis looks into possible ways of extending such models and formulating new models to handle both higher time resolution than hourly and stochastics wit...

  14. The Economics of the Commodity Market Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    32 D. HEDGING ........................................................................ 33 E. SPECULATING...Result of Chernobyl’s Nuclear Accident ........................................... 49 It. e -Mr i7s0 I LIST OF FIGURES *4. 1. Example of a Perfect Hedge ...briefly. The reason for this is the power of arbitrage . Arbitrage is the simultaneous purchase of a futures contract in one market against the sale

  15. Money Market Operations in FY2002

    OpenAIRE

    Open Market Operations Division

    2003-01-01

    In FY2002, the Bank of Japan (hereafter, the Bank) continued to provide ample liquidity under the high target level for current account balances held at the Bank. In the short-term money markets, the uncollateralized O/N call rate remained close to 0%, and for financial institutions, the opportunity cost of holding current account deposits at the Bank was negligible. As a result, demand for current account deposits at the Bank fluctuated widely, and a decrease in demand gave rise to under-bid...

  16. IMPORTANCE OF LOGISTICS OPERATORS IN INTERNATIONAL MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    KATARZYNA GRONDYS; RUZENA LOVASOVA; ANNA STELMASZCZYK; WIKTOR JANIK

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present role and importance of logistics operations in international arena. The article focuses on forms of outsourcing in logistics and their evolution over the years. The article discusses in detail the scope of logistics operators' activities on global scale over several years. Article also presents results of research, their analysis according to the sector of activities, their percentage share and financial benefits of using 3PL service providers. The progres...

  17. Power plant operation and management in a deregulated market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carraretto, Cristian [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Padova, Via Venezia, 1-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2006-05-15

    This paper analyzes the influence of electricity deregulation on the design, operation and management of the power plants owned by strategic and non-strategic producers. After a sensitivity analysis aimed at finding market conditions of profitable operation for thermal and hydroelectric power plants, a Nash-equilibrium market model is used to determine producers' optimum strategies, depending on their relative market power and overall production characteristics. Attention is then focused on the operation of single thermal power plants. Their short-term management plans and consequent effects on emission levels and residual life are described. The available reserve for primary and secondary control deriving from producers' market strategies is discussed. Some design options to improve combined cycles contribution to reserve service are finally described. The paper discusses these problems with a general approach, and uses many cases and examples derived from the current Italian scenario. (author)

  18. Power plant operation and management in a deregulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carraretto, Cristian

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of electricity deregulation on the design, operation and management of the power plants owned by strategic and non-strategic producers. After a sensitivity analysis aimed at finding market conditions of profitable operation for thermal and hydroelectric power plants, a Nash-equilibrium market model is used to determine producers' optimum strategies, depending on their relative market power and overall production characteristics. Attention is then focused on the operation of single thermal power plants. Their short-term management plans and consequent effects on emission levels and residual life are described. The available reserve for primary and secondary control deriving from producers' market strategies is discussed. Some design options to improve combined cycles contribution to reserve service are finally described. The paper discusses these problems with a general approach, and uses many cases and examples derived from the current Italian scenario. (author)

  19. Managing risks of market price uncertainty for a microgrid operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Sriram

    After deregulation of electricity in the United States, the day-ahead and real-time markets allow load serving entities and generation companies to bid and purchase/sell energy under the supervision of the independent system operator (ISO). The electricity market prices are inherently uncertain, and can be highly volatile. The main objective of this thesis is to hedge against the risk from the uncertainty of the market prices when purchasing/selling energy from/to the market. The energy manager can also schedule distributed generators (DGs) and storage of the microgrid to meet the demand, in addition to energy transactions from the market. The risk measure used in this work is the variance of the uncertain market purchase/sale cost/revenue, assuming the price following a Gaussian distribution. Using Markowitz optimization, the risk is minimized to find the optimal mix of purchase from the markets. The problem is formulated as a mixed integer quadratic program. The microgrid at Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) in Chicago, IL was used as a case study. The result of this work reveals the tradeoff faced by the microgrid energy manager between minimizing the risk and minimizing the mean of the total operating cost (TOC) of the microgrid. With this information, the microgrid energy manager can make decisions in the day-ahead and real-time markets according to their risk aversion preference. The assumption of market prices following Gaussian distribution is also verified to be reasonable for the purpose of hedging against their risks. This is done by comparing the result of the proposed formulation with that obtained from the sample market prices randomly generated using the distribution of actual historic market price data.

  20. Operations Optimization of Hybrid Energy Systems under Variable Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jun; Garcia, Humberto E.

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid energy systems (HES) have been proposed to be an important element to enable increasing penetration of clean energy. This paper investigates the operations flexibility of HES, and develops a methodology for operations optimization to maximize its economic value based on predicted renewable generation and market information. The proposed operations optimizer allows systematic control of energy conversion for maximal economic value, and is illustrated by numerical results.

  1. Independent Electricity Market Operator integration management participant technical reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The document provides potential participants with the essential technical information to permit them to participate in the IMO-administered markets, and is not intended to be a complete technical reference manual for all issues within the realm of electricity production, distribution, or consumption. Written for the participants, it provides only that information which is relevant to the participant for interfacing with the IMO and participating in the market. Written as a generic guide, all the information contained within it may not be relevant to all the participants. The document's intent is to provide participants with a description of the various facilities and interfaces required by market participants to take part in the IMO-administered markets. The document supplements the market rules and provides installation, set-up, and configuration information for the various tools and facilities that will be required for market participation as a supplier, carrier/delivery (transmitter/distributor), generator, or consumer in the market. Aspects considered include: participant workstation specifications, dispatch workstation specification, message exchange, remote terminal unit specification, AGC operational RTU specification, real time network connection specification, telephone connection specification, revenue administration specification, funds administration specification, data catalogues, market information, power grid connection requirements, and appendices

  2. Operation of Modern Distribution Power Systems in Competitive Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao

    , DG units, loads and electricity price are studied. Further, the effect of energy storage systems will be considered, and an optimal operation strategy for energy storage devices in a large scale wind power system in the electricity market is proposed. The western Danish power system, which has large...... strategy for trading wind power in the Danish short-term electricity market in order to minimize the imbalance costs for regulation. A load optimization method based on spot price for demand side management in Denmark is proposed in order to save the energy costs for 3 types of typical Danish consumers...... maximum profit of the BESS is proposed. Two kinds of BESS, based on polysulfide-bromine (PSB) and vanadium redox (VRB) battery technologies, are studied. Optimal operation strategies of PEV in the spot market are then proposed in order to decrease the energy cost for PEV owners. Furthermore...

  3. The process of marketing management – between the management marketing activities and the operational marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita Zait

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The best known definitions provided to the concept of marketing management, in the last decades of the 21st century have in common – the orientation towards the client and the development of successfull relations with the clients, the substantion and operationalization of the mix of marketing, as the basis of the exchange relation, the involvement of all functional areas inside the organisation in managing relations in order to achieve the long term objectives of the organization – but the main issues are related to four basic activities: - analysis, planning, implementing and controlling marketing activities.

  4. The carbon market: major operational carbon funds and financed projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.; Nobili, V.

    2008-01-01

    The flexible mechanisms envisaged by the Kyoto Protocol have led gradually to a global carbon market that has become very appetizing for companies operating in the sector. Financial instruments such as carbon funds, and investments in greenhouse-gas-reduction projects, now operate at the international level, counting on the development of new technologies and energy efficiency, and contributing to sustainable development in the countries that host the projects [it

  5. Interactions between Monetary and Fiscal Policy via Open Market Operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schabert, A.

    2004-01-01

    We examine interactions of monetary and fiscal policy in a sticky price model where public debt is non-neutral, as it provides transaction services. This property is brought about by a legal restriction on open market operations by which only government bonds are eligible. Debt creation eases access

  6. The process of marketing management – between the management marketing activities and the operational marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Luminita Zait

    2009-01-01

    The best known definitions provided to the concept of marketing management, in the last decades of the 21st century have in common – the orientation towards the client and the development of successfull relations with the clients, the substantion and operationalization of the mix of marketing, as the basis of the exchange relation, the involvement of all functional areas inside the organisation in managing relations in order to achieve the long term objectives of the organization – but the ma...

  7. Optimal Wind Power Uncertainty Intervals for Electricity Market Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ying; Zhou, Zhi; Botterud, Audun; Zhang, Kaifeng

    2018-01-01

    It is important to select an appropriate uncertainty level of the wind power forecast for power system scheduling and electricity market operation. Traditional methods hedge against a predefined level of wind power uncertainty, such as a specific confidence interval or uncertainty set, which leaves the questions of how to best select the appropriate uncertainty levels. To bridge this gap, this paper proposes a model to optimize the forecast uncertainty intervals of wind power for power system scheduling problems, with the aim of achieving the best trade-off between economics and reliability. Then we reformulate and linearize the models into a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) without strong assumptions on the shape of the probability distribution. In order to invest the impacts on cost, reliability, and prices in a electricity market, we apply the proposed model on a twosettlement electricity market based on a six-bus test system and on a power system representing the U.S. state of Illinois. The results show that the proposed method can not only help to balance the economics and reliability of the power system scheduling, but also help to stabilize the energy prices in electricity market operation.

  8. Market partner orientation in power grid operation; Marktpartnerorientierung im Netzbetrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Claudia; Gebhardt, Andreas [Buelow und Consorten GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-11-15

    Customer orientation is often neglected in power grid operation. Power grid owners have natural monopolies and defined territories and so far had little reason to consider their customers' needs. This is changing with changed boundary conditions. In the competition for concessions and customers for non-regulated services, those grid owners will prevail in the long run wo are aware of their market partners, their power and expectations, and wo are prepared to implement profit-oriented customer orientation measures. (orig.)

  9. Extension of market concept with market-driven optimisation of distribution system operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    not explicitly submitted, but derived from historic demand response behaviour. The locational prices resulting from this local optimisation were used to alleviate the congestion that would result from response to a global price, as issued within the EcoGrid EU real time market for system balancing services from......This report describes the development of a pricing mechanism for the alleviation of congestion at the 10kV distribution network level using demand flexibility in a 5-minute real-time market environment. Demand was incorporated into an OPF based market clearing procedure in which demand bids were...... distributed resources. A complementary direct control framework was developed to operate in tandem with the pricing mechanism to ensure the reliable alleviation of congestion...

  10. The role and significance marketing in modern business operation

    OpenAIRE

    Simonović, Zoran; Miletić, Slavomir; Miletić, Vuk

    2012-01-01

    Marketing is a science that deals with the market, market needs and the ways of meeting these needs. Marketing, as a business philosophy of intensive production, is focused on analyzing and noticing all the problems referring to the distribution and selling of the goods from the producer to the consumer. This field is constantly developing together with market expansion and its goal is to set the theoretical background for the market business strategies. In marketing theory, the market succes...

  11. Competition analysis on the operating system market using principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brătucu, G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Operating system market has evolved greatly. The largest software producer in the world, Microsoft, dominates the operating systems segment. With three operating systems: Windows XP, Windows Vista and Windows 7 the company held a market share of 87.54% in January 2011. Over time, open source operating systems have begun to penetrate the market very strongly affecting other manufacturers. Companies such as Apple Inc. and Google Inc. penetrated the operating system market. This paper aims to compare the best-selling operating systems on the market in terms of defining characteristics. To this purpose the principal components analysis method was used.

  12. Organizing and operating the green certificates market in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jisa, Mihaela; Sandulescu, Alexandru; Stanciulescu, Georgeta; Stanciu, Nadina

    2006-01-01

    The promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources, RES, represents an imperative of the present period of time justified by the environment protection, the increasing of energy independence against the imports - through the diversification of energy supply sources - as well as economic and social reasons. The Directive 2001/77/EC of the European Parliament and the Council on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the internal electricity market represents the first step of European Union in complying with the Kyoto targets of reducing the greenhouse gases. Romania was one of the first EU candidate countries transposing the Directive 2001/77/EC provisions into its own legislation (see Governmental Decision - GD no. 443/2003 amended by GD no.958/2005). The indicative target for 2010 was fixed at 33%, representing the share of E-RES in the gross national electricity consumption. The contents of the paper is as follows: 1. Introduction; 2. Legal Framework; 2.1. Primary legislation on RES; 2.2. Secondary legislation on RES; 3. The E-RES Promotion system in Romania; 4. The Operation of green certificates market; 4.1. Setting up the mandatory quotas; 4.2. Qualify the E-RES; 4.3. Issuing the green certificates; 4.4. Trading the green certificates; 4.5. Competencies and attributions regarding the organisation and operation of the green certificates market; 4.6. The allocation of the money obtained from suppliers for non-purchased green certificates to fulfil the imposed mandatory quota; 5. The results of the GCs transactions on the centralized market; 6. Conclusion. The paper concludes by underlining that: - the legal framework of regulation is complete and it ensures the operating of promotion system of E-RES; - eighteen suppliers did not comply with their annual mandatory quota (752 green certificates); - the Romanian indicative target for 2010 regarding the share of E-RES in the gross national electricity consumption was

  13. Operation of the UK Magnox Stations in a competitive market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrigan, A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1955 the UK Government announced the first major civil nuclear power plant construction programme based on the Magnox design of reactor. This was followed in 1956 with the commencement of operation of Calder Hall, the world's first nuclear power station. The initial programme was for the construction of 1 500-2 000 MW of plant but, with the success of the early stations, this was increased to 5 000 MW by 1960. In total 11 Magnox nuclear power stations were commissioned in the UK over the period 1956 to 1971, comprising a total of 26 reactors (see Table 1). At present 20 of the reactors remain in operation, with an average life of 37 years. Output from the stations has been steady for many years and they have been regarded as the workhorses of the electricity generation industry in the UK. In 1990 the electricity supply and distribution system was deregulated and a market system introduced which has led to a reduction in the sale price of electricity. In addition to this it has been necessary to invest in the plants to maintain safety levels and operational reliability. The plant's can only continue in operation provided they remain safe and economic. This paper will review recent experience with the life management of the Magnox stations. (author)

  14. The market platforms and the operating of exchange systems of CO2 quotas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremont, R.

    2005-06-01

    In the framework of the climatic change, the first carbon transactions appeared in 1999. Still 2005 they operated without an organized market system. The european market changed the situation: the market grow. This document details the six projects of market platform existing in 2005 and wonders on their success conditions. (A.L.B.)

  15. Operations Theory and Marketing Theory: What are We Really Teaching?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Spencer

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available As global businesses become more interdisciplinary in nature, colleges and schools of business appear to lag behind holding on to their functional orientation. The result may be having a dramatic negative effect on graduates. When three basic components of the operations management curriculum, are compared with a basic component of the marketing curriculum, conflicts emerge. The result of these conflicts may cause substantial damage to the global competitiveness of organizations. Students are frequently left on their own to uncover these conflicts and develop resolutions. A structural change may be required to bring business schools in line with business practices that will enhance students' understanding of the interdisciplinary nature of global business.

  16. Proposed Marketing Strategy for TELKOM FLEXI to Compete with GSM Operators

    OpenAIRE

    Mardiansyah, Marshal; Desiana, Krisnati; Nasution, Reza Ashari

    2013-01-01

    In Indonesian telecommunication industry, market penetration of FWA (Fixed Wireless Access) based is still about 12% of the total population size. But the market penetration of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) based in cellular telecommunication industry has reach 82%. Therefore when the FWA operators in Indonesia want to expand their market, they will have to compete with GSM operators. As market leader of FWA license in Indonesia, it is time for Flexi for extending their networ...

  17. 33 CFR 209.141 - Coordination of hydroelectric power operations with power marketing agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Commanders will develop, in coordination with their respective power marketing agency, a system for exchanging operating information. The system will include general operating information and information on... power operations with power marketing agencies. 209.141 Section 209.141 Navigation and Navigable Waters...

  18. Technical challenges to energy systems' operation and markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, P.; Meibom, P.; Gehrke, O. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Oestergaard, J. [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)

    2006-11-15

    A future energy system that includes a high proportion of renewable energy will be expected to meet the same requirements for security of supply and economic efficiency as the energy systems of today, while delivering better environmental performance, especially with regard to CO{sub 2} emissions. Security of supply refers to the long-term reliability of fuel supply; especially in power systems, it also covers short-term requirements for system stability and adequacy. Economic efficiency is concerned with getting the best from the significant amounts of money, human capital and natural resources involved in an energy system. Integral to economic efficiency in energy systems is the presence of well-functioning markets for energy services. The variability and reduced predictability of a number of renewable energy sources, notably wind power, create specific challenges for future energy systems compared to those of today. Power transmission will also become an issue, as the areas with good potential for wind power and wave energy are often located some distance from the centres of power consumption. This chapter describes the challenges involved, and possible solutions to these, with a focus on power systems. The chapter is divided into two sections reflecting the fact that some challenges relate to managing the power system in its normal operation mode, whereas others are specific to fault conditions. (au)

  19. Power grid operation in a market environment economic efficiency and risk mitigation

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book examines both system operation and market operation perspectives, focusing on the interaction between the two. It incorporates up-to-date field experiences, presents challenges, and summarizes the latest theoretic advancements to address those challenges. The book is divided into four parts. The first part deals with the fundamentals of integrated system and market operations, including market power mitigation, market efficiency evaluation, and the implications of operation practices in energy markets. The second part discusses developing technologies to strengthen the use of the grid in energy markets. System volatility and economic impact introduced by the intermittency of wind and solar generation are also addressed. The third part focuses on stochastic applications, exploring new approaches of handling uncerta nty in Security Constrained Unit Commitment (SCUC) as well as the reserves needed for power system operation. The fourth part provides ongoing efforts of utilizing transmission facilities ...

  20. Engaging Marketing Students: Student Operated Businesses in a Simulated World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Bennett, Rebekah; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn R.; Kuhn, Kerri-Ann

    2010-01-01

    Engaged students are committed and more likely to continue their university studies. Subsequently, they are less resource intensive from a university's perspective. This article details an experiential second-year marketing course that requires students to develop real products and services to sell on two organized market days. In the course,…

  1. 76 FR 19355 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Markets Operations Policy Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ...) Markets Operations Policy Committee (MOPC), as noted below. Their attendance is part of the Commission's... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Markets Operations Policy Committee Meeting The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby...

  2. The role of coordinated marketing-operations strategy in services : Implications for managerial decisions and execution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, M.; Rhee, van der B.; Karniouchina, E.; Verma, R.; Victorino, L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of a coordinated marketing and operations strategy in goods and service producing business organizations. Customer engagement and co-production are imperative service delivery considerations, and therefore an aligned marketing and operations

  3. Planning operations before market launch for balancing time-to-market and risks in pharmaceutical supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Reinholdt Nyhuus; Grunow, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Shorter product life cycles and the resulting increase in new product introductions boost the importance of product launch operations. In the pharmaceutical sector, product launch operations are of particular importance, as companies seek to reduce time-to-market to better exploit patent protection....... Large volumes of product need to be ready to fill the downstream supply chain immediately at market launch. Building up the required inventory is, however, connected to several risks. In addition to the risk associated with the lack of demand information for a new product, there are several risks unique...... to the pharmaceutical sector. After approval by central authorities such as the FDA or EMA, a new drug still needs to receive market authorization, which is in most cases granted by some local authorities – in Europe, for example, by more than 30 national and regional bodies. The duration of these different market...

  4. Managing and operating the reserve market as one insurance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Youfei; Cai, Bin; Wu, F.F.; Ni, Y.X.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, it is suggested that the preference of an individual consumer for its power supply reliability should be considered when scheduling the system reserve. The mechanism of 'provider insurance' is introduced and the reserve market is to be managed as an insurance system. In our modeling, the generator who provides the insurance of reliable power supply via its reserve, should always collect the payment (the premium), and be rewarded with the spot market price for its called reserve. The consumer who buys the insurance, pays premium and thus obtains a reliable power supply (the claim). It is argued that such a market mechanism will result in the maximum social welfare. Moreover, it is shown that there is a kind of 'moral hazard in reverse' fact that will further improve the market efficiency. Later on, discussions on implementing the proposed method are given, and an illustrative example is provided to show basic features of the proposed method. (author)

  5. Structure and operation of the natural gas market in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The French natural gas market is organized around six main activities: production, transport, methane terminals, storage, distribution and commercialization. This paper describes the facilities related to each activity: gas fields, pipelines network and distribution systems, terminals capacity and underground storage facilities. The selling activity is opened to competition but the French gas market follows a progressive and controlled opening which will be complete in July 2007. (J.S.)

  6. Marketing performance of subsidiaries operating abroad: An integrative model

    OpenAIRE

    Falcão, Roberto Flores; Masiero, Gilmar; Campomar, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    In the internationalization process firms face challenges in order to be successful, such as enabling knowledge transfer, finding the optimum balance between standardizing/adapting their marketing strategies, determining the strength of external networks, and deciding degrees of reverse innovation. Research on knowledge transfer in multinational firms has grown considerably over the last 15 years, but still little is known about its impact on the marketing performance of subsidiaries. The maj...

  7. Formation of Marketing Activity on Organisation and Support of a Corporate Site of Companies That Operate in the Consumer Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarym-Agayev Oleksandr M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main issues of organisation of Internet marketing at small and medium enterprises of Ukraine, shows a necessity of development and marketing support of the site and provides recommendations on development, implementation and maintenance of corporate sites for marketing and advertising managers. The article considers such directions of operation with the site as analysis of sites of competitors, development of a corporate site, information provision of the site, site indexation and its promotion in search engines, placing site links at information portals, creation of pages in social networks, work at forums, information mailings, operation with site analytics and ensuring feedback with the site visitors. The listed recommendations would allow increase the site image, attract new clients, organise efficient co-operation with specialists on development and promotion of the site and achieve the maximal effect from this source of advertisement and sales.

  8. Testing market informational efficiency of Constanta port operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roşca, E.; Popa, M.; Ruscă, F.; Burciu, Ş.

    2015-11-01

    The Romanian capital market is still an emergent one. Following the mass- privatization process and the private investments, three of the most important handling and storage companies acting in Constantza Port (OIL Terminal, Comvex and SOCEP) are listed on Romanian Stock Exchange. The paper investigates their evolution on the market, identifying the expected rate of return and the components of the shares risk (specific and systematic). Also, the price evolution could be analyzed through the informational efficiency which instantly reflects the price relevance. The Jarque-Bera normality test regarding the shares return rate distribution and the Fama test for the informational efficiency are completed for each company. The market price model is taken into consideration for price forecasting, computing the return rate auto-correlations. The results are subject of interpretation considering additional managerial and financial information of the companies’ activity.

  9. Land Reform and Farm Land Rental Market Operation in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Trung THANH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the factors affecting the participation of farmhouseholds in farm land rental markets with particular focus on the impact ofthe land reform. The operational outcomes of such market participation are alsoanalysed. The study used a panel dataset of farm households surveyed beforeand after the land reform with Random Effect Tobit model. The analysisshowed that the land reform have contributed to increased land rentalparticipation. The operation of the market has both efficiency and equityoutcomes. Therefore, constraints to functioning of land rental market aredifficult to justify. In other words, farm land rental should be promoted to bringsuch desirable outcomes.

  10. Impact of market restructuring on power systems operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, W.H. Jr.; Rossi, M.A.; Avramovic, B.

    1995-01-01

    This article examines the effect that competitive pricing will have on control center applications, information technology requirements, and transaction analysis in the USA by examining the England and Wales system. The topics of the article include a comparison of market-based and cost-based systems, impacts on control center applications, impacts on information technology requirements, and impacts on transaction analysis

  11. Mass Communication, Advertising, and Marketing Research at the Strategic and Operational Levels of War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-05

    EBSCOhost (accessed November 4, 2012): 157. 43 Ibid., 156. 44 Ibid., 163. 45 Chang, Chun-Tuan. 2011. “Guilt appeals in cause-related marketing ...Mass Communication, Advertising, and Marketing Research at the Strategic and Operational Levels of War by Colonel Ralph...Education of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, 3624 Market Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, (215) 662-5606. The Commission on

  12. Microsoft Acquired Nokia in Unipolar Operating System Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netra Pal Singh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The recent big tickets include Microsoft acquiring part of Nokia for US$ 7.2 billion, Verizon buy 45% stake in Vodafone for US$130 billion, Google acquiring Motorola for 12.5 billion. These buyouts are analyzed and commented by experts of the industry. This research paper attempted to collate their view in the context of Microsoft and Nokia deal on six parameters. These parameters are (i reasons for the downfall of the Nokia market share, (ii general comments of the experts, (iii similarities / dissimilarities of past and business models of the smartphone business, (iv reasons for Microsoft to buy out Nokia, (vi impact of buyout on Microsoft, Nokia, consumers and markets.

  13. Generation Companies’ Operative Strategies in the Spot Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar-Hernández J.H.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In traditional regulation the obligation to meet the consumer demand was assumed, this guaranteed to generation companies the full recovery of their costs. However, in order to achieve greater efficiency, reduce the price of electricity, meet the continuously growing electricity consumption, and equalize prices in different regions, a new structure of the electricity industry has been created, where electric energy is traded through a market. Generation company’s future cash flows depend on day to day market participation, in order to satisfy all of their financial and economic requirements. In this paper, future cash flows required to fulfill with economic and financial commitments by a generation company immerse in this new market structure are studied. For this purpose, future cash flows are considered to be dependent on a single asset: electricity. Several scenarios with different fuel prices are generated in order to estimate the generation company’s future cash flows. The response of the competing generation companies is taken into account at each scenario. The fuel price changes are modelled using a concurrent binary tree.

  14. 76 FR 76712 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Markets and Operations Policy Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    .... Markets and Operations Policy Committee. Their attendance is part of the Commission's ongoing outreach... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Markets and Operations Policy Committee Meeting The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

  15. 75 FR 47631 - Swets Information Services, Operations Department, Information Technology Group, Marketing Group...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,668] Swets Information Services, Operations Department, Information Technology Group, Marketing Group, Finance Group, Runnemede..., Information Technology (IT) Group, Marketing Group and the Finance Group into one entity instead of...

  16. Operations open-market as instrument money-credit politics of NBU

    OpenAIRE

    Karacharova, K.

    2014-01-01

    In the article essence and progress of operations trends aregeneralized open-market as an instrument of monetarypolicy of NBU. Connection is certain between the height ofamount of money and by a gross internal product. The basic obstacles of relatively active application of suchinstrument of monetary policy are certain, a operationsopen-market.

  17. Marketing Concept in the Function of Croatian Seaport Business Operation Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinko Jurčević

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The application of the scope of marketing concept in modemmarket conditions of business operation is obligatory. Therole of marketing, as a business philosophy, is in the end unavoidablefor the improvement of business operation. It is impossibleto do business in market conditions and not to applybasic marketing rules. Therefore, the solution for the improvementof operation of Croatian seaports should be soughtthrough the systematic application of the scopes of marketingconcept. Marketing mix should be applied to the system of businessoperation of Croatian seaports, with a breakdown of allunderlying marketing functions based on the results of a systematicmarket research, and through monitoring not only ofthe current status but also of market trends and forecasts, listeningto customer demands and trends in this particularbranch of industry. In addition to the improvement of the qualityof transport services, through the analysis of the price policyand by strengthening the logistics of port operation, particularattention should be focused towards the systematic applicationof all promotion mix elements aiming at strengthening the identityand the image of Croatian ports. In the end, such businessand marketing-like thinking should result in economic developmentand business prosperity not only of ports but of maritimetransport as well; in other words, by the prosperity of theentire transport activity, as a prerequisite for the economic developmentof the Republic of Croatia.

  18. Can the Stock Market Anticipate Future Operating Performance? Evidence from Equity Rights Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, Mohammed Rezaul; Roosenboom, Peter

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines whether the stock market valuation impact is consistent with subsequent operating performance of firms. We use data for equity rights offerings - the widely adopted flotation method in the Netherlands. We first examine the stock market announcement effect of rights issues and

  19. Can the stock market anticipate future operating performance? Evidence from equity rights issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kabir (Rezaul); P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines whether the stock market valuation impact is consistent with subsequent operating performance of firms. We use data for equity rights offerings - the widely adopted flotation method in the Netherlands. We first examine the stock market announcement effect of rights

  20. 75 FR 14131 - Effect on Propane Consumers of the Propane Education and Research Council's Operations, Market...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... Propane Education and Research Council's Operations, Market Changes and Federal Programs AGENCY... Education and Research Council (PERC), in conjunction with the cumulative effects of market changes and... requirements under the Propane Education and Research Act of 1996 that established PERC and requires the...

  1. 12 CFR 613.3010 - Financing for processing or marketing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... overseeing the policies, business practices, management, and decision-making process of the legal entity; or... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financing for processing or marketing... for processing or marketing operations. (a) Eligible borrowers. A borrower is eligible for financing...

  2. Accelerating the commercialization on new technologies. [free market operation of federal alternate energy sources programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, T. J.; Nawrocki, P. M.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that federal programs for hastening the adoption of alternative energy sources must operate within the free market structure. Five phases of the free market commercialization process are described. Federal role possibilities include information dissemination and funding to stimulate private sector activities within these five phases, and federally sponsored procedures for accelerating commercialization of solar thermal small power systems are considered.

  3. The Marketing Firm: Operant Interpretation of Corporate Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Kevin J.; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we address the issue of applying operant psychology to derive plausible and useful interpretations of complex firm behavior in natural settings. The objective is to discuss an appropriate methodology based on case study design, developed specifically in Vella and Foxall (2011), to produce an operant interpretation of secondary…

  4. Data Service:Characteristics,Market Structure,and the Role of Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ruo-peng; LU Ting-jie

    2005-01-01

    To study characteristics and market structure of data service and the role of operator,this paper makes a commercial model by applying the theory of intermediaries and neoclassic economics.Data service has different economic characteristics from voice service.Firstly,production mode of data service is roundabout production,secondly,driving power of data service is economies of specialization,and finally,management method of data service is impersonal management.In data service market,information asymmetry and barrier to entry determine transaction efficiency and the specialization level of service providers indirectly.Therefore,operator should intervene in the market by offering trade service in order to promote development of service providers.Because of different quality of service providers,market structure of data service must be the state that trade platform built by operator and intermediary platform built by operator coexists.

  5. ATIS Market Research: A Survey of Operational Tests and University and Government Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This report outlines research that examines the market for Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS). The report includes detailed descriptions of Pathfinder, TravTek, and SmarTraveler ATIS operational tests. It includes basic background informati...

  6. CONFLICTS IN THE STRATEGIC BUSINESS NETWORK OPERATING IN THE FOREIGN MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Hauke-Lopes

    2017-01-01

    Conflicts are an integral part of every business-to-business co-operation. Enterprise’s activities in the international markets require from the company to take measures to resolve the conflict so as to prevent the negative impact on relationships and further cooperation. This article adopts the strategic network approach to analyze the conflicts and their impact on relationships in a network operating in a foreign market. Conflicts that occur between the two parties involved in a strategic b...

  7. Introduction to the Special Issue on Marketing and Operations Management Interfaces and Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Teck H. Ho; Christopher S. Tang

    2004-01-01

    This special issue, by addressing problems surrounding marketing and operations management, depicts state-of-the-art approaches, methodologies, and insights to improve a firm's or supply chain's overall performance. Top scholars in the field address many of the ways in which companies can synchronize their marketing and operations departments or their supply chain partners to improve competitiveness and profit. The information in this issue should be of interest both to academics and managers...

  8. The role of vibrant retail electricity markets in assuring that wholesale power markets operate effectively

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulding, A.J.; Rufin, C.; Swinand, G.

    1999-01-01

    Barriers to competitive supplier entry such as California's wholesale-price pass-through model can provide an almost insurmountable barrier to effective retail competition. The telecommunications, airline, and software industries provide lessons--positive and negative--on how creating competitive wholesale markets is insufficient to bring the benefits of competition to smaller consumers

  9. The role of vibrant retail electricity markets in assuring that wholesale power markets operate effectively

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulding, A.J.; Rufin, C.; Swinand, G.

    1999-12-01

    Barriers to competitive supplier entry such as California's wholesale-price pass-through model can provide an almost insurmountable barrier to effective retail competition. The telecommunications, airline, and software industries provide lessons--positive and negative--on how creating competitive wholesale markets is insufficient to bring the benefits of competition to smaller consumers.

  10. Risk management and market efficiency on the Midwest Independent System Operator electricity exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin

    Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc. (MISO) is a non-profit regional transmission organization (RTO) that oversees electricity production and transmission across thirteen states and one Canadian province. MISO also operates an electronic exchange for buying and selling electricity for each of its five regional hubs. MISO oversees two types of markets. The forward market, which is referred to as the day-ahead (DA) market, allows market participants to place demand bids and supply offers on electricity to be delivered at a specified hour the following day. The equilibrium price, known as the locational marginal price (LMP), is determined by MISO after receiving sale offers and purchase bids from market participants. MISO also coordinates a spot market, which is known as the real-time (RT) market. Traders in the real-time market must submit bids and offers by thirty minutes prior to the hour for which the trade will be executed. After receiving purchase and sale offers for a given hour in the real time market, MISO then determines the LMP for that particular hour. The existence of the DA and RT markets allows producers and retailers to hedge against the large fluctuations that are common in electricity prices. Hedge ratios on the MISO exchange are estimated using various techniques. No hedge ratio technique examined consistently outperforms the unhedged portfolio in terms of variance reduction. Consequently, none of the hedge ratio methods in this study meet the general interpretation of FASB guidelines for a highly effective hedge. One of the major goals of deregulation is to bring about competition and increased efficiency in electricity markets. Previous research suggests that electricity exchanges may not be weak-form market efficient. A simple moving average trading rule is found to produce statistically and economically significant profits on the MISO exchange. This could call the long-term survivability of the MISO exchange into question.

  11. Optimal operation strategies of compressed air energy storage (CAES) on electricity spot markets with fluctuating prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Salgi, Georges; Elmegaard, Brian

    2009-01-01

    on electricity spot markets by storing energy when electricity prices are low and producing electricity when prices are high. In order to make a profit on such markets, CAES plant operators have to identify proper strategies to decide when to sell and when to buy electricity. This paper describes three...... plants will not be able to achieve such optimal operation, since the fluctuations of spot market prices in the coming hours and days are not known. Consequently, two simple practical strategies have been identified and compared to the results of the optimal strategy. This comparison shows that...... independent computer-based methodologies which may be used for identifying the optimal operation strategy for a given CAES plant, on a given spot market and in a given year. The optimal strategy is identified as the one which provides the best business-economic net earnings for the plant. In practice, CAES...

  12. Waste to energy plant operation under the influence of market and legislation conditioned changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomic, Tihomir; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Pfeifer, Antun

    2017-01-01

    , waste-to-energy plants need to be adapted to market operation. This influence is tracked by the gate-fee volatility. The operation of the waste-to-energy plant on electricity markets is simulated by using EnergyPLAN and heat market is simulated in Matlab, based on hourly marginal costs. The results have......In this paper, gate-fee changes of the waste-to-energy plants are investigated in the conditions set by European Union legislation and by the introduction of the new heat market. Waste management and sustainable energy supply are core issues of sustainable development of regions, especially urban...... areas. These two energy flows logically come together in the combined heat and power facility by waste incineration. However, the implementation of new legislation influences quantity and quality of municipal waste and operation of waste-to-energy systems. Once the legislation requirements are met...

  13. Stochastic optimization of energy hub operation with consideration of thermal energy market and demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahid-Pakdel, M.J.; Nojavan, Sayyad; Mohammadi-ivatloo, B.; Zare, Kazem

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Studying heating market impact on energy hub operation considering price uncertainty. • Investigating impact of implementation of heat demand response on hub operation. • Presenting stochastic method to consider wind generation and prices uncertainties. - Abstract: Multi carrier energy systems or energy hubs has provided more flexibility for energy management systems. On the other hand, due to mutual impact of different energy carriers in energy hubs, energy management studies become more challengeable. The initial patterns of energy demands from grids point of view can be modified by optimal scheduling of energy hubs. In this work, optimal operation of multi carrier energy system has been studied in the presence of wind farm, electrical and thermal storage systems, electrical and thermal demand response programs, electricity market and thermal energy market. Stochastic programming is implemented for modeling the system uncertainties such as demands, market prices and wind speed. It is shown that adding new source of heat energy for providing demand of consumers with market mechanism changes the optimal operation point of multi carrier energy system. Presented mixed integer linear formulation for the problem has been solved by executing CPLEX solver of GAMS optimization software. Simulation results shows that hub’s operation cost reduces up to 4.8% by enabling the option of using thermal energy market for meeting heat demand.

  14. Multiple and Symbol Operators: the Battle for Market Leadership in the Irish Grocery Market

    OpenAIRE

    O'Callaghan, Edmund; Wilcox, Mary

    2002-01-01

    The Irish grocery retailing market, one of the most competitive in Europe, has undergone a metamorphosis in recent years. The demise of many small grocers, an increased concentration of multiples and the galvanization of the independent sector through symbol group participation has intensified competitive rivalry. The two largest multiples ie. Tesco Ireland and Dunnes Stores continually vie for number one position nationally. In recent years, Musgrave have galvanised the independent sector an...

  15. Technology choices for new entrants in liberalized markets. The value of operating flexibility and contractual arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roques, Fabien A.

    2008-01-01

    New entrants in liberalized electricity markets which are not vertically integrated and do not operate a large and diversified portfolio of generation technologies are likely to favour technologies which offer the best prospects to manage fuel and electricity price risks through contractual arrangements and operating flexibility. Monte Carlo simulations of a discounted cash flow model of investment in combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT), coal and nuclear power plant are run to compare the impact of fuel and electricity price risks on these different technologies, as well as the value of operating flexibility and contractual hedges. In the absence of long-term fixed-price power purchase contracts, CCGT is the least risky option as its cash flow is 'self-hedged' given the high correlation between electricity and gas prices observed in many markets. Moreover, the value associated with operating flexibility and arbitrage between gas and power market is greater for CCGT plant. This makes CCGT particularly attractive to new entrants. (author)

  16. Reliability through markets in Ontario : submission by the Independent Electricity Market Operator to the Minister of Energy's Consultation Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    For the past five years, Ontario has invested $1 billion to restructure and open its electricity market to competition. In recent months, and in response to residential consumers pricing concerns, the Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO) transferred credits to local distribution companies allowing them to issue $75 rebates to all affected customers as of December 1, 2002, and to bill low-volume and other designated customers at a rate of 4.3 cents per kilowatt hour for the commodity portion of their bills. This report addresses the concern that price responsiveness will be lost for those parts of the market with fixed prices. It was noted that the reliability of the power system could be placed at risk if the range of customers with fixed prices is broadened. Fixed prices would also jeopardize the province's ability to attract new supply and enhance competition in the electricity sector. The IMO believes that price responsiveness in the wholesale market is crucial to the reliability of the electricity system and recommends that a plan for any additional fixed pricing should include a clearly defined phase-out over the period ending in 2006 as new supply comes on-line. The IMO emphasizes that the lack of price responsiveness to the market, particularly in peak energy demand periods, is equivalent to adding hundreds of MW to the load. The report presents lessons learned in other jurisdictions and highlights noteworthy considerations such as the market power mitigation agreement, improving competition, a phased-in approach, and demand side initiatives

  17. Optimal planning and operation of aggregated distributed energy resources with market participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvillo, C.F.; Sánchez-Miralles, A.; Villar, J.; Martín, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Price-maker optimization model for planning and operation of aggregated DER. • 3 Case studies are proposed, considering different electricity pricing scenarios. • Analysis of benefits and effect on electricity prices produced by DER aggregation. • Results showed considerable benefits even for relatively small aggregations. • Results suggest that the impact on prices should not be overlooked. - Abstract: This paper analyzes the optimal planning and operation of aggregated distributed energy resources (DER) with participation in the electricity market. Aggregators manage their portfolio of resources in order to obtain the maximum benefit from the grid, while participating in the day-ahead wholesale electricity market. The goal of this paper is to propose a model for aggregated DER systems planning, considering its participation in the electricity market and its impact on the market price. The results are the optimal planning and management of DER systems, and the appropriate energy transactions for the aggregator in the wholesale day-ahead market according to the size of its aggregated resources. A price-maker approach based on representing the market competitors with residual demand curves is followed, and the impact on the price is assessed to help in the decision of using price-maker or price-taker approaches depending on the size of the aggregated resources. A deterministic programming problem with two case studies (the average scenario and the most likely scenario from the stochastic ones), and a stochastic one with a case study to account for the market uncertainty are described. For both models, market scenarios have been built from historical data of the Spanish system. The results suggest that when the aggregated resources have enough size to follow a price-maker approach and the uncertainty of the markets is considered in the planning process, the DER systems can achieve up to 50% extra economic benefits, depending on the market

  18. The Influence of Market Context on Business Strategy, Competitor Imitation and Operational Effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Madalina Balau

    2015-01-01

    The importance of strategic positioning, along with operational effectiveness, has long been presented as key for the success of the company. There are few studies that highlighted the way in which the market context affects these efforts of the company. The aim of this paper is to explore the influence of the market context on competitor imitation and its further implications on strategy. For this purpose, a literature review was conducted and major concepts were drawn from works...

  19. Analysis of Changes in Market Shares of Commercial Banks Operating in Turkey Using Computational Intelligence Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Amasyali, M. Fatih; Demırhan, Ayse; Bal, Mert

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to model the change in market share of 30 domestic and foreign banks, which have been operating between the years 1990 and 2009 in Turkey by taking into consideration 20 financial ratios of those banks. Due to the fragile structure of the banking sector in Turkey, this study plays an important role for determining the changes in market share of banks and taking the necessary measures promptly. For this reason, computational intelligence methods have been used in the study. Acc...

  20. A Proposed Managerial Framework for International Marketing Operations in the Fast Food Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Selase Asamoah; Miloslava Chovancová

    2011-01-01

    When choosing marketing strategies for international markets, one of the factors that should be considered is the cultural differences that exist among consumers in different countries. If the branding strategy has to be contextual and in tune with the culture, then the brand positioning variables has to interact, adapt and respond to the cultural variables in which the brand is operating. This study provides an overview of the relevance of culture in the development of an effective branding ...

  1. Role of Pumped Storage Hydro Resources in Electricity Markets and System Operation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Botterud, A.; Milostan, C.; Krad, I.; Koritarov, V.

    2013-05-01

    The most common form of utility- sized energy storage system is the pumped storage hydro system. Originally, these types of storage systems were economically viable simply because they displace more expensive generating units. However, over time, as those expensive units became more efficient and costs declined, pumped hydro storage units no longer have the operational edge. As a result, in the current electricity market environment, pumped storage hydro plants are struggling. To offset this phenomenon, certain market modifications should be addressed. This paper will introduce some of the challenges faced by pumped storage hydro plants in today's markets and purpose some solutions to those problems.

  2. An Assessment of Theories Underlying the Operations of the Nigerian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris O. Udoka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed at determining the theories and approaches that inform the operational efficiency of the Nigerian stock market, considering the economic, financial, political and environmental factors inducing shareholder behaviour in the market. Taking a desk review of the theories, against the wealth maximization expectations of investors, the paper notes that due to imperfections in the Nigerian stock market, certain policies are clearly unsuitable in informing shareholder behaviour and corporate managements’ relationship with them. Due to the several factors affecting dividend policy such as legal constraints, funding needs, control issue, debt obligation, investment opportunity, inflation, shareholders expectations etc, good planning must be put in place.

  3. Evaluation on Core Competitiveness of Wholesale Market of Agricultural Products Based on CWAA Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to relevant data,we select five indices,namely management ability,organization and management capability,enterprise culture,development ability and technical equipment ability,to establish the index system of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products.Based on combination weight arithmetic average(CWAA) operator,we advance an evaluation model of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products which involves participation of many people.By inviting five exerts,we conduct evaluation in terms of management ability of wholesale market of agricultural products,organization and management capability of leadership,enterprise culture of wholesale market of agricultural products,future development ability of wholesale market of agricultural products,and exiting technical equipment ability of wholesale market of agricultural products.We adopt hundred-mark system to grade and evaluate core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products.The results show that the experts’ evaluation score of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products is high.The evaluation result is reasonable and authentic and this model is feasible.

  4. [Does co-operation research provide approaches to explain the changes in the German hospital market?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raible, C; Leidl, R

    2004-11-01

    The German hospital market faces an extensive process of consolidation. In this change hospitals consider cooperation as one possibility to improve competitiveness. To investigate explanations of changes in the German hospital market by theoretical approaches of cooperation research. The aims and mechanism of the theories, their relevance in terms of contents and their potential for empirical tests were used as criteria to assess the approaches, with current and future trends in the German hospital market providing the framework. Based on literature review, six theoretical approaches were investigated: industrial organization, transaction cost theory, game theory, resource dependency, institutional theory, and co-operative investment and finance theory. In addition, the data needed to empirically test the theories were specified. As a general problem, some of the theoretical approaches set a perfect market as a precondition. This precondition is not met by the heavily regulated German hospital market. Given the current regulations and the assessment criteria, industrial organization as well as resource-dependency and institutional theory approaches showed the highest potential to explain various aspects of the changes in the hospital market. So far, none of the approaches investigated provides a comprehensive and empirically tested explanation of the changes in the German hospital market. However, some of the approaches provide a theoretical background for part of the changes. As this dynamic market is economically of high significance, there is a need for further development and empirical testing of relevant theoretical approaches.

  5. Optimal Operation of Electric Vehicles in Competitive Electricity Markets and Its Impact on Distribution Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    represent the future of electricity markets in some ways, is chosen as the studied power system in this paper. The impact of the optimal operation strategy for electric vehicles together with the optimal load response to spot market price on the distribution power system with high wind power penetrations...... are also discussed in the paper. Simulation results show that the proposed optimal operation strategy is an effective measure to achieve minimum energy costs of the PEV. The optimal operation strategy of the PEV and the optimal load response may have significant effects on the distribution power system......Since the hourly spot market price is available one day ahead in Denmark, the electricity price could be transferred to the consumers and they may make some optimal charge and discharge schedules for their electric vehicles in order to minimize their energy costs. This paper presents an optimal...

  6. Association of bond, market, operational, and financial factors with multi-hospital system bond issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, C E; McCue, M J; Hossack, J B

    2001-01-01

    Despite the growth of multi-hospital systems in the 1990s, their performance in the tax-exempt bond market has not been adequately evaluated. The purpose of this study is to compare bonds issued by multi-hospital systems to those issued by individual hospitals in terms of bond, market, operational, and financial characteristics. The study sample includes 2,078 newly issued, tax-exempt, revenue bonds between 1991 and 1997. The findings indicate that multi-hospital systems issued larger amounts of debt at a lower cost, were more likely to be insured, had higher debt service coverage and higher operating margins.

  7. Coordination and decision making of regulation, operation, and market activities in power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Tomoaki

    Electric power has been traditionally supplied to customers at regulated rates by vertically integrated utilities (VIUs), which own generation, transmission, and distribution systems. However, the regulatory authorities of VIUs are promoting competition in their businesses to lower the price of electric energy. Consequently, in new deregulated circumstances, many suppliers and marketers compete in the generation market, and conflict of interest may often occur over transmission. Therefore, a neutral entity, called an independent system operator (ISO), which operates the power system independently, has been established to give market participants nondiscriminatory access to transmission sectors with a natural monopoly, and to facilitate competition in generation sectors. Several types of ISOs are established at present, with their respective regions and authorities. The ISO receives many requests from market participants to transfer power, and must evaluate the feasibility of their requests under the system's condition. In the near future, regulatory authorities may impose various objectives on the ISOs. Then, based on the regulators' policies, the ISO must determine the optimal schedules from feasible solutions, or change the market participants' requests. In a newly developed power market, market participants will conduct their transactions in order to maximize their profit. The most crucial information in conducting power transactions is price and demand. A direct transaction between suppliers and consumers may become attractive because of its stability of price, while in a power exchange market, gaming and speculation of participants may push up electricity prices considerably. To assist the consumers in making effective decisions, suitable methods for forecasting volatile market price are necessary. This research has been approached from three viewpoints: Firstly, from the system operator's point of view, desirable system operation and power market structure

  8. Integrated control centre: Trading system for operation in a deregulated power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyland, S.; Reinertsen, T.; Gunnestad, J.; Botnan, G.O.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a trade system for operation in a deregulated power market. The trade system (ICC-Trade) is one of the application programs in the Integrated Control Centre (ICC). The Norwegian deregulated power market is briefly described in order to discuss the consequences of the new power market for the power utilities. The paper will also deal with the interconnection to other ICC application programs and how to make use of the communication with SCADA systems for support of managing market activities. Finally some future developments are presented. The trade system is developed in cooperation between a research institute, vendors of control centres, and power utilities, and is planned to be a commercial product during the spring of 1995. Before release the product will be tested in real life by a pilot customer. 4 figs

  9. Tehcnology Choices for New Entrants in Liberalised Markets: The Value of Operating Flexibility and Contractual Arrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Roques, Fabien A.

    2007-01-01

    New entrants in liberalised electricity markets which are not vertically integrated and do not operate a large and diversified portfolio of generation technologies are likely to favour technologies which offer the best prospects to manage fuel and electricity price risks through contractual arrangements and operating flexibility. Monte Carlo simulations of a discounted cash flow model of investment in combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT), coal and nuclear power plant are run to compare the impac...

  10. An analytical framework for evaluating the value of enhanced customisation: an integrated operations-marketing perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Hartanto; Eyers, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a formal approach to evaluate the value of enhanced customisation. The suggested approach is based on a new perspective addressing the important alignment between the operations and marketing functions, under which we are able to obtain a more holistic understanding...

  11. Can the Stock Market anticipate Future Operating Performance? Evidence from Equity Rights Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabir, M.R.; Roosenboom, P.G.J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines whether the stock market valuation impact of rights issues is consistent with subsequent operating performance of issuing firms. Analysing a sample of rights issues in the Netherlands, we find that a significant stock price decline takes place with the announcement of rights

  12. Development of export and import operations in the market of poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyryliuk O.F.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available the article examines the current trends in the development of the poultry industry in Ukraine in the context of the deepening of European integration; the priorities of export and import operations in the world food markets are examined. In recent years, Ukraine has officially changed the vector of foreign policy and economy.

  13. Measuring the agility of omnichannel operations: an agile marketing maturity model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogveld, M.; Koster, J.M.D.

    2016-01-01

    Agile is a widely accepted approach for software development. The deployment of agile in marketing practice is proliferating and appears also relevant for the dynamics and complexity of omnichannel operations. However, prior literature research showed that no well-founded method is available for

  14. A framework for analyzing the impact of data integrity/quality on electricity market operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Dae Hyun

    This dissertation examines the impact of data integrity/quality in the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system on real-time locational marginal price (LMP) in electricity market operations. Measurement noise and/or manipulated sensor errors in a SCADA system may mislead system operators about real-time conditions in a power system, which, in turn, may impact the price signals in real-time power markets. This dissertation serves as a first attempt to analytically investigate the impact of bad/malicious data on electric power market operations. In future power system operations, which will probably involve many more sensors, the impact of sensor data integrity/quality on grid operations will become increasingly important. The first part of this dissertation studies from a market participant's perspective a new class of malicious data attacks on state estimation, which subsequently influences the result of the newly emerging look-ahead dispatch models in the real-time power market. In comparison with prior work of cyber-attack on static dispatch where no inter-temporal ramping constraint is considered, we propose a novel attack strategy, named ramp-induced data (RID) attack, with which the attacker can manipulate the limits of ramp constraints of generators in look-ahead dispatch. It is demonstrated that the proposed attack can lead to financial profits via malicious capacity withholding of selected generators, while being undetected by the existing bad data detection algorithm embedded in today's state estimation software. In the second part, we investigate from a system operator's perspective the sensitivity of locational marginal price (LMP) with respect to data corruption-induced state estimation error in real-time power market. Two data corruption scenarios are considered, in which corrupted continuous data (e.g., the power injection/flow and voltage magnitude) falsify power flow estimate whereas corrupted discrete data (e.g., the on/off status of

  15. SELLING, DELIVERY AND TRADE MARKETING – AN OPERATIONAL TRIDENT OF THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Olariu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the way in which a distribution system can be made operational in FMCG, starting from the interaction between three components of the system: selling, delivery and trade marketing. On this basis, I have categorized the improvement opportunities of each component, using the appropriate key performance indicators (KPIs of the system objectives. The optimal configuration of instruments and successful interaction of these components, improve the distribution system contribution to company performance. A specific system, defined for solving marketing problems, must be designed according to this purpose, and in this regard, all the significant elements and relationships must be subordinate to the objective by which it will achieve the desired solution. Business objectives achievement can be measured as effectiveness - the degree to which objectives were achieved, or as efficiency - the degree to which objectives have been achieved in the available resources. For evaluating the effectiveness with which an operative marketing system turns its sources into necessary results to solve a problem, it requires certain criteria to measure performance. These three elements: selling, delivery and trade marketing, are a trident of distribution which can lead to an optimal approach of market opportunities.

  16. Requirements and operation of decentralised power plants in the changing power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenings, Norbert; Hornig, Niels; Steinbach, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    E.ON plans and realises distributed industrial power plants on the basis of contracting schemes. Target is to reduce energy costs without investment by the customer himself. Gas turbine CHP plants are very flexible and offer many possibilities for the operator to adjust optimally to a constantly changing energy market. This aspect is becoming increasingly important due to the increasing share of renewables. However, the economic situation for CHP plants has deteriorated significantly, due to the current market situation distorted by the subsidised renewable power generation. (orig.)

  17. The interplay between money market development and changes in monetary policy operations in small European countries, 1980 - 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Forssbæck, Jens; Oxelheim, Lars

    2007-01-01

    We study the interplay between money market development and changes in monetary policy operating procedures in 11 European countries from c. 1980 up to the launch of EMU. Aspects of money market development such as the size and structure of different market segments, and institutional and regulatory changes, are addressed. We recount and empirically examine the extent of reorientation of monetary policy instruments away from quantitative direct control instruments toward indirect market-based...

  18. 76 FR 2369 - Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Markets and Operation Policy Committee and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Staff Attendance at Southwest Power Pool Markets and Operation Policy Committee and Strategic Planning Committee Meetings January 5... the meetings of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP) Markets and Operations Policy Committee (MOPC...

  19. 76 FR 13612 - Tesoro Refining and Marketing Company and Tesoro Logistics Operations, LLC; Notice of Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... and Marketing Company and Tesoro Logistics Operations, LLC; Notice of Request for Jurisdictional... Refining and Marketing Company (TRMC) and Tesoro Logistics Operations, LLC (TLO) (collectively, Tesoro... assistance with any FERC Online service, please e-mail [email protected] , or call (866) 208-3676...

  20. 77 FR 55817 - Panther Creek Power Operating, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2570-000] Panther Creek Power Operating, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Panther Creek Power Operating, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  1. Research on electricity market operation mechanism and its benefit of demand side participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuai; Yan, Xu; Qin, Li-juan; Lin, Xi-qiao; Zeng, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Demand response plays an important role in maintaining the economic stability of the system, and has the characteristics of high efficiency, low cost, fast response, good environmental benefits and so on. Demand side resource is an important part of electricity market. The research of demand side resources in our country is still in the initial stage, but the opening of the electricity sales side provides a broad prospect for the development of electricity market. This paper summarizes the main types of demand side resources in our country, analyzes the economic principle of demand response from the micro perspective, puts forward some suggestions on the operation mechanism of China’s demand side resources participating in the electricity market under the condition of electricity sales side opening, analyzes the current situation of pricing in the electricity wholesale market and sets up the pricing strategy of the centralized wholesale market with the demand side power supply participating in quotation, which makes the social and economic benefits reach the maximum.

  2. Transactive-Market-Based Operation of Distributed Electrical Energy Storage with Grid Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nazif Faqiry

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a transactive energy market, distributed energy resources (DERs such as dispatchable distributed generators (DGs, electrical energy storages (EESs, distribution-scale load aggregators (LAs, and renewable energy sources (RESs have to earn their share of supply or demand through a bidding process. In such a market, the distribution system operator (DSO may optimally schedule these resources, first in a forward market, i.e., day-ahead, and in a real-time market later on, while maintaining a reliable and economic distribution grid. In this paper, an efficient day-ahead scheduling of these resources, in the presence of interaction with wholesale market at the locational marginal price (LMP, is studied. Due to inclusion of EES units with integer constraints, a detailed mixed integer linear programming (MILP formulation that incorporates simplified DistFlow equations to account for grid constraints is proposed. Convex quadratic line and transformer apparent power flow constraints have been linearized using an outer approximation. The proposed model schedules DERs based on distribution locational marginal price (DLMP, which is obtained as the Lagrange multiplier of the real power balance constraint at each distribution bus while maintaining physical grid constraints such as line limits, transformer limits, and bus voltage magnitudes. Case studies are performed on a modified IEEE 13-bus system with high DER penetration. Simulation results show the validity and efficiency of the proposed model.

  3. CONFLICTS IN THE STRATEGIC BUSINESS NETWORK OPERATING IN THE FOREIGN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Hauke-Lopes

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts are an integral part of every business-to-business co-operation. Enterprise’s activities in the international markets require from the company to take measures to resolve the conflict so as to prevent the negative impact on relationships and further cooperation. This article adopts the strategic network approach to analyze the conflicts and their impact on relationships in a network operating in a foreign market. Conflicts that occur between the two parties involved in a strategic business network also affect other cooperating entities and thereby influence the whole relationship. It is therefore important for the strategic business leader to take action to achieve the positive effects of a conflict situation. The article presents the main sources of conflict present in the literature and the actions that can be taken by the leader of the strategic business network in the foreign market in order to obtain positive effects of conflicts. It also highlights the elements that contribute to reducing the negative impact of conflicts and strengthen relationships in the strategic business network in the foreign market.

  4. Economic assessment and optimal operation of CSP systems with TES in California electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Alexander W.; Dyreson, Ana; Miller, Franklin; Zavala, Victor M.

    2017-06-01

    The economics and performance of concentrated power (CSP) systems with thermal energy storage (TES) inherently depend on operating policies and the surrounding weather conditions and electricity markets. We present an integrated economic assessment framework to quantify the maximum possible revenues from simultaneous energy and ancillary services sales by CSP systems. The framework includes both discrete start-up/shutdown restrictions and detailed physical models. Analysis of coinci-dental historical market and meteorological data reveals provision of ancillary services increases market revenue 18% to 37% relative to energy-only participation. Surprisingly, only 53% to 62% of these revenues are available through sole participation in the day-ahead market, indicating significant opportunities at faster timescales. Motivated by water-usage concerns and permitting requirements, we also describe a new nighttime radiative-enhanced dry-cooling system with cold-side storage that consumes no water and offers higher effciencies than traditional air-cooled designs. Operation of this new system is complicated by the cold-side storage and inherent coupling between the cooling system and power plant, further motivating integrated economic analysis.

  5. Norwegian electricity market liberalisation: questions of cost calculation and price definition by grid operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, J.; Vaterlaus, S.

    2002-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study carried out on the Norwegian electricity market 10 years after its liberalisation. The similarity of the Norwegian market to the Swiss electricity market is discussed. Similarly to the proposed situation in Switzerland, the liberalisation in Norway foresaw no privatisation of public utilities and a model for the regulation of grid access was introduced. The report describes and comments on the various phases in which the liberalisation occurred and examines the various instruments used, e.g. to ensure that individual grid operators did not make undue profits from their monopoly. The methods used for the monitoring of grid operators' costs are described and the mechanisms involved in the definition of prices for grid services are examined, including measures taken when profits were too high or too low. The report is concluded with a discussion of the conclusions that can be drawn from the Norwegian model for Swiss market opening efforts

  6. Characteristics of the prices of operating reserves and regulation services in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Zareipour, Hamidreza; Rosehart, William D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, characteristics of the prices of reserves and regulation services in the Ontario, New York and ERCOT electricity markets are studied. More specifically, price variability, price jumps, long-range correlation, and non-linearity of the prices are analyzed using the available measures in the literature. For the Ontario electricity market, the prices of 10-min spinning, 10-min non-spinning, and 30-min operating reserves for the period May 1, 2002 to December 31, 2007 are analyzed. For the New York market, prices of the same reserves plus regulation service are studied for the period February 5, 2005 to December 31, 2008. For the ERCOT market, we analyze the prices of responsive reserve, regulation up and regulation down services, for the period January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2009. The studied characteristics of operating reserve and regulation prices are also compared with those of energy prices. The findings of this paper show that the studied reserve and regulation prices feature extreme volatility, more frequent jumps and spikes, different peak price occurrence time, and lower predictability, compared to the energy prices. - Research highlights: → We examine various statistical characteristics of reserve and regulation prices. → We compare characteristics of reserve and regulation and energy prices. → Reserve and regulation prices feature different patterns from energy prices. → Reserve and regulation prices are more dispersive and volatile than energy price.

  7. 7 CFR 170.13 - What are the operating guidelines for the USDA Farmers Market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... farmers or vendors. (g) Farm/Business Visits. Market management may visit farm/business locations to...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS MARKETING PRACTICES UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 USDA FARMERS...

  8. Contracts and Information Structure in a Supply Chain with Operations and Marketing Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ouardighi, F.; Erickson, G.; Grass, D.

    2016-01-01

    and the consumer price. The state of the game is summarized in the firms' backlogs and the manufacturer's advertising goodwill. Depending on whether the supply chain members have and share state information, they may either make decisions contingent on the current state of the game (feedback Nash strategy......The objective of the paper is to study how wholesale price and revenue sharing contracts affect operations and marketing decisions in a supply chain under different dynamic informational structures. We suggest a differential game model of a supply chain consisting of a manufacturer and a single...... retailer that agree on the contract parameters at the outset of the game. The model includes key operational and marketing activities related to a single product in the supply chain. The manufacturer sets a production rate and the rate of advertising efforts while the retailer chooses a purchase rate...

  9. Economic Optimal Operation of Community Energy Storage Systems in Competitive Energy Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Arghandeh, Reza; Woyak, Jeremy; Onen, Ahmet; Jung, Jaesung; Broadwater, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    Distributed, controllable energy storage devices offer several benefits to electric power system operation. Three such benefits include reducing peak load, providing standby power, and enhancing power quality. These benefits, however, are only realized during peak load or during an outage, events that are infrequent. This paper presents a means of realizing additional benefits by taking advantage of the fluctuating costs of energy in competitive energy markets. An algorithm for optimal charge...

  10. Role of social media in retail network operations and marketing to enhance customer satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanathan, U; Subramanian, N; Parrott, G

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The technology evolution compels retail networks to introduce unique business models to retain customers and to gain a competitive advantage. Customer reviews available through social media need to be taken into account by retail networks to design a model with unique service operations and marketing approaches that will improve loyalty by adding value to customers. Furthermore, the relationship between customer satisfaction and customer spending behaviour is very weak and needs furt...

  11. The Australian money market and the operations of the Reserve Bank of Australia: a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Dotsey

    1987-01-01

    This article provides a comparative analysis of central bank operating procedures in Australia and the United States. It also examines the effect that the structure of overnight money markets, reserve requirements, and central bank lending procedures have on monetary control in both countries. Evidently the Australian financial structure is such that an interest rate instrument provides superior control of money, a result that may not hold in the United States.

  12. Integrating wind output with bulk power operations and wholesale electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirst, E.

    2002-01-01

    Wind farms have three characteristics that complicate their widespread application as an electricity resource: limited control, unpredictability and variability. Therefore the integration of wind output into bulk power electric systems is qualitatively different from that of other types of generators. The electric system operator must move other generators up or down to offset the time-varying wind fluctuations. Such movements raise the costs of fuel and maintenance for these other generators. Not only is wind power different, it is new. The operators of bulk power systems have limited experience in integrating wind output into the larger system. As a consequence, market rules that treat wind fairly - neither subsidizing nor penalizing its operation - have not yet been developed. The lack of data and analytical methods encourages wind advocates and sceptics to rely primarily on their biases and beliefs in suggesting how wind should be integrated into bulk power systems. This project helps fill this data and analysis gap. Specifically, it develops and applies a quantitative method for the integration of a wind resource into a large electric system. The method permits wind to bid its output into a short-term forward market (specifically, an hour-ahead energy market) or to appear in real time and accept only intrahour and hourly imbalance payments for the unscheduled energy it delivers to the system. Finally, the method analyses the short-term (minute-to-minute) variation in wind output to determine the regulation requirement the wind resource imposes on the electrical system. (author)

  13. Operation and sizing of energy storage for wind power plants in a market system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpaas, M.; Holen, A.T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a method for the scheduling and operation of energy storage for wind power plants in electricity markets. A dynamic programming algorithm is employed to determine the optimal energy exchange with the market for a specified scheduling period, taking into account transmission constraints. During operation, the energy storage is used to smooth variations in wind power production in order to follow the scheduling plan. The method is suitable for any type of energy storage and is also useful for other intermittent energy resources than wind. An application of the method to a case study is also presented, where the impact of energy storage sizing and wind forecasting accuracy on system operation and economics are emphasized. Simulation results show that energy storage makes it possible for owners of wind power plants to take advantage of variations in the spot price, by thus increasing the value of wind power in electricity markets. With present price estimates, energy storage devices such as reversible fuel cells are likely to be a more expensive alternative than grid expansions for the siting of wind farms in weak networks. However, for areas where grid expansions lead to unwanted interference with the local environment, energy storage should be considered as a reasonable way to increase the penetration of wind power. (author)

  14. A Multiagent System for Autonomous Operation of Islanded Microgrids Based on a Power Market Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myong-Chul Shin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important requirements of microgrid operation is to maintain a constant frequency such as 50 Hz or 60 Hz, which is closely related to a power balance between supply and demand. In general, microgrids are connected to power grids and surplus/shortage power of microgrids is traded with power grids. Since islanded microgrids are isolated from any power grids, the decrease in generation or load-shedding can be used to maintain the frequency when a power imbalance between supply and demand occurs. The power imbalance restricts the electricity use of consumers in the case of supply shortage and the power supply of suppliers in the case of supply surplus. Therefore, the islanded microgrid should be operated to reduce power imbalance conditions. Meanwhile, the microgrid is a small-scale power system and the employment of skillful operators for effective operation of its components requires high costs. Therefore, automatic operation of the components is effective realistically. In addition, the components are distributed in the microgrid and their operation should consider their owners’ profits. For these reasons, a multiagent system application can be a good alternative for microgrid operation. In this paper, we present a multiagent system for autonomous operation of the islanded microgrid on a power market environment. The proposed multiagent system is designed based on a cooperative operation scheme. We show the functionality and the feasibility of the proposed multiagent system through several tests.

  15. A multiagent system for autonomous operation of islanded microgrids based on a power market environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H.-M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Incheon/12-1, Sondo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Kinoshita, T. [Graduate School of Information Science, Tohoku University/2-1-1, Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, 980-8577 (Japan); Shin, M.-Ch. [School of Information and Communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University/300, Cheoncheon-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    One of the most important requirements of microgrid operation is to maintain a constant frequency such as 50 Hz or 60 Hz, which is closely related to a power balance between supply and demand. In general, microgrids are connected to power grids and surplus/shortage power of microgrids is traded with power grids. Since islanded microgrids are isolated from any power grids, the decrease in generation or load-shedding can be used to maintain the frequency when a power imbalance between supply and demand occurs. The power imbalance restricts the electricity use of consumers in the case of supply shortage and the power supply of suppliers in the case of supply surplus. Therefore, the islanded microgrid should be operated to reduce power imbalance conditions. Meanwhile, the microgrid is a small-scale power system and the employment of skillful operators for effective operation of its components requires high costs. Therefore, automatic operation of the components is effective realistically. In addition, the components are distributed in the microgrid and their operation should consider their owners' profits. For these reasons, a multiagent system application can be a good alternative for microgrid operation. In this paper, we present a multiagent system for autonomous operation of the islanded microgrid on a power market environment. The proposed multiagent system is designed based on a cooperative operation scheme. We show the functionality and the feasibility of the proposed multiagent system through several tests. (authors)

  16. Optimal operational strategies for a day-ahead electricity market in the presence of market power using multi-objective evolutionary algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Deepal

    2007-12-01

    This dissertation introduces a novel approach for optimally operating a day-ahead electricity market not only by economically dispatching the generation resources but also by minimizing the influences of market manipulation attempts by the individual generator-owning companies while ensuring that the power system constraints are not violated. Since economic operation of the market conflicts with the individual profit maximization tactics such as market manipulation by generator-owning companies, a methodology that is capable of simultaneously optimizing these two competing objectives has to be selected. Although numerous previous studies have been undertaken on the economic operation of day-ahead markets and other independent studies have been conducted on the mitigation of market power, the operation of a day-ahead electricity market considering these two conflicting objectives simultaneously has not been undertaken previously. These facts provided the incentive and the novelty for this study. A literature survey revealed that many of the traditional solution algorithms convert multi-objective functions into either a single-objective function using weighting schemas or undertake optimization of one function at a time. Hence, these approaches do not truly optimize the multi-objectives concurrently. Due to these inherent deficiencies of the traditional algorithms, the use of alternative non-traditional solution algorithms for such problems has become popular and widely used. Of these, multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEA) have received wide acceptance due to their solution quality and robustness. In the present research, three distinct algorithms were considered: a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II), a multi-objective tabu search algorithm (MOTS) and a hybrid of multi-objective tabu search and genetic algorithm (MOTS/GA). The accuracy and quality of the results from these algorithms for applications similar to the problem investigated here

  17. Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    There is not enough marketing of dentistry; but there certainly is too much selling of poor quality service that is being passed off as dentistry. The marketing concept makes the patient and the patients' needs the ultimate criteria of marketing efforts. Myths and good practices for effective marketing that will promote oral health are described under the traditional four "Ps" categories of "product" (best dental care), "place" (availability), "promotion" (advertising and other forms of making patients aware of available services and how to use them), and "price" (the total cost to patients of receiving care).

  18. Economic impact assessment and operational decision making in emission and transmission constrained electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanduri, Vishnu; Kazemzadeh, Narges

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We develop a bilevel game-theoretic model for allowance and electricity markets. ► We solve the model using a reinforcement learning algorithm. ► Model accounts for transmission constraints, cap-and-trade constraints. ► Study demonstrated on 9-bus electric power network. ► Obtain insights about supply shares, impact of transmission constraints, and cost pass through. -- Abstract: Carbon constrained electricity markets are a reality in 10 northeastern states and California in the US, as well as the European Union. Close to a Billion US Dollars have been spent by entities (mainly generators) in the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative in procuring CO 2 allowances to meet binding emissions restrictions. In the near future, there are expected to be significant impacts due to the cap-and-trade program, especially when the cap stringency increases. In this research we develop a bilevel, complete-information, matrix game-theoretic model to assess the economic impact and make operational decisions in carbon-constrained restructured electricity markets. Our model is solved using a reinforcement learning approach, which takes into account the learning and adaptive nature of market participants. Our model also accounts for all the power systems constraints via a DC-OPF problem. We demonstrate the working of the model and compute various economic impact indicators such as supply shares, cost pass-through, social welfare, profits, allowance prices, and electricity prices. Results from a 9-bus power network are presented.

  19. China: EDF's feedback experience of reactor operating is essential to win international markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillart, H.

    2016-01-01

    The main assets of EDF on the Chinese nuclear power market is first, its very important feedback experience of reactor operations (EDF cumulates one year of reactor operations every week due to its fleet of 58 reactors), secondly the cooperation with China allowed China to enter nuclear energy in 1983 with the construction of the Daya Bay plant and now to develop its own technology: the CPR-1000 reactor. China is the world leader in terms of nuclear market dynamism with 30 reactors in operation, 24 reactors being built and 40 others planned. A new stage in the Franco-China cooperation would be to share relevant good practices in the managing of both French and Chinese fleets of reactors. EDF has upgraded its commercial international offer, it now proposes to cover all the stages of the nuclear power plant from site selection to plant deconstruction via construction, operation, maintenance and waste management which constitutes a commitment over a 100 year period. (A.C.)

  20. Natural gas domestic market development for total elimination of routine flares in Nigeria's upstream petroleum operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonibare, J.A.; Akeredolu, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Several research findings confirmed that gaseous emissions and thermal radiation emanate from flaring activities during separation of oil from gas in the petroleum upstream operations. This, coupled with identified degradation potential of flares, makes flaring of about 71 million m 3 /day of associated gas a great concern. In this paper, several efforts hitherto made by government and organized private sectors at monetizing associated natural gas being flared on daily basis in Nigeria were reviewed. Domestic market development, if adopted, could eliminate routine gas flaring by 2008, meeting a goal set by Nigerian Government. Various scenarios considered showed that relatively minor amounts of natural gas could be consumed domestically for cooking; the balance would be absorbed by thermal electricity generation. It could lead to total consumption of between 92 and 140 million m 3 /day of natural gas in the country, representing a fraction of the domestic energy market

  1. Association of market, mission, operational, and financial factors with hospitals' level of cash and security investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, M J; Thompson, J M; Dodd-McCue, D

    Using a resource dependency framework and financial theory, this study assessed the market, mission, operational, and financial factors associated with the level of cash and security investments in hospitals. We ranked hospitals in the study sample based on their cash and security investments as a percentage of total assets: hospitals in the high cash/security investment category were in the top 25th percentile of all hospitals; those in the low cash/security investment group were in the bottom 25th percentile. Findings indicate that high cash/security investment hospitals are under either public or private nonprofit ownership and have greater market share. They also serve more complex cases, offer more technology services, generate greater profits, incur a more stable patient revenue base, and maintain less debt.

  2. Suitability for use of open market operations as a main tool of monetary control by the National bank of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa MISTREAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The open-market have become the main instrument of monetary control in the developed countries, increased flexibility offered, from the point of view of volume of the monetary policy operations initiated by the central bank. They permit the establishment of impersonal relations between market participants, as well as inefficiency and to avoid market and of the economy, as a result of the direct control.

  3. The operation of French electric power and natural gas retail markets - Report 2014-2015. Report 2015 by the CRE on the operation of French electricity and natural gas markets - Press file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteil, Anne; Casadei, Cecile

    2015-11-01

    After a presentation of some key figures illustrating the French electricity and natural gas markets (customers, number of providers, and so on), and an executive summary, this voluminous report proposes a presentation of CRE's missions regarding the survey and control of retail markets, and of the methodology adopted to survey retail markets, and a recall of the main steps of electricity market and natural gas market opening. Then, it its first chapter, the report proposes a detailed picture and analysis by the end of 2014 for the electricity retail market, for the natural gas retail market, and a discussion about key process follow-up and power cut-off for unpaid bills. The second chapter addresses supplies and prices. It analyses the levels and evolutions of electricity regulated tariffs, of regulated tariffs for gas sales, and of the various market supplies. The third chapter addresses issues related to competition and to the operation of the retail market: the end of sales regulated tariffs, general framework for the survey of providers' practices, provider price practices, analysis of commercial practices implemented by providers, evolutions of the competitive environment on the retail market. An appendix briefly addresses retail markets and regulated tariffs in Europe. A second report proposes a more synthetic presentation which is used as a press file, proposes an executive summary, and addresses the following issues: status of competition (key data for 2014 and 2015), the end of sales regulated tariffs for professionals as a major step of market opening to competition, favourable regulatory context and market price leading to an intensified competition on the residential market, the preferred market supplies for residential consumers, comparison between fixed price and regulated tariffs, an almost non-existent opening in the competition of local distribution utilities, and regulated tariffs in Europe

  4. The Evolving Contingency Contracting Market: Private Sector Self regulation and United States Government Monitoring of Procurement of Stability Operations Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    statements of work would be useful in ensuring ethical govern- ment procurement practices. Conclusions The United States conducts diplomatic, defense...THE EVOLVING CONTINGENCY CONTRACTING MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY...MARKET: PRIVATE SECTOR SELF-REGULATION AND UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT MONITORING OF PROCUREMENT OF STABILITY OPERATIONS SERVICES Whitney Grespin January

  5. Electricity storages - optimised operation based on spot market prices; Stromspeicher. Optimierte Fahrweise auf Basis der Spotmarktpreise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernhard, Dominik; Roon, Serafin von [FfE Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    With its integrated energy and climate package the last federal government set itself ambitious goals for the improvement of energy efficiency and growth of renewable energy production. These goals were confirmed by the new government in its coalition agreement. However, they can only be realised if the supply of electricity from fluctuating renewable sources can be made to coincide with electricity demand. Electricity storages are therefore an indispensable component of the future energy supply system. This article studies the optimised operation of an electricity storage based on spot market prices and the influence of wind power production up to the year 2020.

  6. THE ACTIVITIES OF THE NATIONAL BANK OF UKRAINE ON THE OPEN MARKET: OPERATION WITH CERTIFICATES OF DEPOSITS

    OpenAIRE

    Yuliia Harkusha

    2016-01-01

    In the article investigated the activities of the National Bank of Ukraine on the open market. The analysis of operations of the National Bank of Ukraine banks to raise funds placing deposit certificates. Defined impact operations of the central bank's own debt securities to trading volumes deposit certificates of the National Bank of Ukraine on the stock market and the credit activity of banks. Identified problems interest rate policy and the ways to overcome them. Key words: National Bank o...

  7. Hybrid intelligent methodology to design translation invariant morphological operators for Brazilian stock market prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Ricardo de A

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents a hybrid intelligent methodology to design increasing translation invariant morphological operators applied to Brazilian stock market prediction (overcoming the random walk dilemma). The proposed Translation Invariant Morphological Robust Automatic phase-Adjustment (TIMRAA) method consists of a hybrid intelligent model composed of a Modular Morphological Neural Network (MMNN) with a Quantum-Inspired Evolutionary Algorithm (QIEA), which searches for the best time lags to reconstruct the phase space of the time series generator phenomenon and determines the initial (sub-optimal) parameters of the MMNN. Each individual of the QIEA population is further trained by the Back Propagation (BP) algorithm to improve the MMNN parameters supplied by the QIEA. Also, for each prediction model generated, it uses a behavioral statistical test and a phase fix procedure to adjust time phase distortions observed in stock market time series. Furthermore, an experimental analysis is conducted with the proposed method through four Brazilian stock market time series, and the achieved results are discussed and compared to results found with random walk models and the previously introduced Time-delay Added Evolutionary Forecasting (TAEF) and Morphological-Rank-Linear Time-lag Added Evolutionary Forecasting (MRLTAEF) methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Market profile and conservation opportunity assessment for large industrial operations in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyes, C.; Balbaa, I.; Cuthbert, D.; Young, D.

    2006-01-01

    In view of the expected electricity shortages in Ontario, there is an urgent need for not only new supply but also a significant increase in conservation and load shifting efforts. This report presented the results of a study focused on key technology or market areas that presented opportunities for implementation of energy efficient measures. The materials, analytical results, and outcomes of the study could be utilized as a framework for developing future program delivery models. The report provided a comprehensive market analysis for large industrial operations in Ontario. A market profile was presented for the following sectors: mining; pulp and paper; iron and steel; the chemical industry; petroleum refining; motor vehicle, body and parts manufacturing; cement; and food. Opportunities for conservation and demand management were identified. The report also presented an analysis and recommendations for energy conservation demand management and demand response applicable to large industry. Examples of programs in other jurisdictions in Canada as well as the United States were discussed. 34 refs., 7 tabs., 23 figs., 1 appendix.

  9. The Influence of Market Context on Business Strategy, Competitor Imitation and Operational Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Balau

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of strategic positioning, along with operational effectiveness, has long been presented as key for the success of the company. There are few studies that highlighted the way in which the market context affects these efforts of the company. The aim of this paper is to explore the influence of the market context on competitor imitation and its further implications on strategy. For this purpose, a literature review was conducted and major concepts were drawn from works of M. Porter, while the influence of market context was found in research papers. Putting together these different perspectives on the company and the strategic choices it must make, the results of our analysis suggest that choosing a differentiation strategy and not imitating the reference competitors is a daring initiative, that involves the risk of standing out from the crowd. The implication of this finding is that imitation of the competitor is an easier solution for the company and it has an important attraction, due to the short term influence on increasing sales, while deterring innovation. The value of this paper consists in exploring the contextual influence of well-established concepts for company’s management.

  10. Applying the competitive market business equation to power generation operations and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corio, M.R.; Bellucci, J.W.; Boyd, G.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents cost-effectiveness evaluation, benchmarking, planning, and decision-making tools being used with utilities to address critical production/cost-efficiency and market issues in the transition to a competitive market in electricity. It expands upon Applied Economic Research Co., Inc.'s (AER's) earlier work in the area of frontier analysis of plant spending vs. reliability. It discusses development of a method for quantifying the various elements involved and for structuring them into an integrated framework and set of models for analysis, evaluation of alternatives, and forward planning in the evolving transition to a deregulated, competitive market in electricity. The work presented addresses the overall production cost frontier, i.e., the marginal cost of production including operation, maintenance, capital, and fuel expenditures. (Fuel expenditures are a function of the price paid for fuel (per Btu) and the efficiency with which the fuel is transformed from Btu's to kWh, i.e., the heat rate.) Frontiers (best demonstrated performance curves) are developed for the total cost of production--analyzing both reliability and heat rate. The paper describes and gives examples of the framework for evaluating the competitive position of a utility's generating units compared to other units, as well as the framework for evaluating the potential for revenue obtained outside the existing service area

  11. Control area readiness audit report of the Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladish, L.A.; Campoli, G.; Le, Q.; Farrokhpay, S.; Kirby, B.; Penwell, C.; Weaver, S.; Vicini, D.; Wells, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO) is a control area authority that is responsible for the safe and reliable operation of its portion of the bulk electric system in cooperation with neighbouring control areas. This audit by the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) reviewed the readiness of Ontario's IMO to meets its responsibilities as a control area operator. NERC recommended specific actions to correct the deficiencies that resulted in the blackout in southeastern Ontario and northeastern United States on August 14, 2003. Initiatives to strengthen compliance with existing standards were also suggested along with longer-term technical initiatives to prevent or mitigate the impacts of cascading blackouts in the future. The audit process included: a self-assessment questionnaire to the control area being audited; a questionnaire to neighbouring control areas; a questionnaire to the reliability coordinator and an on-site audit by a selected audit team. The following issues were reviewed: criteria and compliance, authority, responsibilities in the planning time frame, real time monitoring, system restoration, delegation of reliability coordinator functions, outage coordination, transmission and generation relaying, energy emergency plan, operating policy, line clearances, and nuclear power plant requirements. It was concluded that the IMO has the necessary plans, procedures, processes, tools and trained personnel to respond to emergency events. The audit did not find any major operational problems, but offered a few recommendations for improvement. tabs

  12. Effect of investments on fundamentals and market reaction on pre-operational and operational Brazilian companies for the period 2006-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Pereira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper provides evidence on the market reaction to corporate investment decisions whose shareholder value is largely attributed to growth options. The exploratory research raised pre-operational companies and their operational pairs on the same economy segments. It had the purpose of investigating the existence of statistical differentiation from financial indicators that reflect the installed assets and growth assets, and then study the market reaction to changes in fixed assets as a signaling element about investment decisions. The formation process of operational assets and shareholder value almost exclusively dependent on asset growth stands out in the pre-operational companies. As a result, differentiation tests confirmed that the pre-operational companies had their value especially derived on growth options. The market reaction was particularly bigger in pre-operational companies with abnormal negative stock returns, while the operational companies had positive returns, which may indicate that the quality of the investment is judged based on the financial disclosure. Additionally, operational companies' investors await the disclosure to adjust their prices. We conclude that the results are consistent with the empirical evidence and the participants in financial markets to long-term capital formation investments should give that special attention.

  13. THE ACTIVITIES OF THE NATIONAL BANK OF UKRAINE ON THE OPEN MARKET: OPERATION WITH CERTIFICATES OF DEPOSITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliia Harkusha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article investigated the activities of the National Bank of Ukraine on the open market. The analysis of operations of the National Bank of Ukraine banks to raise funds placing deposit certificates. Defined impact operations of the central bank's own debt securities to trading volumes deposit certificates of the National Bank of Ukraine on the stock market and the credit activity of banks. Identified problems interest rate policy and the ways to overcome them. Key words: National Bank of Ukraine, certificates of deposits, open market, interest rate policy, banks, stock exchange. JEL: E 58

  14. Ideal Operation of a Photovoltaic Power Plant Equipped with an Energy Storage System on Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Järvelä

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is no natural inertia in a photovoltaic (PV generator and changes in irradiation can be seen immediately at the output power. Moving cloud shadows are the dominant reason for fast PV power fluctuations taking place typically within a minute between 20 to 100% of the clear sky value roughly 100 times a day, on average. Therefore, operating a utility scale grid connected PV power plant is challenging. Currently, in many regions, renewable energy sources such as solar and wind receive feed-in tariffs that ensure a certain price for the energy. On the other hand, electricity markets operate on a supply-demand principle and a typical imbalance settlement period is one hour. This paper presents the energy, power and corresponding requirements for an energy storage system in a solar PV power plant to feed the power to the grid meeting the electricity spot markets practices. An ideal PV energy production forecast is assumed to be available to define reference powers of the system for the studied imbalance settlement periods. The analysis is done for three different PV system sizes using the existing irradiance measurements of the Tampere University of Technology solar PV power station research plant.

  15. Consequences of Market Liberalization for the Operators of the Dairy Subsector in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Sraïri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Moroccan dairy subsector has gone through an eventful recent history. The initial situation, in the early 1970s, was characterized by a high level of State regulation. At that time, there was an increasing domestic demand associated to a low availability of milk products; therefore State authorities encouraged local production and processing. But at the beginning of the 1980s, a series of structural adjustment measures were implemented and all subsidies were progressively suppressed. These sudden successive changes seriously impacted on the organization of the dairy subsector, particularly at the level of dairy cattle farms, by markedly modifying production practices. Currently, another significant stage for the Moroccan dairy subsector is the ongoing negotiation of free trade agreement with the European Union. This will lead to the end of protection for domestic dairy products and to increased competition between local and imported dairy products. In a context of market liberalization associated with the price of agricultural inputs rising on international markets, it will be essential to upgrade productive tools and policies of the subsector, which will have consequences on all operators along the commodity chain. This will be vital for the upholding of milk production, collection and transformation activities in Morocco, under conditions favorable to their sustainable development: pursuit of optimal milk yield and quality, efficient irrigation water productivity, and fair distribution of incomes generated by the subsector to all operators, with an aim to adjust the price to the purchase power of consumers.

  16. De-regulated electric power markets and operating nuclear power plants: the case of British energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewlett, James G.

    2005-01-01

    One issue addressed in almost all electric power restructuring/de-regulation plans in both the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) was the recovery of operating nuclear power plant's spent fuel disposal costs and the expenditures to decommission the units when they are retired. Prior to restructuring, in theory at least, in both countries, electricity consumers were paying for the back end costs from operating nuclear power plants. Moreover, in virtually all cases in the US, states included special provisions to insure that consumers would continue to do so after power markets were de-regulated. When power markets in the UK were initially restructured/de-regulated and nuclear power privatized, the shareholders of British Energy (BE) were initially responsible for these costs. However, after electricity prices fell and BE collapsed, the British government shifted many of the costs to future taxpayers, as much as a century forward. If this was not done, the book value of BE's equity would have been about -3.5 billion pounds. That is, BE's liabilities would have been about -3.5 billion pounds greater than their assets. It is difficult to see how BE could remain viable under such circumstances

  17. Is Swedish district heating operating on an integrated market? – Differences in pricing, price convergence, and marketing strategy between public and private district heating companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Åberg, M.; Fälting, L.; Forssell, A.

    2016-01-01

    The deregulation of the Swedish electricity market in 1996 made it possible to operate municipal district heating commercially. Until that time district heating had been organized mainly as municipal utilities. After 1996 district heating is instead expected to function on a market. In competitive and integrated markets, prices are expected to be equal, or converging. To find out if district heating operates on an integrated market the differences in price levels, price convergence, price strategy, and business goals, among municipal, private and state owned district heating companies are investigated. Price statistics was used along with results from a questionnaire that was answered by representatives for 109 Swedish district heating companies. The results show that prices among district heating systems do not converge significantly and that variations in prices among municipal systems are larger than among private and state owned systems. Furthermore, despite the fact that district heating is supposed to be commercial, a vast majority of district heating companies apply cost-based pricing and not market pricing. The municipal companies give priority to political goals before financial goals. The conclusion is that a Swedish integrated market for heat has not yet evolved, and some district heating price-controlling mechanism is necessary. - Highlights: • Price statistics and owner type data were used along with results from a questionnaire. • Results show that prices among district heating systems do not converge. • Municipal district heating companies still apply cost-based pricing to a large extent. • District heating companies are not operating on an integrated market for heat. • Some price-controlling mechanism for district heating is necessary.

  18. A new self-scheduling strategy for integrated operation of wind and pumped-storage power plants in power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varkani, Ali Karimi; Daraeepour, Ali; Monsef, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A strategy for integrated operation of wind and pumped-storage plants is proposed. → Participation of both plants in energy and ancillary service markets is modeled. → The uncertainty of wind production is modeled by a novel probabilistic function. → The proposed strategy is tested on a real case in the Spanish electricity market. -- Abstract: Competitive structure of power markets causes various challenges for wind resources to participate in these markets. Indeed, production uncertainty is the main cause of their low income. Thus, they are usually supported by system operators, which is in contrast with the competitive paradigm of power markets. In this paper, a new strategy for increasing the profits of wind resources is proposed. In the suggested strategy, a Generation Company (GenCo), who owns both wind and pumped-storage plants, self-schedules the integrated operation of them regarding the uncertainty of wind power generation. For presenting an integrated self-schedule and obtaining a real added value of the strategy, participation of the GenCo in energy and ancillary service markets is modeled. The self-scheduling strategy is based on stochastic programming techniques. Outputs of the problem include generation offers in day-ahead energy market and ancillary service markets, including spinning and regulation reserve markets. A Neural Network (NN) based technique is used for modeling the uncertainty of wind power production. The proposed strategy is tested on a real wind farm in mainland, Spain. Moreover, added value of the strategy is presented in different conditions of the market.

  19. A Systems Approach to the Design and Operation of Effective Marketing Programs in Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scigliano, John A.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a research-based marketing model consisting of an environmental scanning process, a series of marketing audits, and an information-processing scheme. Views the essential elements of college marketing as information flow; high-level, long-term commitment; diverse strategies; innovation; and a broad view of marketing. Includes a marketing…

  20. Optimal short-term operation schedule of a hydropower plant in a competitive electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Diaz, Juan I.; Wilhelmi, Jose R.; Arevalo, Luis A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic programming model to solve the short-term scheduling problem of a hydropower plant that sells energy in a pool-based electricity market with the objective of maximizing the revenue. This is a nonlinear and non-concave problem subject to strong technical and strategic constraints, and in which discrete and continuous variables take part. The model described in this paper determines, in each hour of the planning horizon (typically from one day to one week), both the optimal number of units in operation (unit commitment) and the power to be generated by the committed units (generation dispatch). The power generated by each unit is considered as a nonlinear function of the actual water discharge and volume of the associated reservoir. The dependence of the units' efficiency and operating limits with the available gross head is also accounted for in this model. The application of this model to a real hydropower plant demonstrates its capabilities in providing the operation schedule that maximizes the revenue of the hydro plant while satisfying several constraints of different classes. In addition, the use of this model as a supporting tool to estimate the economic feasibility of a hydropower plant development project is also analyzed in the paper. (author)

  1. Operational Strategies for a Portfolio of Wind Farms and CHP Plants in a Two-Price Balancing Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmers, Anna; Zugno, Marco; Skajaa, Anders

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we explore the portfolio effect of a system consisting of a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant and a wind farm. The goal is to increase the overall profit of the portfolio by reducing imbalances, and consequently their implicit penalty in a two-price balancing market for electricity......-horizon fashion, so that forecasts for heat demand, wind power production and market prices are updated at each iteration. We conclude that the portfolio strategy is the most profitable due to the two-price structure of the balancing market. This encourages producers to handle their imbalances outside the market........ We investigate two different operational strategies, which differ in whether the CHP plant and the wind farm are operated jointly or independently, and we evaluate their economic performance on a real case study based on a CHP-wind system located in the western part of Denmark. We present...

  2. Recent Developments in the Study of operating and marketing strategy factors in the formulation of strategies of small manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Abdollahi Keyvani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to measure the relative importance of a selected number of primary operating and marketing factors which may be involved in the formulation of strategies of small manufacturers. One hundred manufacturing owner-managers in Iran were investigated. The marketing factors emphasized most often were improvement in product quality and reduction in product cost. However, improvements in customer service and in scheduling appeared to contribute more to actual firm performance. Overall, there seemed to be more emphasis on the production strategy factors than marketing factors as a means to gaining competitive advantage.

  3. The minimum liquidity deficit and the maturity structure of central banks' open market operations: lessons from the financial crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenschmidt, Jens; Holthausen, Cornelia

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between the size of the banking sector’s refinancing needs vis-à-vis the central bank and auction rates in its open market operations in times of financial market stress. In a theoretical model, it is found that marginal rates at central bank auctions may increase if the share of troubled banks becomes too high relative to the total size of the banking sector’s refinancing needs. An empirical analysis then aims at determining the size of open market operati...

  4. Operating requirements for power plants in the liberalised electricity market; Einsatzanforderungen an Kraftwerke im liberalisierten Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzbach, G. [Vereinigte Energiewerke AG, Berlin (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The onset of liberalisation in the German electricity market now dates back one and a half years. All processes related to this event are still in a process of rapid change. These developments have already led to a substantial drop in electricity prices, especially for large customers, leaving suppliers with modest margins. Power supply companies such as VEAG, whose operations in East Germany include power transmission, electricity production from brown coal and wholesale trade, are taking measures to meet the new demands placed on them. Unbundling regulations and market processes are forcing companies to review their organisational and operational structures. Risk management, controlling and DP support for processes are indispensable. Profit centre structures and internal performance accounting systems are being used to distribute the market pressure evenly across the company's divisions. Companies' future success will be determined by their success in trading and selling. These developments will also have an impact on power plants, i.e. on the first stage of the supply chain. For one thing, the costs of power plant operation have to be reduced significantly. Reductions in staff costs will necessitate a review of technological processes. Furthermore, maintenance strategies and availability goals have to be reassessed. Another crucial factor is to be seen in power plants' operational flexibility, and this will also have an impact on fuel supply contracts. A particular concern of single-plant companies and small generation systems will be how to deal with strong fluctuations in demand and meet the hourly supply schedules agreed on with the customer without having to resort to the expensive regulating services of the grid operators. Electricity produced in excess of demand will find not always find buyers, not even after the establishment of physical electricity exchanges. Another factor which will increase the volatility of required power generation

  5. The integration of the periodic production in the liberalized electric power markets: from the technic expenditures to the economic taxes imposed by the operating rules of the markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menanteau, Ph.; Finon, D.; Lamy, M.L.

    2003-03-01

    In the framework of the climatic change and the energy supply safety, the european directive aims to promote the renewable energy production in Europe. Some of the renewable energy sources, as the wind power or the micro-hydroelectric power, are naturally periodic. Their introduction in the electric networks will create problems because of this periodic nature, problems which are new for the electric network producers and managers. These problems generate technical expenditures, which may be compensate by the economic penalties of the electric power market operating. In this context the document details the expenditures associated to the periodicity, the economic penalties by an analysis of the british market and analyses the possibilities to limit these economic penalties in order to reduce the conflicts between the electric market liberalization and the promotion of the renewable energies development. (A.L.B.)

  6. The operation of wholesale electricity, CO2 and natural gas markets in 2010-2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The first part analyses the electricity wholesale markets: development of the main wholesale market segments, electricity price, electricity production analysis and transparency of production data, transaction analysis. The second part analyses CO 2 markets: evolution of the institutional framework and perspectives, exchanges volumes on the CO 2 market, the CO 2 price in Europe, fundamentals of the European CO 2 market. The third part addresses the gas market: development of gas trade, gas price, gas infrastructures, supply and outlets for stake holders and new comers

  7. Integrated marketing communication strategies: A case of Telkomsel as the best mobile operator in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Darmawan, Stefi Landra; Perdana, Abhirama SD

    2017-01-01

    These days, a combination of numerous marketing activities is an essential concept that needs to be kept in mind especially with the rapid development of new technology, media, and social media. Also, with the high competition and costs, businessmen or marketers are looking for ways to improve the effectiveness of their marketing communications programs by carefully observing, selecting, and combining appropriate communications tools to maximize their marketing budgets. Not only to gain bigge...

  8. Effects of Interpersonal Skills Training on MRI Operations in a Saturated Market: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajam, Amna A; Nguyen, Xuan V; Kelly, Ronda A; Ladapo, Joseph A; Lang, Elvira V

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of team training on operational efficiency during outpatient MRI. In this institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant study, six MRI outpatient sites of a midwestern hospital system were randomized to serve as controls or have their teams trained in advanced communication skills. The fourth quarter of fiscal year 2015 was the trial baseline. The trial ended in the third quarter (Q3) of fiscal year 2016 (FY16). Equipment utilization (completed scans/available slots), hourly scan rates (total orders completed per machine per hour of operation), and no-show rates stratified by time were analyzed using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel method, with individual comparisons performed with Bonferroni correction. The study encompassed 27,425 MRI examinations. Overall volume peaked at baseline and then declined over the following quarters. Compared with baseline, untrained sites experienced significant drops in equipment utilization (P trained sites, these metrics showed no significant change, with maintenance of hourly scan rates of 1.23 and 1.27 and equipment utilization rates of 83% and 85% between baseline and Q3 FY16. No-show rates remained stable at trained sites but increased at untrained sites in the last two quarters (P trained sites from 56th at baseline to 70th and successively decreased at untrained sites from 66th to 44th. MRI outpatient facilities trained in advanced communication techniques may have more favorable operational efficiency than untrained sites in a saturated market. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Implications of competitive markets for operation and funds flow at nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, R.N.; Leigh, R.W.; Mubayi, V.

    1997-01-01

    The authors employ a detailed electric utility production costing and capacity planning model to examine the use of nuclear power plants under the current (utility-owned) arrangements and under situations which may arise in a competitive market for electric service. The modeling is carried out for a synthetic but realistic power pool based on components of actual utilities in the northeast United States. Under the current arrangements, the costs of nuclear power plant operation are subsumed under capital costs and entered into the open-quotes raw base,close quotes the totality of which determines customer charges. A future competitive environment may be characterized by the absence of a open-quotes rate base,close quotes at least for generation. In this environment, all generation units are in effect independently owned. The authors examine this possibility by estimating the revenue which would flow to nuclear plants at competitive market prices and compare that revenue, to anticipated expenses for fuel, O ampersand M and amortization of capital (where appropriate), and for potential additional expenses such as safety requirements and payments to decommissioning funds. They also incorporate financial relief for the portion of these costs which can be considered open-quotes stranded investmentsclose quotes based on FERC and prospective state regulatory policies. In this competitive environment some nuclear plants may not remain economically viable. Their replacement by newly constructed fossil-fueled units will require substantial capital and lead to increased emissions and fuel use, which are calculated. The authors calculations show that while it may be clearly economically advantageous for individual owners to shut down unviable nuclear capacity, such early retirements may result in significant economic losses to the power pool as a whole

  10. Optimal Operation and Value Evaluation of Pumped Storage Power Plants Considering Spot Market Trading and Uncertainty of Bilateral Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kenta; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Jun

    In recent years, as the deregulation in electric power industry has advanced in many countries, a spot market trading of electricity has been done. Generation companies are allowed to purchase the electricity through the electric power market and supply electric power for their bilateral customers. Under this circumstance, it is important for the generation companies to procure the required electricity with cheaper cost to increase their profit. The market price is volatile since it is determined by bidding between buyer and seller. The pumped storage power plant, one of the storage facilities is promising against such volatile market price since it can produce a profit by purchasing electricity with lower-price and selling it with higher-price. This paper discusses the optimal operation of the pumped storage power plants considering bidding strategy to an uncertain spot market. The volatilities in market price and demand are represented by the Vasicek model in our estimation. This paper also discusses the allocation of operational reserve to the pumped storage power plant.

  11. Assessing the Impact of Operational Constraints on the Near-Term Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management Supported Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vascik, Parker D.; Jung, Jaewoo

    2016-01-01

    An economic impact market analysis was conducted for 16 leading sectors of commercial Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) applications predicted to be enabled by 2020 through the NASA UAS Traffic Management (UTM) program. Subject matter experts from seven industries were interviewed to validate concept of operations (ConOps) and market adoption assumptions for each sector. The market analysis was used to estimate direct economic impacts for each sector including serviceable addressable market, capital investment, revenue recovery potential, and operations cost savings. The resultant economic picture distinguishes the agricultural, pipeline and railroad inspection, construction, and maritime sectors of the nascent commercial UAS industry as providing the highest potential economic value in the United States. Sensitivity studies characterized the variability of select UAS sectors economic value to key regulatory or UTM ConOps requirements such as weight, altitude, and flight over populated area constraints. Takeaways from the analysis inform the validation of UTM requirements, technologies and timetables from a commercial market need and value viewpoint. This work concluded in August 2015 and reflects the state of the UAS industry and market projections at that time.

  12. The French wind energy market by 2020. Market evolution and competition context within the sector. Analysis of business model and of financial performance of fleet operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    As the French wind energy sector has been recovering a good dynamics since 2014, notably for onshore production whereas some uncertainties remain present for offshore production, this report aims at assessing market perspectives by 2020, and at identifying business opportunities for the different involved actors. The first part identifies some determining factors for the sector activity, proposes an analysis of the activity for the 2002-2015 period (installed power, electricity production, turnover, equipment manufacturers, operators) and its perspectives by 2020 (evolution of determining factors, installed power, market share evolution for manufacturers, opportunities and threats on the medium term). The second part discusses the main elements of the operators' business models, and analyses fleet managers' financial data. Structural drivers and brakes are then discussed, as well as the French, European and World context (installed power, installed offshore power, electricity production, energy policy, law for energy transition, commitment of public authorities in favour of wind energy, competitiveness of wind energy). Some highlights and aspects of offer evolution are outlined: development of offshore wind energy, diversification of operators, international development, takeovers and capital increase, new financing modes. The last parts propose an analysis of the economic structure of the sector in France (types of interveners, staff, location, machine power evolution) and an overview of the main actors. Identity sheets of the main operators and equipment manufacturers are provided, as well as economic and financial data of 200 operators which can be compared through 5 key indicators

  13. Integrative smart market concept for system integration of decentralized generators and as a trading platform for grid operators; Integratives Smart Market Konzept zur Systemintegration dezentraler Erzeuger und als Handelsplattform fuer Netzbetreiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmedes, Tanja [EWE AG, Oldenburg (Germany); Stadler, Michael [BTC AG, Oldenburg (Germany); Klose, Thomas [energy and meteo systems GmbH, Oldenburg (Germany); Hollinger, Raphael [Fraunhofer ISE, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Ruettinger, Hannes [Fraunhofer AST, Ilmenau (Germany); Koch, Matthias [Oeko-Institut e.V., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Rosinger, Christine [OFFIS - Institut fuer Informatik, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The E-Energy-Project eTelligence built and evaluated an energy market with low admission barriers. This market allowed different actors from the smart grid domain to trade electricity products. During a one year field trial the market was operated with real financial transactions between market participants taking place. To this end, it was necessary to completely integrate the market into energy trading processes currently in place. In addition to the field trial, simulations were carried out in order to demonstrate participation of a distribution system operator and to evaluate intraday-transactions with a high number of simulated market participants. This paper describes the market and gives information about the results attained during its operation. (orig.)

  14. GSM Marketing Service Providers Operations and Customers Satisfaction in Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebisi Sunday Abayomi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has been carried out on the GSM arm of the Nigerian Telecomunication sectorto primarily investigate the level of satisfaction that the subscribers of GSM service providers haveenjoyed in the seven years of operations in Nigeria. In testing this empirically, MTN, GLOBACOMand ZAIN were selected as case studies. 600 questionnaires were administered on the subscribers ofthese GSM service providers in the Six States of the South-Western Nigeria using the purposivesampling technique. In analyzing the collated data, three hypotheses were tested with the use ofPercentages, T-test, F-test, [at 95% confidence limit], Cross-tabulation [using the ‘Eta’ Directionalmeasure] and statistical charts. The results from the SPSS 16 output rejected the Null hypotheses.This further indicated that, the various factors that determined the level of subscribers’ satisfactionwere statistically significant. The study therefore concluded that, subscribers in Nigeria aredissatisfied with the services of their service providers hence, the need for the regulatory body; NCCto ensure that subscribers interests are protected. The study then suggested that,, the GSM serviceproviders should reposition themselves to give adequate value to subscribers money incommensuration with their own gains from the Nigeria Telecommunications market.

  15. The potential for price co-operation in a hydroelectric power market with temporary bottlenecks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuhaug, Gro Merete

    2003-01-01

    The report discusses whether there is a larger potential for coordinated price stipulation in a hydropower market that periodically has limitations in the transmission capacity. Such limitations in the transmission capacities transform an integrated market into lesser market segments and this will be reflected in price differences between the segments. The total production in a power market with hydropower producers is dependent on the afflux. Hydropower producers with storage capacities have a large flexibility with respect to power production because the water in a water reservoir may be stored until the production period. Depending on the theoretical model in use the discount factor for coordinated price stipulation will be lower in a hydropower market with periodical limitations in the transmission capacities than in an integrated power market with optimal production adaptation

  16. Information Operations Versus Civilian Marketing and Advertising: A Comparative Analysis to Improve IO Planning and Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    American Marketing Association expresses fundamental principles of print advertising in a paper written by Steve Blom. Although these principles ...medium if targeting a large group of people was the intention. In addition to medium by negation, civilian marketing professors Kotler , Roberto, and...best suited for which portion of IO. 78 THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 79 LIST OF REFERENCES Armstrong, Gary and Kotler , Philip. Marketing

  17. Implementation and evaluation of an electricity market operated at district level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ampatzis, M.; Nguyen, H.P.; Kling, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) in the distribution grid, in combination with the liberalization of the electricity markets, introduces small-scale electricity producers in a market architecture designed for large-scale power plants. This work examines a

  18. The Nature and Operation of Training Institutes: A Generic Marketing Plan for Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivelo, Frank R.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses marketing problems and opportunities associated with satisfying demand, product-consumer match, support services, personnel, and personal involvement. Identifies overall marketing and business/financial goals and related objectives. Covers action plans, performance evaluations, curriculum design, advisory committee participation and…

  19. Requirements and operation of decentralised power plants in the changing power market; Anforderungen und Einsatz dezentraler Kraftwerke im veraenderten Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenings, Norbert; Hornig, Niels; Steinbach, Sebastian [E.ON Energy Projects GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    E.ON plans and realises distributed industrial power plants on the basis of contracting schemes. Target is to reduce energy costs without investment by the customer himself. Gas turbine CHP plants are very flexible and offer many possibilities for the operator to adjust optimally to a constantly changing energy market. This aspect is becoming increasingly important due to the increasing share of renewables. However, the economic situation for CHP plants has deteriorated significantly, due to the current market situation distorted by the subsidised renewable power generation. (orig.)

  20. Research and Application of Construction of Operation Integration for Smart Power Distribution and Consumption Based on “Integration of Marketing with Distribution”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenbao Feng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The “information integrated platform of marketing and distribution integration system” researched and developed by this article is an advanced application platform to concurrently design and develop the automation of marketing and power distribution through integration and analysis of existing data based on the data platform of Jiaozuo Power Supply Corporation. It uses data mining and data bus technology, uniform analysis of comprehensive marketing and distribution data. And it conducts a real time monitoring on power utilization information for marketing and early warning maintenance business of power distribution according to electric business model, which realizes an integration of marketing and distribution business, achieves the target of integrated operation of marketing and distribution, improves the operation level of business, reduces maintenance costs of distribution grid, increases electricity sales of distribution grid and provide reliable practical basis for operation and maintenance of Jiaozuo power marketing and distribution.

  1. Political Economy of Tradeable Permits. Competitiveness, Co-operation and Market Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Convery, F.J.; Dunne, L.; Redmond, L.; Ryan, L.B.

    2003-01-01

    There is a consistent pre-occupation in the research literature on emissions trading with what configurations of trading arrangements are likely to be economically efficient both statically and dynamically, and - to a lesser extent - what is likely to be fair - who are the winners and the losers. Issues of environmental effectiveness are also addressed in this context. Conversely, amongst the policy practitioners, there is little overt interest in economic efficiency, and not much treatment of fairness. There is a strong interest in implementability, and in environmental effectiveness. The presentations at the workshops reflected these parallel pre-occupations, and attempts were made by some to make a bridge between them. In this paper we review some of the papers and associated other literature that address these issues in political economy, with a particular emphasis on insights emerging as regards competitiveness, co-operation and market power. Much of the relevant research emerging at the workshops was animated by either ex post analysis of existing programmes, or an ex ante analysis of 'new' emissions trading proposals, such as the proposal by the European Commission for a European Union (EU) wide scheme. At our first workshop in Venice, in December 2001, Zapfel and Vainio (2001) presented a paper - 'Pathways to European Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading' - which mapped the at times surprising evolution of the emissions trading idea in Europe, the misconceptions that in the past and still to this day complicate progress, and conclude with a presentation of a coherent case for the creation of an EU wide greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme. They both work with the European Commission in DG Environment, and continue to be heavily involved in moving the emissions trading agenda forward. The Commission had released its proposals just two months earlier, in October 2001, following an intensive consultation process. This co-incidence of occurrence of the initiation

  2. Political Economy of Tradeable Permits. Competitiveness, Co-operation and Market Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Convery, F.J.; Dunne, L.; Redmond, L.; Ryan, L.B. [Department of Environmental Studies, University College, Dublin (Ireland)

    2003-07-01

    There is a consistent pre-occupation in the research literature on emissions trading with what configurations of trading arrangements are likely to be economically efficient both statically and dynamically, and - to a lesser extent - what is likely to be fair - who are the winners and the losers. Issues of environmental effectiveness are also addressed in this context. Conversely, amongst the policy practitioners, there is little overt interest in economic efficiency, and not much treatment of fairness. There is a strong interest in implementability, and in environmental effectiveness. The presentations at the workshops reflected these parallel pre-occupations, and attempts were made by some to make a bridge between them. In this paper we review some of the papers and associated other literature that address these issues in political economy, with a particular emphasis on insights emerging as regards competitiveness, co-operation and market power. Much of the relevant research emerging at the workshops was animated by either ex post analysis of existing programmes, or an ex ante analysis of 'new' emissions trading proposals, such as the proposal by the European Commission for a European Union (EU) wide scheme. At our first workshop in Venice, in December 2001, Zapfel and Vainio (2001) presented a paper - 'Pathways to European Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading' - which mapped the at times surprising evolution of the emissions trading idea in Europe, the misconceptions that in the past and still to this day complicate progress, and conclude with a presentation of a coherent case for the creation of an EU wide greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme. They both work with the European Commission in DG Environment, and continue to be heavily involved in moving the emissions trading agenda forward. The Commission had released its proposals just two months earlier, in October 2001, following an intensive consultation process. This co-incidence of

  3. The new challenges of energy operators. To bring strategic answers to market changes and to unprecedented competitive threats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-02-01

    Because of regulatory and technological changes, energy operators have to reconsider their business model, i.e. to identify their tomorrow's key activities and skills, and to keep control of the value chain as a multitude of new and various operators try to be present on the production sector and on the distribution sector. In order to give an insight on these issues, this study proposes three reports and a video. While the video proposes an original presentation of the main conclusions of this study, the first document is an executive synthesis which outlines and discusses some important issues: regulatory and technological changes submit energy operators to an unprecedented competitive and strategic paradigm; an efficient management of transition requires a profession-based approach and renewed strategic assets; energy operators must take the risk of 'uberisation' of their profession into account in order to better respond. The second document is an analysis report which addresses the upheavals of the energy operator environment (regulatory changes, technological upheavals, focus on the new energy deal), and the main strategic challenges faced by energy operators (redesign of the energy model, projection on non-core activities, acquisition of new strategic assets). It also proposes a discussion on the reconfiguration of the energy value chain (an upstream disruption of the value chain, a risk of reversal of the whole value chain). The third document proposes presentations of the evolution of key figures of energy markets in France (electricity, gas, renewable energy, turnovers of specialised actors in gas production and distribution and of the electricity sectors), a presentation of the sector economic structure and competitive landscape (sites, personnel, market shares, market key figures, main operators, electric power producers, gas providers, and renewable plant operators), and an overview of main events (asset management strategy

  4. Operating environment and USA nursing homes' participation in the subacute care market: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Qaseem, Amir; Mkanta, William

    2009-02-01

    We examined the impact of environmental factors on USA nursing homes' participation in the subacute care market. Findings suggest that the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 did not have a significant impact in the participation of nursing homes in the subacute care market from 1998 to 2000. However, there was a declining trend in the participation of nursing homes in the subacute care market after the implementation of Medicare prospective payment system (PPS). Furthermore, nursing homes with a higher proportion of Medicare residents were more likely to exit the subacute care market after PPS. Results also suggest that nursing homes have responded strategically to the environmental demand for subacute care services. Nursing homes located in markets with higher Medicare managed care penetration were more likely to offer subacute care services. Environmental munificence was also an important predictor of nursing home innovation into subacute care. Nursing homes in states with higher Medicaid reimbursement and those in less competitive markets were more likely to participate in the subacute care market.

  5. Model of the electric energy market in Poland. Assumptions, structure and operation principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulagowski, W.

    1994-01-01

    Present state of works on model of electric energy market in Poland with special consideration of bulk energy market is presented. The designed model based on progressive, evolutionary changes is so elastic, that when keeping general structure and fundamentals the particular solutions can be verified or corrected. The changes in the electric energy market are considered as an integral part of existing restructuring process of Polish electric energy sector. The rate of those changes and the mode of their introduction influence on introduction speed of the new solutions. (author). 14 refs, 4 figs

  6. Wind power planning and operational benefits and issues in evolving competitive markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligan, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    The paper discusses the advantages of wind energy generators for both short periods (hours to days) and for longer periods. The value of wind power in the light of the increasing level of risk that owners of generators will face in the new electricity market is also discussed. It is claimed that only now are we beginning to understand the issues associated with the use of large-scale wind power plants in regulated markets and this is coming about through a combination of both experience and computer modelling. As the electric power market becomes increasingly competitive, it is necessary to adapt our knowledge base to cope with the new market structure and to appreciate the associated risks and how they can be mitigated by, say, good siting. The importance of power transmission from wind power generators is emphasised: only if transmission access is afforded to all technologies will the competition succeed

  7. Knowledge management, market orientation, innovativeness and organizational outcomes: a study on companies operating in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraresi, Alex Antonio; Santos, Silvio Aparecido dos; Frega, José Roberto; Pereira, Heitor José

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the study of the relationship among knowledge management, the company's market orientation, innovativeness and organizational outcomes. The survey was conducted based on a survey held with executives from 241 companies in Brazil. The evidence found indicates that knowledge management directly contributes to market orientation, but it requires a clearly defined strategic direction to achieve results and innovativeness. It was also concluded that knowledge, as a resource, ...

  8. —Research Perspectives at the Interface of Marketing and Operations: Applications to the Motion Picture Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjeev Swami

    2006-01-01

    In this comment, I discuss some research issues at the interface of marketing and operations particularly relevant to the motion picture industry. The major focus of my comments will be on the exhibition component of the motion picture value chain. Based on research findings and available data, I discuss the following issues: dynamic and interesting characteristics of the motion picture industry, the applicability of management science tools to artistic products, the practitioners' viewpoint,...

  9. Report on system operation - A background report prepared by the Nordel Operation Committee/OPG in the Nordel project on enhancing efficient functioning of the Nordic electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    This report contains the operation procedures in extreme situations and lessons learned from blackouts, based on a mandate given by the Operations Committee. Nordic TSOs have had common rules and principles for system operation i.e. System Operation Agreement since the late 1990s. The rules have been revised according to the system security and market changes and needs. The collaboration between system operators is regular and fruitful. The knowledge and capability to manage extreme situations of the Nordic power system has continuously increased and the recent blackouts did not show major deficiencies in operation practices. Regardless of the existing good collaboration it is important to continue development in the future in order to ensure high system security. Important development areas are security of reserve supervision and coordination of calculation procedures for transmission limits, enhancement of data exchange routines between control centres in order to improve the overview of the system security within the Nordic power system. More extensive coordination of outage planning processes will further improve the system security. Continuously training of operational staff is important to be able to manage different situations and disturbances efficiently. (BA)

  10. Optimal operation and forecasting policy for pump storage plants in day-ahead markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muche, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate unit commitment deploying stochastic and deterministic approaches. • We consider day-ahead markets, its forecast and weekly price based unit commitment. • Stochastic and deterministic unit commitment are identical for the first planning day. • Unit commitment and bidding policy can be based on the deterministic approach. • Robust forecasting models should be estimated based on the whole planning horizon. - Abstract: Pump storage plants are an important electricity storage technology at present. Investments in this technology are expected to increase. The necessary investment valuation often includes expected cash flows from future price-based unit commitment policies. A price-based unit commitment policy has to consider market price uncertainty and the information revealing nature of electricity markets. For this environment stochastic programming models are suggested to derive the optimal unit commitment policy. For the considered day-ahead price electricity market stochastic and deterministic unit commitment policies are comparable suggesting an application of easier implementable deterministic models. In order to identify suitable unit commitment and forecasting policies, deterministic unit commitment models are applied to actual day-ahead electricity prices of a whole year. As a result, a robust forecasting model should consider the unit commitment planning period. This robust forecasting models result in expected cash flows similar to realized ones allowing a reliable investment valuation

  11. Wte Power Plant Operation on the Energy Market Under the Influence of Legislation Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomić, T.; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Pfeifer, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of combined heat and power waste-to-energy plant is investigated in theconditions of implementation of the new legal framework for waste disposal and management aswell as new power market conditions. As waste management is a core issue of sustainabledevelopment of r...

  12. Distributed, price-based control approach to market-based operation of future power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokic, A.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Hermans, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present, discuss and illustrate on examples the price-based control paradigm as a suitable approach to solve some of the challenging problems facing future, market-based power systems. It is illustrated how global objectives and constraints are optimally translated into time-varying

  13. Developing Graduate Sales Professionals through Co-operative Education and Work Placements: A Relationship Marketing Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Nick

    2000-01-01

    A literature review and data from 346 British business studies students identified the importance of relationship marketing approaches in business and highlighted the need for students to gain experience in work placements. Careful management of work placements by universities is required. (SK)

  14. Marketing marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Karel Jan van Alsem

    2013-01-01

    In deze installatierede betoogt Karel Jan Alsem dat marketing een grotere strategische rol in organisaties zou moeten krijgen. Want marketing is bij uitstek de verbinding tussen klantwensen en het DNA van een organisatie. Doordat merken gemiddeld voor mensen niet heel belangrijk zijn, is goede

  15. The integration of Price Responsive Demand into Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) wholesale power markets and system operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centolella, Paul

    2010-01-01

    A number of states and utilities are pursuing demand response based on dynamic and time-differentiated retail prices and utility investments in Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), often as part of Smart Grid initiatives. These developments could produce large amounts of Price Responsive Demand, demand that predictably responds to changes in wholesale prices. Price Responsive Demand could provide significant reliability and economic benefits. However, existing RTO tariffs present potential barriers to the development of Price Responsive Demand. Effectively integrating Price Responsive Demand into RTO markets and operations will require changes in demand forecasting, scarcity pricing reform, synchronization of scarcity pricing with capacity markets, tracking voluntary hedging by price responsive loads, and a non-discriminatory approach in curtailments in capacity emergencies. The article describes changes in RTO policies and systems needed incorporate Price Responsive Demand. (author)

  16. Direct participation of electrical loads in the California independent system operator markets during the Summer of 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnay, Chris; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Khavkin, Mark; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2001-01-01

    California's restructured electricity markets opened on 1 April 1998. The former investor-owned utilities were functionally divided into generation, transmission, and distribution activities, all of their gas-fired generating capacity was divested, and the retail market was opened to competition. To ensure that small customers shared in the expected benefit of lower prices, the enabling legislation mandated a 10% rate cut for all customers, which was implemented in a simplistic way that fossilized 1996 tariff structures. Rising fuel and environmental compliance costs, together with a reduced ability to import electricity, numerous plant outages, and exercise of market power by generators drove up wholesale electricity prices steeply in 2000, while retail tariffs remained unchanged. One of the distribution/supply companies entered bankruptcy in April 2001, and another was insolvent. During this period, two sets of interruptible load programs were in place, longstanding ones organized as special tariffs by the distribution/supply companies and hastily established ones run directly by the California Independent System Operator (CAISO). The distribution/supply company programs were effective at reducing load during the summer of 2000, but because of the high frequency of outages required by a system on the brink of failure, customer response declined and many left the tariff. The CAISO programs failed to attract enough participation to make a significant difference to the California supply demand imbalance. The poor performance of direct load participation in California's markets reinforces the argument for accurate pricing of electricity as a stimulus to energy efficiency investment and as a constraint on market volatility

  17. Increasing supplemental nutrition assistance program/electronic benefits transfer sales at farmers' markets with vendor-operated wireless point-of-sale terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttenheim, Alison M; Havassy, Joshua; Fang, Michelle; Glyn, Jonathan; Karpyn, Allison E

    2012-05-01

    Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) (formerly Food Stamp Program) participants can use their benefits at many farmers' markets. However, most markets have only one market-operated wireless point-of-sale (POS) card swipe terminal for electronic benefits transfer (EBT) transactions. It is not known whether providing each farmer/vendor with individual wireless POS terminals and subsidizing EBT fees will increase SNAP/EBT purchases at farmers' markets. To evaluate the effects of multiple vendor-operated wireless POS terminals (vs a single market-operated terminal) on use of SNAP benefits at an urban farmers' market. Time-series analyses of SNAP/EBT sales. The Clark Park farmers' market in West Philadelphia, PA, which accounts for one quarter of all SNAP/EBT sales at farmers' markets in Pennsylvania. Vendors were provided with individual wireless POS terminals for 9 months (June 2008-February 2009.) The pilot program covered all equipment and wireless service costs and transaction fees associated with SNAP/EBT, credit, and debit sales. Monthly SNAP/EBT sales at the Clark Park farmers' market. SNAP/EBT sales data were collected for 48 months (January 2007-December 2010). Time-series regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of the intervention period (June 2008-February 2009) on SNAP/EBT sales, controlling for seasonal effects and total SNAP benefits issued in Philadelphia. The intervention was associated with a 38% increase in monthly SNAP/EBT sales. Effects were greatest during the busy fall market seasons. SNAP/EBT sales did not remain significantly higher after the intervention period. Providing individual wireless POS terminals to farmers' market vendors leads to increased sales. However, market vendors indicated that subsidies for equipment costs and fees would be needed to break even. Currently, SNAP provides some support for these services for supermarket and other SNAP retailers with landline access, but not for farmers' markets. Copyright

  18. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL OPERATIONAL EFFICIENCY OF MARKET DISTRIBUTION OF INCOME: APPROACHES TO EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Halushka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a comparison between scientific approaches to understanding the economic and social efficiency of market income distribution. Based on multidisciplinary approaches the essence of the concepts of fairness and efficiency in the distribution; explored approaches to combining efficiency and equity used in policy income distribution at different levels of management; the possible social and economic consequences of ineffective regulation of income in today’s economy. The analysis is based on comparing the four concepts of justice that are considered socially efficient. Considered: utilitarian, formulated by J. Bentham; egalitarian, which provides for equal distribution; market (liberal approach – to polar egalitarian and roulzianskyy that treats justice as fairness, approaches. Based on the generalization of existing approaches analyzed method of estimating social justice in the distribution and the possibility of its application. The structure of the article includes the following sections: 1.Views on terms of efficiency and equity in the distribution of resources and income; 2. Classical and modern approaches to combining efficiency and equity in the distribution; 3. Conflicts combination of the principles of fairness and efficiency in the distribution of incomes policy. The authors also noted that the uneven distribution of income acts as an objective reality, and the question is to prevent dangerous indicators of this unevenness. Market income distribution does not guarantee every person an acceptable level of income. The causes of irregularity are: differences in abilities, mental as well as physical; differences in possession of the property, in the educational level and group reasons associated with luck, chance, surprise win more. This is a definite social injustice market. State, taking a significant share of responsibility for maintaining a basic human right to a dignified life, organizes redistribution.

  19. Social Media Impact on Marketing and Operations of Small and Medium Companies: A Delphi study

    OpenAIRE

    Skoumpopoulou, D; Vlachos, I; San José, J

    2014-01-01

    This research project investigates the impact of social media, in particular the uses of the social media in Spain, the impact of the engagement concept for the companies, the influence of the word of mouth for the businesses and the effectiveness of social media marketing in Spanish companies. Qualitative data has been gathered from five Spanish companies that use social media providing rich and detailed information. The most common use of social media in Spain is branding and promotions but...

  20. Email Marketing for U.S. Army and Special Operations Forces (SOF) Recruiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    church. Users had the ability to read the church’s ministry goals and standpoint on religion . The site also contained podcasts of recent church...Cost vs. Time Table for Phone and Email The formula used in this model is: Y =CX The Decision Variables are listed below: X1= Phone Leads X2... Millennial Consumers. Consumer Behavior. United States. Molenaar, C. (2002). The Future of Marketing. Great Britain: Pearson Education

  1. Rogue trading at Lloyds Bank International, 1974: Operational risk in volatile markets

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, C

    2017-01-01

    Rogue trading has been a persistent feature of international financial markets over the past thirty years, but there is remarkably little historical treatment of this phenomenon. To begin to fill this gap, evidence from company and official archives is used to expose the anatomy of a rogue trading scandal at Lloyds Bank International in 1974. The rush to internationalize, the conflict between rules and norms, and the failure of internal and external checks all contributed to the largest singl...

  2. Radical change of the European electricity market. The challenges and opportunities for large operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caperan, L.

    2000-01-01

    Electricite de France (EDF) generates and sells 460 TWh to around 30 million customers in France and 17 million abroad. Owing to the opening of the electricity markets all electricity producers must review their company policy and their technical and economic strategies. It is a question of survival - but this development also opens up new possibilities. Competition is a source of progress and a quantum leap in terms of quality: Reduced costs for customers, greater range of services, improved product quality, the need for a good corporate image and probably, therefore, a greater commitment to the environment and certainly a better dialogue with customers and society in general. (orig.) [de

  3. Influences of the Internal Market on the operation of nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeusler, D.

    1990-01-01

    The author deals with the issues of harmonization of laws in the energy sector, competence of the Community for regulations under atomic energy law, legal harmonization in the area of nuclear energy, the Europeanization of the fuel cycle, effects of waste treatment abroad on proof of disposal and management of radioactive waste, the EC-wide nuclear standardization and a revision of Euratom, i.e. the motion for resolution of the Upper House of the German Federal Parliament, to change the Euratom Treaty in view of the creation of the European Internal Market, which was approved on 30.6.1989. (RST) [de

  4. Information Operations Versus Civilian Marketing and Advertising: A Comparative Analysis to Improve IO Planning and Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chilton, Dan

    2008-01-01

    .... must re-focus its efforts on Information Operations to achieve GWOT objectives. In an environment where rapidly advancing technology is drastically improving the individual's ability to conduct IO against the U.S...

  5. Influence of the Internal Market on the operation of nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeusler, D.

    1991-01-01

    The lecture deals with aspects of interactions between Internal Market and nuclear energy uses. Detailed regulations are necessary in connection with harmonization of legislation on the energy and nuclear energy sector, with community powers for nuclear law regulations, with Europeanization of the nuclear fuel cycle, disposal on foreign territory, and with EC-wide standardization in nuclear engineering. The Federal Council demanded a revision of the EURATOM Treaty with the following goal: Extending the competence of European authorities, creating rights for neighbouring states to participate, doing away with privileges for joint ventures, the Council's arguments being that there is no coordinated site planning and no harmonized safety philosophy, there are no European standards for radiation and environmental protection, and only inadequate supervisory and acting powers of European authorities. (orig./HSCH) [de

  6. Operating an EPR: A strong asset in the future European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteve, Bernard; Beutier, Didier

    2006-01-01

    Recently, two nuclear units have been decided in Europe, both EPR 1,600 MWe. In Finland, TVO Company decided to commission a reactor in 2009 on Olkiluoto site. The license was granted in February 2005 and the construction started in summer. In 2004 in France, EDF Company decided an EPR to be commissioned in 2012 at Flamanville. In both cases, national Parliament vote has given the green light. It is interesting to understand why each company has made such decision. In TVO case, the main driving factor seems to be the need of industrial consumers for low and stable electricity price in a context of growing excess demand. In EDF case, no short term demand, but rather long term electricity company strategy seems to be the main reason. The relation to national energy policy is very clear in both cases. In Finland, the 5. Nuclear Power Plant was decided: - as a key element of the energy mix to meet growing electricity needs while replacing older plants, - to ensure, together with renewables, the fulfillment of the Kyoto commitments, - to secure stable and predictable electricity price for intensive industrial consumers (for instance, paper mills), - to reduce the dependence on electricity import. Here, it is argued more broadly that EPR will be a strong asset in the future European electricity market. To support this argument, we shall describe: 1) to what extent the evolving European electricity market may call for new nuclear units, 2) specific design features explaining why EPR especially fits with expectations, 3) cost assessments giving the conditions of EPR competitiveness, 4) main elements of risk assessment and how they are dealt with. (authors)

  7. American Nuclear Society executive conference nuclear market needs: Domestic and international future changes in operating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissy, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    The author says the utility industry will be facing many new challenges and there will be many opportunities to develop innovative techniques to run the plants. He concentrates on four areas, where he believes there is the greatest opportunity for improvement. First, the utility organization will be in transition to provide complete support and commitment to site activities. Second, plant operating activities will be changing to improve plant operating characteristics and availability. Third, the area of plant maintenance will prove to have a significant impact on utilities. And fourth, the industry must promote an attitude where its people are striving to achieve quality in their daily work

  8. Island operation capability in the Colombian electrical market: a promising ancillary service of distributed energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marín-Jiménez, Juan D.; Carvajal-Quintero, Sandra; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2018-01-01

    is presented. Subsequently, an existing electrical distribution system with small hydropower plants is considered as a study case in order to identify the technical requirements set out for both, the distribution system and the generation source. Finally, taking into account the current Law and regulations......, a proposal is outlined for the implementation of the island operation capability ancillary service in the Colombian electrical system....

  9. Entry and innovation in maturing markets: virtual operators in mobile communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaspers, F.; Hulsink, W.; Theeuwes, J.

    2007-01-01

    In the last few years the mobile telecommunications industry has witnessed the entry of a large number of new service providers. Traditionally, mobile users get their mobile services from the service providers owned by vertically integrated mobile network operators (MNOs). The new entrants do not

  10. Solutions for increase of the NPP operators competitiveness in liberalised market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pliska, J.; Rubek, J.

    2004-01-01

    Safe, reliable and efficient operation of equipment is essential for profitable energy production. Ensuring conditions for the continuous safe operation is of primary importance in any nuclear power plant. However, if power production is considered, the important task is to operate the system optimally. This can be achieved by running the system close to its maximum efficiency. The paper describes the on-line monitoring systems integration into the overall plant information system and the process data warehouse built in the Dukovany Nuclear Power Plant and integration of the process data validation and thermal performance monitoring into it. The solution is based on the Industrial SQL server database and the InTouch human machine interface by Invensys' Wonderware, the RECON data validation package by ChemPlant Technology and TEP thermal performance monitoring package by I and C Energo. The solution unifies three different level of integration that should be taken into consideration. These are the data level, the functional level and the operational level. (author)

  11. Power plant operation management a challenge to the energy market; Kraftwerkseinsatzmanagement. Eine Herausforderung gegenueber dem Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinski, B.; Schletter, G. [Betrieb Grundlastkraftwerke, Vattenfall Europe Mining and Generation, Peitz (Germany); Kirsch, R. [Einsatzplanung/Analytik, Vattenfall Europe Mining and Generation, Cottbus (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The tasks of power plant operation management have sustainably changed with liberalisation. For Vattenfall Europe this meant a re-organisation of the functions and responsibilities within the power plant sector. The Vattenfall Europe Group integrated the sectors mining, power- and heat generation from fossil fuels and nuclear power as well as the operation of high-voltage-, low-voltage- and distribution networks. The Group set up itself along the value chain and formed the Business Units Generation, Transmission and Distribution of power and heat as well as the provision of the system services. Vattenfall Europe introduced a Steering model for the sections Generation, Trading and Sales which bases on the fundamental intent of optimising the business units individually to a large extent. (orig.)

  12. Combining hydro-generation and wind energy. Biddings and operation on electricity spot markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angarita, Jorge Marquez; Usaola, Julio Garcia

    2007-01-01

    Wind generation is growing rapidly in all the world, especially in Europe. The power produced by this kind of generation is difficult to predict and the predictions are not very accurate. In most systems these imbalances are costly. These penalties reduce the revenue for the wind generation company (WGENCOs). An option to solve this problem would be to work together with another agent. In this paper, a combined strategy for bidding and operating in a power exchange is presented. It considers the combination of a WGENCO and a hydro-generation company (HGENCO). The mathematical formulation for the optimal bids and for the optimal operation is presented, as well as results from realistic cases. (author)

  13. Ideal Operation of a Photovoltaic Power Plant Equipped with an Energy Storage System on Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Markku Järvelä; Seppo Valkealahti

    2017-01-01

    There is no natural inertia in a photovoltaic (PV) generator and changes in irradiation can be seen immediately at the output power. Moving cloud shadows are the dominant reason for fast PV power fluctuations taking place typically within a minute between 20 to 100% of the clear sky value roughly 100 times a day, on average. Therefore, operating a utility scale grid connected PV power plant is challenging. Currently, in many regions, renewable energy sources such as solar and wind receive fee...

  14. The role of the European Union in private law relations of organizations operating in the internal electricity or gas market in medium and small size Member States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nechvátal, Ivan; Pilavachi, Petros A.; Kakaras, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies European Union (EU) legislation on private law relations for organizations operating in the internal electricity and gas market in medium and small size Member States. It consists of the analysis of both the EU primary (Treaties) and secondary (directives and regulations) legislation. A survey was sent to organizations operating in the internal energy market in four Member States: Greece, Czech Republic, Finland, and Malta. Through the survey, the paper identifies problematic areas of current EU legislation and compares them with new legislation applied as from 3 March 2011 (third liberalization package). It looks into all important EU energy legislation on private law relations of organizations operating in the internal energy market such as unbundling, procurement, procedural law, duties related to information and other legislation on energy contracts. The study concludes that, despite some small problems, the energy liberalization including the third liberalization legislative package progresses in a correct manner. There are nearly no problems in the access to the transmission and distribution systems. The functioning of the gas market is considered as the most important problem. - Highlights: ► European Union legislation on private law relations was studied. ► Organizations operating in the electricity and gas market were considered. ► A survey was sent to organizations in four Member States. ► Despite some problems, the energy liberalization advances correctly. ► The gas market is considered as the most important problem.

  15. The Huaibei power plant and its implications for the Chinese BOT [Built-Operate-Transfer] market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, N. [University of Leeds (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering; Hao Zhang [University of Leeds (United Kingdom). Accounting and Finance Div.; Yiran Zhu [Home Product Ltd., Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    This paper is a longitudinal case study, from 1992 to the present, of a Chinese Build-Operate-Transfer, (BOT), project, the Huaibei power plant. The Huaibei project, unlike the better known Sharejio B and C or Laibin B power plant BOT projects which were undertaken solely by foreign contractors, is one of the first projects based on the Sino-Foreign Cooperative Joint Venture model (CJV) involving largely Chinese state-owned enterprises (SOEs). For this type of CJV it is interesting to note that revenues from tax-savings and labour-cost savings become significant for the SOE organisations. By studying how the Huaibei ownership has evolved over the last 10 years and how the main CJV participants have coped with the problems which have arisen, the case not only illustrates the well-known difficulties associated with Chinese BOT projects but suggests possible ways for the project manager to overcome or mitigate these difficulties. (author)

  16. How the Eurosystem’s Treatment of Collateral in its Open Market Operations Weakens Fiscal Discipline in the Eurozone (and what to do about it)

    OpenAIRE

    Buiter, Willem H.; Sibert, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Market interest rates on sovereign debt issued by the 12 Eurozone national governments differ very little from each other, despite the credit ratings of these governments ranging from triple A to single A, and despite significant differences among their objective indicators of fiscal-financial sustainability. We argue that this market failure is at least in part due to a policy failure: the operational practices of the European Central Bank and the rest of the Eurosystem in its collateralised...

  17. Optimizing the Operation of Windfarms, Energy Storage and Flexible Loads in Modern Power Systems and Deregulated Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Zamiyad

    The amount of wind energy in power systems is increasing at a significant rate. With this increased penetration, there are certain problems associated with the operation of windfarms which need careful attention. In the operations side, the wake effects of upstream wind turbines on downstream wind turbines can cause a reduction in the total generated power of a windfarm. On the market side, the fluctuation of real-time prices can make the operation of windfarms less profitable. Similarly, the intermittent nature of wind power prevents the windfarms from participating in the day-ahead and forward markets. On the system side, the volatile nature of wind speeds is also an obstacle for windfarms to provide frequency regulation to the system. In this thesis, we address these issues and optimize the operation of windfarms in power systems and deregulated electricity markets. First, the total power generation in a windfarm is maximized by using yaw angle of wind turbines as a control variable. We extend the existing wake models to include the effects of yaw misalignment and wake deflection of wind turbines. A numerical study is performed to find the optimal values of induction factor and yaw misalignment angle of wind turbines in a single row of a windfarm for achieving the maximum total power with wake effects. The numerical study shows that the maximum power is achieved by keeping the induction factor close to 1/3 and only changing the yaw angle to deflect the wake. We then propose a Dynamic Programming Framework (DPF) to maximize the total power production of a windfarm using yaw angle as the control variable. We compare the windfarm efficiency achieved with our DPF with the efficiency values obtained through greedy control strategy and induction factor optimization. We also extend our expressions to a windfarm with multiple rows and columns of turbines and perform simulations on the 3x3 and 4x4 grid topologies. Our results show that the optimal induction factor for

  18. A Study on the Impact of Marketing Capability, Operations Capability, Environmental Capability and Diversification Strategy on the Performance of Hotel Industry in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, YUBO

    2009-01-01

    Hotel industry has been an increasingly significant service industry across the whole world. The performance measurement method is crucial for hotels’ operations. This study examines the impacts of marketing capability, operations capability, environmental capability and diversification strategy on the business performance of hotel industry in the UK. Based on the financial archival data in the database and information obtained in the firm websites from 2004 to 2007, the investigation is carr...

  19. BELGRADE MARKET AS A PART OF THE GLOBAL FINANCIAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Simić

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Belgrade market has been operating since 1989 under the name of Yugoslav capital market, which changed its name to Belgrade market in 1992. The purpose and the idea which governs our financial authorities and the market participants is a more active involvement of the market in the operations of the global financial market.

  20. A win-win marginal rent analysis for operator and consumer under battery leasing mode in China electric vehicle market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhe; Ouyang Minggao

    2011-01-01

    Recently battery leasing has been introduced into the market by automobile manufacturers and power suppliers due to its potential to reduce the purchase cost of electric vehicles (EVs). However, the profit prospect of battery leasing is still uncertain. This paper takes the views of both the operators and consumers and calculates the 'win-win' marginal rent, which not only ensures the profitability of operators, but also allows consumers a lower expenditure than using Internal combustion engine vehicles (ICVs) and EVs with embedded batteries. Battery cost, vehicle weight, gasoline and electricity price, and the discount rate have impacts on the rent. Battery cost plays a dominant role and a battery cost >5 Yen /W h fails to enable the survival of battery leasing to all types of EVs. Battery leasing would be more competitive when focusing on heavier EVs. At least one of the three thresholds is required for the existence of rent pricing range for a 1000 kg EV: gasoline retail price >6 Yen /L, electricity price <0.6 Yen /kW h, or the discount rate <7%. Typically, the feasible battery rent range is 0.34-0.38 Yen /W h/year for a 1000 kg EV under the present battery cost 2 Yen /W h and China current gasoline and electricity prices. - Highlights: → Rent pricing for EV battery leasing must obey win-win rule for BLO and consumers. → Rent is affected by battery cost, vehicle weight, energy price and discount rate. → Battery cost plays dominant role for the BLO survival as described in '5-3-2' Law. → Heavier EVs are more suitable for battery leasing when battery cost is high. → The profitability of BLO is sensitive to the price of gasoline and electricity.

  1. Demand response: Social welfare maximisation in an unbundled energy market - Case study for the low-voltage networks of a distribution network operator in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, M.; Babar, M.; Gibescu, M.; Cobben, J.F.G.

    2017-01-01

    With the introduction of smart meters, dynamic pricing and home energy management systems, residential customers are able to react to changes in electricity prices. In an unbundled market, the energy supplier and the network operator may have conflicting interests with respect to demand response

  2. Demand response : social welfare maximisation in an unbundled energy market : case study for the low-voltage networks of a distribution network operator in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, M.; Babar, M.; Gibescu, M.; Cobben, J.F.G.

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of smart meters, dynamic pricing and home energy management systems, residential customers are able to react to changes in electricity prices. In an unbundled market, the energy supplier and the network operator may have conflicting interests with respect to demand response

  3. EDF - 2015 full-year results: all targets reached, Strong operating performance in adverse market conditions, 2018 ambition reiterated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    A key player in energy transition, the EDF Group is an integrated electricity company, active in all areas of the business: generation, transmission, distribution, energy supply and trading, energy services. A global leader in low-carbon energies, the Group has developed a diversified generation mix based on nuclear power, hydropower, new renewable energies and thermal energy. The Group is involved in supplying energy and services to approximately 37.6 million customers, of which 27.8 million in France. The Group generated consolidated sales of Euro 75 billion in 2015, of which 47.2% outside of France. EDF is listed on the Paris Stock exchange. EDF achieved all its targets in 2015. The year was marked by strong operational performance, reflecting the significant efforts the teams made. With the end of the regulated Yellow and Green Tariffs, most clients turned to EDF. Nuclear output reached its highest level, since 2011 in France, and since 2005 in the United Kingdom. EDF is also continuing its significant development in renewable energy, with an additional 1 GW of net installed capacity. The transformation of EDF Group is essential in the unfavourable market conditions. EDF has embarked on this transformation, and is accelerating innovation to serve the energy transition

  4. The Choice of Entry Mode for Successful Business in an Emerging Market : Norwegian Business Operations in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ødegård, Sunniva Hellandsvik

    2016-01-01

    Master thesis Business Administration - University of Agder 2016 The main topic for this master thesis is the choice of entry mode for successful business in emerging markets, with a focus on Norwegian companies in the Indonesian market. The problem statement of the thesis is as follows: What are the main factors affecting the choice of entry mode for Norwegian companies in the Indonesian market? Several studies on the choice of entry modes have previously been conducted. Howev...

  5. Flexibility as a market requirement - The adaptation of the structure and operations of electricity markets to the production of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Renewable energies are earmarked to take up a very significant share in the output of some of Europe's electricity Systems. The variability of their contribution makes the maintenance of the system's physical equilibrium a veritable challenge, once the share reaches a certain level. Apart from the necessary technical improvements, the transformation of the System first and foremost requires upgrading the way the different energy markets function. (author)

  6. Flexibility as a market requirement - The adaptation of the structure and operations of electricity markets to the production of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, Dominique

    2014-12-01

    Renewable energies are earmarked to take up a very significant share in the output of some of Europe's electricity Systems. The variability of their contribution makes the maintenance of the system's physical equilibrium a veritable challenge, once the share reaches a certain level. Apart from the necessary technical improvements, the transformation of the System first and foremost requires upgrading the way the different energy markets function

  7. The marketing strategies of electricity and natural gas providers in France. Which perspectives for alternate operators in front of EDF and GDF Suez?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-10-01

    This article presents the content of a market study which aimed at gathering and analysing figures regarding electricity and natural gas (production, consumption, tariffs, gross prices, etc.), at assessing the market shares of the main providers and their commercial position, at understanding the impact of the Nome law and of the gas price problematic on providers and consumers, and at assessing the capacity of alternate operators to challenge the positions held by EDF and GDF Suez. Besides EDF and GDF Suez, the following providers are analysed: Alpiq, Electricite de Strasbourg, Enel France, ENI, E.ON France, Gas Natural Fenosa, Poweo Direct Energie, Soregies, Tegaz

  8. POLITICAL RISK ON THE FINANCIAL MARKET The problem of adequate scientific assessment of business operations - the naivety of economists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Dziawgo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the significant problems of a modern economy and economics is political risk. A destructive influence of politics on the financial market cannot be ignored. It is necessary to indicate some selected specific problems of the financial market connected with politics in the area of: public finance (including EU, monetary policy and capital market. Nowadays, the scale and dynamics of political interference in the economy and finance leads to the problem of rationality in business activities. Moreover, many hidden political factors change the political risk into immeasurable political uncertainty.

  9. Development of co-operation between a research institute and enterprises in the context of marketing communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Niemczyk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the article is presentation of results of recent research on the effectiveness of practical solutions used in marketing communication of the Institute of Logistics and Warehousing, leading to development of cooperation with enterprises. Thanks to the management, the appropriate information reaches definite groups of clients through multiple channels. E-marketing of scientific and research organizations is carried out mainly through web sites, web portals, social media. The analytical and research instruments in the marketing of scientific and research organisations used for measuring the effectiveness and efficacy of marketing communication include: Google Analytics, Seo Stat, Salesmanago, Advertising Value Equivalency and a range of reports. Product line and product managers are employees who are highly qualified and often possess unique competences. Ongoing research coupled with direct contact with companies results in a constant improvement in the services rendered and generation of innovative products.

  10. Norwegian electricity market liberalisation: questions of cost calculation and price definition by grid operators; Norwegische Elektrizitaetsmarktoeffnung: Kostenrechnungs- und Preisbildungsfragen der Netzgesellschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, J.; Vaterlaus, S.

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study carried out on the Norwegian electricity market 10 years after its liberalisation. The similarity of the Norwegian market to the Swiss electricity market is discussed. Similarly to the proposed situation in Switzerland, the liberalisation in Norway foresaw no privatisation of public utilities and a model for the regulation of grid access was introduced. The report describes and comments on the various phases in which the liberalisation occurred and examines the various instruments used, e.g. to ensure that individual grid operators did not make undue profits from their monopoly. The methods used for the monitoring of grid operators' costs are described and the mechanisms involved in the definition of prices for grid services are examined, including measures taken when profits were too high or too low. The report is concluded with a discussion of the conclusions that can be drawn from the Norwegian model for Swiss market opening efforts.

  11. District heating marketing. Strategies in the heating market. 2. ed.; Fernwaerme-Marketing. Strategien im Waermemarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marschalleck, Helmut [MVV Energie AG, Mannheim (Germany); Arndt, Andreas [EnBW Vertriebs- und Servicegesellschaft, Karlsruhe (Germany); Behm, Norman [Stadtwerke Rostock AG (Germany)] [and others

    2012-07-01

    The assistance in the strategic and operational planning of an individual marketing strategy in the district heating market is the focus of the book under consideration. Starting from the definition of the actual situation (market analysis and marketing potential) and the strategic goal, a marketing concept and a marketing mix (product policy, pricing policy, distribution policy as well as communication policy) is established. Subsequently, the tools of the marketing controlling (incoming orders and turnover, marketing key performance indicators, reporting, marketing audit) are described.

  12. Evaluating the potential impact of transmission constraints on the operation of a competitive electricity market in Illinois.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, R.; Thimmapuram, P.; Veselka, T.; Koritarov, V.; Conzelmann, G.; Macal, C.; Boyd, G.; North, M.; Overbye, T.; Cheng, X.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois

    2006-04-30

    Despite the current adequacy of the generation and transmission system in Illinois, there is concern that the uncertainties of electricity restructuring warrant a more detailed analysis to determine if there might be pitfalls that have not been identified under current conditions. The problems experienced elsewhere in the country emphasize the need for an evaluation of how Illinois might fare under a restructured electricity market. The Illinois Commerce Commission (ICC) commissioned this study to be undertaken as a joint effort by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Argonne National Laboratory to evaluate the Illinois situation in the 2007 period when restructuring is scheduled to be fully implemented in the State. The purpose of this study is to make an initial determination if the transmission system in Illinois and the surrounding region would be able to support a competitive electricity market, would allow for effective competition to keep prices in check, and would allow for new market participants to effectively compete for market share. The study seeks to identify conditions that could reasonably be expected to occur that would enable a company to exercise market power in one or more portions of the State and thereby create undue pressure on the prices charged to customers and/or inhibit new market participants from entering the market. The term 'market power' has many different definitions, and there is no universal agreement on how to measure it. For the purposes of this study, the term is defined as the ability to raise prices and increase profitability by unilateral action. A more complete definition is provided later. With this definition, the central question of this analysis becomes: 'Can a company, acting on its own, raise electricity prices and increase its profits?' It should be noted that the intent of the study is not to predict whether or not such market power would be exercised by any company. Rather, it is

  13. The structure of production costs of the different energy channels and the occurred learning for the formation of market prices and the operators strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    The first part of the report aims to fill the gap of data base describing the primary energies costs and the formation of their prices under geopolitical constraints. The second part describes how the arbitration terms between primary energies are modified by the electric power sector liberalization. The last part presents the complexity of the strategies used by the energy sector operators. Some recommendations on the market regulation are provided. (A.L.B.)

  14. New marketing, improved marketing, apocryphal marketing: is one marketing concept enough?

    OpenAIRE

    Woodall, T

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE – This paper seeks to explore marketing's ambiguous relationship with truth and, in so doing, to question the efficacy and value of the marketing concept and the very nature of marketing itself. Is marketing something that marketers do, or is it something much broader than this? If the latter, are marketers themselves either willing, or able to operate beyond traditional boundaries and, if not, should they focus – honourably – on what they do best, and encourage/support others who mig...

  15. Operational and Environmental Efficiencies of Japanese Electric Power Companies from 2003 to 2015: Influence of Market Reform and Fukushima Nuclear Power Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Goto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study measures operational and environmental efficiencies of nine incumbent electric power companies (EPCos in Japan and examines an influence of market reform and Fukushima nuclear power plant accident on efficiencies using a data set from 2003 to 2015. This study applies output-oriented radial data envelopment analysis (DEA model to the measurement of efficiencies. Three inputs and three desirable outputs are used for the measurement of operational efficiency, and one undesirable output besides inputs and desirable outputs is used to measure environmental efficiency. EPCos produce not only desirable output, for example, electricity, but also undesirable output, for example, CO2, for their operations. For the measurement of environmental efficiency, this study uses a unique DEA model that assumes occurrence of ecotechnology innovation. The results reveal that environmental efficiency of EPCos is mostly invariant over the period of this study, while operational efficiency decreases in the same period. In addition, the results present that Japanese EPCos make efforts to reduce CO2 emissions by promoting ecotechnology innovation. The Kruskal–Wallis rank sum test indicates differences in operational and environmental efficiencies among EPCos. Such performance differences might become larger as market liberalization advances, which could lead to further structural changes of the industry.

  16. FEATURES TO ENSURE THE COMPETITIVENESS OF REINSURANCE OPERATIONS OF THE CEDENT AND THE REINSURER IN THE DOMESTIC AND INTERNATIONAL INSURANCE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Veretnov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cost-effectiveness of reinsurance operations significantly affect the competitiveness of the cedent and the reinsurer. At the same time, ensuring the competitiveness of reinsurance operations does not always lead to the economic efficiency of the cedent and the reinsurer. We give the definition of the concept of competitiveness of reinsurance operations. The features ensuring the competitiveness of reinsurance operations of the cedent and the reinsurer in the domestic and international insurance market. The use of these features allows you to not only improve the quality of reinsurance protection, which has a beneficial effect on the financial stability of the cedent, but provides such necessary, confidential professional and personal relationship of the cedent and the reinsurer.

  17. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    TO THE POINT:The government vows to control the real estate market after a year of robust growth.To diversify financial investment tools,the regulatory authorities approved the launch of stock index futures,and short selling and margin trading to allow investors to hedge against risks.China overtakes the United States to become the world’s biggest auto market in2009.The country is also expected to become the largest consumer market in the world by2020.Google threatens to halt its China operations if it cannot reach a censorship agreement with the government.

  18. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China vows to keep a stringent handle on the industrial overcapacity that is draining life from the economic revival. China Mobile pushes forward OPhone and its operating system in an aggressive push into the 3G market. As its tight grip over the market slips, the wireless titan cannot wait to regain lost ground. China’s manufacturing sector continues to pick up steam as evidenced by the climbing PMI. Soaring prices of pork and eggs reignite fears over inflation. The buoyant real estate market appears to be nearing a turning point as sales cool down.

  19. MARKETING RELATIONSHIP AND TRADING IN THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SERVICE PROVIDERS, HEALTH OPERATORS AND FINAL CUSTOMER: THE SEARCH FOR AN INTEGRATING MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilda Catalina, Tañski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The marketing relationship finds similarities with the concept of cooperative bargaining, the purpose of this is to find solutions to mutual gains with long-term vision. Within this approach, we sought to build an integrative model of relationship marketing and negotiation in the relationship between service providers, health operators and final customers in the health plan market in Brazil, this relationship is complex, full of conflicts and stagnation. It was first used, first, as an exploratory research of direct observation of the phenomenon referred to relationship marketing, trading and health insurance to increase employment opportunities. Then, the method of data collection was in that environment through online questionnaires using the survey method, in the representative sector. The type of sample used, where n = 217 and the confidence level was 95%, not intentional probabilistic. In the final, it was concluded that the initially proposed model was fully accepted, taking into account the choice of methodology, then achieving the main objective of this study.

  20. 76 FR 51457 - Order Temporarily Exempting the Floor Broker Operations of Broker-Dealers With Market Access That...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... applicable in connection with market access.\\9\\ The required financial risk management controls and... Act of 1934 August 15, 2011. I. Introduction Pursuant to Rule 15c3-5(f) under the Securities Exchange... maintain a system of risk management controls and supervisory procedures that, among other things, is...

  1. Mississippi Curriculum Framework for Marketing and Fashion Merchandising (Program CIP: 08.0705--General Retailing Operations). Secondary Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi Research and Curriculum Unit for Vocational and Technical Education, State College.

    This document, which reflects Mississippi's statutory requirement that instructional programs be based on core curricula and performance-based assessment, contains outlines of the instructional units required in local instructional management plans and daily lesson plans for marketing I-II and fashion merchandising. Presented first are a program…

  2. Social media marketing českých mobilních operátorů

    OpenAIRE

    Samková, Barbora

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the possibility of presentation of the company in an environment of social media with a focus on Twitter, to determine whether the presence of the company in this environment can affect (positively) brand perception and finally to recommend how the company should communicate on Twitter. The theoretical part describes definitions and the basic principles of social media and social media marketing based on the knowledge gained from literature, surveys and st...

  3. The influence of currency risk upon the market value of commercial banks operating in the Polish banking sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Korzeb

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to analyse the impact of the Swiss Nati onal Bank’s decision to introduce the floating exchange rate of the franc on January 15th, 2015, upon the market value of commercial banks operatingin the Polish banking sector. The analysis involved twelve commercial banks quoted on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. The results are inconclusive. The predicted reducti on of the banks’ market value was less significant than indicated by market investors’ reaction on the day after the announcement of the decision to introduce the floating exchange rate of the franc. The banks most prone to granting credit denominated in CHF did experience the largest reducti on of their share quotations. However, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient calculated for the correlation between the average cumulative abnormal returns on shares for the entire analysed sample, and the proportion of credits denominated in Swiss francs in the total credit portfolio, indicated only a moderate correlation between both variables.

  4. Market News Price Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Real-time price data collected by the Boston Market News Reporter. The NOAA Fisheries' "Fishery Market News" began operations in New York City on February 14, 1938....

  5. Operating cost minimization of a radial distribution system in a deregulated electricity market through reconfiguration using NSGA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandramohan, S.; Atturulu, Naresh; Devi, R.P. Kumudini; Venkatesh, B.

    2010-01-01

    In the future, mechanisms for trade in ancillary services such as reactive power will be implemented in many deregulated power systems. In such an operating framework, a Distribution Corporation (DisCo) would have to purchase reactive power along with real power from the connected transmission corporation. A DisCo would want to minimize its operating costs by minimizing the total amount of real and reactive power drawn from the connected transmission system. Optimally reconfiguring the network will achieve such a goal. In this work, we use a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA) for reconfiguring a radial DisCo to minimize its operating costs considering real and reactive power costs while maximizing its operating reliability and satisfying the regular operating constraints. This method is tested on sample test systems and reported. (author)

  6. Virtual Power Plants as a Model for the Competitiveness of Small Manufacturers and Operators of Virtual Power Plants in Markets of Electricity and Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galic, T.; Tomsic, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Production of electricity from renewable energy sources and energy-efficient power sources to be connected to the electricity distribution network is still not competitive with electricity production from conventional sources of electricity. A powerful technological development of distributed energy sources and technologies for electricity storage has reduced their production costs, production costs of electricity from distributed energy sources, the costs of simultaneous production of electricity and thermal energy from cogeneration distributed energy sources and thus has facilitated their increased use in practice. It also allows them to interconnect systems such as virtual power plants in order to achieve full economic feasibility of their use. Current electricity and gas customers, now also in the role of small power producers, interconnected by virtual power plants operators, in addition to buying electricity and gas on retail markets for electricity and gas, will be able to sell electricity and new energy services also on wholesale electricity markets. Development and application of new distributed technologies will enable the production of new quantities of electricity which will increase the competitiveness of electricity producers, competitiveness of electricity suppliers of end-customers and elasticity of supply and demand in the electricity market. These processes will also increase the efficiency of the entire systems of electricity supply and of the gas supply systems.(author)

  7. Coordination of Nordic system operators in the electric power market - profit from improved capacity utilization and a more flexible division into price zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerndal, Mette; Joernsten, Kurt

    2001-08-01

    This report evaluates the possible profits of establishing a common system operator function in the Nordic electric power market. The main focus is placed on how to deal with congestion in the transmission grid. To estimate possible profits from a better utilization of the resources in the Nordic grid, the authors have analyzed socio-economic profits for several load scenarios. A simplified model of the Nordic stock area was used in the calculations. The existence of two methods of dealing with congestion in the grid may lead to reduced capacity utilization and to greater price differences than necessary. The examples show that ''indirect'' congestion control may be very expensive and that considerable cost reduction can be achieved by improved exploitation of congestion. This implies that if the Nordic area is divided into price zones, it is advantageous to regard the grid as an entity independent of national borders and system operators and to let the real transmission limitations determine the price zoning

  8. DISPOWER. The Changing Role of Energy Suppliers and Distribution System Operators in the Deployment of Distributed Generation in Liberalised Electricity Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Werven, M.J.N.; Scheepers, M.J.J.

    2005-06-01

    The penetration of distributed generation (DG) is increasing in most electricity markets and it is expected that this development will continue in the near future. The main research question to be answered in this report is how distribution system operators (DSOs) and energy suppliers can adapt to the growth and concurrently can contribute to the competition strength of DG in a regulated and competitive electricity market. DSOs and energy suppliers have to change their business focus in order to keep their business lucrative. By developing new business activities, thereby diversifying the business model, and by changing networks into active networks, DSOs can overcome the threats that arise from the increasing penetration of DG, incentive regulation, regulated connection charges, and unbundling. Apart from the need for a changing attitude of the DSOs, regulation needs to evolve such that it allows DSOs to have access to a wider range of options and incentives available in choosing the most efficient ways to run their businesses. For energy suppliers, the development of new business strategies and new revenue drivers is a more 'natural' process than for DSOs. At least in theory, the dynamic working of this competitive market should give incentives to energy suppliers to improve margins, respond to market challenges, continuously develop new revenue drivers, and to display a certain degree of innovation. The increase of electricity supply from DG is an opportunity for energy suppliers to extend and improve its business. A new business concept related to the growing penetration of DG is, for example, the creation of virtual power plants

  9. BRAND ATTRACTION: OPERATIVE DIGITAL MARKETING STRATEGIES AND TACTICAL APPLICATIONS FOR THE RECRUITMENT OF POTENTIAL FOREIGN FIGHTERS IN GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicentiu Cosmin VLAD

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign fighters (FF, that is, all those people who leave their countries of origin or residence to participate in a foreign armed conflict are strongly attracted by the terrorist groups, which by their symbols and propaganda can be considered as genuine brands; their mission is to restore archaic Islam as the only possible choice and the only alternative to preserving Western values. To achieve this, it was necessary to build a strong brand to represent the founding and fundamental values of Islam, a brand that could influence the common feelings of the resurrection of Islam. In this article, we intend to explore new strategic approaches to digital marketing and tactical applications to develop a brand and new product, alternately to the more developed and more desirable terrorist group format.

  10. Strategies for the co-operation between power generation facilities and power sales organisations in the European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bammert, U.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses how the public utilities in Hannover, Germany, have developed a strategy for the operation of their power generation facilities and power distribution network as independent yet co-operating units. Three models that were examined are described: 'free-sailing', where generation and distribution were kept completely independent, the 'wedding' model, where they were closely tied together and 'Enercity', a mixture of both models. The various rules necessary and the degrees of freedom needed to implement the 'Enercity' model are discussed, as are the advantages it offers to both the power generation and the sales units

  11. THE PROBLEM OF LEGAL REGULATION OF THE OPERATION OF THE OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC CURRENCY MARKET (FOREX IN UKRAINE AND THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Podorozhnyi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to evaluate the state of legal institutionalization of the OTC foreign exchange market in Ukraine, as well as its comparison with the foreign experience of legal regulation of OTC currency relations in Ukraine and EU countries. The subject of the study is the legal and administrative framework for the functioning of the OTC currency market (Forex in Ukraine and in the EU countries. The methodology of the study consists of: historical and legal method, which allowed determining the preconditions for the emergence of OTC markets in Ukraine and the world and the principles of their functioning; system and structural method, which was used to analyse the world monetary system as an institutional and functional form of organization of international monetary and financial relations; a formal legal method that allowed us to comprehensively investigate a condition of regulation of the functioning of Forex in Ukraine, to identify its shortcomings, gaps, contradictions, and miscalculations, as well as to develop recommendations aimed at their elimination; a comparative and legal method that provided a deeper study of the specifics of the legal regulation of the functioning of Forex in the EU and to define ways of implementing a positive foreign experience in the national legal system. The results of the conducted legal study have shown that in Ukraine, the Forex market operates in legal vacuum conditions that negatively affect either the protection of the rights of forex clients or the amount of tax revenues to the state budget. The most acceptable way to eliminate this shortcoming is to implement the main principles and requirements of the MiFID in the national legislation. Practical impact. The research of experience of EU countries regarding the legal regulation of Forex companies activity and also regarding the creation of legal bases for implementation by the specified companies of self-regulation – it is a necessary

  12. Maximizing Operational Efficiencies in Waste Management on the Hanford Plateau Remediation Contract in a Down-turned Market - 13484

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simiele, Connie J.; Blackford, L. Ty [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Contract - CHPRC (United States); West, Lori D. [East Tennessee Materials and Energy Corporation - M and EC (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recent changes in DOE priorities and funding have pressed DOE and its contractors to look for innovative methods to sustain critical operations at sites across the Complex. At the Hanford Site, DOE Richland Operations and its prime contractor, CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), have completed in-depth assessments of the Plateau Remediation Contract (PRC) operations that compared available funding to mission and operational objectives in an effort to maintain requisite safety and compliance margins while realizing cost savings that meet funding profiles. These assessments included confirmation of current baseline activities, identification of potential efficiencies, barriers to implementation, and potential increased risks associated with implementation. Six operating PRC waste management facilities were evaluated against three possible end-states: complete facility closure, maintaining base operations, and performing minimum safe surveillance and maintenance activities. The costs to completely close evaluated facilities were determined to be prohibitively high and this end-state was quickly dropped from consideration. A summary of the analysis of remaining options by facility, efficiencies identified, impact to risk profiles, and expected cost savings is provided in Table I. The expected cost savings are a result of: - right-sizing and cross-training work crews to address maintenance activities across facilities; - combining and sequencing 'like-moded' operational processes; - cross-cutting emergency planning and preparedness staffing; - resource redistribution and optimization; - reducing areas requiring routine surveillance and inspection. For the efficiencies identified, there are corresponding increases in risk, including a loss of breadth and depth of available resources; lengthened response time to emergent issues; inability to invest in opportunities for improvement (OFIs); potential single-point failures or non-compliancies due to

  13. Maximizing Operational Efficiencies in Waste Management on the Hanford Plateau Remediation Contract in a Down-turned Market - 13484

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simiele, Connie J.; Blackford, L. Ty; West, Lori D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent changes in DOE priorities and funding have pressed DOE and its contractors to look for innovative methods to sustain critical operations at sites across the Complex. At the Hanford Site, DOE Richland Operations and its prime contractor, CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC), have completed in-depth assessments of the Plateau Remediation Contract (PRC) operations that compared available funding to mission and operational objectives in an effort to maintain requisite safety and compliance margins while realizing cost savings that meet funding profiles. These assessments included confirmation of current baseline activities, identification of potential efficiencies, barriers to implementation, and potential increased risks associated with implementation. Six operating PRC waste management facilities were evaluated against three possible end-states: complete facility closure, maintaining base operations, and performing minimum safe surveillance and maintenance activities. The costs to completely close evaluated facilities were determined to be prohibitively high and this end-state was quickly dropped from consideration. A summary of the analysis of remaining options by facility, efficiencies identified, impact to risk profiles, and expected cost savings is provided in Table I. The expected cost savings are a result of: - right-sizing and cross-training work crews to address maintenance activities across facilities; - combining and sequencing 'like-moded' operational processes; - cross-cutting emergency planning and preparedness staffing; - resource redistribution and optimization; - reducing areas requiring routine surveillance and inspection. For the efficiencies identified, there are corresponding increases in risk, including a loss of breadth and depth of available resources; lengthened response time to emergent issues; inability to invest in opportunities for improvement (OFIs); potential single-point failures or non-compliancies due to resource

  14. OPERATIONS OF THE CENTRAL BANK ON THE FINANCIAL MARKET FOR THE PERIOD OF EXIT FROM THE RECESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Liubkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The global economy is currently facing one of the longest recessions in the past fifty years. The way out of the Great recession requires active measures to stimulate the demand in the economy. However, distinctive features of the recent recession are the significant amount of a debt burden on national budgets, low inflation contributes to an increasing potential of a monetary policy to ensure economic recovery, but require from the central bank an unconventional approach to achieve the broad set of goals. One of the tools of so-called unconventional monetary policy is quantitative easing. The USA experience of applying the unconventional monetary policy suggests that the quantitative easing is an effective tool for warming up the economy in the recession phase, especially in the medium terms, but it causes challenges for developing of the national economy (credit risk deterioration of the central bank's portfolio, rising commodity prices, flows of speculative capital and like "secondary effects" challenges for developing of the global economy (interest rates volatility, price bubbles on stock markets, currency risks, etc..

  15. Creating a Marketing Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevier, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    A guide to developing a college marketing plan defines key marketing terms, outlines the development of a plan (including institutional analysis, market research, strategy formation and execution, and program evaluation), and provides a list of important principles with which to operate a program. (MSE)

  16. Operators of distribution networks in the competitive markets of electricity and gas; Aufgaben des Netzbetreibers im liberalisierten Energiemarkt. IT-System fuer die Umsetzung der Pflichten des Netzbetreibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmen, S. [Stadtwerke Aachen AG (Germany)

    2001-02-26

    Stawag (Stadtwerke Aachen AG) is the operator of distribution networks for electricity, gas, water and district heating. In charge of this function Stawag is responsible for the complete handling of the third party access in the competitive markets of electricity and gas. In Germany the development of the background conditions for the third party access have been uncertain. In consequence the IT-market offers up to now no software solution comprehensing all the required functions. Stawag therefore decided to realize and work with an interim solution: Individual IT-systems interconnected by a modern Data-Warehouse platform for data exchange. (orig.) [German] Die Stadtwerke Aachen AG (Stawag) ist ein staedtisches Querverbundunternehmen und hat in der Funktion des Netzbetreibers im liberalisierten Energiemarkt die Aufgabe, die Vereilungsnetze fuer Strom und Gas diskriminierungsfrei allen Marktpartnern zur Verfuegung zu stellen. Bei der Einfuehrung der fuer die Abwicklung dieser Aufgabe erforderlichen IT-Systeme ging die Stawag einen Mittelweg zwischen Kauf und Implementierung einer Komplettloesung und weitgehend manueller Abwicklung mit MS-Office-Produkten. Mit Erfolg - wie die Erfahrungen der letzten Monate zeigen - vorerst auf der Stromseite. (orig.)

  17. More flexible and demand-oriented schedule operation. For market-driven power generation in biogas existing installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welteke-Fabricius, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    This lecture investigates the effects of the societal framework on operators of biogas plants in the further development of biogas and its contribution to the German Energiewende. Influences are not only from politics and economy but stakeholders also shape the development to come. A visible part of the existing plants have quickly to be transformed to a demand driven supply. If not, it is most likely that biogas will disappear from the stage within some 15 years - except for waste treatment. In a future of growing wind and solar energy supply we will experience a.. of shortage and surplus within a day, and through the.seasons. Prices will fluctuate increasingly. Controllable energy generators will run for a decreasing number of hours daily. Biogas should contribute to one or two high-price periods a day, when it is dark, low wind, or high demand, but at a higher capacity than today. This pattern, in combination with a valuable use of its thermal energy production, can furthermore offer an economic feasible prospect for biogas plants after their period of subsidized EEG feed-in tariff By now, only few biogas plants are designed accordingly. Most of them produce their power continuously. Only if biogas plants will change towards peak load operation, its unique combination of renewable and controllable energy supply will be recognized, and biogas can contribute a valuable share to a sustainable energy system. Stakeholders can and should support this change.

  18. MARKETING MODELS APPLICATION EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Rymanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marketing models are used for the assessment of such marketing elements as sales volume, market share, market attractiveness, advertizing costs, product pushing and selling, profit, profitableness. Classification of buying process decision taking models is presented. SWOT- and GAPbased models are best for selling assessments. Lately, there is a tendency to transfer from the assessment on the ba-sis of financial indices to that on the basis of those non-financial. From the marketing viewpoint, most important are long-term company activities and consumer drawingmodels as well as market attractiveness operative models.

  19. Relationship Service Marketing and Investment in Financial Market of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad Alipour; Reza Ahmadi; Hamed Abasi Nami

    2012-01-01

    In competitive world, having expertise, knowledge and marketing experience for financial market activities, especially brokerage firms has proven inevitable. This should be accompanied by performing marketing operations along with intermediary roles and carrying on the daily transactions of shares in the Tehran stock exchange market. The current study aims investigating the level of marketing knowledge used in stock exchange market, identifying the reasons behind deficient use of the marketin...

  20. Market research for electric utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shippee, G.

    1999-01-01

    Marketing research is increasing in importance as utilities become more marketing oriented. Marketing research managers need to maintain autonomy from the marketing director or ad agency and make sure their work is relevant to the utility's operation. This article will outline a model marketing research program for an electric utility. While a utility may not conduct each and every type of research described, the programs presented offer a smorgasbord of activities which successful electric utility marketers often use or have access to

  1. Two 175 ton geothermal chiller heat pumps for leed platinum building technology demonstration project. Operation data, data collection and marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolo, Daniel [Johnson Controls, Inc., Glendale, WI (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The activities funded by this grant helped educate and inform approximately six thousand individuals who participated in guided tours of the geothermal chiller plant at Johnson Controls Corporate Headquarters in Glendale, Wisconsin over the three year term of the project. In addition to those who took the formal tour, thousands more were exposed to hands-on learning at the self-service video kiosks located in the headquarters building and augmented reality tablet app that allowed for self-guided tours. The tours, video, and app focused on the advantages of geothermal heat pump chillers, including energy savings and environmental impact. The overall tour and collateral also demonstrated the practical application of this technology and how it can be designed into a system that includes many other sustainable technologies without sacrificing comfort or health of building occupants Among tour participants were nearly 1,000 individuals, representing 130 organizations identified as potential purchasers of geothermal heat pump chillers. In addition to these commercial clients, tours were well attended by engineering, facilities, and business trade groups. This has also been a popular tour for groups from Universities around the Midwest and K-12 schools from Wisconsin and Northern Illinois A sequence of operations was put into place to control the chillers and they have been tuned and maintained to optimize the benefit from the geothermal water loop. Data on incoming and outgoing water temperature and flow from the geothermal field was logged and sent to DOE monthly during the grant period to demonstrate energy savings.

  2. Green certificates and market power in the Nordic power market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amundsen, Eirik S; Bergman, Lars

    2012-01-01

    principles and a numerical model based on that to investigate the Swedish TGC market operating in a setting of a common Nordic electricity market. The analysis shows that Swedish producers may exercise market power using the TGC-market but that this problem will be eliminated by opening the TGC-market......The purpose of this study is to elucidate under which circumstances, how, and to what extent market power on a Tradable Green Certificates (TGC) market can be used to affect an entire electricity market. There are basically two reasons for being concerned with this. One is that a small number...

  3. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  4. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  5. MARKETING OBJECTIVES AMONG RURAL FOOD RETAILERS

    OpenAIRE

    Stegelin, Forrest E.

    1996-01-01

    Food retailers representing four retailer types (family operated grocery stores, produce markets, meat/egg/dairy markets, and convenience stores) in rural Georgia communities were surveyed as to their marketing objectives. Qualitative marketing objectives were ranked by the marketers as to marketing intentions, and by customers as to marketing expectations. More definitive and quantitative marketing objectives were also ranked by the food retailers as to the priority of implementation in thei...

  6. Marketing Management and Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book gives readers an understanding of the factors that shape the marketing decisions of managers who operate in African economies. It brings together fifteen African cases written by scholars and executives with rich knowledge of business practices in Africa. By combining theoretical insights...... undergraduate and graduate students in marketing, international strategy and international business who require an understanding of African business...... with practical information from the cases, the reader is introduced to issues relating to marketing strategy formulation, managerial actions in designing and implementing marketing decisions, as well as the operational contexts within which these actions are taken. The book is essential reading for both...

  7. Livestock Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrell, Gene; And Others

    This marketing unit focuses on the seasonal and cyclical patterns of livestock markets. Cash marketing, forward contracting, hedging in the futures markets, and the options markets are examined. Examples illustrate how each marketing tool may be useful in gaining a profit on livestock and cutting risk exposure. The unit is organized in the…

  8. Electricity markets theories and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Electricity Markets: Theories and Applications offers students and practitioners a clear understanding of the fundamental concepts of the economic theories, particularly microeconomic theories, as well as information on some advanced optimization methods of electricity markets. The authors--noted experts in the field--cover the basic drivers for the transformation of the electricity industry in both the United States and around the world and discuss the fundamentals of power system operation, electricity market design and structures, and electricity market operations. The text also explores advanced topics of power system operations and electricity market design and structure including zonal versus nodal pricing, market performance and market power issues, transmission pricing, and the emerging problems electricity markets face in smart grid and micro-grid environments. The authors also examine system planning under the context of electricity market regime. They explain the new ways to solve problems with t...

  9. Research on the marketing strategy of telecom operators innovation in mobile internet Era%移动互联网时代下通信运营商营销策略创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪海玲

    2014-01-01

    Mobile Internet marketing refers to an Internet marketing system composedby mobile terminals such as mobile phone and wireless internet access technology, it realizes high precision marketing win-win. Communication industry is in the mobile Internet era, the market environment is not mature enough, the marketing strategies and modes of communication operators corresponding and there is no correspondingimprovement and upgrading. Marketing status from mobile internet with articles, and then described in this new environment of telecom operators marketing present situation, finally to marketing problems and reasons put forward the user finesubdivision, develop customized mobile phone, multi channel penetration,implementation experience marketing, the reinforcement for traffic managementsystem of marketing, construction of six aspects of marketing innovation strategy.%移动互联网营销是指利用手机等移动终端与无线上网技术相结合所构成的一个互联网营销体系,它成功实现了高效多赢的精准销售。通信产业正处于移动互联网时代,但由于所处的市场环境还不够成熟,通信运营商对应的营销策略和模式并没有相应地提高和升级。文章从移动互联网的营销现状入手,进而描述了在这新的环境中电信运营商的营销现状,最后针对营销问题和原因提出用户精细细分、开发定制手机、多渠道渗透、实施体验-加固营销、采用针对性营销、建设流量经营体系六方面的营销创新策略。

  10. Marketing of an Educational Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Šijan, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    The main subject of this thesis is the area of marketing for educational institutions. First part is focused on general theoretical aspects of marketing of services, specificity of marketing for educational institutions and marketing communication. The operative part attends to a selection of an educational institution, an execution of an analysis of internal and external environment of the school, an implementation of a marketing research recognizing image of the school and based on that des...

  11. The Marketing Audit as a Method of the Evaluation of the Marketing Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaňa, Kamil; Černá, Ľubica

    2012-12-01

    The growing complexity of the current market environment needs a more systematic evaluation process of the organizational marketing performance to deal with the dynamic market. This paper deals with marketing audit as a comprehensive assessment of all angles of marketing operation in an organization and also deals with systematic evaluation of plans, objectives, strategies, activities and organizational structure as well as marketing staff.

  12. Multi level marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlák, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Bachelor's thesis on "Multilevel marketing" focuses on characterization of multilevel marketing, pyramid schemes and their comparison. The work is divided into three chapters. The first part is devoted to the theme of multilevel marketing and principles of its operation. The main positives and negatives of this system are marked out. The second chapter describes pyramid schemes, their functioning, unsustainability and illegality. It is also devoted to Ponzi scheme. In the last chapter the cha...

  13. MARKETING PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Gacsi, Roland; Zeman, Zoltan

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, it has become essential for business managers to have new ways of thinking in order to sustain performance and growth. There is an increased intensification of market competition. This tough “fight” to win customers resulted that marketing has an ever increasing place in businesses’ strategic and operational activities. Marketing is not quite understood at many companies which often rest upon the fact that it has been one of the least measurable function in a business. Theref...

  14. Marketing Maine Tablestock Potatoes

    OpenAIRE

    Berney, Gerald; Grajewski, Gregory; Hinman, Don; Prater, Marvin E.; Taylor, April

    2010-01-01

    The Marketing Services Division of USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) was asked by USDA’s Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Program Leader and ARS’s New England Soil and Water Research Laboratory personnel to help with existing efforts to assist Maine fresh potato farmers in their search for alternative marketing strategies, and reverse the recent decline in the profitability of their operations. ARS researchers previously had conducted an exhaustive study defining possibl...

  15. The oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amic, E.; Lautard, P.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter examines the structure of the oil industry and the impacts of the oil markets on the hedging strategies of the energy consumers, the oil company, and the energy derivatives' provider. An introduction to market perspectives is presented, and the hedging operations in the jet fuel market in the airline sector are discussed. Trading and risk management within an oil company, the derivatives provider, trading derivatives in a multi-dimensional world, locational risks, and the modelling of term structure and the role of storage are considered. Industrial spreads and the role of refining, future market developments and market strategies for crude oil and oil products, and marketing packages and market risk are addressed

  16. NB market update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W. K.

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 New Brunswick proclamation introduced several changes to the industry. This paper presents an update of the current New Brunswick electricity market from the perspective of the recently created New Brunswick System Operator (NBSO). A comparison was made between the modified industry and the previous industry structure. Significant changes included: corporate restructuring and market implementation; the formation of the independent system operator; and an increase in Public Utilities Board regulatory authority. The main objectives of the NBSO were reviewed, including its intention to reliably plan and operate the integrated power system as well as facilitating and operating the electricity market. Details of directors and officers were provided along with a list of legislated functions which included entering agreements with transmitters; provision and procurement of ancillary services; maintenance of integrated system; coordination of external activities; participation with standards authorities; planning and development of transmission; and the facilitation of a competitive market. An outline of the NBSO, Transco and Public Utilities Board relationships were presented. Details of the market advisory committee were outlined, with information concerning contracts, operations and services agreements. Transmission and ancillary services were also discussed, as well as issues concerning interruptible load agreements. A chart of the New Brunswick electricity market structure was presented, along with a market overview including details of capacity, ancillary services and suppliers. Market rules and amendments were presented, as well as market participation guides. Details of generation resource adequacy requirements and the imposition of penalties were outlined. Scheduling and dispatch issues were overviewed, as well as settlement processes, inputs and their sources, including settlements for variances. Future development possibilities included an expansion of

  17. Optimal Bidding and Operation of a Power Plant with Solvent-Based Carbon Capture under a CO2 Allowance Market: A Solution with a Reinforcement Learning-Based Sarsa Temporal-Difference Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziang Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a reinforcement learning (RL-based Sarsa temporal-difference (TD algorithm is applied to search for a unified bidding and operation strategy for a coal-fired power plant with monoethanolamine (MEA-based post-combustion carbon capture under different carbon dioxide (CO2 allowance market conditions. The objective of the decision maker for the power plant is to maximize the discounted cumulative profit during the power plant lifetime. Two constraints are considered for the objective formulation. Firstly, the tradeoff between the energy-intensive carbon capture and the electricity generation should be made under presumed fixed fuel consumption. Secondly, the CO2 allowances purchased from the CO2 allowance market should be approximately equal to the quantity of CO2 emission from power generation. Three case studies are demonstrated thereafter. In the first case, we show the convergence of the Sarsa TD algorithm and find a deterministic optimal bidding and operation strategy. In the second case, compared with the independently designed operation and bidding strategies discussed in most of the relevant literature, the Sarsa TD-based unified bidding and operation strategy with time-varying flexible market-oriented CO2 capture levels is demonstrated to help the power plant decision maker gain a higher discounted cumulative profit. In the third case, a competitor operating another power plant identical to the preceding plant is considered under the same CO2 allowance market. The competitor also has carbon capture facilities but applies a different strategy to earn profits. The discounted cumulative profits of the two power plants are then compared, thus exhibiting the competitiveness of the power plant that is using the unified bidding and operation strategy explored by the Sarsa TD algorithm.

  18. Wholesale electricity markets in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    Electricity Wholesale Markets provide efficient operation of power stations, facilitate hedging instruments for generators and retailers and deliver price signals for new investments. Despite having a common regulatory framework at European level whose last aim is a single electricity market, Wholesale markets have been unevenly developed in each Member State. The evolution form a spot-based market towards a forward-based market needs a certain level of liquidity, transparency and regulatory stability. Interconnections are the key element to promote the integration of electricity markets. To facilitate this, European Regional Initiatives have pushed regulatory harmonization between countries and market coupling projects. (Author)

  19. Future Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The changing face of energy production in Europe necessitates a rethink in the way that electricity markets are structured. The ‘5s’ (Future Electricity Markets) project is a multi-disciplinary project that is looking to challenge the current approach to the design and operation of electricity...

  20. Natural Gas Market Hubs

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A hub is a physical transfer point for natural gas where several pipelines are connected. A market center is a hub where the operator offers services that facilitate...

  1. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had......This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  2. Nash equilibrium strategies of generating companies (Gencos) in the simultaneous operation of active and reactive power market, with considering voltage stability margin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleymani, S.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model the behavior of Gencos in the active and reactive power markets. ► Genco’s strategy is modeled as a bi-level optimization problem. ► The ISO’s market clearing model is modified with applying generator APFs. ► Good forecast of Genco’s information will increase the accuracy of proposed method. ► Obtained profit of Gencos depend on their bidding strategy. - Abstract: As Gencos are responsible for providing active and reactive power generation, they should devise good bidding strategies for energy and reactive power market. The paper describes a method for analyzing the competition among transmission-constrained Gencos with incomplete information. The proposed methodology employs the Supply Function Equilibrium (SFE) for modeling a Genco’s bidding strategy in energy market and uses Expected Payment Function (EPF) to construct a bidding framework in the reactive power market. The problem of finding the optimum strategy of Gencos is modeled as a bi-level optimization problem, where the upper sub-problem represents individual Genco’s payoff and the lower sub-problem solves the ISO’s market clearing problem. The ISO’s market clearing model is modified with applying generator Active Participation Factors to improve the voltage stability margin. The IEEE 39 bus test system is used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Prising open the markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Enron, the US power and gas marketer, well known for its aggressive market reputation now seeks to enter the European arena, but the company is finding the slow pace of energy liberalisation there frustrating. The company's progress into European markets, outside the UK and Scandinavia, is viewed as piecemeal and is widely dispersed. Unwilling to reveal the turnover of its European operations, the company is finding it difficult to meet its ambitious promises to shareholders. Nevertheless Enron has committed itself to remaining in the European market for at least the next fifteen years. (UK)

  4. Inbound marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Popek, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    In my work I focus on Inbound Marketing, which represents a new perspective on marketing, that has not been given the attention it deserves. It is a combination of existing and proven marketing methods that are used to obtain new customers with minimal marketing costs to the organization. The first section of my work is devoted to defining the concept of Inbound Marketing definitions and explanations. Furthermore, I present a list of instruments used in Inbound Marketing, and showcase the def...

  5. Futures markets, cognitive ability, and mispricing in experimental asset markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noussair, Charles; Tucker, Steven; Xu, Yilong

    2016-01-01

    We study the effect of a futures market, in which contracts maturing in the last period of the life of the asset can be traded. Our experiment has two treatments, one in which a spot market operates on its own, and a second treatment, in which a spot and a futures market are active simultaneously.

  6. THE PROBLEM OF LEGAL REGULATION OF THE OPERATION OF THE OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) CURRENCY MARKET (FOREX) IN UKRAINE AND THE EU

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene Podorozhnyi; Dmytro Sirokha; Pavlo Komirchyi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the article is to evaluate the state of legal institutionalization of the OTC foreign exchange market in Ukraine, as well as its comparison with the foreign experience of legal regulation of OTC currency relations in Ukraine and EU countries. The subject of the study is the legal and administrative framework for the functioning of the OTC currency market (Forex) in Ukraine and in the EU countries. The methodology of the study consists of: historical and legal method, which allowed ...

  7. Structure and operation of the natural gas market in France; La structure et le fonctionnement du marche du gaz naturel en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The French natural gas market is organized around six main activities: production, transport, methane terminals, storage, distribution and commercialization. This paper describes the facilities related to each activity: gas fields, pipelines network and distribution systems, terminals capacity and underground storage facilities. The selling activity is opened to competition but the French gas market follows a progressive and controlled opening which will be complete in July 2007. (J.S.)

  8. The Theoretical Aspects of Controlling of Marketing in Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Liakh Inna S.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at generalizing the theoretical provisions on controlling of marketing in enterprise: to clarify the place of controlling of marketing within the management system, constituents, goals, tasks, and functions. The controlling of marketing was considered in terms of concepts such as management of enterprise, management of marketing, operative management of marketing, controlling, strategic and operational controlling of marketing, and operative management of marketing costs....

  9. Market power mitigation, monitoring and surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, H.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation described the working of the Independent Market Operator (IMO) in Ontario in terms of its function and structure, competencies, operating principles, and interagency coordination in the electricity sector. An independent market surveillance panel (MSP) appointed by the IMO Board empowers the IMO to monitor, investigate and request information from market participants regarding power system operations, market and strategic development and industrial economics. The six operating principles of the MSP are efficiency, consistency, fairness, transparency, timeliness and confidentiality

  10. Electricity marketing and retailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, E.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation outlined the values of wholesale and retail marketing of natural gas to offer choice to all Canadians. The initial wholesale market dealt with physical bilaterals, financial bilaterals and transmission rights, while the mature wholesale market deals with futures contracts, reserve markets, dispatchable loads, swaps, trades and emissions trading. Wholesale prices include debt reduction charges, transmission charges transformation charges, ancillary charges, and independent market operator (IMO) fees. Retail rates offered by local distribution companies (LDC) include distribution charges, adjustments to SSS, and distribution losses. The role of marketers is to provide consumers with what they want, which is annual fixed rates with aggregation and load profiling as well as billing and procurement services

  11. Study on market policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-02-01

    In April 2007 the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs promised the Lower House a study of the development of the public interests of quality, accessibility and efficiency after the introduction of market liberalization. In the debate on market liberalization in May 2007 the Minister complied with the Lower House?s request to include the consequences of the market liberalization operations on sectoral employment and labor conditions. This study addresses two questions: (1) Which developments occurred in the field of public interests quality, accessibility and efficiency and labor conditions since the introduction of market liberalization? and (2) What general findings and conclusions can be drawn from the implemented market liberalization policy in various sectors? What lessons can be learned for the future? Several sectors have been examined, including large energy users; renewable energy; energy market for medium users; energy (gas and electricity) [nl

  12. The integration of the periodic production in the liberalized electric power markets: from the technic expenditures to the economic taxes imposed by the operating rules of the markets; L'integration de la production intermittente dans les marches electriques liberalises: des surcouts techniques aux penalites economiques imposees par les regles de fonctionnement des marches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menanteau, Ph.; Finon, D.; Lamy, M.L

    2003-03-01

    In the framework of the climatic change and the energy supply safety, the european directive aims to promote the renewable energy production in Europe. Some of the renewable energy sources, as the wind power or the micro-hydroelectric power, are naturally periodic. Their introduction in the electric networks will create problems because of this periodic nature, problems which are new for the electric network producers and managers. These problems generate technical expenditures, which may be compensate by the economic penalties of the electric power market operating. In this context the document details the expenditures associated to the periodicity, the economic penalties by an analysis of the british market and analyses the possibilities to limit these economic penalties in order to reduce the conflicts between the electric market liberalization and the promotion of the renewable energies development. (A.L.B.)

  13. Sustainable Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, three different conceptions of sustainable marketing are discussed and compared. These different conceptions are referred to as social, green, and critical sustainable marketing. Social sustainable marketing follows the logic of demand-driven marketing management and places the

  14. Market research for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shippee, G.

    1999-12-01

    Marketing research is increasing in importance as utilities become more marketing oriented. Marketing research managers need to maintain autonomy from the marketing director or ad agency and make sure their work is relevant to the utility's operation. This article will outline a model marketing research program for an electric utility. While a utility may not conduct each and every type of research described, the programs presented offer a smorgasbord of activities which successful electric utility marketers often use or have access to.

  15. Marketing Communications as Important Segment of the Marketing Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Milena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New frameworks operating at the international level have led to the need for a broader and more complex involvement of companies in international economic flows. In such circumstances, focus on the international and global markets becomes inevitable. Each segment companies must adapt and evolve in accordance with such conditions. Marketing as an important activity of the company in selling products or services is also changing and expanding its activities in line with international market. This leads to the creation of an international marketing concept and system as a specific approach to the processing of international economic relations. An important segment of implementation of the marketing concept is the marketing communication, which in terms of the limited number of international barriers. It is certainly possible to overcome with a well-defined marketing strategy. Clearly defined marketing strategy and well-prepared marketing mix remove barriers, to meet the set goals and lead to positive results for the company.

  16. TRICARE Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-21

    definitive. It stated that: Marketing is much more than advertising or promotion materials. Marketing is a foundation for building a business strategy ; it...objectives, and strategies for marketing TRICARE. However, the Director provided the plan for information; none of the recipients of the plan were...overarching goal and extensively in the marketing strategies section. Specifically, the Marketing Plan states that strategies employed to accomplish

  17. Hospital marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  18. Internet marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Zelený, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In the bachelor thesis are introduced theoretical concepts of the Internet and marketing, accented the need of marketing mix along with its specifics of the internet environment. Next is interpreted which tools can be used for marketing of firms and which marketing instruments are to be deployed. Final chapter illustrates socio-demographics of Czech internet users along with media market allocation from the perspective of all media as well as in the segment of the Internet.

  19. Money Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Marvin Goodfriend

    2011-01-01

    Money markets offer monetary services and short-term finance in the capital market with the credit support of institutional sponsors. Investors finance money market instruments at low interest because their salability on short notice confers an implicit monetary services yield. Low interest attracts borrowers to money markets. The fragile equilibrium depends on collective confidence in the credit quality of instruments supplied to the market. Federal Reserve monetary and credit policies have ...

  20. Retailers test Ontario market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishewitsch, S.

    2000-01-01

    In anticipation of the full opening of the Ontario electricity market in November 2000, some of the newly-licensed electricity retailers are reported to be ready to begin testing the market early, hoping that all the uncertainties that still exist about pricing will be worked out in time. Among those jumping in now is Direct Energy Marketing, a retailer which claims 800,000 households in Ontario as electricity supply customers, as well as a wholesale gas marketing business. Direct Energy began retail electrical marketing on April 3, 2000, starting cautiously with small commercial operations as the initial target. Greengrid Electric, another of the new marketers, planned to begin marketing in mid-April, offering 100 per cent renewable-sourced electricity. Provident Energy Management, one of the new marketers whose licence is still pending, hopes to begin direct marketing as soon as its licence is confirmed. Another marketer ready to go as soon its license is issued is the former Sault Ste. Marie Hydro, now reorganized as PUC Energies Inc. PUC has the advantage of having a firm contract with a NUG (non-utility generator), Great Lakes Power, signed while PUC was still a municipal electric utility. As far as the other potential marketers are concerned, caution overrides opportunity for the present. Principal concerns are uncertainty over the retail settlement code, the electronic business data transfer system, transmission and distribution tariffs, whether existing non-utility generator contracts will allow for supply to another party, and over how quickly Ontario Power Generation Inc's (successor to Ontario Hydro) market power will be ratcheted down. Many of the potential marketers feel that despite the Ontario government's desire to see more competition, the power mitigation agreement, as it now reads, leaves little room for the small retailer to compete

  1. Retailers test Ontario market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishewitsch, S.

    2000-04-01

    In anticipation of the full opening of the Ontario electricity market in November 2000, some of the newly-licensed electricity retailers are reported to be ready to begin testing the market early, hoping that all the uncertainties that still exist about pricing will be worked out in time. Among those jumping in now is Direct Energy Marketing, a retailer which claims 800,000 households in Ontario as electricity supply customers, as well as a wholesale gas marketing business. Direct Energy began retail electrical marketing on April 3, 2000, starting cautiously with small commercial operations as the initial target. Greengrid Electric, another of the new marketers, planned to begin marketing in mid-April, offering 100 per cent renewable-sourced electricity. Provident Energy Management, one of the new marketers whose licence is still pending, hopes to begin direct marketing as soon as its licence is confirmed. Another marketer ready to go as soon its license is issued is the former Sault Ste. Marie Hydro, now reorganized as PUC Energies Inc. PUC has the advantage of having a firm contract with a NUG (non-utility generator), Great Lakes Power, signed while PUC was still a municipal electric utility. As far as the other potential marketers are concerned, caution overrides opportunity for the present. Principal concerns are uncertainty over the retail settlement code, the electronic business data transfer system, transmission and distribution tariffs, whether existing non-utility generator contracts will allow for supply to another party, and over how quickly Ontario Power Generation Inc's (successor to Ontario Hydro) market power will be ratcheted down. Many of the potential marketers feel that despite the Ontario government's desire to see more competition, the power mitigation agreement, as it now reads, leaves little room for the small retailer to compete.

  2. Marketing fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.

  3. Politisk marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Disciplinen politisk marketing er udbredt i mange vestlige lande. Imidlertid er kendskabet til politisk marketing i Danmark bemærkelsesværdigt lavt. I det lys er denne bog Politisk Marketing: Personer, Partier & Praksis den første bog i Danmark, som -ud fra marketing- indkredser de sidste mange års...... brudflader i dansk politik. Gennem ti bidrag fra forskere og praktikere udskraber forfatterne et DNA for feltet politisk marketing. Kort sagt kan du i denne bog finde svarene på: Hvad er politisk marketing? Hvordan har det udviklet sig? Og hvilke konsekvenser har dette fænomen for vælgere, partier og...

  4. To market, to market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, J.I.

    1992-01-01

    Senator Lieberman and three fellow members of Congress introduced the CO 2 Offset Policy Efficiency Act (COPE), which incorporates the use of marketable permits to reduce CO 2 emissions. For COPE to be fully effective, however, several key criteria must be met: (1) establishing initial baselines will be critical to ensure that emission reductions are credited properly; (2) accurate plant-by-plant monitoring must be in place to ensure that claimed reductions have actually occurred; (3) the program must include a strong enforcement provision to prevent evasion and to punish violators with substantial automatic fines. COPE imposes a sanction equal to roughly four times the estimated cost of offsets; the sanctions would be paid before enforcement proceedings commence. The urgency and complexity of global warming requires us to break with the past and develop new ways of delaying with pollution, Senator Lieberman feels by giving the market a chance to work on behalf of the environment, the sale of emission allowance will reduce CO 2 emissions in the most-efficient cost-effective way possible

  5. Market surveillance in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, H.

    2002-01-01

    On May 1, 2002 both wholesale and retail electricity markets in Ontario were opened to competition. Wholesale electricity market sales of 150 TWh were valued at over $11 billion with 27,500 MW in service installed capacity and 4,000 to 6,000 MW import/export capability with strong interconnections to the Quebec, the Midwest and the Northeast. The key players in Ontario's electricity market are the Ontario Energy Board (OEB), the Independent Electricity Market Operator (IMO), Ontario Power Generation, and Hydro One. The OEB regulatory framework includes licensing and front line, daily monitoring of whole sale market. Serious capacity problems in Ontario have manifested themselves in tight supply and demand situations and highly volatile prices. The paper included graphs of available reserves for 1996 to 2002, HOEP trends and frequency, HOEP comparison, and a sensitivity to demand forecast. 1 tab., 6 figs

  6. Marketing Strategy for Kukaneko

    OpenAIRE

    Kämpjärvi, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this thesis was to create a realistic marketing strategy for Kukaneko that sells Finnish sustainable fashion in Lahti. The company had no comprehensive marketing strategy in its use which why this thesis was written. Both secondary and primary research was used to carry out the research. The secondary data was gathered from books, scholarly journals and internet sources. Qualitative data was gathered in co-operation with the owner of the case company through an interview...

  7. Factors of Airline Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mišetić

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses several marketing related notions associatedwith airline strategic planning and positioning. Besideexamining the distinctions between network operator and nicheplayer, this paper treats the state of Croatia Airlines within thereported AEA benchmarking of the specific elements of airlinebusiness. It also studies certain aspects of the air market that influencepricing and demand elasticity, such as the impact oflow cost carriers and the practice of network hubbing.

  8. Belpex and trilateral market coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document describes the operation of Belpex, the Belgian power transmission spot market, and its linking with the French (Powernext) and Dutch (APX) auction-style day-ahead spot markets. A last part deals with the extension of this trilateral market to other European countries. Content: Belpex day-ahead market (DAM) (Goals of the DAM: Provide consumers with a wider choice of electrical energy sources, Enable the ARP's to optimize their portfolio in terms of imbalance costs, Reduce trade and credit risks for market players compared with the risks involved in concluding bilateral contracts, Provide economic players with a transparent price benchmark, Stimulate the opening of the electricity market); Market model Product (description, Contracts, Collateral calculation, From 12 January to launch date Corporate and Legal Aspects, Next developments); Trilateral Market Coupling (What is market coupling and what are the benefits?, Implementation of trilateral market coupling ('TLC') in France/Belgium/Netherlands, From Trilateral to Multilateral, Implementation of Trilateral Market Coupling (TLC) in France/Belgium/Netherlands, Decentralized market coupling mechanism, influence of import and export on area prices); Decentralized market coupling (2 countries Situations: unconstrained/constrained, Decentralized market coupling: 3 countries, High Level Properties of Market Coupling, Maximize flow until prices across link converge (or ATC limit reached), Power flows from low price area to high price area, Implementing a decentralized technical approach, Market Coupling Daily Process, Impact on Existing Exchange Arrangements, Implementing a decentralized contractual approach, TLC Project Process); From Trilateral to Multilateral (Geographic extensions, Towards an Open and Multilateral Market Coupling, Management of Interconnection Capacities, Interconnection Capacities: current situation, TSO Roles and Responsibilities in the TLC, Other Import/Export products on the

  9. SPORT MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Omer Špirtović; Danilo Aćimović; Ahmet Međedović; Zoran Bogdanović

    2010-01-01

    Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an eco...

  10. Mobile marketing

    OpenAIRE

    KLEČKOVÁ, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis was to provide a comprehensive overview of the mobile marketing and analyze selected campaigns of Czech mobile marketing in comparison to world successful campaigns. The research contained studying of available literature about the theme to gain general knowledge about the issue. The theoretical part of the thesis contains predominantly various definitions of mobile marketing and its tools, advantages of these tools and some information about Mobile Marketing Assoc...

  11. Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Andrýsková, Hana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to examine current marketing efforts of AARON - the leading seller of digital cameras. I will analyze current marketing tools and suggest improvements in efficiency and effectiveness of these tools. Marketing strategy is a method of managing and coordinating efforts in marketing field so that the goals can be reached. The aim is to increase sales, turnover, revenues, profits, drive out competition and also to build up a corporate image and corporate culture. I will a...

  12. Marketing Globalisation – Polish Market Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Nowacki

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of the 21st century has been yielded with an acceleration of transformations occurring in economies of the whole world. These changes relate to all the areas of economic life functioning. The most important manifestation thereof is a reinforcement of competitive phenomena. Among the most important reasons for such a state of affairs, there is mentioned globalisation. The course of its processes forces the organisation operating in the market to undertake adaptive actions. One of them is reorientation of marketing activities. The need to modify the previous marketing concepts results, first of all, from far reaching alterations in the sphere of consumption, just triggered by globalisationís impact. These trends are noticed in all the markets, also in the Polish one. The foreign enterprises operating in it more and more often use the concept of global marketing. This makes us to have reflection on what is the real effectiveness of such actions and what are the possibilities to form oneís competitive position owing to that. The article constitutes an attempt to provide answers to these questions.

  13. DISTRIBUTION OF THE EFFECTS OF BREWING INDUSTRY CONCENTRATION AMONG LARGE AND SMALL COMPANIES OPERATING ON THE POLISH MARKET IN 2004-2011 PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Łobos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Polish beer market is characterised by a high degree of concentration. The market share of Kompania Piwowarska, Grupa Żywiec and Carlsberg Polska is 90%. Many authors stress concentration as an important factor when explaining why various industries are more or less effective or more or less profitable. Firms from concentrated industries report, on average, higher profitability than those in non-concentrated industries. The aim of this paper is to analyse the differences of economic efficiency of large (group I and small (group II entities involved in the production of beer. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the test group of companies was based on selected financial ratios (return on assets, return on sales, inventory turnover, total debt ratio.

  14. Pathways to Global Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, David E.; Mitry, Darryl J.

    2011-01-01

    . An important case study is McDonald‘s corporation, the world‘s largest fast food restaurant chain. This company has employed divergent marketing and economic strategies in both domestic and the international markets to become a leader in the global marketplace. An overview of the company‘s background......, organizational structures, mission and vision illustrate McDonald‘s strategic focus on its proactive evolution from a small drive-through operation to a global fast-food giant. The strategy is based on its ability to adapt to the cultural differences of the markets that McDonald‘s serves while preserving its...

  15. Marketing 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Karla A.

    1997-01-01

    A marketing model for camps includes a mix of services, presentation, and communication elements that promote the virtues of camp, convince potential campers and their families of the benefits of camp, and successfully distinguish the camp from others. Includes resources related to marketing strategies, theme merchandise, and market trends…

  16. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The hottest financial market topic of the moment could be the subprime loan crisis in the United States. The crisis has stormed the U.S. stock market, dragging it to its biggest falls in a single trading day. Other markets, such as Japan’s, were also vul

  17. Auto Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    <正> Editor’s notes: As China’s WTO entry is drawing near, Chinese people are witnessing the marketing activities of foreign automakers in China: establishing new firms and promoting new vehicles, etc. In face of the enormous Chinese market, foreign automakers are busy in establishing their brand images, fostering consumption population in order to take more market shares in the future.

  18. Service marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić-Hodović Vesna

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of postindustrial society and services revolution created numerous changes in size of consumer demand, consumer reaction and priorities. Continuous change on the side of demand and offer must follow changes in marketing orientation. Leader in that change is services marketing which by knowing services range and all the changes builds a new concept called Relationship Marketing.

  19. Marketing maloobchodu

    OpenAIRE

    Demuth, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is about the situation of retail marketing in Czech republic, with a special focus on in-store marketing instruments and activities. The goal of this work is to evaluate the application of these marketing instruments in a specific retail store. This chosen store is supermarket Billa. The first part of the thesis is offering theoretical base for in-store marketing activities and also presents the history of retail marketing in Czech republic. The second part is focusing on the situ...

  20. MARKETING CHANNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Marketing channel is a set of entities and institutions, completion of distribution and marketing activities, attend the efficient and effective networking of producers and consumers. Marketing channels include the total flows of goods, money and information taking place between the institutions in the system of marketing, establishing a connection between them. The functions of the exchange, the physical supply and service activities, inherent in the system of marketing and trade. They represent paths which products and services are moving after the production, which will ultimately end up buying and eating by the user.

  1. Capacity Markets and Market Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauffer, Hoff

    2006-01-01

    The good news is that market stability can be achieved through a combination of longer-term contracts, auctions for far enough in the future to permit new entry, a capacity management system, and a demand curve. The bad news is that if and when stable capacity markets are designed, the markets may seem to be relatively close to where we started - with integrated resource planning. Market ideologues will find this anathema. (author)

  2. The electricity grid as a marketplace. Mannheim tests virtual energy market for generators, consumers and grid operators; Das Stromnetz wird zum Marktplatz. Mannheim erprobt virtuellen Energiemarkt fuer Erzeuger, Verbraucher und Netzbetreiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, Uwe

    2011-07-01

    In future, electricity grids will have to transport large quantities of electricity from renewable energy sources fed centrally and decentrally. Plus, we need greater reserves, storage facilities and flexibility in the electricity market due to the fluctuating supply. In the ''Modellstadt Mannheim'' project, a virtual energy marketplace is being developed for energy generators, consumers and grid operators. Customers can see the source and price of their electricity and influence them directly via the timing and extent of their consumption and the delivery from their own generation systems. This approach also includes gas, water and district heating. (orig.)

  3. Market formation and market selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raalte, C.L.J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The organization of markets is an important field of inquiry in modern economic theory. This monograph analyzes models which consider the formation and selection of markets. In these models, markets are organized by middlemen and used by traders. In Part I of the monograph, coalitions of middlemen

  4. Market Survey Turkey. Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-12-01

    The present market survey presents the Turkish power market and derives business opportunities and prospects for Dutch trade and industry. This market survey has been carried out for the following four, from time to time overlapping, sectors that have been identified by EVD as potential opportunities for Dutch small and medium-sized enterprises (SME): renewable energy, energy efficiency, electricity generation, electricity distribution

  5. World market of marketing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuels John

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of the total world market market research in the year 2001 was US$15,890 million, a 2.8% increase on the previous year. This is the first of several articles to be published in Research World on the results from ESOMAR's latest annual study on the market research sector worldwide

  6. A review of the deregulated power market since market opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, C.

    2003-01-01

    The Alberta electrical industry structure was discussed along with the market opportunities and historic market data pertaining to Alberta. The Alberta electrical industry is responsible for 20,000 kilometres of transmission lines, connections with British Columbia and Saskatchewan, operates in excess of 90 generating units, with 200 Power Pool participants. The Alberta electricity generation breakdown was provided (coal, gas, hydro), and a look at the projected growth in installed capacity provided. General information concerning the Power Pool of Alberta was presented. In discussing market opportunities, the author began by looking at the evolution of the Alberta market, noting that the Pool commenced operations in 1996. A discussion followed on real time spot market, direct sales, contract for differences (CfD), and other market opportunities. The last part of the presentation dealt with historical market data. The Alberta annual Pool price from 1996 to 2002 was presented, along with daily pool price 1996-2002. The factors affecting Pool price are: other markets, input costs, supply-demand balance, and other market elements. Alberta imports and exports were discussed, followed by a look at forward trading activity. Market evolution was addressed, including considerations in next phase of Alberta market. figs

  7. The daily hour forecasting of the electrical energy production from renewable energy sources – a required condition for the operation of the new energy market model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalpachka, Gergana; Kalpachki, Georgi

    2011-01-01

    The report presented the new energy market model in Bulgaria and the main attention is directed to a daily hour forecasting of the electrical energy production from renewable energy sources. The need of development of a methodology and the development of the most precise methods for predicting is reviewed and some of the used methods at the moment are presented. An analysis of the problems related to the daily hour forecasting is done using data from the producers of electrical energy from renewable energy sources in the territory of western Bulgaria. Keywords: Renewable energy sources, daily hour forecasting, electrical energy

  8. Market Orientation Capabilities: A Study of Learning Processes in Market-Oriented Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Silkoset, Ragnhild

    2009-01-01

    The literature operates with three perspectives on market orientation. These include market orientation as behavior (Kohli and Jaworski 1990; Narver and Slater 1990), market orientation as a unique resource (Hunt and Morgan 1995) and market orientation as a dynamic learning capability (Sinkula 1994; Day 1994b). A company's level of market orientation will vary with regard to the perspectives, including factors affecting a company’s degree of market orientation and the effect...

  9. New Brunswick electricity market rules : summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-02-01

    The electricity market rules for New Brunswick were reviewed with particular reference to two broad classifications. The first classification is based on the roles and responsibilities of the system operator (SO) in facilitating the Bilateral Contract market, as well as the role of market participants in participating in the Bilateral Contract market. The second classification is based on the roles and responsibilities of each of the SO, market participants and transmitters in maintaining the reliability of the integrated electricity system and ensuring a secure supply of electricity for consumers in New Brunswick. The market rules consist of 10 chapters entitled: (1) introduction to the market rules and administrative rules of general application, (2) market participation and the use of the SO-controlled grid, (3) market administration, (4) technical and connection requirements, testing and commissioning, (5) system reliability, (6) operational requirements, (7) settlement, (8) connection of new or modified facilities, (9) transmission system planning, investment and operation, and (10) definitions and interpretation

  10. Marketization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle; Lindholst, Andrej Christian

    2016-01-01

    out; Benchmarking and yardstick competition; and Public-Private collaboration. On the basis of the review of the seven articles, it is found that all elements in all marketization models are firmly embedded but also under dynamic change within public service delivery systems. The review also......Purpose: The purpose of this introduction article to the IJPSM special issue on marketization is to clarify the conceptual foundations of marketization as a phenomenon within the public sector and to gauge current marketization trends on the basis of the seven articles in the special issue. Design....../methodology/approach: Conceptual clarification and cross-cutting review of seven articles analysing marketization in six countries in three policy areas at the level of local government. Findings: Four ideal-type models are deduced: Quasi-markets, involving both provider competition and free choice for users; Classic contracting...

  11. Marketing automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TODOR Raluca Dania

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The automation of the marketing process seems to be nowadays, the only solution to face the major changes brought by the fast evolution of technology and the continuous increase in supply and demand. In order to achieve the desired marketing results, businessis have to employ digital marketing and communication services. These services are efficient and measurable thanks to the marketing technology used to track, score and implement each campaign. Due to the technical progress, the marketing fragmentation, demand for customized products and services on one side and the need to achieve constructive dialogue with the customers, immediate and flexible response and the necessity to measure the investments and the results on the other side, the classical marketing approached had changed continue to improve substantially.

  12. SPORT MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Špirtović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Word „marketing“ comes from AngloSaxon linguistic domain and implies in a narrow sense the market. Under marketing, we consider certain process, which should create and solve relations of exchange between manufacturers on one side, and consumers on the other. Discussion about sport marketing implies its theoretical definition and generalization, and then its actual definition in sport environment. Sport marketing belongs to business function of sport organization and represents primaly an economical process of connecting produktion (sport organizations with sportsmen and coaches and consumption (sport and other public. Sport marketing is the reality in sport today, and cannot be observed as fashionabless of capitalistic production. Today is almost impossible for sport organization to make business without its business part called sport marketing if it wants to survive in sport arena.

  13. Cooperation with Market Intermediaries in the Chinese Market

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Danjun

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis was commissioned by a Finnish hospitality company. The purpose of this study was to improve the cooperation between the company and its marketing intermediaries in the Chinese outbound travel market. The products of the company are promoted, distributed and sold in the Chinese outbound market mostly through tour operators and travel agencies. Therefore, finding out how to build a better relationship with them is essential for the company. The method used in this study ...

  14. MARKETING AND LOGISTICS INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TRANSPORT SERVICES MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Kopytko, V. I.

    2009-01-01

    Taking into account the modern trends of world economy development, the opportunities of increasing the competitiveness of the Ukrainian transport system on the base of marketing-logistical providing the development of infrastructure of transport services market are presented. The analysis of marketing-logistical approaches of estimation of the efficiency of operation of transport infrastructure objects is performed. The condition of theoretical and practical aspects of the transport services...

  15. Sport Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ekmekci, Ridvan; Ekmekçi, Aytul Yeter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract  Marketing which is entered to almost our whole life, now more than goods and services, became an important  concept of ideas, persons, institutions, events, and facilities. As a main activities of business co. marketing has an important place in sports industry. Recently, the development of special sport marketing strategies and the presentation of sport goods and services to consumers are gaining importance. Efforts of increasing income of sport clubs, because of sport organization...

  16. Viral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina Raula Gîrboveanu; Silvia Puiu

    2008-01-01

    With consumers showing increasing resistance to traditional forms of advertising such as TV or newspaper ads, marketers have turned to alternate strategies, including viral marketing. Viral marketing exploits existing social networks by encouraging customers to share product information with their friends.In our study we are able to directly observe the effectiveness of person to person word of mouth advertising for hundreds of thousands of products for the first time

  17. Online marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Zrůst, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to evaluate pay per click marketing as suitable marketing tool for promotion and distribution of a given product. The paper describes basic vocabulary related to PPC advertising, common metrics, tools used by online marketers, and logic of running PPC campaigns. The paper also tries to quantify impact of Internet on economies. The second part applies the theory to analysis of consumers' conversion path while searching online in common search engines where PPC marketi...

  18. Affiliate marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Ureš, Michal

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis focuses on the topic of online affiliate marketing from the perspective of an internet entrepreneur. In the first, theoretical part, it characterizes the affiliate marketing, describes different, significant affiliate solutions in the Czech market and opportunities for their implementations. In the second, practical part, it concentrates mainly on an affiliate program of a company called GameLeader, s.r.o. It analyses expectations of the business from the implementation...

  19. Power marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioshansi, F.P.; Altman, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most significant developments in the US electric power industry in recent years has been the phenomenal growth of power marketing. What was barely a blimp on the radar screen in 1992 has turned out to be a jumbo jet. This article explains what is power marketing who are power marketers, what role play these players and what will be their longer-term impact on the traditional industry [it

  20. Marketing on a shoestring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, J

    1999-01-01

    Marketing includes the many steps taken to sell a product or service from its conception to its purchase or use. In healthcare, three cost-effective audiences to target are referring physicians and their staffs, local HMOs and PPOs, facility employees and patients. The potential users of such services--your target audience--should be made aware of new offerings such as the addition of special procedures, a new piece of equipment, or perhaps a new physician with special capabilities. To ensure a productive effort, a marketing attempt must follow two cardinal rules: first, the product or service offered must be of high quality and, second, the marketing effort must be carried out consistently. An effective marketing campaign should create an impression within the community about the facility by emphasizing those aspects of the department or facility that make it unique. Are its hours of operation adequate? Do its personnel project a professional attitude and demeanor? Does it have a specialty that makes it unique within the healthcare community? The most powerful marketing tool of all is word of mouth, which is based on the judgments clients make after visiting the facility-department or facility employees smile and greet visitors, they are polite and helpful on the telephone, their attitudes are professional, and so forth. Such impressions are worth millions in goodwill and can be used as a marketing tool. Last, an actual case study from my hospital explains how we determined the need for and marketed an open MRI system.

  1. Global offshore pipeline markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.; Parsons, B.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, two experts forecast a recovery in the offshore pipeline market followed by accelerating growth. A number of clearly definable macro trends are affecting the world offshore oil and gas industry and will be of considerable significance to the offshore pipelines industry. The authors' view is of markets that show every chance of enjoying long-term growth prospects driven by the fundamentals of a continuing increase in demand for offshore oil and gas. The offshore industry however has a highly cyclical nature, due to the impact of variations in oil and gas prices and the differing state of maturity of individual regions. Therefore those companies that are able to offer the widest range of pipe types and diameters and methods of installation across the greatest range of geographic markets are likely to prosper most. Thus, this continues to be a market best suited to those able to operate on a global scale and make a corporate commitment measured in decades

  2. Marketing plan

    OpenAIRE

    Jantunen, Essi; Hellman, Annika

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor’s thesis was to draw up an efficient marketing plan for Pohjolan Vihreä Polku Oy, which offers meeting and nature activity services. The company was in a process of conversion and needed a structured marketing plan. The objectives of the company were perceived through severe research. The main purposes of the marketing plan were to raise the visibility of the company and increase its clientele. The proposed marketing actions are also to be used to improve the company’...

  3. Developing markets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueiredo, Bernardo; Chelekis, Jessica; DeBerry-Spence, Benet

    2015-01-01

    acknowledging complex, systemic interdependencies between markets, marketing, and society. Based on a critical review of the meaning of development and an interrogation of various developmental discourses, the authors develop a conceptual framework that brings together issues of development, wellbeing......, and social inequalities. We suggest that these issues are better understooda nd addressed when examined via grounded investigations of the role of markets in shaping the management of resources, consumer agency, power inequalities and ethics. The use of markets as units of analysis may lead to further cross...

  4. GLOBALIZATION IMPACT ON UKRAINIAN MARKET OF SHARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zotsenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the impact of globalization on the Ukrainian market of shares. Main trends of globalization of world share market are analyzed. The study highlights key elements of the operating share markets of the world leading countries. The research investigates main factors that affect on the level of national market of shares. The findings trace out a number of problems that hinder and distort the role of the Ukrainian share market in capital allocation.

  5. Bulgarian electricity market and the large-scale industrial customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, P.; Kanev, K.; Dyankov, M.; Minkov, N.

    2003-01-01

    The paper focuses on a brief overview of the Bulgarian Electricity Market Design and steps toward its development, as well as on preliminary analyses for market opening and influence of large industrial customers to system and market operation. (author)

  6. Measuring market performance in restructured electricity markets: An empirical analysis of the PJM energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Russell Jay

    2002-09-01

    Today the electric industry in the U.S. is transitioning to competitive markets for wholesale electricity. Independent system operators (ISOs) now manage broad regional markets for electrical energy in several areas of the U.S. A recent rulemaking by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) encourages the development of regional transmission organizations (RTOs) and restructured competitive wholesale electricity markets nationwide. To date, the transition to competitive wholesale markets has not been easy. The increased reliance on market forces coupled with unusually high electricity demand for some periods have created conditions amenable to market power abuse in many regions throughout the U.S. In the summer of 1999, hot and humid summer conditions in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia pushed peak demand in the PJM Interconnection to record levels. These demand conditions coincided with the introduction of market-based pricing in the wholesale electricity market. Prices for electricity increased on average by 55 percent, and reached the $1,000/MWh range. This study examines the extent to which generator market power raised prices above competitive levels in the PJM Interconnection during the summer of 1999. It simulates hourly market-clearing prices assuming competitive market behavior and compares these prices with observed market prices in computing price markups over the April 1-August 31, 1999 period. The results of the simulation analysis are supported with an examination of actual generator bid data of incumbent generators. Price markups averaged 14.7 percent above expected marginal cost over the 5-month period for all non-transmission-constrained hours. The evidence presented suggests that the June and July monthly markups were strongly influenced by generator market power as price inelastic peak demand approached the electricity generation capacity constraint of the market. While this analysis of the

  7. Correlation study among the International Atomic Energy Agency standards and market standards on management system applicable to a UF6 conversion plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Dirceu Paulo de

    2008-01-01

    The Agency - International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), following the market trend of the management system integration, has decided to revise the quality assurance standards - IAEA 50-C/SG-Q publishing, in 2006, the standard on Management System (MS). IAEA GS-R-3 and its IAEA GS-G-3.1 guide. Also, the IAEA is about to publish a supplementary guide - IAEA DS349, which consider the integration of several functions involved in management of nuclear facilities, such as: safety, health, environmental and quality, ensuring that nuclear safety is not compromised. Conversion plants of 'Yellowcake' in UF 6 use and process radioactive materials, as well as other substances normally found in the chemical conventional industry, inserting themselves in the organization profile that require a high pattern of definition, implementation and continuous improvement of their MS and, therefore, should consider an approach of management integrated system (MIS). Taking a UF 6 conversion plant as focus, the correlation was performed among the Agency MS standards and those of the market - ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001, as well as with the Agency drafts standards on safety (DS316 and DS344), concluding that, in structuring an MIS, in compliance with the Agency MS standards, except for some adjustments, the ISO 9001, ISO 14001, and OHSAS 18001 are going to be met. On the other hand, the structuring of MIS should identify other requirements on safety, health and environmental, which also consider the conventional chemical and industrial characteristics that are out of the scope (ionizing radiation) of the safety standards of the Agency. The research proposes a documental procedure for a MIS applicable to this plant, providing elements for rationalization and contents of the identified documentation, for the promotion of the integration of the considered MS functions. (author)

  8. Marketing of cocrete golf course

    OpenAIRE

    Krausová, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with the marketing of golf services. The main goal is to propose a marketing strategy for concrete golf course. Prior to its implementation were needed to work out individual analysis - SWOT analysis, competitor analysis and survey of customer satisfaction. Furthermore, the identified individual operating costs and revenues of golf course. When creating marketing strategy was put stress on the Internet. It proposes a new form and structure of the website, Facebook profile an...

  9. COMMUNICATING WITH TARGET MARKET ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanka Djurić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The generally accepted definition that related to conceptual determination of market communication has not been performed. However, market communication can be defined as a set of activities and natural relationships that companies in various branches of authorities and business activities are established with other business organizations, and in order to establish a successful primary market communication, establishing a larger market share and the effective realization of the final goal, and certainly in market conditions that is profit. Activity which the company conducts are reduced to preparatory activities for the establishment of better relations with market operators, defining long-term strategies for successful business communication. The company has contact with their immediate environment, both internal and external. This, external environment emphasizing significantly because it consists of other economic organizations and entities, legal and regulatory bodies and consumers in order to take better starting position, preservation of the existing market share and also or extension thereof.

  10. 2015 Wind Technologies Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rand, Joe [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Oteri, Frank [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tian, Tian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This annual report--now in its tenth year--provides a detailed overview of developments and trends in the U.S. wind power market, with a particular focus on 2015. The report begins with an overview of key installation trends and then covers an array of industry and technology trends. The report also discusses project performance, wind turbine prices, project costs, operations and maintenance expenses, and prices paid for wind power in the United States. The report examines policy and market factors impacting the domestic wind power market and provides a preview of possible near-term market developments, expenses, and prices paid for wind power in the United States. The report examines policy and market factors impacting the domestic wind power market and provides a preview of possible near-term market developments.

  11. Usage of marketing in politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-party political system led to competition between political parties which caused the need for marketing in politics that improves political reputation. Politics, based on rich experience of political practice, used existing, developed methods and techniques of commercial marketing. Political marketing openly admits that politics and politicians are simply goods that are being sold on a political market. Political marketing is a whole way of operation by political parties which ask these questions: how do the voters choose; what affects their preference and how that preference can be influenced. Usage of political marketing in Bosnia and Herzegovina is still not on a satisfactory level but the knowledge about the importance of political marketing is increasing.

  12. Sexual Markets or Black Markets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes-Green, Christian

    2014-01-01

    sex with sugar-daddies, called sponsors or patrons, who provide for them in exchange for sex while male peers often become street vendors, street artists or petty criminals engaged in the so-called ‘black’ markets of theft, sale of counterfeits, and circulation of stolen goods, alcohol and drugs. As I...... show, these gendered markets are highly entangled and interdependent, and as I argue, male and female markets use many of the same technologies, sources and circuits of exchange...

  13. Marketing Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilke, Ricky

    2012-01-01

    Book review of: Christian Homburg, Sabine Kuester, Harley Krohmer, Marketing Management – A Contemporary Perspective, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009......Book review of: Christian Homburg, Sabine Kuester, Harley Krohmer, Marketing Management – A Contemporary Perspective, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2009...

  14. Market shifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, Michael

    2013-11-01

    After years of oversupply and artificially low module pricing, market analysts believe that the solar industry will begin to stabilize by 2017. While the market activities are shifting from Europe to the Asia Pacific region and the United States, the solar shakeout continues to be in full swing including solar cell and module manufacturing. (orig.)

  15. Marketing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, Ronald A., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the Marketing Education program at West Haven (CT) High School in West Haven, Connecticut, that promotes skills for life and attributes, enhances the academic program, and develops leaders out of ordinary students through an interactive curriculum. The three components of West Haven's marketing and management program are (1)…

  16. Art Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal); F.R.R. Vermeylen (Filip)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe advent of digitization has had a profound impact on the art market and its institutions. In this chapter, we focus on the market for visual arts as it finds its expression in (among other) paintings, prints, drawings, photographs, sculpture and the like. These artistic disciplines

  17. Direct marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičić Muris

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct Marketing (DM is usually treated as unworthy activity, with actions at the edge of legality and activities minded cheating. Despite obvious problems regarding ethics and privacy threat, DM with its size, importance and role in a concept of integrated marketing communication deserves respect and sufficient analysis and review

  18. Tourism Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 6-unit, 1-year distributive education course in marketing tourism offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. Although in general the material presented concerns marketing tourism anywhere, some of it is specifically related to tourism within North Carolina. A purpose statement explains the…

  19. Marketing strategy of the selected company

    OpenAIRE

    Vodstrčilová, Kateřina

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the marketing strategy of the company Náš grunt, s.r.o., the operator of the farm food concept Náš grunt. The aim of the thesis is to analyse the marketing strategy of the company and to suggest possible improvements. The theoretical part of the thesis is focused on the marketing, the marketing process, the marketing strategy, the marketing mix and SWOT analysis. The practical part is based on the situation analysis and the marketing strategy of the company Náš...

  20. Visceral larvae as a predictive index of the overall level of fish batch infection in European anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus): A rapid procedure for Food Business Operators to assess marketability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardone, L; Nucera, D; Pergola, V; Costanzo, F; Costa, E; Tinacci, L; Guidi, A; Armani, A

    2017-06-05

    The European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), one of the most important pelagic fish resources in the Mediterranean Sea, is frequently infected by anisakid larvae. Food Business Operators (FBOs) should use appropriate sampling plans and analytical methods to avoid commercialization of massively infected batches and reduce the risk of transmission of viable zoonotic larvae. In this study, performed at FishLab (Department of Veterinary Sciences of the University of Pisa) during 2016, an official sampling plan was associated with a digestion protocol for the inspection of anchovies. Considering that anisakid larvae are usually located in the fish visceral cavity and in the adjacent muscles (VM), this part was analyzed. In particular, we assessed the reliability of the digestion of a subsample of 150g (±30g) of VM, randomly collected from 29 specimens, in estimating the marketability of the anchovies' batch. Fifty-seven samples of 29 anchovies were collected. Each anchovy was sectioned to separate VM. All the subsamples were digested, and visible larvae counted. A high correlation between the number of larvae in VM regions and in the total batch was observed, indicating a very significant contribution of the VM region on total number of parasites. The Mean Abundance (MA) was used to assess the batch marketability according to a threshold calculated on the basis of the maximum number of nematodes tolerated per sample. Considering that the MA can be calculated only when the number of examined specimens is known, the number of visible Larvae per gram of tissue (LpG) was calculated on 150g (±30g) of VM subsamples. A LpG marketability threshold was calculated dividing the maximum number of tolerated nematodes by the average weight of a sample of 29 anchovies calculated considering data available in literature. To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the LpG threshold, the marketability of 57 batches assessed on the basis of the MA threshold was assumed as the gold

  1. 基于用户行为的移动互联网服务运营商业务营销模式研究%The business marketing model analysis based on user behavior of mobile Internet services operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张薇; 朱磊

    2011-01-01

    As mobile Internet from the close to the open,the industry value chain becomes complicated and thorough,telecom operators haven't occupy the core of its industry chain link.Meanwhile,mobile Internet bandwidth limits,the user's attention limits and user's fragmentary time,make service operators of the mobile internet in the fierce competition environment have to choose carefully its product marketing mode.This paper analyze the current mobile Internet user group's behavioral characteristics and factors of Influencing user behavior,with the existing product features and market status of Mobile Internet services,construct the mobile Internet service operators' business marketing mode basing on user behavior,for mobile Internet service providers choose reasonable business marketing strategy and provides reference.%随着移动互联网从封闭走向开放,其产业价值链条趋于复杂深入,电信运营商已不再占据产业链的核心环节。同时,移动互联网带宽的限制、用户的注意力有限及用户上网时间的零碎化,使得服务运营商在激烈的竞争环境中不得不慎重选择其业务产品的营销模式,本文通过对目前移动互联网用户群行为特征及用户行为影响因素的分析,结合移动互联网现有业务产品的特点和市场现状,构建基于用户行为的移动互联网服务运营商的业务营销模式,以期为移动互联网服务运营商选择合理的业务营销策略提供参考与借鉴。

  2. Border markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this issue of Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is to examine the characteristics of border markets in a comparative perspective. In this introductory paper, I first discuss what makes African border markets different from other markets, and examine several factors that explain...... their unequal economic development: the presence of a trade community, the combination of trading and productive activities, and the relative porosity of borders. In a second part, I examine how border markets on the U.S.-Mexico border must simultaneously guarantee the security of the state while favoring...... regional trade. The last part of the paper argues that more policy attention should be paid to border markets which, despite being at the margin of states, are a vital component of their economy. Fifty years after most West African states became independent and just as NAFTA turns 20, it is high time...

  3. Crossover marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of a deregulated energy market on customers in Ontario was discussed. In particular, the way in which Sunoco will deal with energy convergence and how Sunoco plans to generate interest among residential consumers in a deregulated and competitive energy market was described. Integrated energy solutions that offer customers value-added heating, ventilating and air conditioning products and services, inclusive of equipment sales, installation, repair, rental, leasing, financing, warranty, insurance and maintenance is the ultimate goal of Sunoco. The major retail issues in the energy market such as licensing of marketers, customer mobility, transfer of utility assets to affiliates, Ontario Hydro's market power in electrical generation, distribution of stranded debt charges, and a timetable for deregulation were also addressed. figs

  4. Health market failures: Colombian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Eduardo Bejarano-Daza

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: There are significant failures in the Colombian health market which make the system inefficient and inequitable; this situation demands for reconsideration of an economic model for financing and operation under a new paradigm.

  5. MARKETING AND LOGISTICS INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TRANSPORT SERVICES MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Kopytko

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the modern trends of world economy development, the opportunities of increasing the competitiveness of the Ukrainian transport system on the base of marketing-logistical providing the development of infrastructure of transport services market are presented. The analysis of marketing-logistical approaches of estimation of the efficiency of operation of transport infrastructure objects is performed. The condition of theoretical and practical aspects of the transport services market is elucidated, the examples of logistical concepts are given, considering the work experience of transport enterprises, the ways of formation of regional transport-logistical associations are offered.

  6. Marketing is Dead! Long Live Marketing!

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    The contents of the lectures included: Why marketing? Citizen, Consumer, Customer (Behavior) Who is the Father of Marketing? Some Antecedents of Marketing When Did Marketing Start? The Contributors of Marketing Where Did Marketing Start? Job Positions in Today’s Marketing Organization The Role of the Chief Marketing Officer Four Different CEO Views of Marketing Reality – Truth – Challenge (Why Can’t We Make It?) The Strong and Steady Progress of Marketi...

  7. The impacts of policy mix for resolving overcapacity in heavy chemical industry and operating national carbon emission trading market in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wei; Lu, Can; Ding, Yi; Zhang, Yan-Wu

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A STIRPAT embed dynamic CGE model is utilized to evaluate the whole impact. •Economy and trade increased slightly under scenario shock. •Global carbon emission reduction rate ranges from 3.33% to 7.46%. •Carbon emission peaks in 2022, 2024, 2026 beyond simulating scenarios. •Energy intensity decreases 19.58–23.71% upon 2020 in contrast with 2015. -- Abstract: In place to reduce greenhouse gas emission efficiently and accomplish carbon emission peak destination ahead of 2030, a variety of policy-based interventions grounded in optimizing energy structure and boosting emission mitigation have been put forward to target carbon-and resource-intensive enterprises across China. Both defusing overcapacity in heavy chemical industry and constructing national carbon trading market are recently attached with a stronger significant importance. A STIRPAT (Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology) embed dynamic CGE (computable general equilibrium) model is applied in this study to evaluate the simulation effects focusing on China’s economy, energy, and household lifestyle. We devise nine scenarios in terms of the two aforementioned mitigation strategies. The results indicate that, the optimal policy mix, balancing economic improvement, energy mix readjustment, and emission reduction to the maximize value, is founded to be declining the proportion of heavy chemical industry capacity with an annual average level of 3%, 1%, 1%, stipulating carbon price in 5.8 dollar/ton, 11.6 dollar/ton, 14.5 dollar/ton, and distributing annual carbon allowance as 3.5 billion ton, 7 billion ton, 9 billion ton during 2017–2020, 2021–2025, and 2026–2030 respectively.

  8. Mobile Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Luengo Cascudo, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    El principal objetivo de este proyecto es explicar y entender la importancia del Mobile Marketing como nueva herramienta de negocio en el Marketing empresarial. Para ello, el primer objetivo es entender los dos factores que para mí son la clave de su importancia: la evolución del entorno tecnológico y el cambio en los hábitos del consumidor. Debido a la novedad de esta nueva forma de Marketing y al hecho de que está en constante definición, es básico exponer de la forma más cla...

  9. Mobile Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    竹安, 数博; Takeyasu, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with one of the modern trends in marketing communication, which is mobile marketing. Towards the end of 2008, several projects which use mobile phones for target marketing communication were launched. Commercial SMS´s are sent on the base of agreement or registration of the consumers on special websites, for example hellomobil.cz. The benefit for the consumers is the bonus which can have more forms - not only sending money to the account, free SMS´s/MMS´s and minutes but al...

  10. Uranium market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubini, L.A.; Asem, M.A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The historical development of the uranium market is present in two periods: The initial period 1947-1970 and from 1970 onwards, with the establishment of a commercial market. The world uranium requirements are derived from the corresponding forecast of nuclear generating capacity, with, particular emphasis to the brazilian requirements. The forecast of uranium production until the year 2000 is presented considering existing inventories and the already committed demand. The balance between production and requirements is analysed. Finally the types of contracts currently being used and the development of uranium prices in the world market are considered. (author)

  11. Marketing Sustainable Retail Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Ilić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary benefits of sustainable retail over the long run has to be the marketing gain from having something other competitors do not: lower operating costs, a more socially responsible public profile, ease of gaining planning approval for new projects, better access to certain investment pools, higher rents (in the case of developers, ease of recruiting and retaining key people. Each of these benefits needs marketing and public relations support; each benefits from a clear and consistent corporate message that promotes sustainable retail. To date, there are very few retailers or developers who have championed sustainability long enough, consistently enough and with enough actual demonstration of changes in standard operations to gain the benefits of green marketing, but the very paucity of examples serves to underscore the point: the green marketing space is wide open for large retailers and developers. What would be the marketing steps that a company could take to benefit from its “sustainability focus?” The key to any marketing program is to differentiate a company’s actions from those of competitors and to do it along lines that its various stakeholders care about. This practice of differentiation is often expressed as “finding a difference that makes a difference, to someone who makes difference to you.” For retail developers, the first differentiator should be to attract more and better tenants to all of their centers, tenants who value lower operating costs and the developer’s program of sustainable development and corporate social responsibility.

  12. Today's markets for superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The worldwide market for superconductive products may exceed $1 billion in 1987. These products are expanding the frontiers of science, revolutionizing the art of medical diagnosis, and developing the energy technology of the future. In general, today's customers for superconductive equipment want the highest possible performance, almost regardless of cost. The products operate within a few degrees of absolute zero, and virtually all are fabricated from niobium or niobium alloys-so far the high-temperature superconductors discovered in 1986 and 1987 have had no impact on these markets. The industry shows potential and profound societal impact, even without the new materials

  13. Electricity marketing and retailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandre, L.

    2001-01-01

    PremStar Metering Inc. is a division of PremStar Energy Canada. In addition to providing full-service meter and data services PremStar Metering provides collection, validation, analysis and billing services, working closely with the Ontario Energy Board, independent market operator (IMO) and Measurements Canada. This presentation addressed the market power mitigation agreement (MPMA) as well as issues dealing with wholesale competition seen mostly in the power generation sector. It was noted that the goal of the MPMA is to promote competition in the marketplace. Issues regarding the short term revenue limitation and the long term generation limitation of the MPMA were also discussed. figs

  14. RELATIONSHIP DERIVATIVES FINANCIAL MARKETS, MONEY AND STOCK MARKETS AS A SUBSYSTEM OF FINANCIAL MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Yelnikova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of intensive strengthening of globalization of world financial markets and deepening of the crisis, the main source of which are financial markets, financial derivatives market is rapidly developing. In such circumstances, we observe very active growing demand for tools, the main purpose of which is to reduce the financial risk – derivatives. Outlined trend has also involved Ukraine. In this connection, there is an objective need to develop estimate the interconnection of the money and stock markets and derivatives market. It should be kept in mind that achieving the outlined goal is possible only under condition of the full understanding of the scientific and methodological principles of the development of these markets. Purpose is to estimate the interconnection of the money and stock markets and derivatives market by building a mathematical model of system of structural equations that will promote the compilation of scientifically based program of derivatives market. Methodology. By using methods of economic-mathematical modelling were estimated the degree of influence of studied markets factors on financial derivatives market development and by changing this or that factor were predicted future trends of its operations. Results of the survey showed the current state and problems of derivatives market functioning. At the same time, our study allowed us to talk, that factors of the money and stock markets have a different impact on the derivatives market. So, the majority of money market factors have a reverse influence on the development of derivatives market. Instead, the stock market has a direct influence. Practical implications. The proposed scientific and methodical approach to evaluating the impact of factors on the derivatives market allows: influenced by different factors; to conduct a qualitative interpretation of the quantitative changes in the level of market development; to form a complete system of state

  15. Sustainable design options for the German electricity market. A comparison of the energy-only market with capacity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keles, Dogan; Renz, Lea; Bublitz, Andreas; Zimmermann, Florian; Genoese, Massimo; Fichtner, Wolf

    2016-01-01

    This study intensively discusses the further developments of the electricity market design in Germany based on substantial scientific insights. For this purpose, an agent-based simulation model is applied to evaluate the operability of the energy only market extended with a strategic reserve. Furthermore, the effects of the implementation of a centralized or decentralized capacity market are analyzed.

  16. Mobile marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Gause, Matěj

    2012-01-01

    The goal of bachelor's thesis on the theme "Mobile marketing" is to outline its development and why is this new phenomen so important for all modern companies around the world. The work is not about simple description of mobile marketing media but it vividly informs about the latest trends and news from the world of mobile apps and games. It presents the most successful mobile apps which registered more than billion downloads and from their unique characteristics it unveils great potential of...

  17. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s manufacturing activities keep slowing down.The"big four"state-owned commercial banks have reaped juicy profits,though capital adequacy remains a concern.In striking contrast,the steelmakers are struggling to make ends meet as costs inflation erodes profit margins.The consumer market booms as usual during the May Day holiday.The search engine Baidu benefits from torrid traffic growth and a diversified market strategy.

  18. Entrepreneurial Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is one of the youngest disciplines in the area of business administration. Hence, there is a special need for literature that can be used in teaching and that can serve as a basis for research. This article reviews five textbooks and three research-oriented books on entrepreneurial marketing, which is regarded as one of the key areas of entrepreneurship. As the review shows, there is no textbook that covers all relevant aspects of entrepreneurial marketing in sufficient bread...

  19. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing industry shows signs of recovery as reflected by a rebounding PMI. The initial public offerings market withers due to less than favorable stock markets. Chinese shipbuilders reel from decreasing orders as external demands falter. The mobile payment industry bursts with vitality, though the security issue remains an acute concern. Foreign banks in China lag behind their local competitors in terms of profitability owing to limited ability to attract deposits.

  20. Market scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Nova Scotia's Energy Strategy is aimed at opening the electricity market to wholesale competition, allowing eligible wholesale customers (such as municipal distribution utilities) to buy their electricity from competitive sources. The Nova Scotia Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee (EMGC) is concerned that this will not promote long-term competition because these eligible customers form only a very small fraction (1.6 per cent) of the total electricity demand in the province. This report examines the possible extensions of competition beyond the minimum specified in the Energy Strategy. It also identifies approaches that the EMGC may consider, including other potential levels of competition and their associated issues. The report discussed the issue of implementing wholesale competition as it relates to unbundling of the transmission tariff from the cost of energy supply and from the cost of distribution in retail marketing. The stages of expanding the market scope were also described with reference to large industrial customers, medium industrial and large commercial customers, and small commercial and residential customers. The report states that it is unlikely that the transition to an open access transmission market will need to be reversed, as it is likely to be an essential component of any further development. The EMGC feels it could minimize future transition costs and promote future evolution of competition by recommending for an institutional and market structure that is compatible with a broader competitive market

  1. Market redesign and regulatory change : how companies doing business in Alberta's power markets will be affected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runge, C.

    2003-01-01

    The Power Pool of Alberta (PPA) began its operations in 1996 based on a model with a single price set based on day ahead offers/bids and real time dispatch. The Electric Utilities Act was amended in 1998 and direct sales were permitted in 1999. The Power Purchase Arrangement Auction was implemented in 2000. Significant events took place in 2001, including: (1) retail competition, (2) PPAs began operations, (3) restrictions on direct sales were removed, (4) forward exchange operation, and (5) ancillary services market. In 2002, the Market Achievement Plan II was implemented and government industry structure was reviewed. There are several considerations regarding market redesign, such as day ahead market, capacity market, congestion management, and Northwest Regional Transmission Organization (RTO West). The role of the International Standard Organization (ISO) was discussed, with reference to the Independent System Operator, Independent Market Operator, and Transmission and Market Planner. Redesign must involve all participants and include informed, phased in changes

  2. 24 CFR 884.214 - Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marketing. 884.214 Section 884.214... HOUSING PROJECTS Project Development and Operation § 884.214 Marketing. (a) Compliance with equal opportunity requirements. Marketing of units and selection of Families by the Owner shall be in accordance...

  3. Conic financial markets and corporate finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madan, D.B.; Schoutens, W.

    2010-01-01

    Markets passively accept a convex cone of cash flows that contains the the nonnegative cash flows. Different markets are defined by different cones and conditions are established to exclude the possibility of arbitrage between markets. Operationally these cones are defined by positive expectation

  4. Energy price forecast by market analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongepier, A.G.

    2000-01-01

    A power trader benefits from accurate price predictions. Based on market analyses, KEMA Connect has developed - in cooperation with Essent Energy Trading - a market model, enhancing the insight into market operation and one's own actions and thus resulting in accurate price predictions

  5. Marketing the Masters of Executive Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    market themselves to attract new students ( Kotler , 2003). The format of this chapter continues with an outline of the different strategic phases...Implementation H. Evaluation and Control Source: Developed from (Kerin & Peterson, 2004), ( Kotler , 2003) Figure 1. MEM Marketing Plan...strategically evaluate which market they are actually operating in. According to ( Kotler , 2003), “organizations develop mission statements to share

  6. Creative market development : marketing on a shoestring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLeod, D.

    2004-01-01

    The initiatives that led to the development, construction and financing of Toronto's wind turbine by the Toronto Renewable Energy Co-op (TREC) were outlined in this PowerPoint presentation. The initiative for this first urban-based turbine in North America stemmed from a lack of green power in Ontario's energy market and a strong push from the public for more green power. TREC researched a variety of potential wind tower sites in Toronto and submitted a pre-feasibility report. The construction of the wind turbine involved a joint venture between WindShare and Toronto Hydro Energy Services. The basic principals behind co-operative financing were reviewed along with the challenges of marketing the project

  7. Traditional marketing vs. Internet marketing. A comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Varfan, Mona; Shima, Alfa

    2008-01-01

    Title: Traditional marketing vs. Internet marketing: A comparison Problem: Marketing is an important strategy for businesses and it contains numerous effective tools. Traditional marketing has been in use for many years and nowadays Internet has brought new ways of doing business for companies and that has affected marketing. What are the main differences between Internet marketing and traditional marketing? Which one of the two approaches contains the most used and effective marketing tools ...

  8. Market Development of Video Games : Video game markets and marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Pu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    This diploma work focus on analysing the markets and marketing of video game industry. After the research of this study, I found out that console game markets are growing dramatically in the recent years. On the other hand, PC game markets (excluding online game markets) are growing slowly due to the problem of illegal copies. So my study will then focus on the development of console game markets and marketing. A new concept called Three Parties is introduced in chapter 5 to help ...

  9. Does the market maker stabilize the market?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, M.; Chiarella, C.; He, X.Z.; Wang, D.

    2009-01-01

    The market maker plays an important role in price formation, but his/her behavior and stabilizing impact on the market are relatively unclear, in particular in speculative markets. This paper develops a financial market model that examines the impact on market stability of the market maker, who acts

  10. Solution to marketing; Marketing solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Y.; Fukushima, T.; Kanezuka, A. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-05-10

    Fuji Electric in cooperation with Citation Japan Co., Ltd. and Asahi Arthur Andersen Limited has developed the 'marketing analysis support system' which supports the integrated analysis of evaluation factors of various dimensions and efficient commodity development and demand estimation in the enterprise. With this system, more precise marketing analysis and estimation are made possible by analyzing a commodity into evaluation factors from psychological and physical points of view and further making various multivariate analyses. (author)

  11. Market-stage analysis enhances strategic planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, R B

    1998-07-01

    Changing market conditions are challenging healthcare organizations to determine how to allocate resources and make operational planning decisions to prepare for future changes. A vital part of meeting these challenges is understanding the impact of market stages, and using that knowledge to build effective business strategies. Financial modeling that includes market-stage information provides insight into market opportunities and presents a clearer picture of the organizational changes that will need to be implemented at each stage. Effective strategic action should take into account critical success factors in market responsiveness, organizational responsiveness, operational effectiveness, and financial strength.

  12. Belpex and trilateral market coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    This document describes the operation of Belpex, the Belgian power transmission spot market, and its linking with the French (Powernext) and Dutch (APX) auction-style day-ahead spot markets. A last part deals with the extension of this trilateral market to other European countries. Content: Belpex day-ahead market (DAM) (Goals of the DAM: Provide consumers with a wider choice of electrical energy sources, Enable the ARP's to optimize their portfolio in terms of imbalance costs, Reduce trade and credit risks for market players compared with the risks involved in concluding bilateral contracts, Provide economic players with a transparent price benchmark, Stimulate the opening of the electricity market); Market model Product (description, Contracts, Collateral calculation, From 12 January to launch date Corporate and Legal Aspects, Next developments); Trilateral Market Coupling (What is market coupling and what are the benefits?, Implementation of trilateral market coupling ('TLC') in France/Belgium/Netherlands, From Trilateral to Multilateral, Implementation of Trilateral Market Coupling (TLC) in France/Belgium/Netherlands, Decentralized market coupling mechanism, influence of import and export on area prices); Decentralized market coupling (2 countries Situations: unconstrained/constrained, Decentralized market coupling: 3 countries, High Level Properties of Market Coupling, Maximize flow until prices across link converge (or ATC limit reached), Power flows from low price area to high price area, Implementing a decentralized technical approach, Market Coupling Daily Process, Impact on Existing Exchange Arrangements, Implementing a decentralized contractual approach, TLC Project Process); From Trilateral to Multilateral (Geographic extensions, Towards an Open and Multilateral Market Coupling, Management of Interconnection Capacities, Interconnection Capacities: current situation, TSO Roles and Responsibilities in the TLC, Other Import/Export products

  13. Integrating gas and electric markets and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    The issues determining what energy companies must do to compete in an increasingly competitive energy market and what regulators must do to ensure fairness in competition were discussed. The similarities of gas and electric markets, and the factors driving their integration were highlighted. The importance of communications and customer service in the energy market and the nature of market power in the gas and electric industries was described. Three reasons were given why gas/electric mergers will be beneficial: (1) operating efficiency, (2) applying gas experience to electric markets, and (3) opportunity to exercise market power. Potential regulatory problems were also reviewed

  14. RELATIONSHIP MARKETING IN THE TOURIST SERVICES SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Cosic

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Marketing concept is widely applied in the contemporary conditions of business operations at the tourist market. However traditional marketing concept is more and more subjected to essential changes, firstly through strategic orientation of tourist companies and tourist destinations which are focused at developing relationships with potentional consumers as well as at maintaining and improving relationships with active consumers and stakeholders at the market.This paper is dealing with pointing out essential differences between traditional and relationship marketing, as well as analysing fields of activities in which key changes towards need for relationship marketing implementation are taking place and will take place.

  15. Trilateral market coupling. Algorithm appendix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    Market Coupling is both a mechanism for matching orders on the exchange and an implicit cross-border capacity allocation mechanism. Market Coupling improves the economic surplus of the coupled markets: the highest purchase orders and the lowest sale orders of the coupled power exchanges are matched, regardless of the area where they have been submitted; matching results depend however on the Available Transfer Capacity (ATC) between the coupled hubs. Market prices and schedules of the day-ahead power exchanges of the several connected markets are simultaneously determined with the use of the Available Transfer Capacity defined by the relevant Transmission System Operators. The transmission capacity is thereby implicitly auctioned and the implicit cost of the transmission capacity from one market to the other is the price difference between the two markets. In particular, if the transmission capacity between two markets is not fully used, there is no price difference between the markets and the implicit cost of the transmission capacity is null. Market coupling relies on the principle that the market with the lowest price exports electricity to the market with the highest price. Two situations may appear: either the Available Transfer Capacity (ATC) is large enough and the prices of both markets are equalized (price convergence), or the ATC is too small and the prices cannot be equalized. The Market Coupling algorithm takes as an input: 1 - The Available Transfer Capacity (ATC) between each area for each flow direction and each Settlement Period of the following day (i.e. for each hour of following day); 2 - The (Block Free) Net Export Curves (NEC) of each market for each hour of the following day, i.e., the difference between the total quantity of Divisible Hourly Bids and the total quantity of Divisible Hourly Offers for each price level. The NEC reflects a market's import or export volume sensitivity to price. 3 - The Block Orders submitted by the participants in

  16. Trilateral market coupling. Algorithm appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    Market Coupling is both a mechanism for matching orders on the exchange and an implicit cross-border capacity allocation mechanism. Market Coupling improves the economic surplus of the coupled markets: the highest purchase orders and the lowest sale orders of the coupled power exchanges are matched, regardless of the area where they have been submitted; matching results depend however on the Available Transfer Capacity (ATC) between the coupled hubs. Market prices and schedules of the day-ahead power exchanges of the several connected markets are simultaneously determined with the use of the Available Transfer Capacity defined by the relevant Transmission System Operators. The transmission capacity is thereby implicitly auctioned and the implicit cost of the transmission capacity from one market to the other is the price difference between the two markets. In particular, if the transmission capacity between two markets is not fully used, there is no price difference between the markets and the implicit cost of the transmission capacity is null. Market coupling relies on the principle that the market with the lowest price exports electricity to the market with the highest price. Two situations may appear: either the Available Transfer Capacity (ATC) is large enough and the prices of both markets are equalized (price convergence), or the ATC is too small and the prices cannot be equalized. The Market Coupling algorithm takes as an input: 1 - The Available Transfer Capacity (ATC) between each area for each flow direction and each Settlement Period of the following day (i.e. for each hour of following day); 2 - The (Block Free) Net Export Curves (NEC) of each market for each hour of the following day, i.e., the difference between the total quantity of Divisible Hourly Bids and the total quantity of Divisible Hourly Offers for each price level. The NEC reflects a market's import or export volume sensitivity to price. 3 - The Block Orders submitted by the

  17. Coordination of Nordic system operators in the electric power market - profit from improved capacity utilization and a more flexible division into price zones; Koordinering av nordiske systemoperatoerer i kraftmarkedet - gevinster ved bedret kapasitetsutnyttelse og mer fleksibel prisomraadeinndeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Mette; Joernsten, Kurt

    2001-08-01

    This report evaluates the possible profits of establishing a common system operator function in the Nordic electric power market. The main focus is placed on how to deal with congestion in the transmission grid. To estimate possible profits from a better utilization of the resources in the Nordic grid, the authors have analyzed socio-economic profits for several load scenarios. A simplified model of the Nordic stock area was used in the calculations. The existence of two methods of dealing with congestion in the grid may lead to reduced capacity utilization and to greater price differences than necessary. The examples show that ''indirect'' congestion control may be very expensive and that considerable cost reduction can be achieved by improved exploitation of congestion. This implies that if the Nordic area is divided into price zones, it is advantageous to regard the grid as an entity independent of national borders and system operators and to let the real transmission limitations determine the price zoning.

  18. Markets in New England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    Bay State Gas Company is a large American natural gas local distribution company which provides unbundled services and unbundled gas transportation service to about 306,000 residential, commercial and industrial customers in Massachusetts, Maine and New Hampshire. They operate as Northern Utilities Inc. in Maine and New Hampshire. Bay State Gas Company recently announced a strategic merger with NIPSCO Industries. The merger will allow the company to take advantage of opportunities that stem from their location in a high growth potential region, and the growth potential associated with retail unbundling. New England is a small natural gas market with an annual consumption of about 600 BCF, but the market is greatly under saturated. Only 31 per cent of New England homes heat with natural gas compared to 54 per cent of the U.S. as a whole. Three important changes in the New England energy market have been identified that will help the natural gas industry grow in the region: (1) unbundling of retail natural gas markets, (2) deregulation of electric markets, and (3) development of a new pipeline infrastructure. 7 figs

  19. Difficult marketing; Schwierige Vermarktung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentzing, Sascha

    2013-02-15

    With the new edition of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) at 1st January 2012, the market premium model becomes effective in order to implement the green electricity into the electricity market better. With this, the operators of photovoltaic power plants switched from the fixed EEG compensation for electricity to direct marketing. The market premium model provides that only 90% of the power generated by large photovoltaic power plants on roofs of buildings are compensated via EEG corresponding to 0.15 Euro/kWh. The remaining 10% is compensated only with 0.045 Euro/kWh which complies with the actual stock exchange value. If one is not very happy with this solution, one has to consume the excess power by its own or to sell the excess power to third parties. The own consumption would be the easier solution. But the own consumption is usually not possible because the most large photovoltaic power plants are installed on roofs of commercial and public buildings. Consequently, the operators of these photovoltaic power plants have to sell the excess power to third parties. This is associated with many imponderables and additional costs.

  20. Marketing insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiemer, Carolin; Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Jespersen, Kristjan

    2018-01-01

    In entering Western markets, edible insects are typically framed as the ‘solution’ to a number of challenges caused by unsustainable global food systems, such as climate change and global health issues. In addition, some media outlets also frame insects as the next ‘superfood’. Superfood is a mar......In entering Western markets, edible insects are typically framed as the ‘solution’ to a number of challenges caused by unsustainable global food systems, such as climate change and global health issues. In addition, some media outlets also frame insects as the next ‘superfood’. Superfood...... is a marketing term for nutrient-packed foods, which are successfully promoted to Western consumers with the promises of health, well-being and beauty. However, the increase in the demand in the West is argued to cause negative social, environmental, economic and cultural consequences – externalities – felt...

  1. Prediction Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Christian Franz; Ivens, Bjørn Sven; Ohneberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, Prediction Markets gained growing interest as a forecasting tool among researchers as well as practitioners, which resulted in an increasing number of publications. In order to track the latest development of research, comprising the extent and focus of research, this article...... provides a comprehensive review and classification of the literature related to the topic of Prediction Markets. Overall, 316 relevant articles, published in the timeframe from 2007 through 2013, were identified and assigned to a herein presented classification scheme, differentiating between descriptive...... works, articles of theoretical nature, application-oriented studies and articles dealing with the topic of law and policy. The analysis of the research results reveals that more than half of the literature pool deals with the application and actual function tests of Prediction Markets. The results...

  2. MARKETING CULTURAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gómez Ramírez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la definición de "Marketing" Cultural y la adaptación y beneficios del "marketing" tradicional respecto al conjunto de manifestaciones artísticas de las diversas industrias involucradas en el sector cultural o artístico; asimismo, se desagregan los conceptos básicos que lo componen como factor de éxito en dichas empresas. Se hace uso de la exposición de casos específicos para ilustrar la articulación de estos dos conceptos aparentemente contrapuestos, cultura y "marketing", y registra algunas reflexiones para que el lector se involucre en la construcción del concepto aquí presentado.

  3. Postmodernist marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Radenković-Šošić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The traits of postmodernist communication with consumers are based on the transmission of postmodernist concepts in the area of marketing and communication with consumers. The paper offers an overview of the basic semiological points of interpretation of commercial messages, especially the semiotic square pioneered by Jean-Marie Floch, as well as offering an analysis of commercial messages according to the most prominent traits of postmodernist marketing: creating the effect of hyperreality, fragmentary communication, and displacement of reality, bringing opposites together and accepting difference. The results of the analysis confirm the hypothesized high level of congruence of certain postmodernist traits of marketing with messages which emphasize the ludist and utopian values of products.

  4. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    After four days of breathtaking plunges, the Chinese stock market recovered to a period of steady growth thanks to encouragement from various government departments. The Chinese central bank will probably raise the interest rate in June after food prices increased dramatically in May. More good news for foreign banks. Early this month, the central bank allowed foreign banks to trade gold on the Chinese gold market and they are now able to issue bankcards in the country. Lenovo Group, China’s leading PC producer, is dedicated to exploring the rural market to boost its competitiveness. China Mobile will seek bidders to offer cell-phone handsets, a package worth 4-6 billion yuan.

  5. Market Sociality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Christian; Lange, Ann-Christina

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a critical systematic discussion of Shiller’s writings from the late 1970s to the present, as well as an examination of the social-psychological assumptions on which his work is built. We argue that Shiller’s work displays a tension between mimetic and anti-mimetic tendencies......, i.e. between understanding financial markets as captured by fads and fashions (mimesis), and at the same time understanding such markets on the basis of a notion of homo economicus (an essentially anti-mimetic figure). Identifying that tension not only sheds novel light on Shiller’s work, but also...... allows us to critically discuss Mirowski’s negative appraisal of Shiller’s behavioural finance programme. Further, we argue that the mimetic/anti-mimetic tension in Shiller’s work can equally be identified in a broader range of theories about financial markets, and that attending to it therefore opens up...

  6. Looking Back on the Stock Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Looking back at the ups and downs of China's stock market in 2007,it is clear that it has developed far beyond people's expectation. While the stock index constantly reaches new highs and the size of the market becomes larger and larger, the Chinese financial market has also reintegrated. A multi-level revolution occurred in 2007, involving changes in stock structure, the variety of core composition, chip cost of the capital market, investor makeup, as well as trade rules and operational methods.

  7. Multilevel marketing společnosti Amway

    OpenAIRE

    Drozdková, Markéta

    2010-01-01

    This thesis analyses effectiveness and principles of multilevel marketing as a possible way of selling products and services. Theoretical part describes basis of marketing and direct selling, which is the basis of multilevel marketing. The thesis also states illegal forms of selling that misuse the advantages of multilevel marketing. Pracical part applies gained knowledge on Amway corporation and it atteds to operation of the company, which is evaluated by SWOT analysis.

  8. European commission report on market opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    Governments must step up their effort to implement measures relating to market opening within the framework of the directives on gas and electricity. Only greater integration of national markets will produce the improvements required from a competitive point of view on the domestic energy market. These are the main conclusions of the annual report on domestic electricity and gas market operation adopted by the European Commission at the beginning of January 2005. (author)

  9. Electricity market design for the future

    OpenAIRE

    robinson, david; Keay, Malcolm

    2017-01-01

    This paper explains why current electricity markets are not fit for purpose and propose a new market design. Electricity markets operating today were designed for the technical and economic conditions of the 1990's. These conditions have changed substantially, especially with increased penetration of intermittent renewables and the growing potential for distributed energy resources and consumer involvement. Today's markets are incompatible with these trends. They do not provide h...

  10. International EUREKA: Market Segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    The purpose of the Market Segment of the EUREKA model is to simultaneously project uranium market prices, uranium supply and purchasing activities. The regional demands are extrinsic. However, annual forward contracting activities to meet these demands as well as inventory requirements are calculated. The annual price forecast is based on relatively short term, forward balances between available supply and desired purchases. The forecasted prices and extrapolated price trends determine decisions related to exploration and development, new production operations, and the operation of existing capacity. Purchasing and inventory requirements are also adjusted based on anticipated prices. The calculation proceeds one year at a time. Conditions calculated at the end of one year become the starting conditions for the calculation in the subsequent year

  11. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing activities continue to lose steam as the purchasing managers index drops for the third consecutive month. The U.S.retail giant Best Buy trims its China presence after struggling to survive amidcut-throat competition. But an increasing number of U.S. companies are still expanding into China to cash in on the vibrant market. The aluminum behemoth Chalco jumps back into the black due to growing prices of thelight metal. China’s leading portal website Sina makes a push into the online shopping market by acquiring a stake in an online apparel retailer.

  12. Marketing relacional

    OpenAIRE

    Lahuerta Cuartero, Ainara

    2015-01-01

    El Marketing Relacional es una herramienta de marketing a través del cual las empresas tratan de fidelizar a sus clientes mediante determinados programas de fidelización. Se deben tener en cuenta una serie de aspectos a la hora de llevas a cabo esta herramienta como por ejemplo, la imagen de marca, la comunicación o la credibilidad de la empresa. Renfe es una empresa que se preocupa por la satisfacción de los clientes y por ello pone a disposición de estos multitud de ventajas (descuentos, pr...

  13. EMERGING MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE CARALICEA-MĂRCULESCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The emerging markets are winning the currency war, because at this very moment its the battle of global financial institutions , as to who is more vulnerable and more exposed to the debt crisis and have their hands in more risky assets. US and Euro with their intertwining the financial stuff of the nation, the banks and the corporations are in a deep mess. One goes down, takes the other ones too. Right now , they all are struggling and getting beaten up , while the emerging markets are quiet and not really expressing their stands on the current situation except are reacting by all only putting their own houses in order.

  14. Marketing percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, J.; Libai, B.; Solomon, S.; Jan, N.; Stauffer, D.

    2000-09-01

    A percolation model is presented, with computer simulations for illustrations, to show how the sales of a new product may penetrate the consumer market. We review the traditional approach in the marketing literature, which is based on differential or difference equations similar to the logistic equation (Bass, Manage. Sci. 15 (1969) 215). This mean-field approach is contrasted with the discrete percolation on a lattice, with simulations of "social percolation" (Solomon et al., Physica A 277 (2000) 239) in two to five dimensions giving power laws instead of exponential growth, and strong fluctuations right at the percolation threshold.

  15. Mobil marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Engelová, Kateřina

    2006-01-01

    Mobil marketing - reklama a podpora prodeje prostřednictvím mobilních telefonů. Technologické a kulturní předpoklady vzniku tohoto odvětví. Mobil marketing a marketingový mix, možnosti synergie. Nástroje mobil marketingu - reklamní SMS a MMS, lokační služby, soutěže, ankety a hlasování, věrnostní systémy, mobilní obsah. Subjekty mobil marketingu. M-komerce. Využití pro podnikové aplikace.

  16. Digital Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jerry Wind; Vijay Mahajan

    2002-01-01

    The digital revolution has shaken marketing to its core with consumers being offered greater price transparency and often even the chance to dictate the price. What does pricing mean in a world in which customers propose their own prices (as at priceline.com) or buyers and sellers haggle independently in auctions (as at e-Bay)? The most significant changes in the digital marketing show the emergence of 'cyber consumers', the cyber business-to-business world and the changing reality of an incr...

  17. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    TO THE POINT: China’s foreign trade records monthly drop again, with February’s deficit reaching $7.3 billion. The feverish auto market is calming down, with February sales dropping 33.1 percent from a month ago. Chinese thermal power generators are facing serious head- winds as the coal price increases. Ernst & Young’s report shows China racing ahead of other countries in renewable energy investments. The U.S. coupon website Groupon.com extends its reach into China, but its prospects remain uncertain. Digital advertiser Focus Media is faring well thanks to a booming advertising market in China.

  18. Development Strategy for Mobilecommunications Market in Chinese Rural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liwei; Zhang, Yanjun; Xu, Liying; Li, Daoliang

    Based on full analysis of rural mobile communication market, in order to explore mobile operators in rural areas of information services for sustainable development model, this paper presents three different aspects, including rural mobile communications market demand, the rural market for mobile communications business model and development strategies for rural mobile communications market research business. It supplies some valuable references for operators to develop rural users rapidly, develop the rural market effectively and to get access to develop a broad space.

  19. Electricity market readiness plan : Ontario Energy Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    This document informs electric power market participants of the Ontario Energy Board's newly developed market readiness plan and target timelines that local distribution companies (LDCs) must meet for retail marketing. The Ontario Energy Board's plan incorporates relevant independent market operator (IMO)-administered market milestones with retail market readiness targeted for September 2001. The market readiness framework involves a self-certification process for LDCs by August 10, 2001, through which the Board will be able to monitor progress and assess the feasibility of meeting the target timelines. For retail market readiness, all LDCs will have to calculate settlement costs, produce unbundled bills, provide standard supply service, change suppliers and accommodate retail transactions. LDCs must be either authorized participants in the IMO-administered market or become retail customers of their host LDC. Unbundled bills will include itemized charges for energy price, transmission, distribution and debt retirement charge. 1 tab., 1 fig

  20. Optimal electricity market for wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holttinen, H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper is about electricity market operation when looking from the wind power producers' point of view. The focus in on market time horizons: how many hours there is between the closing and delivering the bids. The case is for the Nordic countries, the Nordpool electricity market and the Danish wind power production. Real data from year 2001 was used to study the benefits of a more flexible market to wind power producer. As a result of reduced regulating market costs from better hourly predictions to the market, wind power producer would gain up to 8% more if the time between market bids and delivery was shortened from the day ahead Elspot market (hourly bids by noon for 12-36 h ahead). An after sales market where surplus or deficit production could be traded 2 h before delivery could benefit the producer almost as much, gaining 7%

  1. A rigged market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, M.

    2000-01-01

    The mobile rig market remains a unique sector of the global upstream oil and gas industry. Big oil is continuing to emerge blinking from the darkness of its recent cash-starved existence to bask in the glory of a resurgent oil price. But the rig sector is once again lagging behind the pace being set by operators as they open up their wallets for new or delayed exploration and production projects. This paper gives statistics on worldwide count and contracts

  2. Growth prospects for the Brazilian reinsurance market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Honorato Teixeira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2008, resolution 168 of the National Council of Private Insurance (CNSP allowed international reinsurers to request authorization to operate in Brazil from the Superintendence of Private Insurance (SUSEP. This led to changes in the insurance and reinsurance markets. There is a lack of in-depth studies to evaluate the growth of the reinsurance market since its effective opening, taking into account macroeconomic factors and market reserve. This study aims to evaluate the size of the reinsurance market by examining: the main sectors of business that yield reinsurance, market concentration, share of GDP, and expectations for future growth. The main objective of this paper is to provide companies in the reinsurance segment with assistance in identifying the potential market, understanding its complexity: their main competitors, and possible operational niches. In addition, it provides new and existing reinsurers with an overview of difficulties in the market and the strategic positioning that the company must adopt in order to act more effectively within the industry. To achieve these goals, it analyzes the reinsurance market in detail, proposes methods or steps to take to define strategic positioning in the market, and offers a graphic "Performance vs. Importance Matrix." There is potential demand available to the insurance market which remains unmet. Despite the initial difficulties for companies operating in the sector, the market has demonstrated its potential for continued growth since its effective opening, which will ultimately attract reinsurers, making the market highly competitive.Key words: Reinsurance. Insurance. Growth Perspective.

  3. Pharmaceutical Distribution Market Channels in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Woś

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Distribution on the pharmaceutical market in Poland is interesting and the most difficult sphere to manage. Numerous varied and specialized companies operating on the market cause that the processes of choosing middlemen in distribution channels are very complex. The hereby article presents the role and location of the companies operating within distribution channels on the pharmaceutical market. It draws attention to the development of non-pharmacy and non-wholesale sales channels.

  4. Characteristics of the Romanian energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stet, M.

    2017-05-01

    This paper highlights the main characteristics of the energy market in Romania. Starting from the mode of organization and operation of the electricity market, there are revealed prices and tariffs for electricity for different categories of customers and their evolution in time. There are pointed also ways of setting electricity prices and tariffs, taking into account the expenditures actually recorded by economic operators.

  5. Importance of marketing activities in a company : the management perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Urbonavičius, Sigitas; Dikčius, Vytautas

    2008-01-01

    The article analyses how managers of companies see the importance of the overall marketing function as the importance of certain types of marketing activities. These types include typical areas of 4 Ps as well as marketing planning and marketing research activities. The research is based on a survey of 205 managers of primarily manufacturing and trading companies that operate in Lithuania. Managers evaluated marketing planning and distribution as the most important marketing functions, while ...

  6. Marketing deportivo

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Montaña, Nelson Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    El marketing deportivo en nuestro país y sus repercusiones en el mundo, es una clara herramienta para el desarrollo del mercadeo, y muestra las tendencias mundiales que ejemplifican de alguna forma el desarrollo de la industria deportiva como también el apoyo a sponsorizacion en los deportes

  7. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2010-01-01

    @@ Online Ad Boom According to a report delivered by iResearch Consulting Group, a market researcher that specializes in Web-related studies, the Chinese online advertisement value in 2009 soared 21.2 percent year on year to reach 20.61 billion yuan($3 billion).

  8. Market Power in Laboratory Emission Permit Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godby, R.

    2002-01-01

    Many proposals suggesting the use of markets to control pollution assume markets will be competitive. When markets do not exhibit competitive characteristics, however, should they still be expected to result in efficiency improvement relative to traditional approaches? This paper employs experimental economic methods to examine the effect of market structure on the use of marketable emissions permits. Results indicate that in a market with one dominant firm and a number of fringe firms, strategic manipulation occurs repeatedly in the laboratory as predicted by market power models, undermining the allocative and dynamic efficiency benefits such markets offer. When firms compete in a downstream product market dominated by the same single firm, market efficiency can actually be reduced with the implementation of permit markets. Final market efficiencies reflect initial endowments and are influenced by competitive conditions elsewhere in the economy, indicating that policy-makers should carefully consider whether markets are appropriate in such circumstances

  9. The marketing of partial hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsap, P; Brown, E; Kiser, L; Pruitt, D

    1987-09-01

    Health-care professionals are currently operating in the context of a rapidly changing health-care delivery system, including the move away from inpatient services to outpatient services in order to control costs. Those who practice in partial-hospital settings are in a position to offer effective, cost-efficient services; however, there continue to be obstacles which hinder appropriate utilization of the modality. The development and use of a well-designed marketing plan is one strategy for removing these obstacles. This paper presents a brief overview of the marketing process, ideas for developing a marketing plan, and several examples of specific marketing strategies as well as ways to monitor their effectiveness. Partial-hospital providers must take an active role in answering the calls for alternative sources of psychiatric care. A comprehensive, education-oriented marketing approach will increase the public's awareness of such alternatives and enable programs to survive in a competitive environment.

  10. From physical marketing to web marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constantinides, Efthymios

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the criticism of the 4P marketing mix framework as the basis of traditional and virtual marketing planning. Argues that the customary marketing management approach, based on the popular marketing mix 4Ps paradigm, is inadequate in the case of virtual marketing. Identifies two main

  11. Marketing Optimization for B2B Market

    OpenAIRE

    Kaynova Tatyana V.

    2012-01-01

    The article presents market definition B2B, the necessity to optimize marketing B2B market, provides a system for B2B-marketing and developed stages of its formation. On this basis it was identified key factors of customer loyalty and are the stages of development of loyalty programs for customers market B2B.

  12. Utilizing of marketing research for marketing communication

    OpenAIRE

    Bielová, Zuzana

    2008-01-01

    The subject of bachelor's thesis "Utilizing of marketing research for marketing communication" is analyze problematic of marketing communications in sector of educational services. The aims are potential clients of education. I will try to make out import of marketing research for marketing communication of the company.

  13. Marketing Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  14. Entrepreneurship and marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorchuk, Roman

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship marketing and entrepreneurship. Marketing considered as an integral part of entrepreneurship. Commit role in relationship marketing and entrepreneurship innovation. The role of marketing in the search for potential market demand of innovation as the scope of latent or unmet needs of customers. Shown the lack of marketing in today's special marketing tools for entrepreneurs.

  15. Distributed generation hits market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The pace at which vendors are developing and marketing gas turbines and reciprocating engines for small-scale applications may signal the widespread growth of distributed generation. Loosely defined to refer to applications in which power generation equipment is located close to end users who have near-term power capacity needs, distributed generation encompasses a broad range of technologies and load requirements. Disagreement is inevitable, but many industry observers associate distributed generation with applications anywhere from 25 kW to 25 MW. Ten years ago, distributed generation users only represented about 2% of the world market. Today, that figure has increased to about 4 or 5%, and probably could settle in the 20% range within a 3-to-5-year period, according to Michael Jones, San Diego, Calif.-based Solar Turbines Inc. power generation marketing manager. The US Energy Information Administration predicts about 175 GW of generation capacity will be added domestically by 2010. If 20% comes from smaller plants, distributed generation could account for about 35 GW. Even with more competition, it's highly unlikely distributed generation will totally replace current market structures and central stations. Distributed generation may be best suited for making market inroads when and where central systems need upgrading, and should prove its worth when the system can't handle peak demands. Typical applications include small reciprocating engine generators at remote customer sites or larger gas turbines to boost the grid. Additional market opportunities include standby capacity, peak shaving, power quality, cogeneration and capacity rental for immediate demand requirements. Integration of distributed generation systems--using gas-fueled engines, gas-fired combustion engines and fuel cells--can upgrade power quality for customers and reduce operating costs for electric utilities

  16. Market Structure and Market Access

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Francois; Ian Wooton

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine an issue at the nexus of domestic competition policy and international trade, the interaction between goods trade and market power in domestic trade and distribution sectors. Theory suggests a set of linkages between service-sector competition and goods trade supported by econometrics involving imports of 22 OECD countries compared with 69 exporters. Competition in serv...

  17. Responsible marketing for sustainable tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Jegdić Vaso

    2014-01-01

    The biggest challenge associated with the concept of sustainable tourism is its operationalisation and perception as a process to be applied through development plans, projects and ongoing activities of tour operators. The traditional approach to marketing, focused on a limited idea of maximising profit businesses, was not able to respond to a number of social and environmental requirements imposed by the concept of sustainable development. This paper discusses the ways in which marketing cou...

  18. Marketing of the online communities

    OpenAIRE

    Pražan, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The Bachelor Thesis "Marketing of the online communities" is devoted to online virtual communities, one of the phenomena of the current Internet. Goal of this thesis is to determine the factors that predispose the successful operation of online communities. The thesis defines the essentials features of social media, characterized by online communities and their role in marketing. It deals with strategic and tactical aspects of building and maintaining successful online communities. Based on t...

  19. The Victorian gas market: debunking the myths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimwade, T

    2001-01-01

    The Victorian wholesale gas spot market has operated effectively and trouble-free for over two years. VENCorp's Executive Manager of Energy Markets, reflects on the market experiences to date, and argues that Victoria's physical pipeline system characteristics require its market to be 'different' from those in the other States in Australia. The Victorian gas transmission system in not predominantly comprised of a single point-to-point pipeline; it is rather a 'meshed' network, with multiple point of supply. Gas flow on substantial sections of the transmission pipeline can be bi-directional, depending on market and demand conditions. Consequently, Victoria's wholesale spot market has been designed to address operational and market issues due to the physical characteristics of the Victorian gas pipeline system

  20. Promoting healthy competition across the energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    As of August 1 last year, Finland's Electricity Market Authority became the Energy Market Authority. The timing of the change coincided with the introduction of Finland's new Natural Gas Market Act and reflected the extension of the Authority's responsibility to cover promoting healthy and efficient competition on both the electricity and natural gas market and to secure reasonable and equitable service principles in the operations of both networks. The Electricity Market Authority began operations in mid-1995 as an expert body subordinate to the Ministry of Trade and industry when Finland's Electricity Market Act came into force, bringing with it a phased opening-up of the Finnish electricity market. The principle task of the Authority was, and remains, to supervise the pricing of transmission, distribution, and other network services, and to ensure a healthy level of competition

  1. New Brunswick Market Design Committee : market design issues paper : choice of market model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A model for the competitive electricity market in New Brunswick was not specified by the White Paper: New Brunswick Energy Policy, published in March 2001. One of the tasks of the Market Design Committee (MDC) is to select a market model for the province. This report was prepared with this objective in mind. It begins by providing a description of the basic functions that must be performed by any electricity system. Different market models will function differently, and a descriptions of how the functions would be performed under each model is presented. Considering the specific size and geographic location of New Brunswick, a number of actual markets that could be of interest are presented. The various electricity markets normally use one of four market models: vertically integrated monopoly utility, a competitive pool market, a bilateral contract market, and a single-buyer market. The first model was not explained as it represents the existing, non-competitive model whereby the government owns and/or regulates price and investment decision. The case where a market operator receives bids and offers from buyers and sellers and matches them to derive a price and schedule for the spot market is what is called the competitive pool market. When electricity trade takes place through a series of contracts between individual buyers and sellers, it is referred to as a bilateral contract market. Finally, the single-buyer market is defined as a monopoly where the buyer purchases from multiple sellers based on competition amongst them. Different examples are provided of applications of the three markets described in the paper. Both New England and New Zealand were chosen to better illustrate the concepts of a fully competitive pool-based market, as they either have close ties to New Brunswick, or share physical similarities. The single-buyer model is illustrated by the case of Northern Ireland where size is similar. The choices made in Quebec were described in the final

  2. Decision Support Systems as the Bridge between Marketing Models and Marketing Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Wierenga (Berend)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe field of marketing decision models emerged about fifty years ago. In the beginning, optimization techniques from the field of Operations Research (OR) were dominant, but soon, the modeling of marketing phenomena and marketing problems became interesting in itself, irrespective of

  3. Being Critical in Marketing Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dholakia, Nikilesh

    2012-01-01

    review the research spaces for critical studies of marketing in various global settings and conclude that United Kingdom and Nordic Europe have the best epistemic climate, and this region needs to take leadership in promoting greater range of macro and critical studies of marketing in the rest......In this article, I argue that an elevated macro-level perspective is imperative for conducting critical studies in the fields of marketing and consumer research. There are epistemic barriers to operating in this manner, and I offer several suggestions for overcoming these barriers. Finally, I...

  4. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The drought in southwest China casts an ominous shadow over the prospects of many listed power and chemical companies suffering from the disaster.Taiwan’s economy is expected to draw strength from a shopping spree by mainland businessmen starting in April.In an effort to take heat out of the burning hot real estate sector,China is forcing 78 centrally administered state-owned enterprises out of the property market.Air China gains control of Shenzhen Airlines in a move to enhance its market presence in Guangdong Province.China Unicom reports slim profits due to rising 3G network spending.Alibaba.com,the country’s largest e-commerce website,taps the booming small and medium-sized enterprise sector of Brazil.

  5. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    According to November economic figures, the Chinese economy is on track for recovery on all fronts. The logistics industry recoups its strength, though woes on the trade front require more time to fully recover. By partly withdrawing tax incentives for prospective real estate and auto buyers, China aims to calm the bubbling markets. Auto behemoth General Motors forges a joint venture with Shanghai Automotive Industry Corp. Group to maneuver into the emerging Indian auto market. Canadian handset maker RIM launches a version of the BlackBerry that supports the TD network of China Mobile for millions of individual users in China. Siemens makes a push into green business in China with a 2-billion-yuan ($293 million) sale.

  6. A market in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, N.

    2014-01-01

    In March 2011, the uranium market was hit hard by the Fukushima disaster, which stalled the growth in nuclear reactor requirements and is still having a profound effect today with zero Japanese nuclear reactors in operation. To make matters worse, the evolving shale gas revolution has made it difficult for many U.S. merchant nuclear plants to compete with gas-fired plants, leading some of these plants to shut down early. As Japanese nuclear plants remain offline, uranium inventories have been building, with the market currently sitting on excess supply of about 14 million pounds U3O8 [~5,400 t U] for 2014. Due to the current oversupply situation, uranium prices have moved below where the true equilibrium likely should be, especially given that 50% of current uranium production is at a full cost above the current spot price of $35 per pound [91 USD/kg U]. Although new uranium projects are planned over the next few years, they are not assured of coming online unless market conditions improve. And with more production cutbacks eminent due to the unfavorable economics for some operating and planned uranium mines, the market could find itself in a volatile situation in only a few years with Chinese nuclear generation expected to grow rapidly, and new countries such as the U.A.E. and Saudi Arabia advancing their nuclear power programs. In fact, the pullback in both the spot and long-term uranium prices over the past three years could again create a problem for the market over the next few years since there is currently less impetus to expand uranium production or engage in exploration. With global nuclear reactor requirements still increasing significantly in the medium- to long-term, more requisite new production will have to be brought online, especially with the U.S.-Russia HEU deal having ended last year, which contributed to up to 24 million pounds of U_3O_8 [~9,200 tU] feed annually. In addition to transitioning from an inventory-driven market to a production

  7. Risk Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Boutang , Jérôme; De Lara , Michel

    2016-01-01

    In a modern world increasingly perceived as uncertain, the mere purchase of a household cleaning product, or a seemingly harmless bottle of milk, conveys interrogations about potential hazards, from environmental to health impacts. The main purpose of this article is to suggest that risk could be considered as one of the major dimensions of choice for a wide range of concerns and markets, alongside aspiration/satisfaction, and tackled efficiently by mobilizing the recent findings of cognitive...

  8. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    TO THE POINT: The Chinese central bank raised the interest rate for the fifth time this year but this had little impact on the property and stock mar- kets. Foreign direct investment and fixed asset investment saw moderate increases in the first eight months, partly because of the government’s tightening policies. Gold futures will be traded on the market. Online traders are now required to acquire business licenses from regulative bodies.

  9. Auto Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    <正> Editor’s notes: the "online investigation of the updated condition of auto market in China", organized by BAGAE together with 7 websites, ended recently. The participants were from 32 provinces, cities and autonomous regions throughout China. Diplomas of the 4,657 participants were generally high, of which college or/over accounted for 80.7%; the participants were mainly middle-aged and young people in which 92.1% were below 40 years old.

  10. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By expanding yuan settlement in cross-border trade andallowing cross-border direct investment in the yuan, China aims to pushforward the internationalization of its currency. House prices are still holding up inChina, but property developers are under increasing pressures. China’s goldmarket bursts with vitality as investors seek safety amid soaringinflation. The automaker BYD faces serious headwinds due to a plunge insales. The telecom giant China Mobile faces slower growth in its customerbase due to cutthroat market competition.

  11. Monitor consumers market electricity and natural gas 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalm, T.; Cordeweners, J.; Noorlander, M.; Kahl, E.

    2011-02-01

    This monitor maps the developments in the energy market for small users (consumers). It can be used to identify possible bottlenecks in this market. The monitoring report describes the energy market for consumers by means of six indicators that are relevant for the operation of the market: demand for products, prices, access and concentration, switching, transparency and service provision. [nl

  12. Academic Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Daniela ZECA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Academic Marketing is an investment in a future dominated by The Forth Industrial Revolution and Globalization and not an expense. This aspect will basically alter our way to teach and to learn. In its dimensions, arguably changes will be like anything we has seen before. We try to assess how will be all unfold but, anyway, academic field response at this challenge should be integrated and comprehensive, involving all stakeholders both public and private sectors, because these changes herald upheaval of whole organizations. The educational service is a special one, delivered today but with effects in the future, the future of the individual, the future of generation, the future of nations. The educational service policy adapted to the requirements of time, brings to the front the opportunity of academic marketing. To analyze demand in a professional way, to measure trends and correlated university programs with the forecast demand for jobs, it is the subject. In the case of academic education, we are talking also about cost, distribution and promotion policies, but being a special service we also discuss about ethic boundaries. This work is an open chapter focusing studies on academic megamarketing, the work keeping up with the pace of change, students enrolment mobility, overtakes job market, and an imposed win-win-win formula, applied for students, local community and academic field.

  13. Adapting the experience of the operating authorities to the coke plant and power plant engineering markets. Adapter l'experience d'exploitants aux marches de l'ingenierie des cokeries et centrales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, B [Charbonnages de France, Paris (France)

    1990-03-01

    Through its own engineering organization, created from the former engineering departments of the Houilleres de Bassins on markets abroad, Charbonnages de France (CdF) is exploiting its specific know-how in the field of extraction and use of coals. This exclusive know-how covers both coal conveying devices and the production of high quality cokes or the construction of power plants using fuels with low calorific values, all fields where CdF's techniques have acquired recognized experience both in design and in operations. This is because, during their careers, most of the engineers in CdF's engineering organization have run installations comparable to those which they are proposing to their clients. Among the recent tasks of CdF's engineering organization, those in the field of cogeneration and of circulating fluidized bed boilders should be given particular mention. In fact, CdF Engineering is the main contractor on the Carling 4 circulating fluidized bed boiler in Lorraine (electric power of 125 MW), and at Gardanne, at the Pechiney Aluminium plant, it constructed the first large industrial boiler of this type installed in France. And finally, it is now building, on the Island of La Reunion, a two-energy power plant, fed by both coal and bagasse (cane residue). 4 figs.

  14. Domestic Market Operations and Liquidity Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Baker; David Jacobs

    2010-01-01

    The stance of monetary policy in Australia is set in terms of a target for the cash rate. To keep the cash rate at the policy target, the Reserve Bank sets the supply of Exchange Settlement (ES) balances at a level consistent with demand. The level of ES balances changes when entities in the private banking system transact with the Reserve Bank and its clients, particularly the Australian Government. These changes need to be accurately forecast, so that they can be counterbalanced by the Rese...

  15. Operation, Investment and Hedging in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Rune Ramsdal

    inflexible generation more than flexible generation due to the exposure to potential low prices. In Chapter 4 we study the valuation of three representative generation types, an inflexible wind turbine, a flexible gas fired power plant and a hydroelectric plant that allows for storage. We account...... for the special characteristics of each technology and include uncertainty in both price and volume through diffusion or jump diffusion models. We find explicit expressions for the expected instantaneous value of wind generation as a function of electricity price and wind speed. We include startup and shutdown...... costs for the gas fired power plant determine the startup and shutdown triggers as well as the value of the plant by maximizing the value of shutting down. This is done analytically in the diffusion models and numerically in the jump diffusion model. For the hydroelectric power plant we relax storage...

  16. Marketing u prometu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Sabolović

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available New Views of Marketing in Passenger Railway Traffic in the Light of More Vigorous Orientation of the Croatian Railways on to Market-Aspected Operations Marketing in traffic has its specific features detennined by the characteristics of the users of service and the service itself The reported share of the railways in passenger transport in the year 1955 was approximately 80%. Since then, it has reported a stable decrease to reach bare 10% in the year 1980. In the decade of 1981 do 1990, first a slight increase in the number of passengers and then an abrupt drop and final stabilization of the share of the railways up to about 20% was listed. In an effort to increase the number of passengers the railways must employ new modem methods of marketing activity. At the same time it must create technical and technological prerequisites in order to become attractive again for the potential passengers. This calls for indispensable investments in rolling stock, advertising and promotion campaigns, and particularly in skilled manpower.

  17. Experience in open markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachman, G.; Way, R.; O'Donnell, J.

    1997-01-01

    The topic of discussion in this session was experience in open markets. The session was led by Guido Bachman, President of the Independent Power Producers' Society of Alberta (IPPSA), assisted by panel members Richard Way, Director of Energy Risk Management at TransAlta, John O'Donnell, Professor of Finance at Michigan State University, and Kelly Lail, Manager of Power Acquisition at B.C. Hydro. Way spoke of the experiences with market restructuring in Alberta, describing the consultative and legislative process which determined the structure of the Alberta Power Pool (APP). The Pool began operations in January 1996. Currently there are 33 participants from generators, to distributors and marketers. Supply and demand are managed by APP by setting an hourly price based on offers and bids. Both generators and distributors get the hourly pool price, so the input price and export price of the pool are the same, however, generators and distributors are free to enter into 'contract for difference' agreements. O'Donnell discussed the status of competition in Michigan. He stressed the importance of Ontario to the Michigan market, echoing the conviction of U.S. regulators that a freer economy works better. Kelly Lail spoke of the unbundling of B.C. Hydro into several generating, transmission and distribution companies in preparation for moving from exclusive service to exclusive wholesale competition. He predicted that the fierce competition will lead to a an industry shakeout, leaving only one big (B.C. Hydro) and a few niche players

  18. Marketing aspect of paramedical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugalić Sretenka L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available That's how the primary medical and ecological reasons as the well being for humanity came out of the satisfaction of specific health needs. Through operationally of these outcomes it tried to prove the need and the intentions of the customers, and through methodologies and strategies which stand to our service. Further developing activity acted as a useful to the innovation of the product and vertical structure of marketing, through the change in the way of thinking of the medical and pharmaceutical profession. The paper is concepted so that the received material inserted to the content part, do the following: 1. Meaning, characteristics and developing possibilities of phytotherapy; 2. Dimensions of market in managing of phytotherapic assortment. By observing the final results, which were obtained through means of representative sources and other research of phytotherapic products, it can be expected that the same can be applicable to broader spectrum in practice with kind input to the marketing ideas. Models, presented here, is meant to be for innovative applications in the medical marketing concept, by the results of wide spending in the food service industry (domain of dietetics, at manufacture of food for children at the manufacture of 'medical cosmetics' and cosmetic-druggist assortments (products for hygiene, shampoos, soap, creams and bubbles for bath.

  19. From physical marketing to web marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Constantinides, Efthymios

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the criticism of the 4P marketing mix framework as the basis of traditional and virtual marketing planning. Argues that the customary marketing management approach, based on the popular marketing mix 4Ps paradigm, is inadequate in the case of virtual marketing. Identifies two main limitations of the marketing mix when applied in online environments namely the role of the Ps in a virtual commercial setting and the lack of any strategic elements in the model. Identifies the critical fac...

  20. Does Online Marketing Truly Replace Traditional Marketing?

    OpenAIRE

    Gunawan, Emilia Margareth

    2013-01-01

    This review explains the way how online marketing has been replacing traditional marketing in terms of marketing mix. This replacement might happen, because online marketing can give advantages, i.e., offering on-time delivery, increasing effectiveness of two way interactions between buyer and seller, and creating online communities (Szmigin, et al, 2005). The transition of atoms to bits format reflects that tangible products in traditional marketing is being digitalized. The marketing strate...

  1. The restructuring of the Ontario electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doucet, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    A summary of the current status of the deregulation of the electricity market in Ontario was presented. To follow global deregulation trends, the Ontario Government has embarked on a considerable restructuring of the Ontario electricity market. The monopoly position of Ontario Hydro has been removed by restructuring the provincial utility into two separate companies, GENCO and SERVCO, which will be responsible for the generation and transmission and distribution of electricity, respectively. Other mechanisms put in place to favour a free and competitive market for electricity in the province, such as the arrival on the market of other electricity producers, and the establishment of the independent market operator, are also discussed. 2 tabs

  2. The offense of capital market manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura MANEA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The novelty and use of current technology in stock exchange trading operations are just a few reasons for which the capital market domain is a controversial one, and the number of crimes already committed in the financial market raises the issue of securing the supply-demand relationship of capital and capital investment protection. If in the Community law there is no incrimination of market abuse, Romanian legislature sanctioned the capital market manipulation as criminal acts committed intentionally in order to discourage such practices and also to increase the confidence of investors in the financial market

  3. Determinants of Livestock Prices in Ethiopian Pastoral Livestock Markets: Implications for Pastoral Marketing Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Belayneh, Hailemariam Teklewold; Feye, Getachew Legese; Alemu, Dawit; Negassa, Asfaw

    2009-01-01

    The major objective of this paper is to identify determinants of market prices for cattle, sheep and goat in the export market value chain starting from pastoral markets to export abattoirs and live animal exporters. The study is based on the information generated through a formal survey conducted in the major pastoral livestock markets of Ethiopia with 128 collectors, small and big traders, feedlot operators, live animal and meat exporters. Hedonic price formation model was used to analyze t...

  4. SELECTED MODELS OF RAIL MARKETS IN THE CONTEXT OF LIBERALIZATION OF THE RAIL MARKET IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystian Pietrzak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper author has made an attempt at presenting problems of the operation of European railway transport market against the background of changes taking place in the European Union transport market. These changes are the result of processes aimed at liberalizing the market. In addition, this article defines the conditions of reforms in the Eu-ropean rail market by highlighting various models of its functioning.

  5. Decision Support Systems as the Bridge between Marketing Models and Marketing Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Wierenga, Berend

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe field of marketing decision models emerged about fifty years ago. In the beginning, optimization techniques from the field of Operations Research (OR) were dominant, but soon, the modeling of marketing phenomena and marketing problems became interesting in itself, irrespective of whether they could be solved with a known OR technique. The field of marketing models developed its own identity and became an important academic field (Wierenga 2008b). Somewhat later the term "marke...

  6. Does the market maker stabilize the market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mei; Chiarella, Carl; He, Xue-Zhong; Wang, Duo

    2009-08-01

    The market maker plays an important role in price formation, but his/her behavior and stabilizing impact on the market are relatively unclear, in particular in speculative markets. This paper develops a financial market model that examines the impact on market stability of the market maker, who acts as both a liquidity provider and an active investor in a market consisting of two types of boundedly rational speculative investors-the fundamentalists and trend followers. We show that the market maker does not necessarily stabilize the market when he/she actively manages the inventory to maximize profits, and that rather the market maker’s impact depends on the behavior of the speculators. Numerical simulations show that the model is able to generate outcomes for asset returns and market inventories that are consistent with empirical findings.

  7. Market efficiency in foreign exchange markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan; Eom, Cheoljun

    2007-08-01

    We investigate the relative market efficiency in financial market data, using the approximate entropy(ApEn) method for a quantification of randomness in time series. We used the global foreign exchange market indices for 17 countries during two periods from 1984 to 1998 and from 1999 to 2004 in order to study the efficiency of various foreign exchange markets around the market crisis. We found that on average, the ApEn values for European and North American foreign exchange markets are larger than those for African and Asian ones except Japan. We also found that the ApEn for Asian markets increased significantly after the Asian currency crisis. Our results suggest that the markets with a larger liquidity such as European and North American foreign exchange markets have a higher market efficiency than those with a smaller liquidity such as the African and Asian markets except Japan.

  8. Renewables in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoudis, Christos; Papakonstantinou, Athanasios; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Electricity is nowadays commonly exchanged through electricity markets, designed in a context where dispatchable generators, with non-negligible marginal costs, were dominating. By depending primarily on conventional (fossil, hydro and nuclear) power generation based on marginal pricing...... not designed to take into account the uncertainty brought by the substantial variability and limited predictability associated with stochastic sources, most notably wind power and solar energy. Due to these developments, the need for decision making models able to account for the uncertainty introduced by high...... from renewables, and on the adaption of electricity market designs and power system operations to the aforementioned characteristics of renewables. Additionally, the aim of the research group is supplemented by providing the appropriate frameworks for secure future investments in the field...

  9. Marketing reporting system

    OpenAIRE

    Hanić Hasan M.

    2004-01-01

    The main components of a developed and good organized marketing information system are: internal reporting system, marketing reporting system, market research system and analytical marketing system. Marketing reporting system provides data and information about changes in business and micro marketing environment. This component of MIS ensures that marketing managers are up-to-date with what is going on, and to be informed about changes in company marketing environment.

  10. Marketing reporting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanić Hasan M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The main components of a developed and good organized marketing information system are: internal reporting system, marketing reporting system, market research system and analytical marketing system. Marketing reporting system provides data and information about changes in business and micro marketing environment. This component of MIS ensures that marketing managers are up-to-date with what is going on, and to be informed about changes in company marketing environment.

  11. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Pork prices in Beijing remained relatively stable despite the swine flu outbreak in Mexico. China’s job market is still in the doldrums with the registered urban jobless rising slightly in the first quarter. The government is preparing to issue the third tranche of its stimulus package. China Minmetals Corp. received approval from the Australian Treasury to buy the assets of Oz Minerals Ltd. There were signs that international hot money has started to leave China. Surveys indicate that new Chinese parents are shunning foreign baby-care products.

  12. Outperforming markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Rimmel, Gunnar; Yosano, Tadanori

    2015-01-01

    This article studies the effects of disclosure practices of Japanese IPO prospectuses on long-term stock performance and bid-ask spread, as a proxy for cost of capital, after a company is admitted to the stock exchange. A disclosure index methodology is applied to 120 IPO prospectuses from 2003....... Intellectual capital information leads to significantly better long-term performance against a reference portfolio, and is thus important to the capital market. Further, superior disclosure of IC reduces bid-ask spread in the long-term, indicating that such disclosures are important in an IPO setting. Analysts...

  13. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As illustrated by the current session of the Canton Fair,China’s exports are staging a swift comeback,though uncertainties lie ahead. In its drive toward a more sustainable economy,the country bumps up lending for the western regions and small businesses. Foreign banks are losing ground in China due to a lending spree by local rivals. Online travel agents scramble to pledge the lowest prices for hotels as they tap an over-crowded market. Also under pressure is China Mobile that recorded slower profit growth for the first quarter of the year. China launches an international commodities trading platform in Beijing on April 20.

  14. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    TO THE POINT: The Chinese Government, concerned about the stumbling domestic stock markets, has repeatedly emphasized the importance of "maintaining stability." China National Petroleum Corp. reported losses in its oil refinery business during the first half of the year. Domestic consumption, a major pillar of economic growth, rose substantially in June, up 23 percent year on year. Dabao, a well-known Chinese cosmetics brand, was officially acquired by Johnson & Johnson. China now plans to spend more money to help small and medium-sized companies boost employment.

  15. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Economic data for July indicated that pillar forces of the economy remained strong in July.Fixed-asset investment and retail sales are still soaring.Exports are also recouping some strength,growing over 38 percent in July.The CPI went up by 3.3 percent,a reflection of simmering inflationary jitters.House prices in 70 large and medium-sized cities rose 10.3 percent,the slowest pace in half a year.International grain prices head north,and threaten to filter through the Chinese market.

  16. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Controversies proliferate over Chinese automaker Geely’s plan to buy the Swedish car brand Volvo, as analysts discount the prospect over its ability to integrate with the up-scale car manufacturer. China plans a pilot program that equalizes on-grid tariffs for hydro-and coal-fired power. Centrally-administered property developers join the real estate craze to scoop up land in big cities, adding to looming concerns over the property bubble that is waiting to burst. The domestic tourism market continues to gather momentum, offsetting downturns of inbound travel. Digital advertiser Focus Media loses its shine, reporting a painful loss between April and June.

  17. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Canton Fair, a barometer of the country’s export health, continued to send worrying signals as foreign buyers skimped on orders for Chinese products. The country’s fund managers cashed in on the stock market euphoria of the first quarter. The central state-owned enterprises bounced back from their previous dismal financial situation. China Mobile, the country’s largest mobile service provider, saw slower profit growth in the first quarter. The first domestic auto financing company with no foreign ownership opened in Shanghai.

  18. Potato market in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С. І. Мельник

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study Ukrainian potato market at the current stage of the development and determine its future prospects. Results. The features of Ukrainian potato market were determined. Production is almost fully provided by private households, meeting the needs of the domestic market. Main regions with the highest gross output and production of potatoes were defined. Ukraine is one of the major potato producing countries in the world. Today our country is not a key supplier or importer of this product because of the low export orientation of the industry, its technological backwardness, limited product range and the large number of small producers. Ukraine exports potato mainly to CIS countries, the highest share of potato import comes from the European Union. Now there are only a few large manufacturing companies in the market, which can be classified as industrial. Most potato varieties, officially permitted for dissemination in Ukraine, are classified as table ones and recommended for cultivation in the Forest-Steppe and Polissia zones. Achievements of the industry include the development of such very popular and promising trend as organic potato growing, which area in our country is one of the largest in the world. Conclusions. Potato produced in Ukraine is used for human consumption, animal feeding, planting and processing, its volumes are relatively stable. Large-scale industrial production of potato is not widely practiced because of low wholesale prices and high labor intensity of the cultivation process. During next few years, in view of current trends, production of potato and severe limitations of the domestic market for foreign operations will remain unchanged. A shift in emphasis in the product range – from fresh potato to processed food products should be a prospect for domestic industrial producers to improve their position in Ukraine and abroad.

  19. Micro-economic analysis of the physical constrained markets: game theory application to competitive electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bompard, E.; Ma, Y. C.; Ragazzi, E.

    2006-03-01

    Competition has been introduced in the electricity markets with the goal of reducing prices and improving efficiency. The basic idea which stays behind this choice is that, in competitive markets, a greater quantity of the good is exchanged at a lower price, leading to higher market efficiency. Electricity markets are pretty different from other commodities mainly due to the physical constraints related to the network structure that may impact the market performance. The network structure of the system on which the economic transactions need to be undertaken poses strict physical and operational constraints. Strategic interactions among producers that game the market with the objective of maximizing their producer surplus must be taken into account when modeling competitive electricity markets. The physical constraints, specific of the electricity markets, provide additional opportunity of gaming to the market players. Game theory provides a tool to model such a context. This paper discussed the application of game theory to physical constrained electricity markets with the goal of providing tools for assessing the market performance and pinpointing the critical network constraints that may impact the market efficiency. The basic models of game theory specifically designed to represent the electricity markets will be presented. IEEE30 bus test system of the constrained electricity market will be discussed to show the network impacts on the market performances in presence of strategic bidding behavior of the producers.

  20. Micro-economic analysis of the physical constrained markets: game theory application to competitive electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bompard, E.; Ma, Y.C. [Politecnico di Torino, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Torino (Italy); Ragazzi, E. [CERIS, Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth, CNR, National Research Council, Moncalieri, TO (Italy)

    2006-03-15

    Competition has been introduced in the electricity markets with the goal of reducing prices and improving efficiency. The basic idea which stays behind this choice is that, in competitive markets, a greater quantity of the good is exchanged at a lower price, leading to higher market efficiency. Electricity markets are pretty different from other commodities mainly due to the physical constraints related to the network structure that may impact the market performance. The network structure of the system on which the economic transactions needs to be undertaken poses strict physical and operational constraints. Strategic interactions among producers that game the market with the objective of maximizing their producer surplus must be taken into account when modeling competitive electricity markets. The physical constraints, specific of the electricity markets, provide additional opportunity of gaming to the market players. Game theory provides a tool to model such a context. This paper discussed the application of game theory to physical constrained electricity markets with the goal of providing tools for assessing the market performance and pinpointing the critical network constraints that may impact the market efficiency. The basic models of game theory specifically designed to represent the electricity markets will be presented. IEEE30 bus test system of the constrained electricity market will be discussed to show the network impacts on the market performances in presence of strategic bidding behavior of the producers. (authors)

  1. For a fistful of dollars. Increasingly, solar plant operators are marketing their power directly, at the expense of the public; Fuer eine Handvoll Dollar. Immer mehr Anlagenbetreiber verkaufen ihren Solarstrom direct - auf Kosten der Allgemeinheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podewils, Christoph

    2012-04-15

    Since 1 January 2012, the German Renewables Act permits direct marketing of solar power. Some new organizations have been founded that provide better profits for plant owners than the former reimbursement rates. Plant owners are opting for direct marketing increasingly often, but it is only possible with power in the range of a few hundred kW.

  2. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Despite chilly headwinds in the international market,Chinese domestic consumption grew a robust 20.8 percent in November year on year,the ninth consecutive month of growth of more than 20 percent.But bad news quickly followed.Industrial value-added output grew merely 5.4 percent in November,the second instance of single-digit growth since 2002.Centrally administered state-owned enterprises(SOEs) saw their profits plunge 26 percent last month.The harsh job environ-ment prompted the government to ensure there would be no layoffs at the SOEs,but salaries may be cut to offset the profit drops.Ping An,the country’s second largest insurer,had huge losses from its investment in the troubled Belgian financial giant Fortis NV.The Chinese currency took its first step into the international market as the central banks of China and South Korea signed a bilateral currency-swap agreement.

  3. Market based solutions for power pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wangensteen, Ivar

    2002-06-01

    The report examines how the price for effect reserves, spot market power and regulated power is formed provided ideal market conditions rule. Primarily the price determining factors in a market for power reserves are examined and how the connection between this market and the energy market (the spot market) is. In a free market there would be a balance between what the actors may obtain by operating in the open market for power reserves/regulated power on the one hand and the market for spot power on the other. Primarily we suppose that the desired amount of power reserve is known. Secondly the problem constellation is extended to comprise the size of the effect reserves i.e. the optimising of the requirement to the power reserves. The optimal amount of power reserves is obtained when there is a balance between the cost and the benefit. This optimal balance is achieved when expected macro economical loss due to outfacing balances against the cost of maintaining larger reserves. By using a simple model it is demonstrated that a system operator regulates the maximal price in the regulated market and this equals the rationing price. The actors will offer sufficient reserves even if the reserve price is zero (provided risk neutrality). If the maximal price for regulated power is lower the price of effect reserves will rise. Based on the same simple model calculations are made for how short and long term market balance will be for increasing demands

  4. Market power monitoring and mitigation in the US wholesale power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helman, Udi [Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 888 First Street, N.E., Washington, DC 20426 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Under current statutory requirements, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) must ensure that prices in US wholesale power markets are 'just and reasonable'. This has been interpreted by the agency and the courts as requiring the monitoring and mitigation of undue market power. This paper focuses on generation market power. Prior to electricity sector restructuring, wholesale bilateral power trading took place among vertically integrated monopoly utilities trading at the margin or between small independent producers and the utilities. Under those conditions, the authorization of trading at market prices, called 'market-based rates', required only that the generation supplier pass a simple market share screen for market power. As restructuring unfolded, and market conditions changed, there has been a steady evolution in FERC's market power mitigation rules, encompassing (a) changes in the market power assessment required for granting market-based rates and related methods for merger approval, and (b) development and refinement of new techniques for screening and mitigating offers into the organized day-ahead and real-time markets operated by Independent System Operators (ISOs) and Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs). This paper reviews these changes to date, as FERC continues to clarify its approved rules and procedures. It also examines recent methods for quantitative market power analysis that could augment current procedures or supplant them, as found appropriate. (author)

  5. Emerging Market Firms’ Acquisitions in Advanced Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stucchi, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    markets. These antecedents can influence emerging market firms’ capacities to absorb or exploit technological and/or marketing advantages in advanced markets. In order to be successful, emerging market firms have to undertake those upmarket acquisitions that best “fit” their antecedents. Four mutually......This study draws upon the resource-based view and the institution-based view of the firm to provide a comprehensive overview of how different resource-, institution- and industry-based antecedents affect the motivations guiding the acquisitions that emerging market firms undertake in advanced...... exclusive acquisition strategies are derived, which are then illustrated using examples of Indian firms’ acquisitions in advanced markets....

  6. Economic analysis of locust bean processing and marketing in Iwo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic analysis of locust bean processing and marketing in Iwo local government, Osun state. ... Majority (78.3%) of the processors and marketers were making profit; 95.0% operate ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  7. Food Marketing Technology and Contingency Market Valuation

    OpenAIRE

    Garth J. Holloway; Anthony C. Zwart

    1993-01-01

    Marketing activities are introduced into a rational expectations model of the food marketing system. The model is used to evaluate effects of alternative marketing technologies on the distribution of the benefits of contingency markets in agriculture. Benefits depend on two parameters: the cost share of farm inputs and the elasticity of substitution between farm and nonfarm inputs in food marketing. Over a broad spectrum of technologies, consumers are likely to be the net beneficiaries and fa...

  8. Relationship Marketing in Legal Services Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Audronė Androšiūnaitė; Borisas Melnikas

    2013-01-01

    The article defines the concept of professional services and evaluates the extent, to which legal services could be understood as professional services. In addition, literature analysis in the relationship marketing is presented as well as conclusions on the method for the use of relationship marketing in the development of legal services marketing strategy. Strategies of professional services marketing are completely different from other services marketing because of relations with current c...

  9. DIRECT INVESTMENT ON REGIONAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU NEAMŢU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment are that category of investments that allow participation in leadership andeffective control of the companies in which it invests. It's so new firms, as well as the establishment ofinternational operations of the company through expansion of existing operations. Typically, the companyincurred in a market that is confined to a distinct geographical area, but the limits of market changes. Thechange can be the result of higher management decisions on market opening and development of a newtechnology or product. Markets with a lower level of development are likely to attract a higher level of directinvestments than those in more developed countries. The specific reasons behind the decision of a company toinvest abroad are operating efficiency, reduce risk, market development and Government policy in the hostcountry. Transnational corporations are large conglomerates which consists of the parent company and itssubsidiaries/branches, both in the country of residence and abroad. Transnational corporations affect stronglyboth the production and the world of international economic relations. This influence is determined by themotivations of expansion that they promote. The expansion of transnational corporations has as satisfying"ambitions" of global expansion, and impulsionate getting supraprofiturilor. The strength of these structures isbased on maximizing profits.

  10. Responsible marketing for sustainable tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegdić Vaso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biggest challenge associated with the concept of sustainable tourism is its operationalisation and perception as a process to be applied through development plans, projects and ongoing activities of tour operators. The traditional approach to marketing, focused on a limited idea of maximising profit businesses, was not able to respond to a number of social and environmental requirements imposed by the concept of sustainable development. This paper discusses the ways in which marketing could play a more important role in the sustainable development of tourism. This refers to the determination of consumer needs and preferences, the formation of certain products and pricing, product information and advertising to consumers of their benefits in a sustainable manner, as well as adequate distribution channels used by businesses to deliver products to consumers. Environmental and social marketing are now being confirmed as important elements of a much broader marketing perspective. In order to develop tourism with sustainable outcomes, responsible marketing can be crucial. The concept of marketing mix for sustainable tourism was used as a starting point to explore the specific role of responsible marketing in tourism.

  11. Recognizing misleading pharmaceutical marketing online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Freitas, Julian; Falls, Brian A; Haque, Omar S; Bursztajn, Harold J

    2014-01-01

    In light of decision-making psychology, this article details how drug marketing operates across established and novel web domains and identifies some common misleading trends and influences on prescribing and patient-initiated medication requests. The Internet has allowed pharmaceutical marketing to become more salient than ever before. Although the Internet's growth has improved the dissemination of pharmaceutical information, it has also led to the increased influence of misleading pharmaceutical marketing. Such mismarketing is of concern, especially in psychiatry, since psychotropics generate considerable revenue for drug companies. In a climate of resource-limited drug regulation and time-strapped physicians, we recommend improving both independent monitoring and consumer awareness of Internet-enabled, potentially misleading, pharmaceutical marketing influences. © 2014 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  12. Technology development in market networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olerup, B.

    2001-01-01

    Technology procurement is used as an environmental control means in Sweden to promote the manufacturing and sale of energy-efficient technologies. The public authority in charge makes use of the market mechanism in alternating co-operative and competitive elements. The fragmented market, with its standardised products for many small customers, is brought together to specify desired product developments. These demands also include other qualities besides energy efficiency. A contest is announced in which a possible future market is indicated to manufacturers. Efforts are made to enlarge the market to motivate their investment and to keep down the unit cost. Each side in the deal is thus given an incentive to act in the desired direction. (author)

  13. Price-elastic demand in deregulated electricity markets

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2003-01-01

    The degree to which any deregulated market functions efficiently often depends on the ability of market agents to respond quickly to fluctuating conditions. Many restructured electricity markets, however, experience high prices caused by supply shortages and little demand-side response. We examine the implications for market operations when a risk-averse retailer's end-use consumers are allowed to perceive real-time variations in the electricity spot price. Using a market-equilibrium mo...

  14. The internationalisation of marketing in the education and research sector

    OpenAIRE

    Mirosława Pluta–Olearnik

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of entities operating in the Polish sector of higher education and science and research aspire to have an active presence in foreign markets and even in the global market. This presence must be accompanied by thoughtful marketing strategies using effective marketing tools. The aim of the article is to indicate the possibility of using the knowledge of international marketing to increase the efficiency of the entities of the Polish sector of education and research. Particular ...

  15. The Effects of Logistics Leverage in Marketing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    G.N. Okeudo

    2012-01-01

    An effective logistics system when incorporated into marketing can strengthen its operations and further give the firm a competitive edge. To design a marketing system which must maintain its market share, a firm must consider the effects of logistics and how its integration into marketing can produce several points of leverage. It is the purpose of this paper to highlight the leverage points available in any logistics units and to further analyze how marketing managers can work in sync with ...

  16. Strategic Psychological Operations management

    OpenAIRE

    Sokoloski, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    United States Military Psychological Operations are engaged in a type of mass marketing of ideas. To accomplish this The United States Army Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations Command (USACAPOC) employs active and reserve PSYOP units to conduct PSYOP campaigns. However the methodology used to manage these campaigns often hinders the effective employment of timely and effective Psychological Operations. PSYOP has a difficult job to accomplish but PSYOP does not have the proper managemen...

  17. Multicultural markets and acculturation: Implications for service firms

    OpenAIRE

    Poulis, Konstantinos; Yamin, Mo; Poulis, Efthimios

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose is to construct an analytical framework that encapsulates implications for the marketing offering of service firms as a result of observed intra-national ethnic diversity in these firms' markets of operation. Design/methodology/approach: This is a conceptual approach which promotes the idea that acculturation matters for service firms operating in multicultural markets and adopts relevant propositions related to service firms' strategy in such markets. Findings: Integrati...

  18. Operational electricity transmission rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    1997-01-01

    In a liberalized electricity market both the consumers and the producers of electricity must pay for the use of the power transmission network. Thus, the net manager has unlimited options to realize efficiency improvements. A neutral and transparent management of the power grid is necessary to avoid disturbance of the market. KEMA Consulting translated abstract ideas and strategic advices to operational concepts in its report 'A framework for the determination of tariffs of the transport in the Dutch electricity sector'

  19. Marketized philanthropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    attention has been devoted to the ways in which the newly emergent philanthropic ideologies and practices are ‘marketed’ to and adopted by the broader audience of philanthropic givers. In response, we explore the ideological elements that make lending through Kiva, an emergent microfinance charity......As the impact of market actors and their doctrines on philanthropy gradually increases, the debate between the proponents and the critics of ‘marketization’ of philanthropy intensifies. Curiously, the debate has largely centred on ‘philanthrocapitalists’ and philanthropic professionals, while less......, meaningful to its creators and supporters. A combination of interpretive methods is used to outline Kiva’s ideology of entrepreneurial philanthropy. This utopian ideology is found to legitimize ‘marketized’ philanthropic practices by invoking alternative conceptions of poverty, social progress...

  20. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    TO THE POINT: Expectations are high for China’s online advertising market after a successful ad year in 2009. Thermal power generators are feeling the chill of snow storms that are causing coal prices to increase.Small steel makers have come under financial pressures as the demands for their steel bars diminish. The overall manufacturing sector has maintained an upward momentum, as evidenced by surges of purchasing managers’index. The National Energy Administration issued a report detailing the energy composition of the country at the end of 2009. China’s top consumer-to-consumer auction site, Taobao.com, entered an agreement with Hunan Satellite Television Station in an effort to diversify its online shopping busi-ness. A report from China Export & Credit Insurance Corp. cautions of asecond economic down turn in Europe and sub-Saharan Africa.

  1. MARKET WATCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Price hikes in cooking oil fuel worries over inflation and the dominance of foreign gurus over the country’s grain markets. With an explosion of box office successes, leading Chinese movie studios gear up for share floats to support expansion. Exports in November showed signs of bottoming out as the sector prepares for a more prosperous year in 2010. Despite its reputation as a nation of savers, China’s online consumption is burning hot as consumers enjoy the comfort of shopping from home. The aviation industry basks in the glow of the strong economic recovery as airlines transport a soaring number of passengers. Chinese companies press ahead with outbound mergers and acquisitions while overseas strategic investors remained relatively inactive in China.

  2. MARKETING INFORMACIJA

    OpenAIRE

    Mecanović, Ivan

    1991-01-01

    Informacija se sve više pojavljuje kao roba na tržištu. Bez obzira ima li ona status medijske vijesti, ili informacije, koja se dobiva iz informatičkog sistema, informacija se proizvodi; sortira, čuva i lansira, te na taj način postaje proizvod, koji ima svoju cijenu koštanja, kao i svoju prodajnu cijenu, svoje potrošače i svoje tržište. Zbog toga je potrebno stvarati i marketing informacija. No, informacija je specifična roba osobne potrošnje. Korištenjem, ili spoznajnošču informacije od poj...

  3. Profitable marketing: marketing for non marketing managers. Ceuta Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Kilburn, David

    2005-01-01

    This workshop was conducted with 20 Managers from Ceuta Healthcare to raise their awareness of the power of marketing and give them a set of marketing tools to improve the success rate of their business development activities

  4. How the physical electricity markets will work in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.

    1998-01-01

    The issue of how the physical electricity markets in Ontario will operate was the focus of this presentation. Principal topics addressed included a definition of the physical market, (a mechanism through which the terms and conditions, including price, for the physical exchange of a commodity are established, and delivery is realized); a discussion on the role of the Independent Market Operator; wholesale and retail electricity markets; retail market proposals; the staging of congestion pricing; and the life cycle of physical transactions and payments. Market price components were summarized, and a typical transaction from bids and offers to billing and fund transfer was illustrated

  5. Auction game in electric power market place

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, J.; Sheble, G.

    1996-01-01

    The power industry in the US is presently an evolving changing business environment. While planning to meet future peak demand is still a concern, the efficient utilization of existing generation and transmission resources is fast becoming a primary interest. This interest suggests a move from cost-based market operations to price based market operations. Auction market structure is one of the various ways to perform price based operation. Such a market place would be very new and challenging to all players of the electric power industry. This paper describes an overview of the new business environment. The paper presents a detailed description of the auction game. The trading objectives in the bidding game are defined. The framework of auction process is described by defining the rules to play the game. Finally, strategies for market players are discussed

  6. The role of regulators in competitive markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, J.

    2002-01-01

    Some of the key features of restructuring the electric power industry in Ontario were presented, with reference to Ontario Power Generation, a successor company to emerge from Ontario Hydro. Restructuring has resulted in a pool-based model with financial bilateral contracts, corporate separation instead of functional unbundling, and a market power mitigation framework based on decontrol of assets and revenue cap/rebate. The regulators in the Ontario model are the Ontario Energy Board, the Independent Electricity Market Operator, and the Federal Energy Regulators. Regulators are pressured to keep prices low while recognizing that price signals are essential for market functioning. The paper discussed the historical practice of system operators working under the assumption of 'reliability at any price', and examined if it is compatible with a market structure. It was noted that independent system operators hold significant power over market design and functioning, but have little oversight. 2 figs

  7. Integration of energy markets with neighbouring countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, M.; Vermeulen, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch wholesale markets for energy are still hindered by the various bottlenecks, which lead to higher costs for energy consumers than in well operating markets. A more efficient utilization of the import infrastructure could result in savings for energy consumers up to several tens of millions of euros. The managers of the transport infrastructure must take on a more active approach to eliminate these market obstacles. [mk] [nl

  8. Promising Products for Printing and Publishing Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Činčikaitė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article surveys printing and publishing market and its strong and weak aspects. The concept of a new product is described as well as its lifetime and the necessity of its introduction to the market. The enterprise X operating on the market is analyzed, its strong and weak characteristics are presented. The segmentation of the company consumers is performed. On the basis of the performed analysis the potential promising company products are defined.Article in Lithuanian

  9. Observability of market daily volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  10. The Theoretical Aspects of Controlling of Marketing in Enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liakh Inna S.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at generalizing the theoretical provisions on controlling of marketing in enterprise: to clarify the place of controlling of marketing within the management system, constituents, goals, tasks, and functions. The controlling of marketing was considered in terms of concepts such as management of enterprise, management of marketing, operative management of marketing, controlling, strategic and operational controlling of marketing, and operative management of marketing costs. The constituents and tools of controlling of marketing at the strategic and the operational levels have been defined. The definition of operative controlling of marketing has been revised, which emphasizes managerial decision-making about marketing costs, taking account of current situation and optimality of such costs as to purposes of enterprise. A systematic approach to studying this issue provides a holistic view of controlling of marketing within the enterprise management system. A study on the theoretical aspects of controlling of marketing as a modern management concept will make it possible to approach the issue of decision-making on marketing activity in a holistic manner.

  11. The Marketing Concept

    OpenAIRE

    G. Nazan Gunay

    2001-01-01

    Since the term "Market Orientation" is recognised as the critical factor in business success there has been an overwhelming increase in research issues linking market orientation with company performance. The term market orientation has been employed by scholars to indicate the implementation of the marketing concept. In order to understand market orientation, one believes that there is a need to recall what the marketing concept is. Therefore, this study reviews the "marketing concept" as a ...

  12. Social Guerilla marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Hejkalová, Tereza

    2011-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with the social guerrilla marketing and its aim is to analyze the social guerrilla campaigns and to evaluate the suitability of the guerilla marketing for the social issues. The theoretical part describes marketing communications, new trends in communication, including guerrilla marketing, and also social marketing and social guerrilla marketing. The practical part includes the market research of guerrilla campaigns. The chosen campaigns are introduced and afterwards ...

  13. Marketing Auditing Services

    OpenAIRE

    Tuomivirta, Olga

    2009-01-01

    The study is done as a part of a bachelor’s study in Marketing at Laurea University of Applied Sciences. Marketing as a science appeared more than 50 years ago and is still developing. The purpose of the thesis work is to collect knowledge via marketing research, to understand how marketing is implemented by the case company–provider and compare the result to professional services marketing theory. Marketing professional services is difficult because services differ from goods. Marketing ...

  14. Moving toward New Horizons for Marketing Education: Designing a Marketing Training for the Poor in Developing and Emerging Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklehaimanot, Mebrahtu L.; Ingenbleek, Paul T. M.; Tessema, Workneh K.; van Trijp, Hans C. M.

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, marketing education has broadened to poor people in developing and emerging countries. In this article, the authors use four empirical studies that apply well-established training design procedures to design a marketing training program for Ethiopian pastoralists. Because pastoralists operate in extremely remote, traditional, and…

  15. Rethinking Marketing for Sustainable Competitive Advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akın KOÇAK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When formal marketing thought developed in the early 1900s, dominant perspective of marketing was about taking things “to market”. After 1950 marketing thought moved to a “market to” orientation. This orientation reflects “product dominant logic”. After radical changes in information technology, knowledge asymmetry between firm and customer is decreased and customer becomes operant resource instead of a resource to be acted on. Therefore, new marketing paradigm has been emerged and main focus moved from “value in exchange” to “value in use” and customer becomes collaborative partner. Firm can only provide value proposition. New definition of marketing comprises “customer relationship”, “share holders”, and “value creation”. Apart from evolving of marketing thought, theories of competitive advantages have been also change form industry perspective to internal resource and dynamic capabilities.

  16. Marketing communications in conditions of crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjanov Galjina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to reveal potential economic benefits deriving from implementation of regionally integrated marketing communications strategy in the period of the global financial crisis. Possibilities for implementation of regionally integrated marketing communications strategy in the Western Balkans are analyzed based on the assessment of macro-marketing environmental factors and consumers attitudes. Study results have shown satisfactory conditions for the implementation of regionally integrated marketing communications in four countries of the region. Consequently, in the period of the most recent economic crisis companies operating on this market which decide to implement regionally integrated marketing communications strategy may make significant cost-savings through centralization of their marketing communications activities, organizational learning and synergy rather then from cutting their media budgets.

  17. Realistic electricity market simulator for energy and economic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal-Agustin, Jose L.; Contreras, Javier; Conejo, Antonio J.; Martin-Flores, Raul

    2007-01-01

    Electricity market simulators have become a useful tool to train engineers in the power industry. With the maturing of electricity markets throughout the world, there is a need for sophisticated software tools that can replicate the actual behavior of power markets. In most of these markets, power producers/consumers submit production/demand bids and the Market Operator clears the market producing a single price per hour. What makes markets different from each other are the bidding rules and the clearing algorithms to balance the market. This paper presents a realistic simulator of the day-ahead electricity market of mainland Spain. All the rules that govern this market are modeled. This simulator can be used either to train employees by power companies or to teach electricity markets courses in universities. To illustrate the tool, several realistic case studies are presented and discussed. (author)

  18. Relationships and project marketing success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne; Tikkanen, Henrikki; Lindblom, Jarno

    2002-01-01

    Project operations are a dominating mode of international business. Managing relationships and networks is crucial to project marketing success both at the level of the individual project and at the level of multiple projects. This article first defines key characteristics of project business, id...

  19. Strategic Audit and Marketing Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Lianna S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this audit was to revise the marketing plan for ADSum Professional Development School and give the owner a long-term vision of the school to operate competitively in the crowded field of for-profit schools. It is fairly simple to create a strategic plan but harder to implement and execute. Execution requires weeks and months of…

  20. Marketing in the Emerging Markets of Islamic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

    Among the limited publications on marketing in emerging markets this book focuses on regional specifics of Islamic Countries and the appropriate approaches for reaching their markets with effective and efficient marketing strategies. Marketing in the Emerging Markets of Islamic Countries...