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Sample records for marital conflict vignettes

  1. Resolving Marital Conflicts

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    Islami Hatixhe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Couple relations are characterized as relations of an intimate nature dominated by constant interaction or strong interdependence and mutual influence of intense feelings between spouses. In marriages where there is conflict, there are typical examples of interaction, which result in high proportion of negative communicative acts that affect the quality of marital relationships such as: loss of confidence, the emergence of frustration, feelings of anxiety, discomfort, leading to escalation of marital conflicts. Communication as a variable has a large impact on the resolution of marital conflicts. The obtained results of our research indicate that the choice of different strategies of behavior in conflict situations among our respondents primarily depend on: the degree of persistence in the pursuit of its own interests and level of cooperation in addressing the interests of others.

  2. Marital Conflict, Depressive Symptoms, and Functional Impairment

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    Choi, Heejeong; Marks, Nadine F

    2008-01-01

    Guided by a stress process perspective, we investigated (a) whether marital conflict might directly lead to changes in depression and functional impairment, (b) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in functional impairment via depression, and (c) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in depression via…

  3. Marital Conflict, Depressive Symptoms, and Functional Impairment

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    Choi, Heejeong; Marks, Nadine F.

    2008-01-01

    Guided by a stress process perspective, we investigated (a) whether marital conflict might directly lead to changes in depression and functional impairment, (b) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in functional impairment via depression, and (c) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in depression via functional impairment. We estimated a latent variable causal model using 3 waves of data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,832)....

  4. Everyday Marital Conflict and Child Aggression

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    Cummings, E. Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Papp, Lauren M.

    2004-01-01

    Children's immediate aggressive responding to exposure to marital conflict was examined. Participants were 108 families with 8- to 16-year-old children (53 boys, 55 girls), with diary records of children's reactions to marital conflict in the home completed by 103 mothers (n = 578 records) and 95 fathers (n = 377 records) during a 15-day period.…

  5. Everyday marital conflict and child aggression.

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    Cummings, E Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Papp, Lauren M

    2004-04-01

    Children's immediate aggressive responding to exposure to marital conflict was examined. Participants were 108 families with 8- to 16-year-old children (53 boys, 55 girls), with diary records of children's reactions to marital conflict in the home completed by 103 mothers (n = 578 records) and 95 fathers (n = 377 records) during a 15-day period. Child responses to analog presentations of marital conflict tactics were also obtained. Exposure to destructive conflict tactics and negative parental emotionality increased the likelihood of aggressive behavior in children when they witnessed marital conflict, whereas constructive conflict tactics and positive parental emotionality decreased the probability of aggression. Conflict topics presumed to be threatening to the child (child- or marital-related) also heightened the likelihood of aggression. Aggressive responding to conflict in both home and laboratory predicted externalizing behavior problems. Fathers' and mothers' separate diary reports, and child responses to analog presentation of conflict, provided generally consistent findings. An exposure hypothesis for marital conflict as an influence on child aggression is discussed.

  6. Adolescents' responses to marital conflict: The role of cooperative marital conflict.

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    Zhou, Nan; Buehler, Cheryl

    2017-10-01

    Not all youth exposed to hostile marital interactions develop negative responses to marital conflict. Cooperative marital conflict has long been considered as an important way of managing conflict and may serve as an important context in which hostility might convey during marital interactions. In light of little prior attention placed on the positive side of conflict processes, the main and moderating effects of cooperative marital conflict on youth responses to marital conflict were examined in a sample of 416 2-parent families using a multimethod, 2-year prospective design. Cooperative marital conflict was associated with decreases in youth emotional dysregulation, perceived threat, and behavioral dysregulation, and increases in constructive family representations and coping efficacy. As a specific dimension of cooperation, effective conflict resolution was associated uniquely with elevated youth coping efficacy, and decreased emotional and behavioral dysregulation; marital warmth was associated uniquely with increased constructive family representations. Significant interactions between marital hostility and marital cooperation also were found. These findings highlight the importance of examining cooperation above and beyond hostility in studies of marital conflict in order to better understand youth development during early adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Conflict management style and marital satisfaction.

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    Greeff, A P; de Bruyne, T

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is one conflict management style that correlated more significantly with marital satisfaction than any other. In addition, spousal satisfaction with how marital conflict is managed was also examined, as were gender differences. Fifty-seven couples who had been married for at least 10 years took part in the study. Results showed that the collaborative conflict management style has the highest correlation with both marital satisfaction and spousal satisfaction with conflict management in the marriage. In contrast, where one or both of the spouses used the competitive conflict management style, the lowest marital satisfaction was reported. The results were also interpreted in terms of cultural and gender differences.

  8. Sources of Marital Conflict in Five Cultures

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    Lisa M. Dillon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This analysis of previously collected data examined four fitness-relevant issues for their possible role in marital conflict. These were sex, finances, division of labor, and raising children, selected in light of their pertinence to sex differences in reproductive strategies. Over 2,000 couples in five diverse cultures were studied. Marital conflict was assessed by the Problems with Partner scale, which was previously shown to demonstrate measurement invariance across cultures and genders. All four issues were significantly related to perceived marital problems in almost all cases. Thus, conflict tended to arise around issues relevant to reproductive strategies. A few cultural idiosyncrasies emerged and are discussed. In all cultures, wives reported more problems than husbands. Another important issue was kindness. The results suggest that a key factor in marital success or failure may be kindness necessary to sustain this prolonged and intimate relationship of cooperation for raising one's offspring.

  9. Children's Perceived Agency in the Context of Marital Conflict: Relations with Marital Conflict over Time

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    Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Cummings, E. Mark; Davies, Patrick T.

    2005-01-01

    Consistent with the bidirectional perspective on parent-child relations, the current study examined children's perceptions of agency in the context of marital conflict. A storytelling task was completed by 11 5 five-year-old children, tapping perceived agency. These children and their mothers and fathers completed measures of marital conflict at…

  10. Marital Conflicts and Parent-Adolescent Conflicts: The Mediator Role of Adolescents' Appraisals of Interparental Conflicts

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    ایرج مختارنیا

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mediating role of adolescents' appraisals from interparents conflict on the relationship of marital conflicts and parent-adolescent conflict. The study was descriptive correlational and the population of this study included students of Qods town of Tehran province. Sample size was 700 students that were selected by multistage random sampling. The data were collected by Parent-Adolescent Conflict Questionnaire (PACQ, Marital Conflict Scale (MCS and Children's Appraisals of Interparental Conflict Scale (CPIC. The results of structural equation modeling analysis showed that the theoretical model of the study included in the model was properly fitted with the data. This means that the variable of adolescent's appraisals of interparents’ conflict can be considered as a mediator variable in the relationship of marital conflict and parent-adolescent conflict. Furthermore, in this model all direct and indirect paths to predict parent-adolescent conflict were recognized. Therefore, marital conflict can predict parent-adolescent conflicts through mediating factors. Also, it can be concluded that the model of cognitive-contextual is capable of explaining the parent-adolescent conflicts.

  11. The Effects of Marital Conflict on Korean Children's Appraisal of Conflict and Psychological Adjustment

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    Oh, Kyung Ja; Lee, Soojin; Park, Soo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of marital conflict on Korean children's psychological adjustment and appraisal of hypothetical marital conflict situations. Children between the ages of 10 and 12 were divided into "high-conflict" (n = 58) and "low-conflict" (n = 58) groups based on their self-reported degree of perceived…

  12. Marital Conflict in Older Couples: Positivity, Personality, and Health

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    Iveniuk, James; Waite, Linda J.; McClintock, Martha K.; Teidt, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the implications of health and personality characteristics for late-life marital conflict, using data from the 2010–11 wave of the National Social Life Health and Aging Project (NSHAP), a nationally representative study with data on both partners in 955 marital and cohabitational dyads. Using these data, we relate characteristics of husbands to characteristics of their wives, and vice versa. Wives with husbands in fair or poor physical health are more likely to report high levels of marital conflict, but the reverse is not true. Similarly, wives report more conflict when their husbands are high on Neuroticism, high on Extraversion, and low on a new measure we call Positivity. Our findings point to noteworthy gender differences between men and women in the associations between individual characteristics and levels of marital conflict. We point to differences between husbands’ and wives’ marital roles as a contributor to these differences. PMID:27274569

  13. Demand-Withdraw Patterns in Marital Conflict in the Home.

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    Papp, Lauren M; Kouros, Chrystyna D; Cummings, E Mark

    2009-06-01

    The present study extended laboratory-based findings of demand-withdraw communication into marital conflict in the home and further explored its linkages with spousal depression. U.S. couples (N = 116) provided diary reports of marital conflict and rated depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling results indicated that husband demand-wife withdraw and wife demand-husband withdraw occurred in the home at equal frequency, and both were more likely to occur when discussing topics that concerned the marital relationship. For both patterns, conflict initiator was positively linked to the demander role. Accounting for marital satisfaction, both demand-withdraw patterns predicted negative emotions and tactics during marital interactions and lower levels of conflict resolution. Spousal depression was linked to increased likelihood of husband demand-wife withdraw.

  14. The marital dynamics of conflict over the division of labor

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    Kluwer, E.S.; Heesink, J.A.M.; Van de Vliert, E.

    The division of labor as a source of conflict is a concern for many couples. This study goes beyond the mere prediction of the amount of marital conflict by scrutinizing the relationship between spouses' discontent with the division of labor, their conflict interaction patterns, and subsequent

  15. Trajectories of Marital Conflict across the Life Course: Predictors and Interactions with Marital Happiness Trajectories

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    Kamp Dush, Claire M.; Taylor, Miles G.

    2012-01-01

    Using typologies outlined by Gottman and Fitzpatrick as well as institutional and companionate models of marriage, the authors conducted a latent class analysis of marital conflict trajectories using 20 years of data from the Marital Instability Over the Life Course study. Respondents were in one of three groups: high, medium (around the mean), or…

  16. Demand-Withdraw Patterns in Marital Conflict in the Home

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    Papp, Lauren M.; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2009-01-01

    The present study extended laboratory-based findings of demand-withdraw communication into marital conflict in the home and further explored its linkages with spousal depression. U.S. couples (N = 116) provided diary reports of marital conflict and rated depressive symptoms. Hierarchical linear modeling results indicated that husband demand-wife withdraw and wife demand-husband withdraw occurred in the home at equal frequency, and both were more likely to occur when discussing topics that con...

  17. The relationship of interpersonal conflict handling styles and marital conflicts among Iranian divorcing couples.

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    Navidian, Ali; Bahari, Farshad; Kermansaravi, Fatihe

    2014-08-15

    Various research studies have suggested that among other variables that couples remain married if they successfully manage their interactions (marital communication based on acceptance of individual differences, problem solving skills, forgiveness, collaborative decision making, empathy and active listening) and constructively manage conflict. The study was aimed at examining the relation of conflict handling styles and marital conflicts among divorcing couples. As a descriptive -comparative study 60 couples out of 440 couples referred to the Crisis Intervention Center of the Isfahan Well-being Organization have selected. The tools implemented were Marital Conflicts (Barati & Sanaei, 1996) and Interpersonal Conflict Handling Styles Questionnaires (Thomas-Kilman, 1975). Their total reliabilities were, respectively, 0.74 and 0.87. Findings showed that there are no significant differences among their conflict handling styles and marital conflicts. Also, there was positive correlation between avoidance and competition styles and negative one between compromise, accommodation, and cooperation styles with marital conflicts. That is, these styles reduced couples' conflicts. Finally, wives had tendency to apply accommodation style and husbands tended to use accommodation and cooperation styles to handle their conflicts. It is suggested to be studied couples' views toward their own styles to handle marital conflicts and holding training courses to orient couples with advantages and disadvantages of marital conflict handling styles.

  18. The Relationship of Interpersonal Conflict Handling Styles and Marital Conflicts Among Iranian Divorcing Couples

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    Navidian, Ali; Bahari, Farshad; Kermansaravi, Fatihe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Various research studies have suggested that among other variables that couples remain married if they successfully manage their interactions (marital communication based on acceptance of individual differences, problem solving skills, forgiveness, collaborative decision making, empathy and active listening) and constructively manage conflict. Purpose: The study was aimed at examining the relation of conflict handling styles and marital conflicts among divorcing couples. Methods: As a descriptive–comparative study 60 couples out of 440 couples referred to the Crisis Intervention Center of the Isfahan Well-being Organization have selected. The tools implemented were Marital Conflicts (Barati & Sanaei, 1996) and Interpersonal Conflict Handling Styles Questionnaires (Thomas-Kilman, 1975). Their total reliabilities were, respectively, 0.74 and 0.87. Results: Findings showed that there are no significant differences among their conflict handling styles and marital conflicts. Also, there was positive correlation between avoidance and competition styles and negative one between compromise, accommodation, and cooperation styles with marital conflicts. That is, these styles reduced couples’ conflicts. Finally, wives had tendency to apply accommodation style and husbands tended to use accommodation and cooperation styles to handle their conflicts. Conclusions: It is suggested to be studied couples’ views toward their own styles to handle marital conflicts and holding training courses to orient couples with advantages and disadvantages of marital conflict handling styles. PMID:25363128

  19. A Theoretical Explanation of Marital Conflicts by Paradigmatic Approach

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    اسماعیل جهانی دولت آباد

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the economic, social and cultural changes in recent decades and consequently alterations in the form and duties of families and expectations of individuals from marriage, the institution of the family and marriage are enormously involved with different challenges and conflicts in comparison to past years. Fragile marital relationships, conflicts and divorce are results of such situations in Iran. Accordingly, the present study, which is designed through meta-analysis and deduction based on the concept analysis and reconceptualization of recent studies, has committed to manifest a proper different paradigm to explain marital conflicts. This paradigm is relying on various theoretical approaches, particularly the theory of symbolic interactionism as the main explanatory mean, and also applying the concept of “Marital Paradigm” as the missing information in previous studies of this field. It explains the marital conflicts between couples as paradigmatic conflicts; and its main idea is that marital conflict is not the result of one or more fixed and specified factors, but it is the production of encountering the opposing (or different paradigms.

  20. Marital Conflict Behaviors and Implications for Divorce over 16 Years

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    Birditt, Kira S.; Brown, Edna; Orbuch, Terri L.; McIlvane, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined self-reported marital conflict behaviors and their implications for divorce. Husbands and wives (N = 373 couples; 47% White American, 53% Black American) reported conflict behaviors in Years 1, 3, 7, and 16 of their marriages. Individual behaviors (e.g., destructive behaviors) and patterns of behaviors between partners (e.g.,…

  1. Leisure Activity Patterns and Marital Conflict in Iran

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    Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Saadat, Hassan; Noushad, Siena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the past few decades, the association between leisure activity patterns and marital conflict or satisfaction has been studied extensively. However, most studies to date have been limited to middle-class families of developed societies, and an investigation of the issue, from a developing country perspective like Iran, is non-existent. Objectives: In an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study we aimed to investigate the relationship between leisure activity patterns and marital conflict in a nationally representative sample of Iranian married males. Patients and Methods: Using the cluster sampling method, a representative sample of 400 Iranian married individuals from seven provinces of Iran was surveyed. Self-administered surveys included a checklist collecting demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the enrolled participants, leisure time questionnaire, and marital conflict questionnaire. The main patterns of leisure activity were derived from principal component analysis. For each pattern, factor scores were calculated. The relationship between factor scores and marital conflict were assessed using multivariate linear regression models accounting for the potential confounding effects of age, education, socioeconomic status, job status, number of children, duration of marriage, and time spent for leisure. Results: Two hundred and ninety-nine respondents completed the leisure time and marital conflict questionnaires. Five major leisure patterns were identified accounting for 60.3% of the variance in data. The most dominant pattern was family-oriented activities (e.g. spending time with family outdoors and spending time with family indoors) and was negatively linked to marital conflict (standardized beta= −0.154, P = 0.013). Of the four remaining patterns, three only included individual activities and one was a family-individual composite. Individual patterns exhibited discrepant behavior; while the pattern involving activities

  2. Leisure Activity Patterns and Marital Conflict in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Saadat, Hassan; Noushad, Siena

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the association between leisure activity patterns and marital conflict or satisfaction has been studied extensively. However, most studies to date have been limited to middle-class families of developed societies, and an investigation of the issue, from a developing country perspective like Iran, is non-existent. In an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study we aimed to investigate the relationship between leisure activity patterns and marital conflict in a nationally representative sample of Iranian married males. Using the cluster sampling method, a representative sample of 400 Iranian married individuals from seven provinces of Iran was surveyed. Self-administered surveys included a checklist collecting demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the enrolled participants, leisure time questionnaire, and marital conflict questionnaire. The main patterns of leisure activity were derived from principal component analysis. For each pattern, factor scores were calculated. The relationship between factor scores and marital conflict were assessed using multivariate linear regression models accounting for the potential confounding effects of age, education, socioeconomic status, job status, number of children, duration of marriage, and time spent for leisure. Two hundred and ninety-nine respondents completed the leisure time and marital conflict questionnaires. Five major leisure patterns were identified accounting for 60.3% of the variance in data. The most dominant pattern was family-oriented activities (e.g. spending time with family outdoors and spending time with family indoors) and was negatively linked to marital conflict (standardized beta= -0.154, P = 0.013). Of the four remaining patterns, three only included individual activities and one was a family-individual composite. Individual patterns exhibited discrepant behavior; while the pattern involving activities like 'watching TV', 'non-purposive time spending', and

  3. Interplay between marital attributions and conflict behavior in predicting depressive symptoms.

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    Ellison, Jenna K; Kouros, Chrystyna D; Papp, Lauren M; Cummings, E Mark

    2016-03-01

    Marital attributions-that is, causal inferences and explanations spouses make about their partners' behavior-have been implicated as predictors of relationship functioning. Extending previous work, we examined marital attributions as a moderator of the link between marital conflict and depressive symptoms 1 year later. Participants were 284 couples who reported on marital attributions and depressive symptoms. Couples also engaged in a videotaped marital conflict interaction, which was later coded for specific conflict behaviors. The results showed that husbands' and wives' marital attributions about their partner moderated relations between marital conflict behavior and later depressive symptoms, controlling for global marital sentiments. For husbands, positive behavior and affect during marital conflict predicted a decrease in depressive symptoms, but only for husbands' who made low levels of responsibility and causal attributions about their wives. Wives' causal attributions about their partner also moderated relations between positive behavior and affect during marital conflict and husbands' later depressive symptoms. Reflecting an unexpected finding, negative behavior and affect during marital conflict predicted increases in wives' depressive symptoms, but only for wives who made low levels of responsibility attributions about their partner. The findings suggest that, for husbands, low levels of negative marital attributions for spouses may be protective, strengthening the positive effect of constructive conflict behaviors for their mental health, whereas for wives low levels of responsibility attributions about their spouse may be a risk factor, exacerbating the negative effect of negative marital conflict behaviors on their later depressive symptoms. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Hostile behavior during marital conflict alters pituitary and adrenal hormones.

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    Malarkey, W B; Kiecolt-Glaser, J K; Pearl, D; Glaser, R

    1994-01-01

    We evaluated hormonal changes and problem-solving behaviors in 90 newlywed couples who were admitted to a hospital research unit for 24 hours. The subjects were selected on the basis of stringent mental and physical health criteria, and admissions were scheduled during the follicular phase of the woman's menstrual cycle. For frequent, unobtrusive endocrine sampling during the interaction tasks, a long polyethylene tube was attached to a heparin well, allowing nurses to draw blood samples at set intervals, out of subjects' sight. Five blood samples were obtained before, during, and after a 30-minute structured problem-solving or conflict task. The conflict session was recorded on videotapes that were later scored for problem-solving behaviors using the Marital Interaction Coding System (MICS). Marital conflict and MICS-coded hostile or negative behavior during conflict was closely linked to changes in serum hormonal levels across five of the six hormones we studied, in spite of the high marital satisfaction of our newlywed couples and the healthy lifestyles demanded by our exclusion criteria. Hostile behavior was associated with decreased levels of prolactin (PRL) and increases in epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NEPI), ACTH, and growth hormone (GH), but not cortisol. These data suggest that the endocrine system may be an important mediator between personal relationships and health.

  5. Marital Conflict Behaviors and Implications for Divorce over 16 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birditt, Kira S; Brown, Edna; Orbuch, Terri L; McIlvane, Jessica M

    2010-10-01

    This study examined self-reported marital conflict behaviors and their implications for divorce. Husbands and wives ( N = 373 couples; 47% White American, 53% Black American) reported conflict behaviors in years 1, 3, 7, and 16 of their marriages. Individual behaviors (e.g., destructive behaviors) and patterns of behaviors between partners (e.g., withdrawal-constructive) in Year 1 predicted higher divorce rates. Wives' destructive and withdrawal behaviors decreased over time, whereas husbands' conflict behaviors remained stable. Husbands reported more constructive and less destructive behaviors than wives and Black American couples reported more withdrawal than White American couples. Findings support behavioral theories of marriage demonstrating that conflict behaviors predict divorce and accommodation theories indicating that conflict behaviors become less negative over time.

  6. Marital Dialogue – between Conflict, Agreement and Relationship Breakdown

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    Kornaszewska-Polak Monika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Marital dialogue plays an essential role in shaping the relationship between spouses and supports experiencing personal I in the context of the community – We. In these couples, where dialogue is going well, it fulfils the function of a secure base forming a community based on the foundation of unity. However, contemporary culture denies an interpersonal dialogue the authenticity and engagement, emphasizing individualistic attitudes, preoccupation with oneself, leading to relationship and community disintegration and breakdown. This paper is to present the authors twenty year research into bonds, communication styles, marital conflicts and ways of coping with them. The research shows various issues related to developing the interpersonal dialogue and thus creating bonds and unity in the marriage and family. At first, the research devoted to the transmission of generation patterns in the family is presented and it is followed by presentation of selected psychological factors influencing marriage quality and marital satisfaction.

  7. Relations of husbands and wives dysphoria to marital conflict resolution strategies.

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    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D; Papp, Lauren M; Cummings, E Mark

    2004-03-01

    This study investigated relations between spouses' dysphoria and constructive and destructive emotions and tactics displayed by husbands and wives throughout marital conflicts. Behavioral observations were made of 267 couples' interactions during marital conflict resolution tasks. Husbands' and wives' dysphoria levels were related to particular negative marital conflict expressions and the absence of positive strategies, even after taking into account couples' marital satisfaction and their partners' levels of dysphoria. Moreover, in comparison with wives' dysphoria, husbands' dysphoria was associated with more pervasive impairments in couples" conflict strategies evident in multiple contexts of conflict resolution, including discussion of relatively minor sources of disagreement. Implications for the treatment of depressed or maritally discordant couples are discussed.

  8. Marital quality, coping with conflict, marital complaints, and affection in couples with a depressed wife.

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    Coyne, James C; Thompson, Richard; Palmer, Steven C

    2002-03-01

    This study compared three groups of women--outpatient depressed, inpatient depressed, and community control--and their husbands on a range of variables including marital functioning and styles of coping with conflict. Outpatient depressed couples reported greater marital distress and more destructive and less constructive tactics for resolving conflict than did community control couples. They also were more likely to have been previously married and to express regrets about having married their current husbands. There were smaller and less consistent differences for couples with inpatient depressed spouses, although inpatient couples with younger wives were similar to outpatient depressed couples. Both groups of depressed women and their husbands reported fewer expressions of affection and more complaints about the marriage than did control couples. Results are discussed in terms of interpersonal perspectives on depression.

  9. For Richer, for Poorer: Money as a Topic of Marital Conflict in the Home

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    Papp, Lauren M.; Cummings, E. Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.

    2009-01-01

    Guided by a family stress perspective, we examined the hypothesis that discussing money would be associated with the handling of marital conflict in the home. Analyses were based on dyadic hierarchical linear modeling of 100 husbands’ and 100 wives’ diary reports of 748 conflict instances. Contrary to findings from previous laboratory-based surveys, spouses did not rate money as the most frequent source of marital conflict in the home. However, compared to non-money issues, marital conflicts ...

  10. Marital conflict in early childhood and adolescent disordered eating: emotional insecurity about the marital relationship as an explanatory mechanism.

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    George, Melissa W; Fairchild, Amanda J; Mark Cummings, E; Davies, Patrick T

    2014-12-01

    Disordered eating behaviors, including frequent dieting, unhealthy weight control behaviors (e.g., vomiting and skipping meals for weight loss) and binge eating are prevalent among adolescents. While negative, conflict-ridden family environments have long been implicated as problematic and a contributing factor to the development of disordered eating, few studies have examined the influence of marital conflict exposure in childhood to understand the development of these behaviors in adolescence. The current study investigates the impact of marital conflict, children's emotional insecurity about the marital relationship, and disordered eating behaviors in early adolescence in a prospective, longitudinal study of a community sample of 236 families in Midwest and Northeast regions of the U.S. Full structural mediation analyses utilizing robust latent constructs of marital conflict and emotional insecurity about the marital relationship, support children's emotional insecurity as an explanatory mechanism for the influence of marital conflict on adolescent disordered eating behaviors. Findings are discussed with important implications for the long-term impact of marital conflict and the development of disordered eating in adolescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relations between Spouses’ Depressive Symptoms and Marital Conflict: A Longitudinal Investigation of the Role of Conflict Resolution Styles

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    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D.; Papp, Lauren M.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated longitudinal relations between spouses’ depressive symptoms and styles of conflict resolution displayed by husbands and wives in marital conflict, including angry, depressive, and constructive patterns of expression. Behavioral observations were made from a community sample of 276 couples during marital conflict resolution tasks once a year for three years. Couples were observed engaging in a major and minor conflict resolution task. Constructive, angry, and depressive conflict resolution styles were derived from the behavioral observation coding. Couples self-reported on depressive symptoms and marital dissatisfaction. Path analyses provided support for an extension of the marital discord model of depression (Beach and colleagues, 1990). Specifically, angry, depressive, and constructive styles of conflict each mediated the link between marital dissatisfaction and depressive symptoms. Significant cross-spouse effects were found. Implications for the treatment of depressed and/or relationally-discordant couples are discussed. PMID:21668119

  12. Relations between spouses' depressive symptoms and marital conflict: a longitudinal investigation of the role of conflict resolution styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D; Papp, Lauren M; Cummings, E Mark

    2011-08-01

    This study investigated longitudinal relations between spouses' depressive symptoms and styles of conflict resolution displayed by husbands and wives in marital conflict, including angry, depressive, and constructive patterns of expression. Behavioral observations were made from a community sample of 276 couples during marital conflict resolution tasks once a year for 3 years. Couples were observed engaging in a major and minor conflict resolution task. Constructive, angry, and depressive conflict resolution styles were derived from the behavioral observation coding. Couples self-reported on depressive symptoms and marital dissatisfaction. Path analyses provided support for an extension of the marital discord model of depression (Beach, Sandeen, & O'Leary, 1990). Specifically, angry, depressive, and constructive styles of conflict each mediated the link between marital dissatisfaction and depressive symptoms. Significant cross-spouse effects were found. Implications for the treatment of depressed and/or relationally discordant couples are discussed.

  13. A Financial Issue, a Relationship Issue, or Both? Examining the Predictors of Marital Financial Conflict

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    Jeffrey P. Dew

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether financial conflict arises because of financial difficulties, marital problems, or both.  Using a recent nationally representative sample of over 1500 married couples, this study finds that economic pressure, communication issues, and deeper “hidden” issues within marriage are all associated with financial conflict.  Specifically, economic pressure is positively associated with financial conflict.  When spouses report satisfying communication, respect, commitment, and fairness and have equal levels of economic power, they report lower levels of financial conflict.  These results suggest that financial conflict is a complex marital phenomenon that both marital therapists and financial counselors may help reduce.

  14. Young adults' internet addiction: Prediction by the interaction of parental marital conflict and respiratory sinus arrhythmia.

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    Zhang, Hui; Spinrad, Tracy L; Eisenberg, Nancy; Luo, Yun; Wang, Zhenhong

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to address the potential moderating roles of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA; baseline and suppression) and participant sex in the relation between parents' marital conflict and young adults' internet addiction. Participants included 105 (65 men) Chinese young adults who reported on their internet addiction and their parents' marital conflict. Marital conflict interacted with RSA suppression to predict internet addiction. Specifically, high RSA suppression was associated with low internet addiction, regardless of parental marital conflict; however, for participants with low RSA suppression, a positive relation between marital conflict and internet addiction was found. Internet addiction also was predicted by a significant three-way interaction among baseline RSA, marital conflict, and participant sex. Specifically, for men, marital conflict positively predicted internet addiction under conditions of low (but not high) baseline RSA. For women, marital conflict positively predicted internet addiction under conditions of high (but not low) baseline RSA. Findings highlight the importance of simultaneous consideration of physiological factors, in conjunction with family factors, in the prediction of young adults' internet addiction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Parental Divorce, Marital Conflict and Children's Behavior Problems: A Comparison of Adopted and Biological Children

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    Amato, Paul R.; Cheadle, Jacob E.

    2008-01-01

    We used adopted and biological children from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Survey of Families and Households to study the links between parents' marital conflict, divorce and children's behavior problems. The standard family environment model assumes that marital conflict and divorce increase the risk of children's behavior problems. The passive…

  16. The Interactive Effects of Marital Conflict and Divorce on Parent-Adult Children's Relationships

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    Yu, Tianyi; Pettit, Gregory S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines main effect and interactive models of the relations between marital conflict, divorce, and parent-adult child relationships and gender differences in these relations. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of a community sample (N = 585). Parental marital conflict and divorce were measured from age 5 through age 17 years.…

  17. Daily communication, conflict resolution, and marital quality in Chinese marriage: A three-wave, cross-lagged analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomin; Cao, Hongjian; Zhou, Nan; Ju, Xiaoyan; Lan, Jing; Zhu, Qinyi; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2018-05-17

    Based on three annual waves of data obtained from 268 Chinese couples in the early years of marriage and using a three-wave, cross-lagged approach, the present study examined the associations among daily marital communication, marital conflict resolution, and marital quality. Results indicated unidirectional associations linking daily marital communication or marital conflict resolution to marital quality (instead of reciprocal associations); and when considered simultaneously in a single model, daily marital communication and marital conflict resolution explained variance in marital quality above and beyond each other. Furthermore, the authors also found a significant longitudinal, indirect association linking husbands' daily marital communication at Wave 1 to husbands' marital quality at Wave 3 via husbands' marital conflict resolution at Wave 2. Taken altogether, the current study adds to an emerging body of research aimed at clarifying: (a) the directionality of the associations between couple interactive processes and marital well-being; (b) the unique roles of daily marital communication and marital conflict resolution in predicting marital outcomes; and (c) how daily marital communication and marital conflict resolution may operate in conjunction with each other to shape the development of couple relationship well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Constructive and Destructive Marital Conflict, Parenting, and Children's School and Social Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, K P; George, M R W; Cummings, E M; Davies, P T

    2013-11-01

    This study addresses the links between destructive and constructive marital conflict and mothers' and fathers' parenting to understand associations with children's social and school adjustment. Multi-method, longitudinal assessments of 235 mothers, fathers, and children (129 girls) were collected across kindergarten, first, and second grades (ages 5-7 at Time 1; ages 7-9 at Time 3). Whereas constructive marital conflict was related to both mothers' and fathers' warm parenting, destructive marital conflict was only linked to fathers' use of inconsistent discipline. In turn, both mothers' and fathers' use of psychological control was related to children's school adjustment, and mothers' warmth was related to children's social adjustment. Reciprocal links between constructs were also explored, supporting associations between destructive marital conflict and mothers' and fathers' inconsistent discipline. The merit of examining marital conflict and parenting as multidimensional constructs is discussed in relation to understanding the processes and pathways within families that affect children's functioning.

  19. Linkages between spouses' psychological distress and marital conflict in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Lauren M; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Cummings, E Mark

    2007-09-01

    To elucidate the processes that underlie the established association between psychopathology and marital functioning, researchers have given attention to how symptomatic individuals manage their interpersonal contexts, particularly during the handling of disagreements. In the current study, the authors evaluate the role of marital conflict strategies in relation to wives' and husbands' psychological distress levels. A sample of 100 community-based couples completed assessments of psychological distress and diaries describing marital conflict that occurred at home during a 15-day reporting period. Findings from multilevel modeling of dyadic data revealed associations between both spouses' psychological distress and multiple behavioral and emotional conflict expressions in the home. Psychological symptoms uniquely predicted the occurrence of certain conflict expressions, even when accounting for global negative marital sentiments. The findings encourage subsequent consideration of marital conflict expressions and resolution strategies when studying processes involved in the marriage-psychological adjustment link. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  20. Marital Conflict Predicts Mother-to-Infant Adrenocortical Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibel, Leah C; Mercado, Evelyn

    2017-12-21

    Employing an experimental design, mother-to-infant transmission of stress was examined. Mothers (N = 117) were randomized to either have a positive or conflictual discussion with their marital partners, after which infants (age = 6 months) participated in a fear and frustration task. Saliva samples were collected to assess maternal cortisol responses to the discussion and infant cortisol responses to the challenge task. Results indicate maternal cortisol reactivity and recovery to the conflict (but not positive) discussion predicted infant cortisol reactivity to the infant challenge. Mothers' positive affect during the discussion buffered, and intrusion during the free-play potentiated, mother-to-infant adrenocortical transmission. These findings advance our understanding of the social and contextual regulation of adrenocortical activity in early childhood. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. Evaluating a brief prevention program for improving marital conflict in community families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Faircloth, W Brad; Mitchell, Patricia M; Cummings, Jennifer S; Schermerhorn, Alice C

    2008-04-01

    Marital conflict is related to well-being in children and adults (E. M. Cummings & P. T. Davies, 2002). Marital conflict is likely most effectively ameliorated before it becomes clinically significant. However, families without significant problems may be unwilling to participate in couples therapies or other lengthy or intensive interventions. Responding to this gap, the authors developed a 4-session psychoeducational program about marital conflict for community families. Couples with children 4-8 years of age were randomly blocked into 1 of 3 groups: (1) a parent-only group (n = 24), (2) a parent-child group (n = 33), or (3) a self-study group (n = 33). Pre- and posttest and 6-month and 1-year assessments were conducted. This report evaluates (a) whether participation in a psychoeducational program for parents improved marital conflict, especially concerning ways of expressing disagreements, and (b) whether changes in marital conflict subsequently improved marital satisfaction, parenting, and child adjustment. Greater constructive and less destructive marital conflict was observed at all assessments for treatment groups, and these changes were linked with improvements in other family processes. The findings support the promise of brief, psychoeducational programs for improving marital conflict for community samples. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. For Richer, for Poorer: Money as a Topic of Marital Conflict in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Lauren M; Cummings, E Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C

    2009-02-01

    Guided by a family stress perspective, we examined the hypothesis that discussing money would be associated with the handling of marital conflict in the home. Analyses were based on dyadic hierarchical linear modeling of 100 husbands' and 100 wives' diary reports of 748 conflict instances. Contrary to findings from previous laboratory-based surveys, spouses did not rate money as the most frequent source of marital conflict in the home. However, compared to non-money issues, marital conflicts about money were more pervasive, problematic, and recurrent, and remained unresolved, despite including more attempts at problem solving. Implications for professionals who assist couples in managing their relationships and family finances are discussed.

  3. Parental dysphoria and children's internalizing symptoms: marital conflict styles as mediators of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D; Cummings, E Mark

    2003-01-01

    Parents' marital conflict styles were investigated as mediators in the associations between parental dysphoria and children's internalizing symptoms. A community sample of 267 children, ages 8 to 16, participated with their parents. Behavioral observations were made of parents' interactions during marital conflict resolution tasks. Questionnaires assessed parents' dysphoria and children's internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling indicated that marital discord, in particular, depressive conflict styles, mediated the relationship between parental dysphoria and children's internalizing problems. Furthermore, whereas for dysphoric mothers, depressive conflict styles partially mediated the links with children's internalizing, for fathers, depressive conflict styles fully mediated the links. Destructive and constructive marital conflict were associated with parental dysphoria (positively and negatively, respectively) but did not mediate the relations with children's internalizing.

  4. Conflict and Collaboration in Middle-Aged and Older Couples: II: Cardiovascular Reactivity during Marital Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W.; Uchino, Bert N.; Berg, Cynthia A.; Florsheim, Paul; Pearce, Gale; Hawkins, Melissa; Henry, Nancy J. M.; Beveridge, Ryan M.; Skinner, Michelle A.; Ko, Kelly J.; Olsen-Cerny, Chrisanna

    2011-01-01

    Marital strain confers risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), perhaps though cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) to stressful marital interactions. CVR to marital stressors may differ between middle-age and older adults, and types of marital interactions that evoke CVR may also differ across these age groups, as relationship contexts and stressors differ with age. We examined cardiovascular responses to a marital conflict discussion and collaborative problem solving in 300 middle-aged and older married couples. Marital conflict evoked greater increases in blood pressure, cardiac output and cardiac sympathetic activation than did collaboration. Older couples displayed smaller heart rate responses to conflict than did middle-aged couples, but larger blood pressure responses to collaboration–especially older men. These effects were maintained during a post-task recovery period. Women did not display greater CVR than men on any measure or in either interaction context, though they did display greater parasympathetic withdrawal. CVR to marital conflict could contribute to the association of marital strain with CVD for middle-aged and older men and women, but other age-related marital contexts (e.g., collaboration among older couples) may also contribute to this mechanism. PMID:19485647

  5. Conflict and collaboration in middle-aged and older couples: II. Cardiovascular reactivity during marital interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W; Uchino, Bert N; Berg, Cynthia A; Florsheim, Paul; Pearce, Gale; Hawkins, Melissa; Henry, Nancy J M; Beveridge, Ryan M; Skinner, Michelle A; Ko, Kelly J; Olsen-Cerny, Chrisanna

    2009-06-01

    Marital strain confers risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), perhaps though cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) to stressful marital interactions. CVR to marital stressors may differ between middle-age and older adults, and types of marital interactions that evoke CVR may also differ across these age groups, as relationship contexts and stressors differ with age. The authors examined cardiovascular responses to a marital conflict discussion and collaborative problem solving in 300 middle-aged and older married couples. Marital conflict evoked greater increases in blood pressure, cardiac output, and cardiac sympathetic activation than did collaboration. Older couples displayed smaller heart rate responses to conflict than did middle-aged couples but larger blood pressure responses to collaboration-especially in older men. These effects were maintained during a posttask recovery period. Women did not display greater CVR than men on any measure or in either interaction context, though they did display greater parasympathetic withdrawal. CVR to marital conflict could contribute to the association of marital strain with CVD for middle-aged and older men and women, but other age-related marital contexts (e.g., collaboration among older couples) may also contribute to this mechanism. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Marital conflict and parental responses to infant negative emotions: Relations with toddler emotional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Leslie A; Umemura, Tomo; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Hazen, Nancy

    2015-08-01

    According to family systems theory, children's emotional development is likely to be influenced by family interactions at multiple levels, including marital, mother-child, and father-child interactions, as well as by interrelations between these levels. The purpose of the present study was to examine parents' marital conflict and mothers' and fathers' distressed responses to their infant's negative emotions, assessed when their child was 8 and 24 months old, in addition to interactions between parents' marital conflict and their distressed responses, as predictors of their toddler's negative and flat/withdrawn affect at 24 months. Higher marital conflict during infancy and toddlerhood predicted both increased negative and increased flat/withdrawn affect during toddlerhood. In addition, toddlers' negative (but not flat) affect was related to mothers' distressed responses, but was only related to father's distressed responses when martial conflict was high. Implications of this study for parent education and family intervention were discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mediation of Conflict Handling Styles in the Relation between Virtues and Marital Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    حسین نادری

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite awareness of the adjusted conflict tactics, sometimes there is no motivation for proper behavior. It is expected that virtues increase the likelihood of adaptive behaviors by affecting motivation for ethical behaviors. This research studied the relation between marital satisfaction, character and its underlying virtues that are the internal elements necessary for adjusted life from a positive psychology perspective. It is assumed that spouse's conflict handling styles is a mediator that play a role between character, virtues, and marital satisfaction. In a correlation plan, the married university students living in dormitories were asked to complete three questionnaires: Character Strengths, Conflict Management Style, and Marital Satisfaction. Finally, the data was analyzed based on SEM method. The courage and transcendence are found as predictors of marital satisfaction and adaptive conflict handling tactics; The Humanity doesn't show a significant relationship with satisfaction. Results also support the mediating role of adaptive conflict handling styles in relation between virtues and satisfaction. It seems that marital satisfaction stems basically from the individual's inner characteristics rather than love between spouses. Virtues affect marital outcomes through their impact on spouses' interaction styles during conflicts. Clinical implications of these results are discussed as suggestions for family therapy interventions based on a positive perspective.

  8. Understanding Children's Emotional Processes and Behavioral Strategies in the Context of Marital Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Kalsea J.; George, Melissa R. W.; Bergman, Kathleen N.; Cummings, E. M.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2011-01-01

    Marital conflict is a distressing context in which children must regulate their emotion and behavior; however, the associations between the multidimensionality of conflict and children's regulatory processes need to be examined. The current study examined differences in children's (N=207, mean age=8.02 years) emotions (mad, sad, scared, and happy)…

  9. Relationship Personality, Conflict Resolution, and Marital Satisfaction in the First 5 Years of Marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneewind, Klaus A.; Gerhard, Anna-Katharina

    2002-01-01

    Explores the relationship between couples' stable personality variables associated with interpersonal competencies and marital satisfaction with conflict resolution style as the mediating factor. Results indicate strong mediational effects across time. The relationship personality variables correspond closely with conflict resolution styles, which…

  10. The Role of Emotional Responses and Physiological Reactivity in the Marital Conflict-Child Functioning Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona

    2005-01-01

    Background: Children's emotional responses and physiological reactivity to conflict were examined as mediators and moderators in the associations between exposure to parental marital conflict and child adjustment and cognitive problems. Method: One hundred and eighty elementary school children participated. In response to a simulated argument,…

  11. Relation between Attachment Styles and Marital Conflicts through the Mediation of Demographic Variables in Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaleh Refahi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explain the test of the mediating role of demographic features in relation with marital conflicts and attachment styles. The studied samples were 150 couples visiting the consulting centers of the city Shiraz who were selected by the purposeful sampling method among 800 couples. They filed out adult attachment styles and marital conflicts and also emographic questionnaire. The findings showed that secure attachment style has a direct and negative effect on marital conflicts. Besides, avoidant and ambivalent attachment style has a direct and positive effect on it. Moreover, age has a direct and positive effect but education has a direct and negative effect on marital conflicts. Results showed that the conflicts in samples with secure attachment style will be increased by increasing age and they will be reduced by increasing the level of education. Because in people with secure attachment style, increase of age and academic level leads to their intellectual growth and therefore, they adapt more active and flexible approaches to the resolve their problems and conflicts flexibility in solving problems and conflicts. Besides, they use a variety of intellectual methods and pay more attention to their spouses, they use a wide spectrum of solutions so that the level of their conflicts would be reduced.

  12. Marital Status, Gender, and Home-to-Job Conflict among Employed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomaguchi, Kei M.

    2012-01-01

    Although researchers argue that single parents perceive more work-family conflict than married parents, little research has examined nuances in such differences. Using data from the 2002 National Study of Changing Workforce (N = 1,430), this study examines differences in home-to-job conflict by marital status and gender among employed parents.…

  13. Work-family enrichment, work-family conflict, and marital satisfaction: a dyadic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steenbergen, Elianne F; Kluwer, Esther S; Karney, Benjamin R

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to examine whether spouses' work-to-family (WF) enrichment experiences account for their own and their partner's marital satisfaction, beyond the effects of WF conflict. Data were collected from both partners of 215 dual-earner couples with children. As hypothesized, structural equation modeling revealed that WF enrichment experiences accounted for variance in individuals' marital satisfaction, over and above WF conflict. In line with our predictions, this positive link between individuals' WF enrichment and their marital satisfaction was mediated by more positive marital behavior, and more positive perceptions of the partner's behavior. Furthermore, evidence for crossover was found. Husbands who experienced more WF enrichment were found to show more marital positivity (according to their wives), which related to increased marital satisfaction in their wives. No evidence of such a crossover effect from wives to husbands was found. The current findings not only highlight the added value of studying positive spillover and crossover effects of work into the marriage, but also suggest that positive spillover and crossover effects on marital satisfaction might be stronger than negative spillover and crossover are. These results imply that organizational initiatives of increasing job enrichment may make employees' marital life happier and can contribute to a happy, healthy, and high-performing workforce.

  14. Children's responses to mothers' and fathers' emotionality and tactics in marital conflict in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Papp, Lauren M; Dukewich, Tammy L

    2002-12-01

    Addressing a gap in methodological approaches to the study of links between marital conflict and children, 51 couples were trained to complete home diary reports on everyday marital conflicts and children's responses. Parental negative emotionality and destructive conflict tactics related to children's insecure emotional and behavioral responses. Parental positive emotionality and constructive conflict tactics were linked with children's secure emotional responding. When parents' emotions and tactics were considered in the same model, negative emotionality was more consistently related to children's negative reactions than were destructive conflict tactics, whereas constructive conflict tactics were more consistently related to children's positive reactions than parents' positive emotionality. Differences in children's responding as a function of specific parental negative emotions (anger, sadness, fear) and parent gender were identified.

  15. Relationship between work - family conflict and marital satisfaction among nurses and midwives in hospitals of Zabol university of medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mansouri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Work-family conflicts described as incompatibility between work and family roles. There is mutual relationship between marital satisfaction and job so that the tension in one of two areas of career and family are affected. Objective: To examine the relationship between marital satisfaction and work-family conflict among nurses and midwives. Methods: All of 289 employees of married nursing and midwifery of Zabol University of Medical Sciences hospitals participated in the study in 2014. The data were collected with questionnaires of Enrich marital satisfaction and Carlson work-family conflict and were analyzed with statistical tests including Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test and linear regression analysis. Findings: Marital satisfaction score of the staff was 168.52 which indicates the relative satisfaction of spouses from each other. The mean score of work-family conflict among employees was 3.26; it can be said that employees in terms of work-family conflict, the conflict a moderate experience. There is a significant negative correlation among marital satisfaction and work-family conflict of employees. In fact, marital satisfaction decreases when the conflict between work and family is decreased. Nursing staffs have a higher marital satisfaction and in terms of work-family conflict they experience less conflict. Conclusion: According to the findings, the managers should create conditions that minimize the role conflicts and consequently increase the level of marital satisfaction.

  16. Father attachment, father emotion expression, and children's attachment to fathers: The role of marital conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Shuang; Haak, Eric A; Gilbert, Lauren R; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keller, Peggy S

    2018-06-01

    The current study examined relations between father attachment to spouses and child attachment to fathers in middle childhood, focusing on father emotion expressions in father-child interactions as mediators and marital conflict as a moderator of relations. Participants were 199 children between 6 and 12 years of age and their fathers. Fathers completed questionnaires about their attachment to their spouses, and both fathers and mothers reported on their marital conflict. Fathers also discussed a difficult topic with their children for 5 min, and fathers' positive and negative emotion expression during the discussions were coded. Children completed questionnaires through an interview about their attachment to their father. Father insecure attachment interacted with marital conflict in predicting more negative emotions and less positive emotions during father-child interactions. Specifically, in the context of higher marital conflict in this community sample, fathers who reported greater preoccupied attachment to their spouses exhibited more negative emotions and less positive emotions when interacting with their children. In turn, more father negative emotions and less positive emotions were associated with children's less secure attachment to fathers. In contrast, father fearful attachment interacted with marital conflict to predict less negative emotion and more positive emotion during interactions with children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Constructive and Destructive Marital Conflict, Parenting, and Children’s School and Social Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, K. P.; George, M. R. W.; Cummings, E. M.; Davies, P. T.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the links between destructive and constructive marital conflict and mothers’ and fathers’ parenting to understand associations with children’s social and school adjustment. Multi-method, longitudinal assessments of 235 mothers, fathers, and children (129 girls) were collected across kindergarten, first, and second grades (ages 5-7 at Time 1; ages 7-9 at Time 3). Whereas constructive marital conflict was related to both mothers’ and fathers’ warm parenting, destructive marital conflict was only linked to fathers’ use of inconsistent discipline. In turn, both mothers’ and fathers’ use of psychological control was related to children’s school adjustment, and mothers’ warmth was related to children’s social adjustment. Reciprocal links between constructs were also explored, supporting associations between destructive marital conflict and mothers’ and fathers’ inconsistent discipline. The merit of examining marital conflict and parenting as multidimensional constructs is discussed in relation to understanding the processes and pathways within families that affect children’s functioning. PMID:24249973

  18. Marital conflict, maternal and paternal parenting, and child adjustment: a test of mediation and moderation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczynski, Karen J; Lindahl, Kristin M; Malik, Neena M; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe

    2006-06-01

    Parenting was examined as a mediator of associations between marital and child adjustment, and parent gender was examined as a moderator of associations among marital, parental, and child functioning in 226 families with a school-age child (146 boys). Parenting fully mediated associations between marital conflict and child internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Parent gender did not moderate associations when data from the full sample or families with girls only were evaluated. Parent gender did moderate associations when families with boys were evaluated, with the association between marital conflict and parenting stronger for fathers than mothers. A trend suggested fathers' parenting may be more strongly related to internalizing behavior and mothers' parenting may be more strongly related to externalizing behavior in boys. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Marital conflict typology and children's appraisals: the moderating role of family cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Kristin M; Malik, Neena M

    2011-04-01

    Intense and frequent marital conflict is associated with greater appraisals of threat and self-blame in children, but little else is known about contextual factors that might affect appraisals. Systemic family theories propose that to understand child adaptation, it is necessary to understand the interconnected nature of family subsystem relationships. In a sample of 257 families with 8- to 12-year-old children, this study examined whether a four-level typology of marital conflict management was related to children's perceptions of marital conflict and their appraisals of perceived threat and self-blame. In addition, family cohesion was tested as a moderator of the relationship between marital conflict style and children's appraisals. Observational coding was used to group couples into Harmonious, Disengaged, Conflictual-Expressive, and Conflictual-Hostile groups. Children's report of the intensity, frequency, and degree of resolution of interparental discord corresponded well with observers' ratings. The relationship between marital conflict style and appraisals of threat and self-blame was moderated by family cohesiveness. At high levels of family cohesiveness, no group differences were found for either perceived threat or self-blame, whereas when family cohesiveness was low, threat was higher for the Harmonious and Conflictual-Hostile groups, as compared to the Conflictual-Expressive group, and self-blame was higher for both conflict groups (expressive and hostile), as compared to the Disengaged group. The results provide further evidence of interconnected nature of family subsystem relationships and the importance of distinguishing among different approaches to marital conflict management for understanding the complex and perhaps subtle but meaningful effects different family system factors have on child adaptation.

  20. We can work it out: Age differences in relational pronouns, physiology, and behavior in marital conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Seider, Benjamin H.; Hirschberger, Gilad; Nelson, Kristin L.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship that personal pronouns spoken during a marital conversation have with the emotional qualities of those interactions and with marital satisfaction. Middle-aged and older couples (N=154) engaged in a 15-minute conflict conversation during which physiology and emotional behavior were continuously monitored. Verbatim transcripts of the conversations were coded into two lexical categories: (a) We-ness (we-words): pronouns that focus on the couple; (b) Separaten...

  1. Patterns of Spillover Between Marital Adjustment and Parent-Child Conflict During Pediatric Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fladeboe, Kaitlyn; Gurtovenko, Kyrill; Keim, Madelaine; Kawamura, Joy; King, Kevin M; Friedman, Debra L; Compas, Bruce E; Breiger, David; Lengua, Liliana J; Katz, Lynn Fainsilber

    2018-03-17

     When a child is diagnosed with cancer, problems may arise in family relationships and negatively affect child adjustment. The current study examined patterns of spillover between marital and parent-child relationships to identify targets for intervention aimed at ameliorating family conflict.  Families (N = 117) were recruited from two US children's hospitals within 2-week postdiagnosis to participate in a short-term prospective longitudinal study. Children with cancer were 2-10 years old (M = 5.42 years, SD = 2.59). Primary caregivers provided reports of marital and parent-child conflict at 1-, 6-, and 12-month postdiagnosis.  Results indicated that a unidirectional model of spillover from the marital to the parent-child relationship best explained the data. In terms of specific temporal patterns, lower marital adjustment soon after diagnosis was associated with an increase in parent-child conflict 6 months later, though this pattern was not repeated in the latter 6 months of treatment.  Targeting problems in marital relationships soon after diagnosis may prevent conflict from developing in the parent-child relationship.

  2. Effects of marital conflict on children: recent advances and emerging themes in process-oriented research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Davies, Patrick T

    2002-01-01

    The effects of marital conflict on children's adjustment are well documented. For the past decade research has increasingly focused on advancing a process-level understanding of these effects, that is, accounting for the particular responses and patterns embedded within specific contexts, histories, and developmental periods that account for children's outcomes over time. As a vehicle for presenting an update, this review follows the framework for process-oriented research initially proposed by Cummings and Cummings (1988), concentrating on recent research developments, and also considering new and emerging themes in this area of research. In this regard, areas of advancement include (a) greater articulation of the effects of specific context/stimulus characteristics of marital conflict, (b) progress in identifying the psychological response processes in children (e.g., cognitive, emotional, social, physiological) that are affected and their possible role in accounting for relations between marital conflict and child outcomes, (c) greater understanding of the role of child characteristics, family history, and other contextual factors, including effects on children due to interrelations between marital conflict and parenting, and (d) advances in the conceptualization of children's outcomes, including that effects may be more productively viewed as dynamic processes of functioning rather than simply clinical diagnoses. Understanding of the impact of marital conflict on children as a function of time-related processes remains a gap in a process-oriented conceptualization of effects. Based on this review, a revised model for a process-oriented approach on the effects of marital discord on children is proposed and suggestions are made for future research directions.

  3. Marital Conflict and Adolescents' Peer Aggression: The Mediating and Moderating Role of Mother-Child Emotional Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Eric W.; Chambers, Jessica Campbell; Frabutt, James M.; Mackinnon-Lewis, Carol

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the role of mother-adolescent emotional reciprocity in connections between marital conflict and adolescent aggression with peers. Data were collected from a racially diverse community sample of 268 adolescents and their mothers. Adolescents reported on parents' marital conflict, and mother-adolescent positive and negative…

  4. Marital conflict and adjustment: speech nonfluencies in intimate disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, E L; White, K M; Speisman, J C; Costos, D

    1988-06-01

    Speech nonfluency in response to questions about the marital relationship was used to assess anxiety. Subjects were 31 husbands and 31 wives, all white, college educated, from middle- to lower-middle-class families, and ranging from 20 to 30 years of age. Three types of nonfluencies were coded: filled pauses, unfilled pauses, and repetitions. Speech-disturbance ratios were computed by dividing the sum of speech nonfluencies by the total words spoken. The results support the notion that some issues within marriage are more sensitive and/or problematic than others, and that, in an interview situation, gender interacts with question content in the production of nonfluencies.

  5. Conflict Resolution in Mexican-Origin Couples: Culture, Gender, and Marital Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorey A.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Thayer, Shawna M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between Mexican-origin spouses' conflict resolution strategies (i.e., nonconfrontation, solution orientation, and control) and (a) gender-typed qualities and attitudes, (b) cultural orientations, and (c) marital quality in a sample of 227 couples. Results of multilevel modeling revealed that Mexican cultural…

  6. A Unified Model Exploring Parenting Practices as Mediators of Marital Conflict and Children's Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coln, Kristen L.; Jordan, Sara S.; Mercer, Sterett H.

    2013-01-01

    We examined positive and negative parenting practices and psychological control as mediators of the relations between constructive and destructive marital conflict and children's internalizing and externalizing problems in a unified model. Married mothers of 121 children between the ages of 6 and 12 completed questionnaires measuring marital…

  7. Constructive and Destructive Marital Conflict, Emotional Security and Children's Prosocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Kathleen; Cummings, E. Mark; Davies, Patrick T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study addresses the gaps in understanding the relationship between constructive and destructive marital conflict and children's prosocial behavior from a process-oriented perspective. Method: Data were drawn from a three-wave study of 235 families with children ages 5-7 at wave 1. Relations between constructive and destructive…

  8. Marital Conflict and Children's Emotional Security in the Context of Parental Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2008-01-01

    Evidence has emerged for emotional security as an explanatory variable linking marital conflict to children's adjustment. Further evidence suggests parental psychopathology is a key factor in child development. To advance understanding of the pathways by which these family risk factors impact children's development, the mediational role of…

  9. Marital Conflict and Growth in Children's Internalizing Symptoms: The Role of Autonomic Nervous System Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Erath, Stephen; Dyer, W. Justin

    2013-01-01

    We assessed trajectories of children's internalizing symptoms, indexed through anxiety and depression, with a focus on the role of interactions between interparental marital conflict, children's sympathetic nervous system activity indexed by skin conductance level (SCL), and parasympathetic nervous system activity indexed by respiratory sinus…

  10. Marital conflict about the division of household labor and paid work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluwer, E.S; Heesink, J.A.M.; Van de Vliert, E.

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the relations between time use, dissatisfaction, and marital conflict about the division of house-hold labor and paid work. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 54 Dutch couples who were either expecting their first child or had a first

  11. Marital conflict about the division of household labor and paid work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluwer, E.S; Heesink, J.A.M.; Van de Vliert, E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the relations between time use, dissatisfaction, and marital conflict about the division of house-hold labor and paid work. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 54 Dutch couples who were either expecting their first child or had a first

  12. Trajectories of marital, parent-child, and sibling conflict during pediatric cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Lynn Fainsilber; Fladeboe, Kaitlyn; Lavi, Iris; King, Kevin; Kawamura, Joy; Friedman, Debra; Compas, Bruce; Breiger, David; Lengua, Liliana; Gurtovenko, Kyrill; Stettler, Nicole

    2018-05-28

    The stress of having a child with cancer can impact the quality of relationships within the family. The current study describes the longitudinal trajectory of marital, parent-child, and sibling conflict beginning around the time of diagnosis through the first year of treatment. We examined the average level of marital, parent-child, and sibling conflict at each monthly time point in the first year of treatment; the proportion of families that fall into the distressed range of marital, parent-child, and sibling conflict at each time point; the typical trajectory of conflict during the first year of treatment and whether there are differences in trajectories across families. A total of 160 families of children newly diagnosed with cancer (Mage = 5.6 years; range = 2-18 years) participated in a short-term prospective longitudinal study. Primary caregivers provided monthly reports of marital, parent-child, and sibling conflict. Using multilevel modeling (MLM), most families showed stability in quality of family relationships, although considerable between-family variability was observed. For married couples, 25-36% of couples were in the distressed range at one time point over the first year of treatment. For married couples, more distress occurred at earlier months, particularly month 3. For parent-child and sibling dyads, the most difficult time periods were during later months. Implications for development of interventions that target at-risk family relationships are discussed. Identifying processes that predict between-family variability in trajectories of family relationships is an important next step, particularly for the marital relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Effects of marital conflict on subsequent triadic family interactions and parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzmann, K M

    2000-01-01

    This study examined marital conflict's indirect effects on children through disruptions in family alliances and parenting. Forty married couples were observed interacting with their 6-8-year-old sons after pleasant and conflictual discussions. After conflictual discussion, fathers showed lower support/engagement toward sons, and coparenting styles were less democratic. Couple negativity was correlated with family negativity, regardless of the topic of discussion, which suggests continuity in the affective quality of the two family subsystems. Mothers' marital satisfaction moderated families' responses to the experimental manipulation. The results provide stronger evidence than previously available of a causal link between conflict and disrupted parenting. Further research is needed to identify which conflict-related disruptions in parenting influence the development of children's problems.

  14. WHAT CONNECTIONS BETWEEN MARITAL CONFLICT AND PARENTING QUALITY? EVIDENCE FROM PARENT’S GENDER IN SPILLOVER EFFECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Loredana Benedetto; Massimo Ingrassia

    2015-01-01

    The spillover hypothesis posits that negative emotions and behavioral patterns in marital conflicts influence parenting quality and children’s adjustment, through increasing of harsh and incoherent discipline and diminished involvement and affection. Moreover conflicts focused on childrearing issues are particularly distressing for children with often show emotional and behavioral problems. The aim of the study was to explore gender differences in the links between marital conflicts (des...

  15. We can work it out: age differences in relational pronouns, physiology, and behavior in marital conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Benjamin H; Hirschberger, Gilad; Nelson, Kristin L; Levenson, Robert W

    2009-09-01

    This study examined the relationship that personal pronouns spoken during a marital conversation have with the emotional qualities of those interactions and with marital satisfaction. Middle-aged and older couples (N = 154) engaged in a 15-min conflict conversation during which physiology and emotional behavior were continuously monitored. Verbatim transcripts of the conversations were coded into 2 lexical categories: (a) we-ness (we-words), pronouns that focus on the couple; (b) separateness (me/you-words), pronouns that focus on the individual spouses. Analyses revealed that greater we-ness was associated with a number of desirable qualities of the interaction (lower cardiovascular arousal, more positive and less negative emotional behavior), whereas greater separateness was associated with a less desirable profile (more negative emotional behavior, lower marital satisfaction). In terms of age differences, older couples used more we-ness words than did middle-aged couples. Further, the associations between separateness and marital satisfaction were strongest for older wives. These findings indicate that the emotional aspects of marital quality are expressed in the natural language of couples engaged in conversation. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Marital Conflict and Support Seeking by Parents in Adolescence: Empirical Support for the Parentification Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Tara S.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark; Emery, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Parentification, a parent–child dynamic wherein children come to provide ongoing emotional support for their parents, has been documented extensively in the clinical literature; however, it rarely has been studied systematically. Using a community sample of 83 couples and their adolescent children (mean age = 15.26 years; 52% male, 48% female), the authors linked adolescent self-report of parentification to specific youth and adult behaviors using multiple methods and examined its associations with youth adjustment problems. The parentification measure demonstrated strong internal consistency and 1-year stability. Parentification was associated with marital conflict, youth perceptions of threat, low warmth in the parent–child relationship, and the tendency for youths to intervene in marital conflict. Links were also found with youth reports of internalizing and externalizing behavior and poorer competency in close friendships. These findings thus support the parentification construct and provide evidence that parentification may contribute to poor youth outcomes by burdening children with developmentally inappropriate responsibilities. PMID:18729677

  17. Categories and continua of destructive and constructive marital conflict tactics from the perspective of U.S. and Welsh children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Cummings, E Mark; Harold, Gordon T; Shelton, Katherine H

    2003-09-01

    Categories and continua of parents' marital conflict tactics based on multiple, conceptually grounded criteria were tested. Participants were 175 U.S. children, ages 8-16 years (88 boys, 87 girls) and 327 Welsh children, ages 11-12 years (159 boys, 168 girls). Children's responses (affective, cognitive, behavioral) to analog presentations of 10 everyday marital conflict tactics enacted by fathers or mothers showed substantial variation as a function of tactic used. Orderings of conflict tactics on the various response criteria varied as a function of moderators, particularly the gender of the parent expressing the conflict tactic. Conflict tactics were classified as either constructive or destructive according to criteria derived from the emotional security hypothesis. Except for calm discussion, classifications did not change regardless of cultural group, parent gender, or child age or gender. Recommendations for negotiating everyday marital conflict for the children's sake are discussed.

  18. Discovery of the content of rumination thoughts among women with marital conflicts: Qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Namdarpour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Rumination is the predisposing and continuing factor of depression. Since women are prone to rumination, the purpose of this study was to discover the content of rumination thoughts among women with marital conflicts. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on a qualitative method basis, and target society was composed of women with marital conflicts and rumination. The sample was selected from among those referring to Isfahan counseling centers and was statured with 15 persons through purposeful sampling method. Information was collected through semi-structured interviews and data analysis was performed based on thematic analysis. Results: Five main categories were obtained from data analysis: root cause analysis, feeling incompetence, remembrance of bitter memories, negative emotions, and hesitation in continuation of couple relationship. Conclusion: The findings indicate that when women with marital conflicts become ruminant, the course of rumination is so that it could harm continuation of their couple relationship. Therefore, to reduce this damage, interventions are required to intervene effectively in this process.

  19. Relationship between work - family conflict and marital satisfaction among nurses and midwives in hospitals of Zabol university of medical sciences

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mansouri; Y. Jahani; H. Shahdadi; M. Khammari

    2016-01-01

    Background: Work-family conflicts described as incompatibility between work and family roles. There is mutual relationship between marital satisfaction and job so that the tension in one of two areas of career and family are affected. Objective: To examine the relationship between marital satisfaction and work-family conflict among nurses and midwives. Methods: All of 289 employees of married nursing and midwifery of Zabol University of Medical Sciences hospitals participated in the stu...

  20. The effectiveness of enriching relations between spouses to reduce marital conflict between employees in different offices in Yasouj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Aminianfar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective & aim:  Today, divorce and marital turmoil is increasing. Understanding the factors leading to chaos and the disintegration of family relationships is important. This study aimed to explore the effect of enriching relations between spouses, the couple's emotional security and marital conflicts.   Methods: In the present interventional-analytical study, ten different offices were randomly selected.  Of people who scored high on marital conflict and emotional security, and also those who gained low scores under 40 were divided randomly into two groups. Seven relations enriching group training sessions were held for the spouses.  At the end of the training sessions, both groups were evaluated by emotional security questionnaires by Brunner et al. (2008, marital conflict Sanaei and Barati (1996.   Results: Covariance analysis and multivariate analysis of variance, analysis of the results of the marital conflict, mean and standard deviation of pre couples' marital conflict experimental and control groups were (20/15 and 20/145 (64/16 70/143 respectively.  The test score in two groups were (60/12 and 80/64 (17.4 and 70/143 respectively. The results of multivariate analysis of covariance components of marital conflict on test scores of experimental and control groups and the control effect of pre-test showed that Pylayy effect, Wilks Lambda test, Hotelling effect on the root of F=4.47 and degrees of freedom 7 levels significantly in p=0.0001 Effect of married couples was significant in reducing aggression.   Conclusion: Enrichment relations education for spouses may significantly reduce parameters of marital conflicts.

  1. Marital Conflict, Children's Representations of Family Relationships, and Children's Dispositions towards Peer Conflict Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D.; Shamir, Haya; Cummings, E. Mark

    2004-01-01

    The links among marital relations and children's representations were examined. Forty-seven children between the ages of 5 and 8 completed the Family Stories Task (FAST) to obtain their narrative representations of family relations and performed a variation of a puppet procedure (Mize & Ladd, 1988) to assess children's dispositions towards peer…

  2. Marital satisfaction, conflict communication, attachment style and psychological distress in couples with a hospitalized depressed patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Gilbert M D; Buysse, Ann; Heene, Els; Eisler, Ivan; Demyttenaere, Koen

    2007-04-01

    There has been fairly consistent empirical support for the association between major depressive disorder and marital dissatisfaction. However, this evidence is limited mostly to out-patient and population-based samples. Further, the role of possible mediating factors such as attachment style and conflict communication are less well investigated in major depression. The present study aims to investigate whether couples with a depressed partner and nonclinical couples differ in marital satisfaction, attachment style, psychological distress and conflict communication. Gender differences are also investigated. Seventy-seven couples, who participated in a family intervention trial, were compared with 77 age- and gender-matched nonclinical couples. The depressed patients reported more psychological distress and attachment difficulties and less marital satisfaction than their partners and the nonclinical couples. Partners perceived their relationship as more satisfying than the nonclinical couples. The clinical couples reported less mutual constructive and more mutual avoidant communication in their relationship compared with the nonclinical couples. Finally, female depressed patients reported higher levels of psychological symptoms and were more avoidant attached than male patients. This study shows important differences in several individual and relational characteristics between couples with a depressed partner and nonclinical couples. Further research will be necessary to clarify whether the investigated psychosocial variables play a causal and/or a maintaining role in depression.

  3. Conflict with Mothers-in-Law and Taiwanese Women's Marital Satisfaction: The Moderating Role of Husband Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsui-Feng; Yeh, Kuang-Hui; Cross, Susan E.; Larson, Lisa M.; Wang, Yi-Chao; Tsai, Yi-Lin

    2010-01-01

    This study applies social support theory to the question of whether four types of husband behavior (taking the wife's side, problem solving, ignoring conflict, and taking the mother's side) moderate the association between conflict with the mother-in-law and a Taiwanese woman's marital satisfaction. Data were collected from 125 married Taiwanese…

  4. Prediction of Narcissism, Perception of Social Interactions and Marital Conflicts Based on the Use of Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    رویا رضاپور

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of social networks and the excessive use of them by couples have had a significant impact on various aspects of their lives. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of social networks in the formation of narcissism, perception of social interaction and marital conflicts in couples who use these social networks. The study design was correlational and the statistical population included couples of Zanjan city who use social networks. 120 couples which widely used social networks were selected by random sampling. The questionnaires of Internet Addiction (Young, 1998, Narcissistic Personality (Ames and et al, 2006, Perception of Social Interaction (Glass, 1994 and Marital Conflict (Sanaei, 2000 were used. Pearson correlation coefficient and Regression were used for data analysis. This study showed that there is a significant negative relationship between the use of social networks with perception of social interaction, and a significant positive relationship between the use of social networks with narcissism and marital conflicts (P<0/01. Also narcissism has a significant positive relationship with marital conflicts, and a significant negative relationship with perception of social interaction (P<0/01. Social networks have a negative effect on couple's relationship and their feelings towards each other, as well as strengthening narcissism, which can cause communication problems, decreased positive feelings of couples towards each other and marital conflicts.

  5. The social context of marital happiness in urban Indian couples: interplay of intimacy and conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhya, Shaifali

    2009-01-01

    This research examines the happiness of 182 married, urban Hindu husbands and wives. Prior research emphasizes that the processes mediating well-being diverge across cultures with personal desires not impacting the happiness of non-Western couples. However, with globalization as self needs become important, barometers of happiness such as intimacy and conflict in a relationship assume a critical role in the quality and longevity of marriage, even for non-Western marriages in a contemporary India. Participants were 91 Indian couples, married an average of 11 years, from three socioeconomic classes, three family structures, and arranged and love marriages. Results reveal that happy couples, compared with unhappy couples, reported agreement, empathy, validation, support, and fulfilled expectations. Couples' experience and expression of intimacy, affected by social context, also predicted enhanced levels of happiness in marriage while conflict had a negative effect on marital happiness. This research suggests how personal desires may be transforming cultural practices.

  6. Indirect pathways between depressive symptoms and marital distress: the role of conflict communication, attributions, and attachment style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heene, Els L D; Buysse, Ann; Van Oost, Paulette

    2005-12-01

    Previous studies have focused on concomitants of depression and marital distress in order to help explain the relationship between the two, suggesting that several variables, such as conflict communication, attributions, and attachment style, are associated with depression, marital distress, or both. Our contention is that the selected variables may be important mediators (hypothesis 1) or moderators (hypothesis 2) of the concomitance between depression and marital adjustment, exploring the direct and indirect ways in which depressive symptoms and marital adjustment are related. In total, 415 heterosexual couples were recruited, and a series of regression analyses was conducted to test our hypotheses separately for men and women. Results indicated that demand-withdrawal, avoidance, causal attributions, and secure, ambivalent, and avoidant attachment mediated the relation between depressive symptoms and marital adjustment in the female sample, whereas constructive communication and causal and responsible attributions were significant mediators of men's levels of depressive symptoms and marital adjustment. In addition, avoidance and secure attachment moderated the association between depressive symptoms and marital adjustment in the female sample, and causal attributions were significant moderators of the association between depressive symptoms and marital adjustment for men. Several conclusions and implications for theory and future research are discussed.

  7. Relationship Between Family Power Structure, Marital Conflicts, and Mental Health in Male Retirees of Alborz Province Department, Iran Ministry of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Soleimani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of the research indicate that power structure of family and marital conflicts can affect mental health of male retirees. And more unequal power structure of family and more marital conflicts can lead to decrease in mental health of male retirees.

  8. Daily patterns of stress and conflict in couples: Associations with marital aggression and family-of-origin aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Adela C; Arbel, Reout; Margolin, Gayla

    2017-02-01

    For many married individuals, the ups and downs of daily life are connected such that stressors impacting one person also impact the other person. For example, stress experienced by one individual may "spill over" to negatively impact marital functioning. This study used both partners' daily diary data to examine same-day and cross-day links between stress and marital conflict and tested several factors that make couples vulnerable to spillover. Assessment of 25 wide-ranging sources of daily stress included both paid and unpaid work, health issues, financial concerns, and having to make difficult decisions. Results showed that both husbands' and wives' experiences of total daily stress were associated with greater same-day marital conflict and that conflict was greater on days both spouses experienced high levels of stress. Evidence of cross-day spillover was found only in those couples with high concurrent marital aggression and in couples where wives reported high family-of-origin aggression. These results highlight both the common, anticipated nature of same-day spillover and the potentially problematic aspects of more prolonged patterns representing failure to recover from stressors that occurred the previous day. The discussion focuses on how reactivity in one life domain puts that individual at risk for generating stress in another life domain and how current marital aggression and family-of-origin aggression are associated with difficulty recovering from stressful events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Daily Patterns of Stress and Conflict in Couples: Associations with Marital Aggression and Family-of-Origin Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Adela C.; Arbel, Reout; Margolin, Gayla

    2016-01-01

    For many married individuals, the ups and downs of daily life are connected such that stressors impacting one person also impact the other person. For example, stress experienced by one individual may “spill over” to negatively impact marital functioning. This study used both partners’ daily diary data to examine same-day and cross-day links between stress and marital conflict and tested several factors that make couples vulnerable to spillover. Assessment of 25 wide-ranging sources of daily stress included both paid and unpaid work, health issues, financial concerns, and having to make difficult decisions. Results showed that both husbands and wives’ experience of total daily stress were associated with greater same-day marital conflict and that conflict was greater on days both spouses experienced high levels of stress. Evidence of cross-day spillover was found only in those couples with high concurrent marital aggression and in couples where wives reported high family-of-origin aggression. These results highlight both the common, anticipated nature of same-day spillover and the potentially problematic aspects of more prolonged patterns representing failure to recover from stressors that occurred the previous day. The discussion focuses on how reactivity in one life domain puts that individual at risk for generating stress in another life domain and how current marital aggression and family-of-origin aggression are associated with difficulty recovering from stressful events. PMID:27504754

  10. WHAT CONNECTIONS BETWEEN MARITAL CONFLICT AND PARENTING QUALITY? EVIDENCE FROM PARENT’S GENDER IN SPILLOVER EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Benedetto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The spillover hypothesis posits that negative emotions and behavioral patterns in marital conflicts influence parenting quality and children’s adjustment, through increasing of harsh and incoherent discipline and diminished involvement and affection. Moreover conflicts focused on childrearing issues are particularly distressing for children with often show emotional and behavioral problems. The aim of the study was to explore gender differences in the links between marital conflicts (destructive and constructive tactics, childrearing disagreement and parent-child relationships, in order to verify if there are different pathways for fathers and mothers in spillover effects.   Method. 110 parents (children aged 6-12 years completed the Styles of Conflict Scale (marital conflict style, the Parent Problem Checklist (disagreements about childrearing, the Alabama Parenting Questionnaire (parenting practices, and the Parenting Stress Index. Results. The links between conflict tactics and parenting practices change in function of parent’s gender. Mothers refer more frequent childrearing disagreements and increasing in punishment; furthermore - in line with the spillover hypothesis - attack and violence tactics are associated negatively with positive parenting (involvement and warmth. For fathers compromise, avoidance and attack correlate positively with effective parenting (more involvement, affection and consistency disciplinary. Conclusions. A spillover effect, that is, an extension of marital tensions in the relationship with their children with reduced quality of parenting, seems to manifest only for women. These findings, if confirmed by other studies, would be relevant from an clinical point of view to understand how paternal and maternal parenting mediate the effects of the marital disharmony on children’s adjustment.

  11. Marital conflict and early adolescents' self-evaluation: the role of parenting quality and early adolescents' appraisals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siffert, Andrea; Schwarz, Beate; Stutz, Melanie

    2012-06-01

    Cognitive appraisals and family dynamics have been identified as mediators of the relationship between marital conflict and children's adjustment. Surprisingly little research has investigated both meditational processes in the same study. Guided by the cognitive-contextual framework and the spillover hypothesis, the present study integrated factors from both theories early adolescents' appraisals of threat and self-blame, as well as perceived parenting quality as mediators of the link between early adolescents' perception of marital conflict and their self-evaluations (self-esteem and scholastic competence). Analyses were based on the first two waves of an ongoing longitudinal study. Participants were 176 two-parent families, and their early adolescents (50.5% girls) whose mean age was 10.61 years at Time 1 (SD =0.40) and 11.63 years at Time 2 (SD=0.39). Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that parenting quality and early adolescents' perceived threat provided indirect pathways between marital conflict and early adolescents' self-esteem 1 year later when controlling for their initial level of self-esteem. With respect to scholastic competence, only fathers' parenting was an indirect link. Self-blame did not play a role. Implications for understanding the mechanisms by which exposure to marital conflict predicts early adolescents' maladjustment are discussed.

  12. An interpersonal perspective on depression: the role of marital adjustment, conflict communication, attributions, and attachment within a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heene, Els; Buysse, Ann; Van Oost, Paulette

    2007-12-01

    Previous studies have focused on the difficulties in psychosocial functioning in depressed persons, underscoring the distress experienced by both spouses. We selected conflict communication, attribution, and attachment as important domains of depression in the context of marital adjustment, and we analyzed two hypotheses in one single study. First, we analyzed whether a clinical sample of couples with a depressed patient would differ significantly from a control group on these variables. Second, we explored to what degree these variables mediate/moderate the relationship between depressive symptoms and marital adjustment. The perspectives of both spouses were taken into account, as well as gender differences. In total, 69 clinical and 69 control couples were recruited, and a series of multivariate analyses of variance and regression analyses were conducted to test both hypotheses. Results indicated that both patients and their partners reported less marital adjustment associated with more negative perceptions on conflict communication, causal attributions, and insecure attachment. In addition, conflict communication and causal attributions were significant mediators of the association between depressive symptoms and marital adjustment for both depressed men and women, and causal attributions also moderated this link. Ambivalent attachment was a significant mediator only for the female identified patients. Several sex differences and clinical implications are discussed.

  13. Relationship of work-family conflict with burnout and marital satisfaction: cross-domain or source attribution relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherzadeh, Razieh; Taghizadeh, Ziba; Mohammadi, Eesa; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Ebadi, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the relationship between two dimensions of work-family conflict (WFC) with marital satisfaction and burnout in a society in which few studies have been done about the consequences of WFC. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015. Surveys were distributed to 420 employed married women with various jobs living in Bushehr province, Iran. Data were collected using a questionnaire for demographic characteristic, the Netmeyer's WFC questionnaire, Maslach Burnout Inventory: General Survey (MBI-GS), and Enrich maritalsatisfaction questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. There was a negatively significant association between work interference with family(WIF) and overall burnout as well as emotional exhaustion (P Family interference with work (FIW) was significantly associated with depersonalization (P marital satisfaction and its subscales were significantly associated with WIF (P marital satisfaction and P work and family conditions can be a useful means to prevent WFC and its consequences.

  14. What is role of sex and age differences in marital conflict and stress of patients under Cardiac Rehabilitation Program?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Komasi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To investigate the role of sex and age differences in marital conflict and stress of patients who were under cardiac rehabilitation (CR program. METHODS: The data of this cross-sectional study were collected from the database of the CR Department of Imam Ali Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran. The demographics and medical data of 683 persons were collected from January 2003 and January 2010 using medical records, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Hudson’s Index of Marital Stress, and the Structured Clinical Interview for axis I disorders. Data were analyzed through Analysis of Covariance and Bonferroni test. RESULTS: About 74.8% of the subjects were male. After adjustment for age, educational level, anxiety, and depression-the findings showed that women in CR program had a higher level of marital stress compared to men (54.75 ± 2.52 vs. 49.30 ± 0.89; P = 0.042. Furthermore, it was revealed that women who aged 56-65 years and more experienced higher level of marital stress compared to younger patients (P < 0.050; however, no significant difference was observed between different age groups in male patients (P > 0.050. CONCLUSION: Marital conflict and stress threaten healthiness of women who aged 56-65 years more prominently than does in males or younger patients. Regarding the effect of marital stress on recurrence of the disease and cardiac-related morbidity and mortality in women, providing effective education and interventions to this group of patients, especially older women and even their spouses could be one of the useful objectives of CR programs. 

  15. What is role of sex and age differences in marital conflict and stress of patients under Cardiac Rehabilitation Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komasi, Saeid; Saeidi, Mozhgan

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the role of sex and age differences in marital conflict and stress of patients who were under cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program. The data of this cross-sectional study were collected from the database of the CR Department of Imam Ali Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran. The demographics and medical data of 683 persons were collected from January 2003 and January 2010 using medical records, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Hudson's Index of Marital Stress, and the Structured Clinical Interview for axis I disorders. Data were analyzed through Analysis of Covariance and Bonferroni test. About 74.8% of the subjects were male. After adjustment for age, educational level, anxiety, and depression-the findings showed that women in CR program had a higher level of marital stress compared to men (54.75 ± 2.52 vs. 49.30 ± 0.89; P = 0.042). Furthermore, it was revealed that women who aged 56-65 years and more experienced higher level of marital stress compared to younger patients (P age groups in male patients (P > 0.050). Marital conflict and stress threaten healthiness of women who aged 56-65 years more prominently than does in males or younger patients. Regarding the effect of marital stress on recurrence of the disease and cardiac-related morbidity and mortality in women, providing effective education and interventions to this group of patients, especially older women and even their spouses could be one of the useful objectives of CR programs.

  16. Relationship of work-family conflict with burnout and marital satisfaction: cross-domain or source attribution relations?

    OpenAIRE

    Bagherzadeh, Razieh; Taghizadeh, Ziba; Mohammadi, Eesa; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Ebadi, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present study was conducted to examine the relationship between two dimensions of work-family conflict (WFC) with marital satisfaction and burnout in a society in which few studies have been done about the consequences of WFC. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015. Surveys were distributed to 420 employed married women with various jobs living in Bushehr province, Iran. Data were collected using a questionnaire for demographic characteristic, the Netmeyer’s...

  17. Prediction of Narcissism, Perception of Social Interactions and Marital Conflicts Based on the Use of Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    رویا رضاپور; محمد مهدی ذاکری; لقمان ابراهیمی

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of social networks and the excessive use of them by couples have had a significant impact on various aspects of their lives. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of social networks in the formation of narcissism, perception of social interaction and marital conflicts in couples who use these social networks. The study design was correlational and the statistical population included couples of Zanjan city who use social networks. 120 couples which widely used social...

  18. Marital conflict and the quality of young children's peer play behavior: the mediating and moderating role of parent-child emotional reciprocity and attachment security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Eric W; Caldera, Yvonne M; Tankersley, Laura

    2009-04-01

    Parent-child attachment security and dyadic measures of parent-child positive and negative emotional reciprocity were examined as possible mediators and moderators of the connection between marital conflict and children's peer play behavior. Eighty parents were observed in a laboratory play session with their 15- to 18-month-old child. Subsequently, at 36 months children were observed interacting with peers at their child care setting. Connections between marital conflict and children's positive peer interaction were mediated by mother-child attachment security, mother-child positive emotional reciprocity, and father-child negative emotional reciprocity. Connections between marital conflict and children's negative peer interaction were mediated by mother-child positive emotional reciprocity and father-child attachment security. Parent-child attachment security and negative emotional reciprocity emerged as important moderators of the connection between marital conflict and children's peer play behavior.

  19. Theorizing the Process of Coping with Sexual Disorders Leading to Marital Conflicts based on Grounded Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Alikhani*

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to theorize about the process of coping with sexual disorders leading to marital conflicts. The process of coping with sexual disorders leading to marital conflicts was examined with 12 couples based on grounded theory. The focus of the study was on the period from commencing of symptoms up to start of treatment. Data were collected through semi-organized interviews and were analyzed through constant comparisons. It was recognized that problem solving skills was the main variable in the process of coping with sexual disorders leading to marital conflicts. The main variable consisted of two levels including ‘single-couple’ and ‘interactional’ and five main categories named as recognizing sexual disorder symptoms, personal assessment, self-attempt, threat feeling, consulting with others which ultimately led to searching help, consultation, and treatment. The preliminary individual decision to decrease the symptoms resulted in self-treatment which consequently defered the treatment period. Age, gender, education level, socio-economical status and pre-knowledge of disorders affected people`s decision making time. Individuals with sexual disorders defer the start of treatment and this can bring a family to separation. Couples should take pre-marriage counseling sessions in order to make decision for treatment at the right time when faced by sexual disorders.

  20. Cardiovascular Reactivity During Marital Conflict in Laboratory and Naturalistic Settings: Differential Associations with Relationship and Individual Functioning Across Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucom, Brian R W; Baucom, Katherine J W; Hogan, Jasara N; Crenshaw, Alexander O; Bourne, Stacia V; Crowell, Sheila E; Georgiou, Panayiotis; Goodwin, Matthew S

    2018-03-25

    Cardiovascular reactivity during spousal conflict is considered to be one of the main pathways for relationship distress to impact physical, mental, and relationship health. However, the magnitude of association between cardiovascular reactivity during laboratory marital conflict and relationship functioning is small and inconsistent given the scope of its importance in theoretical models of intimate relationships. This study tests the possibility that cardiovascular data collected in laboratory settings downwardly bias the magnitude of these associations when compared to measures obtained in naturalistic settings. Ambulatory cardiovascular reactivity data were collected from 20 couples during two relationship conflicts in a research laboratory, two planned relationship conflicts at couples' homes, and two spontaneous relationship conflicts during couples' daily lives. Associations between self-report measures of relationship functioning, individual functioning, and cardiovascular reactivity across settings are tested using multilevel models. Cardiovascular reactivity was significantly larger during planned and spontaneous relationship conflicts in naturalistic settings than during planned relationship conflicts in the laboratory. Similarly, associations with relationship and individual functioning variables were statistically significantly larger for cardiovascular data collected in naturalistic settings than the same data collected in the laboratory. Our findings suggest that cardiovascular reactivity during spousal conflict in naturalistic settings is statistically significantly different from that elicited in laboratory settings both in magnitude and in the pattern of associations with a wide range of inter- and intrapersonal variables. These differences in findings across laboratory and naturalistic physiological responses highlight the value of testing physiological phenomena across interaction contexts in romantic relationships. © 2018 Family Process

  1. [Relationships between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) psychological type and marital satisfaction, divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation in clinic couples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Seong Sook

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) psychological type and marital satisfaction, divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation in couple visiting a clinic. Couples (n=62) who visited "M" couple clinic participated in the study. Data were collected from March to June 2009 using the Marital Satisfaction Scale, Marital Status Inventory, Positive Affect Inventory, and Conflict Regulation Inventory. The couples showed no significant differences in marital satisfaction, positive affect, and conflict regulation according to similarities between spouses in MBTI types. However, they showed significant differences in divorce proneness of husband according to a similarity in the Sensing/Intuition indicator. They also showed significant differences in divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation between the couples for ISTJ (Introversion, Sensing, Thinking, Judging) or ESTJ (Extraversion, Sensing, Thinking, Judging) types compared to other couples. When nurses counsel couples, they should understand that differences in psychological type between spouses affects their marital relationship. In addition, nurses should educate couples on the characteristics of each type according to the couple's types and help them to understand each other, especially for couples where one spouse is the ISTJ/ESTJ type. These interventions will improve marital satisfaction and prevent the divorce in these couples.

  2. Fighting fair: Adaptive Marital Conflict Strategies as Predictors of Future Adolescent Peer and Romantic Relationship Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Miga, Erin M.; Gdula, Julie Ann; Allen, Joseph P.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the associations between reasoning during interparental conflict and autonomous adolescent conflict negotiation with peers over time. Participants included 133 adolescents and their parents, peers, and romantic partners in a multi-method, multiple reporter, longitudinal study. Interparental reasoning at adolescent age 13 predicted greater autonomy and relatedness in observed adolescent-peer conflict one year later and lower levels of autonomy undermining during observed ro...

  3. Marital conflict and children's externalizing behavior: interactions between parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Moore, Ginger A

    2009-01-01

    "Toward greater specificity in the prediction of externalizing problems in the context of interparental conflict, interactions between children's parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system (PNS and SNS...

  4. Conflict and Withdrawal during Marital Interaction: The Roles of Hostility and Defensiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Tamara L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined whether hostile and defensive personality characteristics contribute to conflict and withdrawal within marriage. Analysis of 90 newly wed couples' discussions showed that, among husbands, high levels of hostility combined with low levels of defensiveness accompanied increased conflict. This same personality pattern led to an increase in…

  5. Fighting fair: Adaptive Marital Conflict Strategies as Predictors of Future Adolescent Peer and Romantic Relationship Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miga, Erin M; Gdula, Julie Ann; Allen, Joseph P

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the associations between reasoning during interparental conflict and autonomous adolescent conflict negotiation with peers over time. Participants included 133 adolescents and their parents, peers, and romantic partners in a multi-method, multiple reporter, longitudinal study. Interparental reasoning at adolescent age 13 predicted greater autonomy and relatedness in observed adolescent-peer conflict one year later and lower levels of autonomy undermining during observed romantic partner conflict five years later. Interparental reasoning also predicted greater satisfaction and affection in adolescent romantic relationships seven years later. Findings suggest that autonomy promoting behaviors exhibited in the interparental context may influence adolescents' own more autonomous approaches to subsequent peer and romantic conflict. Possible explanatory models are discussed, including social learning theory and attachment theory.

  6. Incremental Validity of Spouse Ratings versus Self-Reports of Personality as Predictors of Marital Quality and Behavior during Marital Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Jenny M.; Smith, Timothy W.; Frandsen, Clay A.

    2012-01-01

    The personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness are consistently related to marital quality, influencing the individual's own (i.e., actor effect) and the spouse's marital quality (i.e., partner effect). However, this research has almost exclusively relied on self-reports of personality, despite the fact that spouse ratings have been found…

  7. Conflict and collaboration in middle-aged and older couples: I. Age differences in agency and communion during marital interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W; Berg, Cynthia A; Florsheim, Paul; Uchino, Bert N; Pearce, Gale; Hawkins, Melissa; Henry, Nancy J M; Beveridge, Ryan M; Skinner, Michelle A; Olsen-Cerny, Chrisanna

    2009-06-01

    Prior theory and research regarding age differences in marital interaction suggest that older couples display and experience more positivity and less negativity than middle-aged couples. However, studies of overt behavior in older couples are relatively rare and have emphasized disagreement, neglecting other important contexts for older couples such as collaboration during everyday problem solving. Further, the affiliation or communion dimension of social interaction (i.e., warmth vs. hostility) is commonly assessed but not the control or agency dimension (e.g., dominance vs. submissiveness). The present study examined affect, cognitive appraisals, and overt behavior during disagreement (i.e., discussing a current conflict) and collaboration (i.e., planning errands) in 300 middle-aged and older married couples. Older couples reported less negative affect during disagreement and rated spouses as warmer than did middle-aged couples. However, these effects were eliminated when older couples' greater marital satisfaction was controlled. For observed behavior, older couples displayed little evidence of greater positivity and reduced negativity-especially women. During collaboration, older couples displayed a unique blend of warmth and control, suggesting a greater focus on emotional and social concerns during problem solving. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Conflict and Collaboration in Middle-Aged and Older Couples: I: Age Differences in Agency and Communion during Marital Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W.; Berg, Cynthia A.; Florsheim, Paul; Uchino, Bert N.; Pearce, Gale; Hawkins, Melissa; Henry, Nancy J.M.; Beveridge, Ryan M.; Skinner, Michelle A.; Olsen-Cerny, Chrisanna

    2011-01-01

    Prior theory and research regarding age differences in marital interaction suggest that older couples display and experience more positivity and less negativity than middle-aged couples. However, studies of overt behavior in older couples are relatively rare and have emphasized disagreement, neglecting other important contexts for older couples such as collaboration during everyday problem solving. Further, the affiliation or communion dimension of social interaction (i.e., warmth vs. hostility) is commonly assessed, but not the control or agency dimension (e.g., dominance vs. submissiveness). The present study examined affect, cognitive appraisals, and overt behavior during disagreement (i.e., discussing a current conflict) and collaboration (i.e., planning errands) in 300 middle-aged and older married couples. Older couples reported less negative affect during disagreement and rated spouses as warmer than did middle-aged couples. However, these effects were eliminated when older couples’ greater marital satisfaction was controlled. For observed behavior, older couples displayed little evidence of greater positivity and reduced negativity – especially women. During collaboration, older couples displayed a unique blend of warmth and control, suggesting a greater focus on emotional and social concerns during problem solving. PMID:19485646

  9. Associations of Marital Conflict with Emotional and Physiological Stress: Evidence for Different Patterns of Dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore theoretically suggested but untested links between interparental conflict and stress physiology in late adolescence. A multi-method study was conducted involving families (n = 42) who previously participated in the University California, Irvine site of the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development;…

  10. Marital Conflict and Children's Externalizing Behavior: Interactions between Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Nervous System Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Erath, Stephen; Cummings, E. Mark; Keller, Peggy; Staton, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Toward greater specificity in the prediction of externalizing problems in the context of interparental conflict, interactions between children's parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system (PNS and SNS) activity were examined as moderators. PNS activity was indexed by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA reactivity (RSA-R) to lab…

  11. Managing common marital stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A C; Starling, B P

    1989-10-01

    Marital conflict and divorce are problems of great magnitude in our society, and nurse practitioners are frequently asked by patients to address marital problems in clinical practice. "Family life cycle theory" provides a framework for understanding the common stresses of marital life and for developing nursing strategies to improve marital satisfaction. If unaddressed, marital difficulties have serious adverse consequences for a couple's health, leading to greater dysfunction and a decline in overall wellness. This article focuses on identifying couples in crisis, assisting them to achieve pre-crisis equilibrium or an even higher level of functioning, and providing appropriate referral if complex relationship problems exist.

  12. Child Characteristics, Parent Education and Depressive Symptoms, and Marital Conflict Predicting Trajectories of Parenting Behavior from Childhood Through Early Adolescence in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Ping; Dopkins Stright, Anne; Yen, Lee-Lan

    2017-09-01

    The study examined how child and parent characteristics, and contextual sources of stress, such as marital conflict predict initial status and trajectories of parent involvement, support, and harsh control, over a 4-year period in families in Taiwan (n = 4,754). Based on Belsky's (1984) ecological model of parenting, three domains predicting parenting were tested, child characteristics (age cohort and gender), father and mother characteristics (education and depressive symptoms), and contextual sources of stress (marital conflict). The study followed two cohorts of children; the younger cohort was followed from first to fourth grade and the older cohort from fourth to seventh grade. Initially, fourth graders reported more parental involvement, support, and harsh control than first graders. However, involvement, support, and harsh control decreased across the 4 years for the older cohort as they transitioned to early adolescence. In the first year, girls reported more parental involvement and support and less harsh control than boys. Across the 4 years, involvement and support increased, and harsh control decreased for boys; whereas involvement stayed the same, support slightly decreased, and harsh control slightly increased for girls. Children whose parents were more educated reported more parent involvement, support, and harsh control in the first year. Children whose fathers were chronically depressed and whose parents were experiencing marital conflict reported decreasing parent involvement and support over the years. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  13. Vignettes of Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotz, Ignacio L.

    2010-01-01

    This article is an exploration of ambiguity as it appears in various guises in philosophical, social, political, and educational situations. Among these situations is the experience of exile. The exploration is conducted by means of literary anecdotes and real-life instances, hence the use of vignettes. The suggestion is made that ambiguity can be…

  14. Conflito conjugal: impacto no desenvolvimento psicológico da criança e do adolescente Marital conflict: impact on the psychological development of children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pereira da Cruz Benetti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As investigações sobre os processos relacionais familiares indicam uma associação entre conflito conjugal e presença de adversidade no contexto familiar com implicações no desenvolvimento psicológico de crianças e adolescentes. Este artigo propõe-se a revisar algumas contribuições teóricas importantes sobre o tema, abordando alguns resultados das pesquisas sobre o impacto do conflito conjugal no desenvolvimento psicológico de crianças e adolescentes. Discute-se, também, a contribuição do modelo cognitivo-contextual e do modelo segurança-emocional na compreensão das relações familiares e do conflito conjugal. Finalmente, são abordadas as implicações teóricas e práticas para as pesquisas na área da psicologia.The investigations about family relations indicate an association between marital conflict and the presence of adversity in the family context with consequences on the psychological development of children and adolescents. The purpose of this article is to review some of the theoretical contributions on the subject, including some results of researches on the impact of marital conflict on the psychological development of children and adolescents. Also, the contributions of the cognitive-contextual model and the emotional-security model for the comprehension of family relations and marital conflict are discussed. Finally, theoretical and practical consequences for research in the psychological field are discussed.

  15. Marital Alternatives and Marital Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, J. Richard

    1981-01-01

    Explores the usefulness of "marital alternatives" as a dimension in explaining marital stability, using longitudinal data from a panel of married, White, urban couples from 16 urban areas. Results indicated the dimension of marital alternatives appeared to be a better predictor of marital disruption than marital satisfaction. (Author/RC)

  16. Parental Dysphoria and Children's Adjustment: Marital Conflict Styles, Children's Emotional Security, and Parenting as Mediators of Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2007-01-01

    Dimensions of martial conflict, children's emotional security regarding interparental conflict, and parenting style were examined as mediators between parental dysphoria and child adjustment. A community sample of 262 children, ages 8-16, participated with their parents. Behavioral observations were made of parents' interactions during marital…

  17. Vignettes: Implications for LIS Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Allison; Jackson, John; Luo, Lili

    2018-01-01

    Vignettes, brief descriptions of fictional characters and situations, serve as a tool to study people's lives, perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes about specific situations. Although not widely used in library and information science (LIS) research, vignettes can depersonalize responses to controversial situations or behavioral responses related…

  18. Stress, Communication, and Marital Quality in Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Thomas; Bodenmann, Guy; Rudaz, Myriam; Bradbury, Thomas N.

    2010-01-01

    The association between daily stress outside and inside of the relationship and marital functioning in the form of communication in conflict situations and marital quality was examined. We hypothesized that relationship stress mediates the association between external stress and marital functioning at the individual level, and that the association…

  19. Relationship of Marital Satisfaction, Family Support and Family-Work Conflict Factors Among Malaysian Fathers with Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahayudin, A.A.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The study on contextual factors in Malaysian family is more concentrated among mothers compared to the fathers. Malaysian fathers are often influenced by these factors embedded in the family. This study examines the level of contextual factors among fathers of adolescent children. The survey was conducted using a simple sampling method, on a group of 413 fathers with adolescent children from all districts in the state of Selangor, West Peninsular of Malaysia. A set of questionnaires was used to derive data from the fathers̕ contextual factors which are marriage satisfaction, family support and work-family conflict among fathers of adolescents. Analysis on frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, analysis of Variance (ANOVA and the Pearson correlations were used to investigate the level and correlation of contextual factors among fathers of adolescent children. The Pearson correlation shows that there is a significant correlation between work-family conflict and marriage satisfaction and between family support and marriage satisfaction. However, there is no significant correlation between family support and work-family conflict. The study proficiently contributes towards the exploration of influencing factors for the involvement of fathers in parenting.

  20. Personality traits and sexual satisfaction as determinants of marital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yet what still remains uncertain is which factors account for the differing degrees of marital satisfaction and the fluctuations in the marital quality (e.g. marital conflict) that spouses experience over time. This study therefore sets out to investigate personality traits and sexual satisfaction as determinants of marital satisfaction ...

  1. Marital conflict by proxy after father kills mother: the family therapist as an expert witness in court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, T

    1998-01-01

    The father killing the mother leaves the children effectively without parents. The extended family from both sides will often intervene to offer a home for the children, or at least to have a say in what arrangements are made for the children and how they are to be brought up. Intensely competitive and hostile feelings between the opposing sets of relatives are commonly aroused, and the children may be caught up in a battle reminiscent of the conflict between their parents, which culminated in the death of their mother. I and my colleagues have, as a team, seen more than 300 children who have lost one parent at the hands of the other, and we have been involved in subsequent custody battles as expert witnesses. Based on this experience and using this context as an example, the issues for the family therapist as expert witness in adversarial Court proceedings are presented. A case is described that illustrates the theoretical exposition--including the effectiveness of family therapy from the witness box.

  2. EP BICYCLE POOL - VIGNETTES 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    EP-SMI Help Desk

    2002-01-01

    The vignettes (insurance certificates) for 2002 become obligatory from 1 June. If you have a bicycle from the EP Pool, please bring it to the EP-SMI Help Desk (Building 124) on any working day up to 31 May between 8h.30 - 12h.00 or 13h.30 - 17h.30. EP-SMI Help Desk

  3. Online Interactive Video Vignettes (IVVs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Priscilla

    2016-03-01

    Interest in on-line learning is increasing rapidly. A few years ago members of the LivePhoto Physics Group1 received collaborative NSF Grants2 to create short, single-topic, on-line activities that invite introductory physics students to make individual predictions about a phenomenon and test them though video observations or analysis. Each Vignette is designed for web delivery as: (1) an ungraded homework assignment or (2) an exercise to prepare for a class or tutorial session. Sample IVVs are available at the ComPadre website http://www.compadre.org/ivv/. Portions of Vignettes on mechanics topics including Projectile Motion, Circular Motion, the Bullet-Block phenomenon, and Newton's Third Law will be presented. Those attending this talk will be asked to guess what predictions students are likely to make about phenomena in various IVVs. These predictions can be compared to those made by students who completed Vignettes. Finally, research on the impact of Vignettes on student learning and attitudes will be discussed. Co-PI Robert Teese, Rochester Institute of Technology.

  4. Conflict Resolution in the Parent-Child, Marital, and Peer Contexts and Children's Aggression in the Peer Group: A Process-Oriented Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Masalha, Shafiq; Derdikman-Eiron, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Theories of socialization propose that children's ability to handle conflicts is learned at home through mechanisms of participation and observation--participating in parent-child conflict and observing the conflicts between parents. We assessed modes of conflict resolution in the parent-child, marriage, and peer-group contexts among 141 Israeli…

  5. Consanguineous Marriage and Marital Adjustment in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisiloglu, Hurol

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between consanguineous marriage and marital adjustment in Turkey. The results of the study show that the consanguineous marriage group had significantly lower marital adjustment and had more conflict with extended family than the nonconsanguineous marriage group. The finding is discussed in the context of research and…

  6. The Career Success/Personal Failure Phenomenon as Perceived in Others: Comparing Vignettes of Male and Female Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Mina; Etzion, Dalia

    1990-01-01

    Reactions to 4 versions of a vignette describing a successful manager were obtained from 233 management students, including 50 executives in an extension course. Career success was perceived as a major cause of personal failure. The personal price paid by successful people was perceived differently depending on gender and marital status. (SK)

  7. Perceptions of marital interaction among black and white newlyweds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oggins, J; Veroff, J; Leber, D

    1993-09-01

    Perceptions of marital interactions were gathered from a representative sample of urban newlywed couples (199 Black and 174 White). A factor analysis of the reports found 6 factors common to husbands and wives: Disclosing Communication, Affective Affirmation, Negative Sexual Interaction, Traditional Role Regulation, Destructive Conflict, and Constructive Conflict. Avoiding Conflict was specific to men and Positive Coorientation was specific to women. Wives reported fewer constructive and more destructive conflict behaviors. Compared with Whites, Blacks reported more disclosure, more positive sexual interactions, and fewer topics of disagreement. They also more often reported leaving the scene of conflict and talking with others more easily than with the spouse. As hypothesized, perceptions that marital interactions affirm one's sense of identity strongly predicted marital well-being. Although regression analyses predicting marital happiness yielded few interactions with race or gender, those that are significant, coupled with race and gender differences in perceiving interaction, suggest taking a contextual orientation to the meaning of marital interaction.

  8. Using vignettes to study family consumption processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2010-01-01

    The use of vignettes for qualitative consumer research is discussed in this article. More specifically, vignettes are proposed as a useful research technique for conducting systematic and rigorous studies of consumer interaction processes, in particular as these relate to family consumption issue...... for applying the vignette method are outlined and illustrated by two recent studies of proenvironmental consumer behavior in a family context. The paper concludes with a discussion of the benefits and the possible pitfalls of using vignettes.......The use of vignettes for qualitative consumer research is discussed in this article. More specifically, vignettes are proposed as a useful research technique for conducting systematic and rigorous studies of consumer interaction processes, in particular as these relate to family consumption issues....... Following an overview of methodological and practical problems of studying consumption interaction processes in families, a discussion of how vignettes may be used to enhance knowledge of family decision-making processes in real-life contexts is presented. Design implications are discussed and strategies...

  9. Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley T. Kerridge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the association between deaths owing to terrorism, civil war and one-sided violence from 1994–2000 and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs attributable to diarrheal and related diseases, schistosomiasis, trachoma and the nematode infections (DSTN diseases in 2002 among World Health Organization Member States. Deaths resulting from terrorism, civil war and one-sided violence were significantly related to DSTN DALYs across the majority of sex–age subgroups of the populace, after controlling for baseline levels of improved water/sanitation and a variety of economic measures: overall, a 1.0% increase in deaths owing to terrorism and related violence was associated with an increase of 0.16% in DALYs lost to DSTN diseases. Associations were greatest among 0-to-4-year olds. The results of the present study suggest that DSTN disease control efforts should target conflict-affected populations with particular attention to young children who suffer disproportionately from DSTN diseases in these settings. In view of the evidence that terrorism and related violence may influence DSTN DALYs in the longer term, control strategies should move beyond immediate responses to decrease the incidence and severity of DSTN diseases to seek solutions through bolstering health systems infrastructure development among conflict-affected populations.

  10. Parentification – its direction and perceived benefits in terms of connections with late adolescents’ emotional regulation in the situation of marital conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judyta Borchet

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Parentification means distortion of the roles between family members. A child performs adult tasks and responsibilities for his siblings and/or parents. The aim of the study was to extend the knowledge about parentification and its connections with parental conflict as well as strategies of coping with parental conflict in the group of late adolescents who live with their parents or live on their own. Participants and procedure The empirical evidence consisted of the results of 264 volunteer late adolescents. Two questionnaires were used in the study. The first one was the experimental version of the Polish adaptation of Hooper’s Parentification Inventory. It is a scale that enables one to assess the intensity of parentification levels that are judged retrospectively by the subject. The second tool was the experimental version of the Polish adaptation of Davies’ and Forman’s Security in the Interparental Subsystem Scale – Child Report. The scale examines children’s reactions to parental conflict. Results The obtained results suggest that intensity of parental conflict and strategies of coping with it influence parentification characteristics. The connections seem to be different in two adolescent groups – those who still live with their parents and those who decided to live on their own. Conclusions Thus, parental conflict may foster tightening of the family bonds and intensify parentification at the same time. On the other hand, in order to separate and break excessive family ties, adolescents may move out of the family house.

  11. Conflitos conjugais e familiares e presença de transtorno de déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH na prole: revisão sistemática Marital and familial conflicts and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in the offspring: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Rodrigues Guilherme

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade (TDAH é um dos transtornos neurobiológicos com maior prevalência na infância e pode implicar dificuldades no funcionamento conjugal dos pais das crianças afetadas, bem como sofrer influência do mesmo. OBJETIVO: Realizar uma revisão sistemática acerca dos aspectos conjugais em famílias de crianças com TDAH, relacionando-os com outras variáveis, como a presença de comorbidades, aspectos socioeconômicos e saúde mental dos pais. MÉTODOS: Revisão sistemática de literatura por meio do PubMed entre os anos de 1996 e 2006, utilizando os termos "ADD", "ADHD", "Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder", "Attention-Deficit", "marital conflict" e "family". RESULTADOS: Dezesseis estudos dentre 628 publicações iniciais e 55 artigos posteriormente incluídos pelas referências bibliográficas foram avaliados. O relacionamento conjugal aparece comprometido em grande parte da literatura, principalmente nos pais daquelas crianças que apresentam distúrbio desafiador e de oposição (DDO ou distúrbio de conduta comórbidos. Contudo, resultados opostos também são encontrados em diversas pesquisas. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados de pesquisas referentes ao funcionamento conjugal de pais destas crianças são heterogêneos. É preciso que sejam feitos estudos longitudinais, que possam esclarecer o impacto do transtorno nos conflitos conjugais de pais de portadores, bem como a influência destes últimos na expressão clínica do transtorno.Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common neurobiological disorders among children and might either influence or be influenced by problems in marital functioning of the parents of affected children. Studies aimed at investigating marital functioning in parents of these children have found controversial results. OBJETIVE: To perform a systematic review about the marital aspects of families with ADHD children and, to correlate

  12. Working with Parents of Aggressive Children: Clinical Vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordock, John B.

    1988-01-01

    Seven brief clinical vignettes are presented, illustrating principles of intervention with parents of aggressive children. The vignettes describe family relationships; parents' feelings toward counselors, especially anger; counseling techniques; actions taken by counselors; and outcomes of treatment. (JDD)

  13. Vignette equivalence and response consistency; the case of job satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.; van Praag, B.M.S.; Theodossiou, I.

    2011-01-01

    We compare reported job satisfaction with vignette evaluations of hypothetical jobs by using a British, Greek and Dutch data set, containing 95 randomly assigned vignettes. In order to test comparability of international data sets recently the method of anchoring vignettes has been introduced by

  14. [Problem-solving strategies and marital satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegelewicz, Olga

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between problem-solving strategies in the marital conflict and marital satisfaction. Four problem-solving strategies (Dialogue, Loyalty, Escalation of conflict and Withdrawal) were measured by the Problem-Solving Strategies Inventory, in two versions: self-report and report of partners' perceived behaviour. This measure refers to the concept of Rusbult, Johnson and Morrow, and meets high standards of reliability (alpha Cronbach from alpha = 0.78 to alpha = 0.94) and validity. Marital satisfaction was measured by Marriage Success Scale. The sample was composed of 147 marital couples. The study revealed that satisfied couples, in comparison with non-satisfied couples, tend to use constructive problem-solving strategies (Dialogue and Loyalty). They rarely use destructive strategies like Escalation of conflict or Withdrawal. Dialogue is the strategy connected with satisfaction in a most positive manner. These might be very important guidelines to couples' psychotherapy. Loyalty to oneself is a significant positive predictor of male satisfaction is also own Loyalty. The study shows that constructive attitudes are the most significant predictors of marriage satisfaction. It is therefore worth concentrating mostly on them in the psychotherapeutic process instead of eliminating destructive attitudes.

  15. Fathering and Mothering in the Family System: Linking Marital Hostility and Aggression in Adopted Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Carla Smith; Connell, Christian M.; Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Conger, Rand; Reiss, David

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have linked marital conflict, parenting, and externalizing problems in early childhood. However, these studies have not examined whether genes account for these links nor have they examined whether contextual factors such as parental personality or financial distress might account for links between marital conflict and…

  16. Improving marital relationships: strategies for the family physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, B P; Martin, A C

    1992-01-01

    Marital conflict and divorce are prevalent in our society, and patients frequently ask family physicians to assist them with marital difficulties. These difficulties are often associated with a decline in health, resulting in additional stress to the marital unit. A MEDLINE search was undertaken using the key words "family medicine," "marital therapy," "marital counseling," "brief psychotherapy," and "short-term psychotherapy." The bibliographies of generated articles were searched for additional references. The authors used the resources of their individual behavioral science libraries, as well as their clinical experiences. With adequate training, many family physicians can include marital counseling skills in their clinical repertoires. Family life cycle theory provides a framework for understanding the common stresses of marital life and also guides the family physician in recommending strategies to improve marital satisfaction. The physician's role is twofold: (1) to identify couples in crisis, and (2) to provide preventive strategies geared to assist couples in achieving pre-crisis equilibrium or higher levels of functioning. For physicians whose practices do not include marital counseling, an understanding of the basic techniques can be beneficial in effectively referring appropriate couples for marital therapy.

  17. Marital Satisfaction and Its Influencing Factors in Fertile and Infertile Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Mohammad; Sadeqi, Zakieh; Hoseinpoor, Mohammad Hassan; Khosravi, Ahmad

    2016-09-01

    Objective: To determine marital satisfaction and its influencing factors among fertile and infertile women in Shahroud. Materials and methods: In this comparative study, 1528 participants (511 infertile and1017 fertile women) were evaluated using Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale. Data were analyzed using chi-square and t-test. Results: A total of 1402 participants (78.7%) had high marital satisfaction. The results show that no significant differences exist between marital satisfaction, marital communication, conflict resolution and idealistic distortion in fertile and infertile women. However, a significant difference was observed between marital satisfaction, and job, spouse's job and income in fertile and infertile groups, but the place of residence, education, spouse's education and fertility status showed no significant difference. Conclusion: Results showed that infertility does not reduce marital satisfaction. Since marital satisfaction is moderate in both groups, sex education for people bound to marry and sexual counseling for couples can lead to improved sexual satisfaction.

  18. Marital Satisfaction and Its Influencing Factors in Fertile and Infertile Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amiri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine marital satisfaction and its influencing factors among fertile and infertile women in Shahroud.Materials and methods: In this comparative study, 1528 participants (511 infertile and1017 fertile women were evaluated using Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale. Data were analyzed using chi-square and t-test.Results: A total of 1402 participants (78.7% had high marital satisfaction. The results show that no significant differences exist between marital satisfaction, marital communication, conflict resolution and idealistic distortion in fertile and infertile women. However, a significant difference was observed between marital satisfaction, and job, spouse’s job and income in fertile and infertile groups, but the place of residence, education, spouse's education and fertility status showed no significant difference.Conclusion: Results showed that infertility does not reduce marital satisfaction. Since marital satisfaction is moderate in both groups, sex education for people bound to marry and sexual counseling for couples can lead to improved sexual satisfaction.

  19. Interrelations and moderators of longitudinal links between marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms among couples in established relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Chrystyna D; Papp, Lauren M; Cummings, E Mark

    2008-10-01

    Extending research based on newlywed couples, this study investigated longitudinal associations between marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms in a community sample of 296 couples in established relationships (M = 13.25 years, SD = 5.98) with children (M age = 11.05 years, SD = 2.31). Support was found for reciprocal relations between marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms in couples with established relationships. Further extending previous work, the study showed that relationship length and hostile marital conflict were significant moderators of these linkages. Husbands in longer term relationships were more vulnerable to depressive symptoms in the context of marital problems compared with husbands in shorter term relationships. At higher levels of marital conflict, the negative relationship between marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms was strengthened. Reflecting an unexpected finding, increased conflict buffered spouses from marital dissatisfaction in the context of depressive symptoms. Copyright 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Estilos parentais autoritário e democrático-recíproco intergeracionais, conflito conjugal e comportamentos de externalização e internalização Intergenerational authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles, marital conflict, and externalizing and internalizing behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebenézer A. de Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelos mediativos de risco e proteção foram testados, para prever longitudinalmente comportamentos de externalização e internalização infantis, a partir de uma atitude conjugal conflituosa e de estilos parentais intergeracionais autoritário vs. democrático-recíproco. Proveniente de duas escolas particulares e uma pública, a amostra contou com 25 meninas e 25 meninos de 4 e 5 anos, e suas respectivas mães. Correlações bivariadas de Pearson e regressões múltiplas indicaram a presença de transmissão intergeracional do estilo autoritário, mas não do democrático-recíproco, mediada por uma atitude conjugal conflituosa. O estilo autoritário materno previu tanto externalização como internalização, enquanto a atitude conjugal conflituosa previu apenas externalização. Embora significativo, o modelo aditivo não gerou efeitos longitudinais significativos de cada fator sobre externalização. Mas, ao se levar em conta a relação entre o estilo autoritário e a atitude conjugal conflituosa, efeitos principais foram encontrados para ambos os fatores. A obtenção de resultados significativos apenas no modelo de risco é considerada sob os pontos de vista teórico e metodológico.Mediational models of risk and protection were tested to predict longitudinally both externalizing and internalizing behaviors in young children, with conflicted marital attitude and transgenerational, authoritarian vs. authoritative parenting as predictors. Drawn from two private and one public schools, the sample consisted of 25 boys and 25 girls with 4 and 5 years of age, and their respective mothers. Bivariate Pearson correlations and multiple regressions showed intergenerational transmission for the authoritarian style, but not for the authoritative style, mediated by a conflicted attitude toward marriage. The maternal authoritarian style predicted both externalizing and internalizing behaviors, whereas the conflicted marital attitude predicted only

  1. Managing intercultural conflict effectively

    CERN Document Server

    Ting-Toomey, Stella

    2001-01-01

    In this volume, Ting-Toomey and Oetzel accomplish two objectives: to explain the culture-based situational conflict model, including the relationship among conflict, ethnicity, and culture; and, second, integrate theory and practice in the discussion of interpersonal conflict in culture, ethnic, and gender contexts. While the book is theoretically directed, it is also a down-to-earth practical book that contains ample examples, conflict dialogues, and critical incidents. Managing Intercultural Conflict Effectively helps to illustrate the complexity of intercultural conflict interactions and readers will gain a broad yet integrative perspective in assessing intercultural conflict situations. The book is a multidisciplinary text that draws from the research work of a variety of disciplines such as cross-cultural psychology, social psychology, sociology, marital and family studies, international management, and communication.

  2. Marital relationship, parenting practices, and social skills development in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Rikuya; Katsura, Toshiki

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the pathways by which destructive and constructive marital conflict leading to social skills development in preschool children, are mediated through negative and positive parenting practices. Mothers of 2931 Japanese children, aged 5-6 years, completed self-report questionnaires regarding their marital relationship (the Quality of co-parental communication scale) and parental practices (the Alabama parenting questionnaire). The children's teachers evaluated their social skills using the Social skills scale. Path analyses revealed significant direct paths from destructive marital conflict to negative parenting practices and lower scores on the self-control component of social skills. In addition, negative parenting practices mediated the relationship between destructive marital conflict and lower scores on cooperation, self-control, and assertion. Our analyses also revealed significant direct paths from constructive marital conflict to positive parenting practices, and higher scores on cooperation and assertion. Positive parenting practices mediated the relationship between constructive marital conflict and higher scores on self-control and assertion. These findings suggest that destructive and constructive marital conflict may directly and indirectly influence children's social skills development through the mediation of parenting practices.

  3. The validity of vignettes in cross country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzoli, Dario; Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kristensen, Nicolai

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments may be ham-pered by sub-population speci.c response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular - notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes as a means to re-scale across ...... that the assumption of RC is not innocous and that our extended model improves the fit and significantly changes the cross-country rankings of health vis-á-vis the standard Chopit model.......Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments may be ham-pered by sub-population speci.c response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular - notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes as a means to re-scale across...

  4. The Development of Marital Tension: Implications for Divorce among Married Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birditt, Kira S.; Wan, Wylie H.; Orbuch, Terri L.; Antonucci, Toni C.

    2017-01-01

    Marriages are often characterized by their positive and negative features in terms of whether they elicit feelings of satisfaction and happiness or conflict and negativity. Although research has examined the development of marital happiness, less is known about the development of negativity among married couples. We examined how marital tension…

  5. Overt and Relational Aggression in Russian Nursery-School-Age Children: Parenting Style and Marital Linkages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Craig H.; Nelson, David A.; Robinson, Clyde C.; Olsen, Susanne Frost; McNeilly-Choque, Mary Kay

    1998-01-01

    Maternal and paternal parenting styles and marital interactions linked to childhood aggressive behavior in Western psychological literature were measured in 207 ethnic Russian families of nursery-school-age children. Results corroborated and extended findings from Western samples. Greater marital conflict (for boys only), greater maternal…

  6. Sanctification, Stress, and Marital Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Christopher G.; Henderson, Andrea K.; Glenn, Norval D.; Harkrider, Kristine E.

    2011-01-01

    This article contributes to recent work investigating the role of religious sanctification, that is, the process via which one's spouse or marital relationship is perceived as having divine character or sacred significance. We outline a series of theoretical arguments linking marital sanctification with specific aspects of marital quality. A…

  7. Marital stability and repartnering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Mariana V; Costa, Patrício; Peterson, Brennan D

    2014-01-01

    a second union have higher initial levels of stress in their original relationship and higher changes in stress levels over the course of treatments. These findings suggest that high infertility-related stress levels before entering fertility treatment can negatively affect the stability of marital......OBJECTIVE: To compare the trajectories of infertility-related stress between patients who remain in the same relationship and patients who repartner. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study using latent growth modeling. SETTING: Fertility centers. PATIENT(S): Childless men and women evaluated before...... starting a new cycle of fertility treatment and observed for a 5-year period of unsuccessful treatments. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Marital stability and infertility-related stress. RESULT(S): The majority of patients (86%) remained with their initial partner, but 14% of participants...

  8. Conflict about conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jehn, K.A.; Rispens, S.; Thatcher, S.M.B.; Mannix, E.; Neale, M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – There are a number of ongoing debates in the organizational literature about conflict in groups and teams. We investigate two "conflicts about conflict" (i.e., two meta-conflicts) in the literature: we examine whether and under what conditions conflict in workgroups might be beneficial and

  9. Marital Satisfaction Trends in Hong Kong Between 2002 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiping; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul

    2016-07-03

    Macrosocial changes may generate influences on marital quality. This study used data from the 2002-2012 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice surveys conducted by the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong to track the trends of marital satisfaction of both husbands and wives over a 10-year period in Hong Kong, with associated factors. Results indicated that 85% of the husbands and around 80% of the wives reported that they were satisfied with their marital relationships, and no significant changes in general were observed for them between 2002 and 2012 except for some subgroups. Husbands aged 45-49 years, in employment and whose monthly household income between 25,000 HKD and 39,999 HKD, reported marital satisfaction decreased over the past 10 years and wives with primary education or below also reported a decreasing trend during this period. Education and family income had positive influences on the husbands' and wives' marital satisfaction, and husbands were more likely to be sensitive to the unemployment. Less than one-third of couples needed professional counseling on family-related issues, and couple conflicts and work-family conflicts were the urgent needs that should be given priority in delivering services. The implications of this study are discussed in the Chinese context of Hong Kong.

  10. Emotion regulation predicts marital satisfaction: more than a wives' tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Lian; Haase, Claudia M; Levenson, Robert W

    2014-02-01

    Emotion regulation is generally thought to be a critical ingredient for successful interpersonal relationships. Ironically, few studies have investigated the link between how well spouses regulate emotion and how satisfied they are with their marriages. We utilized data from a 13-year, 3-wave longitudinal study of middle-aged (40-50 years old) and older (60-70 years old) long-term married couples, focusing on the associations between downregulation of negative emotion (measured during discussions of an area of marital conflict at Wave 1) and marital satisfaction (measured at all 3 waves). Downregulation of negative emotion was assessed by determining how quickly spouses reduced signs of negative emotion (in emotional experience, emotional behavior, and physiological arousal) after negative emotion events. Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence modeling. Findings showed that (a) greater downregulation of wives' negative experience and behavior predicted greater marital satisfaction for wives and husbands concurrently and (b) greater downregulation of wives' negative behavior predicted increases in wives' marital satisfaction longitudinally. Wives' use of constructive communication (measured between Waves 1 and 2) mediated the longitudinal associations. These results show the benefits of wives' downregulation of negative emotion during conflict for marital satisfaction and point to wives' constructive communication as a mediating pathway. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Emotion regulation predicts marital satisfaction: More than a wives’ tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Lian; Haase, Claudia M.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Emotion regulation is generally thought to be a critical ingredient for successful interpersonal relationships. Ironically, few studies have investigated the link between how well spouses regulate emotion and how satisfied they are with their marriages. We utilized data from a 13-year, 3-wave longitudinal study of middle-aged (40–50 years old) and older (60–70 years old) long-term married couples, focusing on the associations between downregulation of negative emotion (measured during discussions of an area of marital conflict at Wave 1) and marital satisfaction (measured at all three waves). Downregulation of negative emotion was assessed by determining how quickly spouses reduced signs of negative emotion (in emotional experience, emotional behavior, and physiological arousal) after negative emotion events. Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence modeling. Findings showed that (a) greater downregulation of wives’ negative experience and behavior predicted greater marital satisfaction for wives and husbands concurrently and (b) greater downregulation of wives’ negative behavior predicted increases in wives’ marital satisfaction longitudinally. Wives’ use of constructive communication (measured between Waves 1 and 2) mediated the longitudinal associations. These results show the benefits of wives’ downregulation of negative emotion during conflict for marital satisfaction and point to wives’ constructive communication as a mediating pathway. PMID:24188061

  12. Intergenerational Transmission of Marital Violence: Results From a Nationally Representative Sample of Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshid, Nadine Shaanta; Murshid, Navine

    2015-09-16

    The present study assesses the association between childhood exposure to parental violence and perpetration of marital violence as adults among a representative sample of 3,396 men in Bangladesh. We used secondary analysis of survey data from the nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007 to examine factors associated with perpetration of martial violence among 3,396 ever-married men between the ages of 16 and 50 years. Outcome measure, marital violence perpetration, was measured using a modified Conflict Tactics Scale, and predictor variables included childhood exposure to parental violence, justification of marital violence, marital duration, religion, and demographic variables. Results indicate that marital violence perpetration is significantly associated with childhood exposure to marital violence, suggesting a cycle of violence that is maintained across generations. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Marriage work in older couples: Disclosure of marital problems to spouses and friends over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jakob F; Rauer, Amy J

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the frequency and impact of "marriage work" (MW), or the act of discussing marital problems with spouses and friends, among a sample of older married couples (N = 64). Using actor-partner interdependence models, we examined how turning to one's spouse and one's friend was linked to changes in both spouses' marital satisfaction and conflict 1 year later. We also investigated whether satisfaction and conflict predicted change in MW for older spouses. Both wives and husbands engaged in more MW with spouses than with friends, and only husbands' MW with spouses decreased over time. Wives' MW with spouses was associated with decreased marital satisfaction for husbands, whereas husbands' MW with spouses was linked with increased satisfaction for husbands. Furthermore, wives' MW with spouses predicted increases in wives' marital conflict over time. When examining effects in the opposite direction, wives' marital satisfaction predicted decreases in wives' MW with spouse. Husbands' satisfaction was linked with increases in wives' MW with spouses, increases in wives' MW with friends, and decreases in husbands' MW with friends. Finally, husbands' conflict predicted increases in husbands' MW with friends. Findings suggest that openly engaging in discussions of marital problems may not be as uniformly helpful for aging couples as it is for their younger counterparts. Given that many older adults tend to actively avoid conflictual interactions in an attempt to maximize emotional rewards, researchers and clinicians should note that traditional approaches to working through romantic conflict may not be ideal for aging couples. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Investigation of marital satisfaction and its relationship with job stress and general health of nurses in Qazvin, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Azimian, Jalil; Piran, Pegah; Jahanihashemi, Hassan; Dehghankar, Leila

    2017-01-01

    Background Pressures in nursing can affect family life and marital problems, disrupt common social problems, increase work-family conflicts and endanger people?s general health. Aim To determine marital satisfaction and its relationship with job stress and general health of nurses. Methods This descriptive and cross-sectional study was done in 2015 in medical educational centers of Qazvin by using an ENRICH marital satisfaction scale and General Health and Job Stress questionnaires completed ...

  15. The Role of Marital Power in Depression and Marital Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Elizabeth C.

    1998-01-01

    Drawing on sex-role theory, the learned-helplessness model of depression, and a review of empirical research, this article explores inequity in marital power as a potential third variable that explains how depression and the quality of marriage are related. Aims to generate broad-minded thinking about how marital power, depression, and marital…

  16. Analysis of vignette method data in sociological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh V Puzanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the vignette method as a projective technique that can be an alternative for the traditional methods in mass surveys. The authors present an example of the study of the social representations of an intelligent man with the vignette method: identify the meaning of the concept ‘social representations’ suggested by S. Moscovici, a scientist who introduced its conceptualization and empirical interpretation; and describe the structure of social representations which consists of a ‘core’ and a ‘periphery’ according to the theory of J.-C. Abric. The article shows the process of creating vignettes, choosing their number and conditions for the tool application. The main emphasis is made on the analysis of data obtained through the vignette method by calculating indices, discriminant analysis and logistic regression, and the explanation for the application of these three techniques is given. The authors describe the research procedure, the creation of the tool and the sample; compare the results of each method of analysis. Discriminant analysis and logistic regression data confirm each other, which is an important verification of the results of different methods of analysis.

  17. The Earth System Science Education Experience: Personal Vignettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzek, M.; Aron, J.; Maranto, G.; Reider, D.; Wake, C.

    2006-12-01

    Colleges and universities across the country and around the world have embraced the Earth system approach to gain deeper understanding of the interrelationships of processes that define the home planet. The Design Guide for Undergraduate Earth System Science Education, a product of the NASA/USRA Earth System Science Education for the 21st Century Program (ESSE 21), represents a synthesis of community understanding of the content and process of teaching and learning about Earth as a system. The web-based Design Guide serves faculty from multiple disciplines who wish to adopt an ESS approach in their own courses or programs. Illustrating the nine topical sections of the Design Guide are a series of short vignettes telling the story of how ESS is being used in the classroom, how ESS has contributed to institutional change and personal professional development, how ESS is being implemented at minority serving institutions, and the impact of ESS education on student research. Most vignettes are written from a personal perspective and reflect a direct experience with Earth System Science Education. Over forty vignettes have been assembled aiming to put a face on the results of the systemic reform efforts of the past fifteen years of the ESSE programs, documenting the sometimes intangible process of education reform to be shared with those seeking examples of ESS education. The vignettes are a vital complement to the Design Guide sections, and are also available as a separate collection on the Design Guide and ESSE 21 web sites.

  18. Child Protection Decision Making: A Factorial Analysis Using Case Vignettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jacqueline; Schmidt, Glen

    2012-01-01

    This study explored decision making by child protection social workers in the province of British Columbia, Canada. A factorial survey method was used in which case vignettes were constructed by randomly assigning a number of key characteristics associated with decision making in child protection. Child protection social workers (n = 118) assessed…

  19. Premarital Pregnancy and Marital Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The marital histories of 203 young women who became premaritally pregnant in their early teens and 90 of their classmates most of whom married before pregnancy show that disruption in the courtship process and limited economic resources are the most important factors in marital dissolution. (Author/AM)

  20. Effect of Psychological Intervention on Marital Satisfaction of Mothers with Slow Pace Under 5 Years Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Soleymani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Objective of this study was investigating impact of early psychological interventions on marital satisfaction of mothers with slow pace under 5 years children. Considering variables of the research, that is, early psychological interventions and marital satisfaction, research hypotheses was as follows: "early psychological interventions affect marital satisfaction of mothers with slow pace under 5 years children" and it was examined. Methods: This research is of experimental type and pretest-posttest plan with control groups was used. Statistical population included all mothers with slow pace under 5 years children in Urmia. To this end, 40 mothers with slow pace children were selected as the sample in a non-random manner by convenience sampling. They were assigned randomly into two groups of 20 (20 test group and 20 control group, and finally psychological interventions were conducted on one of groups randomly. In order to evaluate marital satisfaction, Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire with 47 items was used. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis of covariance. Results: findings showed that there is significant difference between two groups in posttest in overall score of marital satisfaction as well as in some elements such as conventional responses, marital satisfaction, personality issues, marital relationships, conflict resolution, leisure, parenting, family and friends, and ideological orientation and sexual relations (P<0.005, and no significant difference was observed in financial supervision and roles related to gender equality. Discusion: Psychological interventions were effective in promoting marital satisfaction in mothers with slow pace under 5 years children.

  1. Marital Status, Marital Transitions, and Health: A Gendered Life Course Perspective*

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Kristi; Umberson, Debra

    2004-01-01

    We work from a life course perspective to assess the impact of marital status and marital transitions on subsequent changes in the self-assessed physical health of men and women. Our results suggest three central conclusions regarding the association of marital status and marital transitions with self-assessed health. First, marital status differences in health appear to reflect the strains of marital dissolution more than they reflect any benefits of marriage. Second, the strains of marital ...

  2. Nursing diagnoses determined by first year students: a vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakverdioğlu Yönt, Gülendam; Korhan, Esra Akın; Erdemir, Firdevs; Müller-Staub, Maria

    2014-02-01

    The study aimed to determine the ability of first year students in identifying nursing diagnoses. In a descriptive evaluation study, an expert-validated vignette containing 18 nursing diagnoses was used. The students determined 15 nursing diagnoses. The highest percentages of diagnoses identified were disturbed sleep pattern and nutrition imbalance. Students also considered medical diagnoses as nursing diagnoses: hypertension and tachycardia. Despite the fact that students were only at the end of their first semester and had limited clinical experience, they successfully identified the majority of nursing diagnoses. Patient case study vignettes are recommended for education. To foster students' knowledge and experience, it is also suggested that evaluating nursing diagnoses in clinical practicals becomes a requirement. © 2013 NANDA International, Inc.

  3. Effect of marital counselling on women's attitude towards marital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emeka Egbochuku

    issues, love and trust, socio-cultural factors, anti-social vices and lastly economic factors. ... (Dimkpa, 2007). Attitude developed by married women could be negative .... through the news and print media by encouraging women to seek marital.

  4. Attributional Models of Depression and Marital Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneffer, Karen J.; Fincham, Frank D.

    1996-01-01

    Compares attributional models presented in depression and marital literatures by examining simultaneously their prediction of depressive symptoms and marital distress with 150 married couples. Findings show that a model including paths from depressogenic and distress-maintaining marital attributions to both depressive symptoms and marital distress…

  5. Marital and Parental Satisfaction of Married Physicians with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warde, Carole M; Moonesinghe, Kushan; Allen, Walter; Gelberg, Lillian

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate personal and professional factors associated with marital and parental satisfaction of physicians. STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS A survey was sent to equal numbers of licensed male and female physicians in a Southern California county. Of 964 delivered questionnaires, 656 (68%) were returned completed. Our sample includes 415 currently married physicians with children, 64% male and 36% female. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Ratings of marital and parental satisfaction were measured on a 5-point Likert scale, 5 being extremely satisfied. Prevalence of work and home life factors was also evaluated. The mean score for marital satisfaction was 3.92 (range 1.75–5.0). Approximately half of the physicians reported high levels of marital satisfaction (63% of male physicians and 45% of female physicians). The gender difference disappeared after adjusting for age differences. Two factors were associated with high marital satisfaction: a supportive spouse (odds ratio [OR] 10.37; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.66, 40.08) and role conflict (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.42, 0.88). The mean score for parental satisfaction was 3.43 (range 1.0–5.0), and approximately two thirds of both male and female physicians reported at least moderate levels of parental satisfaction. The major factors associated with parental satisfaction were a supportive spouse (OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.32, 3.80), role conflict (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.23, 0.53), salaried practice setting (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.21, 3.81), marriage to a spouse working in a profession (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.21, 3.81), and marriage to a spouse working as a homemaker (OR 2.33; 95% CI 1.20, 4.56). Number of hours worked was not found to be related to either satisfaction score, but rather to an intervening variable, role conflict. CONCLUSIONS For physicians with children, our study indicates that minimizing the level of role conflict and having a supportive spouse are associated with higher levels of marital and

  6. Construction and Validation of the Marital Justice Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ghaffari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to construct and validate a scale for measuring marital justice. A sample of three hundred and four voluntary and unpaid married participants (194 females, 110 males, aged between 20 and 35 years old (29.01 ± 4.44 years, were selected randomly through multi-stage sampling in Isfahan, Iran; the participants included in this sample had preschool child/children, were all in the first decade of marriage, and had at least eight grades of education. All participants were asked to complete the Marital Justice Scale (MJS, the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (R-DAS; Busby, Christensen, Crane, & Larson, 1995, and the Marital Conflict Questionnaire (MCQ; Sanai Zaker, 2000. The exploratory factor analysis extracted two factors labelled ‘Procedural/interactional justice’ (twelve items and ‘Distributive justice’ (eight items which accounted for 66.70% of the total variance. The convergent and discriminant validity of the 20-item MJS were supported by an expected pattern of correlations between the scale and the measures of marital quality and marital conflict. All correlation coefficients between the mean scores of the MJS and the scores of the RDAS and the MCQ were statistically significant. The obtained internal consistency was markedly high (Cronbach’s α = .97. The test-retest reliability of the MJS was .87. The results suggest that the MJS is a reliable and valid measure; however, further studies should be carried out in other countries, based on different age groups and socio-economic levels, various developmental stages of family life cycles, diverse cultures and sub-cultures, and according to gender difference so as to validate the MJS.

  7. Using a Qualitative Vignette to Explore a Complex Public Health Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Michaela; Harrison, Paul; Swinburn, Boyd; Lawrence, Mark

    2015-10-01

    This article discusses how qualitative vignettes were combined with interviews to explore a complex public health issue; that is, promoting unhealthy foods and beverages to children and adolescents. It outlines how the technique was applied in practice and the combination of vignette-based interviews with a broader approach involving Gadamerian hermeneutics. Twenty-one participants from the public health community and the marketing and food and beverage industries took part in vignette-based interviews between March and September 2012. Overall, the qualitative vignette method afforded an efficient, generally well-received technique that effectively explored the issue of promoting unhealthy foods and beverages to children and adolescents. The vignette provided structure to interviews but allowed certain responses to be investigated in greater depth. Through this research, we argue that qualitative vignettes allow researchers to explore complex public health issues. This article also provides a valuable resource for researchers seeking to explore this technique. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Patient decision making in the face of conflicting medication information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Elstad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available When patients consult more than one source of information about their medications, they may encounter conflicting information. Although conflicting information has been associated with negative outcomes, including worse medication adherence, little is known about how patients make health decisions when they receive conflicting information. The objective of this study was to explore the decision making strategies that individuals with arthritis use when they receive conflicting medication information. Qualitative telephone interviews were conducted with 20 men and women with arthritis. Interview vignettes posed scenarios involving conflicting information from different sources (e.g., doctor, pharmacist, and relative, and respondents were asked how they would respond to the situation. Data analysis involved inductive coding to identify emergent themes and deductive contextualization to make meaning from the emergent themes. In response to conflicting medication information, patients used rules of thumb, trial and error, weighed benefits and risks, and sought more information, especially from a doctor. Patients relied heavily on trial and error when there was no conflicting information involved in the vignette. In contrast, patients used rules of thumb as a unique response to conflicting information. These findings increase our understanding of what patients do when they receive conflicting medication information. Given that patient exposure to conflicting information is likely to increase alongside the proliferation of medication information on the Internet, patients may benefit from assistance in identifying the most appropriate decision strategies for dealing with conflicting information, including information about best information sources.

  9. Communicating with child patients in pediatric oncology consultations: a vignette study on child patients', parents', and survivors' communication preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaanswijk, Marieke; Tates, Kiek; van Dulmen, Sandra; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M; Kamps, Willem A; Beishuizen, A; Bensing, Jozien M

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the preferences of children with cancer, their parents, and survivors of childhood cancer regarding medical communication with child patients and variables associated with these preferences. Preferences regarding health-care provider empathy in consultations, and children's involvement in information exchange and medical decision making were investigated by means of vignettes. Vignettes are brief descriptions of hypothetical situations, in which important factors are systematically varied following an experimental design. In total, 1440 vignettes were evaluated by 34 children with cancer (aged 8-16), 59 parents, and 51 survivors (aged 8-16 at diagnosis, currently aged 10-30). Recruitment of participants took place in three Dutch university-based pediatric oncology centers. Data were analyzed by multilevel analyses. Patients, parents, and survivors indicated the importance of health-care providers' empathy in 81% of the described situations. In most situations (70%), the three respondent groups preferred information about illness and treatment to be given to patients and parents simultaneously. Preferences regarding the amount of information provided to patients varied. The preference whether or not to shield patients from information was mainly associated with patients' age and emotionality. In most situations (71%), the three respondent groups preferred children to participate in medical decision making. This preference was mainly associated with patients' age. To be able to adapt communication to parents' and patients' preferences, health-care providers should repeatedly assess the preferences of both groups. Future studies should investigate how health-care providers balance their communication between the sometimes conflicting preferences of patients and parents. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Family factors affect clinician attitudes in pediatric end-of-life decision making: a randomized vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppe, Michael D; Feudtner, Chris; Hexem, Kari R; Morrison, Wynne E

    2013-05-01

    Conflicts between families and clinicians in pediatric end-of-life (EOL) care cause distress for providers, dissatisfaction for patients' families, and potential suffering for terminally ill children. We hypothesized that family factors might influence clinician decision making in these circumstances. We presented vignettes concerning difficult EOL decision making, randomized for religious objection to therapy withdrawal and perceived level of family involvement, to clinicians working in three Children's Hospital intensive care units. Additionally, attitudes about EOL care were assessed. Three hundred sixty-four respondents completed the questionnaire, for an overall response rate of 54%. Respondents receiving the "involved family" vignette were more likely to agree to continue medical care indefinitely (Pfamilies had nonreligious objections to withdrawal (P=0.05). Respondents who thought that a fear of being sued affected decisions were less likely to pursue unilateral withdrawal (odds ratio 0.8, 95% CI=0.6-0.9). Those who felt personal distress as a result of difficult EOL decision making, thought they often provided "futile" care, or those who felt EOL care was effectively addressed at the institution were less likely to want to defer to the parents' wishes (range of odds ratios 0.7-1). In this randomized vignette study, we have shown that family factors, particularly how involved a family seems to be in a child's life, affect what clinicians think is ethically appropriate in challenging EOL cases. Knowledge of how a family's degree of involvement may affect clinicians should be helpful to the clinical ethics consultants and offer some degree of insight to the clinicians themselves. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Age and Sex Effects in Anchoring Vignette Studies: Methodological and Empirical Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Grol-Prokopczyk

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Anchoring vignettes are an increasingly popular tool for identifying and correcting for group differences in use of subjective ordered response categories. However, existing techniques to maximize response consistency (use of the same standards for self-ratings as for vignette-ratings, which center on matching vignette characters’ demographic characteristics to respondents’ own characteristics, appear at times to be ineffective or to pose interpretive difficulties. Specifically, respondents often appear to neglect instructions to treat vignette characters as age peers. Furthermore, when vignette characters’ sex is matched to respondents’ sex, interpretation of sex differences in rating style is rendered problematic. This study applies two experimental manipulations to a national American sample (n=1,765 to clarify best practices for enhancing response consistency. First, an analysis of two methods of highlighting vignette characters’ age suggests that both yield better response consistency than previous, less prominent means. Second, a comparison of ratings of same- and opposite-sex vignette characters suggests that, with avoidable exceptions, the sex of the respondent rather than of the vignette character drives observed sex differences in rating style. Implications for interpretation and design of anchoring vignette studies are discussed. Findings also show significant sex, educational, and racial/ethnic differences in styles of rating health, and racial/ethnic differences in styles of rating political efficacy. These findings underscore the incomparability of unadjusted subjective self-ratings across demographic groups.

  12. Daily Marital Interaction Quality and Carotid Artery Intima Medial Thickness in Healthy Middle Aged Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nataria T.; Kamarck, Thomas W.; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association between marital interaction quality during daily life and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies have shown that marital status and quality of marriage are associated with cardiovascular health. However, little is known about the role of marital interaction quality during daily life in contributing to these effects. Methods The sample consisted of 281 healthy, employed middle-aged adults who were married or living with a partner in a marital-like relationship (mean age = 42.0 years, 88% white, 52% men). Marital interaction quality was assessed using hourly real-time Ecological Momentary Assessments (EMAs) for 4 days, with participants rating their current or recent partner interactions on positive and negative characteristics (e.g., agreeableness and conflict). Carotid artery intima medial thickness (IMT) was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Results Adjusting for demographics, positive marital interaction was inversely associated with IMT, [b = −.02 F(1, 275) = 9.18, p = .002], and negative marital interaction was positively associated with IMT, [b = .02 F(1, 275) = 10.29, p = .001]. These associations were not accounted for by behavioral and biological cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and were consistent across age, sex, race, and education. The associations were also independent of marital interaction frequency, nonmarital social interaction quality, and personality factors. Global reports of marital quality, in contrast, were not associated with IMT. Conclusions Marital quality as measured during real-time interactions between partners was associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease in healthy middle-aged adults. This study supports the utility of real-time social interaction assessment for characterizing links between social relationships and cardiovascular health. PMID:24915293

  13. Marital Intimacy and Predictive Factors Among Infertile Women in Northern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Hajar; Esmailzadeh, Sedigheh; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Adibrad, Hajar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Infertility is a stressful state that may decrease attachment between spouses. Marital intimacy is a real need in infertile women. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate marital intimacy and predictive factors among infertile women in Northern Iran. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at Fatemeh Zahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Center of Babol Medical Sciences University in 2014. A total of 221 infertile women participated in this study. The instrument used in this research was Marital Intimacy Need Questionnaire (MINQ). Statistical analyses was performed using linear and logistic regression with pintimacy. The mean and standard deviation of the marital intimacy was 349.11±49.26 and in marital intimacy domains including: emotional (42.28±7.23), psychological (41.84±7.59), intellectual (42.56±7.46), sexual (42.90±7.41), physical (43.59±6.96), spiritual (51.61±8.06), aesthetic (42.66±6.75), and social intimacy (42.59±6.89). The highest mean of marital intimacy domains is related to spirituality in infertile women. Physical and sexual domains had the high mean in infertile women. The lowest mean in marital intimacy domains was psychological intimacy. There was a significant correlation between the domains of marital intimacy. The strongest correlation was between the physical and sexual intimacy (r=0.85). There was a significant inverse association in marital intimacy with the age difference of spouses (pintimacy with husband’s occupation, and cause of infertility (p<0.02). Conclusion Early screening and psychosocial intervention strategies suggest in the setting of female infertility to identify and prevent the predictive factors that may cause marital conflict. PMID:28658854

  14. Marital Intimacy and Predictive Factors Among Infertile Women in Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Hajar; Basirat, Zahra; Esmailzadeh, Sedigheh; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Adibrad, Hajar

    2017-05-01

    Infertility is a stressful state that may decrease attachment between spouses. Marital intimacy is a real need in infertile women. The aim of this study was to evaluate marital intimacy and predictive factors among infertile women in Northern Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Fatemeh Zahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Center of Babol Medical Sciences University in 2014. A total of 221 infertile women participated in this study. The instrument used in this research was Marital Intimacy Need Questionnaire (MINQ). Statistical analyses was performed using linear and logistic regression with pintimacy. The mean and standard deviation of the marital intimacy was 349.11±49.26 and in marital intimacy domains including: emotional (42.28±7.23), psychological (41.84±7.59), intellectual (42.56±7.46), sexual (42.90±7.41), physical (43.59±6.96), spiritual (51.61±8.06), aesthetic (42.66±6.75), and social intimacy (42.59±6.89). The highest mean of marital intimacy domains is related to spirituality in infertile women. Physical and sexual domains had the high mean in infertile women. The lowest mean in marital intimacy domains was psychological intimacy. There was a significant correlation between the domains of marital intimacy. The strongest correlation was between the physical and sexual intimacy (r=0.85). There was a significant inverse association in marital intimacy with the age difference of spouses (pintimacy with husband's occupation, and cause of infertility (p<0.02). Early screening and psychosocial intervention strategies suggest in the setting of female infertility to identify and prevent the predictive factors that may cause marital conflict.

  15. Birth-Order Complementarity and Marital Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Cornelia J. Vanderkooy; Hayden, Delbert J.

    1985-01-01

    Tested the influence of birth-order complementarity on marital adjustment among 327 married women using the Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale (1976). Birth-order complementarity was found to be unassociated with marital adjustment. (Author/BL)

  16. Variation in marital quality in a national sample of divorced women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Spencer L

    2015-06-01

    Previous work has compared marital quality between stably married and divorced individuals. Less work has examined the possibility of variation among divorcés in trajectories of marital quality as divorce approaches. This study addressed that hole by first examining whether distinct trajectories of marital quality can be discerned among women whose marriages ended in divorce and, second, the profile of women who experienced each trajectory. Latent class growth analyses with longitudinal data from a nationally representative sample were used to "look backward" from the time of divorce. Although demographic and socioeconomic variables from this national sample did not predict the trajectories well, nearly 66% of divorced women reported relatively high levels of both happiness and communication and either low or moderate levels of conflict. Future research including personality or interactional patterns may lead to theoretical insights about patterns of marital quality in the years leading to divorce. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Do adapted vignettes improve medical decision-making capacity for individuals with Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalén, Liv; Heimann Mühlenbock, Katarina; Almkvist, Ove; Eriksdotter, Maria; Sundström, Erik; Tallberg, Ing-Mari

    2017-12-01

    Medical decision-making capacity (MDC) is known to decline in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The vignette method uses hypothetical information as a prerequisite for measuring the capacity to make well-informed decisions to clinical trials. Our aim was to investigate if adapted vignettes can help individuals with mild AD to assimilate information, make decisions and express them in an understandable way, compared to corresponding decisions based on linguistically more demanding vignettes, as measured by the Swedish Linguistic Instrument for Medical Decision-making (LIMD). Two vignettes from LIMD were altered linguistically with the aim to facilitate understanding for individuals with AD. An experimental within-subject design was used to study the influence on MDC of readability (original/adapted vignettes) and content (two different clinical trials). We included 24 patients with mild AD in this prospective study, which read all four vignettes along with a few other tests. This allowed us to investigate the association between MDC and cognitive function. Adapted vignettes did not yield significant differences regarding MDC as compared with original vignettes using a two-way repeated measures analysis of variance. A difference was found between the two clinical trials where LIMD score was significantly higher for Kidney disease than hypertension vignettes. Our results indicate that adapted vignettes may not improve MDC for individuals with mild AD. MDC was affected by which clinical trial the vignettes regarded, which implies that other factors affecting MDC need to be investigated, like length of text and vocabulary used. © 2017 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Marital dissolution: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, K A

    1984-01-01

    A longitudinal analysis of factors affecting marital dissolution in the United States is presented using data from the Coleman-Rossi Retrospective Life History. Factors considered include labor force participation of both spouses, wage growth, size of family unit, age at marriage, and educational status. The study is based on the economic analysis approach developed by Gary S. Becker and others.

  19. Fathering and mothering in the family system: linking marital hostility and aggression in adopted toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Carla Smith; Connell, Christian M; Leve, Leslie D; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Shaw, Daniel S; Scaramella, Laura V; Conger, Rand; Reiss, David

    2012-04-01

      Previous studies have linked marital conflict, parenting, and externalizing problems in early childhood. However, these studies have not examined whether genes account for these links nor have they examined whether contextual factors such as parental personality or financial distress might account for links between marital conflict and parenting. We used an adoption design to allow for a clear examination of environmental impact rather than shared genes of parents and children, and assessments of parental personality and financial strain to assess the effects of context on relationships between marriage and parenting of both mothers and fathers.   Participants were 308 adoption-linked families comprised of an adopted child, her/his biological mother (BM), adoptive mother (AM) and adoptive father (AF). BMs were assessed 3-6 and 18 months postpartum and adoptive families were assessed when the child was 18 and 27 months old. Structural equations models were used to examine associations between marital hostility, fathers' and mothers' parenting hostility, and child aggressive behavior at 27 months of age. In addition, the contribution of financial strain and adoptive parent personality traits was examined to determine the associations with the spillover of marital hostility to hostile parenting.   A hostile marital relationship was significantly associated with hostile parenting in fathers and mothers, which were associated with aggressive behavior in toddlers. Subjective financial strain was uniquely associated with marital hostility and child aggression. Antisocial personality traits were related to a more hostile/conflicted marital relationship and to hostile parenting.   Results clarify mechanisms that may account for the success of early parent-child prevention programs that include a focus on parental economic strain and personality in addition to parent training. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for

  20. ISLAMIC PERSPECTIVE ON MARITAL RAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Endriyo Susila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Marital rape has become a controversial issue in many countries including Indonesia. For the majority of the Indonesian people, it is impossible for rape to take place inside the marriage institution, however some other peoples believe that it possibly occurs. Since it is considered as a kind of rape anyway, those who agree with that concept, insist on the government of Indonesia to qualify marital rape as an offence. This is sounded usually by the human rights activists, especially the feminists. This research is aimed to elaborate the legal position of what so-call marital rape in Islam. As a country whose population is majority Muslim, it can be understood that the development of the Indonesian law is influenced by the Islamic values. This research provide an important reference to deal with the issue of the criminalization of marital rape in Indonesia.Since the research focuses more on the study of legal materials from various sources, it is qualified as a normative legal research. To support the collection of data, interview upon the competent legal experts has also been exercised. The standard of qualification of the legal experts involving in the interview are those who are interested in Islamic Law, especially Islamic Family law as well as Islamic Criminal Law.    Based on the research finding, it is found that the type of the relationship between husband and wife as suggested in Islamic teaching naturaly prevents the what so-call marital rape to occur. It is difficult to imagine the existence of marital rape inside the Muslim familes, since the husband is bound with the obligation to treat her wife well (mu’asyarah bil ma’ruf. In sexual matter, the doctrine of mu’asyarah bil ma’ruf can be applied by respecting the need and the willingness of the wife in sexual matter. Meaning to say, the husband is obliged to fulfill his wife sexual desire in one side, and in the other side he is not allowed to force her wife for sex when she

  1. A Systematic Approach to Marital Enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkmeyer, Don; Carlson, Jon

    1986-01-01

    Presents a systematic approach to enriching marital relationships. The history and current status of marital enrichment is reviewed. An Adlerian approach to marital enrichment is described. Applications of the program in enrichment groups, marriage therapy and couple groups are included. (Author)

  2. Classification of Marital Relationships: An Empirical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Douglas K.; Smith, Gregory T.

    1986-01-01

    Derives an empirically based classification system of marital relationships, employing a multidimensional self-report measure of marital interaction. Spouses' profiles on the Marital Satisfaction Inventory for samples of clinic and nonclinic couples were subjected to cluster analysis, resulting in separate five-group typologies for husbands and…

  3. Adlerian Marital Therapy Strategies with Middle Income Couples Facing Financial Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Criswell; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes the impact of economic stressors on marriage. Discusses how Adlerian marital therapy strategies can be tailored to help middle-income couples deal with such stressors. Identifies problems facing middle income families experiencing financial hardship, describes Adlerian counseling for financial conflict in marriage, and delineates…

  4. Associations between Parents' Marital Functioning, Maternal Parenting Quality, Maternal Emotion and Child Cortisol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendry, Patricia; Adam, Emma K.

    2007-01-01

    Associations between family functioning and children's stress hormone levels are explored, by examining how aspects of the interparental relationship (parents' marital satisfaction and parent conflict styles), the mother-child relationship (maternal involvement and warmth) and maternal emotional functioning (depression, anxiety and self-esteem)…

  5. [Conflicts between parents and aggressive and delinquent behavior in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justicia Galiano, M José; Cantón Duarte, José

    2011-02-01

    The exposure of children to their parents' conflicts are a factor of substantial risk for the development of behavior problems in children. This study examines the relationship between marital conflicts and children's aggressive and delinquent behavior. The sample consisted of a total of 332 children, aged 7 to 17 years, and their mothers. The children completed the Children's Perceptions of Interparental Conflict Scale, providing information on the dimensions of the marital conflicts: frequency, intensity, no resolution, and content. The mothers completed the O'Leary Porter Scale, providing information about the frequency of conflicts, and the Child Behavior Checklist, about the aggressive and delinquent behavior problems in their children. The results indicate that parental conflicts affect sons and daughters equally, and they affect adolescents more than younger children when they are perceived by the children. However, conflicts affect all groups when the mothers perceive them.

  6. First Equals Most Important? Order Effects in Vignette-Based Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auspurg, Katrin; Jäckle, Annette

    2017-01-01

    To measure what determines people's attitudes, definitions, or decisions, surveys increasingly ask respondents to judge vignettes. A vignette typically describes a hypothetical situation or object as having various attributes (dimensions). In factorial surveys, the values (levels) of dimensions are experimentally varied, so that their impact on…

  7. Coping Mediates the Association Between Marital Instability and Depression, but Not Marital Satisfaction and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Fink, Brandi C.; Shapiro, Alyson F.

    2013-01-01

    The association between marital discord and depression is well established. Marital discord is hypothesized to be a stressful life event that would evoke one’s efforts to cope with it. In an effort to further understand the nature of this association, the current study investigated coping as a mediating variable between marital dissatisfaction and depression and between marital instability and depression. Both marital dissatisfaction and instability, reflecting orthogonal dimensions of marita...

  8. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    2010-01-01

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...... and vignettes. Our results indicate that the assumption of RC is not innocuous and that our extended model relaxing this assumption improves the fit and significantly changes the cross-country rankings of health vis-a-vis the standard Chopit model.......Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...

  9. External Validation of the Use of Vignettes in Cross-Country Health Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...... and vignettes. Our results indicate that the assumption of RC is not innocuous and that our extended model relaxing this assumption improves the fit and significantly changes the cross-country rankings of health vis-à-vis the standard Chopit model.......Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...

  10. External validation of the use of vignettes in cross-country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pozzoli, Dario

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignette...... and vignettes. Our results indicate that the assumption of RC is not innocous and that our extended model relaxing this assumption improves the fit and significantly changes the cross-country rankings of health vis-\\'{a}-vis the standard Chopit model.......Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments are rendered difficult if not impossible because of sub-population specific response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular, notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes...

  11. The value of case-based teaching vignettes in clinical microbiology rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Jennifer O; Kraft, Colleen S; Burd, Eileen M; Armstrong, Wendy S; Guarner, Jeannette

    2014-03-01

    To describe the implementation and evaluation of a case-based microbiology curriculum during daily microbiology rounds. Vignettes consist of short cases with images and questions that facilitate discussion among microbiologists, pathologists, infectious disease physicians, and trainees (residents and fellows). We performed a survey to assess the value of these vignettes to trainees. Motivation to come to rounds on time increased from 60% to 100%. Trainees attending rounds after implementation of the vignettes perceived the value of microbiology rounds to be significantly higher compared with those who attended rounds before implementation (P = .04). Pathology residents found that vignettes were helpful for retaining knowledge (8.3 of 10 points). The vignettes have enhanced the value of microbiology rounds by serving as a formalized curriculum exposing trainees from multiple specialties to various microbiology topics. Emphasis on interdisciplinary interactions between clinical and laboratory personnel was highlighted with this case-based curriculum.

  12. Marital status, health and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, James; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane; Vlachantoni, Athina

    2012-12-01

    Marital status and living arrangements, along with changes in these in mid-life and older ages, have implications for an individual's health and mortality. Literature on health and mortality by marital status has consistently identified that unmarried individuals generally report poorer health and have a higher mortality risk than their married counterparts, with men being particularly affected in this respect. With evidence of increasing changes in partnership and living arrangements in older ages, with rising divorce amongst younger cohorts offsetting the lower risk of widowhood, it is important to consider the implications of such changes for health in later life. Within research which has examined changes in marital status and living arrangements in later life a key distinction has been between work using cross-sectional data and that which has used longitudinal data. In this context, two key debates have been the focus of research; firstly, research pointing to a possible selection of less healthy individuals into singlehood, separation or divorce, while the second debate relates to the extent to which an individual's transitions earlier in the life course in terms of marital status and living arrangements have a differential impact on their health and mortality compared with transitions over shorter time periods. After reviewing the relevant literature, this paper argues that in order to fully account for changes in living arrangements as a determinant of health and mortality transitions, future research will increasingly need to consider a longer perspective and take into account transitions in living arrangements throughout an individual's life course rather than simply focussing at one stage of the life course. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Marital violence and coparenting quality after separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Jennifer L; Crossman, Kimberly A; Khaw, Lyndal; Raffaelli, Marcela

    2016-04-01

    Research has identified multiple predictors of coparenting quality, but few studies have investigated how intimate partner violence (IPV) affects divorcing couples' coparenting relationships. We addressed this question in a sample of 154 mothers with different marital IPV experiences. Mothers were recruited within 4 months of a divorce filing and completed two interviews 3 months apart. At Time 1, mothers reported on violence and coercive control during marriage, and postseparation behavioral (e.g., parental communication), emotional (e.g., anger), and intrusion (e.g., harassment) dynamics; at Time 2, they reported on coparenting quality (i.e., levels of support and conflict). In the overall sample, divorce and violence variables independently predicted coparenting quality. Mothers were then classified into three groups: no violence (NV; n = 74), situational couple violence (SCV; n = 46), or coercive controlling violence (CCV; n = 34). Of the 3, coparenting quality was lowest in the CCV group. While the SCV group was similar to the NV group on most divorce-related variables, the CCV group reported more hostility at separation and placed less importance on father-child relationships. Finally, patterns of association between study variables and coparenting quality showed some parallels between the SCV and NV groups. For CCV, postseparation harassment and fear were negatively associated with coparenting quality. Findings contribute to understanding predictors of coparenting quality and support the need for individualized assessments of divorce cases with attention to IPV dynamics. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Perceived antecedents of marital satisfaction among Turkish, Turkish-Dutch, and Dutch couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celenk, Ozgur; van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2013-01-01

    We studied mainstream couples in The Netherlands and Turkey as well as Turkish-Dutch immigrant couples to address cultural factors associated with marital satisfaction. A total of 13 Turkish (mainstream couples living in Turkey), 19 Turkish-Dutch (Turkish immigrant couples living in The Netherlands), and 17 Dutch (mainstream couples living in The Netherlands) married dyads (total of 98 individuals) were independently interviewed about positive and negative characteristics of marriages, determinants of general marital satisfaction and dissatisfaction, spousal communication, marital conflict, and marital roles. Multivariate tests revealed ethnic group differences on all marriage-related domains except the conflict resolution strategies. However, univariate analyses showed differences in few themes within domains; main differences were assessed between the Turkish/Turkish-Dutch (who put more emphasis on children and economical aspects) and Dutch couples (who put more emphasis on behavior, and personality of the spouse, reciprocity, emotional sharing, and psychological roles). Turkish-Dutch couples were more similar to Turkish than to Dutch couples. Results were discussed in light of the socioeconomic development and cultural value theories, which are believed to provide a useful framework for understanding the role of culture in marital satisfaction.

  15. Creating a Novel Video Vignette Stroke Preparedness Outcome Measure Using a Community-Based Participatory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarus, Lesli E; Murphy, Jillian B; Dome, Mackenzie; Zimmerman, Marc A; Bailey, Sarah; Fowlkes, Sophronia; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2015-07-01

    Evaluating the efficacy of behavioral interventions for rare outcomes is a challenge. One such topic is stroke preparedness, defined as inteventions to increase stroke symptom recognition and behavioral intent to call 911. Current stroke preparedness intermediate outcome measures are centered on written vignettes or open-ended questions and have been shown to poorly reflect actual behavior. Given that stroke identification and action requires aural and visual processing, video vignettes may improve on current measures. This article discusses an approach for creating a novel stroke preparedness video vignette intermediate outcome measure within a community-based participatory research partnership. A total of 20 video vignettes were filmed of which 13 were unambiguous (stroke or not stroke) as determined by stroke experts and had test discrimination among community participants. Acceptable reliability, high satisfaction, and cultural relevance were found among the 14 community respondents. A community-based participatory approach was effective in creating a video vignette intermediate outcome. Future projects should consider obtaining expert and community feedback prior to filming all the video vignettes to improve the proportion of vignettes that are usable. While content validity and preliminary reliability were established, future studies are needed to confirm the reliability and establish construct validity. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  16. Conflict Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, William; Koue, Glen

    1991-01-01

    Discusses general issues involved in conflict management and provides more specific examples of conflict management in libraries. Causes of conflict are considered, including organizational structure, departmentalization, performance appraisal, poor communication, and technological change; and methods of dealing with conflict are described,…

  17. The Effects of Life Skills Training on Marital Satisfaction of Married Women: A Case Study in Dogonbadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abbasi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Successful family relationships and marital satisfaction largely depends on couples’ awareness of their marital or parental roles. Marital relations training could provide adaptation with expected roles for both husband and wife. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of life skills training on marital satisfaction in married women. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study which was carried out in 2010 examined fifty married women in Dogonbadan, Iran. The Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire and related demographic data which was collected prior and one year after training, were used for the study. T-test was used for data analysis. Results: The mean age, average number of children, and the average length of marriage were 35, 1.8, and 10.36 years respectively. The average of all scores was significantly different in pretest and post test (p<0.002. Also, the scores of personality objects (p<0.05, marital relationships (p<0.001, conflict resolution (p<0.001, and financial and economic monitoring (p<0.001 were significantly different. The differences in mean scores of subscales in relationship with relatives and friends, leisure activities, and marriage and children were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The results showed that marital skills' training is effective in improving the marital status and satisfaction, and also improved the quality of life among married couples.

  18. Live And Let's Live: Psychosocial Issues In Parent-Adolescent Conflict

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was significant interaction of adolescent impulsivity, authoritative parenting and marital satisfaction on parent-adolescent conflict. The results as well revealed that authoritarian parenting is significantly related to parent-adolescent conflict. It is therefore suggested that a good conflict management mechanism be put in ...

  19. Using vignettes to study nurse practitioners' performance in suspected domestic violence situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagan, M J

    2000-01-01

    Vignettes have often been used to evaluate students or collect data in nursing research. The format is familiar to most nursing students as well as nurses and nurse researchers. This article presents the development and testing of the Nurse Practitioner Performance Tool (NPPT) which used vignettes as an approach to nurse practitioner performance evaluation. In this example, vignettes were used in a quasi-experimental design to collect data from Adult and Family Nurse Practitioners (A/FNP). The focus was on the diagnosis and intervention performance of the A/FNPs when addressing suspected cases of domestic violence.

  20. [Compulsive buying disorder: a review and a case vignette].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Hermano; Lobo, Daniela Sabbatini S; Fuentes, Daniel; Black, Donald W

    2008-05-01

    Compulsive buying disorder was first described as a psychiatric syndrome in the early twentieth century. Its classification remains elusive, and investigators have debated its potential relationship to mood, substance use, obsessive-compulsive, and impulse control disorders. The objective of this study is to present a review of compulsive buying disorder and present a case vignette. Two databases were reviewed (Medline and PsycINFO) in search for articles published in the last 40 years. Selected terms included oniomania, compulsive buying, and compulsive shopping. Other relevant articles were also identified through reference lists. Compulsive buying disorder is a prevalent and chronic condition that is found worldwide, sharing commonalities with impulse control disorders. In clinical samples, women make up more than 80% of subjects. Its etiology is unknown, but neurobiologic and genetic mechanisms have been proposed. The disorder is highly comorbid with mood, substance use, eating and impulse control disorders. Treatment recommendations derived from the literature and clinical experience suggest that problem shoppers can benefit from psychosocial interventions. Cognitive-behavioral group models appear promising. Medication trials have reported mixed results. The identification and treatment of psychiatric comorbidity is also a key aspect of treatment. In order to determine the validity of compulsive buying disorder, future work should focus on psychopathology and neurobiological findings unique to the syndrome.

  1. Spillover between Marital Quality and Parent-child Relationship Quality: Parental Depressive Symptoms as Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Papp, Lauren M.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Using a daily diary method, this study examined concurrent and time-lagged relations between marital and parent-child relationship qualities, providing a test of the spillover and compensatory hypotheses. Additionally, this study tested both mothers’ and fathers’ depressive symptoms as moderators of these daily linkages. Participants were 203 families, in which mothers and fathers completed daily diaries for 15 days. At the end of each reporting day, parents independently rated the emotional quality of their relationship with their spouse and with their child that day. Controlling for global levels of marital satisfaction, marital conflict, and parenting, a positive association was found between mothers’ and fathers’ daily ratings of marital quality and their ratings of parent-child relationship quality, supporting the spillover hypothesis. When considering time-lagged relations, support was found for the compensatory hypothesis for mothers: lower levels of marital quality were related to increases in mother-child relationship quality from one day to the next. Further, both maternal and paternal depressive symptoms moderated the link between marital quality and the other parent’s relationship quality with their child. Whereas maternal depressive symptoms strengthened spillover relations for fathers on the next day, paternal depression was related to less spillover for mothers on the same day. Alternative models did not find evidence for parent-child relationship quality as a predictor of changes in marital quality on the next day. The findings underscore the importance of the quality of the marital relationship for predicting the quality of other family relationships. PMID:24821519

  2. Fulfillment of Marital Expectations in Relation to Communication Style and Parents' Marital Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Edgington, Shawn Corey

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of communication variables and parent marital variables with the fulfillment of marital expectations among newlyweds. Little research has been done on newlywed expectations and communication. This is an exploratory study conducted to determine how newlyweds' exposure to parents' marital interactions and communication styles correlated with newlyweds' fulfillment of marital expectations. Fifty newlywed couples (married 3-6 months) fill...

  3. Domestic Equality and Marital Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steingrimsdottir, Herdis; Vardardottir, Arna

    by the father while parents who had a child before were did not get this option. This created large economic incentives for parents to involve fathers in caring for their children during their first months. In this paper we use the precise timing of the introduction of the paternal quota in Iceland to evaluate...... the causal effects of paternity leave on parents’ earnings, the gender wage gap and marital stability. The results are obtained using detailed register based panel data, comparing families who had a child just before or just after the reform. Spouses who are entitled to paternity leave are less likely...

  4. Effect of Marital Counselling on Women‟s Attitude Towards Marital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings, the implications for counselling include organizing seminars and workshops by counsellors to teach women skills that will enhance positive marital attitudes, adoption of marital counselling programmes by employers of labour to assist women maintain desirable marital attitudes in order to promote ...

  5. The Cross-Cultural Consistency of Marital Communication Associated with Marital Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, W. Kim; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Compared problem-solving behaviors of four samples of couples, sorted by marital happiness/distress and culture (German and Australian). Results showed cultural differences in frequency and functional significance of negative verbal communication, along with cross-culturally consistent marital behaviors associated with marital distress. (Author/TE)

  6. Parental conflict and self-esteem: the rest of the story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, J L; Klein, H A

    1997-09-01

    Previous research has supported the hypothesis that high levels of marital conflict are related to lower self-esteem in children. In this study, 122 young adults completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire and the Student Interparental Conflict Scale, as well as the Parental Nurturance Scale and the Parental Authority Questionnaire. One parent of each young adult completed the Parent Interparental Conflict Scale, the O'Leary-Porter Overt Hostility Scale, and a modified Parental Authority Questionnaire. Perceived interparental conflict and parental style discrepancies in nurturance and in authoritarianism were significantly and negatively related to self-esteem, but the best predictors of self-esteem were the parental styles themselves. Warm, nurturant parents were more likely to have high self-esteem children and demonstrated less conflict in marital partnerships. Correlations between marital conflict and self-esteem may reflect parental characteristics.

  7. Nudging physician prescription decisions by partitioning the order set: results of a vignette-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, David; Doctor, Jason N; Persell, Stephen D; Friedberg, Mark W; Meeker, Daniella; Friesema, Elisha M; Goldstein, Noah J; Linder, Jeffrey A; Fox, Craig R

    2015-03-01

    Healthcare professionals are rapidly adopting electronic health records (EHRs). Within EHRs, seemingly innocuous menu design configurations can influence provider decisions for better or worse. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the grouping of menu items systematically affects prescribing practices among primary care providers. We surveyed 166 primary care providers in a research network of practices in the greater Chicago area, of whom 84 responded (51% response rate). Respondents and non-respondents were similar on all observable dimensions except that respondents were more likely to work in an academic setting. The questionnaire consisted of seven clinical vignettes. Each vignette described typical signs and symptoms for acute respiratory infections, and providers chose treatments from a menu of options. For each vignette, providers were randomly assigned to one of two menu partitions. For antibiotic-inappropriate vignettes, the treatment menu either listed over-the-counter (OTC) medications individually while grouping prescriptions together, or displayed the reverse partition. For antibiotic-appropriate vignettes, the treatment menu either listed narrow-spectrum antibiotics individually while grouping broad-spectrum antibiotics, or displayed the reverse partition. The main outcome was provider treatment choice. For antibiotic-inappropriate vignettes, we categorized responses as prescription drugs or OTC-only options. For antibiotic-appropriate vignettes, we categorized responses as broad- or narrow-spectrum antibiotics. Across vignettes, there was an 11.5 percentage point reduction in choosing aggressive treatment options (e.g., broad-spectrum antibiotics) when aggressive options were grouped compared to when those same options were listed individually (95% CI: 2.9 to 20.1%; p = .008). Provider treatment choice appears to be influenced by the grouping of menu options, suggesting that the layout of EHR order sets is not an arbitrary exercise

  8. The Comparison and Relationship between Religious Orientation and Practical Commitment to Religious Beliefs with Marital Adjustment in Seminary Scholars and University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    رویا رسولی

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Spirituality and faith are powerful aspects of human experience. So, it is important to consider the relation between faith, beliefs, and marriage. The purpose of this study was to compare the relationship between religious orientation and practical commitment to religious beliefs with marital adjustment among seminary scholars and Yazd university students. Research sample consists 200 subjects including 50 student couples and 50 couples of seminary scholars collected via available sampling method from Yazd University and seminary scholars. Research instruments included: 1 Religious Orientation Scale 2 Test of Practical Commitment to Religious Beliefs, and 3 Dyadic Adjustment Scale. Correlation analyses showed that a relationship between religious orientation and marital adjustment. Marital adjustment has positive correlation with religiosity and negatively associated with unconstructed religiosity. Also there was a relationship between practical commitments to religious beliefs with marital adjustment in the groups. Relationship between practical commitments to religious beliefs with marital adjustment was higher than relationship between religious orientation and marital adjustment. the results of independent t-test analysis, showed signifycant differences between university students and seminary scholars in terms of religious orientation, practical commitent to religious beliefs and marital adjustment. Also, practical commitment to religious beliefs, marital adjustment and religious orientation in seminary schoolars were higher than students. Marital adjustment in seminary scholars was higher than students due to marital satisfaction because religious persons have faith beliefs. We conclude that faith beliefs impact marital satisfaction, marital adjustment conflict solving, and forgiveness. Negative beliefs about divorce and the believe that god supports marriage, may explain the relationship between commitment to religious beliefs and

  9. Effects of a Brief Psychoeducational Intervention for Family Conflict: Constructive Conflict, Emotional Insecurity and Child Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Graff, Laura E; Cummings, E Mark; Bergman, Kathleen N

    2016-10-01

    The role of emotional security in promoting positive adjustment following exposure to marital conflict has been identified in a large number of empirical investigations, yet to date, no interventions have explicitly addressed the processes that predict child adjustment after marital conflict. The current study evaluated a randomized controlled trial of a family intervention program aimed at promoting constructive marital conflict behaviors thereby increasing adolescent emotional security and adjustment. Families (n = 225) were randomized into 1 of 4 conditions: Parent-Adolescent (n = 75), Parent-Only (n = 75), Self-Study (n = 38) and No Treatment (n = 37). Multi-informant and multi-method assessments were conducted at baseline, post-treatment and 6-month follow-up. Effects of treatment on destructive and constructive conflict behaviors were evaluated using multilevel models where observations were nested within individuals over time. Process models assessing the impact of constructive and destructive conflict behaviors on emotional insecurity and adolescent adjustment were evaluated using path modeling. Results indicated that the treatment was effective in increasing constructive conflict behaviors (d = 0.89) and decreasing destructive conflict behaviors (d = -0.30). For the Parent-Only Group, post-test constructive conflict behaviors directly predicted lower levels of adolescent externalizing behaviors at 6-month follow-up. Post-test constructive conflict skills also indirectly affected adolescent internalizing behaviors through adolescent emotional security. These findings support the use of a brief psychoeducational intervention in improving post-treatment conflict and emotional security about interparental relationships.

  10. Are there individual and sibling differences in appraisals of interparental conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; George, Melissa W

    2017-10-01

    Despite decades of empirical literature documenting the harmful effects of frequent, intense, violent, and unresolved interparental conflict on children's adjustment, there is considerable variability in the extent to which marital conflict contributes to the development of children's emotional and behavioral problems. Past research has documented links between properties of interparental conflict itself (e.g., intensity, frequency), children's appraisals of conflict, and children's outcomes, yet less is known about the role of individual and family characteristics in predicting children's conflict appraisals. Sibling studies may be especially helpful in understanding these individual differences yet are notably lacking in marital conflict research. The current study examines individual- and family-characteristic predictors of adolescents' appraisals of conflict in a study of 153 adolescents as well as sibling similarities in conflict appraisals in a subsample of 50 pairs of siblings. Controlling for parent reports of the frequency, intensity, and resolution of interparental conflict, parent-child relationship quality and stressful life events predicted conflict appraisals. In addition, there was nonindependence of sibling appraisals of conflict properties, but self-blame and threat appraisals appeared independent across siblings. Greater discrepancies in siblings' conflict appraisals were related to more negative marital conflict and discrepancies in parent-child relationship quality, and were found in mixed-sex sibling dyads. Implications for future studies on factors that impact children's appraisals of conflict and in particular making use of sibling studies to examine shared environmental and individual influences on appraisals is highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Conflict Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Munteanu

    2016-01-01

    It is advisable to tackle conflicts as part of organizational life. It is necessary to be aware thatan employee brings with itself at different work values, and strategies of the individual workingunder these conditions conflict opportunities are numerous.

  12. Daily marital interaction quality and carotid artery intima-medial thickness in healthy middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Nataria Tennille; Kamarck, Thomas W; Muldoon, Matthew F; Manuck, Stephen B

    2014-06-01

    To examine the association between marital interaction quality during daily life and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies have shown that marital status and quality of marriage are associated with cardiovascular health. However, little is known about the role of marital interaction quality during daily life in contributing to these effects. The sample consisted of 281 healthy, employed middle-aged adults who were married or living with a partner in a marital-like relationship (mean age = 42.0 years, 88% white, 52% men). Marital interaction quality was assessed using hourly real-time ecological momentary assessments for 4 days, with participants rating their current or recent partner interactions on positive and negative characteristics (e.g., agreeableness and conflict). Carotid artery intima-medial thickness (IMT) was assessed using ultrasound imaging. Adjusting for demographics, positive marital interaction was inversely associated with IMT (b = -0.02, F(1,275) = 9.18, p = .002), and negative marital interaction was positively associated with IMT (b = 0.02 F(1,275) = 10.29, p = .001). These associations were not accounted for by behavioral and biological CVD risk factors and were consistent across age, sex, race, and education. The associations were also independent of marital interaction frequency, nonmarital social interaction quality, and personality factors. Global reports of marital quality, in contrast, were not associated with IMT. Marital quality as measured during real-time interactions between partners was associated with subclinical CVD in healthy middle-aged adults. This study supports the use of real-time social interaction assessment for characterizing links between social relationships and cardiovascular health.

  13. The Role of Aggressive Personality and Family Relationships in Explaining Family Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Horwitz, Briana N.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, Erica L.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether genetic and environmental influences on global family conflict are explained by parents’ personality, marital quality, and negative parenting. The sample comprised 876 same-sex pairs of twins, their spouse, and one adolescent child per twin from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden (TOSS). Genetic influences on aggressive personality were correlated with genetic influences on global family conflict. Nonshared environmental influences on marital quality and ne...

  14. Physical aggression, compromised social support, and 10-year marital outcomes: Testing a relational spillover model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kieran T; Pasch, Lauri A; Lawrence, Erika; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test a relational spillover model of physical aggression whereby physical aggression affects marital outcomes due to its effects on how spouses ask for and provide support to one another. Newlywed couples (n = 172) reported levels of physical aggression over the past year and engaged in interactions designed to elicit social support; marital adjustment, and stability were assessed periodically over the first 10 years of marriage. Multilevel modeling revealed that negative support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and 10-year marital adjustment levels whereas positive support behavior mediated the relationship between physical aggression and divorce status. These findings emphasize the need to look beyond conflict when explaining how aggression affects relationships and when working with couples with a history of physical aggression who are seeking to improve their relationships. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Does Status Inconsistency Matter for Marital Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Min

    2007-01-01

    This study tests status inconsistency theory by examining the associations between wives' and husbands' relative statuses--that is, earnings, work-time, occupational, and educational inconsistencies--and marital quality and global happiness. The author asks three questions: (a) Is status inconsistency associated with marital quality and overall…

  16. relationship between parenting styles and marital adjustment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    positive and significant joint relationship between the parenting styles and marital adjustment of married ... correlate significantly with marital adjustment of married teachers in secondary ... In other words, it refers to the management of ... dealing with each other so as to reduce ill-feeling. ..... Behavior exchange in happy.

  17. Marital and Life Satisfaction among Gifted Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M.; Boo, Jenelle N.; Vannatter, Aarika

    2012-01-01

    Spousal giftedness, dual-career status, and gender were studied in relation to marital and life satisfaction among gifted adults. The data for the present study were collected twice over a 5-year period in order to examine the stability of the findings over time. Results indicated that marital satisfaction was significantly related to life…

  18. relationship between parenting styles and marital adjustment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. BARTH EKWEME

    The relationship between permissive parenting style and marital adjustment was also very low, positive and insignificant. There was a low, positive and significant joint relationship between the parenting styles and marital adjustment of married teachers in secondary schools in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers ...

  19. influence of spousal communication on marital stability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Engr E. Egbochukwu

    marital stability on the basis of gender and length of years in marriage. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended, amongst others, that marriage ... now to work on the communication between husband and wife. ..... the critical value of 1.96. .... assume more active role in encouraging marital communication.

  20. Testosterone, Marital Quality, and Role Overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alan; Johnson, David R.; Granger, Douglas A.

    2005-01-01

    In a sample of established working- and middle-class families with school-aged children (N= 307 wives and 307 husbands), neither husbands nor wives testosterone showed a direct connection with marital quality. In contrast, the association between husbands' testosterone and positive and negative marital quality (as evaluated by both spouses) was…

  1. Marital Adjustment and Psychological Distress in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Angela; Robustelli, Briana L.; Whisman, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between marital adjustment and psychological distress in a large, probability sample of married adults in Japan (N = 710) from the Midlife Development in Japan (MIDJA) study. Results indicate that positive and negative dimensions of marital adjustment were significantly associated with dimensional and categorical measures of psychological distress. Furthermore, the associations between marital adjustment and psychological distress remained significant when statistically controlling for neuroticism, quality of friend and family relationships, and demographic variables. These results demonstrate that the well-established association between marital adjustment and psychological distress found in European-American countries is also found in Japan. Findings support continued research on marital functioning and psychological distress in East Asian countries. PMID:28082761

  2. Marital Expectations in Strong African American Marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaterlaus, J Mitchell; Skogrand, Linda; Chaney, Cassandra; Gahagan, Kassandra

    2017-12-01

    The current exploratory study utilized a family strengths framework to identify marital expectations in 39 strong African American heterosexual marriages. Couples reflected on their marital expectations over their 10 or more years of marriage. Three themes emerged through qualitative analysis and the participants' own words were used in the presentation of the themes. African Americans indicated that there was growth in marital expectations over time, with marital expectations often beginning with unrealistic expectations that grew into more realistic expectations as their marriages progressed. Participants also indicated that core expectations in strong African American marriages included open communication, congruent values, and positive treatment of spouse. Finally, participants explained there is an "I" in marriage as they discussed the importance of autonomy within their marital relationships. Results are discussed in association with existing research and theory. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  3. The role of aggressive personality and family relationships in explaining family conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Briana N; Ganiban, Jody M; Spotts, Erica L; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2011-04-01

    This study investigated whether genetic and environmental influences on global family conflict are explained by parents' personality, marital quality, and negative parenting. The sample comprised 876 same-sex pairs of twins, their spouses, and one adolescent child per twin from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden. Genetic influences on aggressive personality were correlated with genetic influences on global family conflict. Nonshared environmental influences on marital quality and negative parenting were correlated with nonshared environmental influences on global family conflict. Results suggest that parents' personality and unique experiences within their family relationships are important for understanding genetic and environmental influences on global conflict in the home.

  4. Investigation of marital satisfaction and its relationship with job stress and general health of nurses in Qazvin, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimian, Jalil; Piran, Pegah; Jahanihashemi, Hassan; Dehghankar, Leila

    2017-04-01

    Pressures in nursing can affect family life and marital problems, disrupt common social problems, increase work-family conflicts and endanger people's general health. To determine marital satisfaction and its relationship with job stress and general health of nurses. This descriptive and cross-sectional study was done in 2015 in medical educational centers of Qazvin by using an ENRICH marital satisfaction scale and General Health and Job Stress questionnaires completed by 123 nurses. Analysis was done by SPSS version 19 using descriptive and analytical statistics (Pearson correlation, t-test, ANOVA, Chi-square, regression line, multiple regression analysis). The findings showed that 64.4% of nurses had marital satisfaction. There was significant relationship between age (p=0.03), job experience (p=0.01), age of spouse (p=0.01) and marital satisfaction. The results showed that there was a significant relationship between marital satisfaction and general health (pstress and disorder in general health of nurses and low marital satisfaction by running health promotion programs and paying attention to its dimensions can help work and family health of nurses.

  5. Effect of Marital Relationship Enrichment Program on Marital Satisfaction, Marital Intimacy, and Sexual Satisfaction of Infertile Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Seyedeh Zahra; Khani, Somayeh; Kazemi, Farideh; Kalhori, Fatemeh; Ebrahimi, Reyhaneh; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah

    2017-10-01

    Infertile couples only think of having children during their sexual intercourse, and their constant concern about this issue increases their stress level. Psychosocial and social stress leads to decreased life satisfaction, increased marital problems, and reduced sexual confidence. This study aims to determine the effect of enrichment program on marital and sexual satisfaction as well as marital intimacy among infertile couples. This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 50 infertile couples in 2013 in Hamedan. The marital relationship enrichment program was taught to the experimental group during seven 90 minutes sessions. Enrich marital satisfaction, Linda Berg sexual satisfaction, and marital intimacy questionnaires were completed by both groups in 3 pretest steps immediately after the end of training sessions, and 8 weeks later. The results were analyzed in STATA11 software using t test, Chi-square, ANCOVA, RM-ANOVA, and Bonferroni post-hoc test. To check the data normality, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used. Pintimacy immediately after the test (P=0.04) and 8 weeks after the test (Pintimacy and also marital and sexual satisfaction in infertile couples (Registration Number: IRCT201604299014N97). Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  6. Within-family conflict behaviors as predictors of conflict in adolescent romantic relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Nancy; Cohan, Catherine L; Burns, Andrew; Thompson, Louisa

    2008-12-01

    Continuity in conflict behaviors from (a) adolescents' behavior with parents and their behavior with romantic partners and (b) from parents' marriage to adolescents' romantic relationships were examined in a sample of 58 mother-father-adolescent families and the adolescents' romantic partners. The social relations model was used to analyze within-family reports of own and partner conflict behavior. Mother-father consensus about adolescents' use of physical aggression was associated with romantic partners' reports of adolescents' physical aggression. Less functional behaviors observed during observed marital conflict were associated with a range of less functional conflict behaviors in adolescents' observed interactions with romantic partners, including withdrawal, verbal aggression, negativity, ineffective problem solving, and low cohesion. Within-family conflict and methodological issues in the use of partner and self-reports of conflict behaviors are discussed.

  7. Genital Responses to Rape Vignettes Among Young Men: The Influence of Mood and Directed Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalumière, Martin L; Fairweather, Annabree; Harris, Grant T; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Seto, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    Although it is clear that men with a history of sexual assaults against women produce higher relative genital responses to rape vignettes in the laboratory than do men without such a history, it remains unclear what aspects of the vignettes are eliciting these responses, and whether the genital responses are affected by situational factors. The antisocial tendencies hypothesis states that many men are inhibited by cues of violence, suffering, and coercion in rape vignettes, but other men, particularly antisocial and sexually aggressive men, are not so inhibited. In this study, we investigated whether the hypothesized inhibition to rape vignettes among nonoffenders could be affected by manipulation of mood and directed attention. A total of 48 young men were exposed to audio-recorded vignettes describing mutually consenting and nonviolent sexual interactions, mutually consenting and violent sexual interactions, nonconsenting and violent sexual interactions, and nonsexual and nonviolent social interactions (within-subjects). Participants were randomly assigned to a mood manipulation designed to induce a happy, neutral, or sad mood (between-subjects). All were asked to pay attention to either sex words or violent words while listening to the vignettes (within-subjects). As is typically observed, genital responses were lower (inhibited) when vignettes included cues of violence or nonconsent. Both happy and sad mood inductions reduced this inhibition, so that men induced into a happy or sad mood showed greater relative responding to cues of violence or nonconsent compared with men in a neutral mood. The attention manipulation had no significant effect. Results suggest that genital responses to rape cues can be situationally influenced, but not necessarily as predicted by the antisocial tendencies hypothesis.

  8. Offspring ADHD as a risk factor for parental marital problems: controls for genetic and environmental confounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, Alice C; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Slutske, Wendy S; Emery, Robert E; Turkheimer, Eric; Harden, K Paige; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have found that child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with more parental marital problems. However, the reasons for this association are unclear. The association might be due to genetic or environmental confounds that contribute to both marital problems and ADHD. Data were drawn from the Australian Twin Registry, including 1,296 individual twins, their spouses, and offspring. We studied adult twins who were discordant for offspring ADHD.Using a discordant twin pairs design, we examined the extent to which genetic and environmental confounds,as well as measured parental and offspring characteristics, explain the ADHD-marital problems association. Offspring ADHD predicted parental divorce and marital conflict. The associations were also robust when comparing differentially exposed identical twins to control for unmeasured genetic and environmental factors, when controlling for measured maternal and paternal psychopathology,when restricting the sample based on timing of parental divorce and ADHD onset, and when controlling for other forms of offspring psychopathology. Each of these controls rules out alternative explanations for the association. The results of the current study converge with those of prior research in suggesting that factors directly associated with offspring ADHD increase parental marital problems.

  9. Using Anchoring Vignettes to Adjust Self-Reported Personality: A Comparison Between Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selina Weiss

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Data from self-report tools cannot be readily compared between cultures due to culturally specific ways of using a response scale. As such, anchoring vignettes have been proposed as a suitable methodology for correcting against this difference. We developed anchoring vignettes for the Big Five Inventory-44 (BFI-44 to supplement its Likert-type response options. Based on two samples (Rwanda: n = 423; Philippines: n = 143, we evaluated the psychometric properties of the measure both before and after applying the anchoring vignette adjustment. Results show that adjusted scores had better measurement properties, including improved reliability and a more orthogonal correlational structure, relative to scores based on the original Likert scale. Correlations of the Big Five Personality Factors with life satisfaction were essentially unchanged after the vignette-adjustment while correlations with counterproductive were noticeably lower. Overall, these changed findings suggest that the use of anchoring vignette methodology improves the cross-cultural comparability of self-reported personality, a finding of potential interest to the field of global workforce research and development as well as educational policymakers.

  10. Using Anchoring Vignettes to Adjust Self-Reported Personality: A Comparison Between Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Selina; Roberts, Richard D.

    2018-01-01

    Data from self-report tools cannot be readily compared between cultures due to culturally specific ways of using a response scale. As such, anchoring vignettes have been proposed as a suitable methodology for correcting against this difference. We developed anchoring vignettes for the Big Five Inventory-44 (BFI-44) to supplement its Likert-type response options. Based on two samples (Rwanda: n = 423; Philippines: n = 143), we evaluated the psychometric properties of the measure both before and after applying the anchoring vignette adjustment. Results show that adjusted scores had better measurement properties, including improved reliability and a more orthogonal correlational structure, relative to scores based on the original Likert scale. Correlations of the Big Five Personality Factors with life satisfaction were essentially unchanged after the vignette-adjustment while correlations with counterproductive were noticeably lower. Overall, these changed findings suggest that the use of anchoring vignette methodology improves the cross-cultural comparability of self-reported personality, a finding of potential interest to the field of global workforce research and development as well as educational policymakers. PMID:29593621

  11. Workplace surface acting and marital partner discontent: Anxiety and exhaustion spillover mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krannitz, Morgan A; Grandey, Alicia A; Liu, Songqi; Almeida, David A

    2015-07-01

    Surface acting (i.e., faking and suppressing emotions at work) is repeatedly linked to employee negative moods and emotional exhaustion, but the consequences may also go beyond work boundaries. We provide a unique theoretical integration of these 2 emotional labor consequences with 2 work-to-family conflict mechanisms, mood spillover and resource drain, to explain why surface acting is likely to create marital partner discontent (i.e., partner's perceived work-to-family conflict and desire for the employee to quit). A survey of 197 hotel managers and their marital partners supported that managers' surface acting was directly related to their partner wanting them to quit, and indirectly to partner's perception of work-to-family conflict via exhaustion consistent with the resource drain mechanism. Anxiety from surface acting had an indirect mediating effect on marital partner discontent through exhaustion. Importantly, controlling for dispositional negativity and job demands did not weaken these effects. Implications for theory and future research integrating work-family and emotional labor are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Conflict: Organizational

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clegg, Stewart; Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Sewell, Graham

    2015-01-01

    This article examines four contemporary treatments of the problem of organizational conflict: social psychological, anthropological, neo-Darwinian, and neo-Machiavellian. Social psychological treatments of organizational conflict focus on the dyadic relationship between individual disputants....... In contrast, anthropological treatments take a more socially and historically embedded approach to organizational conflict, focusing on how organizational actors establish negotiated orders of understanding. In a break with the social psychological and anthropological approaches, neo-Darwinians explain...... of organizational conflict where members of an organization are seen as politicized actors engaged in power struggles that continually ebb and flow....

  13. Referring patients to specialists: A structured vignette survey of Australian and British GPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ee Hooi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia and in the United Kingdom (UK access to specialists is sanctioned by General Practitioners (GPs. It is important to understand how practitioners determine which patients warrant referral. Methods A self-administered structured vignette postal survey of General Practitioners in Western Australia and the United Kingdom. Sixty-four vignettes describing patients with colorectal symptoms were constructed encompassing six clinical details. Nine vignettes, chosen at random, were presented to each individual. Respondents were asked if they would refer the patient to a specialist and how urgently. Logistic regression and parametric tests were used to analyse the data Results We received 260 completed questionnaires. 58% of 'cancer vignettes' were selected for 'urgent' referral. 1632/2367 or 69% of all vignettes were selected for referral. After adjusting for clustering the model suggests that 38.4% of the variability is explained by all the clinical variables as well as the age and experience of the respondents. 1012 or 42.8 % of vignettes were referred 'urgently'. After adjusting for clustering the data suggests that 31.3 % of the variability is explained by the model. The age of the respondents, the location of the practice and all the clinical variables were significant in the decision to refer urgently. Conclusion GPs' referral decisions for patients with lower bowel symptoms are similar in the two countries. We question the wisdom of streaming referrals from primary care without a strong evidence base and an effective intervention for implementing guidelines. We conclude that implementation must take into account the profile of patients but also the characteristics of GPs and referral policies.

  14. Marital Biography, Social Security Receipt, and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, I-Fen; Brown, Susan L.; Hammersmith, Anna M.

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, older adults are unmarried, which could mean a larger share is at risk of economic disadvantage. Using data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study, we chart the diverse range of marital biographies, capturing marital sequences and timing, of adults who are age eligible for Social Security and examine three indicators of economic well-being: Social Security receipt, Social Security benefit levels, and poverty status. Partnereds are disproportionately likely to receive Social S...

  15. Analysis of Dog Adoption Success and Failure Using Surveys With Vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Stephen E; Murphy, Nancy C

    2016-01-01

    Adoption success of dogs who serve as companion animals was analyzed via surveys with vignettes. The researchers administered surveys with vignettes to animal shelter employees, veterinarians, and other animal-care professionals in Eastern North Carolina. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to identify variables that were perceived to influence adoption success. Dog size, personality, behavior, and level of obedience training were found to be significant perceived influencers of adoption success. Prospective caregiver characteristics such as gender and level of activity were shown to be perceived as significant. Guidance on the practical use of the logistic regression model is provided, and limitations of the study are described.

  16. Genital Herpes in Marital Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jacob

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available During 1983-86, 225 patients were clinically diagnosed to have genital herpes (GH at our clinic. Of these, 90 men and 55 women were currently married. All the spouses were screened clinically and through standardized techniques for isolation and typing of herpes simplex virus, serological testing and Papanicolaou smear. There were 90 couples in whom at least one spouse had GH and in 38 (42% couples both partners had GH. Clinically, 49% of wives and 75% of husbands of GH patients were diagnosed to have the disease. The spouses of recurrent GH patients had a higher frequency of the disease than spouses of primary GH patients. Among spouses who were clinically asymptomatic, 40% had high serological titres suggestive of GH. Wives generally experienced more severe symptoms, especially pain in the lesions. Majority of lesions in both the partners were vesicles and ulcers. Prodromata were more among recurrent GH patients in both the partners. The frequency of recurrences wasalso similar in spouses. Seventy percent of wives and 40% of husbands could not identify any precipitating factor. Intercourse, physical stress and rich food were cited as possible factors in the remaining. All the wives had acquired the diseases through their husbands who were promiscuous. Fifty percent of husbands had been infected before marriage. Given the fact that asymptomatic carriers exist, it is better to consider all marital partners of GH as infected. Repeated and long-term follow, - up examination, particularly of wives of GH patients is therefore essential as an important socio-preventive aspect of this disease.

  17. Interviewing asylum seekers : A vignette study on the questions asked to assess credibility of claims about origin and persecution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veldhuizen, Tanja S.; Horselenberg, Robert; Landström, Sara; Granhag, Pär Anders; van Koppen, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the current vignette study is to map the style, type, and themes of questions that are asked when assessing the credibility of asylum seekers' claims. Sixty-five officials from the Swedish Migration Agency (Migrationsverket), were asked to respond to one out of four different vignettes

  18. Depression, Marital Satisfaction, and Marital and Personality Measures of Sex Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A.; Jacobson, Neil S.

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationship between depression, marital satisfaction, and marital and personality measures of sex roles in 50 couples in which woman was clinically depressed and 24 nondepressed, nondistressed control couples. Found that, compared to nondepressed couples, couples in which woman was depressed showed greater inequality in decision-making.…

  19. Bidirectional Associations Between Newlyweds' Marital Satisfaction and Marital Problems over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavner, Justin A; Karney, Benjamin R; Williamson, Hannah C; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2017-12-01

    Prevailing views of marital functioning generally adopt the view that marital problems predict decreases in marital satisfaction, but alternative theoretical perspectives raise the possibility that lowered satisfaction can also predict increases in problems. The current study sought to integrate and compare these perspectives by examining the bidirectional cross-lagged associations between newlyweds' reports of their marital satisfaction and marital problems over the first 4 years of marriage. Using annual assessments from 483 heterosexual newlywed couples, we find evidence for problem-to-satisfaction linkages as well as satisfaction-to-problem linkages. Satisfaction was a stronger predictor of marital problems early in marriage but not as time passed; by Year 4 only problem-to-satisfaction linkages remained significant. These findings are consistent with the idea that couples with more problems go on to report lower levels of satisfaction and couples with lower levels of satisfaction go on to report more marital problems. This dynamic interplay between global judgments about relationship satisfaction and ongoing specific relationship difficulties highlights the value of examining bidirectional effects to better understand marital functioning over time. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  20. Relationship between Spiritual Health with Marital Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Salehi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Spiritual health is the basis of family and community health. In marital relationships, several factors led to the satisfaction of wives from each other. In the meantime, the role of spirituality is crucial from surrounded on all aspects of human life. This study was performed with aim of analyzing the relationship between spiritual health with marital satisfaction and Comparison of them between men and women. METHODS: The sectional study was conducted on 341 married students of Medical Sciences in Azad University, Sari branch.  Criterion variable (spiritual health and predictor variable (marital satisfaction were measured by standard questionnaires including Paloutzian & Ellison (1982 and Enrich(2000  with 5-item Likert scale with a minimum score of 1 (very low to maximum score of 5 (very high and also two groups of men and women were compared. FINDINGS: Spiritual health had direct and meaningful relationship with marital satisfaction (CI-95% R= 0.009.There was no difference of marital satisfaction in men with average of 3.36±0.35 and women with average of 3.44±0.43 (p=0.342 but, the spiritual health in men with average of 2.7±0.25 was more than women with average of 2.6±0.14 (p=0.000. CONCLUSION: According the results, there was no difference of marital satisfaction in man and woman but, the spiritual health in men was more than women. Marital satisfaction had increased by increasing spiritual health in men and women students. 

  1. Case-Based Pedagogy Using Student-Generated Vignettes: A Pre-Service Intercultural Awareness Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cournoyer, Amy

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the effectiveness of case-based pedagogy as an instructional tool aimed at increasing cultural awareness and competence in the preparation of 18 pre-service and in-service students enrolled in an Intercultural Education course. Each participant generated a vignette based on an instructional challenge identified…

  2. Clinical Case Vignettes: A Promising Tool to Assess Competence in the Management of Agitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowden, Gillian L; Vestal, Heather S; Stoklosa, Joseph B; Valcourt, Stephanie C; Peabody, John W; Keary, Christopher J; Nejad, Shamim H; Caminis, Argyro; Huffman, Jeff C

    2017-06-01

    While standardized patients (SPs) remain the gold standard for assessing clinical competence in a standardized setting, clinical case vignettes that allow free-text, open-ended written responses are more resource- and time-efficient assessment tools. It remains unknown, however, whether this is a valid method for assessing competence in the management of agitation. Twenty-six psychiatry residents partook in a randomized controlled study evaluating a simulation-based teaching intervention on the management of agitated patients. Competence in the management of agitation was assessed using three separate modalities: simulation with SPs, open-ended clinical vignettes, and self-report questionnaires. Performance on clinical vignettes correlated significantly with SP-based assessments (r = 0.59, p = 0.002); self-report questionnaires that assessed one's own ability to manage agitation did not correlate with SP-based assessments (r = -0.06, p = 0.77). Standardized clinical vignettes may be a simple, time-efficient, and valid tool for assessing residents' competence in the management of agitation.

  3. Exploring Weight Management Recommendations across Australian Community Pharmacies Using Case Vignettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakih, Souhiela; Marriott, Jennifer L.; Hussainy, Safeera Y.

    2014-01-01

    With the increase in the overweight and obese population, it is critical that pharmacy staff are able to provide weight management advice to women at different stages of their life. This study utilized case vignettes to identify pharmacists' and pharmacy assistants' current weight management recommendations to women of different ages, life stages…

  4. Moral foundations vignettes: a standardized stimulus database of scenarios based on moral foundations theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Scott; Iyengar, Vijeth; Cabeza, Roberto; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter

    2015-12-01

    Research on the emotional, cognitive, and social determinants of moral judgment has surged in recent years. The development of moral foundations theory (MFT) has played an important role, demonstrating the breadth of morality. Moral psychology has responded by investigating how different domains of moral judgment are shaped by a variety of psychological factors. Yet, the discipline lacks a validated set of moral violations that span the moral domain, creating a barrier to investigating influences on judgment and how their neural bases might vary across the moral domain. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by developing and validating a large set of moral foundations vignettes (MFVs). Each vignette depicts a behavior violating a particular moral foundation and not others. The vignettes are controlled on many dimensions including syntactic structure and complexity making them suitable for neuroimaging research. We demonstrate the validity of our vignettes by examining respondents' classifications of moral violations, conducting exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and demonstrating the correspondence between the extracted factors and existing measures of the moral foundations. We expect that the MFVs will be beneficial for a wide variety of behavioral and neuroimaging investigations of moral cognition.

  5. The New Friends Vignettes: Measuring Parental Psychological Control that Confers Risk for Anxious Adjustment in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShane, Kelly E.; Hastings, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation examined the links between preschoolers' internalizing problems and anxiety-related social difficulties and two aspects of maternal and paternal psychological control: overprotection and critical control. Some 115 mothers and 92 fathers completed the New Friends Vignettes (NFV), a new measure of psychological control and…

  6. Moral foundations vignettes: a standardized stimulus database of scenarios based on moral foundations theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Vijeth; Cabeza, Roberto; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Research on the emotional, cognitive, and social determinants of moral judgment has surged in recent years. The development of moral foundations theory (MFT) has played an important role, demonstrating the breadth of morality. Moral psychology has responded by investigating how different domains of moral judgment are shaped by a variety of psychological factors. Yet, the discipline lacks a validated set of moral violations that span the moral domain, creating a barrier to investigating influences on judgment and how their neural bases might vary across the moral domain. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap by developing and validating a large set of moral foundations vignettes (MFVs). Each vignette depicts a behavior violating a particular moral foundation and not others. The vignettes are controlled on many dimensions including syntactic structure and complexity making them suitable for neuroimaging research. We demonstrate the validity of our vignettes by examining respondents’ classifications of moral violations, conducting exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, and demonstrating the correspondence between the extracted factors and existing measures of the moral foundations. We expect that the MFVs will be beneficial for a wide variety of behavioral and neuroimaging investigations of moral cognition. PMID:25582811

  7. Audience and Witnessing: Research into Dramatherapy using Vignettes and aMSN Messenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Phil

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the process of research undertaken to examine therapists' responses to the concept of the core processes of change in dramatherapy. The research uses a combination of vignette description and analysis using aMSN messenger. The article describes the theoretical underpinning and rationale to the approach, and the…

  8. Vignette Research on Messy and Confusing Problems in Primary Mental Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. H. (Dineke Smit

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The average primary care psychologist feels an ever-widening gap between objective, measurable reality as described and the complex and dynamic reality they experience. To obtain a better understanding of this complex dynamic reality, we conducted an exploratory mixed-method study of primary care psychologists. We asked our participants to write vignettes about messy and confusing problems in the complex context of mental healthcare. We then examined the data in portions, exposed the patterns in the data, and subsequently analysed all in conjunction. The 113 vignettes showed experiences of psychologists dealing not only with the patient, but also with the family of the patient and/or employers, working together with other healthcare professionals, struggling with dilemmas and having mixed feelings. However, using the Cynafin Framework, 36% of the vignettes were still rated as simple. Was it because those vignettes contained fewer words (p = .006? Or because it is difficult to grasp complexity when cause and effect are intertwined with emotions, norms and values? In the discussion, we suggest examining a complex dynamic system in terms of both the consistency of its various elements and the dynamics of the system. We also discuss how to optimize the system’s adaptive self-organizing ability and how to challenge ourselves to invent negative feedback loops that can keep the complex system in equilibrium.

  9. Education as a signal of trainability: results from a vignette study with Italian employers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Stasio, V.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on queuing theory, this study explores the relationship between education and labour market entry from the perspective of employers. On the basis of vignette study, we simulated a hiring process with a sample of recruiters and human resource managers. We analysed the role of education in the

  10. Colombian Lay People's Willingness to Forgive Different Actors of the Armed Conflict: Results from a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Lopez, Wilson; Pineda Marin, Claudia; Murcia Leon, Maria Camila; Perilla Garzon, Diana Carolina; Mullet, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    A pilot study examined lay people's willingness to forgive acts that were committed by actors of the armed conflicts in Colombia. The participants (100 persons living in Bogota) were shown vignettes describing cases in which a member of the guerilla or a member of the former paramilitary forces asks for forgiveness to a victim's family, and were…

  11. Determinants of Marital Quality in an Arranged Marriage Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allendorf, Keera

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on a uniquely large number of items on marital quality, this study explores the determinants of marital quality in Chitwan Valley, Nepal. Marital quality is measured with five dimensions identified through exploratory factor analysis, including satisfaction, communication, togetherness, problems, and disagreements. Gender, education, and spouse choice emerge as the most important determinants of these dimensions of marital quality. Specifically, men, those with more schooling, and those who participated in the choice of their spouse have higher levels of marital quality. By contrast, caste, occupation, age at marriage, marital duration, and number of children have little to no association with marital quality. While gender, education, and spouse choice emerge as key determinants of marital quality in this context, the majority of variation in marital quality remains unexplained. PMID:23146598

  12. Parenting Conflicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media Work & Play Getting Involved in Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Parenting Conflicts Family Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print ...

  13. CONFLICTING REASONS

    OpenAIRE

    Parfit, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Sidgwick believed that, when impartial reasons conflict with self-interested reasons, there are no truths about their relative strength. There are such truths, I claim, but these truths are imprecise. Many self-interested reasons are decisively outweighed by conflicting impar-tial moral reasons. But we often have sufficient self-interested reasons to do what would make things go worse, and we sometimes have sufficient self-interested reasons to act wrongly. If we reject Act Consequentialism, ...

  14. THE STUDY OF SOCIAL REPRESENTATIONS BY THE VIGNETTE METHOD: A QUANTITATIVE INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ж В Пузанова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the prospects of creating vignettes as a new method in empirical sociology. It is a good alternative to the conventional mass survey methods. The article consists of a few sections differing by the focus. The vignette method is not popular among Russian scientists, but has a big history abroad. A wide range of problems can be solved by this method (e.g. the prospects for guardianship and its evaluation, international students’ adaptation to the educational system, social justice studies, market-ing and business research, etc.. The vignette method can be used for studying different problems including sensitive questions (e.g. HIV, drugs, psychological trauma, etc., because it is one of the projective techniques. Projective techniques allow to obtain more reliable information, because the respondent projects one situation on the another, but at the same time responds to his own stimulus. The article considers advantages and disadvantages of the method. The authors provide information about the limitations of the method. The article presents the key principles for designing and developing the vignettes method depending on the research type. The authors provide examples of their own vignettes tested in the course of their own empirical research. The authors highlight the advantages of the logical-combinatorial approaches (especially the JSM method with its dichotomy for the analysis of data in quantitative research. Also they consider another method of the analysis of the data that implies the technique of “steeping”, i.e. when the respondent gets new information step by step, which extends his previous knowledge.

  15. Anchoring Vignettes in EQ-5D-5L Questionnaire: Validation of a New Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzolina, Danila; Minto, Clara; Boschetto, Stefania; Martinato, Matteo; Bauce, Barbara; Iliceto, Sabino; Gregori, Dario

    2017-01-01

    Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) is an indicator of patient's physical, psychological and social life. HRQoL is influenced by experience, beliefs, perceptions and expectations, and measures subjective perspective of the patient himself. EQ-5D-5L and SF-12 questionnaires are validated instruments useful to measure HRQoL, increasingly administered in electronic formats. The main purpose is to evaluate the feasibility of anchoring vignettes for the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire, with the aim to improve intergroup comparability of responses among different subjects. A comparison with SF-12 questionnaire is carried out. This is a cross-sectional study conducted at the ambulatories of cardiology of the University Hospital of Padova, in Italy. Thirty-eight subjects with a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease or at risk of cardiovascular disease were enrolled. A factorial analysis has been performed to assess the convergent validity of EQ-5D-5L questionnaire compared to Sf-12. Moreover, a compound Hierarchical Ordered Probit (Chopit) model has been estimated to evaluate if the questionnaire form affects the subjective evaluation process in order to compare EQ-5D-5L with and without vignettes. Correlation and factor analysis demonstrate that EQ_5D questionnaire is coherent with SF-12 in paper format. Chopit model estimation shows that questionnaire format does not affect the subjective question interpretation. Moreover, in a parametric model including vignettes, education attainment, disease severity, and gender are predictors of HRQoL status. The EQ-5D including vignettes in electronic format seems to be a valid tool to measure HRQoL as compared to EQ-5D without vignettes in paper format and to SF-12 questionnaire.

  16. Emotional Dynamics in Conflict and Conflict Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poder, Poul; Bramsen, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    Isabel Bramsen & Poul Poder 2018. Emotional Dynamics in Conflict and Conflict Transformation. Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation, Online Edition. Berlin: Berghof Foundation. Conflict and Conflict Transformation. Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation, Online Edition. Berlin: Berghof Foundation.

  17. Marital Biography, Social Security Receipt, and Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Fen; Brown, Susan L; Hammersmith, Anna M

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly, older adults are unmarried, which could mean a larger share is at risk of economic disadvantage. Using data from the 2010 Health and Retirement Study, we chart the diverse range of marital biographies, capturing marital sequences and timing, of adults who are age eligible for Social Security and examine three indicators of economic well-being: Social Security receipt, Social Security benefit levels, and poverty status. Partnereds are disproportionately likely to receive Social Security and they enjoy relatively high Social Security benefits and very low poverty levels. Among singles, economic well-being varies by marital biography and gender. Gray divorced and never-married women face considerable economic insecurity. Their Social Security benefits are relatively low, and their poverty rates are quite high (over 25%), indicating Social Security alone is not sufficient to prevent these women from falling into poverty. By comparison, gray widoweds are the most advantaged singles.

  18. Maternity leave, women's employment, and marital incompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, J S; Essex, M J; Clark, R; Klein, M H

    2001-09-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the length of women's maternity leave and marital incompatibility, in the context of other variables including the woman's employment, her dissatisfaction with the division of household labor, and her sense of role overload. Length of leave, work hours, and family salience were associated with several forms of dissatisfaction, which in turn predicted role overload. Role overload predicted increased marital incompatibility for experienced mothers but did not for first-time mothers, for whom discrepancies between preferred and actual child care were more important. Length of maternity leave showed significant interactions with other variables, supporting the hypothesis that a short leave is a risk factor that, when combined with another risk factor, contributes to personal and marital distress.

  19. The Role of Marital Burnout and Early Maladaptive Schemas in Marital Satisfaction between Young Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghavan Kebritchi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the fundamental role of the family structure and the importance of proper marriages in modern society as well as the important role of childhood and its effect on marital relations in adulthood, this study aimed to investigate the role of burnout, early maladaptive schemas and style in marital satisfaction among young couples. This study is a correlation (multiple regressions and descriptive research. The sample consisted of 100 couples (100 females and 100 males, couples aged 20 to 35 years with a high school diploma or higher education who were randomly chosen from student couples of Tehran and Karaj Kharazmi university or other couples out of university which filled out four questionnaires. Following questionnaires were used as research tools: Pines’ Couple Burnout Measure (CBM, Enrich’s Marital Satisfaction (Enrich, Yang’s early maladaptive schemas (EMSQ-R.[6][8]. Results showed that there were three interactive relationships among these variables, so that all three variables were investigated and separately explained concerning marital satisfaction. There was a significant negative correlation between marital burnout and all other subscales and marital satisfaction, and a significant positive correlation between marital burnout and all maladaptive schemas except emotional deprivation schema.

  20. Female scarcity reduces women's marital ages and increases variance in men's marital ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Fitzgerald, Carey J; Peterson, Tom

    2010-08-05

    When women are scarce in a population relative to men, they have greater bargaining power in romantic relationships and thus may be able to secure male commitment at earlier ages. Male motivation for long-term relationship commitment may also be higher, in conjunction with the motivation to secure a prospective partner before another male retains her. However, men may also need to acquire greater social status and resources to be considered marriageable. This could increase the variance in male marital age, as well as the average male marital age. We calculated the Operational Sex Ratio, and means, medians, and standard deviations in marital ages for women and men for the 50 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States with 2000 U.S Census data. As predicted, where women are scarce they marry earlier on average. However, there was no significant relationship with mean male marital ages. The variance in male marital age increased with higher female scarcity, contrasting with a non-significant inverse trend for female marital age variation. These findings advance the understanding of the relationship between the OSR and marital patterns. We believe that these results are best accounted for by sex specific attributes of reproductive value and associated mate selection criteria, demonstrating the power of an evolutionary framework for understanding human relationships and demographic patterns.

  1. Female Scarcity Reduces Women's Marital Ages and Increases Variance in Men's Marital Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kruger

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available When women are scarce in a population relative to men, they have greater bargaining power in romantic relationships and thus may be able to secure male commitment at earlier ages. Male motivation for long-term relationship commitment may also be higher, in conjunction with the motivation to secure a prospective partner before another male retains her. However, men may also need to acquire greater social status and resources to be considered marriageable. This could increase the variance in male marital age, as well as the average male marital age. We calculated the Operational Sex Ratio, and means, medians, and standard deviations in marital ages for women and men for the 50 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States with 2000 U.S Census data. As predicted, where women are scarce they marry earlier on average. However, there was no significant relationship with mean male marital ages. The variance in male marital age increased with higher female scarcity, contrasting with a non-significant inverse trend for female marital age variation. These findings advance the understanding of the relationship between the OSR and marital patterns. We believe that these results are best accounted for by sex specific attributes of reproductive value and associated mate selection criteria, demonstrating the power of an evolutionary framework for understanding human relationships and demographic patterns.

  2. Conflicts about Conflict of Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Terrence

    2016-07-01

    Pharmaceutical representatives use detailing, gift giving, and the donation of free samples as a means to gain access to and influence over physicians. In biomedical ethics, there has been an ongoing debate as to whether these practices constitute an unethical conflict of interest (COI) on the part of the physician. Underlying this debate are the following antecedent questions: (1) what counts as a conflict of interest, (2) when are such conflicts unethical, and (3) how should the ethical physician respond to conflicts? This article distinguishes between two perspectives that have been developed on these issues: a reliable performance model (PM) and a trustworthiness model (TM). PM advocates argue that a conflict of interest can only be established by demonstrating that a particular influence is undermining the reliability of the physician's judgment, and this requires empirical evidence of negative patient outcomes. TM advocates, on the other hand, argue that because of the fiduciary nature of the patient-physician relationship, physicians have an obligation to develop and be worthy of patient trust. A COI, on this view, is a condition that undermines the warrant for patients to judge a physician as trustworthy. Although there is much that is right in the PM, it is argued that the TM does a better job of responsibly addressing the unique vulnerabilities of the patient. The TM is then applied to the practices of detailing, gift giving, and sample donation. It is concluded that these practices constitute an unethical conflict of interest.

  3. Instructional Vignettes in Publication and Journalism Ethics in Radiology Research: Assessment via a Survey of Radiology Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Ginocchio, Luke A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the potential usefulness of written instructional vignettes relating to publication and journalism ethics in radiology via a survey of radiology trainees. A literature review was conducted to guide the development of vignettes, each describing a scenario relating to an ethical issue in research and publication, with subsequent commentary on the underlying ethical issue and potential approaches to its handling. Radiology trainees at a single institution were surveyed regarding the vignettes' perceived usefulness. A total of 21 vignettes were prepared, addressing institutional review board and human subjects protection, authorship issues, usage of previous work, manuscript review, and other miscellaneous topics. Of the solicited trainees, 24.7% (16/65) completed the survey. On average among the vignettes, 94.0% of the participants found the vignette helpful; 19.9 received prior formal instruction on the issue during medical training; 40.0% received prior informal guidance from a research mentor; and 42.0% indicated that the issue had arisen in their own or a peer's prior research experience. The most common previously experienced specific issue was authorship order (93.8%). Free-text responses were largely favorable regarding the value of the vignettes, although also indicated numerous challenges in properly handling the ethical issues: impact of hierarchy, pressure to publish, internal politics, reluctance to conduct sensitive conversations with colleagues, and variability in journal and professional society policies. Radiology trainees overall found the vignettes helpful, addressing commonly encountered topics for which formal and informal guidance were otherwise lacking. The vignettes are publicly available through the Association of University Radiologists (AUR) website and may foster greater insights by investigators into ethical aspects of the publication and journalism process, thus contributing to higher quality

  4. Emotional intelligence, happiness, hope and marital satisfaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emotional Intelligence Scale, Subjective-happiness Scale, Adult Trait-hope Scale and the Marital Satisfaction Scale were used to collect data from the participants. Statistical analysis involved the use of Simple Linear and Standard Multiple regression. Findings indicated that, emotional intelligence did not have a significant ...

  5. Autonomy as a Predictor of Marital Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Christina A.; And Others

    Recent qualitative investigations of abusive men have indicated that power and control of the wife are central themes in incidents of marital violence. Furthermore, anecdotal and empirical evidence suggest that abusive husbands hold more traditional sex-role stereotypes, are more possessive and jealous, and are more controlling than nonabusive…

  6. Marital Jealousy: A Structural Exchange Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Gerald W.

    Although the experience of jealously is among the most common of experiences in intimate relationships, little theoretical or empirical work has been done from a sociologial perspective to increase our understanding of this aspect of male-female relationships. An investigation of marital jealousy as a sociological rather than a psychological…

  7. Natural and Professional Help during Marital Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Paul A.; Zax, Melvin

    Although few people bring their psychological problems to mental health professionals, research in the area of 'natural' help is rudimentary. To investigate the process and effectiveness of natural professional groups in helping individuals experiencing marital disruption, 42 helpers (14 mental health professionals, 14 divorce lawyers, and 14…

  8. Pre-marital and Marital Counselling: Implications for the School Guidance Counsellor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Benjamin

    1978-01-01

    One of the foremost tasks of young people contemplating marriage is the discovery of their basic selfhood and their continued growth as people; this is the first goal in pre-marital counseliling. (Author)

  9. Marital Contracts of One- Versus Two-Career Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachowiak, Dale G.; Barret, Robert L.

    One- and two-career married couples, though existing on comparable total family incomes, may be experiencing very different marital situations. The marital agreements of one- and two-career couples were compared to examine the relationship between marital adjustment and the one- versus two-career situation. Married college students and their…

  10. Clinical Use of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory: Two Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Robert M.; Snyder, Douglas K.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the clinical use of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory (MSI), a multidimensional self-report measure of marital interaction. Two case studies of couples in marital therapy are presented. The MSI is presented as a cost-efficient procedure, permitting objective assessment across multiple areas of a couple's relationship. (Author/JAC)

  11. A Multidimensional Comparison of Maritally and Sexually Dysfunctioned Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Phyllis; Snyder, Douglas K.

    The Marital Satisfaction Inventory (MSI) is a potential instrument for differentiating couples with specific sexual distress from those with more general marital complaints. Couples (N=45) expressing primary complaints of dissatisfaction with their sexual relationship and couples (N=45) expressing primary complaints of generalized marital distress…

  12. Dyadic Processes in Early Marriage: Attributions, Behavior, and Marital Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durtschi, Jared A.; Fincham, Frank D.; Cui, Ming; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.

    2011-01-01

    Marital processes in early marriage are important for understanding couples' future marital quality. Spouses' attributions about a partner's behavior have been linked to marital quality, yet the mechanisms underlying this association remain largely unknown. When we used couple data from the Family Transitions Project (N = 280 couples) across the…

  13. Bridging information requirements and information needs assessment: do scenarios and vignettes provide a link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Urquhart

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to compare the philosophies of the vignette and critical incident techniques in information behaviour research, with the methodologies used in object oriented analysis such as use case scenarios and CRC (class, responsibility, collaboration cards. The principles of object oriented analysis are outlined, noting the emphasis on obtaining the "storyline" or "scripts" for information requirements analysis through use cases and CRC cards.  The critical incident technique and vignettes are used to obtain valid interpretations of users" information behaviour, using a storyline approach for data collection (and analysis which is similar to that of object oriented analysis. Some examples illustrate how techniques developed in object oriented analysis could be used for data display in information behaviour studies. Concludes that the methods developed by software engineering could be adapted usefully for information behaviour research.

  14. Citizen Data Science for Social Good in Complex Systems: Case Studies and Vignettes from Recent Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Soumya

    2017-01-01

    The confluence of massive amounts of openly available data, sophisticated machine learning algorithms and an enlightened citizenry willing to engage in data science presents novel opportunities for crowd sourced data science for social good. In this submission, I present vignettes of data science projects that I have been involved in and which have impact in various spheres of life and on social good. Complex systems are all around us: from social networks to transportation sys...

  15. Passive Facebook use, Facebook addiction, and associations with escapism: an experimental vignette study

    OpenAIRE

    Young, LN; Kuss, DJ; Griffiths, MD; Howard, CJ

    2017-01-01

    There is relatively little research considering motivations of passive Facebook use. However, research regarding motivations of general Facebook use indicates that people use Facebook to escape – and that escapism may motivate passive Facebook use. Research also suggests that using Facebook to escape is associated with Facebook addiction. Using an experimental vignette design, the present research investigated whether passive Facebook use is motivated by escapism and whether this escape motiv...

  16. CDE Perspectives of Providing New-Onset Type 1 Diabetes Education Using Formal Vignettes and Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchandani, Neesha; Johnson, Kim; Cullen, Karen; Hamm, Terri; Bisordi, Jean; Sullivan-Bolyai, Susan

    2017-02-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to describe the 4 Parent Education Through Simulation-Diabetes (PETS-D) nurse certified diabetes educators' (CDEs) perspectives of teaching parents of children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) early diabetes management skills using formal vignettes and a human patient simulator/human patient simulation (HPS) to augment/enhance the teaching-learning process. Methods A qualitative descriptive approach was used. Four CDEs were interviewed by phone about their teaching experiences. Meticulous notes were taken. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results The vignettes (and use of HPS) provided structure, especially for parents who were struggling to learn. Certified diabetes educators described a short learning curve to master the use of the HPS manikin. Human patient simulation-enhanced education was described as helpful for teaching multiple caregivers about diabetes. Certified diabetes educators also described factors that affect parent learning, mechanical issues with the HPS, and additional space requirements for HPS-enhanced education. Conclusion Vignettes and HPS-enhanced education can successfully be used to educate parents of children with new-onset T1DM and were preferred by the CDEs when compared with previous teaching strategies. The results of this study support the use of both vignette-based and HPS-enhanced education when a child is newly diagnosed with T1DM. Further studies need to be done to see if these effects persist with different populations, during different stages of the disease, and for individuals with other chronic illnesses.

  17. Weaving together peer assessment, audios and medical vignettes in teaching medical terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Lateef M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The current study aims at exploring the possibility of aligning peer assessment, audiovisuals, and medical case-report extracts (vignettes) in medical terminology teaching. In addition, the study wishes to highlight the effectiveness of audio materials and medical history vignettes in preventing medical students' comprehension, listening, writing, and pronunciation errors. The study also aims at reflecting the medical students' attitudes towards the teaching and learning process. Methods The study involved 161 medical students who received an intensive medical terminology course through audio and medical history extracts. Peer assessment and formative assessment platforms were applied through fake quizzes in a pre- and post-test manner. An 18-item survey was distributed amongst students to investigate their attitudes and feedback towards the teaching and learning process. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed using the SPSS software. Results The students did better in the posttests than on the pretests for both the quizzes of audios and medical vignettes showing a t-test of -12.09 and -13.60 respectively. Moreover, out of the 133 students, 120 students (90.22%) responded to the survey questions. The students gave positive attitudes towards the application of audios and vignettes in the teaching and learning of medical terminology and towards the learning process. Conclusions The current study revealed that the teaching and learning of medical terminology have more room for the application of advanced technologies, effective assessment platforms, and active learning strategies in higher education. It also highlights that students are capable of carrying more responsibilities of assessment, feedback, and e-learning. PMID:26637986

  18. Understanding unemployment scars: A vignette Experiment of employers' decisions in Bulgaria, Greece, Norway and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Hyggen, Christer; Imdorf, Christian; Parsanaglou, Dimitris; Sacchi, Stefan; Samuel, Robin; Stoilova, Rumiana; Shi, Lulu P.; Yfanti, Aggeliki; Yordanova, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to broaden the understanding of how early job insecurity can affect an individual’s future career from an employer’s perspective NEGOTIATE conducted an employer‐sided survey with an integrated multidimensional vignette experiment in Bulgaria, Greece, Norway and Switzerland. This report documents the sampling and data‐collection in the four countries. In addition we present some basic descriptive results from the survey. Data from the survey will be available for public use, follo...

  19. Mutable Conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kublitz, Anja

    their everyday life in Denmark, and to single out specific contemporary political events like the publishing of the cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad, local clashes with the Danish police and the Israeli invasion of Gaza. The ethnography discloses that the Palestinian-Israeli conflict is not a chronological...

  20. Celebritizing Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Budabin, Alexandra Cosima

    2016-01-01

    From serving as United Nations ambassadors to appearing as spokespersons for major NGO campaigns, global celebrities have become increasingly important in international development assistance. Acting as “aid celebrities,” they are indelibly linked with humanitarian work and public engagement.2 In......, conflict, and development in Africa....

  1. Flexibility conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.; Bauer, F.; Groß, H.; Sieglen, G.

    2002-01-01

    The chapter deals with the presupposed conflict of interests between employers and employees resulting from a decoupling of operating hours and working times. It starts from the notion that both long operating hours and flexibility are relative concepts. As there is some discretion, the ultimate

  2. Effectiveness of “Marital Skills training for mastectomy women” in improving marital satisfaction of husbands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Bahmani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the health issues related to patients suffering from cancer is paying attention to mental health of the patients and their families. This research was carried out to determine the effect of teaching marital life skills for mastectomy women in the increase of marital satisfaction of this group of patients as well as its direct effect on their spouses’ satisfaction. This was a quasi-experimental research designed as pretest/posttest with random assignment and control group. 22 women suffering from breast cancer, undergoing mastectomy, treated by radiotherapy and having marital satisfaction lower than the moderate level based on the short form (40-question of the ENRICH (evaluation and nurturing relationship issues, communication and happiness questionnaire were selected via purposive sampling and divided into experimental and control groups using random assignment. The pretest was carried out on experimental and control groups and the husbands. The intervention was performed during 12 didactic sessions, two a week, for women of the experimental group in the absence of their husbands. Results indicated that the mean score of marital satisfaction in mastectomy women and their husbands in the experimental group was higher than that of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant. In conclusion, the combined intervention method used in this research was effective in increasing marital satisfaction of mastectomy women, and had also a positive effect on their husbands’ marital satisfaction.

  3. Access to resources shapes maternal decision making: evidence from a factorial vignette experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Kushnick

    Full Text Available The central assumption of behavioral ecology is that natural selection has shaped individuals with the capacity to make decisions that balance the fitness costs and benefits of behavior. A number of factors shape the fitness costs and benefits of maternal care, but we lack a clear understanding how they, taken together, play a role in the decision-making process. In animal studies, the use of experimental methods has allowed for the tight control of these factors. Standard experimentation is inappropriate in human behavioral ecology, but vignette experiments may solve the problem. I used a confounded factorial vignette experiment to gather 640 third-party judgments about the maternal care decisions of hypothetical women and their children from 40 female karo Batak respondents in rural Indonesia. This allowed me to test hypotheses derived from parental investment theory about the relative importance of five binary factors in shaping maternal care decisions with regard to two distinct scenarios. As predicted, access to resources--measured as the ability of a woman to provide food for her children--led to increased care. A handful of other factors conformed to prediction, but they were inconsistent across scenarios. The results suggest that mothers may use simple heuristics, rather than a full accounting for costs and benefits, to make decisions about maternal care. Vignettes have become a standard tool for studying decision making, but have made only modest inroads to evolutionarily informed studies of human behavior.

  4. How much dentists are ethically concerned about overtreatment; a vignette-based survey in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemian, Ali; Berg, Isabelle; Finkel, Christina; Yazdani, Shahram; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Juergens, Philipp; Reiter-Theil, Stella

    2015-06-19

    Overtreatment (or unnecessary treatment) is when medical or dental services are provided with a higher volume or cost than is appropriate. This study aimed to investigate how a group of dentists in Switzerland, a wealthy country known to have high standards of healthcare including dentistry, evaluated the meaning of unnecessary treatments from an ethical perspective and, assessed the expected frequency of different possible behaviors among their peers. A vignette describing a situation that is susceptible for overtreatment of a patient was presented to a group of dentists. The vignette was followed by five options. A questionnaire including the vignette was posted to 2482 dentists in the German-speaking areas of Switzerland. The respondents were asked to rate each option according to their estimation about its prevalence and their judgment about the degree to which the behavior is ethically sound. 732 completed questionnaires were returned. According to the responses, the most ethical and the most unethical options are considered to be the most and the least prevalent behaviors among dentists practicing in Switzerland, respectively. Suggesting unnecessary treatments to patients seems to be an ethically unacceptable conduct in the eyes of a sample of dentists in Switzerland. Although the respondents believed their colleagues were very likely to behave in an ethical way in response to a situation that is susceptible to overtreatment, they still seemed to be concerned about the prevalence of unethical behaviors in this regard.

  5. Borderline personality disorder in men: A literature review and illustrative case vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayes, Adam; Parker, Gordon

    2017-11-01

    The aim is to review the salient literature on borderline personality disorder (BPD) in men and link those findings with case vignettes. We provide a literature review and then report case examples of those who met DSM and clinical BPD criteria, and consider the extent to which the small male sub-set corresponded developmentally and phenomenologically with prototypic BPD in women. The review considered phenomenological, epidemiological, biological and developmental BPD factors, finding BPD men evidence elevated substance abuse, and 'externalising' patterns of behavior, antisocial personality traits, violent self-harm and interpersonal aggression, whereas women display more 'internalising' strategies. The five male vignettes enriched the literature review providing support for gender differences reported in our review. The literature and case vignette findings should assist clinicians in recognising that BPD in men may not be as rare as generally viewed, and which may reflect BPD being commonly viewed as weighted to women and being misdiagnosed as an antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) in men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Access to resources shapes maternal decision making: evidence from a factorial vignette experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnick, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The central assumption of behavioral ecology is that natural selection has shaped individuals with the capacity to make decisions that balance the fitness costs and benefits of behavior. A number of factors shape the fitness costs and benefits of maternal care, but we lack a clear understanding how they, taken together, play a role in the decision-making process. In animal studies, the use of experimental methods has allowed for the tight control of these factors. Standard experimentation is inappropriate in human behavioral ecology, but vignette experiments may solve the problem. I used a confounded factorial vignette experiment to gather 640 third-party judgments about the maternal care decisions of hypothetical women and their children from 40 female karo Batak respondents in rural Indonesia. This allowed me to test hypotheses derived from parental investment theory about the relative importance of five binary factors in shaping maternal care decisions with regard to two distinct scenarios. As predicted, access to resources--measured as the ability of a woman to provide food for her children--led to increased care. A handful of other factors conformed to prediction, but they were inconsistent across scenarios. The results suggest that mothers may use simple heuristics, rather than a full accounting for costs and benefits, to make decisions about maternal care. Vignettes have become a standard tool for studying decision making, but have made only modest inroads to evolutionarily informed studies of human behavior.

  7. An Exploration of Industry Expert Perception of Equine Welfare Using Vignettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordelie DuBois

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of a larger Delphi survey project, equine professionals (n = 14 were presented with twelve short scenarios in which a horse’s welfare could be compromised. They were asked to rank each scenario (with 0 indicating no welfare concerns and 5 indicating a situation where immediate intervention was necessary, provide justification for their ranking, and give examples of what might have been the motivation behind the scenario. The wide range within vignette scores demonstrated the diversity of opinion even among a relatively small group of equine professionals. Qualitative analysis of responses to vignettes suggested that respondents typically ranked situations higher if they had a longer duration and the potential for greater or longer-lasting consequences (e.g., serious injury. Respondents were also the most sensitive to situations in which the horse’s physical well-being (e.g., painful experience was, or could be, compromised. Financial reasons, ignorance, and human convenience were also areas discussed as potential motivators by survey respondents. Overall, responses from the vignettes allowed for a picture of welfare perception based on personal values.

  8. Web-based multimedia vignettes in advanced community pharmacy practice experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Schwanda K; Vanderbush, Ross E; Hastings, Jan K; West, Donna

    2010-04-12

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Web-based multimedia vignettes on complex drug administration techniques to augment the training of pharmacy students in advanced community pharmacy practice experiences. During the orientation for a community APPE, students were randomly assigned to either a study group or control group After they began their APPE, students in the study group were given an Internet address to access multimedia vignettes which they were required to watch to augment their training and standardize their counseling of patients in the use of inhalers and ear and eye drops. A 12-item questionnaire was administered to students in both groups at the orientation and again on the last day of the APPE to evaluate their knowledge of counseling patients in the use of inhalers and ear and eye drops. The control group did not experience any improvement in their counseling knowledge of the research topics during their month-long experience. Students in the intervention group scored higher on their postintervention test than students in the control group (p < 0.001). Student learning outcomes from experiential training can be improved through the use of Web-based multimedia instructional vignettes.

  9. "His" and "her" marriage? The role of positive and negative marital characteristics in global marital satisfaction among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, Kathrin; Jopp, Daniela S; Carr, Deborah; Sosinsky, Laura; Kim, Se-Kang

    2014-07-01

    We explore gender differences in older adults' appraisals of positive and negative aspects of their marriages, examine how these appraisals relate to global marital satisfaction, and identify distinctive marital profiles associated with global satisfaction in men and women. Data are from the Changing Lives of Older Couples Study (n = 1,110). We used a variant of principal components analysis to generate marital quality profiles, based on one's endorsement of positive and negative marital characteristics. OLS regression was used to detect associations between marital profiles and global marital satisfaction. Men offered more positive marital assessments than women, particularly on items reflecting positive treatment by one's wife. Three marital quality profiles emerged: Positive, Positive-Negative, and Negative. Although marital satisfaction was best explained by positive appraisals in both genders, they were less important for men than for women. The negative profile showed a tendency for a stronger prediction in men. Prior studies show small differences in men's and women's global marital satisfaction. Our work provides evidence that the presence and magnitude of such gender differences may vary based on the specific marital component considered. We discuss ways that gender shapes marital interactions, expectations, and perceptions, and the implications of our results for the well-being of married older adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The no conclusion intervention for couples in conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migerode, Lieven

    2014-07-01

    Dealing with difference is central to all couple therapy. This article presents an intervention designed to assist couples in handling conflict. Central to this approach is the acceptance that most conflicts cannot be solved. Couples are in need of a different understanding of couples conflict. This understanding is found in the analysis of love in context and in relational dialectics. Couples are guided through different steps: deciding on the valence of the issue as individuals, helping them decide which differences can be resolved and which issues demand new ways of living with the inevitable, and the introduction in the suggested no conclusion dialogue. This article briefly describes the five day intensive couple therapy program, in which the no intervention is embedded. The theoretical foundation of the intervention, followed by the step by step description of the intervention forms the major part of the article. A case vignette illustrates this approach. © 2012 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  11. Variations in GPs' decisions to investigate suspected lung cancer: a factorial experiment using multimedia vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheringham, Jessica; Sequeira, Rachel; Myles, Jonathan; Hamilton, William; McDonnell, Joe; Offman, Judith; Duffy, Stephen; Raine, Rosalind

    2017-06-01

    Lung cancer survival is low and comparatively poor in the UK. Patients with symptoms suggestive of lung cancer commonly consult primary care, but it is unclear how general practitioners (GPs) distinguish which patients require further investigation. This study examined how patients' clinical and sociodemographic characteristics influence GPs' decisions to initiate lung cancer investigations. A factorial experiment was conducted among a national sample of 227 English GPs using vignettes presented as simulated consultations. A multimedia-interactive website simulated key features of consultations using actors ('patients'). GP participants made management decisions online for six 'patients', whose sociodemographic characteristics systematically varied across three levels of cancer risk. In low-risk vignettes, investigation (ie, chest X-ray ordered, computerised tomography scan or respiratory consultant referral) was not indicated; in medium-risk vignettes, investigation could be appropriate; in high-risk vignettes, investigation was definitely indicated. Each 'patient' had two lung cancer-related symptoms: one volunteered and another elicited if GPs asked. Variations in investigation likelihood were examined using multilevel logistic regression. GPs decided to investigate lung cancer in 74% (1000/1348) of vignettes. Investigation likelihood did not increase with cancer risk. Investigations were more likely when GPs requested information on symptoms that 'patients' had but did not volunteer (adjusted OR (AOR)=3.18; 95% CI 2.27 to 4.70). However, GPs omitted to seek this information in 42% (570/1348) of cases. GPs were less likely to investigate older than younger 'patients' (AOR=0.52; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.7) and black 'patients' than white (AOR=0.68; 95% CI 0.48 to 0.95). GPs were not more likely to investigate 'patients' with high-risk than low-risk cancer symptoms. Furthermore, they did not investigate everyone with the same symptoms equally. Insufficient data gathering

  12. Coparenting relationship trajectories: Marital violence linked to change and variability after separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, Jennifer L; Ogolsky, Brian G; Raffaelli, Marcela; Whittaker, Angela; Crossman, Kimberly A; Haselschwerdt, Megan L; Mitchell, Elissa Thomann; Khaw, Lyndal

    2017-10-01

    Associations between marital intimate partner violence (IPV) and postseparation coparenting relationship trajectories were examined among 135 mothers who participated in 5 interviews at 3-month intervals in the year following their divorce filing. Growth curve analysis was conducted to assess change and variability in coparenting dimensions (i.e., conflict, support, communication about child rearing, and harassment) in the overall sample and by type of IPV. In the overall sample, coparenting conflict, communication about child rearing, and harassment decreased across the year following separation. However, coparenting relationships differed considerably based on marital IPV experiences. At Time 1, mothers in relationships with coercive controlling violence (CCV) reported higher levels of harassment and conflict, and lower levels of support and communication about coparenting, than mothers with situational couple violence (SCV) or no violence (NV). Furthermore, coparenting relationship trajectories differed significantly by IPV group, with mothers who experienced CCV showing more variability in conflict and harassment, and more marked changes in conflict, support, and harassment. Despite many similarities, mothers with SCV showed higher initial levels of harassment compared to mothers with NV. Findings can support family court and social service professionals' efforts to individualize interventions with divorcing parents based on IPV experiences. In cases of CCV, for example, attention to heightened control dynamics in the immediate separation period remain critical but the persistent volatility across the first year suggests the potential for chronic stress. With SCV, practitioners may be able to capitalize on parents' reasonable levels of communication and steady coparenting support. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Conceptions of Conflict in Organizational Conflict Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Clegg, Stewart

    2017-01-01

    . In doing so, we first apply a genealogical approach to study conceptions of conflict, and we find that three distinct and essentially contested conceptions frame studies of conflict at work. Second, we employ two empirical examples of conflict to illustrate how organizational conflict research can benefit......Diverse and often unacknowledged assumptions underlie organizational conflict research. In this essay, we identify distinct ways of conceptualizing conflict in the theoretical domain of organizational conflict with the aim of setting a new critical agenda for reflexivity in conflict research...

  14. Infidelity in couples seeking marital therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, David C; Yi, Jean; Baucom, Donald H; Christensen, Andrew

    2005-09-01

    The revelation of an affair is often an emotionally explosive event for a couple, yet little is known about specific individual and relationship factors that accompany infidelity. The present study examined the qualities of individuals and couples that differentiate couples with (n = 19) and without (n = 115) infidelity using couples from a randomized clinical trial of marital therapy. Findings indicated that couples with infidelity showed greater marital instability, dishonesty, arguments about trust, narcissism, and time spent apart. Gender also proved to be a significant moderator of several effects. Men who had participated in affairs showed increased substance use, were older, and were more sexually dissatisfied. Results offer initial clues to concomitants of affairs for couple therapists. (c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Uncertainty, Risk Taking and Marital Happiness

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson-Jones, William

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: By analysing the effect of internal and external risks on marital happiness this paper concludes that social welfare is maximised by employment status and limiting the negative effect of children. Muslim, Christian and Sikh marriages were predominantly found to be unhappier as a parent in the household specialised in domestic labour and didn’t enter the workforce. ‘Non-religious’ groups have higher levels of female employment and consequently happier marriages. The discussion sugges...

  16. Aphasia: its effect on marital relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S E; Freer, C A

    1986-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between marital satisfaction and knowledge of aphasia of the spouse of a stroke patient. Other factors such as the severity of the aphasia, length of time poststroke, and length of marriage were also examined. The subjects, 16 spouses of aphasic patients, were grouped according to severity of the aphasia (mild, moderate, severe). Spouses completed a Knowledge of Aphasia questionnaire and pre/poststroke forms of a Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). The questionnaire measured spouse understanding of aphasia, while the MSS examined changes in spouse attitudes toward their marriages after the patients became aphasic. Neither spouses' knowledge of aphasia nor its severity was related to their marital satisfaction. However, there was a significant negative change between the pre/poststroke MSS scores. Spouses of mildly impaired patients were less knowledgeable about aphasia than were those of severely impaired patients. Results are discussed in terms of the counseling needs of families of aphasic patients.

  17. The Rate of Marital Fidelity and Quality of Love in Divorce Applicants with and Without Marital Infidelity Precedent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Modarresi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: The issue of marital infidelity is considered as an increasing concern in our society, which is associated with instability in relationships and high rate of divorce.The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of marital adjustment and the quality of love in the applicants with a history of divorce and marital infidelity. Methods: In this qualification-analytical, cross-sectional study performed in 2012 in the Fars welfare organization, 90 people were selected by available sampling and classified into three groups with a history of marital infidelity and divorce, divorce without a history of marital infidelity and controls. Three individual groups completed the Inventory Adjustment Scale and Sternberg's love triangle. Subjects with a history of marital infidelity completed questionnaires of regarding love triangle scale again regarding upon their marital relationship. Data were analyzed by dependent t-test and ANOVA. Results: Significant differences were observed among divorce group and various aspects of marital love triangle (P<0/001.Results also revealed that there was a significant difference between the groups with and without marital infidelity, from the view point of intimacy, passion and anxiousness, commitment, and decision in relationship (P<0/001. Investigating the quality of love in individuals with marital infidelity showed differences in all aspects of Sternberg`s love triangle in relationship with wife and ultra-marital relationships (P<0/001. Conclusion: Marital incompatibility alone is not a strong reason for marital infidelity in hard conditions of life and according to the research’s results. The most significant factor in attracting for ultra- marital relationship and the quality of the relationship and love between couples were the quality of the relationship and love between couples.

  18. Coparenting after marital dissolution and children's mental health: a systematic review,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Lamela

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Research has shown that coparenting is a vital family mechanism in predicting mental health in children and adolescents. Considering the increasing prevalence of marital dissolution in Western societies, the objective of this systematic review was to summarize the key results of empirical studies that tested the association between mental health of children and coparenting after marital dissolution. Data source: The studies were obtained from three databases (PsycInfo, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge, published between January 2000 and October 2014. The titles, abstracts, and key words of the generated citations were independently reviewed by two investigators to consensually select the articles that met the inclusion criteria. Articles that used psychometrically valid tools to measure at least one mental health indicator and at least one dimension of coparenting in samples with divorced parents were included in the review. Data synthesis: Of the 933 screened articles, 11 met the inclusion criteria. Significant positive associations were found between coparental conflict and behavioral problems and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and somatization. Significant positive associations were also found between other specific dimensions of coparenting (coparental support, cooperation, and agreement, overall mental health, self-esteem, and academic performance. Conclusions: The integrated analysis of these studies suggests that coparenting is a key mechanism within the family system for the prediction of child mental health after marital dissolution, and thus, it is recommended that pediatricians, psychologists, and other health professionals consider coparenting as a psychosocial variable for children's mental health assessment and diagnosis.

  19. More than one way to be happy: a typology of marital happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauer, Amy; Volling, Brenda

    2013-09-01

    This study utilized observational and self-report data from 57 happily married couples to explore assumptions regarding marital happiness. Suggesting that happily married couples are not a homogeneous group, cluster analyses revealed the existence of three types of couples based on their observed behaviors in a problem-solving task: (1) mutually engaged couples (characterized by both spouses' higher negative and positive problem-solving); (2) mutually supportive couples (characterized by both spouses' higher positivity and support); and (3) wife compensation couples (characterized by high wife positivity). Although couples in all three clusters were equally happy with and committed to their marriages, these clusters were differentially associated with spouses' evaluations of their marriage. Spouses in the mutually supportive cluster reported greater intimacy and maintenance and less conflict and ambivalence, although this was more consistently the case in comparison to the wife compensation cluster, as opposed to the mutually engaged cluster. The implications of these typologies are discussed as they pertain to efforts on the part of both practitioners to promote marital happiness and repair marital relations when couples are faced with difficulties. © FPI, Inc.

  20. Marital incompatibility among couples living in rural Gonabad and underlying factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Pirnahad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Iranian families face many challenges these days. This study aimed to examine marital incompatibility and underlying factors among couples in rural Gonabad based on sociological views and socio-cultural characteristics of the villagers. The study collected data by using questionnaires. The statistical population included 380 married men and women living in the villages of Gonabad county. The samples were selected through cluster sampling method proportional to size. Preliminary interviews and a researcher-made questionnaire were used in order to collect the data. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed through face validity and Cronbach's alpha coefficient, respectively. The mean age of the participants and their mean age at marriage were 39 and 21 years, respectively. An equal percentage of males and females participated in the present study. The results of multivariate regression analysis showed that three out of five hypotheses on the relationship between independent and dependent variables could not be rejected. These three hypotheses suggested a significant direct relationship between conflict of values and marital incompatibility, and a significant inverse relationship of fulfillment of needs and family social capital with marital incompatibility. The two variables of Role Strain and Homogamy were not significantly correlated with the independent variable. In view of the influence of changes in the modern era over the needs and expectations of people, it is necessary to provide rural couples with education appropriate to cultural context of their society.

  1. Marital Processes, Neuroticism, and Stress as Risk Factors for Internalizing Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Rebecca L; Lawrence, Erika

    2014-03-01

    Marital discord has a robust association with depression, yet it is rarely considered within broader etiological frameworks of psychopathology. Further, little is known about the particular aspects of relationships that have the greatest impact on psychopathology. The purpose of the present study was to test a novel conceptual framework including neuroticism, specific relationship processes (conflict management, partner support, emotional intimacy, and distribution of power and control), and stress as predictors of internalizing symptoms (depression and anxiety). Questionnaire and interview data were collected from 103 husbands and wives 5 times over the first 7 years of marriage. Results suggest that neuroticism (an expression of the underlying vulnerability for internalizing disorders) contributes to symptoms primarily through high levels of non-marital stress, an imbalance of power/control in one's marriage, and poor partner support for husbands, and through greater emotional disengagement for wives. Marital processes, neuroticism, and stress work together to significantly predict internalizing symptoms, demonstrating the need to routinely consider dyadic processes in etiological models of individual psychopathology. Specific recommendations for adapting and implementing couple interventions to prevent and treat individual psychopathology are discussed.

  2. Evaluating the construct of triage acuity against a set of reference vignettes developed via modified Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Michèle; Wallis, Lee A; Myers, Jonathan E

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the construct of triage acuity as measured by the South African Triage Scale (SATS) against a set of reference vignettes. A modified Delphi method was used to develop a set of reference vignettes. Delphi participants completed a 2-round consensus-building process, and independently assigned triage acuity ratings to 100 written vignettes unaware of the ratings given by others. Triage acuity ratings were summarised for all vignettes, and only those that reached 80% consensus during round 2 were included in the reference set. Triage ratings for the reference vignettes given by two independent experts using the SATS were compared with the ratings given by the international Delphi panel. Measures of sensitivity, specificity, associated percentages for over-triage/under-triage were used to evaluate the construct of triage acuity (as measured by the SATS) by examining the association between the ratings by the two experts and the international panel. On completion of the Delphi process, 42 of the 100 vignettes reached 80% consensus on their acuity rating and made up the reference set. On average, over all acuity levels, sensitivity was 74% (CI 64% to 82%), specificity 92% (CI 87% to 94%), under-triage occurred 14% (CI 8% to 23%) and over-triage 12% (CI 8% to 23%) of the time. The results of this study provide an alternative to evaluating triage scales against the construct of acuity as measured with the SATS. This method of using 80% consensus vignettes may, however, systematically bias the validity estimate towards better performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Effect of response format for clinical vignettes on reporting quality of physician practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durieux Pierre

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical vignettes have been used widely to compare quality of clinical care and to assess variation in practice, but the effect of different response formats has not been extensively evaluated. Our objective was to compare three clinical vignette-based survey response formats – open-ended questionnaire (A, closed-ended (multiple-choice questionnaire with deceptive response items mixed with correct items (B, and closed-ended questionnaire with only correct items (C – in rheumatologists' pre-treatment assessment for tumor-necrosis-factor (TNF blocker therapy. Methods Study design: Prospective randomized study. Setting: Rheumatologists attending the 2004 French Society of Rheumatology meeting. Physicians were given a vignette describing the history of a fictitious woman with active rheumatoid arthritis, who was a candidate for therapy with TNF blocking agents, and then were randomized to receive questionnaire A, B, or C, each containing the same four questions but with different response formats, that asked about their pretreatment assessment. Measurements: Long (recommended items and short (mandatory items checklists were developed for pretreatment assessment for TNF-blocker therapy, and scores were expressed on the basis of responses to questionnaires A, B, and C as the percentage of respondents correctly choosing explicit items on these checklists. Statistical analysis: Comparison of the selected items using pairwise Chi-square tests with Bonferonni correction for variables with statistically significant differences. Results Data for all surveys distributed (114 As, 118 Bs, and 118 Cs were complete and available for analysis. The percentage of questionnaire A, B, and C respondents for whom data was correctly complete for the short checklist was 50.4%, 84.0% and 95.0%, respectively, and was 0%, 5.0% and 5.9%, respectively, for the long version. As an example, 65.8%, 85.7% and 95.8% of the respondents of A, B, and C

  4. Developing and Using Vignettes to Explore the Relationship Between Risk Management Practice and Recovery-Oriented Care in Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Jessica; Gillard, Steven

    2018-02-01

    There is a lack of literature evaluating the development and use of vignettes to explore contested constructs in qualitative health care research where a conventional interview schedule might impose assumptions on the data collected. We describe the development and validation of vignettes in a study exploring mental health worker and service user understandings of risk and recovery in U.K. mental health services. Focus groups with mental health workers and service users explored study questions from experiential perspectives. Themes identified in the groups were combined with existing empirical literature to develop a set of vignettes. Feedback focus groups were conducted to validate and amend the vignettes. Following use in research interviews, results suggested that the vignettes had successfully elicited data on issues of risk and recovery in mental health services. Further research using creative, comparative methods is needed to fully understand how vignettes can best be used in qualitative health care research.

  5. Adaptação transcultural da versão em português da Conflict Tactics Scales Form R (CTS-1, usada para aferir violência no casal: equivalências semântica e de mensuração Cross-cultural adaptation of the Portuguese version of the Conflict Tactics Scales Form R (CTS-1 used to assess marital violence: semantic and measurement equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Hasselmann

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo focaliza a adaptação transcultural da versão em português do instrumento Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS-1. A equivalência semântica foi avaliada no que diz respeito ao significado referencial dos termos/palavras e a acepção geral de cada item. A equivalência de mensuração entre a versão em português e o instrumento original foi apreciada por meio das propriedades psicométricas, tais como, sua confiabilidade teste-reteste, sua validade de constructo, sua consistência interna e sua estrutura de fatores. Para os diferentes relacionamentos, as concordâncias das mensurações sobre agressão física oscilaram entre moderada e substancial. Os a de Cronbach apresentaram-se elevados para as escalas de agressão física e verbal, e baixos para escala de argumentação. Da mesma forma que no instrumento original, a análise de fatores da versão da CTS-1 identificou três dimensões que representam as escalas de argumentação, de agressão verbal, de agressão física e mais uma subescala de agressão física grave. Ainda que algumas discrepâncias tenham sido notadas, como um todo os resultados sugerem uma adequação do processo de adaptação transcultural da versão da CTS-1 para a língua portuguesa, endossando seu uso na população brasileira.This paper focuses on the cross-cultural adaptation of the Portuguese version of the Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS-1. Semantic equivalence was evaluated with regard to the referential meaning of words and the general connotative meaning of each item. Measurement equivalence between the Portuguese version and the original instrument was assessed by means of the version's psychometric properties, namely, intra-observer reliability, construct validity, internal consistency, and factor structure. For the different relationships, measurement agreement for physical aggression was moderate to substantial. Cronbach's a's were high for the physical and verbal aggression scales and low for the

  6. Work-family conflict among Indonesian working couples: In relation to work and family role importance, support, and satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Kuntari, I.S.R.

    2018-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the number of women entering the labour market has grown sharply in Indonesia. This led to a situation in which many couples experience work-family conflicts. Work-family conflicts can occur in two directions, work-to-family (WFC) and family-to-work (FWC) conflicts. WFC and FWC decrease couples marital satisfaction and their job satisfaction. The negative impact of WFC decreases if couples receive social support from their supervisors, while spouse and extended fami...

  7. Marriage Matters But How Much? Marital Centrality Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Brian J; Hall, Scott S; Goff, Saige

    2015-01-01

    Marriage, once a gateway to adulthood, is no longer as widely considered a requirement for achieving adult status. With declining marriage rates and delayed marital transitions, some have wondered whether current young adults have rejected the traditional notion of marriage. Utilizing a sample of 571 young adults, the present study explored how marital centrality (the expected importance to be placed on the marital role relative to other adult roles) functioned as a unique and previously unexplored marital belief among young adults. Results suggested that marriage remains an important role for many young adults. On average, young adults expected that marriage would be more important to their life than parenting, careers, or leisure activities. Marital centrality profiles were found to significantly differ based on both gender and religiosity. Marital centrality was also associated with various outcomes including binge-drinking and sexual activity. Specifically, the more central marriage was expected to be, the less young adults engaged in risk-taking or sexual behaviors.

  8. Exploring the Educational Value of Clinical Vignettes from the Society of General Internal Medicine National Meeting in the Internal Medicine Clerkship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, James L; Singh, Sonal

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Whether the clinical vignettes presented at the Society of General Internal Medicine (SGIM) annual meeting could be of educational value to third year students in the Internal Medicine clerkship has not been studied. OBJECTIVE To explore the relevance and learning value of clinical vignettes from the SGIM national meeting in the Internal Medicine clerkship. SETTING Third year Ambulatory Internal Medicine clerkship at one academic medical center (academic year 2005 to 2006). METHODS Students were introduced to the clinical vignette and oriented to the database of clinical vignettes available through the SGIM annual meeting website. Students then reviewed 5 to 10 clinical vignettes using a worksheet, and rated the learning value of each vignette using a 5-point Likert scale (1 = least, 5 = greatest). A single investigator evaluated congruence of the vignette with the Clerkship Directors of Internal Medicine (CDIM)-SGIM curriculum to assess relevance. MAIN RESULTS A total of 42 students evaluated 371 clinical vignettes from the 2004 and 2005 meetings. The clinical vignettes were curriculum-congruent in 42.6% (n = 175), and clearly incongruent in 40.4% (n = 164). The mean rating for learning value was 3.8 (±1.0) (5 signifying greatest learning value). Curriculum-congruent vignettes had a higher mean learning value compared with curriculum-incongruent vignettes (4.0 vs 3.6, Student's t-test, P =.017). CONCLUSION The clinical vignettes presented at the national SGIM meeting offer clinical content that is relevant and of some educational value for third year clerkship students. Based on this pilot study, the educational value and strategies for their use in the clinical clerkships deserve further study. PMID:17026730

  9. The Effect of Welfare Reform on Women's Marital Bargaining Power

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, Mia

    2011-01-01

    Marital bargaining models predict changes in the policy environment that affect the relative well-being of husbands and wives in divorce will indirectly affect the distribution of power within marriage. This study estimates the effect of 1996 welfare reform policies on the marital bargaining power of women with young children. Although the distribution of marital power cannot be directly observed, I utilize Consumer Expenditure data to infer shifts in bargaining power from changes in family d...

  10. The Development of Marital Maturity Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed YILDIZ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, validity, reliability and item analysis studies of the Marital Maturity Scale prepared to test whether individuals are ready for marriage have been done. Studies of the development of the scale were made on 623 individuals, consisting of single adults. In the validity studies of the scale, explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses and criterion related validity studies were performed. Factor analysis revealed that the scale had four dimensions. The four factors in the measurement account for 60.91% of the total variance. The factor loadings of the items in the scale range from 0.42 to 0.86. Inonu Marriage Attitude Scale was used in the criterion related validity studies. Correlation value of the two scales r=0.72 (p=0.000 was found significant. It was determined that the subscales of the scale had a significant correlation with the total scale. The cronbach alpha value of the first dimension of the scale was 0.85, the cronbach alpha value of the second dimension of the scale was 0.68, the cronbach alpha value of the third dimension of the scale was 0.80, the cronbach alpha value of the fourth dimension of the scale was 0.91 and the cronbach alpha value of the total scale was 0.90. Test retest results r=0.70, (p=0.000 were found significant. In the item analysis studies, it was revealed that in the lower 27% group, the individuals in the upper 27% group were significantly different in all items (p=0.000. The item total correlation value of the items in the scale was between 0.40 and 0.63. As a result of the assessments, it was concluded that the Marital Maturity Scale was a reliable and valid instrument to measure marital maturity of single adults

  11. Gender Differences in the Structure of Marital Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Christopher R; Marcus, Katherine; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E

    2018-05-01

    Marriages consist of shared experiences and interactions between husbands and wives that may lead to different impressions of the quality of the relationship. Few studies, unfortunately, have tested gender differences in the structure of marital quality, and even fewer studies have evaluated whether genetic and environmental influences on marital quality differ across gender. In this study, we evaluated gender differences in the structure of marital quality using independent samples of married male (n = 2406) and married female (n = 2215) participants from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States who provided ratings on twenty-eight marital quality items encompassing six marital quality constructs. We further explored gender differences in genetic and environmental influences on marital quality constructs in a subsample of 491 pairs of twins. Results suggest partial metric invariance across gender but structural variability in marital quality constructs. Notably, correlations between constructs were stronger in women than men. Results also support gender differences in the genetic and environmental influences on different aspects of marital quality. We discuss that men and women may approach and react to marriage differently as the primary reason why we observed differences in the structure of marital quality.

  12. The utility of vignettes to stimulate reflection on professionalism: theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabeo, E C; Holmboe, E S; Ross, K; Chesluk, B; Ginsburg, S

    2013-08-01

    Professionalism remains a substantive theme in medical literature. There is an emerging emphasis on sociological and complex adaptive systems perspectives that refocuses attention from just the individual role to working within one's system to enact professionalism in practice. Reflecting on responses to professional dilemmas may be one method to help practicing physicians identify both internal and external factors contributing to (un) professional behavior. We present a rationale and theoretical framework that supports and guides a reflective approach to the self assessment of professionalism. Guided by principles grounded in this theoretical framework, we developed and piloted a set of vignettes on professionally challenging situations, designed to stimulate reflection in practicing physicians. Findings show that participants found the vignettes to be authentic and typical, and reported the group experience as facilitative around discussions of professional ambiguity. Providing an opportunity for physicians to reflect on professional behavior in an open and safe forum may be a practical way to guide physicians to assess themselves on professional behavior and engage with the complexities of their work. The finding that the focus groups led to reflection at a group level suggests that effective reflection on professional behavior may require a socially interactive process. Emphasizing both the behaviors and the internal and external context in which they occur can thus be viewed as critically important for understanding professionalism in practicing physicians.

  13. Ethical challenges facing veterinary professionals in Ireland: results from Policy Delphi with vignette methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M.; More, S. J.; Morton, D. B.; Hanlon, A.

    2016-01-01

    Ethics is key to the integrity of the veterinary profession. Despite its importance, there is a lack of applied research on the range of ethical challenges faced by veterinarians. A three round Policy Delphi with vignette methodology was used to record the diversity of views on ethical challenges faced by veterinary professionals in Ireland. Forty experts, comprising veterinary practitioners, inspectors and nurses, accepted to participate. In round 1, twenty vignettes describing a variety of ethically challenging veterinary scenarios were ranked in terms of ethical acceptability, reputational risk and perceived standards of practice. Round 2 aimed at characterising challenges where future policy development or professional guidance was deemed to be needed. In round 3, possible solutions to key challenges were explored. Results suggest that current rules and regulations are insufficient to ensure best veterinary practices and that a collective approach is needed to harness workable solutions for the identified ethical challenges. Challenges pertaining mostly to the food chain seem to require enforcement measures whereas softer measures that promote professional discretion were preferred to address challenges dealing with veterinary clinical services. These findings can support veterinary representative bodies, advisory committees and regulatory authorities in their decision making, policy and regulation. PMID:27613779

  14. Physicians' pharmacogenomics information needs and seeking behavior: a study with case vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heale, Bret S E; Khalifa, Aly; Stone, Bryan L; Nelson, Scott; Del Fiol, Guilherme

    2017-08-01

    Genetic testing, especially in pharmacogenomics, can have a major impact on patient care. However, most physicians do not feel that they have sufficient knowledge to apply pharmacogenomics to patient care. Online information resources can help address this gap. We investigated physicians' pharmacogenomics information needs and information-seeking behavior, in order to guide the design of pharmacogenomics information resources that effectively meet clinical information needs. We performed a formative, mixed-method assessment of physicians' information-seeking process in three pharmacogenomics case vignettes. Interactions of 6 physicians' with online pharmacogenomics resources were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for prominent themes. Quantitative data included information-seeking duration, page navigations, and number of searches entered. We found that participants searched an average of 8 min per case vignette, spent less than 30 s reviewing specific content, and rarely refined search terms. Participants' information needs included a need for clinically meaningful descriptions of test interpretations, a molecular basis for the clinical effect of drug variation, information on the logistics of carrying out a genetic test (including questions related to cost, availability, test turn-around time, insurance coverage, and accessibility of expert support).Also, participants sought alternative therapies that would not require genetic testing. This study of pharmacogenomics information-seeking behavior indicates that content to support their information needs is dispersed and hard to find. Our results reveal a set of themes that information resources can use to help physicians find and apply pharmacogenomics information to the care of their patients.

  15. Gender differences in BOLD activation to face photographs and video vignettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Zhu, David C

    2009-07-19

    Few neuroimaging studies have reported gender differences in response to human emotions, and those that have examined such differences have utilized face photographs. This study presented not only human face photographs of positive and negative emotions, but also video vignettes of positive and negative social human interactions in an attempt to provide a more ecologically appropriate stimuli paradigm. Ten male and 10 female healthy right-handed young adults were shown positive and negative affective social human faces and video vignettes to elicit gender differences in social/emotional perception. Conservative ROI (region of interest) analysis indicated greater male than female activation to positive affective photos in the anterior cingulate, medial frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus, all in the right hemisphere. No significant ROI gender differences were observed to negative affective photos. Male greater than female activation was seen in ROIs of the left posterior cingulate and the right inferior temporal gyrus to positive social videos. Male greater than female activation occurred in only the left middle temporal ROI for negative social videos. Consistent with previous findings, males were more lateralized than females. Although more activation was observed overall to video compared to photo conditions, males and females appear to process social video stimuli more similarly to one another than they do for photos. This study is a step forward in understanding the social brain with more ecologically valid stimuli that more closely approximates the demands of real-time social and affective processing.

  16. Waiting-List Controlled Trial of Cognitive Marital Therapy in Severe Marital Discord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Edward M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Evaluated effectiveness of marital therapy designed to enhance intimacy through self-disclosure of personal constructs. Couples in therapy (n=22) and controls (n=19) showed significant reduction in symptoms of nonpsychotic emotional illness. Couples in therapy subjectively reported improvement. Found significant pattern of improvement for wives in…

  17. The rested relationship: Sleep benefits marital evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranges, Heather M; McNulty, James K

    2017-02-01

    Remaining satisfied with a relationship often requires thinking in ways that use self-regulatory resources-satisfied couples discount undesirable experiences when forming global evaluations of the relationship. Nevertheless, recent work indicates that the self-regulatory resources required to engage in these processes are limited. Although consuming new energy may be one way to replenish these limited resources, sleep is another. The current study used a daily diary study of 68 newlywed couples to examine the implications of sleep for daily marital evaluations. Every day for up to 7 days, both members of the couples reported their evaluations of their interpersonal specific experiences, global relationship satisfaction, and amount of sleep. Multilevel analysis revealed that spouses were more satisfied on days after which they had slept for a longer period of time. Furthermore, sleep also buffered husbands', but not wives', marital satisfaction against the implications of negative specific evaluations-husbands were better able to remain more globally satisfied despite negative evaluations of specific aspects of the relationship on days following more sleep. These findings suggest that sleep may offer self-regulatory benefits and should thus be incorporated into existing interpersonal models that highlight the importance of self-regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Generational Differences in Work-Family Conflict and Synergy

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    Nicholas J. Beutell

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines differences in work-family conflict and synergy among the four generational groups represented in the contemporary workforce: Generation Y Generation X, Baby Boomers, and Matures using data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce (n = 3,502. Significant generational differences were found for work-family conflict (work interfering with family and family interfering with work but not for work-family synergy. Mental health and job pressure were the best predictors of work interfering with family conflict for each generational group. Work-family synergy presented a more complex picture. Work-family conflict and synergy were significantly related to job, marital, and life satisfaction. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  19. Generational differences in work-family conflict and synergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutell, Nicholas J

    2013-06-19

    This paper examines differences in work-family conflict and synergy among the four generational groups represented in the contemporary workforce: Generation Y Generation X, Baby Boomers, and Matures using data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce (n = 3,502). Significant generational differences were found for work-family conflict (work interfering with family and family interfering with work) but not for work-family synergy. Mental health and job pressure were the best predictors of work interfering with family conflict for each generational group. Work-family synergy presented a more complex picture. Work-family conflict and synergy were significantly related to job, marital, and life satisfaction. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  20. Generational Differences in Work-Family Conflict and Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutell, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines differences in work-family conflict and synergy among the four generational groups represented in the contemporary workforce: Generation Y Generation X, Baby Boomers, and Matures using data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce (n = 3,502). Significant generational differences were found for work-family conflict (work interfering with family and family interfering with work) but not for work-family synergy. Mental health and job pressure were the best predictors of work interfering with family conflict for each generational group. Work-family synergy presented a more complex picture. Work-family conflict and synergy were significantly related to job, marital, and life satisfaction. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:23783221

  1. Family conflict, autonomic nervous system functioning, and child adaptation: state of the science and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Erath, Stephen A

    2011-05-01

    The family is one of the primary contexts of child development. Marital and parent-child conflict (family conflict) are common and predict a wide range of negative behavioral and emotional outcomes in children. Thus, an important task for developmental researchers is to identify the processes through which family conflict contributes to children's psychological maladjustment, as well as vulnerability and protective factors in the context of family conflict. In the current paper, we aim to advance a conceptual model that focuses on indices of children's autonomic nervous system (ANS) functioning that increase vulnerability or provide protection against psychological maladjustment in the context of family conflict. In doing so, we provide a selective review that reflects the state of the science linking family conflict, children's ANS activity, and child psychological adjustment, and offer directions and guidance for future research. Our hope is to accelerate research at the intersection of family conflict and ANS functioning to advance understanding of risk and resilience among children.

  2. Varieties of Organizational Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondy, Louis R.

    1969-01-01

    The viewpoints and findings of the seven empirical studies of organizational conflict contained in this issue are compared and contrasted. A distinction is made between conflict within a stable organization structure and conflict aimed at changing the organization structure. (Author)

  3. Healthy Conflict Management

    OpenAIRE

    Brower, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    Without healthy conflict management skills, conflict can often escalate or intensify over time. This fact sheet gives tips on utilizing key negotiation skills to help individuals effectively address and cope with conflict and potentially build stronger relationships with others.

  4. Conflict Termination: Every Conflict Must End

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garza, Mario

    1997-01-01

    .... The operational commander and his staff must understand the nature of conflict termination and the post-conflict activities so that they will be able to effectively translate the desired end state...

  5. Association of Unconscious Race and Social Class Bias With Vignette-Based Clinical Assessments by Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Adil H.; Sexton, Janel; Sriram, N.; Cooper, Lisa A.; Efron, David T.; Swoboda, Sandra; Villegas, Cassandra V.; Haut, Elliott R.; Bonds, Morgan; Pronovost, Peter J.; Lipsett, Pamela A.; Freischlag, Julie A.; Cornwell, Edward E.

    2012-01-01

    Context Studies involving physicians suggest that unconscious bias may be related to clinical decision making and may predict poor patient-physician interaction. The presence of unconscious race and social class bias and its association with clinical assessments or decision making among medical students is unknown. Objective To estimate unconscious race and social class bias among first-year medical students and investigate its relationship with assessments made during clinical vignettes. Design, Setting, and Participants A secure Web-based survey was administered to 211 medical students entering classes at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, in August 2009 and August 2010. The survey included the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to assess unconscious preferences, direct questions regarding students’ explicit race and social class preferences, and 8 clinical assessment vignettes focused on pain assessment, informed consent, patient reliability, and patient trust. Adjusting for student demographics, multiple logistic regression was used to determine whether responses to the vignettes were associated with unconscious race or social class preferences. Main Outcome Measures Association of scores on an established IAT for race and a novel IAT for social class with vignette responses. Results Among the 202 students who completed the survey, IAT responses were consistent with an implicit preference toward white persons among 140 students (69%, 95% CI, 61%–75%). Responses were consistent with a preference toward those in the upper class among 174 students (86%, 95% CI, 80%–90%). Assessments generally did not vary by patient race or occupation, and multivariable analyses for all vignettes found no significant relationship between implicit biases and clinical assessments. Regression coefficient for the association between pain assessment and race IAT scores was −0.49 (95% CI, −1.00 to 0.03) and for social class, the coefficient was −0.04 (95% CI

  6. The reasons for conflict and conflict management

    OpenAIRE

    Ceylan, Adnan; Ergün, Ercan; Alpkan, Lütfihak

    2000-01-01

    This study has been conducted in order to investigate the nature, types, reasons and parties of conflict, and thus to contribute to the conflict management. After defining the concept of conflict as "a struggle in the form of a limited competition" or "disagreement or discord among the parties" , this article has mentioned the fact that conflict is unavoidable and also if managed properly, it can bring to the organization some functional advantage. In this respect, we conducted a question...

  7. AN ANALYSIS OF REALITY CONSTRUCTION THROUGH CONFLICTS IN GILLIAN FLYNN‘S GONE GIRL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Prilly Aditya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of Gone Girl evoked wide aspects to explore. The current study focused on the issue of reality construction in the novel. It was aimed at answering the question of how the male and female central characters constructed the versions of reality through conflicts which were a result of multiple narrative perspectives used in the novel. The data were analyzed by using Bartley, Blanton, and Gilliard‘s (2005 three aspects of marital relationship. The findings indicated that the reality in the novel was dominantly constructed through the conflictive marital relationship between the male and female central characters. The conflicts were found in the aspects of marital relationship particularly in the decision making process and the attitude towards gender roles and stereotypes. In terms of decision making, the conflicts resulted from the process and the outcomes of major decision-making including the decision to move to a new city, decision to have children, decision regarding career choices and the decision of getting a divorce. Meanwhile, from the aspect of attitude towards gender roles and stereotypes, the male and female central characters appeared to demonstrate double standards and hypocritical attitudes which led to conflicts in the novel. Therefore, from the findings it could be concluded that the text indicated a tendency for men and women to be involved in conflicts since they had different presumptions, interests, and egos in constructing their version of reality.

  8. 22 CFR 146.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 146.445 Marital or parental status. (a) Status..., or marital status that treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy and related...

  9. 45 CFR 86.40 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.40 Marital or parental status... parental, family, or marital status which treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy...

  10. 22 CFR 229.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 229.445 Marital or parental status. (a) Status..., or marital status that treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy and related...

  11. Narcissism and newlywed marriage: Partner characteristics and marital trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavner, Justin A; Lamkin, Joanna; Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith; Karney, Benjamin R

    2016-04-01

    Despite narcissism's relation with interpersonal dysfunction, surprisingly little empirical research has been devoted to understanding narcissism's effect on intimate relationships in general or marital relationships in particular. The current study addressed this gap using longitudinal data from a community sample of 146 newlywed couples assessed 6 times over the first 4 years of marriage. First, we examined partner characteristics associated with higher levels of narcissism to determine the degree to which couples were matched on narcissism and related traits. Second, we examined how narcissism predicted the trajectory of marital quality over time, testing narcissism's association with initial levels of relationship functioning (the intercept) and changes in relationship functioning (the slope). Results indicated a small degree of homophily but otherwise no clear pattern of partner characteristics for individuals higher in narcissism. Hierarchical linear modeling indicated that wives' total narcissism and entitlement/exploitativeness scores predicted the slope of marital quality over time, including steeper declines in marital satisfaction and steeper increases in marital problems. Husbands' narcissism scores generally had few effects on their own marital quality or that of their wives. These findings are notable in indicating that the effects of personality characteristics on marital functioning may take some time to manifest themselves, even if they were present from early in the marriage. Future research into the mediating psychological and interpersonal processes that link wives' narcissism with poorer marital functioning over time would be valuable. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Marital History and the Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in Midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenmei

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of marital history on the burden of cardiovascular disease in midlife. With use of data from the 1992 Health and Retirement Study, a series of nested logistic regression models was used to estimate the association between marital history and the likelihood of cardiovascular disease. Results suggest that, in midlife,…

  13. Work Identity and Marital Adjustment in Blue-Collar Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaesser, David L.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between work-identity and satisfaction and marital adjustment in 40 married male blue-collar workers, ages 25 to 41 years. Satisfaction with extrinsic work factors related to marital adjustment, while satisfaction with intrinsic work factors negatively related to secondary role salience. Age negatively related to…

  14. Marital quality in wives of persons with alcohol dependence syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasree Bora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Marriage is a strong bond between couples with the promise of lifelong dedication and emotional wellbeing. The effects of alcoholism in husbands may lead to disturbances in marital life. Lack of understanding, unpredictable behaviour of the husbands, and their irresponsibility in family matters can often lead to poor quality of a couple’s relationship. Aim of the study: The study is aimed to understand the marital quality of the wives of persons with alcohol dependence syndrome. Material and methods: Thirty wives of persons with alcohol dependence syndrome according to ICD-10 were taken as the sample, using purposive sample collection. Socio-demographic profile was assessed through semi-structured questionnaire while Marital Quality Scale (MQS-1995 was applied to assess the marital quality after taking their informed consent. Higher scores indicate poorer quality of marital life. Data analysis was done using SPSS for descriptive statistics. Results: The domain mean scores of rejection, understanding, and decision-making, and the total score of marital quality were high. Thus, indicating poorer quality of marital life among the wives of persons with alcohol dependence. Conclusion: Alcohol dependence is highly associated with poor marital quality as the person with alcohol dependence tends to adapt faulty communication patterns and behaviour which in turn leads to poor adjustment, unhappiness, and a high degree of dissatisfaction with relationships. Treatment plan for this group should be planned keeping these factors in consideration, as a priority.

  15. Marital Satisfaction and Depression as Predictors of Physical Health Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Robert L.; Aved, Barbara M.

    1978-01-01

    Results indicate correlation between physical health status and depression was greater for wives than husbands. For wives, marital satisfaction and depression were related through uncontrolled variance in physical health status. For husbands, significant relationship between marital satisfaction and depression remained when physical health was…

  16. Non-marital cohabitation in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-marital cohabitation, as a community of life of two people connected only by the feeling of love and desire for living together, without form and registration, is an institution as old as marriage. Throughout history, attitude of the legislator has been changing from forbidding to ignoring it. In our society there is a negative attitude towards non-marital cohabitations, which is the result of patriarchal ideas and customs. However, the Constitution of the Republic of Serbia and the Family Law equate marriage and non-marital cohabitation. In this paper, the author will try to determine to what extent in terms of effects the marital and non-marital cohabitation are equal, or to what extent the rights of non-marital partners are recognized. The subject of analysis are primarily the Constitution and Family law, but also many other regulations governing the issues relating to the rights and obligations of non-marital cohabitation partners. In fact, although Family law equalizes marriage and non-marital cohabitation, they are not equal either de facto or de jure. The author will try to point out the deficiencies in the legal regulations, the practical problems and suggest possible and better solutions.

  17. Relationship between Parenting Styles and Marital Adjustment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data obtained from these instruments were subjected to multiple regression analysis using SPSS and the results showed that there was a low, positive and significant relationship between authoritative parenting style and marital adjustment. The relationship between authoritarian parenting style and marital adjustment ...

  18. The Impact of Job Insecurity on Marital and Family Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Jeffry H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationship between perceived stress resulting from job insecurity and marital and family functioning. Data from 111 married couples in which at least 1 spouse was working in insecure job environment showed that job insecurity stress was related in systematic way to marital and family dysfunction and number of family problems reported.…

  19. Marriage, sexuality, and holiness: Aspects of marital ethics in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Qumran, Jubilees) texts, this article outlines the marital concepts existing in the NT environment. In this context, the reciprocal community and the duration of the marital relationship are emphasized while sexuality remains wholly limited to reproduction. The core of the article offers a concrete analysis of texts from the Corpus ...

  20. Why Does Military Combat Experience Adversely Affect Marital Relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbel, Cynthia; Booth, Alan

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation of ways in which combat decreases marital quality and stability. Results support three models: (1) factors propelling men into combat also make them poor marriage material; (2) combat causes problems that increase marital adversity; and (3) combat intensifies premilitary stress and antisocial behavior which then negatively…

  1. Marital status behavior of women in the former Soviet Republics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherbov, S; Darsky, L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper uses the most recent data and life table analysis to describe the marital behaviour of women in the republics of the former USSR. For the first time a multistate life table analysis was used to describe the marital careers of women from all the 15 republics. In the near future, such a

  2. Gender Ideology, Marital Disruption, and the Employment of Married Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Theodore N.

    1995-01-01

    A study of 3,284 married women hypothesizes that nontraditional working women are more likely to experience marital disruption than traditional working women. Number of hours of paid employment per week was negatively related to marital stability for women holding nontraditional gender ideologies but not for women with traditional views. (JPS)

  3. Gender-Wise Comparison on Emotional Intelligence and Marital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research aims at exploring and comparing the marital satisfaction and emotional intelligence of people between age 25-65. Tools used were namely Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS) and Exploring Emotional Abilities (EEA). A fairly representative data of 316 respondents was collected from Maharashtra, India.

  4. marital status and occupation versus serum total cholesterol and hdl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    ABSTRACT. The influence of marital status and occupation on serum total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL – CH) concentrations was studied in sixty one (61) adult male and female Hausa subjects aged 20 – 50 years. Irrespective of marital status and occupation, female subjects had higher ...

  5. Norms and nurse management of conflicts: keys to understanding nurse-physician collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, G M; Cooke, R; Hillis, S L

    1998-02-01

    In this cross-sectional study, registered nurses from 36 emergency rooms completed an abridged version of the Organizational Culture Inventory (Cooke & Lafferty, 1989) and responded to nine hypothetical conflict vignettes. Stepwise regressions were performed with nurse conflict style intentions as dependent variables and 10 independent variable (three sets of norms, five measures of conflict styles expected to be used by the physician, gender, and education). Nurses' expectations for physicians to collaborate and strong constructive and aggressive norms were found to explain a moderate amount of variance (32%) in nurses' intentions to collaborate in conflicts conducive to nurse-physician collaboration. The findings of this study provide support for the proposed theoretical framework and can be used to design interventions that promote nurse-physician collaboration.

  6. Longitudinal Relations Between Constructive and Destructive Conflict and Couples’ Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Koss, Kalsea J.; Kelly, Ryan J.; Rauer, Amy J.

    2016-01-01

    We examined longitudinal relations between interpartner constructive (negotiation) and destructive (psychological and physical aggression) conflict strategies and couples’ sleep over 1 year. Toward explicating processes of effects, we assessed the intervening role of internalizing symptoms in associations between conflict tactics and couples’ sleep. Participants were 135 cohabiting couples (M age = 37 years for women and 39 years for men). The sample included a large representation of couples exposed to economic adversity. Further, 68% were European American and the remainder were primarily African American. At Time 1 (T1), couples reported on their conflict and their mental health (depression, anxiety). At T1 and Time 2, sleep was examined objectively with actigraphs for 7 nights. Three sleep parameters were derived: efficiency, minutes, and latency. Actor–partner interdependence models indicated that husbands’ use of constructive conflict forecasted increases in their own sleep efficiency as well as their own and their wives’ sleep duration over time. Actor and partner effects emerged, and husbands’ and wives’ use of destructive conflict strategies generally predicted worsening of some sleep parameters over time. Several mediation and intervening effects were observed for destructive conflict strategies. Some of these relations reveal that destructive conflict is associated with internalizing symptoms, which in turn are associated with some sleep parameters longitudinally. These findings build on a small, albeit growing, literature linking sleep with marital functioning, and illustrate that consideration of relationship processes including constructive conflict holds promise for gaining a better understanding of factors that influence the sleep of men and women. PMID:25915089

  7. Analogue patients’ self-reported engagement and psychophysiological arousal in a video-vignettes design : Patients versus disease-naïve individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, L.N.C.; Tollenaar, M.S.; Bosch, J.A.; van Doornen, L.J.P.; de Haes, H.C.J.M.; Smets, E.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The ecological validity of video-vignettes design investigating patient-provider communication hinges on the engagement of analogue patients (APs) with the vignette. The present study aimed to compare engagement in two commonly utilized groups of APs, patients and disease-naïve

  8. Analogue patients' self-reported engagement and psychophysiological arousal in a video-vignettes design: Patients versus disease-naïve individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leonie N. C.; Tollenaar, Marieke S.; Bosch, Jos A.; van Doornen, Lorenz J. P.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The ecological validity of video-vignettes design investigating patient-provider communication hinges on the engagement of analogue patients (APs) with the vignette. The present study aimed to compare engagement in two commonly utilized groups of APs, patients and disease-naïve individuals.

  9. Decentralized Planning for Pre-Conflict and Post-Conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decentralized Planning for Pre-Conflict and Post-Conflict Management in the Bawku Municipal ... institutional arrangements for conflict monitoring and evaluation. Such processes are 'sine qua non' to pre-conflict and post-conflict prevention.

  10. Assessing pharmacists' readiness to prescribe oral antibiotics for limited infections using a case-vignette technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, Elizabeth; Czarniak, Petra; Sunderland, Bruce; Parsons, Richard; Hoti, Kreshnik

    2017-02-01

    Background Pharmacist's skills are underutilized whilst they are directly involved with antibiotic supply to the community. Addressing this issue could lead to better use of antibiotics and hence decreased resistance. Objective Explore how pharmacists can prescribe oral antibiotics to treat a limited range of infections whilst focusing on their confidence and appropriateness of prescribing. Setting Community pharmacies, Western Australia. Method Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire also containing case vignettes. These were distributed to a random sample of metropolitan and rural community pharmacies in Western Australia. A Generalised Estimating Equation was used to compare respondents' level of confidence in treating various infections and to assess appropriateness of prescribing. Main outcome measure Appropriateness and confidence of antibiotic prescribing. Results A response rate of 34.2% (i.e. 425 responses to case vignettes) was achieved from 240 pharmacies. There were high levels of confidence to treat simple infections such as uncomplicated UTIs (n = 73; 89.0%), impetigo (n = 65; 79.3%), mild bacterial skin infections (n = 62; 75.6%) and moderate acne (n = 61; 72.4%). Over 80% of respondents were confident to prescribe amoxicillin (n = 73; 89%), trimethoprim (n = 72; 87.8%), amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (n = 70; 85.4%), flucloxacillin (n = 70; 85.4%) and cephalexin (n = 68; 82.9%). High levels of appropriate antibiotic prescribing were shown for uncomplicated UTI (97.2%), cellulitis (98.2%) and adolescent acne (100.0%). Conclusion This study identified key limited infections and antibiotics for which pharmacists were supportive and confident to prescribe. This role could lead to better use of antibiotics in the community and minimisation of resistance.

  11. A vignette study to examine health care professionals' attitudes towards patient involvement in error prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwappach, David L B; Frank, Olga; Davis, Rachel E

    2013-10-01

    Various authorities recommend the participation of patients in promoting patient safety, but little is known about health care professionals' (HCPs') attitudes towards patients' involvement in safety-related behaviours. To investigate how HCPs evaluate patients' behaviours and HCP responses to patient involvement in the behaviour, relative to different aspects of the patient, the involved HCP and the potential error. Cross-sectional fractional factorial survey with seven factors embedded in two error scenarios (missed hand hygiene, medication error). Each survey included two randomized vignettes that described the potential error, a patient's reaction to that error and the HCP response to the patient. Twelve hospitals in Switzerland. A total of 1141 HCPs (response rate 45%). Approval of patients' behaviour, HCP response to the patient, anticipated effects on the patient-HCP relationship, HCPs' support for being asked the question, affective response to the vignettes. Outcomes were measured on 7-point scales. Approval of patients' safety-related interventions was generally high and largely affected by patients' behaviour and correct identification of error. Anticipated effects on the patient-HCP relationship were much less positive, little correlated with approval of patients' behaviour and were mainly determined by the HCP response to intervening patients. HCPs expressed more favourable attitudes towards patients intervening about a medication error than about hand sanitation. This study provides the first insights into predictors of HCPs' attitudes towards patient engagement in safety. Future research is however required to assess the generalizability of the findings into practice before training can be designed to address critical issues. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. US primary care physicians' opinions about conscientious refusal: a national vignette experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Simon G; Yoon, John D; Curlin, Farr A

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has found that physicians are divided on whether they are obligated to provide a treatment to which they object and whether they should refer patients in such cases. The present study compares several possible scenarios in which a physician objects to a treatment that a patient requests, in order to better characterise physicians' beliefs about what responses are appropriate. We surveyed a nationally representative sample of 1504 US primary care physicians using an experimentally manipulated vignette in which a patient requests a clinical intervention to which the patient's physician objects. We used multivariate logistic regression models to determine how vignette and respondent characteristics affected respondent's judgements. Among eligible respondents, the response rate was 63% (896/1427). When faced with an objection to providing treatment, referring the patient was the action judged most appropriate (57% indicated it was appropriate), while few physicians thought it appropriate to provide treatment despite one's objection (15%). The most religious physicians were more likely than the least religious physicians to support refusing to accommodate the patient's request (38% vs 22%, OR=1.75; 95% CI 1.06 to 2.86). This study indicates that US physicians believe it is inappropriate to provide an intervention that violates one's personal or professional standards. Referring seems to be physicians' preferred way of responding to requests for interventions to which physicians object. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Comparison Between Marital Satisfaction and Self-Esteem Before and After Bariatric Surgery in Patients With Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari Jolfaei, Atefeh; Lotfi, Tahereh; Pazouki, Abdolreza; Mazaheri Meybod, Azadeh; Soheilipour, Fahimeh; Jesmi, Fatemeh

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the most common chronic diseases with important medical effects, as well as mental and social health problems. Bariatric surgery is one of the most effective treatments of morbid obesity. Because of the possible psychological changes, and its effects on weight loss after surgery, the current study aimed to compare marital satisfaction and self-confidence in patients with obesity before and after bariatric surgery in Rasoul-e-Akram hospital in 2013. This prospective observational study was conducted on 69 candidates for bariatric surgery. Marital satisfaction and self-confidence were assessed before and six months after the surgery by Enrich marital satisfaction scale and Coopersmith self-esteem inventory. Descriptive statistics and T-tests were utilized to analyze data. Values of P ≤ 0.01 were considered statistically significant. Despite the improvement of sexual relationship, marital satisfaction scores significantly decreased from141.26 ± 12.75 to 139.42 ± 12.52 six months after the surgery (P = 0.002). Satisfaction in scales of conflict resolution and communication showed a descending pattern (P self-esteem before and after the surgery (P = 0.321). Weight loss after bariatric surgery did not improve self-esteem and marital satisfaction six months post operatively; therefore, psychiatric assessment of patients before and after the surgery is crucial; since even if they are not associated with prognosis of the surgery, it is important to provide treatment for psychiatric problems. Prospective studies are recommended to assess post-operative changes of other psychological aspects.

  14. Diagnostic strategy and timing of intervention in infected necrotizing pancreatitis: an international expert survey and case vignette study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grinsven, J. (Janneke); S. van Brunschot (Sandra); P. Fockens (Paul); J. van Grinsven (Janneke); O.J. Bakker (Olaf ); van Santvoort, H.C. (Hjalmar C.); T.L. Bollen (Thomas); M.A. Boermeester (Marja); C.H.J. van Eijck (Casper); M.G. Besselink (Marc); M.J. Bruno (Marco); C.H. Dejong (Cees); K.D. Horvath (Karen); van Eijck, C.H. (Casper H.); H. van Goor (Harry); H.G. Gooszen (Hein); Horvath, K.D. (Karen D.); K.P. van Lienden (Krijn); Abdelhafez, M.; Andersson, R.; Andren-Sandberg, A.; Ashley, S.; M.C. van Baal (Mark); Baron, T.; C. Bassi (Claudio); Bradley, E.; M.W. Buchler (M.); V.C. Cappendijk; Carter, R.; Charnley, R.; Coelho, D.; Connor, S.; Dellinger, P.; C. Dervenis (Christos); J. Devière (J.); Doctor, N.; Dudeja, V.; En-qiang, M.; Escourrou, J.; Fagenholz, P.; Farkas, G.; Forsmark, C.; Freeman, M.; P.C. Freeny (Patrick); French, J.; H. Friess; Gardner, T.; Goetzinger, P.; J.W. Haveman; S. Hofker (Sijbrand); Imrie, C.; Isaji, S.; Isenmann, R.; E. Klar (Ernst); J.S. Laméris (Johan ); M. Lerch (M.); P. Lévy (Philippe); Lillemoe, K.; Löhr, M.; J. Mayerle (Julia); Mayumi, T.; Mittal, A.; Moessner, J.; Morgan, D.; K.J. Mortele (Koenraad); Nealon, W.; J.P. Neoptolemos (John); V.B. Nieuwenhuijs (Vincent); Nordback, I.; Olah, A.; K. Oppong (K.); Padbury, R.; Papachristou, G.; Parks, R.; J.-W. Poley (Jan-Werner); Radenkovic, D.; Raraty, M.; Rau, B.; V. Rebours (Vinciane); Rische, S.; Runzi, M.; Sainani, N.; Sarr, M.; Schaapherder, S.; S. Seewald (Stefan); Seifert, H.; Shimosegawa, T.; Silverman, S.; Singh, V.; Siriwardena, A.; Steinberg, W.; Sutton, R.; Takeda, K.; R. Timmer (Robin); Vege, S.; R.P. Voermans (Rogier); J.J. De Waele (Jan J.); Wang, C. (Ch.); Warshaw, A.; J. Werner (Jens Martin); B.L. Weusten (Bas); Whitcomb, D.; Wig, J.; Windsor, J.; Zyromski, N.

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground The optimal diagnostic strategy and timing of intervention in infected necrotizing pancreatitis is subject to debate. We performed a survey on these topics amongst a group of international expert pancreatologists. Methods An online survey including case vignettes was sent to

  15. Factors that drive insulin-dosing decisions of diabetes care providers: a vignette-based study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, A. C. R.; Schopman, J. E.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Abu-Hanna, A.; Gerdes, V. E. A.; Peek, N.; Holleman, F.

    2015-01-01

    To test how certain patient factors would influence the decision of Dutch care providers regarding insulin dose adjustments. We hypothesize that some of these decisions would diverge from recent evidence and consensus statements. We developed narrative vignettes describing clinical scenarios of

  16. Using Video Vignettes of Historical Episodes for Promoting Pre-Service Teachers' Ideas about the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmakci, Gultekin

    2017-01-01

    This study used video vignettes of historical episodes from documentary films as a context and instructional tool to promote pre-service science teachers' (PSTs) conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The participants received explicit-reflective NOS instruction, and were introduced to techniques to be able to use scenes from documentary…

  17. Psychometric Properties of Virtual Reality Vignette Performance Measures: A Novel Approach for Assessing Adolescents' Social Competency Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschall, Mallie J.; Fishbein, Diana H.; Hubal, Robert C.; Eldreth, Diana

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of performance measures for three novel, interactive virtual reality vignette exercises developed to assess social competency skills of at-risk adolescents. Performance data were collected from 117 African-American male 15-17 year olds. Data for 18 performance measures were obtained, based on…

  18. Why does education matter to employers in different institutional contexts? A vignette study in England and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Stasio, V.; van de Werfhorst, H.G.

    We study the process by which employers evaluate and interpret information related to the educational background of job applicants in simulated hiring contexts. We focus on England and the Netherlands, countries with very different education systems and labor-market institutions. Using a vignette

  19. Children's Use and Knowledge of Display Rules for Anger following Hypothetical Vignettes versus following Live Peer Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Elizabeth H.; Hubbard, Julie A.; Ramsden, Sally R.; Relyea, Nicole; Dearing, Karen F.; Smithmyer, Catherine M.; Schimmel, Kelly D.

    2001-01-01

    Examined correspondence between second-graders' use and knowledge of anger display rules. Found that children's responses were moderately related across two contexts. Following live interactions, compared to hypothetical vignettes, children reported feeling and expressing less anger, intending to hide their anger more, and dissembling their anger…

  20. Automated conflict resolution issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wike, Jeffrey S.

    1991-01-01

    A discussion is presented of how conflicts for Space Network resources should be resolved in the ATDRSS era. The following topics are presented: a description of how resource conflicts are currently resolved; a description of issues associated with automated conflict resolution; present conflict resolution strategies; and topics for further discussion.

  1. Interpersonal Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roark, Albert E.

    1978-01-01

    The difference between constructive and destructive conflicts may be traced to the way in which they are managed. Third-party help is often utilized to achieve constructive conflict management. This article describes two models for conflict management consultation. Five guidelines are given for constructive conflict management. (Author/JEL)

  2. The impact of mixed, hope and forgiveness-focused marital counselling on interpersonal cognitive distortions of couples filing for divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidian, A; Bahari, F

    2014-09-01

    Divorce and conflict are overlapping processes. Previous findings suggest that spirituality-related interventions in mental health nursing may play a significant role in reducing the level and amount of conflict. We examined the effects of hope and forgiveness-focused marital counselling and a combination of the two intervention types on interpersonal cognitive distortions of couples filing for divorce in Isfahan, Iran. We conducted a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test and post-test design. Of 440 couples referred to the Crisis Intervention Center undergoing pre-divorce counselling, 60 were randomly assigned to four groups: hope-focused, forgiveness-focused, mixed and control. Data were gathered using the Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale and analysed using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney's U and Wilcoxon tests. Hope- and forgiveness-focused interventions did not have a significant effect on the total number of interpersonal cognitive distortions in comparison with the control group. However, the mixed intervention significantly reduced irrational expectations and interpersonal rejection among couples. Combining hope- and forgiveness-focused interventions can be used to decrease irrational marital beliefs among couples. In addition, rating the level of conflict among couples is important for determining the type of intervention that should be used by mental health nurses (psycho-educational or therapeutic). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Marital, parental, and whole-family predictors of toddlers' emotion regulation: The role of parental emotional withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Martin I; Murphy, Sarah E; Benner, Aprile D; Jacobvitz, Deborah B; Hazen, Nancy L

    2017-04-01

    The present study aims to address how dyadic and triadic family interactions across the transition to parenthood contribute to the later development of toddlers' adaptive emotion regulation using structural equation modeling methods. Specifically, we examined the interrelations of observed marital negative affect before childbirth, parents' emotional withdrawal during parent-infant interactions at 8 months, and coparenting conflict at 24 months as predictors of toddlers' adaptive emotion regulation at 24 months. Data for the present study were drawn from a longitudinal dataset in which 125 families were observed across the transition to parenthood. Results suggested that prenatal marital negativity predicted mothers' and fathers' emotional withdrawal toward their infants at 8 months postbirth as well as coparenting conflict at 24 months postbirth. Coparenting conflict and father-infant emotional withdrawal were negatively associated with toddlers' adaptive emotion regulation; however, mother-infant emotional withdrawal was not related. The implications of our study extend family systems research to demonstrate how multiple levels of detrimental family functioning over the first 2 years of parenthood influence toddlers' emotion regulation and highlight the importance of fathers' emotional involvement with their infants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Unconsciously triggered conflict adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gaal, Simon; Lamme, Victor A F; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2010-07-09

    In conflict tasks such as the Stroop, the Eriksen flanker or the Simon task, it is generally observed that the detection of conflict in the current trial reduces the impact of conflicting information in the subsequent trial; a phenomenon termed conflict adaptation. This higher-order cognitive control function has been assumed to be restricted to cases where conflict is experienced consciously. In the present experiment we manipulated the awareness of conflict-inducing stimuli in a metacontrast masking paradigm to directly test this assumption. Conflicting response tendencies were elicited either consciously (through primes that were weakly masked) or unconsciously (strongly masked primes). We demonstrate trial-by-trial conflict adaptation effects after conscious as well as unconscious conflict, which could not be explained by direct stimulus/response repetitions. These findings show that unconscious information can have a longer-lasting influence on our behavior than previously thought and further stretch the functional boundaries of unconscious cognition.

  5. Unconsciously triggered conflict adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon van Gaal

    Full Text Available In conflict tasks such as the Stroop, the Eriksen flanker or the Simon task, it is generally observed that the detection of conflict in the current trial reduces the impact of conflicting information in the subsequent trial; a phenomenon termed conflict adaptation. This higher-order cognitive control function has been assumed to be restricted to cases where conflict is experienced consciously. In the present experiment we manipulated the awareness of conflict-inducing stimuli in a metacontrast masking paradigm to directly test this assumption. Conflicting response tendencies were elicited either consciously (through primes that were weakly masked or unconsciously (strongly masked primes. We demonstrate trial-by-trial conflict adaptation effects after conscious as well as unconscious conflict, which could not be explained by direct stimulus/response repetitions. These findings show that unconscious information can have a longer-lasting influence on our behavior than previously thought and further stretch the functional boundaries of unconscious cognition.

  6. Changes in marital satisfaction across the transition to parenthood: the role of adult attachment orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Jamie L; Rholes, Steven W; Simpson, Jeffry A; Martin, A McLeish; Tran, SiSi; Wilson, Carol L

    2012-11-01

    This longitudinal study investigated marital satisfaction trajectories across the first 2 years of parenthood. Data were collected from new parents (couples) 6 weeks before the birth of their first child, and then at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum. Growth curve models revealed two key findings. First, for highly anxious individuals, satisfaction was lower or declined when they perceived their partners as less supportive and as behaving more negatively toward them. Second, for highly avoidant individuals, satisfaction was lower or declined when they perceived more work-family conflict and greater demands from their families. The findings suggest that attachment insecurities predict dissatisfaction in new parents primarily when stressors block the pursuit of important attachment goals.

  7. Managing Organizational Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitali PATHAK

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of conflict, being an outcome of behaviours, is an integral part of human life. Wherever there is a difference of opinion there are chances of conflict. Managing conflict effectively demands multifarious professional abilities and acumen. To resolve and manage conflict, the organisations must understand the causes, theories, approaches and strategies of conflict management. Conflict and stress are interlinked as they are dependent on each other. It is a psychological phenomenon that requires a high level of attention and thorough understanding. It appears that there is a very little margin to remain unaffected from the clutches of stress in contemporary time.

  8. Effect of Family Structure on Marital Attitudes of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, Lawrence; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Assesses the effect of exposure to different family structures (single parent families, reconstituted families, intact families) on the marital socialization of 127 males and 194 female adolescents. (Author/CM)

  9. Human Fertility Increases with the Marital-radius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labouriau, Rodrigo; Amorim, António

    2008-01-01

    We report a positive association between marital radius (distance between mates' birthplaces) and fertility detected in a large population. Spurious association due to socioeconomic factors is discarded by a conditional analysis involving income, education, and urbanicity. Strong evidence...

  10. Indirect Estimation of Selected Measures of Fertility and Marital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DLHS6

    2018-01-09

    Jan 9, 2018 ... marital status distribution data of India especially of the 2011 census in deriving indirectly the fertility measures .... 2011 Census, Economic and Political weekly, EPW Vol. ... Indirect Estimates of Total Fertility Rate Using Child.

  11. Self-Esteem, Coping Efforts and Marital Adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Bélanger

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between self-esteem, specific coping strategies and marital adjustment. The sample consists of 216 subjects from 108 couples who completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Ways of Coping Checklist. The results confirm the presence of a relationship between self-esteem, specific coping strategies and marital adjustment in men and women. High self-esteem and marital adjustment are associated with the use of problem solving strategies and less avoidance as a way of coping. Moreover, cross analyses reveal that one’s feelings of self-worth are associated with his/her spouse's marital adjustment. The theoretical implications of these results are discussed.

  12. Kin Group Affiliation and Marital Violence Against Women in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedziafa, Alice Pearl; Tenkorang, Eric Y

    2016-01-01

    The socialization of men and women in Ghana often confers either patrilineal or matrilineal rights, privileges, and responsibilities. Yet, previous studies that explored domestic and marital violence in sub-Saharan Africa, and Ghana, paid less attention to kin group affiliation and how the power dynamics within such groups affect marital violence. Using the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and applying ordinary least squares (OLS) techniques, this study examined what influences physical, sexual, and emotional violence among matrilineal and patrilineal kin groups. Results indicate significant differences among matrilineal and patrilineal kin groups regarding marital violence. Socioeconomic variables that capture feminist and power theories were significantly related to sexual and emotional violence in matrilineal societies. Also, variables that tap both cultural and life course epistemologies of domestic violence were strongly related to physical, sexual, and emotional violence among married women in patrilineal kin groups. Policymakers must pay attention to kin group affiliation in designing policies aimed at reducing marital violence among Ghanaian women.

  13. Influence of hyperprotection (overexactness on marital problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Kapustin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As it was mentioned in one of the previous papers, basic styles of parenting in families with parent-child problems were hyperprotection and overexactness. Another paper described a new so-called existential criterion of normal and abnormal personality based on the works of Erich Fromm. Applying this criterion to personality evaluation of overprotecting and overexacting parents in families with parent-child problems showed that their personality could be identified as abnormal. Research on the influence of hyperprotection and overexactness at children personality development in these families, where existential criterion was also applied, showed that these parenting styles contribute to promoting child specific abnormal personality types: oriented on external assistance, oriented on compliance with other people’s requirements and oriented on protest against such compliance. In the present study, the direct or indirect hyperprotection or overexactness in 80 per cent of cases was observed. Direct hyperprotection or overexactness means that theyare clearly determined in relationship of the married couple. Indirect hyperprotection or overexactness indicates that the couple has abnormal personality types that date have roots in the childhood under the influence of the hyperprotection and overexactness. Classification of these cases was developed, based on various types of direct or indirect input of hyperprotection and overexactness in emerging marital problems. A variety of problems in couples are shown to be closely connected with abnormality of their own personality or the personality of their immediate environment, primarily wives, husbands and parents.

  14. Sex Preferences, Marital Dissolution and the Economic Status of Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bedard, Kelly; Deschenes, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    The rise in the divorce rate over the past 40 years is one of the fundamental changes in American society. A seemingly ever-increasing number of women and children spend some fraction of their life in single female-headed households, leading many to be concerned about the economic circumstances of these women their and children. Estimating the cause-to-effect relationship between marital dissolution and female economic status is complicated because the same factors that increase marital insta...

  15. Fulani herdsmen's pastoral activities, conflict and conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LGA) of Oyo state Nigeria had come with some challenges over the years of interacting with their host community. This study was aimed at determining the effects of nomadic farming in the study area attendant conflicts and conflict management ...

  16. Interparental Conflict and Adolescents' Romantic Relationship Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A.; Furman, Wyndol

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between interparental conflict and adolescents' romantic relationship conflict. High school seniors (N = 183) who lived with married parents completed questionnaires about their parents' marriage and their own romantic relationships. A subset of 88 adolescents was also observed interacting with their romantic…

  17. CONFLICT AND CONFLICT MANAGEMENT: A SPRINGBOARD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this paper, which is basically a literature review, the writer undertook a critical analysis of the causes and consequences of organisational conflict. He further ... The relevance and function of conflict in organisations have been an issue of ..... Studies have shown that “too much work can lead to a variety of stress-related.

  18. A study on relationship between emotional maturity and marital satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Esmael Mosavi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Marriage is one of the most important events of people's lives and when it happens, it could have both positive and negative consequences. In this paper, we present an empirical study to investigate the relationship between emotional maturity and marital satisfaction using a classical questionnaire. The study chooses all people aged 25-35 who live in region 10 of the city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study splits the main hypothesis into five detailed questions, which considers the relationship between marital satisfaction with five other components including emotional instability, return emotional, social maladjustment, close character and lack of independence. The results indicate a negative correlation between marital satisfaction and these items and t-student confirmed that there are meaningful relationship between marital satisfaction and emotional instability, return emotional, close character and lack of independence but there is no meaningful relationship between marital satisfaction and social maladjustment. In summary, the survey concluded that there is meaningful relationship between marital satisfaction and emotional maturity.

  19. Types of marital intimacy and prevalence of emotional illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, E M; Patton, D; Neron, C A; Linker, W

    1986-11-01

    Epidemiological research has demonstrated that married individuals generally experience better emotional health than the single, divorced and widowed. The married populations in these studies were not evaluated on the basis of the quality of their marital relationships. Research on the interpersonal quality of marital relationships in the general married population has rarely been reported in the psychiatric literature. A sample of the general married population (n = 250 couples) completed a self-report questionnaire which measures the quality and the quantity of intimacy in marriage. Four types of marital patterns were operationally defined by total intimacy score, pattern of scale profile, and social desirability scores. The relative frequencies of these types of marriages are reported. The prevalence of symptoms of non-psychotic emotional illness in one or both spouses in the four categories of marriage is reported. Thirty-one percent (31%) of the couples report marriages with absent and/or deficient intimacy. Couples with "absent and/or deficient" marital intimacy had a significantly higher proportion of spouses with symptoms of non-psychotic emotional illness. This study suggests that previous research may have confounded the variables of marital status and marital quality in the study of psychiatric disorder. These studies may have under-estimated the positive effect of an "optimally" intimate relationship.

  20. Labour division, marital quality and the ideology of gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Milica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marriage is defined as a social, religious and legal community of a husband and wife, and the quality of this relationship is very important for spouses, children and the society in the widest sense. According to the definition of marriage itself it is clear that a suitable gender ideology and the attitudes towards native roles have the significant role in many aspects of the marital and family dynamics. What is more, it is considered that native roles have the leading role in the determination of the quality of marital relations by determining what people expect from their partners and marriage. The role of women and the attitudes towards their role have undergone many changes in the last few decades under the influence of particular social changes, primarily thanks to the higher employment rate of women, and consequently different gender division of labor between men and women, both at work and in families. This paper analyses how the employment of women and the change in the traditional division of labor influence the quality of marital relationships. First of all, we have indicated the significant positive, as well as negative implications which the change in the marital division of labor has to the quality of marital relations. In the end, we have tried to point out that the adopted gender ideology, traditional or egalitarian/feminist acts as an important and essential mediator in the relation between the division of labor and perceived quality of marital relationship.

  1. Marital Processes, Arranged Marriage, and Contraception to Limit Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Dirgha J.; Axinn, William G.

    2013-01-01

    An international transition away from familially-arranged marriages toward participation in spouse choice has endured for decades and continues to spread through rural Asia today. Though we know this transformation has important consequences for childbearing early in marriage, we know much less about longer-term consequences of this marital revolution. This study draws upon theories of family and fertility change and a rural Asian panel study designed to investigate changes in both marital and childbearing behaviors to investigate these long-term consequences. Controlling for social changes that shape both marital practices and childbearing behaviors, and explicitly considering multiple dimensions of marital processes, we find evidence consistent with an independent, long-standing association of participation in spouse choice with higher rates of contraception to terminate childbearing. These results add a new dimension to the evidence linking revolutions in marital behavior to long-term declines in fertility, but also motivate new research to consider a broader range of long-term consequences of changing marital processes. PMID:23709184

  2. How College Students' Conceptions of Newton's Second and Third Laws Change Through Watching Interactive Video Vignettes: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelman, Jonathan

    Changing student conceptions in physics is a difficult process and has been a topic of research for many years. The purpose of this study was to understand what prompted students to change or not change their incorrect conceptions of Newtons Second or Third Laws in response to an intervention, Interactive Video Vignettes (IVVs), designed to overcome them. This study is based on prior research reported in the literature which has found that a curricular framework of elicit, confront, resolve, and reflect (ECRR) is important for changing student conceptions (McDermott, 2001). This framework includes four essential parts such that during an instructional event student conceptions should be elicited, incorrect conceptions confronted, these conflicts resolved, and then students should be prompted to reflect on their learning. Twenty-two undergraduate student participants who completed either or both IVVs were studied to determine whether or not they experienced components of the ECRR framework at multiple points within the IVVs. A fully integrated, mixed methods design was used to address the study purpose. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected iteratively for each participant. Successive data collections were informed by previous data collections. All data were analyzed concurrently. The quantitative strand included a pre/post test that participants took before and after completing a given IVV and was used to measure the effect of each IVV on learning. The qualitative strand included video of each participant completing the IVV as well as an audio-recorded video elicitation interview after the post-test. The qualitative data collection was designed to describe student experiences with each IVV as well as to observe how the ECRR framework was experienced. Collecting and analyzing data using this mixed methods approach helped develop a more complete understanding of how student conceptions of Newtons Second and Third Laws changed through completion of

  3. Using Patient Case Video Vignettes to Improve Students’ Understanding of Cross-cultural Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryder, Brian; Mazan, Jennifer; Quiñones-Boex, Ana; Cyganska, Angelika

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To develop, implement, and assess whether simulated patient case videos improve students’ understanding of and attitudes toward cross-cultural communication in health care. Design. Third-year pharmacy students (N=159) in a health care communications course participated in a one-hour lecture and two-hour workshop on the topic of cross-cultural communication. Three simulated pharmacist-patient case vignettes highlighting cross-cultural communication barriers, the role of active listening, appropriate use of medical interpreters, and useful models to overcome communication barriers were viewed and discussed in groups of 20 students during the workshop. Assessment. A pre-lecture and post-workshop assessed the effect on students’ understanding of and attitudes toward cross-cultural communication. Understanding of cross-cultural communication concepts increased significantly, as did comfort level with providing cross-cultural care. Conclusion. Use of simulated patient case videos in conjunction with an interactive workshop improved pharmacy students' understanding of and comfort level with cross-cultural communication skills and can be useful tools for cultural competency training in the curriculum. PMID:28496276

  4. Using Patient Case Video Vignettes to Improve Students' Understanding of Cross-cultural Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Sally; Cryder, Brian; Mazan, Jennifer; Quiñones-Boex, Ana; Cyganska, Angelika

    2017-04-01

    Objective. To develop, implement, and assess whether simulated patient case videos improve students' understanding of and attitudes toward cross-cultural communication in health care. Design. Third-year pharmacy students (N=159) in a health care communications course participated in a one-hour lecture and two-hour workshop on the topic of cross-cultural communication. Three simulated pharmacist-patient case vignettes highlighting cross-cultural communication barriers, the role of active listening, appropriate use of medical interpreters, and useful models to overcome communication barriers were viewed and discussed in groups of 20 students during the workshop. Assessment. A pre-lecture and post-workshop assessed the effect on students' understanding of and attitudes toward cross-cultural communication. Understanding of cross-cultural communication concepts increased significantly, as did comfort level with providing cross-cultural care. Conclusion. Use of simulated patient case videos in conjunction with an interactive workshop improved pharmacy students' understanding of and comfort level with cross-cultural communication skills and can be useful tools for cultural competency training in the curriculum.

  5. Gender differences in natural language factors of subjective intoxication in college students: an experimental vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ash; Schlauch, Robert C; Bartholow, Bruce D; Sher, Kenneth J

    2013-12-01

    Examining the natural language college students use to describe various levels of intoxication can provide important insight into subjective perceptions of college alcohol use. Previous research (Levitt et al., Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2009; 33: 448) has shown that intoxication terms reflect moderate and heavy levels of intoxication and that self-use of these terms differs by gender among college students. However, it is still unknown whether these terms similarly apply to other individuals and, if so, whether similar gender differences exist. To address these issues, the current study examined the application of intoxication terms to characters in experimentally manipulated vignettes of naturalistic drinking situations within a sample of university undergraduates (n = 145). Findings supported and extended previous research by showing that other-directed applications of intoxication terms are similar to self-directed applications and depend on the gender of both the target and the user. Specifically, moderate intoxication terms were applied to and from women more than men, even when the character was heavily intoxicated, whereas heavy intoxication terms were applied to and from men more than women. The findings suggest that gender differences in the application of intoxication terms are other-directed as well as self-directed and that intoxication language can inform gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts targeting problematic alcohol use among college students. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. Managing Conflict during Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Join AAMFT Approved Supervisors My Account Benefits Managing Conflict During Divorce Ending a marriage or a long- ... themselves in the middle of confusing and overwhelming conflict. When children are involved, finding ways to manage ...

  7. The Darfur Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    present Presentation Interactive Media Element This interactive media element provides information related to the Darfur conflict in Sudan such as the locations of attacks, a conflict timeline, etc. NS4311 Contemporary Issues in African Politics

  8. Effect of Infant Health Problem, Mother's Depression and Marital Relationship on Infant Abuse in Korea: Mediating Pathway of Marital Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Eun Kim, PhD

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The findings from this study demonstrate the fundamental importance of infant health as linked to the mother's mental health, and marital relationship and increasing the quality of marital relationship may be the key to infant abuse prevention.

  9. Using marital status and continuous marital satisfaction ratings to predict depressive symptoms in married and unmarried women with systemic sclerosis: A Canadian Scleroderma Research Group Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levis, B.; Rice, D.B.; Kwakkenbos, C.M.C.; Steele, R.J.; Hagedoorn, M.; Hudson, M.; Baron, M.; Thombs, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Married persons have, on average, better mental health than nonmarried persons. Among married persons, marital satisfaction is associated with better mental health. Studies on mental health in married and nonmarried persons that consider marital satisfaction have categorized patients as

  10. Using Marital Status and Continuous Marital Satisfaction Ratings to Predict Depressive Symptoms in Married and Unmarried Women With Systemic Sclerosis : A Canadian Scleroderma Research Group Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levis, Brooke; Rice, Danielle B.; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Steele, Russell J.; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Hudson, Marie; Baron, Murray; Thombs, Brett D.

    Objective. Married persons have, on average, better mental health than nonmarried persons. Among married persons, marital satisfaction is associated with better mental health. Studies on mental health in married and nonmarried persons that consider marital satisfaction have categorized patients as

  11. Heuristics in Conflict Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Drescher, Christian; Gebser, Martin; Kaufmann, Benjamin; Schaub, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    Modern solvers for Boolean Satisfiability (SAT) and Answer Set Programming (ASP) are based on sophisticated Boolean constraint solving techniques. In both areas, conflict-driven learning and related techniques constitute key features whose application is enabled by conflict analysis. Although various conflict analysis schemes have been proposed, implemented, and studied both theoretically and practically in the SAT area, the heuristic aspects involved in conflict analysis have not yet receive...

  12. Intergenerational authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles, marital conflict, and externalizing and internalizing behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Ebenézer A. de; Marin, Angela H.; Pires, Fábio B.; Frizzo, Giana B.; Ravanello, Tiago; Rossato, Caroline

    2002-01-01

    Modelos mediativos de risco e proteção foram testados, para prever longitudinalmente comportamentos de externalização e internalização infantis, a partir de uma atitude conjugal conflituosa e de estilos parentais intergeracionais autoritário vs. democrático-recíproco. Proveniente de duas escolas particulares e uma pública, a amostra contou com 25 meninas e 25 meninos de 4 e 5 anos, e suas respectivas mães. Correlações bivariadas de Pearson e regressões múltiplas indicaram a presença de transm...

  13. Conflict in workgroups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jehn, K.A.; Rispens, S.; Barlings, J.; Cooper, C.L.

    2009-01-01

    The original research on conflict in organizations suggested that conflict was a negative force, but some of the early theorizing also suggested some positive effects (e.g., idea generation, constructive criticism, creativity). A resurgence of research on workgroup conflict in the past 15 years

  14. Using case studies and videotaped vignettes to facilitate the development of critical thinking skills in new graduate nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Barbara L

    2014-01-01

    Critical thinking skills are an essential component of nursing and crucial to nursing practice. Case studies with videotaped vignettes were used to help facilitate the development of critical thinking skills in new graduate nurses. Results revealed a statistically significant increase (p = .041) on the overall Health Sciences Reasoning Test score. It is essential for educators to be aware of educational strategies that can affect the development of critical thinking skills.

  15. Toward a Multiple Perspective in Family Theory and Practice: The Case of Social Exchange Theory, Symbolic Interactionism, and Conflict Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rank, Mark R.; LeCroy, Craig W.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the complementarity of three often-used theories in family research: social exchange theory, symbolic interactionism, and conflict theory. Provides a case example in which a multiple perspective is applied to a problem of marital discord. Discusses implications for the clinician. (Author/WAS)

  16. Why do marital partners of people living with HIV not test for HIV? A qualitative study in Lusaka, Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Musheke

    2016-08-01

    testing requires a multi-pronged approach that addresses self-stigma, lay risk perceptions, negative treatment and health beliefs and the perceived psychological burden of living with HIV. Strengthening couple HIV testing services, including addressing conflict and addressing gendered power relationships are also warranted to facilitate joint knowledge, acceptance and management of HIV status in marital relationships.

  17. Why do marital partners of people living with HIV not test for HIV? A qualitative study in Lusaka, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musheke, Maurice; Merten, Sonja; Bond, Virginia

    2016-08-25

    perceptions, negative treatment and health beliefs and the perceived psychological burden of living with HIV. Strengthening couple HIV testing services, including addressing conflict and addressing gendered power relationships are also warranted to facilitate joint knowledge, acceptance and management of HIV status in marital relationships.

  18. Conflict resolution in adolescent relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Conflict is an inevitable feature of social relationships. When people interact, disagreements may arise. Especially in close relationships, people sometimes disagree. Although conflict might jeopardize relationships, conflict is not necessarily detrimental. The way conflicts are handled is

  19. Conflicts and social impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sanne Vammen; Hansen, Anne Merrild; Nielsen, Helle

    2017-01-01

    The transition to renewable energy is currently in many places challenged by conflicts over specific projects. For example siting of onshore wind turbines often causes conflicts with local communities, sometimes leading to abandonment of the project or plan. This paper presents an analysis...... of such conflicts, and the role social impacts play. The paper analyses in depth four cases of renewable energy projects, utilizing a conceptualization of conflict constituted by three elements: Attitude, behavior and contradictions. Through analysis of EIA reports and hearing responses as well as interviews......, the paper digs deeper to nuance what constitutes the conflicts and what role social impacts play....

  20. Conflict management and resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Jay; Wood, Beverly P

    2006-03-01

    When people work collaboratively, conflict will always arise. Understanding the nature and source of conflict and its progression and stages, resolution, and outcome is a vital aspect of leadership. Causes of conflict include the miscomprehension of communication, emotional issues, personal history, and values. When the difference is understood and the resultant behavior properly addressed, most conflict can be settled in a way that provides needed change in an organization and interrelationships. There are serious consequences of avoiding or mismanaging disagreements. Informed leaders can effectively prevent destructive conflicts.

  1. Sibling conflict in middle childhood predicts children's adjustment in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Clare M; Burwell, Rebecca A; Briggs, Megan L

    2002-03-01

    Associations between sibling conflict in middle childhood and psychological adjustment in early adolescence were studied in a sample of 80 boys and 56 girls. Parents and children provided self-report data about family relationships and children's adjustment. Parents' hostility to children was assessed from videotaped interactions. Results showed that sibling conflict at Time 1 predicted increases in children's anxiety, depressed mood, and delinquent behavior 2 years later. Moreover, earlier sibling conflict at Time 1 accounted for unique variance in young adolescents' Time 2 anxiety, depressed mood, and delinquent behavior above and beyond the variance explained by earlier maternal hostility and marital conflict. Children's adjustment at Time 1 did not predict sibling conflict at Time 2. Results highlight the unique significance of the earlier sibling relationship for young adolescents' psychological adjustment.

  2. Enhancing conflict competency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Roberta; McKinney, Nicole S

    2014-01-01

    Professional nurses are taking on leadership roles of diverse healthcare teams. Development of conflict competence is essential, yet requires self-awareness and deliberate effort. Heightened awareness of one's preferred conflict style and cognizance of the implications of overuse and/or underuse of these styles is important. DESIGN/METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH: A pre-post survey design (N = 14) used paired sample T-test. Paired sample correlations and an overview of the paired sample test are reported. Students gained self-awareness about their preferred conflict style, recognized that each conflict style has its utility depending on any given situation, and demonstrated a difference in their most frequently used style. Limited data conveys conflict behavior styles among pre-licensure nursing; however, students can influence their own environments (either causing or fueling situations) by their personal conflict-handling styles. Early development of these skills can raise awareness and cultivate ease in the management of conflict within varied settings.

  3. Using vignettes to assess contributions to the work of addressing child mental health problems in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissow, Lawrence S; Zafar, Waleed; Fothergill, Kate; Ruble, Anne; Slade, Eric

    2016-01-22

    To further efforts to integrate mental health and primary care, this study develops a novel approach to quantifying the amount and sources of work involved in shifting care for common mental health problems to pediatric primary care providers. Email/web-based survey of a convenience sample (n = 58) of Maryland pediatricians (77% female, 58% at their site 10 or more years; 44% in private practice, 52 % urban, 48 % practicing with a co-located mental health provider). Participants were asked to review 11 vignettes, which described primary care management of child/youth mental health problems, and rate them on an integer-based ordinal scale for the overall amount of work involved compared to a 12th reference vignette describing an uncomplicated case of ADHD. Respondents were also asked to indicate factors (time, effort, stress) accounting for their ratings. Vignettes presented combinations of three diagnoses (ADHD, anxiety, and depression) and three factors (medical co-morbidity, psychiatric co-morbidity, and difficult families) reported to complicate mental health care. The reference case was pre-assigned a work value of 2. Estimates of the relationship of diagnosis and complicating factors with workload were obtained using linear regression, with random effects at the respondent level. The 58 pediatricians gave 593 vignette responses. Depression was associated with a 1.09 unit (about 50%) increase in work (95% CL .94, 1.25), while anxiety did not differ significantly from the reference case of uncomplicated ADHD (p = .28). Although all three complicating factors increased work ratings compared with the reference case, family complexity and psychiatric co-morbidity did so the most (.87 and 1.07 units, respectively, P work were physician time, physician mental effort, and stress; those least strongly associated were staff time, physician physical effort, and malpractice risk. Pediatricians working with co-located mental health providers gave higher work

  4. Conflict resolution in adolescent relationships

    OpenAIRE

    van Doorn, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Conflict is an inevitable feature of social relationships. When people interact, disagreements may arise. Especially in close relationships, people sometimes disagree. Although conflict might jeopardize relationships, conflict is not necessarily detrimental. The way conflicts are handled is important in determining whether conflicts are functional or dysfunctional. Moreover, the way conflicts are handled might reveal information about the nature of relationships and their developmental status...

  5. Professionalism and maintenance of certification: using vignettes describing interpersonal dilemmas to stimulate reflection and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabeo, Elizabeth C; Reddy, Siddharta G; Ginsburg, Shiphra; Holmboe, Eric S

    2014-01-01

    Physicians do not always agree on "rules" governing behavior in professionally challenging situations. Little is known about contextual factors that influence physician approaches in these situations. We explored the individual-, social-, and societal-level factors that physicians consider when responding to 2 common professional dilemmas. We were particularly interested in knowing the extent to which physicians engage in self-reflection as a result of responding to the vignettes. A cross-sectional Web-based survey was sent to a random sample of 396 physicians, prompting them to respond to scripted professional dilemmas. A total of 120 physicians responded, yielding a response rate of 32.6%. Physicians responded to these dilemmas in highly variable ways, negotiating a complex array of contextual factors in their decisions. Interacting factors involving individual-level physician (eg, worry, guilt), patient (eg, nature of medical condition or relationship with patient), and social/societal (eg, policy, what peers or colleagues do) were important drivers in physician responses. Qualitative analysis revealed that several interacting themes guide physician approaches to professional dilemmas: patient welfare; types of patients; political, ethical, or legal issues; guiding principles; values; rules; and habits. Physicians negotiate a complex set of individual-, social-, and societal-level factors in response to professional dilemmas. This finding has important implications for the promotion and assessment of professional behavior in practicing physicians. Reflecting on scenarios may be an opportunity for physicians to learn about how and why they make decisions in difficult situations. © 2014 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on Continuing Medical Education, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  6. Patients' anticipated actions following transient ischaemic attack symptoms: a qualitative vignette-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magin, Parker; Joyce, Terry; Levi, Christopher; Lasserson, Daniel

    2017-02-03

    Transient Ischaemic Attack (TIA) requires urgent investigation and management. Urgent management reduces the risk of subsequent stroke markedly, but non-presentation or delays in patient presentation to health services have been found to compromise timely management. We aimed to explore general practice patients' anticipated responses to TIA symptoms. This was a qualitative study employing semi-structured telephone interviews. Participants were recruited from respondents in an earlier quantitative study based in Australian general practices. Maximum variation purposive sampling of patients from that study (on the basis of age, rurality, gender and previous experience of stroke/TIA) continued until thematic saturation was achieved. After initial interviews explored knowledge of TIA and potential responses, subsequent interviews further explored anticipated responses via clinical vignettes containing TIA and non-TIA symptoms. Transcribed interviews were coded independently by two researchers. Data collection and analysis were concurrent and cumulative, using a process of iterative thematic analysis and constant comparison. A schema explaining participants' anticipated actions emerged during this process and was iteratively tested in later interviews. Thirty-seven interviews were conducted and a 'spectrum of action', from watchful waiting (only responding if symptoms recurred) to summoning an ambulance immediately, was established. Intermediate actions upon the spectrum were: intending to mention the episode to a general practitioner (GP) at a routine appointment; consulting a GP non-urgently; consulting a general practitioner (GP) urgently; and attending an Emergency Department urgently. The substrate for decision-making relating to this spectrum operated via three constructs: the 'individual set' of the participant (their inherent disposition towards action in response to health matters in general), their 'discriminatory power' (the ability to discriminate TIA

  7. Attitude of young psychiatrists toward coercive measures in psychiatry: a case vignette study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wake Yosuke

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Every psychiatrist must pay careful attention to avoid violating human rights when initiating coercive treatments such as seclusion and restraint. However, these interventions are indispensable in clinical psychiatry, and they are often used as strategies to treat agitated patients. In this study, we investigated young psychiatrists' attitudes toward psychiatric coercive measures. Methods A total of 183 young psychiatrists participated as subjects in our study. A questionnaire with a case vignette describing a patient with acute psychosis was sent to the study subjects via the Internet or by mail. This questionnaire included scoring the necessity for hospitalization, and the likelihood of prescribing seclusion and/or restraint, on a 9-point Likert scale (with 9 indicating strong agreement. Results There was general agreement among the study subjects that the case should be admitted to a hospital (8.91 ± 0.3 and secluded (8.43 ± 1.0. The estimated length of hospitalization was 13.53 ± 6.4 weeks. Regarding the likelihood of prescribing restraint, results showed great diversity (5.14 ± 2.5 on 9-point scale; psychiatrists working at general hospitals scored significantly higher (6.25 ± 2.5 than those working at university hospitals (5.02 ± 2.3 or psychiatric hospitals (4.15 ± 2.6. A two-group comparison of the length of inpatient care revealed a significant difference between those psychiatrists who scored 1-3 (n = 55, 14.22 ± 7.4 wks and those who scored 7-9 (n = 62, 12.22 ± 4.0 regarding the need to use restraint. Conclusion Our results may reflect the current dilemma in Japanese psychiatry wherein psychiatrists must initiate coercive measures to shorten hospitalization stays. This study prompted its subject psychiatrists to consider coercive psychiatric treatments.

  8. The Comparison of Marital Satisfaction between Fertile and Iinfertile Women

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    Seyed Abdolmajid Bahrainian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This research studied and compared marital satisfaction level of the women who have infertility problem with those who does not have this problem. Methods: Totally 180 persons participated (90 infertile women and 90 fertile women were participated in this study. Participants were comprised of those referring to 3 Tehran city infertility centers. For data gathering in this research, the constructed questionnaire and Enrich Marital Satisfactions questionnaire have been used. Data analysis has been done with use of two independent t-tests and one way variance analysis has been done. Results: Results showed significant difference in satisfaction level of the fertile and infertile women, while, our research hypotheses were not confirmed in this regard by studying factors effective on marital satisfaction of the infertile women. The number of unsuccessful pregnancies whether in fertile women or infertile women didn’t have considerable effect on the marital satisfaction, while, effect of this factor on marital satisfaction level of the infertile women was higher than that on the fertile women. Discussion: Generally, by inclusion of limitations in this plan, it is impossible to generalize the present research results with difficulty, though it is inevitable to emphasize on negative consequences of the spouses' life and it is important to pay attention to its different dimensions.

  9. Marital status and optimism score among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Lindsay; Sorkin, John; Gallicchio, Lisa

    2014-11-01

    There are an increasing number of breast cancer survivors, but their psychosocial and supportive care needs are not well-understood. Recent work has found marital status, social support, and optimism to be associated with quality of life, but little research has been conducted to understand how these factors relate to one another. Survey data from 722 breast cancer survivors were analyzed to estimate the association between marital status and optimism score, as measured using the Life Orientation Test-Revised. Linear regression was used to estimate the relationship of marital status and optimism, controlling for potential confounding variables and assessing effect modification. The results showed that the association between marital status and optimism was modified by time since breast cancer diagnosis. Specifically, in those most recently diagnosed (within 5 years), married breast cancer survivors had a 1.50 higher mean optimism score than unmarried survivors (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.37, 2.62; p = 0.009). The difference in optimism score by marital status was not present more than 5 years from breast cancer diagnosis. Findings suggest that among breast cancer survivors within 5 years since diagnosis, those who are married have higher optimism scores than their unmarried counterparts; this association was not observed among longer-term breast cancer survivors. Future research should examine whether the difference in optimism score among this subgroup of breast cancer survivors is clinically relevant.

  10. Types of marital closeness and mortality risk in older couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, Roni Beth; Kasl, Stanislav V; Darefsky, Amy S

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the impact of marital closeness on survival over 6 years in a community-dwelling sample of 305 older couples. Closeness is defined as 1) naming one's spouse as a confidant or source of emotional support (vs. not naming) and 2) being named by spouse on at least one of the two dimensions (vs. not being named). The survival effects of both naming and being named are examined in Cox proportional hazard regressions, controlling for sociodemographic, health status, and behavioral variables. Husbands who were named by their wives but did not name them were least likely to have died after 6 years. Compared with them, husbands in marriages with the other three styles of closeness were from 3.30 to 4.68 times more likely to be dead. Wives' results showed the same pattern of effects, with the same marital style being most protective as for husbands, but the effects were weaker. However, wives' results were strongly moderated by parenting status: those who had ever had children who were in the marital closeness pattern of wife naming husband but not being named by him were highly protected. Compared with these wives, others who had had children were from 8.26 to 10.95 times less likely to be alive after 6 years. The same pattern of marital closeness most benefited husbands and those wives who had had children. These findings are not explained adequately by social support or marital role theory although they fit the latter more closely.

  11. Individual and mutual predictors of marital satisfaction among prostate cancer patients and their spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Ching-Hui; Chuang, Cheng-Keng; Liu, Kuan-Lin; Huang, Xuan-Yi; Pang, See-Tong; Wu, Chun-Te; Chang, Ying-Hsu; Liu, Hsueh-Erh

    2017-12-01

    To determine the individual and mutual predictors of the marital satisfaction of couples in which the husband experienced prostate cancer. Marital satisfaction of patients with prostate cancer has been insufficiently studied in Asian countries as compared with Western countries. This study used a prospective and repeated-measures design. Seventy Taiwanese couples in which the husband had prostate cancer completed measures at 6 and 12 months post-treatment. Assessments of physical symptoms, marital satisfaction, coping behaviour and psychological distress were made. Multiple linear regression was used to analyse the data. The marital satisfaction of patients with prostate cancer and that of their spouses were significantly correlated. At 6 months, spouses' marital satisfaction, patients' appraisal of prostate cancer as a threat and patients' serum prostate-specific antigen levels were found to be the predictors of patients' marital satisfaction. Furthermore, patients' marital satisfaction and their spouses' psychological distress were predictors of spouses' marital satisfaction. At 12 months, spouses' marital satisfaction and patients' appraisal of prostate cancer as harm were predictors of patients' marital satisfaction. Finally, spouses' marital satisfaction (at 6 months) and appraisal of prostate cancer as a threat were predictors of spouses' marital satisfaction. At 6 months post-treatment, patients' and spouses' marital satisfaction will influence each other. However, at 12 months, patients' marital satisfaction exerts an insignificant effect on spouses' marital satisfaction. Moreover, patients' serum prostate-specific antigen level or the negative appraisal of prostate cancer affects their marital satisfaction. Spouses' marital satisfaction is affected by psychological distress and their negative appraisal of prostate cancer. The results can be used to develop interventions for prostate cancer couples. Such an intervention can be used to modify couples

  12. Let's Talk About Sex: A Diary Investigation of Couples’ Intimacy Conflicts in the Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Lauren M.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2013-01-01

    Although intimacy plays a central role in our closest relationships, we know surprisingly little about how couples handle intimacy conflicts in their daily lives. We utilized 100 married couples’ diary reports of 748 instances of naturalistic marital conflict to test whether intimacy as a topic was associated with other conflict topics; conflict characteristics, such as recurrence and significance; and spouses’ constructive, angry, and depressive conflict expressions. Results from dyadic hierarchical linear modeling revealed that intimacy issues were not likely to be discussed along with other topics (e.g., children, finances). Results also indicated that intimacy conflicts were likely to be recurrent and held relatively high levels of current and long-term importance to the relationship. Husbands and wives generally handled intimacy conflicts in constructive ways (e.g., expressed problem solving and positive emotions). However, husbands’ depression symptoms emerged as a potent moderator of how intimacy conflicts were handled: Among couples that included a husband with higher levels of depression symptoms, discussing intimacy in conflict in the home was associated with greater use of angry expressions and depressive expressions by both husbands and wives. The current findings enhance understanding of intimacy conflicts in naturalistic contexts and offer clinical treatment implications and future research directions. PMID:24167756

  13. Let's Talk About Sex: A Diary Investigation of Couples' Intimacy Conflicts in the Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Lauren M; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Cummings, E Mark

    2013-03-01

    Although intimacy plays a central role in our closest relationships, we know surprisingly little about how couples handle intimacy conflicts in their daily lives. We utilized 100 married couples' diary reports of 748 instances of naturalistic marital conflict to test whether intimacy as a topic was associated with other conflict topics; conflict characteristics, such as recurrence and significance; and spouses' constructive, angry, and depressive conflict expressions. Results from dyadic hierarchical linear modeling revealed that intimacy issues were not likely to be discussed along with other topics (e.g., children, finances). Results also indicated that intimacy conflicts were likely to be recurrent and held relatively high levels of current and long-term importance to the relationship. Husbands and wives generally handled intimacy conflicts in constructive ways (e.g., expressed problem solving and positive emotions). However, husbands' depression symptoms emerged as a potent moderator of how intimacy conflicts were handled: Among couples that included a husband with higher levels of depression symptoms, discussing intimacy in conflict in the home was associated with greater use of angry expressions and depressive expressions by both husbands and wives. The current findings enhance understanding of intimacy conflicts in naturalistic contexts and offer clinical treatment implications and future research directions.

  14. Financial satisfaction and financial stressors in marital satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archuleta, Kristy L; Britt, Sonya L; Tonn, Teresa J; Grable, John E

    2011-04-01

    Using a sample of 310 married respondents from one U.S. Midwestern state, a test was conducted to examine the association of financial satisfaction and financial stressors in a spouse's decision to stay married to the same person or leave the relationship. The role of demographic and socioeconomic variables, religiosity, psychological constructs, financial satisfaction, and financial stressors as factors influencing marital satisfaction was tested. Financial stressors were measured using a list of financial stressors adapted from the literature. Financial satisfaction was measured with a one-item scale. The Kansas Marital Satisfaction Scale was used as a validation tool to assess whether individuals would marry or not marry again. Religiosity and financial satisfaction were positively associated with marital satisfaction. A negative interaction between financial satisfaction and financial stressors was also noted. Findings suggest that respondents who are financially satisfied tend to be more stable in their marriages.

  15. Marital status, childlessness, and social support among older Canadians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, Margaret J; Wu, Zheng

    2014-12-01

    Despite evidence of increasing diversification of family structures, little is known regarding implications of marital and parental status for access to social support in later life. Using data from Statistics Canada's 2007 General Social Survey, this study assessed the impact of marital and parental status intersections on social support among adults aged 60 and older (n = 11,503). Two-stage probit regression models indicated that among those who were currently married or separated/divorced, childless individuals were more likely to report instrumental (domestic, transportation) and emotional support from people outside the household. Conversely, among never-married or widowed older adults, being childless was associated with reduced domestic support but without differences in other support domains. Findings suggest that marital and parental status intersections are not uniformly positive, neutral, or negative regarding implications for extra-household social support. Future work should address complexities of these relationships in order to better understand rapidly changing family structures.

  16. Naturalization, reciprocity and marks of marital violence: male defendants' perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvânia Patrícia do Nascimento Paixão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze male criminals' perception about marital violence. Method: An exploratory, descriptive, qualitative study undertaken with 23 men who were criminally prosecuted for marital violence. A multimethod data collection was conducted, with individual interview and focal group techniques combined, between May and December 2015. The data collected were initially categorized using the NVIVO® 11 software program, and then organized using the Collective Subject Discourse method. Results: the collective discourses reveal that, in the male's perception, conjugal violence is inherent in a marital relationships: it is a private, reciprocal problem that leaves body marks. Conclusion: gender dissymmetry as a social construct is evidenced, signaling the need to create spaces for reflection and re-signification of men and women, from a gender perspective.

  17. Conflict in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Smolinski, Remigiusz; Speakman, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this conceptual paper is to apply the insights of recent routine research in the area of conflict and conflict management. As a result, the authors identify four different types of conflict sources that are rooted in routines and the specific difficulties connected with their change......: the repetitive character of routine, disagreement over the “validity” of the existing routines, disagreement concerning the definition of new targets, and resistance towards change processes. Further the authors point to the inherent tendency to routinize conflict management strategies and the risks...... that are associated with this process. As a result, this paper offers new insights into the causes and structure of conflicts triggered by change processes as well as into the management of repetitive conflicts....

  18. Conflict or Consensus?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Poulsen, Birgitte

    forms of institutional design of citizen participation processes, less attention has been paid to the role of public administrators, and their role in facilitating processes of citizen participation. Public administrators have to work with diverse groups of citizens with diverging, and often conflicting......, interests. However, many public administrators have not been adequately exposed to the rationales of conflicts and the skills in resolving conflicts. The aim of this paper is to analyse the different types of conflicts that public administrators experience in formal processes of citizen involvement. Whereas...... as drivers for innovation, provided they are carefully managed. However, we claim that more focus on different types of conflicts and the handling of these conflicts is important in public administration and processes of citizen participation. The paper, thus, aims at connecting the knowledge from vast...

  19. Marite Kallasma - diktorist eetrinägude direktoriks / Tuuli Koch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Koch, Tuuli

    2008-01-01

    Legendaarne telediktor Marite Kallasma pälvis president Toomas Hendrik Ilveselt Valgetähe V klassi teenetemärgi. Praegu on Marite Kallasma eetrinõustaja ja diktorite õpetaja. Vt. samas: teenetemärgi pälvinud kaitseliitlane Janek Tšeljadinov, USA ajaloolane ja ajakirjanik Anne Applebaum, briti ajaloolane Antony Beevor, Portugali president Anibal Cavaco Silva, briti ajaloolane Norman Davies, Narva sümfooniaorkestri looja Anatoli Štšura, Kallaste vanausuliste koguduse esimees Pavel Varunin, Eesti Entsüklopeediakirjastuse kunstiline toimetaja Maie-Hele Segerkrantz

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT MEDIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA G. MIHUT

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available At a time of global economic crisis followed by resource crisis, a period in which the world seeks alternative resources through eco-investment, environmental conflicts are inevitable. Romania is among the few countries that do not pay enough attention to environmental conflicts and to the advantages to of solving them through mediation procedure. The present paper deals with areas in which conflicts can be applied in environmental mediation and its benefits.

  1. Resolving conflicts within organization

    OpenAIRE

    Augulytė, Rūta

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between individuals, whether it would be with colleagues, business partners or supervisors, is inevitable in every organisation. Collaborative work and aim for common goals encourages idea, experience and insight exchange. From time to time differences in opinions might arise, which result in value- related or intellectual clash, also known as a conflict. Therefore, it is paramount to know how to manage conflicts. In order to successfully overcome the conflicts, organisations shou...

  2. Longitudinal relations between constructive and destructive conflict and couples' sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Kelly, Ryan J; Koss, Kalsea J; Rauer, Amy J

    2015-06-01

    We examined longitudinal relations between interpartner constructive (negotiation) and destructive (psychological and physical aggression) conflict strategies and couples' sleep over 1 year. Toward explicating processes of effects, we assessed the intervening role of internalizing symptoms in associations between conflict tactics and couples' sleep. Participants were 135 cohabiting couples (M age = 37 years for women and 39 years for men). The sample included a large representation of couples exposed to economic adversity. Further, 68% were European American and the remainder were primarily African American. At Time 1 (T1), couples reported on their conflict and their mental health (depression, anxiety). At T1 and Time 2, sleep was examined objectively with actigraphs for 7 nights. Three sleep parameters were derived: efficiency, minutes, and latency. Actor-partner interdependence models indicated that husbands' use of constructive conflict forecasted increases in their own sleep efficiency as well as their own and their wives' sleep duration over time. Actor and partner effects emerged, and husbands' and wives' use of destructive conflict strategies generally predicted worsening of some sleep parameters over time. Several mediation and intervening effects were observed for destructive conflict strategies. Some of these relations reveal that destructive conflict is associated with internalizing symptoms, which in turn are associated with some sleep parameters longitudinally. These findings build on a small, albeit growing, literature linking sleep with marital functioning, and illustrate that consideration of relationship processes including constructive conflict holds promise for gaining a better understanding of factors that influence the sleep of men and women. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Three cheers for conflict!

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, D

    1981-01-01

    Conflict is pervasive and an inevitable part of life--at work and elsewhere. But author Dennis King, organizational consultant for The Procter & Gamble Manufacturing Company, adds that it is also a functional part of the social process. Managing conflict on the job involves the ability to identify, seek out, and utilize the functions of conflict and its outcomes. He identifies fifteen functions of conflict in three major categories: maintaining or reinforcing identity and innate strength, increasing operational effectiveness, and dealing with others. For example, conflict can lead to minor clashes that actually strengthen a relationship because they function as safety valves--preventing the buildup of tension to the stage of explosion. (Note, however, that a conflict over the basic foundation of a relationship spells trouble.) Similarly, in the union-management relationship, both negotiations and grievance handling focus on adjusting or eliminating problem elements so that the employer-employee relationship can exist satisfactorily. Recognizing and exploiting the functions of a conflict situation--that is, functional conflict management--can work to our benefit. If we develop a "functional mind-set," looking for the positive aspects of conflict will become natural.

  4. Facilitativeness, conflict, demand for approval, self-esteem, and satisfaction with romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Duncan

    2003-01-01

    This study is an examination of the extent to which satisfaction with a main current romantic relationship is associated with negative conflict, demand for approval, self-esteem, and the 3 facilitative conditions of unconditional regard, empathy, and congruence. One or more of these conditions have been proposed as important determinants of relationship satisfaction by various relationship-enhancement approaches such as behavioral marital therapy and cognitive-behavioral marital therapy. College students (86 women and 58 men) completed S. S. Hendrick's (1988) Relationship Satisfaction Scale, a measure of negative conflict formulated by the author, R. G. Jones's (1969) Demand for Approval Scale (modified for a particular relationship), M. Rosenberg's (1965) Self-Esteem Scale, and a shortened modified version of G. T. Barrett-Lennard's (1964) Relationship Inventory. Relationship satisfaction was most strongly related to the level of regard and empathy, which is consistent with approaches to relationships that emphasize empathy training.

  5. Committees and Conflict: Developing a Conflict Resolution Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Angela

    2002-01-01

    Describes development of conflict-resolution framework to address committee conflict. Describes several conflict-resolution strategies. Matches appropriate strategies with different types of committee conflict. For example, compromise is listed at the appropriate strategy to resolve interpersonal conflict. (Contains 24 references.) (PKP)

  6. Predicting aggression, conciliation, and concurrent rumination in escalating conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, James M; Sheldon, Pavica; Pence, Michelle E; Hatcher, Laura C

    2015-01-01

    Interactions are characterized by opposite motives according to game theory. The purpose of this study was to explore how people judge the probability and advisability of conflict reactions in an unfolding dispute within a married couple using latent growth curve modeling (LGCM). Individuals participated in a study using two videotaped scenarios depicting marital conflict in which a spouse comes home after a long day at work only to criticize his or her partner for violating expectations of a good meal. One situation involved male-initiated conflict and female reactance, whereas another illustrated female-initiated conflict and male reactance. Participants were asked to predict the future reactions based on aggressive tactics (e.g., slapping the partner, insulting the partner) or prosocial and forgiving communication (e.g., apologizing, discussing the issue calmly) as well as the use of online, imagined interaction (II) rumination in which individuals replay arguments in their mind as well as thinking about what to say next during the argument. Results of the LGCM revealed support for various hypotheses in which it was predicted that the husband would be more likely to be conciliatory than the wife, and the wife would be more aggressive than her husband. II rumination was initially expected to increase and be advised before reaching a plateau. Findings are discussed in terms of game theory and II conflict-linkage theory. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. `No One Should Destroy the Forest': Using photo-based vignette interviews to understand Kenyan teachers' views of the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Cassie F.; Miller, Zachary D.; Dogbey, James; Che, S. Megan; Hallo, Jeffrey

    2014-11-01

    In the midst of the current environmental crisis, scientists, academics, authors, and politicians worldwide are urging citizens to create sustainable communities. However, there is little capability to build a sustainable society without an informed, active, and engaged populous. This requires more than just environmentally knowledgeable citizens. It requires a society that understands the principles of the environment and can also exemplify them in daily life. In order to create a more environmentally literate world, there has been a push for environmental education integrated into schools. This qualitative study sought to examine Kenyan teachers' perspectives on the human-nature interaction by conducting vignette focus-group interviews. It is a subject not widely explored but vital for conservation not only in this area, but also other areas that seek to have an ecological informed populous. The vignettes were created using photographs and explanations of the photographs that the participants collected and emailed to the authors. For the focus-group vignette interviews, there were a total of 55 participants (30 females and 25 males). After InVivo analysis, we had 6 codes (resentment, pride, perils, blame, pragmatism, and self-interested) within 3 major themes. This study has implications for informing science education to combat these traditions of subjecting students to a science curriculum that demotes Kenyan cultural heritage and lifestyle. By incorporating local knowledge such as the ideas discussed in this paper into Kenyan science education, Kenyans can reach one of most challenging objectives of education, which is to produce children who are fundamentally aware of their environment.

  8. Agreement among healthcare professionals in ten European countries in diagnosing case-vignettes of surgical-site infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Birgand

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although surgical-site infection (SSI rates are advocated as a major evaluation criterion, the reproducibility of SSI diagnosis is unknown. We assessed agreement in diagnosing SSI among specialists involved in SSI surveillance in Europe. METHODS: Twelve case-vignettes based on suspected SSI were submitted to 100 infection-control physicians (ICPs and 86 surgeons in 10 European countries. Each participant scored eight randomly-assigned case-vignettes on a secure online relational database. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC was used to assess agreement for SSI diagnosis on a 7-point Likert scale and the kappa coefficient to assess agreement for SSI depth on a three-point scale. RESULTS: Intra-specialty agreement for SSI diagnosis ranged across countries and specialties from 0.00 (95%CI, 0.00-0.35 to 0.65 (0.45-0.82. Inter-specialty agreement varied from 0.04 (0.00-0.62 in to 0.55 (0.37-0.74 in Germany. For all countries pooled, intra-specialty agreement was poor for surgeons (0.24, 0.14-0.42 and good for ICPs (0.41, 0.28-0.61. Reading SSI definitions improved agreement among ICPs (0.57 but not surgeons (0.09. Intra-specialty agreement for SSI depth ranged across countries and specialties from 0.05 (0.00-0.10 to 0.50 (0.45-0.55 and was not improved by reading SSI definition. CONCLUSION: Among ICPs and surgeons evaluating case-vignettes of suspected SSI, considerable disagreement occurred regarding the diagnosis, with variations across specialties and countries.

  9. The Marital/Family Life of the Family Theapist: Stressors and Enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetchler, Joseph L.; Piercy, Fred P.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses possible stressors and enhancers of marital and family life for the family therapist. The results are examined in terms of respondents' gender, work setting, theoretical orientation, number of hours worked, income, age, and marital status. (Author/BL)

  10. Longitudinal associations between marital stress and externalizing behavior : Does Parental Sense of Competence Mediate Processes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eldik, W. M.; Prinzie, Peter; Dekovic, M.; de Haan, A.D.

    2017-01-01

    Ecological theories emphasize associations between children and elements within their family system, such as the marital relationship. Within a developmental perspective, we longitudinally examined (a) dynamic associations between marital stress and children’s externalizing behavior, (b) mediation

  11. Longitudinal associations between marital stress and externalizing behavior: Does parental sense of competence mediate processes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eldik, W.M. van; Prinzie, P.; Dekoviç, M.; Haan, A.D. de

    2017-01-01

    Ecological theories emphasize associations between children and elements within their family system, such as the marital relationship. Within a developmental perspective, we longitudinally examined (a) dynamic associations between marital stress and children's externalizing behavior, (b) mediation

  12. The effectiveness of group therapy based on quality of life on marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and mood regulation of Bushehr Male abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yoseph Dehghani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this research was to study the The effectiveness of group therapy based on quality of life on marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and mood regulation of Bushehr Male abusers. Materials and Methods: In this study which was a quasi-experimental pre-test, post-test with control group, the sample group was selected by clustering sampling method from the men who referred to Bushehr addiction treatment clinics that among them a total of 30 patients randomly divided into two experimental and control groups of 15 individuals. The instrument included short version of the Marital Adjustment Questionnaire, Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire and Garnefski Emotional Regulation Scale that was completed by the participants in the pre-test and post-test stages.The experimental group was treated based on group life quality in eight sessions but the control group did not receive any treatment. Multi-variate covariance analysis is used for statistical analysis of data. Results: The results revealed that after intervention there was a significant difference between two groups in terms of marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and emotional regulation variables (P<0/001.The rate of marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and emotional regulation in experimental group compare with control group and it was significantly higher in post-test.  Conclusion: treatment based on quality of life which have formed from combination of positive psychology and cognitive-behavioral approach can increase marital adjustment, marital satisfaction and mood regulation of abusers.

  13. AFRICAN AMERICAN STEPFATHER?STEPCHILD RELATIONSHIPS, MARITAL QUALITY, AND MENTAL HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Bryant, Chalandra M.; Futris, Ted G.; Hicks, Megan R.; Lee, Tae-Kyoung; Oshri, Assaf

    2016-01-01

    This study examined associations between stepfather-stepchild relationship quality, stepfathers? depressive symptoms, and two aspects of marriage: marital quality and positive marital interactions. Marital quality was assessed in terms of commitment, trust, passionate and friendship-based love, and happiness. Marital interactions were assessed in terms of intimacy, shared activities, and verbal communication. Using data collected from 149 recently married African American stepfathers, structu...

  14. Just the Two of Us? How Parents Influence Adult Children’s Marital Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Umberson, Debra

    2010-01-01

    We work from a life-course perspective to explore how relationships with parents affect adult children’s marital quality. We further ask whether the effects of parents on adult children’s marital quality depend on the adult child’s gender, age, marital duration, and childhood family experiences. Growth-curve analysis of national, longitudinal data (Americans’ Changing Lives) indicated that relationships with fathers (n = 336) and mothers (n = 520) differentially affected the marital quality o...

  15. 29 CFR 36.530 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 36.530 Marital or parental status. (a) General. A recipient... household or principal wage earner in such employee's or applicant's family unit. (b) Pregnancy. A recipient...

  16. 10 CFR 1042.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION... Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1042.445 Marital or parental status. (a) Status generally. A... status that treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy and related conditions. (1) A...

  17. Does Marital Status Influence the Parenting Styles Employed by Parents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashiono, Benard Litali; Mwoma, Teresa B.

    2015-01-01

    The current study sought to establish whether parents' marital status, influence their use of specific parenting styles in Kisauni District, Kenya. A correlational research design was employed to carry out this study. Stratified sampling technique was used to select preschools while purposive sampling technique was used to select preschool…

  18. Influence of Spousal Communication on Marital Stability: Implication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is often said that the home is the basic unit of the larger society. Thus when the home is settled, the society is at peace. The main focus of this study was to find out the influence of spousal communication on marital stability: Implications for Conducive Home Environment. A researcher-designed questionnaire titled ...

  19. Grieving Together and Apart: Bereaved Parents' Contradictions of Marital Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toller, Paige W.; Braithwaite, Dawn O.

    2009-01-01

    The researchers adopted relational dialectics theory (Baxter & Montgomery, 1996) to examine the discourse of 37 bereaved parents. Research questions guiding the study were what dialectical contradictions do bereaved parents experience when communicating with their marital partner after their child's death and how do bereaved parents and their…

  20. A Typology of Marital Quality of Enduring Marriages in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Orna; Geron, Yael; Farchi, Alva

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a typology of enduring marriages of Israeli couples married for at least 40 years. Based on the view that marital quality is a multidimensional phenomenon, the typology is derived from a cluster analysis of responses of husbands and wives in 51 couples to the ENRICH scale items. Three types of enduring marriages were found:…

  1. Matrilineal Family Ties and Marital Dissolution in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takyi, Baffour K.; Gyimah, Stephen Obeng

    2007-01-01

    Although previous work has attributed the instability of African marriages to the diffusion of Western norms and values in the region, fewer attempts have been made to empirically assess how Africa's internal institutional structures, such as extended kinship ties, impact marital outcomes. Guided by rational choice and exchange theories, we argue…

  2. Transient Structured Distance as a Maneuver in Marital Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Bernard L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Experience with 73 cases has shown the value of Transient Structured Distance as a maneuver in marriage therapy. While the TSD is a radical form of intervention with risks of anxiety reactions, homosexual panic, or divorce, it has proved effective with difficult forms of acute or chronic marital disharmony. (Author)

  3. The Contribution of Marital Happiness to Global Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Norval D.; Weaver, Charles N.

    1981-01-01

    Data from six U.S. national surveys compared the estimated contributions to global happiness and marital happiness and satisfaction with each of seven aspects of life, ranging from work to friendships. Findings indicated that Americans depend very heavily on their marriages for their psychological well-being. (Author)

  4. Effects Of Emotional Intelligence On Marital Adjustment Of Couples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Couples should be helped to develop emotion management skills. Couples should be taught emotional sensitivity skills. Our educational systems should not only develop learners' Intelligence (IQ) but their Emotional intelligence (EQI) competencies too. Emotional intelligence should form part of the criteria for marital choice ...

  5. Communication in marital homes and work performance among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the influence of communication in marital homes on secondary school teachers work performance in Akwa Ibom State. One research question and one hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. The ex-post facto research design was used in the study. Using stratified random sampling technique, ...

  6. Improving Marital Prediction: A Model and a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Dwight G.; Lucas, Wayne L.

    A model for the prediction of marital adjustment is proposed which presents selected social background factors (e.g., education) and interactive factors (e.g., Bienvenu's Communication scale, Hurvitz' Role Inventory, Dean's Emotional Maturity and Commitment scales, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem scale) in order to account for as much of the variance in…

  7. Racial and Marital Status Differences in Faculty Pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.

    1998-01-01

    Study estimated how pay disparity varied by race, marital status, gender, and field. Results show considerable differences overall, with unexplained wage gaps for racial/ethnic group, dramatic variations between men and women, and further by field. Earnings differences among racial/ethnic categories are not uniform. The return on marriage for men…

  8. Comparing different thinking styles and marital satisfaction among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the present study was to compare different thinking styles and marital satisfaction among engineers of urban and nonurban areas. The design of this study was casual-comparative. The sample population of this study consisted of the engineers who were members of engineers' society of Sari city among ...

  9. The Impact of Marital Separation/Divorce on Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Doris S.

    1978-01-01

    Reports on a study of the impact of marital separation/divorce on children aged 3-17 during the 12-month period following the parental separation. Results suggests that a child's adjustment is directly related to the amount of interparent hostility to which the child has been exposed. (Author)

  10. Marriage, sexuality, and holiness: Aspects of marital ethics in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... an equal and holistic relationship of the marital partners. Simultaneously – and here the Pauline texts extend beyond the borders of their environment – sexual intercourse is valued as an important component of the relationship between husband and wife. Here, the relationship of marriage, including the physical union of ...

  11. The Effects of Occupational Prestige, Marital Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the perceptions of mothers as a function of their marital status, prestige and technological level of their jobs. 320 university students and civil servants participated in the study. Each subject rated a briefly described working woman as a stimulus person on a 24 seven-point bipolar scales that describe ...

  12. The influence of marital factors on genital human papilloma virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To study the association between marital factors and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection of the cervix. Method: The subjects were 450 randomly selected sexually active women attending the antenatal, postnatal, gynaecology and family planning clinics in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the ...

  13. Self-Concept Disconfirmation, Psychological Distress, and Marital Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Robert B.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Uses self-verification and self-discrepancy theories to test a model of subjective and objective self-disconfirmation, self-efficacy, depression, and marital happiness. Expands issues of self-validation by evaluating self-efficacy in the relationship between self-disconfirmation and depression, and the effect of self-concept disconfirmation of…

  14. Marital and Family Characteristics of Workers, March 1973.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This brief report presents and discusses statistics on the marital and family characteristics of workers in 1973 [e.g., nearly 40 million married men and 20 million married women were among the 88 million person labor force, and of the 1.7 million increase in the labor force, three-quarters consisted of married women (34 percent), single men (24…

  15. 15 CFR 8a.530 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marital or parental status. 8a.530 Section 8a.530 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... of seniority and any other benefit or service, and reinstatement, and under any fringe benefit...

  16. 15 CFR 8a.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marital or parental status. 8a.445 Section 8a.445 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... same policies as any other temporary disability with respect to any medical or hospital benefit...

  17. Marital Adjustment to Adult Diabetes: Interpersonal Congruence and Spouse Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrot, Mark; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated adjustment to insulin-treated diabetes among 20 adult patients and spouses. Found illness-related perceptions of patients and spouses were positively correlated and discrepancies decreased with increasing duration of marriage after diagnosis. Marital satisfaction of spouses was negatively related to knowledge about diabetes,…

  18. Combining Marriage and Career: The Professional Adjustment of Marital Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Afroz Haider

    2016-01-01

    In the paper, the researcher attempted to assess Professional Adjustment status and level of teachers according to their marital status on a sample of 792 teachers. Teachers have been classified into two categories viz. married and unmarried. To evaluate the status of professional adjustment of teachers, a tool viz. "Manual on Teachers…

  19. Parental marital status and peer influence as corelates of teenage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effects of parental marital status and peer influence on the occurrence of teenage pregnancy among 324 female teens in south-south, Nigeria. The participants responded to a valid scale. The Pearson correlation and Multiple Regression procedures were used to investigate the predictive capacity of ...

  20. Marital Meaning: Exploring Young Adults' Belief Systems about Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Scott S.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the meaning that the institution of marriage can hold for young, unmarried adults, based on their systems (or collections) of beliefs about marriage. Based on symbolic interactionism, it is argued that marital meaning has implications for how people behave prior to and during marriage that may relate to…

  1. Marital Instability And Depression Among Public Servants In Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to establish the relationship between marital instability as a determinant of depression among public servant in cross river state, Nigeria. The study adopted the ex-post fact design. The sample consisted of 500 (429 males 71 female) public servants who were randomly selected from state ...

  2. Marital Adjustment, Stress and Depression among Working and Non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study is aimed at exploring the relationship between marital adjustment, stress and depression. Sample of the study consisted of 150 working and non-working married women (working married women = 75, non-working married women = 75). Their age ranged between 18 to 50 years. Their education was at ...

  3. Work Identity and Marital Adjustment in Blue-Collar Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaesser, David L.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss

    The expansion theory, which maintains that an individual has unlimited energy to expend in work or marital involvement, and the drain theory, which maintains that an individual's energy for work can be depleted by overcommitment to family, compete with each other in explaining the effect of worklife on the adult male's family relationships. To…

  4. Partner Killing by Men in Cohabiting and Marital Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Todd K.; Mouzos, Jenny

    2005-01-01

    Using a national-level U.S. database, T. K. Shackelford (2001) calculated rates of uxoricide (the murder of a woman by her romantic partner) by relationship type (cohabiting or marital), by ages of the partners, and by the age difference between partners. Women in cohabiting relationships were 9 times more likely to be killed by their partner than…

  5. Marital status is a prognostic factor in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spataro, R; Volanti, P; Lo Coco, D; La Bella, V

    2017-12-01

    Several variables have been linked to a shorter survival in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), for example, female sex, older age, site of disease onset, rapid disease progression, and a relatively short diagnostic delay. With regard to marital status, previous studies suggested that living with a partner might be associated to a longer survival and a higher likelihood to proceed to tracheostomy. Therefore, to further strengthen this hypothesis, we investigated the role of marital status as a prognostic variable in a cohort of ALS patients. We performed a retrospective analysis on 501 consecutive ALS patients for which a complete disease's natural history and clinical/demographic data were available. At diagnosis, 409 patients (81.6%) were married or lived with a stable partner, whereas 92 patients (18.4%) were single/widowed/divorced. In our ALS cohort, being married was associated with a median longer survival (married, 35 months [24-50] vs unmarried, 27 months [18-42]; Pmarried and unmarried patients were significantly different in many clinical and demographic variables, including age at disease onset, gender, body mass index, and number of children. Cox regression analysis showed that age at onset, diagnostic delay, and marital status were independent predictors of survival. In unmarried patients, female sex was also significantly associated with shorter survival. Marital status is a prognostic factor in ALS, and it significantly affects survival. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Marital Values and Factors Associated With Marriage Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambo, Brenda Clanton; And Others

    The breakdown of marriage within American society is a serious problem as evidenced by high divorce rates and numerous separations and family problems. A Marriage Values Questionnaire, developed to determine reasons for marrying and staying married and the impact of religion on marital stability, was completed by 305 subjects, ranging in age from…

  7. Post-partum depression, anxiety and marital satisfaction: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-22

    Mar 22, 2018 ... 1Department of Psychology, ... The first weeks and months postpartum may be associated with emotional upheaval.2 The nursing ... partum depressive symptoms,14,15,16,17 and marital problems ... reported a significant positive association ... satisfaction, and the importance of mental health promotion.

  8. Marital Property Reforms: Implications for Older Farm Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Kathleen K.

    Throughout American history, marital property reform has been a concern of farm women. With most of the farm family's business assets in real estate, women without the right of ownership can find that they have limited wealth and no influence in the distribution of the farm's assets. The National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws…

  9. Marriage Meets the Joneses: Relative Income, Identity, and Marital Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Tara; McLanahan, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of relative income on marriage. Accounting flexibly for absolute income, the ratio between a man's income and a local reference group median is a strong predictor of marital status, but only for low-income men. Relative income affects marriage even among those living with a partner. A 10 percent higher reference…

  10. Developmental Patterns in Marital Satisfaction: Another Look at Covenant Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaris, Alfred; Sanchez, Laura A.; Krivickas, Kristi

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the trajectory of marital satisfaction in the first 7 years between couples in covenant versus standard marriages. The authors analyzed data on 707 Louisiana marriages from the Marriage Matters Panel Survey of Newlywed Couples, 1998-2004, using multivariate longitudinal growth modeling. When the sample was…

  11. Coping strategies for marital stress as reported by lecturers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated coping strategies for marital stress as reported by lecturers of a college of education. Lecturers were stratified into different strata of schools in the college i.e School of Education, Science, Arts and Social Sciences, Vocational Technology and Languages, after which a simple random sampling ...

  12. Sources of marital stress experienced by married people as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated sources of marital stress experienced by married people as perceived by lecturers of College of Education. Respondents were stratified into different strata of gender, age group, educational qualification and number of children, after which simple random sampling technique was used for selecting 20 ...

  13. Women in conflict and indigenous conflict resolution among the Issa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the role of women in conflict and indigenous conflict resolution, and the participation of women in social ... According to the field work investigation, such kinds of conflicts were ...... Narrative Activity and Performance Report, January through ...

  14. Models of Conflict Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-03

    that participants are fully engaged in the conflict. My task has more to do with classification and detection of conflict. In [ Sina et al., 2014] the...characters. In Ninth Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital En- tertainment Conference. [ Sina et al., 2014] Sina , S., Kraus, S., and Rosenfeld

  15. High-Conflict Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Janet R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews available research studies of high-conflict divorce and its effects on children. Factors believed to contribute to high-conflict divorce are explored, and a model of their interrelationships is proposed. Dispute resolution, intervention, and prevention programs are discussed, and implications for social policy are outlined. (SLD)

  16. Climate shocks and conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaioannou, Kostadis J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a historical micro-level analysis of the impact of climate shocks on the incidence of civil conflict in colonial Nigeria (1912-1945). Primary historical sources on court cases, prisoners and homicides are used to capture conflict. To measure climate shocks we use the deviation

  17. Factors associated with teenage marital pregnancy among Bangladeshi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayem, Amir M; Nury, Abu Taher Ms

    2011-05-20

    Teenage pregnancy is a public health concern both in developed and developing world. In Bangladesh, most of the first pregnancies occur immediately after marriage, especially among teenagers. Although women aged 15-29 years are the most fertility contributing women in Bangladesh, studies are not yet conducted on teenage pregnancy within this group of women. In the current study, an attempt had been made to identify the factors affecting teenage marital pregnancy in women aged 15-29 years. A cross sectional survey was carried out in 389 women, selected with a convenience sampling technique. Participants were selected on the basis of two criteria, such as married women and age within 15-29 years. We excluded women aged more than 29 years as we attempted to conduct study within high fertility contributing women and with the assumption that they may provide data subjected to relatively high level of recall bias as marital pregnancy may be a longer past event to them. In the analysis, we applied bi-variate and multi-variate logistic regression technique to find out odds ratio of teenage marital pregnancy. Result revealed that 72.5% of the participants experienced first marital pregnancy during their teenage, with a mean age of 17.88 years (SD = 2.813). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that participants aged 20-24 years had higher likelihood (OR 1.971, 95% CI 1.132 to 3.434), whereas participants aged 25-29 years had lower likelihood (OR 0.054, 95% CI 0.016 to 0.190) of experiencing teenage marital pregnancy compared to participants aged 15-19 years. In addition, participants desired for >2 children had significant higher odds (OR 3.573, 95% CI 1.910 to 6.684) and participants born in urban area had significant lower odds (OR 0.458, 95% CI 0.228 to 0.919) for teenage marital pregnancy. Based on the findings, we conclude that in order to reduce teenage marital pregnancy, consideration should be given on women's desired number of children and birth place

  18. Factors associated with teenage marital pregnancy among Bangladeshi women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nury Abu Taher MS

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teenage pregnancy is a public health concern both in developed and developing world. In Bangladesh, most of the first pregnancies occur immediately after marriage, especially among teenagers. Although women aged 15-29 years are the most fertility contributing women in Bangladesh, studies are not yet conducted on teenage pregnancy within this group of women. In the current study, an attempt had been made to identify the factors affecting teenage marital pregnancy in women aged 15-29 years. Methods A cross sectional survey was carried out in 389 women, selected with a convenience sampling technique. Participants were selected on the basis of two criteria, such as married women and age within 15-29 years. We excluded women aged more than 29 years as we attempted to conduct study within high fertility contributing women and with the assumption that they may provide data subjected to relatively high level of recall bias as marital pregnancy may be a longer past event to them. In the analysis, we applied bi-variate and multi-variate logistic regression technique to find out odds ratio of teenage marital pregnancy. Results Result revealed that 72.5% of the participants experienced first marital pregnancy during their teenage, with a mean age of 17.88 years (SD = 2.813. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that participants aged 20-24 years had higher likelihood (OR 1.971, 95% CI 1.132 to 3.434, whereas participants aged 25-29 years had lower likelihood (OR 0.054, 95% CI 0.016 to 0.190 of experiencing teenage marital pregnancy compared to participants aged 15-19 years. In addition, participants desired for >2 children had significant higher odds (OR 3.573, 95% CI 1.910 to 6.684 and participants born in urban area had significant lower odds (OR 0.458, 95% CI 0.228 to 0.919 for teenage marital pregnancy. Conclusions Based on the findings, we conclude that in order to reduce teenage marital pregnancy, consideration should

  19. Stress in Childhood and Adulthood: Effects on Marital Quality over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberson, Debra; Williams, Kristi; Powers, Daniel A.; Liu, Hui; Needham, Belinda

    2005-01-01

    We work from a stress and life course perspective to consider how stress affects trajectories of change in marital quality over time. Specifically, we ask whether stress is more likely to undermine the quality of marital experiences at different points in the life course. In addition, we ask whether the effects of adult stress on marital quality…

  20. Spillover between Marital Quality and Job Satisfaction: Long-Term Patterns and Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Stacy J.; May Dee C.

    2003-01-01

    Investigated process of spillover between marital quality and job satisfaction among married individuals. Results indicated increases in marital satisfaction were significantly related to increases in job satisfaction, and increases in marital discord were significantly related to declines in job satisfaction. These processes operate similarly for…

  1. 5 CFR 720.901 - Equal opportunity without regard to politics or marital status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal opportunity without regard to politics or marital status. 720.901 Section 720.901 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Regard to Politics or Marital Status § 720.901 Equal opportunity without regard to politics or marital...

  2. Marital and Family Therapy in the Treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Roberta G.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explores marital and family therapy in treatment of Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD), discussing role of family of origin in MPD development and role of nuclear family in its perpetuation. Suggests family and marital interventions, illustrating them with case examples. Proposes involving MPD client in marital or family therapy, in addition to…

  3. Just the Two of Us? How Parents Influence Adult Children's Marital Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Umberson, Debra

    2010-01-01

    We work from a life-course perspective to explore how relationships with parents affect adult children's marital quality. We further ask whether the effects of parents on adult children's marital quality depend on the adult child's gender, age, marital duration, and childhood family experiences. Growth-curve analysis of national, longitudinal data…

  4. Darfur: rainfall and conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevane, Michael; Gray, Leslie

    2008-07-01

    Data on rainfall patterns only weakly corroborate the claim that climate change explains the Darfur conflict that began in 2003 and has claimed more than 200 000 lives and displaced more than two million persons. Rainfall in Darfur did not decline significantly in the years prior to the eruption of major conflict in 2003; rainfall exhibited a flat trend in the thirty years preceding the conflict (1972 2002). The rainfall evidence suggests instead a break around 1971. Rainfall is basically stationary over the pre- and post-1971 sub-periods. The break is larger for the more northerly rainfall stations, and is less noticeable for En Nahud. Rainfall in Darfur did indeed decline, but the decline happened over 30 years before the conflict erupted. Preliminary analysis suggests little merit to the proposition that a structural break several decades earlier is a reasonable predictor of the outbreak of large-scale civil conflict in Africa.

  5. Assessing Psychodynamic Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Joshua; Constantinides, Prometheas; Perry, J Christopher; Drapeau, Martin; Sheptycki, Amanda R

    2015-09-01

    Psychodynamic psychotherapies suggest that symptomatic relief is provided, in part, with the resolution of psychic conflicts. Clinical researchers have used innovative methods to investigate such phenomenon. This article aims to review the literature on quantitative psychodynamic conflict rating scales. An electronic search of the literature was conducted to retrieve quantitative observer-rated scales used to assess conflict noting each measure's theoretical model, information source, and training and clinical experience required. Scales were also examined for levels of reliability and validity. Five quantitative observer-rated conflict scales were identified. Reliability varied from poor to excellent with each measure demonstrating good validity. However a small number of studies and limited links to current conflict theory suggest further clinical research is needed.

  6. Conflict and memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady; Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue on conflict and memory aims to underscore the importance of memory (whether individual and collective) in relation to intergroup conflicts. We argue that the way in which societies reconstruct and bring the past into the present—especially, the historical past......—is crucial when it comes to the study of intergroup conflict dynamics. In this regard, we also highlight the growing importance of memory studies within the area of social sciences as well as the multiple ways of approaching memory. Drawing from this wide theoretical framework, we introduce the articles...... of this issue, eight articles that tackle the role of memory in different conflicts, whether currently under way, in progress of being resolved, in postwar settings, or in contexts conflicts expected to happen do not arise....

  7. Dialectic and conflicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Charlotte; Kousholt, Dorte

    to turn into conflicts and the conflicts have personal and existential meanings to the participant in social practice (related to their possibilities for conducting everyday life) and they are historical and political (related to societal questions about education). We draw on conceptualizations of social......In this paper, we aim to develop a dialectical approach to analyzing social conflicts concerning children’s school life. Public education can be seen as a common cause different parties at the same time are engaged in and conflicting about. We want to discuss this unity between the distribution...... practice as contradictory and developed through its contradictions (Lave, Dreier, Axel). The theoretical discussion will be illustrated through examples from conflicts between children and between parents - in relation to dealing with focus on the tasks of the school as well as flexibility in relation...

  8. Darfur: rainfall and conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevane, Michael; Gray, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Data on rainfall patterns only weakly corroborate the claim that climate change explains the Darfur conflict that began in 2003 and has claimed more than 200 000 lives and displaced more than two million persons. Rainfall in Darfur did not decline significantly in the years prior to the eruption of major conflict in 2003; rainfall exhibited a flat trend in the thirty years preceding the conflict (1972-2002). The rainfall evidence suggests instead a break around 1971. Rainfall is basically stationary over the pre- and post-1971 sub-periods. The break is larger for the more northerly rainfall stations, and is less noticeable for En Nahud. Rainfall in Darfur did indeed decline, but the decline happened over 30 years before the conflict erupted. Preliminary analysis suggests little merit to the proposition that a structural break several decades earlier is a reasonable predictor of the outbreak of large-scale civil conflict in Africa

  9. Conflict in Cyber Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Karsten; Ringsmose, Jens

    Over the past two decades, a new man-made domain of conflict has materialized. Alongside armed conflict in the domains of land, sea, air, and space, hostilities between different types of political actors are now taking place in cyberspace. This volume addresses the challenges posed by cyberspace...... the different scholarly and political positions associated with various key aspects of cyber conflict and seek to answer the following questions: do existing theories provide sufficient answers to the current challenges posed by conflict in cyberspace, and, if not, could alternative approaches be developed......?; how do states and non-state actors make use of cyber-weapons when pursuing strategic and political aims?; and, how does the advent of conflict in cyberspace challenge our established legal framework? By asking important strategic questions on the theoretical, strategic, ethical and legal implications...

  10. Children's adjustment in conflicted marriage and divorce: a decade review of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J B

    2000-08-01

    To review important research of the past decade in divorce, marital conflict, and children's adjustment and to describe newer divorce interventions. Key empirical studies from 1990 to 1999 were surveyed regarding the impact of marital conflict, parental violence, and divorce on the psychological adjustment of children, adolescents, and young adults. Recent studies investigating the impact of divorce on children have found that many of the psychological symptoms seen in children of divorce can be accounted for in the years before divorce. The past decade also has seen a large increase in studies assessing complex variables within the marriage which profoundly affect child and adolescent adjustment, including marital conflict and violence and related parenting behaviors. This newer literature provides provocative and helpful information for forensic and clinical psychiatrists in their work with both married and divorcing families. While children of divorced parents, as a group, have more adjustment problems than do children of never-divorced parents, the view that divorce per se is the major cause of these symptoms must be reconsidered in light of newer research documenting the negative effects of troubled marriages on children.

  11. Social knowledge in children with language impairments: examination of strategies, predicted consequences, and goals in peer conflict situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timler, Geralyn R

    2008-09-01

    This study investigated social knowledge in school-age children, aged 8-12 years, with and without language impairment (LI and TD groups). A hypothetical peer conflict task was administered to examine the relationship among prosocial responses and parent/teacher ratings of children's social behaviours. Stimuli included 12 hypothetical peer conflict vignettes presented in an open-ended and forced choice condition. The LI group generated (open-ended) and selected (forced choice) fewer prosocial strategies. When asked to predict a friend's reaction to a selected conflict resolution strategy, the LI group predicted fewer positive consequences; however, the proportion of prosocial strategies followed by prediction of a positive peer consequence was similar across groups. Both groups identified more self-interest than relationship goals as the rationale for selected strategies. In the LI group, teacher ratings of children's social skills and problems in peer provocation situations were associated with selection of prosocial strategies. Implications for clinical service providers are discussed.

  12. Predictors of mental illness stigma and attitudes among college students: using vignettes from a campus common reading program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeg, Veronica D; Prager, Laura S; Moylan, Lois B; Smith, Kathleen Maurer; Cullinan, Meritta

    2014-09-01

    Research has demonstrated that stigmatizing mentally ill individuals is prevalent and often results in lack of adherence to or avoidance of treatment. The present study sought to examine attitudes of college students regarding mental illness as part of a campus-wide "common readings" program. The book selected was a non-fiction account of a young girl with mental illness and the program was developed to initiate dialogue about young people with mental problems. Faculty from multiple disciplines collaborated on the project. A sample of 309 students completed a web-based survey after reading a vignette about an adolescent girl with mental illness. The vignette description was based on a character in the book selected in the program. The instruments measured attribution of stigma, social distance, and familiarity with people who have mental illness. Results demonstrated that younger students and those who are less familiar with mental illness were more likely to stigmatize and maintain social distance from those who are mentally ill. Awareness of the study findings can assist health professionals and mental health workers to identify interventions that can decrease stigma. Psychiatric mental health nurses are well positioned to lead the education effort aimed at reducing stigmatizing attitudes among the public.

  13. Using Research-Based Interactive Video Vignettes to Enhance Out-of-Class Learning in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Priscilla W.; Willis, Maxine C.; Jackson, David P.; Koenig, Kathleen; Teese, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Ever since the first generalized computer-assisted instruction system (PLATO1) was introduced over 50 years ago, educators have been adding computer-based materials to their classes. Today many textbooks have complete online versions that include video lectures and other supplements. In the past 25 years the web has fueled an explosion of online homework and course management systems, both as blended learning and online courses. Meanwhile, introductory physics instructors have been implementing new approaches to teaching based on the outcomes of Physics Education Research (PER). A common theme of PER-based instruction has been the use of active-learning strategies designed to help students overcome alternative conceptions that they often bring to the study of physics.2 Unfortunately, while classrooms have become more active, online learning typically relies on passive lecture videos or Kahn-style3 tablet drawings. To bring active learning online, the LivePhoto Physics Group has been developing Interactive Video Vignettes (IVVs) that add interactivity and PER-based elements to short presentations. These vignettes incorporate web-based video activities that contain interactive elements and typically require students to make predictions and analyze real-world phenomena.

  14. Conflict between work and nonwork roles of employees in the mining industry: Prevalence and differences between demographic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsie Steyl

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: International researchers have increasingly recognised the interaction between work and nonwork roles as an interesting and important topic. Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of different work–nonwork conflict subscales and differences between demographic groups in work– nonwork conflict. Motivation for the study: Several studies have shown that demographic groups differ in their experiences of the interaction between work and family life. This may also be true of conflict between work and nonwork roles. The prevalence of work–nonwork conflict and nonwork– work conflict is also very important for organisations that may find the results very valuable for developing organisational and individual interventions and performance management in organisations. Research design, approach and method: The researchers chose a random sample of mining employees (n = 245 from a platinum mine in Rustenburg. The researchers used self-developed items similar to items developed in the Work–nonwork Interference Scale of Koekemoer, Mostert and Rothmann (2010 to measure conflict between work and various nonwork roles. The researchers used descriptive statistics, paired-sample t-tests, multivariate analysis of variance and one-way analysis of variance to analyse the data. Main findings: Work–nonwork conflict was more prevalent than nonwork–work conflict. Work–family conflict was more prevalent than work–domestic conflict and work–religion/ spirituality conflict. The researchers found significant differences for marital status and language groups about work–nonwork conflict. Results showed that participants who spoke African languages experienced higher levels of private–work conflict. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations need to recognise the negative interference or conflict between work and nonwork roles for different demographic groups and address the prevalent work

  15. Juror Decision Making in Acquaintance and Marital Rape: The Influence of Clothing, Alcohol, and Preexisting Stereotypical Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Kirsty; Davis, Josh P; Button, Susan; Foster, John

    2018-04-01

    Stereotypical biases about women's roles in intimate relationships including their marital status and lifestyle choices such as clothing and alcohol use influence juror attributions of rape case defendant guilt, potentially reducing access to justice for victims. Across two mock-juror decision-making experiments, participants read identical fictitious sexual assault vignettes varying in intoxicated defendant-complainant relationship (married vs. acquaintance), accompanied by photographs of complainant clothing at the crime (body revealing vs. plain) and in court (smart vs. casual). Experiment 2 additionally described the defendant's alcohol consumption as either under or over the drink drive limit. Most participants delivered guilty verdicts (Experiment 1: 86.7%; Experiment 2: 75.5%), recommending mean prison sentences of 5.04 years in Experiment 1 ( n = 218 students) and 4.33 years in Experiment 2 ( n = 1,086 members of public). In Experiment 1, guilty verdict rates and sentences were significantly higher when the married-but not the acquaintance-complainant dressed smartly rather than casually in court. In Experiment 2, significantly more guilty verdicts were delivered by females (80.3%) than males (66.9%), while sentence lengths were longer in acquaintance ( M = 4.52 years) than married conditions ( M = 4.10). Significant interactions between defendant alcohol use and clothing choice of the married-but not the acquaintance complainant-at the crime also influenced sentencing decisions. Higher scores on additionally administered scales measuring rape myth acceptance and sexist attitudes, but not alcohol expectancies, predicted lenient sentencing decisions in both experiments. These findings highlight how "rape myths" concerning marriages drive juror decisions. Prosecuting lawyers should use these results to better challenge these attitudes in court. Internationally, rape is often unreported to the police, and married victims may be more willing to come forward if

  16. The Role of the Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Schema in Womenn’s Marital Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    جعفر حسني

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the role of emotional intelligence and emotional schema in marital satisfaction among women. A sample of 200 married women (100 employed and 100 household women was selected randomly and completed measures of emotional schemas, emotional intelligence, and marital satisfaction. The results of stepwise regression analysis showed that attention and clarity components of emotional intelligence are significant predictors of most marital satisfaction dimensions. Also, blame, agreement, simplistic view of emotions and higher values towards emotional schemas predicted different dimensions of marital satisfaction. Based on the findings it can be concluded that the emotional intelligence and effective emotional schema play a key role in marital satisfaction.

  17. The NPD team conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Tanev, Stoyan

    2012-01-01

    elaborates on the role of culture diversity and geographical dispersion in NPD team conflict. A simulation is conducted where organizations may be regarded as complex systems to affect the team conflict with a variety of influences. The results firstly indicate that there are two dimensions of NPD team...... conflict: stable and unstable dimensions with four elements: task characteristics, group members’ relationship, cultural diversity and geographical dispersion; secondly, there are two phenomena whereby the geographical dispersion influences the NPD team interaction, and the influence between cultural...

  18. [Reliability and validity of marital love scale in middle- aged and elderly couples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuko; Sagara, Junko

    2012-08-01

    A marital love scale was created to study the marital quality of middle-aged and elderly couples, and the scale's reliability and validity were examined. In this study, 888 middle-aged and elderly married participants completed the marital love scale questionnaire as well as answering questions regarding marriage satisfaction and husband-wife communication. In all age groups, men scored higher than women on the marital love scale. The marital love score gradually increased from the middle-aged to the senior period, and like the marriage satisfaction score, the marital love score showed a U-shaped curve in the whole married life. The results also showed that the scale was highly correlated with marriage satisfaction and spousal self-disclosure. Thus, the validity and internal consistency of the marital love scale were confirmed.

  19. Ecosystemic Complexity Theory of Conflict: Understanding the Fog of Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, Greg; Lassiter, Pamela S.; Hill, Michele B.; Moore, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Counselors often engage in conflict mediation in professional practice. A model for understanding the complex and subtle nature of conflict resolution is presented. The ecosystemic complexity theory of conflict is offered to assist practitioners in navigating the fog of conflict. Theoretical assumptions are discussed with implications for clinical…

  20. Parent-Adolescent Conflicts, Conflict Resolution Types, and Adolescent Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branje, Susan J. T.; van Doorn, Muriel; van der Valk, Inge; Meeus, Wim

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the moderating role of conflict resolution on the association between parent-adolescent conflicts and adolescent problematic adjustment. Participants were 1313 Dutch early and middle adolescents who completed measures on conflict frequency, conflict resolution with parents, and internalizing and externalizing adjustment…