WorldWideScience

Sample records for marine transgressive sands

  1. Holocene marine transgression as interpreted from bathymetry and sand grain size parameters off Gopalpur

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, K.M.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Rao, T.C.S.

    Grain size statistical parameters of the surface sediment samples collected from the innershelf off Gopalpur were calculated using graphic and moment methods. Fine-grained sand present up to 15 m water depth shows symmetrical skewness and good...

  2. Evolution of the Lian River coastal basin in response to Quaternary marine transgressions in Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongjie; Zheng, Zhuo; Chen, Cong; Wang, Mengyuan; Chen, Bishan

    2018-04-01

    The coastal basin deposit in the Lian River plain is among the thickest Quaternary sequences along the southeastern coast of China. The clastic sediment accumulated in a variety of environmental settings including fluvial, channel, estuary/coastal and marine conditions. Detailed investigation of lithofacies, grain-size distributions, magnetic susceptibility, microfossils and chronology of marine core CN01, compared with regional cores, and combined with offshore seismic reflection profiles, has allowed us to correlate the spatial stratigraphy in the inner and outer plain and the seismic units. Grain size distribution analysis of core CN-01 through compositional data analysis and multivariate statistics were applied to clastic sedimentary facies and sedimentary cycles. Results show that these methods are able to derive a robust proxy information for the depositional environment of the Lian River plain. We have also been able to reconstruct deltaic evolution in response to marine transgressions. On the basis of dating results and chronostratigraphy, the estimated age of the onset of deposition in the Lian River coastal plain was more than 260 kyr BP. Three transgressive sedimentary cycles revealed in many regional cores support this age model. Detailed lithological and microfossil studies confirm that three marine (M3, M2 and M1) and three terrestrial (T3, T2 and T1) units can be distinguished. Spatial correlation between the inner plain, outer plain (typical cores characterized by marine transgression cycles) and offshore seismic reflectors reveals coherent sedimentary sequences. Two major boundaries (unconformity and erosion surfaces) can be recognized in the seismic profiles, and these correspond to weathered reddish and/or variegated clay in the study core, suggesting that Quaternary sediment changes on the Lian River plain were largely controlled by sea-level variations and coastline shift during glacial/interglacial cycles.

  3. Stratigraphic condensation of marine transgressive records: Origin of major shell deposits in the Miocene of Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwell, S.M. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

    1989-01-01

    Cyclic stratigraphic sequences in shallow marine records are commonly charaterized by a condensed transgressive lag at the base of thicker, shallowing-upward facies. The standard actualistic model for these thin fossiliferous lags, by which most of the shelf is starved owing to coastal trapping of sediment and fossils are suspected of being reworked because of the association with an erosional ravinement, is contradicted by detailed stratigraphic and taphonomic analysis of Miocene examples in the Maryland coastal plain. The complex internal stratigraphies of the shell deposits and the mixture of soft- and shell-bottom faunas indicate condensation under a regime of dynamic bypassing rather than complete sediment starvation; bypassed fine sediments accumulated in deeper water environments below storm wavebase. Deeper, even more basinward parts of the shelf were starved of all sediment size fractions and accumulated shell-poor, bone-rich condensed deposits that lie mid-cycle (bracketing the time of maximum water depth). The base-of-cycle shell deposits and mid-cycle bone bed differ not only in composition and in environment and dynamics of condensation, but also in chronostratigraphic value: the onlapping shell deposits must be diachronous to some degree, whereas the mid-cycle bone bed approximates an isochronous marker for correlation. Thus, in some settings at least, transgressive shelves present a spatial mosaic of condensational and depositional regimes. Regardless of origin, all condensed intervals can time-average assemblages and telescope biostratigraphic datums. They otherwise differ widely, however, in paleontologic attributes and are characterized by highly variable and complex stratigraphic anatomies.

  4. Efficient management of marine resources in conflict: an empirical study of marine sand mining, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Goun

    2009-10-01

    This article develops a dynamic model of efficient use of exhaustible marine sand resources in the context of marine mining externalities. The classical Hotelling extraction model is applied to sand mining in Ongjin, Korea and extended to include the estimated marginal external costs that mining imposes on marine fisheries. The socially efficient sand extraction plan is compared with the extraction paths suggested by scientific research. If marginal environmental costs are correctly estimated, the developed efficient extraction plan considering the resource rent may increase the social welfare and reduce the conflicts among the marine sand resource users. The empirical results are interpreted with an emphasis on guidelines for coastal resource management policy.

  5. Ecosystem-based design rules for marine sand extraction sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Maarten F.; Borsje, Bas W.; Baptist, Martin J.; Wal, van der Jan Tjalling; Lindeboom, Han J.; Hoekstra, Piet

    2016-01-01

    The demand for marine sand in the Netherlands as well as globally is increasing. Over the last decades, only shallow sand extraction of 2m below the seabed was allowed on the Dutch Continental Shelf (DCS). To guarantee sufficient supply and to decrease the surface area of direct impact, the Dutch

  6. Ecosystem-based design rules for marine sand extraction sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Maarten F.; Borsje, Bas W.; Baptist, Martin J.; van der Wal, Jan Tjalling; Lindeboom, Han J.; Hoekstra, Piet

    2016-01-01

    The demand for marine sand in the Netherlands as well as globally is increasing. Over the last decades, only shallow sand extraction of 2m below the seabed was allowed on the Dutch Continental Shelf (DCS). To guarantee sufficient supply and to decrease the surface area of direct impact, the Dutch

  7. Marine pollution: Let us not forget beach sand

    OpenAIRE

    Galgani, Francois; Ellerbrake, Katrin; Fries, Elke; Goreux, Chantal

    2011-01-01

    Background: Assessing the chemical or bacterial contamination in marine waters and sediments is a very common approach to evaluate marine pollution and associated risks. However, toxicity and organic pollution of beach sands have not yet been considered, except in adjacent waters. In the present study, the toxicity and the chemical contamination of natural beach sands collected 20 m from the shoreline at two sites located on the Mediterranean Sea (Marseille and La Marana, Corsica) were studie...

  8. Evolution of coastal and marine environments during the Holocene transgression. Ría de Vigo (Galicia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, F.; Pérez-Arlucea, M.; Méndez, G.; Francés, G.; Alejo, I.; González, D.; Nombela, M.

    2003-04-01

    Coastal deposits are not prominent in the Ria de Vigo, high cliffs dominate the coast line, but several well-preserved sedimentary areas are observed. Beach and aeolian sand dunes are preserved in protected bays along margins between low cliffs, as Playa America, Patos and Samil. Several rivers form prominent estuaries such as the Verdugo-Oitaven, the Minor and the Lagares. Tidal flats are well preserved in the San Simon embayment and small areas of tidal flats and marshes can be found elsewhere associated with estuaries and protected by sandy spits as the Ramallosa tidal Complex, Moaña and San Simón. Four sedimentary areas were selected to study vertical sediment distribution. 6 cores were obtained. Sediment thicknesses range between 4.0m and 26.0 m. Vertical sediment distributions show 6 different lithologic units from basal fluvial (A), estuarine (B), tidal flat and peat fens (C), muddy subtidal bay (D), estuarine (E) and beach barrier (F). 10 14C age determinations were obtained from the longest core (Ladeira N) located at the Ramallosa beach barrier-lagoon complex. The oldest sample located at 22 m yields an age of 8177 y. BP in unit (B) allowing to constrain most of sediment evolution in the holocene transgressive context. The lower unit (A) composed mainly of fluvial gravels, and deposited in a palaeovalley, is attributed to the Younger Dryas although the LST could be also represented in these deposits. Units B, C and D configure the TST showing an initial rapid increase in water depth at 8177 y. BP and subsequent shallowing conditions due to progressive aggradation until 4809 y BP. Units E and F mark the HST eustatic stage being characterised by progradational shallow marine conditions and beach barrier progressive enclosing of the complex. Sedimentation rates were calculated at 7 intervals. An upward decrease is observed from 8177 y BP to 2001 y. BP, followed by a strong sudden increase, mostly in the last 500 years. Hydrology and geomorphology of river

  9. Age of Fishcreekian transgression

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, K.

    1995-01-01

    The Fishcreekian transgression is one of a sequence of late Cenozoic marine transgressions recognized on the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain. The Fish Creek beds of northern Alaska, which were designated as the type section for this transgression, contain fossils interepreted as Pliocene in age. Analysis of the benthic foraminifers in the Fish Creek beds, however, indicates that deposition occurred in the latest Pliocene and early Pleistocene between 1.7 and 1.2 Ma during a "warm' interval which was characterized by climatic conditions similar to the present or slightly warmer where temperatures shifted within a relatively narow range. -from Author

  10. Mineral Resource Assessment of Marine Sand Resources in Cape- and Ridge-Associated Marine Sand Deposits in Three Tracts, New York and New Jersey, United States Atlantic Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, James D.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Arsenault, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Demand is growing in the United States and worldwide for information about the geology of offshore continental shelf regions, the character of the seafloor, and sediments comprising the seafloor and subbottom. Interest in locating sand bodies or high quality deposits that have potential as sources for beach nourishment and ecosystem restoration is especially great in some regions of the country. The Atlantic coast, particularly New York and New Jersey, has been the focus of these studies for the past 40 years with widely varying results. This study is the first attempt at applying probability statistics to modeling Holocene-age cape-and ridge-associated sand deposits and thus focuses on distinct sand body morphology. This modeling technique may have application for other continental shelf regions that have similar geologic character and late Quaternary sea-level transgression history. An estimated volume of 3.9 billion m3 of marine sand resources is predicted in the cape-and ridge-associated marine sand deposits in three representative regions or tracts on the continental shelf offshore of New York and New Jersey. These estimates are taken from probabilistic distributions of sand resources and are produced using deposit models and Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) techniques. The estimated sand resources presented here are for only three tracts as described below and for Holocene age sand resources contained in cape-and ridge-associated marine sand deposit types within this area. Other areas may qualify as tracts for this deposit type and other deposit types and geologic ages (for example, paleo-stream channels, blanket and outwash deposits, ebb-tide shoals, and lower sea level-stand deltas), which are present on the New Jersey and New York continental shelf area but are not delineated and modeled in this initial evaluation. Admittedly, only a portion of these probable sand resources will ultimately be available and suitable for production, dependent largely on

  11. The transgressive-regressive cycle of the Romualdo Formation (Araripe Basin): Sedimentary archive of the Early Cretaceous marine ingression in the interior of Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio, Michele Andriolli; Quaglio, Fernanda; Warren, Lucas Veríssimo; Simões, Marcello Guimarães; Fürsich, Franz Theodor; Perinotto, José Alexandre J.; Assine, Mario Luis

    2017-08-01

    Geologic events related to the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean deeply influenced the sedimentary record of the Araripe Basin. As consequence, upper stratigraphic units of the basin record a marine ingression in northeastern Brazil during the late Aptian. The timing and stratigraphic architecture of these units are crucial to understand the paleogeography of Gondwana and how the proto-Atlantic Ocean reached interior NE Brazil during the early Cretaceous. This marine ingression is recorded in the Araripe Basin as the Romualdo Formation, characterized by a transgressive-regressive cycle bounded by two regional unconformities. In the eastern part of the basin, the Romualdo depositional sequence comprises coastal alluvial and tide-dominated deposits followed by marine transgressive facies characterized by two fossil-rich intervals: a lower interval of black shales with fossil-rich carbonate concretions (Konservat-Lagerstätten) and an upper level with mollusk-dominated shell beds and shelly limestones. Following the marine ingression, an incomplete regressive succession of marginal-marine facies records the return of continental environments to the basin. The stratigraphic framework based on the correlation of several sections defines a transgressive-regressive cycle with depositional dip towards southeast, decreasing in thickness towards northwest, and with source areas located at the northern side of the basin. The facies-cycle wedge-geometry, together with paleocurrent data, indicates a coastal onlap towards NNW. Therefore, contrary to several paleogeographic scenarios previously proposed, the marine ingression would have reached the western parts of the Araripe Basin from the SSE.

  12. Salinization of aquifers at the regional scale by marine transgression: Time scales and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armandine Les Landes, A.; Davy, P.; Aquilina, L.

    2014-12-01

    Saline fluids with moderate concentrations have been sampled and reported in the Armorican basement at the regional scale (northwestern France). The horizontal and vertical distributions of high chloride concentrations (60-1400mg/L) at the regional scale support the marine origin and provide constraints on the age of these saline fluids. The current distribution of fresh and "saline" groundwater at depth is the result mostly of processes occurring at geological timescales - seawater intrusion processes followed by fresh groundwater flushing -, and only slightly of recent anthropogenic activities. In this study, we focus on seawater intrusion mechanisms in continental aquifers. We argue that one of the most efficient processes in macrotidal environments is the gravity-driven downconing instability below coastal salinized rivers. 2-D numerical experiments have been used to quantify this process according to four main parameter types: (1) the groundwater system permeability, (2) the salinity degree of the river, (3) the river width and slope, and (4) the tidal amplitude. A general expression of the salinity inflow rates have been derived, which has been used to estimate groundwater salinization rates in Brittany, given the geomorphological and environmental characteristics (drainage basin area, river widths and slopes, tidal range, aquifer permeability). We found that downconing below coastal rivers entail very high saline rates, indicating that this process play a major role in the salinization of regional aquifers. This is also likely to be an issue in the context of climate change, where sea-level rise is expected.

  13. TRANSGRESSIVE SEQUENCES ON FORELAND MARGINS: A CASE STUDY OF THE NEOGENE CENTRAL GUADALQUIVIR BASIN, SOUTHERN SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. GABRIEL PENDÓN

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The Guadalquivir foreland basin, located between the Iberian basement northward and the Betic orogen to the South, represents the western sector of the earlier foredeep basin of the Betic Cordillera. Along the northern foreland margin, the sedimentary fill of this basin includes a Tortonian Basal Transgressive Complex (BTC, composed of five internal sequences bounded by transgressive surfaces. Two main parts are distinguished within each sequence: the lower transgressive lag deposits, and the upper stillstand/prograding sediments. Three facies associations were distinguished within this stratigraphic succession along the central sector of this basin margin: unfossiliferous conglomerates and coarse-grained sands (A, fossiliferous conglomerates and coarse-grained sands (B, and yellow medium-coarse-grained fossiliferous sands (C. A fourth facies association (D: blue silty marlstones and shales overlies the BTC. Deposits of alluvial sediments (facies association A and shallow-marine/foreshore sediments (facies association C, were recurrently interrupted by transgressive pulses (facies associations B and C. Every pulse is recorded by an erosional, cemented sandy-conglomerate bar with bivalves (Ostreidae, Isognomon, balanids, gastropods and other marine bioclasts; or their transgressive equivalents. The lateral facies changes in each individual sequence of the BTC are related to: (1 the influence on the northern foreland margin of the tectonic activity of the southern orogenic margin; (2 the palaeorelief formed by irregularities of the substrate which controls the sediment dispersal; and (3 the evolution stages of the sedimentary systems. 

  14. Baseline for beached marine debris on Sand Island, Midway Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribic, Christine; Seba B. Sheavly,; John Klavitter,

    2012-01-01

    Baseline measurements were made of the amount and weight of beached marine debris on Sand Island, Midway Atoll, June 2008–July 2010. On 23 surveys, 32,696 total debris objects (identifiable items and pieces) were collected; total weight was 740.4 kg. Seventy-two percent of the total was pieces; 91% of the pieces were made of plastic materials. Pieces were composed primarily of polyethylene and polypropylene. Identifiable items were 28% of the total; 88% of the identifiable items were in the fishing/aquaculture/shipping-related and beverage/household products-related categories. Identifiable items were lowest during April–August, while pieces were at their lowest during June–August. Sites facing the North Pacific Gyre received the most debris and proportionately more pieces. More debris tended to be found on Sand Island when the Subtropical Convergence Zone was closer to the Atoll. This information can be used for potential mitigation and to understand the impacts of large-scale events such as the 2011 Japanese tsunami.

  15. Dynamic shear stiffness and damping ratio of marine calcareous and siliceous sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javdanian, Hamed; Jafarian, Yaser

    2018-03-01

    Shear stiffness and damping ratio of two marine calcareous and siliceous sands were evaluated through an experimental program. Resonant column and cyclic triaxial experiments were conducted to measure the dynamic properties of the sands in small and large shear strain amplitudes. The tests were conducted under various initial stress-density conditions. The influence of effective confining pressure on the dynamic properties of the sands was assessed and compared in a preceding paper. It was shown that the calcareous sand has higher shear stiffness and lower damping ratio in comparison to the siliceous sand. In this note, the results are presented in more details and the dynamic behavior curves of the studied sands are compared with some available models, mostly developed based on the laboratory data of siliceous sands. This comparative study reveals that the previous models predict the dynamic properties of the calcareous sand in less precision than those of the siliceous sand.

  16. Accommodation space in a high-wave-energy inner-shelf during the Holocene marine transgression: Correlation of onshore and offshore inner-shelf deposits (0–12 ka) in the Columbia River littoral cell system, Washington and Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C. D.; Twichell, D. C.; Roberts, M. C.; Vanderburgh, S.; Hostetler, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    The Columbia River Littoral Cell (CRLC), a high-wave-energy littoral system, extends 160 km alongshore, generally north of the large Columbia River, and 10–15 km in across-shelf distance from paleo-beach backshores to about 50 m present water depths. Onshore drill holes (19 in number and 5–35 m in subsurface depth) and offshore vibracores (33 in number and 1–5 m in subsurface depth) constrain inner-shelf sand grain sizes (sample means 0.13–0.25 mm) and heavy mineral source indicators (> 90% Holocene Columbia River sand) of the inner-shelf facies (≥ 90% fine sand). Stratigraphic correlation of the transgressive ravinement surface in onshore drill holes and in offshore seismic reflection profiles provide age constraints (0–12 ka) on post-ravinement inner-shelf deposits, using paleo-sea level curves and radiocarbon dates. Post-ravinement deposit thickness (1–50 m) and long-term sedimentation rates (0.4–4.4 m ka− 1) are positively correlated to the cross-shelf gradients (0.36–0.63%) of the transgressive ravinement surface. The total post-ravinement fill volume of fine littoral sand (2.48 × 1010 m3) in the inner-shelf represents about 2.07 × 106 m3 year− 1 fine sand accumulation rate during the last 12 ka, or about one third of the estimated middle- to late-Holocene Columbia River bedload or sand discharge (5–6 × 106 m3 year− 1) to the littoral zone. The fine sand accumulation in the inner-shelf represents post-ravinement accommodation space resulting from 1) geometry and depth of the transgressive ravinement surface, 2) post-ravinement sea-level rise, and 3) fine sand dispersal in the inner-shelf by combined high-wave-energy and geostrophic flow/down-welling drift currents during major winter storms.

  17. Transgressive or Instrumental?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemi, Tatiana

    2018-01-01

    Contemporary practices that connect the arts with learning are widespread at all level of educational systems and in organisations, but they include very diverse approaches, multiple methods and background values. Regardless of explicit learning benefits, the arts/learning partnerships bring about...... creativity and the other on practices of arts-integration. My final point rests on the belief that the opposition of transgression and instrumentality is a deceiving perspective on the arts, against the background of the aesthetic plurality and hybridity....

  18. Thermal Transgressions and Phanerozoic Extinctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, T. R.; Kidder, D. L.

    2007-12-01

    A number of significant Phanerozoic extinctions are associated with marine transgressions that were probably driven by rapid ocean warming. The conditions associated with what we call thermal transgressions are extremely stressful to life on Earth. The Earth system setting associated with end-Permian extinction exemplifies an end-member case of our model. The conditions favoring extreme warmth and sea-level increases driven by thermal expansion are also conducive to changes in ocean circulation that foster widespread anoxia and sulfidic subsurface ocean waters. Equable climates are characterized by reduced wind shear and weak surface ocean circulation. Late Permian and Early Triassic thermohaline circulation differs considerably from today's world, with minimal polar sinking and intensified mid-latitude sinking that delivers sulfate from shallow evaporative areas to deeper water where it is reduced to sulfide. Reduced nutrient input to oceans from land at many of the extinction intervals results from diminished silicate weathering and weakened delivery of iron via eolian dust. The falloff in iron-bearing dust leads to minimal nitrate production, weakening food webs and rendering faunas and floras more susceptible to extinction when stressed. Factors such as heat, anoxia, ocean acidification, hypercapnia, and hydrogen sulfide poisoning would significantly affect these biotas. Intervals of tectonic quiescence set up preconditions favoring extinctions. Reductions in chemical silicate weathering lead to carbon dioxide buildup, oxygen drawdown, nutrient depletion, wind and ocean current abatement, long-term global warming, and ocean acidification. The effects of extinction triggers such as large igneous provinces, bolide impacts, and episodes of sudden methane release are more potent against the backdrop of our proposed preconditions. Extinctions that have characteristics we call for in the thermal transgressions include the Early Cambrian Sinsk event, as well as

  19. Sedimentology, geochemistry and rock magnetic properties of beach sands in Galapagos Islands - implications for nesting marine turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cruz, L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Vazquez-Gutierrez, F.; Carranza-Edwards, A.

    2007-12-01

    Marine turtles are well known for their navigation ability in the open ocean and fidelity to nesting beaches. Green turtle adult females migrate from foraging areas to island nesting beaches, traveling hundreds or thousands of kilometers each way. The marine turtle breeding in the Galapagos Islands is the Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas agassisi); fairly common throughout the islands but with nesting sites located at Las Bachas (Santa Cruz), Barahona and Quinta Playa (Isabela), Salinas (Baltra), Gardner Bay (Española) and Bartolomé Islet. In order to characterize and to identify the geochemical signature of nesting marine turtle beaches in Galapagos Islands, sedimentological, geochemical and rock magnetic parameters are used. A total of one hundred and twenty sand samples were collected in four beaches to relate compositional characteristics between equivalent areas, these are: Las Bachas, Salinas, Barahona and Quinta Playa. Grain size is evaluated using laser particle analysis (Model Coulter LS 230). Bulk ICP-MS geochemical analysis is performed, following trace elements are analyzed: Al, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ba, Pb, Fe, Mn, K, Na, Mg, Sr, Ca and Hg; and low-field magnetic susceptibility is measured in all samples at low and high frequencies. Granulometric analysis showed that Barahona and Quinta Playa are characterized for fine grained sands. In contrast, Salinas and Las Bachas exhibit medium to coarse sands. Trace metals concentrations and magnetic susceptibility show different distribution patterns in the beach sands. Calcium is the most abundant element in the samples. In particular, Co, K, and Na show similar concentrations in the four beaches. Las Bachas beach shows highest concentrations of Pb and Hg (maximum values 101.1 and 118.5 mg/kg, respectively), we suggest that the enrichment corresponds to an anthropogenic signal. Salinas beach samples show high concentrations of Fe, V, Cr, Zn, Mn and the highest values of magnetic susceptibility (maximum

  20. Early Pliocene Hiatus in Sand Output by the Colorado River: Evidence From Marine Deposits in the Salton Trough, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, R. J.; Bykerk-Kauffman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Early Pliocene deposits in the western Salton Trough preserve a high-fidelity record of sediment dispersal into the marine realm during initiation and early evolution of the Colorado River (CR). Grain-size fractionation, sediment routing, and transport dynamics of the early CR delta are recorded in sediments of the Fish Creek - Vallecito basin, which was located ~100 km south of Yuma along the transform plate boundary at 5 Ma. Early Pliocene delivery of CR sand to the basin took place in two distinct pulses: (1) deposition of sandy turbidites (Wind Caves Mbr of the Latrania Fm) in a restricted submarine canyon at Split Mt Gorge between ~5.3 and 5.1 Ma; and (2) progradation of a thick, widespread, coarsening-up deltaic sequence of marine mudstone, sandstone, and coquinas (Deguynos Fm) between ~4.8 and 4.2 Ma. Estimated flux of CR sediment during Wind Caves deposition was weak (~3-5 Mt/yr) compared to the long-term average (172±64 Mt/yr). The two pulses of CR sand input are separated by the Coyote Clay (CC, ~5.1-4.8 Ma), a regionally correlable, greenish-yellow-weathering marine claystone unit at the base of the Deguynos Fm. CC gradationally overlies Wind Caves turbidites in the area of the paleocanyon. In contrast, in the Coyote Mts 15-23 km to the south and SE, CC rests on coarse-grained locally-derived late Miocene sedimentary rocks, Alverson volcanics, and metamorphic basement rock along a regional unconformity. Identical claystone facies occur in the NW Indio Hills (restores to Yuma at the mouth of the CR at 5 Ma), and Sierra Cucapa in Mexico (~200 km south of Yuma at 5 Ma). Marine localities outside of the Wind Caves paleocanyon experienced slow to negligible sedimentation along a rugged rocky shoreline until abrupt arrival of CR-derived clay. CC accumulated in a sand-starved, pro-delta marine setting (Winker, 1987) over an inferred N-S distance of ~200 km. We therefore reject an alternate hypothesis that CC accumulated on the muddy slope of the prograding CR

  1. Cellulophaga geojensis sp. nov., a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from marine sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sooyeon; Oh, Ki-Hoon; Lee, Soo-Young; Oh, Tae-Kwang; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2012-06-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, non-flagellated, non-spore-forming, motile (by gliding) bacterial strain, designated M-M6(T), was isolated from marine sand of Geoje island, Korea. Strain M-M6(T) grew optimally at 25 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the presence of 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain M-M6(T) fell within the clade comprising Cellulophaga species, forming a coherent cluster with Cellulophaga lytica ATCC 23178(T) and Cellulophaga fucicola NN015860(T), with which it shared 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 98.1 and 98.2 %, respectively. Sequence similarities between strain M-M6(T) and the type strains of other recognized Cellulophaga species were in the range 92.4-93.8 %. Strain M-M6(T) contained MK-6 as the predominant menaquinone and iso-C(15:0), iso-C(15:1) G, iso-C(17:0) 3-OH, and C(16:1)ω7c and/or iso-C(15:0) 2-OH as the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids detected in strain M-M6(T) and the type strains of C. lytica and C. fucicola were two unidentified lipids, one unidentified aminolipid and one unidentified aminophospholipid. The DNA G+C content of strain M-M6(T) was 35.4 mol%. Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain M-M6(T) and C. lytica JCM 8516(T) and C. fucicola JCM 21778(T) were 33 and 35 %, respectively. Differential phenotypic properties and phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness distinguished strain M-M6(T) from all recognized Cellulophaga species. On the basis of the data presented, strain M-M6(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Cellulophaga, for which the name Cellulophaga geojensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M-M6(T) ( = KCTC 23498(T) = CCUG 60801(T)).

  2. Transgressive Hybrids as Hopeful Monsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittrich-Reed, Dylan R; Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M

    2013-06-01

    The origin of novelty is a critical subject for evolutionary biologists. Early geneticists speculated about the sudden appearance of new species via special macromutations, epitomized by Goldschmidt's infamous "hopeful monster". Although these ideas were easily dismissed by the insights of the Modern Synthesis, a lingering fascination with the possibility of sudden, dramatic change has persisted. Recent work on hybridization and gene exchange suggests an underappreciated mechanism for the sudden appearance of evolutionary novelty that is entirely consistent with the principles of modern population genetics. Genetic recombination in hybrids can produce transgressive phenotypes, "monstrous" phenotypes beyond the range of parental populations. Transgressive phenotypes can be products of epistatic interactions or additive effects of multiple recombined loci. We compare several epistatic and additive models of transgressive segregation in hybrids and find that they are special cases of a general, classic quantitative genetic model. The Dobzhansky-Muller model predicts "hopeless" monsters, sterile and inviable transgressive phenotypes. The Bateson model predicts "hopeful" monsters with fitness greater than either parental population. The complementation model predicts both. Transgressive segregation after hybridization can rapidly produce novel phenotypes by recombining multiple loci simultaneously. Admixed populations will also produce many similar recombinant phenotypes at the same time, increasing the probability that recombinant "hopeful monsters" will establish true-breeding evolutionary lineages. Recombination is not the only (or even most common) process generating evolutionary novelty, but might be the most credible mechanism for sudden appearance of new forms.

  3. Avatar of transgression: Hamsun's Munken Vendt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Buttry

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Knut Hamsun's play Munken Vendt may be considered a compendium of transgression of many kinds. We see in the play sexual transgression, violence, blasphemy, transgression of social rules (theft, opposition to class divisions, as well as the crossing of boundaries. The protagonist can be seen as an anticipation of the French writer Georges Bataille -- the former Catholic turned libertine fascinated with evil. Aesthetic transgression is evident as well: Hamsun transgressed against rules of style and genre in writing his monstrous eight-act verse play. The play is a confused cry of revolt.

  4. Quantifying the effects of European beach grass on aeolian sand transport over the last century: Bodega Marine Reserve, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesmat, R.; Werner, S.; Smith, M. E.; Riedel, T.; Best, R.; Olyarnik, S.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction of European beach grass (Ammophila arenaria) to coastal dune systems of western North America induced significant changes to the transport and storage of sediment, and consequently the nesting habitat of the western snowy plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus). At the Bodega Marine Reserve and Sonoma Coast State Park, Ammophila was introduced within the ~0.5 km2 dune area in the 1920's to limit the flux of sand through Bodega Harbor and agricultural land. To assess the potential impact of restoration efforts (Ammophila removal) on aeolian sediment flux, we measured sediment flux as a function of wind speeds and ground cover, and used these measurements to parameterize a spatial model for historical sand deposition Fine- to coarse-grained lithic to sub-lithic sand is delivered to the Bodega dune system from Salmon Creek beach, the down-shore terminus of a littoral system fed by the 3846 km2 Russian River catchment, several small (Gaffney ridge) at the edge of the planted region. An average accumulation rate of ~4,000 m3/yr is indicated within the study swath by the preserved sediment volumes. Within the modern dune system, unvegetated areas exhibit 2-3 meter wavelength, ~1/2 meter amplitude mega-ripples, and the uppermost 2-10 cm consists of coarse-sand to granule-sized armor layer. In contrast, grain-sizes in vegetated areas are largely vertically homogenous. Open areas are typically 2-8 meters lower than adjacent vegetated areas, and show evidence for net lowering of the land surface (i.e., exposed fence posts, roots). Conversely, vegetated areas appear prone to sediment accumulation, particularly downwind of unvegetated areas. We measured sand transport using 0.5 m high traps deployed at 18 sites throughout the dune field, and used a linear mixed effects model to predict transport rate as a function of wind and ground cover class, taking into account random effects of sampling date and repeated measurements at each site. The analysis indicates up

  5. Transgressive systems tract development and incised-valley fills within a quaternary estuary-shelf system: Virginia inner shelf, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyle, A.M.; Oertel, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    High-frequency Quaternary glacioeustasy resulted in the incision of six moderate- to high-relief fluvial erosion surfaces beneath the Virginia inner shelf and coastal zone along the updip edges of the Atlantic continental margin. Fluvial valleys up to 5 km wide, with up to 37 m of relief and thalweg depths of up to 72 m below modern mean sea level, cut through underlying Pleistocene and Mio-Pliocene strata in response to drops in baselevel on the order of 100 m. Fluvially incised valleys were significantly modified during subsequent marine transgressions as fluvial drainage basins evolved into estuarine embayments (ancestral generations of the Chesapeake Bay). Complex incised-valley fill successions are bounded by, or contain, up to four stacked erosional surfaces (basal fluvial erosion surface, bay ravinement, tidal ravinement, and ebb-flood channel-base diastem) in vertical succession. These surfaces, combined with the transgressive oceanic ravinement that generally caps incised-valley fills, control the lateral and vertical development of intervening seismic facies (depositional systems). Transgressive stratigraphy characterizes the Quaternary section beneath the Virginia inner shelf where six depositional sequences (Sequences I-VI) are identified. Depositional sequences consist primarily of estuarine depositional systems (subjacent to the transgressive oceanic ravinement) and shoreface-shelf depositional systems; highstand systems tract coastal systems are thinly developed. The Quaternary section can be broadly subdivided into two parts. The upper part contains sequences consisting predominantly of inner shelf facies, whereas sequences in the lower part of the section consist predominantly of estuarine facies. Three styles of sequence preservation are identified. Style 1, represented by Sequences VI and V, is characterized by large estuarine systems (ancestral generations of the Chesapeake Bay) that are up to 40 m thick, have hemicylindrical wedge geometries

  6. Lithofacies Attributes of a Transgressive Carbonate System : The Middle Eocence Seeb Formation, Al Khoud Area, Muscat, Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Salad Hersi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Seeb Formation (Middle Eocene is an about 600 m thick transgressive carbonate succession deposited in the Batina and Muscat coastal region of Oman. The formation consists of five informal, but distinct units, and their stacking architecture suggests a deepening-upward, shallow marine depositional setting. Unit I is characterized by cross-bedded, sandy, bioclastic packstones to grainstones deposited in a high energy beach-to-intertidal environment. Unit II consists of indistinctly bedded, nodular, bioclastic (mainly larger foraminifera packstones and wackestones deposited in a logoonal lagoonal environment. Unit III is defined by medium to thickly bedded, bioclastic packestones to grainstones and subordinate, laterally confined conglomerates. Prominent sedimentary structures in Unit III include hummocky and swaly cross-stratificiation, erosional surfaces, dewatering-induced deformations and laterally amalgamating beds. This unit represents sub-tidal sand shoals deposited in a storm-dominated shelf (between the fair-weather wave-base and storm-base. Unit IV is extensively burrowed, nodular, bioclastic wackestone to rudstone which is similar to Unit II in many aspects. Unit IV was deposited on the basinward side of the Unit III sand shoals below the reach of the storm-generated waves and currents. The uppermost Unit V is characterized by poorly-cemented bioclastic (large foraminiferal rudstones with clay and silt-size quartz matrix. Bioclasts are generally intact with no apparent reworking. Deposition of Unit V is also envisaged as a low-energy, outershelf environment.

  7. Water Quality, Weather and Environmental Factors Associated with Fecal Indicator Organism Density in Beach Sand at Two Recreational Marine Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies showing an association between fecal indicator organisms (FIOs and gastrointestinal (GI) illness among beachgoers wit sand contact have important public health implicatons because of the large numbers of people who recreate at beaches and engage in sand contact act...

  8. Forgiveness for transgressions in interpersonal relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mª Beltrán-Morillas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Through forgiveness, people reduce negative responses toward their transgressors, and are more motivated to show positive behaviors instead. Two studies were performed with the aim to approach the phenomenon of forgiveness. The first study, in which 101 university students participated, aimed to examine the differenttypes of transgressions depending on the type of relationship (friendship vs. couple and gender. In thesecond study (n = 201 participants from general population, we studied the influence of gender, emotional, and motivational variables on forgiveness after infidelity betrayal. Results of the first study showed that infidelity is perceived as the most serious transgression. In the second study, results showed that inunfaithful transgression, women perceived the consequences as more serious, felt more negative emotionsand showed greater empathy and dependency than men. Also, empathy in men as well as dependency in women were found to predict revenge, and resulted in less forgiveness. Finally, results showed that in both men and women, the negative affect mediated the relationship between severity of transgression andmotivation to retaliate as a result of infidelity.

  9. Boundary Transgressions: An Issue In Psychotherapeutic Encounter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boundary transgressions tend to be conceptualized on a continuum ranging from boundary crossings to boundary violations. Boundary crossings (e.g. accepting an inexpensive holiday gift from a client, unintentionally encountering a client in public, or attending a client's special event) are described in the literature as ...

  10. Predicting deadline transgressions using event logs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pika, A.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Fidge, C.J.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; Wynn, M.T.; La Rosa, M.; Soffer, P.

    2013-01-01

    Effective risk management is crucial for any organisation. One of its key steps is risk identification, but few tools exist to support this process. Here we present a method for the automatic discovery of a particular type of process-related risk, the danger of deadline transgressions or overruns,

  11. Transgressive Subversions? Female Religious Leaders in Hinduism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper works through the theoretical notion of intertextuality and attempts to deconstruct and read whether such irruptions (and interruptions) into the Hindu tradition are actually transgressive and gendered religious violations, or whether they work instead to discursively and differently perpetuate particular parochial and ...

  12. Controls of tectonics and sediment source locations on along-strike variations in transgressive deposits on the northern California margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, G.A.; Field, M.E.

    2003-01-01

    We identify two surfaces in the shallow subsurface on the Eel River margin offshore northern California, a lowstand erosion surface, likely formed during the last glacial maximum, and an overlying surface likely formed during the most recent transgression of the shoreline. The lowstand erosion surface, which extends from the inner shelf to near the shelfbreak and from the Eel River to Trinidad Head (???80 km), truncates underlying strata on the shelf. Above the surface, inferred transgressive coastal and estuarine sedimentary units separate it from the transgressive surface on the shelf. Early in the transgression, Eel River sediment was likely both transported down the Eel Canyon and dispersed on the slope, allowing transgressive coastal sediment from the smaller Mad River to accumulate in a recognizable deposit on the shelf. The location of coastal Mad River sediment accumulation was controlled by the location of the paleo-Mad River. Throughout the remainder of the transgression, dispersed sediment from the Eel River accumulated an average of 20 m of onlapping shelf deposits. The distribution and thickness of these transgressive marine units was strongly modified by northwest-southeast trending folds. Thick sediment packages accumulated over structural lows in the lowstand surface. The thinnest sediment accumulations (0-10 m) were deposited over structural highs along faults and uplifting anticlines. The Eel margin, an active margin with steep, high sediment-load streams, has developed a thick transgressive systems tract. On this margin sediment accumulates as rapidly as the processes of uplift and downwarp locally create and destroy accommodation space. Sequence stratigraphic models of tectonically active margins should account for variations in accommodation space along margins as well as across them. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Large submarine sand waves and gravel lag substrates on Georges Bank off Atlantic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, B.J.; Valentine, Page C.; Harris, Peter T; Baker, E.K.

    2012-01-01

    Georges Bank is a large, shallow, continental shelf feature offshore of New England and Atlantic Canada. The bank is mantled with a veneer of glacial debris transported during the late Pleistocene from continental areas lying to the north. These sediments were reworked by marine processes during postglacial sea-level transgression and continue to be modified by the modern oceanic regime. The surficial geology of the Canadian portion of the bank is a widespread gravel lag overlain in places by well sorted sand occurring as bedforms. The most widespread bedforms are large, mobile, asymmetrical sand waves up to 19 m in height formed through sediment transport by strong tidal-driven and possibly storm-driven currents. Well-defined curvilinear bedform crests up to 15 km long form a complex bifurcating pattern having an overall southwest–northeast strike, which is normal to the direction of the major axis of the semidiurnal tidal current ellipse. Minor fields of immobile, symmetrical sand waves are situated in bathymetric lows. Rare mobile, asymmetrical barchan dunes are lying on the gravel lag in areas of low sand supply. On Georges Bank, the management of resources and habitats requires an understanding of the distribution of substrate types, their surface dynamics and susceptibility to movement, and their associated fauna.

  14. The Vicissitudes of Corruption : Degeneration - transgression - jouissance

    OpenAIRE

    Lennerfors, Thomas Taro

    2007-01-01

    In a time when corruption is receiving increasing media coverage and when many claim to wage a war on corruption, this book brings up the need for a problematisation and an increased understanding of the different manifestations – the vicissitudes – of corruption and also what measures are taken against it. The book advances the claim that corruption is tightly related to modernity and particularly to a transgression of the public / private dichotomy. It furthermore explores ancient, postmode...

  15. [Transgressive Conducts in the Academic Environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Cabal, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a historical review, from an ethic standpoint, of the national legislation that rules the practice of Medicine in Colombia; ity also refers to the deontological code and the Colombian psychiatric code as well as to the commitment of the Health Faculty of the Universidad del Valle regarding ethical conducts. Ethics is introduced as an original innate faculty, resulting from cognitive development and learning while being also a manifestation of underlying biological processes or a result of the interaction of different models. The teaching-learning process is a situation in which teachers and students get together in order to acquire competences that are to be ethically expressed. Empirical studies have shown transgressive forms of behavior in teachers, students and academic administrators throughout the world; in addition, the mass media expose transgressions committed by other social groups such as politicians, financiers, clergymen, researchers, etc. Firstly proposed as a problem-solving strategy is the acceptance of the very existence of transgressions, followed by the conformation of a committee aimed at principle-identification for, subsequently, undertaking eductional and following-up actions, while administering sanctions when necessary. The proposal for adopting problem-solving strategies for the Faculty of Health of the Universidad del Valle is also presented. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. De la transgression dans les apprentissages : usages et limites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Berchoud

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Transgresser, c’est franchir une limite, une norme, sociale, scolaire, familiale, soit une pluralité de normes et parfois des conflits, par exemple entre nature et culture(s, école et famille. Alors, transgresser, est-ce un moment de l’apprentissage, ou une mise en question, ou encore une condition de celui-ci ? La transgression est l’acte d’un sujet parlant, apprenant : je transgresse pour apprendre, expérimenter, comprendre… soit un projet ; ou je transgresse pour me protéger, me conformer à mon milieu, soit un refus. L’exemple des enfants plurilingues montre comment la transgression d’une norme ou une autre peut être une prise de conscience et un révélateur. Transgression in the learnings: Uses and limits Abstract: To transgress is to go beyond a limit, a rule that can either be social, educational or familial. There is a plurality of norms and sometimes conflicts, for example between nature and culture(s, school and family. Thus is to transgress, a moment of learning, a questioning or a condition of the latter? Transgressing is an act of a speaking learning subject: I transgress to learn experiment and understand. Thus, it is a project. Or I transgress to protect myself, to comply with my environment: then, it is a refusal. The example of multilingual children shows how the transgression of a norm or that of another one can serve as an awareness or an indicator.

  17. Fontainebleau Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    2006-01-01

    The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand.......The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand....

  18. Petroleum source-rock potentials of the cretaceous transgressive-regressive sedimentary sequences of the Cauvery Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Kuldeep; Philip, P. C.; Sridharan, P.; Chopra, V. S.; Rao, Brahmaji; Saha, P. K.

    The present work is an attempt to contribute to knowledge on the petroleum source-rock potentials of the marine claystones and shales of basins associated with passive continental margins where the source-rock developments are known to have been associated with the anoxic events in the Mesozoic era. Data on three key exploratory wells from three major depressions Ariyallur-Pondicherry, Thanjavur and Nagapattinam of the Cauvery Basin are described and discussed. The average total organic carbon contents of the transgressive Pre-Albian-Cinomanian and Coniacian/Santonian claystones/shales range from 1.44 and 1.16%, respectively. The transgressive/regressive Campanian/Maastrichtian claystones contain average total organic carbon varying from 0.62 to 1.19%. The kerogens in all the studied stratigraphic sequences are classified as type-III with Rock-Eval hydrogen indices varying from 30 to 275. The nearness of land masses to the depositional basin and the mainly clastic sedimentation resulted in accumulation and preservation of dominantly type-III kerogens. The Pre-Albian to Cinomanian sequences of peak transgressive zone deposited in deep marine environments have kerogens with a relatively greater proportion of type-II components with likely greater contribution of planktonic organic matters. The global anoxic event associated with the Albian-Cinomanian marine transgression, like in many other parts of the world, has pervaded the Cauvery Basin and favoured development of good source-rocks with type-III kerogens. The Coniacian-Campanian-Maastrichtian transgressive/regressive phase is identified to be relatively of lesser significance for development of good quality source-rocks.

  19. Documenting a modern day transgressive surface in a carbonate ramp setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokier, Stephen; Paul, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The low-angle carbonate ramp geometry of the Abu Dhabi coastline provides an ideal site for studying the effects of marine transgression in a setting analogous to Mesozoic epeiric seas. Supratidal sabkha evaporite precipitation passes offshore, through a broad and complex carbonate-evaporite intertidal environment, into a subtidal carbonate depositional setting. The coast of the mainland is locally isolated from open-marine conditions by a number of peninsulas and islands associated with the east-west trending Great Pearl Bank. This study combined 12 years of fieldwork observations with historical satellite imagery in order to establish multiple lines of evidence for active retrogradation over a 15 km length of coastline in the Abu Dhabi sabkha. Surveyed transects of the sabkha yield an average slope angle of 0.02°. Employing a current estimate of global sea level rise of 3.3 mm/yr, we calculate an expected present-day marine transgression of 7.9 m/yr. The landward and seaward boundaries of the microbial mat facies belt are strongly controlled by the location of the intertidal zone. The seaward limit of the Recent microbial mat belt in the Abu Dhabi Sabkha is currently being buried beneath retrograding lower-intertidal sediments whilst the landward side is simultaneously backstepping over previously-supratidal gypsum-dominated facies. The landward migration of spits and beach ridges was monitored at several locations with rates of retrogradation of up to 28 m per year being recorded locally. The study also identified numerous erosive features that are consistent with an increase in energy regimes. There has been a significant increase in denudation of the microbial mat, causing underlying sediment to be increasingly susceptible to erosion. In the lowermost intertidal zone, erosion of the hardground and other facies is observed. Clasts from the hardground are transported landward onto the surface of the sabkha where they are incorporated within other facies. This

  20. Lithofacies Attributes of a Transgressive Carbonate System : The Middle Eocence Seeb Formation, Al Khoud Area, Muscat, Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Osman Salad Hersi; Abdulrahman AL-Harthy

    2010-01-01

    The Seeb Formation (Middle Eocene) is an about 600 m thick transgressive carbonate succession deposited in the Batina and Muscat coastal region of Oman. The formation consists of five informal, but distinct units, and their stacking architecture suggests a deepening-upward, shallow marine depositional setting. Unit I is characterized by cross-bedded, sandy, bioclastic packstones to grainstones deposited in a high energy beach-to-intertidal environment. Unit II consists of indistinctly bedded,...

  1. AdS solutions through transgression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Kim, Nakwoo

    2008-01-01

    We present new classes of explicit supersymmetric AdS 3 solutions of type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux and AdS 2 solutions of D = 11 supergravity with electric four-form flux. The former are dual to two-dimensional SCFTs with (0,2) supersymmetry and the latter to supersymmetric quantum mechanics with two supercharges. We also investigate more general classes of AdS 3 solutions of type IIB supergravity and AdS 2 solutions of D = 11 supergravity which in addition have non-vanishing three-form flux and magnetic four-form flux, respectively. The construction of these more general solutions makes essential use of the Chern-Simons or 'transgression' terms in the Bianchi identity or the equation of motion of the field strengths in the supergravity theories. We construct infinite new classes of explicit examples and for some of the type IIB solutions determine the central charge of the dual SCFTs. The type IIB solutions with non-vanishing three-form flux that we construct include a two-torus, and after two T-dualities and an S-duality, we obtain new AdS 3 solutions with only the NS fields being non-trivial.

  2. When are transgressing leaders punitively judged? An empirical test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Debra L; Boss, Alan D; Salas, Silvia; Tangirala, Subrahmaniam; Von Glinow, Mary Ann

    2011-03-01

    Using Hollander's (1958) idiosyncrasy credit theory of leadership as the theoretical backdrop, we examined when and why organizational leaders escape punitive evaluation for their organizational transgressions. In a sample of 162 full-time employees, we found that leaders who were perceived to be more able and inspirationally motivating were less punitively evaluated by employees for leader transgressions. These effects were mediated by the leaders' LMX (leader-member exchange) with their employees. Moreover, the tendency of leaders with higher LMX to escape punitive evaluations for their transgressions was stronger when those leaders were more valued within the organization. Finally, employees who punitively evaluated their leaders were more likely to have turnover intentions and to psychologically withdraw from their organization. Theoretical and practical implications associated with relatively understudied leader-transgression dynamics are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Outer Continental Shelf Stratigraphic Development and Sand Resource Potential: Integration of New and Legacy Geologic Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, M.; Harris, S.; Luciano, K. E.; Alexander, C. R., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    glacial maxima and portions of the marine transgression. Further research will be conducted once the surveys are compiled and merged with previous data sets to build a more complete understanding of the paleolandscapes, shelf development, and sand resources in the South Carolina and Georgia OCS.

  4. Verbal priming and taste sensitivity make moral transgressions gross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Rachel S

    2014-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess whether: (a) visceral and moral disgust share a common oral origin (taste); (b) moral transgressions that are also viscerally involving are evaluated accordingly as a function of individual differences in taste sensitivity; (c) verbal priming interacts with taste sensitivity to alter how disgust is experienced in moral transgressions; and (d) whether gender moderates these effects. Standard tests of disgust sensitivity, a questionnaire developed for this research assessing different types of moral transgressions (nonvisceral, implied-visceral, visceral) with the terms "angry" and "grossed-out," and a taste sensitivity test of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) were administered to 102 participants. Results confirmed past findings that the more sensitive to PROP a participant was the more disgusted they were by visceral, but not moral, disgust elicitors. Importantly, the findings newly revealed that taste sensitivity had no bearing on evaluations of moral transgressions, regardless of their visceral nature, when "angry" was the emotion primed. However, when "grossed-out" was primed for evaluating moral violations, the more intense PROP tasted to a participant the more "grossed-out" they were by all transgressions. Women were generally more disgust sensitive and morally condemning than men, but disgust test, transgression type, and priming scale modulated these effects. The present findings support the proposition that moral and visceral disgust do not share a common oral origin, but show that linguistic priming can transform a moral transgression into a viscerally repulsive event and that susceptibility to this priming varies as a function of an individual's sensitivity to the origins of visceral disgust-bitter taste.

  5. Young children will lie to prevent a moral transgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Teresa; Davoodi, Telli; Blake, Peter R

    2018-01-01

    Children believe that it is wrong to tell lies, yet they are willing to lie prosocially to adhere to social norms and to protect a listener's feelings. However, it is not clear whether children will lie instrumentally to intervene on behalf of a third party when a moral transgression is likely to occur. In three studies (N=270), we investigated the conditions under which 5- to 8-year-olds would tell an "interventional lie" in order to misdirect one child who was seeking another child in a park. In Study 1, older children lied more when the seeker intended to steal a toy from another child than when the seeker intended to give cookies to the child. In Study 2, the transgression (stealing) was held constant, but harm to the victim was either emphasized or deemphasized. Children at all ages were more likely to lie to prevent the theft when harm was emphasized. In Study 3, harm to the victim was held constant and the act of taking was described as either theft or a positive action. Children at all ages were more likely to lie when the transgression was emphasized. We conclude that by 5years of age, children are capable of lying to prevent a moral transgression but that this is most likely to occur when both the transgression and the harm to the victim are salient. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Transgression confession: ethics of medical error disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, James W; McCullough, Laurence B

    2013-12-01

    Complications of medicine are like the sand traps in golf courses. They are regrettable, cannot be completely avoided even by the best, and the real skill lies in solving the problems they present. Dr Al Mighty told a resident to ignore a barely elevated temperature in a postoperative patient. "It is nothing worthy of your concern," the Al Mighty said. But, the surgical resident remembered a break in operative sterile technique had occurred, about which she remained concerned. When an area felt mildly edematous, the wound was probed, and pus exuded. The patient asked how this had happened. The resident should respond: Keep her mouth shut.B.Tell the patient that wound infections just happen.C.Tell the patient that a break in sterile technique was responsible.D.Refer the matter to the chief resident for advice.E.Tell the patient to ask the attending surgeon. Copyright © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of improved lacv-30 propeller blade coatings for protection against sand and rain erosion and marine environment corrosion. Final report 4 Jan 1982-4 Mar 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, G.A.

    1983-05-10

    An investigation was conducted of candidate systems offering potential erosion and corrosion protection when applied as coatings to Aluminum 7075 alloy propeller blades used to propel air cushioned vehicles operating in severe environments. This work focused on (1) special hard anodized and (2) hard nickel electroplated coatings as candidate protective systems with sand/rain erosion testing to evaluate their merits. Attributes of the coating systems developed and studied included: For (1) Ways and means to produce and control deposit hardness for optimum erosion resistance, methods of bonding to blades for high integrity adhesion, and inclusion of sacrificial corrosion protection electroplates in the coating systems (zinc and zinc-nickel alloy). For (2) Incorporation of dry film lubricant systems on sealed hardcoats of various anodic coating thicknesses to enhance erosion performance. Study results indicated that anodized coatings did not provide suitable erosion protection to Aluminum 7075 in sand/rain environments, even with dry film lubricant supplemental films. Electroplated hard nickel coatings, Vickers hardnesses in the range of 380 to 440, appeared better for combined sand/rain erosion resistance based on comparisons with prior work. Dilute phosphoric anodizing the aluminum substrates led to excellent bonds and improved corrosion resistance when subsequently plated with ductile nickel from a low pH bath, followed by hard nickel electroplate.

  8. Sand consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spain, H H

    1965-01-21

    In a sand consolidation method in which there is injected a mixture of resin-forming liquids comprising an aryl-hydroxy low molecular weight compound, a water- soluble aldehyde, and a catalyst, an improvement is claimed which comprises diluting the resin-forming liquids with a diluent and with water so that the yield of the resin is sufficient to consolidate the sand particles with the minimum desirable pressure. The diluent may be mutually soluble in water and in the resin-forming liquids, and does not affect the setting time of the polymer. The aldehyde and the aryl-hydroxy compound may be in ratio of 5:1, and the diluent, methyl alcohol, is present in a ratio of 2:1 with reference to the water.

  9. Recognizing, explaining and countering norm transgressive behaviour on social media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padje, E.D.H.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, it is researched how norm transgressive behaviour exhibited on the Dutch domains of social media can be recognized, explained and countered. An analysis of four comment threads is conducted, of which the comments can be found on the Facebook pages of three Dutch news sites and on a

  10. Japanese and American Children's Moral Evaluations of Reporting on Transgressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu Loke, Ivy; Heyman, Gail D.; Itakura, Shoji; Toriyama, Rie; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    American and Japanese children's evaluations of the reporting of peers' transgressions to authority figures were investigated. Seven-, 9-, and 11-year-old children (N = 160) and adults (N = 62) were presented with vignettes and were asked to evaluate the decisions of child observers who reported their friend's either major or relatively minor…

  11. Georges Bataille and the Transgression of Taboos by Stephan Dedalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shataw Naseri

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available James Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is not a pornographic novel like Georges Bataille' Story of the Eye; however, the present study attempts to trace Bataille's heterological notions in A Portrait. This paper attempts to see whether or not Stephan Dedalus as the main character of Joyce's literary work, has the potential to carry Batatille's heterogeneous elements which shatter any religious, linguistic, economic and political system. In order to reach this goal, the paper first attempts to establish the powerful dominance of the Catholic discourse, one of the strictest religious systems in the world, over Ireland which is the main setting of A Portrait. In the next part it will trace the authoritarian shadow of Catholicism and its impression upon Stephen Dedalus. Here, the principal aim is to indicate the significance of Stephen's transgressive acts in the novel and to see whether these transgressions have Bataillean nature as they shatter a very strict religious structure. Afterward, Stephen's transgressions as well as the implicit reaction of the religious system toward these transgressions will be investigated regarding Georges Bataille's heterogeneous notions.

  12. Seven year overview (2007-2013) of ethical transgressions by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethical transgressions of health care providers can generally be clustered into the following three categories: a) Competence and conduct with clients (e.g. abandonment, sexual intimacies, dishonesty, disclosure of information); b) Business practices (e.g. billing, reports, documentation); and c) Professional practice (e.g. ...

  13. Geologic characterization of shelf areas using usSEABED for GIS mapping, modeling processes and assessing marine sand and gravel resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S.J.; Bliss, J.D.; Arsenault, M.A.; Jenkins, C.J.; Goff, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Geologic maps depicting offshore sedimentary features serve many scientific and applied purposes. Such maps have been lacking, but recent computer technology and software offer promise in the capture and display of diverse marine data. Continental margins contain landforms which provide a variety of important functions and contain important sedimentary records. Some shelf areas also contain deposits regarded as potential aggregate resources. Because proper management of coastal and offshore areas is increasingly important, knowledge of the framework geology and marine processes is critical. Especially valuable are comprehensive and integrated digital databases based on high-quality information from original sources. Products of interest are GIS maps containing thematic information, such as sediment character and texture. These products are useful to scientists modeling nearshore and shelf processes as well as planners and managers. The U.S. Geological Survey is leading a national program to gather a variety of extant marine geologic data into the usSEABED database system. This provides centralized, integrated marine geologic data collected over the past 50 years. To date, over 340,000 sediment data points from the U.S. reside in usSEABED, which combines an array of physical data and analytical and descriptive information about the sea floor and are available to the marine community through three USGS data reports for the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific published in 2006, and the project web sites: (http://woodshole.er.usg s.gov/project-pages/aggregates/ and http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/usseabed/)

  14. Tsunami induced transportation of the coastal marine sediments to distant onshore regions: Some indications from foraminiferal and microbenthic studies of new Wandoor region (Andaman & Nicobar)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khare, N.; Chaturvedi, S.K.; Ingole, B.S.

    regions near New Wandoor (Andaman and Nicobar) suggested the areal extent of marine transgression due to tsunami waves on December 26, 2004. There is a need to investigate coastal marine sediments with multi-disciplinary approach to understnd impact...

  15. Children's Moral Evaluations of Reporting the Transgressions of Peers: Age Differences in Evaluations of Tattling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Ivy Chiu; Heyman, Gail D.; Forgie, Julia; McCarthy, Anjanie; Lee, Kang

    2011-01-01

    The way children evaluate the reporting of peers' transgressions to authority figures was investigated. Participants, ages 6-11 years (N = 60), were presented with a series of vignettes, each of which depicted a child who committed either a minor transgression (such as not finishing the vegetables at lunch) or a more serious transgression (such as…

  16. Children's Conceptions of Bullying and Repeated Conventional Transgressions: Moral, Conventional, Structuring and Personal-Choice Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert; Thornberg, Ulrika Birberg; Alamaa, Rebecca; Daud, Noor

    2016-01-01

    This study examined 307 elementary school children's judgements and reasoning about bullying and other repeated transgressions when school rules regulating these transgressions have been removed in hypothetical school situations. As expected, children judged bullying (repeated moral transgressions) as wrong independently of rules and as more wrong…

  17. Translanguaging for Transgressive Praxis: Promoting Critical Literacy in a MultiAge Bilingual Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Sunny Man Chu; Juby-Smith, Bonita; Desbiens, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    bell hooks's (1994) advocacy for teaching to transgress invites educators and students alike to transgress boundaries to strive for ways to know and live fully and deeply as whole human beings. The authors aim to showcase a transgressive attempt in bringing French and English into one multiage (Grades 4-6) classroom, with its two teachers--English…

  18. Mineral sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an outlook of the Australian mineral sand industry and covers the major operators. It is shown that conscious of an environmentally minded public, the Australian miners have led the way in the rehabilitation of mined areas. Moreover the advanced ceramic industry is generating exciting new perspectives for zircon producers and there is a noticeable growth in the electronic market for rare earths, but in long term the success may depend as much on environmental management and communication skills as on mining and processing skills

  19. Topological gravity from a transgression gauge field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino, N.; Perez, A.; Salgado, P.; Valdivia, O.

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that a topological action for gravity in even dimensions can be obtained from a gravity theory whose Lagrangian is given by a transgression form invariant under the Poincare group. The field φ a , which is necessary to construct this type of topological gravity in even dimensions, is identified with the coset field associated with the non-linear realizations of the Poincare group ISO(d-1,1).

  20. Cyborg Dreams in Asian American Transnationality: Transgression, Myth, Simulation, Coalition

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Mary

    2012-01-01

    By deploying a cyberculture theory of cyborg politics in my literary analyses of Asian American literature, I deconstruct Asian American subjectivity through the trope of transnationality. In the Asian American transnational, I locate four prominent traits of Donna Haraway's socialist feminist cyborg: boundary transgression, the recognition and re-scripting of myth, simulations of identity, and coalitions of affinity. By adopting the language of cyberculture, I envision Asian American literat...

  1. Specificity of psychon structure forming the personality of transgressive and protective spouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakowicz Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In terms of psychotransgressionism, personality is a network of five equipollent psychons, the content of which determines the personality’s functioning. The strength and power of the individual psychons underlies the tendency to undertake transgressive actions. In this study, we hypothesized that transgressive spouses are characterized by greater potential strength, greater power of cognitive, instrumental, motivational, emotional, and personal psychons than protective spouses. We operationalized all psychons, created the appropriate research tools, and then studied married couples. Using the Transgression Scale developed by Studenski, we found a group of spouses with higher levels of transgression (transgressive, and a group of spouses with lower levels of transgression (protective. Transgressive wives are characterized by better knowledge about their husbands’ operational sphere, and are more aware of personal beliefs than protective wives. Similarly, transgressive husbands have greater knowledge of their wives’ operational sphere, stronger cognitive needs, and weaker personal needs than protective husbands. Transgressive husbands are characterized by a positive affective shift and have a greater awareness of personal beliefs than protective husbands. The potential brought into interpersonal relationships by transgressive spouses may create a climate conducive to building a satisfying marital relationship.

  2. Gold-bearing fluvial and associated tidal marine sediments of Proterozoic age in the Mporokoso Basin, northern Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews-Speed, C. P.

    1986-07-01

    The structurally defined Mporokoso Basin contains up to 5000 m of continental and marine clastic sediments and minor silicic volcanics which together form the Mporokoso Group. These rocks overlie unconformably a basement of silicic-intermediate igneous rocks and accumulated within the interval 1830-1130 Ma. This sedimentological study was restricted to the eastern end of the basin and was part of an assessment of the potential for palaeoplacer gold in the Mporokoso Group. At the base of the Mporokoso Group, the Mbala Formation consists of 1000-1500 m of purple sandstones and conglomerates deposited in a braided-stream system overlain by 500-1000 m of mature quartz arenites deposited in a tidal marine setting. A general coarsening-upward trend exists within the fluvial sediments. Sandy, distal braided-stream facies passes upwards into more proximal conglomeratic facies. In proximal sections, poorly sorted conglomerates form the top of the coarsening-up sequence which is 500-700 m thick. The overlying fluvial sediments fine upwards. The tidal marine sandstones at the top of the Mbala Formation resulted from reworking of fluvial sediments during a marine transgression. Well-exposed sections with fluvial conglomerates were studied in detail. Individual conglomerate bodies form sheets extending for hundreds of metres downstream and at least one hundred metres across stream, with little sign of deep scouring or channelling. They are generally matrix-supported. The whole fluvial sequence is characterised by a paucity of mud or silt. These conglomerates were deposited by large velocity, sheet flows of water which transported a bed-load of pebbles and sand. Most fine material settling out from suspension was eroded by the next flow. The great lateral and vertical extent and the uniformity of the fluvial sediments suggest that the sediments accumulated over an unconfined alluvial plain and that the tectonic evolution of the source area was relatively continuous and not

  3. Letting people off the hook: when do good deeds excuse transgressions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effron, Daniel A; Monin, Benoît

    2010-12-01

    Three studies examined when and why an actor's prior good deeds make observers more willing to excuse--or license--his or her subsequent, morally dubious behavior. In a pilot study, actors' good deeds made participants more forgiving of the actors' subsequent transgressions. In Study 1, participants only licensed blatant transgressions that were in a different domain than actors' good deeds; blatant transgressions in the same domain appeared hypocritical and suppressed licensing (e.g., fighting adolescent drug use excused sexual harassment, but fighting sexual harassment did not). Study 2 replicated these effects and showed that good deeds made observers license ambiguous transgressions (e.g., behavior that might or might not represent sexual harassment) regardless of whether the good deeds and the transgression were in the same or in a different domain--but only same-domain good deeds did so by changing participants' construal of the transgressions. Discussion integrates two models of why licensing occurs.

  4. Emotional Suppression as a Moderator for the Impact of a Transgression on Consumers’ Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Mantovani; José Carlos Korelo; Paulo Henrique Muller Prado; Tatiane SIlva dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing amount of research about the effects of a seller’s transgression on consumers’ relationship quality evaluation, existing theory still demands more insight into consumer’s capacity to suppress the negative emotions that a transgression might generate. This research proposes that consumers’ are not always equally influenced by a transgression because some individuals demonstrate a higher capacity to suppress the negative emotions that arise from a ...

  5. Emotional Suppression as A Moderator of the Impact of Transgression on Consumers’ Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Mantovani; José Carlos Korelo; Paulo Henrique Muller Prado; Tatiane SIlva dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing amount of research about the effects of a seller’s transgression on consumers’ relationship quality evaluation, existing theory still demands more insight into consumer’s capacity to suppress the negative emotions that a transgression might generate. This research proposes that consumers’ are not always equally influenced by a transgression because some individuals demonstrate a higher capacity to suppress the negative emotions that arise from a ...

  6. Reef community structure, Sand Island, Oahu HI, (NODC Accession 0000177)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These reports provide the results of nine years (1990-98) of an annual quantitative monitoring of shallow marine communities inshore of the Sand Island Ocean...

  7. Emotional Suppression as A Moderator of the Impact of Transgression on Consumers’ Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Mantovani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing amount of research about the effects of a seller’s transgression on consumers’ relationship quality evaluation, existing theory still demands more insight into consumer’s capacity to suppress the negative emotions that a transgression might generate. This research proposes that consumers’ are not always equally influenced by a transgression because some individuals demonstrate a higher capacity to suppress the negative emotions that arise from a seller’s transgression. An experimental study in a controlled virtual bookstore was developed, simulating a real website. Participants were randomly allocated into one of the two conditions: transgression vs. non-transgression scenario. We demonstrate that consumers who are better able to suppress the negative emotions experienced a lower decrease in their satisfaction evaluation of the relationship with the seller after a transgression than those who had a lower negative emotion suppression capacity following the behavior. These results shed light into the boundary conditions of the transgressions in the business to consumer marketing relationship. This research is therefore intended to make contributions to the literature of marketing relationship in a transgression context. 

  8. Miocene transgression in the central and eastern parts of the Sivas Basin (Central Anatolia, Turkey) and the Cenozoic palaeogeographical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, André; Vrielynck, Bruno; Wernli, Roland; Negri, Alessandra; Bassetti, Maria-Angela; Büyükmeriç, Yesim; Özer, Sacit; Guillou, Hervé; Kavak, Kaan S.; Temiz, Haluk; Orszag-Sperber, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    We present here a reappraisal of the tectonic setting, stratigraphy and palaeogeography of the central part of the Sivas Basin from Palaeocene to late Miocene. The Sivas Basin is located in the collision zone between the Pontides (southern Eurasia) and Anatolia (a continental block rifted from Gondwana). The basin overlies ophiolites that were obducted onto Anatolia from Tethys to the north. The Central Anatolian Crystalline Complex (CACC) experienced similar ophiolite obduction during Campanian time, followed by exhumation and thrusting onto previously emplaced units during Maastrichtian time. To the east, crustal extension related to exhumation of the CACC created grabens during the early Tertiary, including the Sivas Basin. The Sivas Basin underwent several tectonic events during Paleogene-Neogene. The basin fill varies, with several sub-basins, each being characterised by a distinctive sequence, especially during Oligocene and Miocene. Evaporite deposition in the central part of the basin during early Oligocene was followed by mid-late Oligocene fluvio-lacustrine deposition. The weight of overlying fluvial sediments triggered salt tectonics and salt diapir formation. Lacustrine layers that are interbedded within the fluviatile sediments have locally yielded charophytes of late Oligocene age. Emergent areas including the pre-existing Sivas Basin and neighbouring areas were then flooded from the east by a shallow sea, giving rise to a range of open-marine sub-basins, coralgal reef barriers and subsiding, restricted-marine sub-basins. Utilising new data from foraminifera, molluscs, corals and nannoplankton, the age of the marine transgression is reassessed as Aquitanian. Specifically, age-diagnostic nannoplankton assemblages of classical type occur at the base of the transgressive sequence. However, classical stratigraphic markers have not been found within the planktic foraminiferal assemblages, even in the open-marine settings. In the restricted-marine sediments

  9. Early Permian transgressive-regressive cycles: Sequence stratigraphic reappraisal of the coal-bearing Barakar Formation, Raniganj Basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Biplab; Bhattacharjee, Joyeeta; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip; Banerjee, Sudipto; Adhikari, Kalyan

    2018-03-01

    The present research is an attempt to assess the Barakar Formation of the Raniganj Gondwana Basin, India, in the frame of fluvio-marine (estuarine) depositional systems using sequence stratigraphic elements. Analysis of predominant facies associations signify deposition in three sub-environments: (i) a river-dominated bay-head delta zone in the inner estuary, with transition from braided fluvial channels (FA-B1) to tide-affected meandering fluvial channels and flood plains (FA-B2) in the basal part of the succession; (ii) a mixed energy central basin zone, which consists of transitional fluvio-tidal channels (FA-B2), tidal flats, associated with tidal channels and bars (FA-B3) in the middle-upper part of the succession; and (iii) a wave-dominated outer estuary (coastal) zone (FA-B4 with FA-B3) in the upper part of the succession. Stacked progradational (P1, P2)-retrogradational (R1, R2) successions attest to one major base level fluctuation, leading to distinct transgressive-regressive (T-R) cycles with development of initial falling stage systems tract (FSST), followed by lowstand systems tract (LST) and successive transgressive systems tracts (TST-1 and TST-2). Shift in the depositional regime from regressive to transgressive estuarine system in the early Permian Barakar Formation is attributed to change in accommodation space caused by mutual interactions of (i) base level fluctuations in response to climatic amelioration and (ii) basinal tectonisms (exhumation/sagging) related to post-glacial isostatic adjustments in the riftogenic Gondwana basins.

  10. Seabed Gradient Controlling Onshore Transport Rates of Surf Sand during Beach Retreat by Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Jun; Yi, Hi-Il

    2018-03-01

    A simple relationship is proposed for the onshore transport rates of surf-zone sand to evaluate the beach retreat caused by sea level rise. It suggests that the preservation potential of surf sand is proportional inversely to the seabed gradient during beach retreat. According to this relationship, the erosional remnants of surf sand would be more readily developed on a gentler shelf collectively as transgressive sand sheets. This finding may explain the previous studies regarding the Korean shelves that proposed that the Holocene transgressive sand sheets (HTSS) occur not in the steep eastern shelf but in the gentle western shelf. In line with such presence/absence of the HTSS are the results from some coastal seismic profiles obtained in the present study. The profiles indicate that sand deposits are restricted within the nearshore in the eastern coast, whereas they are persistently traceable to the offshore HTSS in the western coast. Tide is proven to have a negligible influence on the total duration of surf-zone processes. This study may be useful in predicting the consequences of the beach retreat that takes place worldwide as sea levels rise as a result of global warming.

  11. Less than Optimal Parenting Strategies Predict Maternal Low-Level Depression beyond that of Child Transgressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagace-Seguin, Daniel G.; d'Entremont, Marc-Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between less than optimal parenting styles, child transgressions and maternal depression were examined. It was predicted that variations in parenting styles would predict maternal depression over and above child transgressions. The present study involved approximately 68 children, their mothers and their preschool teachers.…

  12. Mothers' tone of voice depends on the nature of infants' transgressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Audun; Sherlock, Briana R; Campos, Joseph J; Theunissen, Frédéric E

    2014-08-01

    Emotional vocal signals are important ways of communicating norms to young infants. The second year is a period of increase in various forms of child transgressions, but also a period when infants have limited linguistic abilities. Two studies investigated the hypothesis that mothers respond with different vocal emotional tones to 3 types of child transgressions: moral (harming others), prudential (harming oneself), and pragmatic (creating inconvenience, e.g., by spilling) transgressions. We used a combination of naturalistic observation (Study 1) and experimental manipulation (Study 2) to record, code, and analyze maternal vocal responses to child transgressions. Both studies showed that mothers were more likely to use intense, angry vocalizations in response to moral transgressions, fearful vocalizations in response to prudential transgressions, comforting vocalizations in response to pragmatic and prudential transgressions, and (in Study 2) playful vocalizations in response to pragmatic transgressions. Study 1 showed that this differential use of vocal tone is used systematically in everyday life. Study 2 allowed us to standardize the context of the maternal intervention and perform additional acoustical analyses. A combination of principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis applied to pitch and intensity data provided quantitative measures of the differences in vocal responses. These differentiated vocal responses are likely contributors to children's acquisition of norms from early in life.

  13. Forgive them for I have sinned: The relationship between guilt and forgiveness of others’ transgressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordan, Jennifer; Flynn, Francis J.; Cohen, Taya R.

    2015-01-01

    Across four studies, guilt led to forgiveness of others’ transgressions. In Study 1, people prone to experience guilt (but not shame) were also prone to forgive others for past misdeeds. In Study 2, we manipulated harm- and inequity-based guilt; both increased forgiveness of others’ transgressions.

  14. Transgression forms and extensions of Chern-Simons gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Pablo; Olea, Rodrigo; Troncoso, Ricardo; Zanelli, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    A gauge invariant action principle, based on the idea of transgression forms, is proposed. The action extends the Chern-Simons form by the addition of a boundary term that makes the action gauge invariant (and not just quasi-invariant). Interpreting the spacetime manifold as cobordant to another one, the duplication of gauge fields in spacetime is avoided. The advantages of this approach are particularly noticeable for the gravitation theory described by a Chern-Simons lagrangian for the AdS group, in which case the action is regularized and finite for black hole geometries in diverse situations. Black hole thermodynamics is correctly reproduced using either a background field approach or a background-independent setting, even in cases with asymptotically nontrivial topologies. It is shown that the energy found from the thermodynamic analysis agrees with the surface integral obtained by direct application of Noether's theorem

  15. Glauco Mattoso: escrita e transgressão

    OpenAIRE

    Rafaella Lemos dos Reis Sousa

    2010-01-01

    O trabalho consiste em um exame da produção poética de Glauco Mattoso, tendo como horizonte a noção de transgressão e utilizando como corpus sua produção de sonetos e o Jornal Dobrabil. Com uma produção iniciada na década de 1970, o autor é um dos escritores mais prolíficos do cenário literário brasileiro contemporâneo, levantando questões referentes à perversão formal, à crítica do poder autoritário e à criação ficcional da persona autoral por meio da escrita de si. Acreditamos que, por sua ...

  16. Marital Success from the Perspective of Kozielecki’s Transgression Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakowicz Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spouses exhibit two kinds of behaviours: protective and transgressive. Protective acts are those aiming to overcome current problems, leading to preserving some balance. Transgressive acts are deliberately overstepping everyday marital reality and doing new things in new ways. They lead to changing the relation with the hope of improving it, but also create the risk of deterioration. The more transgressive behaviours spouses exhibit, the more chances they have to get to know each other and experience the joy of being part of a union. Transgressive tendencies stem from a network personality structure and consist of five psychons: cognitive, instrumental, motivational, emotional, and personal. The success of a marriage is the effect of a specific form of transgressive behaviours in marriage exhibited by both spouses, which is recognizing difficulties as they appear, finding their sources, and taking steps together to overcome them.

  17. Change in Sediment Provenance Near the Current Estuary of Yellow River Since the Holocene Transgression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sheng; Feng, Xiuli; Li, Guogang; Liu, Xiao; Xiao, Xiao; Feng, Li

    2018-06-01

    Sedimentary sequence and sediment provenance are important factors when it comes to the studies on marine sedimentation. This paper studies grain size distribution, lithological characteristics, major and rare earth elemental compositions, micropaleontological features and 14C ages in order to examine sedimentary sequence and sediment provenance of the core BH6 drilled at the mouth of the Yellow River in Bohai Sea. According to the grain size and the micropaleontological compositions, 4 sedimentary units have been identified. Unit 1 (0-8.08 mbsf) is of the delta sedimentary facies, Unit 2 (8.08-12.08 mbsf) is of the neritic shelf facies, Unit 3 (12.08-23.85 mbsf) is of near-estuary beach-tidal facies, and Unit 4 (23.85 mbsf-) is of the continental lake facies. The deposits from Unit 1 to Unit 3 have been found to be marine strata formed after the Holocene transgression at about 10 ka BP, while Unit 4 is continental lacustrine deposit formed before 10 ka BP. The provenances of core BH6 sediments show properties of the continental crust and vary in different sedimentary periods. For Unit 4 sediments, the source regions are dispersed while the main provenance is not clear, although the parent rock characteristics of a few samples are similar to the Luanhe River sediments. For Unit 3, sediments at 21.1-23.85 mbsf have been mainly transported from the Liaohe River, while sediments above 21.1 mbsf are mainly from the Yellow River and partially from the Liaohe River. For Unit 2, the sediments have been mainly transported from the Yellow River, with a small amount from other rivers. For Unit 1, the provenance is mainly the Yellow River catchment. These results help in better understanding the evolution of the Yellow River Delta.

  18. A Improved Seabed Surface Sand Sampling Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, X.

    2017-12-01

    In marine geology research it is necessary to obtain a suf fcient quantity of seabed surface samples, while also en- suring that the samples are in their original state. Currently,there are a number of seabed surface sampling devices available, but we fnd it is very diffcult to obtain sand samples using these devices, particularly when dealing with fne sand. Machine-controlled seabed surface sampling devices are also available, but generally unable to dive into deeper regions of water. To obtain larger quantities of seabed surface sand samples in their original states, many researchers have tried to improve upon sampling devices,but these efforts have generally produced ambiguous results, in our opinion.To resolve this issue, we have designed an improved andhighly effective seabed surface sand sampling device that incorporates the strengths of a variety of sampling devices. It is capable of diving into deepwater to obtain fne sand samples and is also suited for use in streams, rivers, lakes and seas with varying levels of depth (up to 100 m). This device can be used for geological mapping, underwater prospecting, geological engineering and ecological, environmental studies in both marine and terrestrial waters.

  19. Eastern Scheldt Sand, Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. T; Madsen, E. B.; Schaarup-Jensen, A. L.

    The present data report contains data from 13 drained triaxial tests, performed on two different sand types in the Soil Mechanics Laboratory at Aalborg University in March, 1997. Two tests have been performed on Baskarp Sand No. 15, which has already ken extensively tested in the Soil Mechanics...... Laboratory. The remaining 11 triaxial tests have ben performed on Eastern Scheldt Sand, which is a material not yet investigated at the Soil Mechanics Laboratory. In the first pari of this data report, the characteristics of the two sand types in question will be presented. Next, a description...... will described. In this connection, the procedure for preparation of the soil specimens will be presented, and the actual performance of the tests will be briefly outlined. Finally, the procedure for processing of the measurements from the laboratory in order to obtain usable data will be described. The final...

  20. La sphinx décadente: topos et poetique de la transgression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Revol-Marzouk

    2012-03-01

    Sphinx to topos and the reader to fatigue. It would, however, omit the ultimate transgression committed by the Hellenic Sphinx: transgression of language, of course, by its riddles, obscure and ambivalent, violating the norms of logic and rhetoric. The decadent Sphinx's sexual provocation is thus accompanied by a textual innovation at all levels, leading the reader in a constant game of poetic transgressions that are as destabilizing as they are seductive. Behind the erotic revival of mystery, a new and unexpected type of language develops that is capable of re-enchanting reality, and with it, all literature.

  1. Online processing of moral transgressions: ERP evidence for spontaneous evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuthold, Hartmut; Kunkel, Angelika; Mackenzie, Ian G; Filik, Ruth

    2015-08-01

    Experimental studies using fictional moral dilemmas indicate that both automatic emotional processes and controlled cognitive processes contribute to moral judgments. However, not much is known about how people process socio-normative violations that are more common to their everyday life nor the time-course of these processes. Thus, we recorded participants' electrical brain activity while they were reading vignettes that either contained morally acceptable vs unacceptable information or text materials that contained information which was either consistent or inconsistent with their general world knowledge. A first event-related brain potential (ERP) positivity peaking at ∼200 ms after critical word onset (P200) was larger when this word involved a socio-normative or knowledge-based violation. Subsequently, knowledge-inconsistent words triggered a larger centroparietal ERP negativity at ∼320 ms (N400), indicating an influence on meaning construction. In contrast, a larger ERP positivity (larger late positivity), which also started at ∼320 ms after critical word onset, was elicited by morally unacceptable compared with acceptable words. We take this ERP positivity to reflect an implicit evaluative (good-bad) categorization process that is engaged during the online processing of moral transgressions. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Gender, Humour and Transgression in Canadian Women’s Theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisner Natalie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Are humour and laughter gender-specific? The simple answer, like most everything that is ideological, is “yes”. Many feminists in recent years have grappled with the question of humour and how it is often the site of much contestation when it comes to women using it as a tool of transgression. This paper probes the seemingly timeless antipathy between humour and representations of femininity through recourse to performance and theories of the body. This article holds the term “woman” up to scrutiny while simultaneously examining the persistence of both critical and philosophical recalcitrance and the way humour continues to function in both gendered and violent ways. How does gender “do” or “undo” humour? Laughter is no simple matter for women, due to the legacy of profoundly polarized and hyper-sexualized historical ambivalence between femininity and laughter. Acknowledging the problematic nature of the category “woman”, and after clearing some terminological distinctions (comedy, humour, irony, satire, and parody, this article investigates humour’s complicated and volatile relationship to gender and the way the laughing body of women on stage presents a fascinating double helix of sexual aggression and power

  3. Représentations de la transgression dans les littératures d'Afrique subsaharienne Images of Transgression in Subsaharian African Literatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Mouralis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La transgression est sans doute constitutive de toute littérature, mais, dans le cas des littératures de l’Afrique subsaharienne, sa représentation apparaît selon deux modalités principales. D’un côté, la transgression de lois, d’usages et d’interdits à l’intérieur de la société pré-coloniale, qui sera illustrée par une analyse du conte de Birago Diop, Petit-mari et du roman de Chinua Achebe, Things Fall Apart ; de l’autre, la transgression, dans le cadre de la situation coloniale, de lois ou d’interdits édictés par le colonisateur, comme on le verra à partir de quelques exemples empruntés aux romans de Mongo Beti et de F. Oyono. On constatera par ailleurs que la transgression qui s’opère dans le contexte colonial est parfois plus difficile à repérer qu’on ne peut le penser de prime abord, dans la mesure où elle ne s’opère pas nécessairement de manière frontale, puisqu’elle utilise les failles, les interstices ou les contradictions du système de domination mis en place. C’est dans cette perspective qu’il faut situer les nombreuses œuvres retraçant le parcours effectué par un sujet africain pour s ‘approprier le savoir que lui refuse le colonisateur : L’enfant noir de Camara Laye, Tell Freedom de Peter Abrahams, Down Second Avenue de Mphahlele, Amkoullel l’enfant peul de Hampâté Bâ. - Au terme de l’exposé, on tentera de préciser si les littératures africaines constituent un cas spécifique dans cette représentation de la transgression ou si, au contraire, elles s’inscrivent dans un processus général que l’on retrouve dans n’importe quelle littérature.Transgression is the central phenomenon in any literature. But, in African literature, writers actually describe two kinds of transgression. On the one hand, transgression of taboos, uses and laws inside the pre-colonial societies, as we can observe, for instance, in Birago Diop’s tale Petit-mari or in Chinua Achebe

  4. Let it go: Relationship autonomy predicts pro-relationship responses to partner transgressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, Benjamin W; Baker, Zachary G; Knee, C Raymond

    2017-11-24

    The purpose of the present research is to better understand how relationship autonomy-having more self-determined reasons for being committed to a relationship-contributes to pro-relationship responses to transgressions in romantic relationships (e.g., forgiveness and accommodation). Study 1 employed a cross-sectional design (N = 350) and Study 2 used a weekly diary (N = 121) to test associations between relationship autonomy and pro-relationship responses to transgressions. Studies 3 and 4 utilized dyadic designs (Study 3: N = 200 couples, 400 individuals; Study 4: N = 275 couples, 550 individuals) to determine how both partners' relationship autonomy is associated with pro-relationship responses. Results revealed that relationship autonomy is robustly associated with pro-relationship responses to transgressions, both as general tendencies and as responses to idiosyncratic transgressions. Results of actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) analyses in Studies 3 and 4 provide evidence that one's partner's relationship autonomy is important for promoting pro-relationship responses as well. Study 4 also found that people perceive that partners respond better to transgressions if their partner is high in relationship autonomy. This research provides consistent and compelling evidence that the degree of self-determination underlying commitment is important for understanding how people respond to transgressions in their relationships, beyond their current levels of commitment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A double standard when group members behave badly: transgression credit to ingroup leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Dominic; Randsley de Moura, Georgina; Travaglino, Giovanni A

    2013-11-01

    This research tested the hypothesis that people forgive serious transgressions by ingroup leaders but not by other group members or outgroup leaders. They apply a double standard in judgments of ingroup leaders. A series of studies (N = 623), using an array of different ingroups and outgroups, tested how group members judged ingroup or outgroup leaders and nonleaders who unexpectedly transgressed or did not transgress in important intergroup scenarios. Experiments 1, 2, and 4 focused on captains and players in either soccer or netball sports competitions. Across studies, transgressive captains of ingroup teams were evaluated more favorably than captains from outgroup teams and (Experiments 1, 2, and 4) more favorably than transgressive ingroup players. Experiment 3 demonstrated the double standard in a minimal group paradigm. Experiment 5 showed that the double standard is only applied if the leader is perceived as serving the group's interest. Across studies, the double standard is evident in evaluations toward, inclusion and punishment of, and rewards to the transgressive targets. Implications for sport, politics, and business and intergroup conflict are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Influence green sand system by core sand additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Špirutová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this contribution is: “How the green sand systems are influenced by core sands?”This effect is considered by determination of selected technological properties and degree of green sand system re-bonding. From the studies, which have been published yet, there is not consistent opinion on influence of core sand dilution on green sand system properties. In order to simulation of the effect of core sands on the technological properties of green sands, there were applied the most common used technologies of cores production, which are based on bonding with phenolic resin. Core sand concentration added to green sand system, was up to 50 %. Influence of core sand dilution on basic properties of green sand systems was determined by evaluation of basic industrial properties: moisture, green compression strength and splitting strength, wet tensile strength, mixture stability against staling and physical-chemistry properties (pH, conductivity, and loss of ignition. Ratio of active betonite by Methylene blue test was also determined.

  7. Singing Sand Dunes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ble low-frequency (s. 75–105 Hz), that can some- times be heard up to 10 km away. Scientific in- vestigations suggest that the sustained low fre- quency sound of sand dunes that resembles a pure note from a musical instrument, is due to the synchronized motion of well-sorted dry sand grains when they spontaneously ...

  8. New generation expandable sand screens

    OpenAIRE

    Syltøy, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering This thesis aims to give a general insight into sand control and various sorts of sand control measures and applications of sand control tools. Special focus will be given to expandable sand screens – a technology which came about in the late 1990’s through the use of flexible, expandable tubulars as base pipe in sand screens. More specifically Darcy’s Hydraulic Endurance Screens, a compliant sand screen system using hydraulic activation, and the fu...

  9. Literatura e transgressão: Sade, Masoch e Bataille

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Lopes Pedro

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Cet article a l'intention de mettre en rapport Littérature et Transgression, à travers l’analyse de trois des auteurs considérés « libertins » : Sade, Masoch et Bataille. Les romans de Sade sont des romans érotiques, écrits pour satisfaire son immense excitation sexuelle et la partager éventuellement avec quelqu’un d’autre. Sade nous présente ses héros à titre d'exemples, mais il faut de remarquer qu' il les qualifie toujours de pervers, vauriens, monstres. Les sinistres orgies de Sade sont des cauchemars, donc l'imaginable peut être admiré, à cause de son intensité d'expression, tant que le réalisable correspondant serait désapprouvé. Néanmoins, les tendance à traiter des sévices sexuels, en prétendant que les patients aussi bien que les agents sentaient une satisfaction spéciale à cela, a pris un sens entièrement nouveau avec Leopold de Sacher-Masoch, un homme énigmatique qui ne menait à bien l'acte sexuel qu’à condition d'être frappé et humilié par la femme que il désirait. Bataille est l'auteur qui présente un sens noir de l'érotique, de ses dangers de séduction et d'humiliation. Dans son oeuvre, Histoire de l'Oeil, il se produit un violent processus de dépersonnalisation, les traits qui distinguent le visage s'effacent et il ne reste que des organes livrés à la convulsion interne de la chair, opérant dans un corps qui renonce à la médiation de l'esprit. Dans cette oeuvre, le sujet de la pornographie n'est pas le sexe, mais le décès.

  10. Sand waves on an epicontinental shelf: Northern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, M.E.; Nelson, C.H.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    Sand waves and current ripples occupy the crests and flanks of a series of large linear sand ridges (20 km ?? 5 km ?? 10 m high) lying in an open-marine setting in the northern Bering Sea. The sand wave area, which lies west of Seward Peninsula and southeast of Bering Strait, is exposed to the strong continuous flow of coastal water northward toward Bering Strait. A hierarchy of three sizes of superimposed bedforms, all facing northward, was observed in successive cruises in 1976 and 1977. Large sand waves (height 2 m; spacing 200 m) have smaller sand waves (height 1 m; spacing 20 m) lying at a small oblique angle on their stoss slopes. The smaller sand waves in turn have linguoid ripples on their stoss slopes. Repeated studies of the sand wave fields were made both years with high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, side-scan sonographs, underwater photographs, current-meter stations, vibracores, and suspended-sediment samplers. Comparison of seismic and side-scan data collected along profile lines run both years showed changes in sand wave shape that indicate significant bedload transport within the year. Gouge marks made in sediment by keels of floating ice also showed significantly different patterns each year, further documenting modification to the bottom by sediment transport. During calm sea conditions in 1977, underwater video and camera observations showed formation and active migration of linguoid and straight-crested current ripples. Current speeds 1 m above the bottom were between 20 and 30 cm/s. Maximum current velocities and sand wave migration apparently occur when strong southwesterly winds enhance the steady northerly flow of coastal water. Many cross-stratified sand bodies in the geologic record are interpreted as having formed in a tidal- or storm-dominated setting. This study provides an example of formation and migration of large bedforms by the interaction of storms with strong uniform coastal currents in an open-marine setting. ?? 1981.

  11. Relationships between sand and water quality at recreational beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Matthew C; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M; Piggot, Alan M; Klaus, James S; Zhang, Yifan

    2011-12-15

    Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach sands although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal sands consistently had significantly higher (p sand) than the other two zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal sand correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (r(s) = 0.73). The average sand enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to sand samplings (r(s) = 0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after sand samplings (r(s) = 0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and sands throughout South Florida's beaches and suggest that the sands are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the sand had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of sand enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach sand quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Scour at Vertical Piles in Sand-Clay Mixtures under Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dey, Subhasish; Helkjær, Anders; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2011-01-01

    Marine sediments often contain sand-clay mixtures in widely varying proportions. This study presents the results of equilibrium scour and time variation of scour depths at circular piles embedded vertically in clay alone and sand-clay mixed beds under waves. Experiments were conducted in a wave...... flume with different proportions of sand-clay mixtures as bed sediments. Test results for the cases of steady current and sand alone under waves are used as references. The equilibrium scour depth reduces with an increase in clay proportion n (by weight) in a sand-clay mixture. Interestingly, the scour...

  13. An artificial intelligence framework for compensating transgressions and its application to diet management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselma, Luca; Mazzei, Alessandro; De Michieli, Franco

    2017-04-01

    Today, there is considerable interest in personal healthcare. The pervasiveness of technology allows to precisely track human behavior; however, when dealing with the development of an intelligent assistant exploiting data acquired through such technologies, a critical issue has to be taken into account; namely, that of supporting the user in the event of any transgression with respect to the optimal behavior. In this paper we present a reasoning framework based on Simple Temporal Problems that can be applied to a general class of problems, which we called cake&carrot problems, to support reasoning in presence of human transgression. The reasoning framework offers a number of facilities to ensure a smart management of possible "wrong behaviors" by a user to reach the goals defined by the problem. This paper describes the framework by means of the prototypical use case of diet domain. Indeed, following a healthy diet can be a difficult task for both practical and psychological reasons and dietary transgressions are hard to avoid. Therefore, the framework is tolerant to dietary transgressions and adapts the following meals to facilitate users in recovering from such transgressions. Finally, through a simulation involving a real hospital menu, we show that the framework can effectively achieve good results in a realistic scenario. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sand and Gravel Deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a statewide polygon coverage of sand, gravel, and stone resources. This database includes the best data available from the VT Agency of Natural...

  15. Sand and Gravel Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes sand and gravel operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  16. Retorting of bituminous sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaney, P E; Ince, R W; Mason, C M

    1872-09-26

    This method of recovering oil from mined tar sands involves forming compacted tar sands pieces by special conditioning treatment that provides low internal permeability. The compacted pieces are then retorted in fixed bed form. The conditioning treatment can involve rolling of preformed pellets, compaction in a mold or pressure extrusion. Substantial collapsing of the bed during retorting is avoided. (9 claims) (Abstract only - original article not available from T.U.)

  17. Coastal geology and recent origins for Sand Point, Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Timothy G.; Krantz, David E.; Castaneda, Mario R.; Loope, Walter L.; Jol, Harry M.; Goble, Ronald J.; Higley, Melinda C.; DeWald, Samantha; Hansen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Sand Point is a small cuspate foreland located along the southeastern shore of Lake Superior within Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore near Munising, Michigan. Park managers’ concerns for the integrity of historic buildings at the northern periphery of the point during the rising lake levels in the mid-1980s greatly elevated the priority of research into the geomorphic history and age of Sand Point. To pursue this priority, we recovered sediment cores from four ponds on Sand Point, assessed subsurface stratigraphy onshore and offshore using geophysical techniques, and interpreted the chronology of events using radiocarbon and luminescence dating. Sand Point formed at the southwest edge of a subaqueous platform whose base is probably constructed of glacial diamicton and outwash. During the post-glacial Nipissing Transgression, the base was mantled with sand derived from erosion of adjacent sandstone cliffs. An aerial photograph time sequence, 1939–present, shows that the periphery of the platform has evolved considerably during historical time, infl uenced by transport of sediment into adjacent South Bay. Shallow seismic refl ections suggest slump blocks along the leading edge of the platform. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) and shallow seismic refl ections to the northwest of the platform reveal large sand waves within a deep (12 m) channel produced by currents fl owing episodically to the northeast into Lake Superior. Ground-penetrating radar profi les show transport and deposition of sand across the upper surface of the platform. Basal radiocarbon dates from ponds between subaerial beach ridges range in age from 540 to 910 cal yr B.P., suggesting that Sand Point became emergent during the last ~1000 years, upon the separation of Lake Superior from Lakes Huron and Michigan. However, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from the beach ridges were two to three times as old as the radiocarbon ages, implying that emergence of Sand Point may have begun

  18. Transgressive Shoreface Response in the Mississippi River DeltaShoreface Sediment Budget Influence on Barrier Island Evolution, Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, B.; Georgiou, I. Y.; Miner, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    In Louisiana barrier islands are undergoing rapid morphological change due to shoreface retreat and increasing bay tidal prism driven by high rates of relative sea-level rise (RSLR) (1 cm/yr) and interior wetland loss, respectively. Previous works utilized historical region-scale bathymetry change and shoreline change analyses to assess large-scale coastal evolution. However, more localized assessments considering the role of sediment transport processes in regional evolution are lacking. This is essential to predicting coastal change trajectories and allocating limited sand resources for nourishment. Using historic bathymetric and shoreline data dating to the 1890s for the Louisiana coast, 100-m spaced shore-normal transects were created to track meter-scale elevation change for 1890, 1930, 1980, 2006, and 2015. An automated framework was used to quantify and track barrier island evolution parameters such as shoreline change, area, width, bathymetric contour migration, and shoreface slope. During the 125 yr analysis period, shoreline erosion mean rates slowed from 12 to 6 m/yr while lower shoreface migration mean rates increased from 5 to 25 m/yr. Locally, retreat rates for the Caminada Headland upper shoreface slowed from 18 to 8 m/yr while lower shoreface retreat rates increased from 8 to 14m/yr. The Timbalier Islands experienced increased migration rates along the entire shoreface, while the lower shoreface of the Isles Dernieres transitioned from progradational to erosional (-5 m/yr in 1890 to 20 m/yr in 2006). Our analysis suggests that although shoreline erosion rates decreased, overall landward migration of the barrier system increased as the shoreface steepened. Our results illustrate that monitoring subaerial island erosion rates are insufficient for evaluating regional dynamics of transgressive coastal systems. The longevity of barriers appears diminished due to a reduction in the shoreface sediment available and further corroborates the role of the

  19. Me against we: in-group transgression, collective shame, and in-group-directed hostility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piff, Paul K; Martinez, Andres G; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-01-01

    People can experience great distress when a group to which they belong (in-group) is perceived to have committed an immoral act. We hypothesised that people would direct hostility toward a transgressing in-group whose actions threaten their self-image and evoke collective shame. Consistent with this theorising, three studies found that reminders of in-group transgression provoked several expressions of in-group-directed hostility, including in-group-directed hostile emotion (Studies 1 and 2), in-group-directed derogation (Study 2), and in-group-directed punishment (Study 3). Across studies, collective shame-but not the related group-based emotion collective guilt-mediated the relationship between in-group transgression and in-group-directed hostility. Implications for group-based emotion, social identity, and group behaviour are discussed.

  20. Indirect Relations Between Transgressive Acts and General Combat Exposure and Moral Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankfurt, Sheila B; Frazier, Patricia; Engdahl, Brian

    2017-11-01

    Moral injury describes the deleterious effects of acts of commission (e.g., killing noncombatants), omission (e.g., failing to prevent a massacre), or betrayal (i.e., by a trusted authority figure) during military service that transgress accepted behavioral boundaries and norms. Transgressive acts are proposed to lead to a guilt- and shame-based syndrome consisting of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, demoralization, self-handicapping, and self-injury. In this study, we tested a frequently cited model of moral injury and assessed the associations between potentially transgressive acts, moral injury outcomes, and guilt and fear. Additionally, we sought to clarify the relative contribution of transgressive and nontransgressive/general combat exposure to moral injury. On the basis of previous research and theory, we anticipated that the transgressive acts would be related to outcomes through guilt and that nontransgressive combat exposure would be related to outcomes through fear. Secondary analysis was conducted on data from a sample of combat-exposed male veterans at a Midwestern Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center (N = 190) who participated in a larger parent study on postdeployment readjustment. Structural equation modeling was used to test the pathways from transgressive and nontransgressive combat exposure to PTSD symptoms and suicidality through combat-related guilt and combat-related fear. The institutional review boards of the Midwestern VA medical center and the university of the affiliated researchers approved the study. In total, 38% (n = 72) of the sample reported a potentially transgressive act as one of their three worst traumatic events. The most common potentially transgressive act was killing an enemy combatant (17%; n = 32). In structural equation modeling analyses. potentially transgressive acts were indirectly related to both suicidality (β = 0.09, p < 0.01) and PTSD symptoms (β = 0.06, p < 0.05) through guilt. General combat

  1. MECHANICAL REGENERATION OF SAND WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Gnir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental activation of the sand regenerator of the firm SINTO is carried out at ОАО “MZOO". It is shown that sand grains are cleared from films of binding agents, that allows to use the treated sand for preparation of agglutinant and core sands.

  2. Oil sands tax expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchum, K; Lavigne, R.; Plummer, R.

    2001-01-01

    The oil sands are a strategic Canadian resource for which federal and provincial governments provide financial incentives to develop and exploit. This report describes the Oil Sands Tax Expenditure Model (OSTEM) developed to estimate the size of the federal income tax expenditure attributed to the oil sands industry. Tax expenditures are tax concessions which are used as alternatives to direct government spending for achieving government policy objectives. The OSTEM was developed within the business Income Tax Division of Canada's Department of Finance. Data inputs for the model were obtained from oil sands developers and Natural Resources Canada. OSTEM calculates annual revenues, royalties and federal taxes at project levels using project-level projections of capital investment, operating expenses and production. OSTEM calculates tax expenditures by comparing taxes paid under different tax regimes. The model also estimates the foregone revenue as a percentage of capital investment. Total tax expenditures associated with investment in the oil sands are projected to total $820 million for the period from 1986 to 2030, representing 4.6 per cent of the total investment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  3. Bituminous sands : tax issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examined some of the tax issues associated with the production of bitumen or synthetic crude oil from oil sands. The oil sands deposits in Alberta are gaining more attention as the supplies of conventional oil in Canada decline. The oil sands reserves located in the Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River areas contain about 2.5 trillion barrels of highly viscous hydrocarbons called bitumen, of which nearly 315 billion barrels are recoverable with current technology. The extraction method varies for each geographic area, and even within zones and reservoirs. The two most common extraction methods are surface mining and in-situ extraction such as cyclic steam stimulation (CSS); low pressure steam flood; pressure cycle steam drive; steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD); hot water flooding; and, fire flood. This paper also discussed the following general tax issues: bituminous sands definition; bituminous sands leases and Canadian development expense versus Canadian oil and gas property expense (COGPE); Canadian exploration expense (CEE) for surface mining versus in-situ methods; additional capital cost allowance; and, scientific research and experimental development (SR and ED). 15 refs

  4. The influence of team members on nurses' perceptions of transgressive behaviour in care relationships: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, Tina; Van Hecke, Ann; Duprez, Veerle; Beeckman, Dimitri; Debyser, Bart; Grypdonck, Maria; Verhaeghe, Sofie

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the influence of team members in how nurses perceive and address patients' transgressive behaviour. Aggression and transgressive behaviour in health care have been a focus of research over the past few decades. Most studies have focused on individual nurses' experiences with aggression and transgressive behaviour. Literature examining group dynamics in nursing teams and team members' interactions in handling patients' transgressive behaviour is scarce. Qualitative interview study. Seven focus-group interviews and two individual interviews were carried out in 2014-2016. Twenty-four nurses were drawn from eight wards in three general hospitals. Interviews were analysed using the constant comparative method influenced by the grounded theory approach. While elaborating how they perceived and addressed transgressive behaviour, nurses disclosed how interactions with team members occurred. Several patterns arose. Nurses talk to one another, excuse one another, fill in for one another, warn one another and protect and safeguard one another. In these patterns in reaction to patients' transgressive behaviour, implicit group norms transpire, causing nursing teams to acquire their specific identity "as a group". Consequently, these informal group norms in nursing teams impinge how nurses feel threatened by patients' potential transgressive behaviour; gain protection from the group of nurses and conform to informal ward rules. The findings of this study can support intervention strategies aimed at supporting nurses and nursing teams in managing patient aggression and transgressive behaviour by identifying and explicating these group dynamics and team members' interactions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Bullying and Repeated Conventional Transgressions in Swedish Schools: How Do Gender and Bullying Roles Affect Students' Conceptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert; Pozzoli, Tiziana; Gini, Gianluca; Hong, Jun Sung

    2017-01-01

    Bullying is a moral transgression. Recognizing the importance of approaching bullying from a moral perspective, the present study examines whether children's judgments and reasoning to justify their judgments differ between bullying and repeated conventional transgressions. Our study also explores differences by gender and differences among…

  6. Anatomy of a shoreface sand ridge revisted using foraminifera: False Cape Shoals, Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Marci M.; McBride, Randolph A.

    2008-01-01

    Certain details regarding the origin and evolution of shelf sand ridges remain elusive. Knowledge of their internal stratigraphy and microfossil distribution is necessary to define the origin and to determine the processes that modify sand ridges. Fourteen vibracores from False Cape Shoal A, a well-developed shoreface-attached sand ridge on the Virginia/North Carolina inner continental shelf, were examined to document the internal stratigraphy and benthic foraminiferal assemblages, as well as to reconstruct the depositional environments recorded in down-core sediments. Seven sedimentary and foraminiferal facies correspond to the following stratigraphic units: fossiliferous silt, barren sand, clay to sandy clay, laminated and bioturbated sand, poorly sorted massive sand, fine clean sand, and poorly sorted clay to gravel. The units represent a Pleistocene estuary and shoreface, a Holocene estuary, ebb tidal delta, modern shelf, modern shoreface, and swale fill, respectively. The succession of depositional environments reflects a Pleistocene sea-level highstand and subsequent regression followed by the Holocene transgression in which barrier island/spit systems formed along the Virginia/North Carolina inner shelf not, vert, ~5.2 ka and migrated landward and an ebb tidal delta that was deposited, reworked, and covered by shelf sand.

  7. Testing Moral Foundation Theory: Are Specific Moral Emotions Elicited by Specific Moral Transgressions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Helen; Hess, Ursula

    2018-01-01

    Moral foundation theory posits that specific moral transgressions elicit specific moral emotions. To test this claim, participants (N = 195) were asked to rate their emotions in response to moral violation vignettes. We found that compassion and disgust were associated with care and purity respectively as predicted by moral foundation theory.…

  8. Regressive transgressive cycle of Devonian sea in Uruguay verified by Palynology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, J.

    1990-01-01

    This work is about the results and conclusions of the populations palinomorphs study, carried out in Devonian formations in the center of Uruguay. The existence of a regressive transgressive cycle is verified by analyzing the vertical distribution of palinomorphs as well as is mentioned the presence of chintziest for the section studied - hoesphaeridium Cyathochitina kinds

  9. Different cultures, different selves? : Suppression of emotions and reactions to transgressions across cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huwaë, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    Summary of thesis “Different cultures, different selves? Suppression of emotions and reactions to transgressions across cultures”, Sylvia Huwaë People can differ in how they respond to everyday situations. For example, when treated unfairly by someone, some people may express their anger and find it

  10. Growth of Transgressive Sills in Mechanically Layered Media: Faroe Islands, NE Atlantic Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Igneous sills represent an important contribution to upper crustal magma transport, acting as magma conduits and stores (i.e. as sill networks, or as nascent magma chambers). Complex sill-network intrusion in basin settings can have significant impact on subsurface fluid flow (e.g., water aquifer and hydrocarbon systems), geothermal systems, the maturation of hydrocarbons, and methane release. Models for these effects are critically dependent on the models for sill emplacement. This study focuses on staircase-geometry sills in the Faroe Islands, on the European Atlantic Margin, which are hosted in mechanically layered lavas (1-20 m thick) and basaltic volcaniclastic units (1-30 m thick). The sills range from 20-50 m thick, with each covering ~17 km2, and transgressing a vertical range of ~480 m. Steps in the sills are elliptical in cross section, and discontinuous laterally, forming smooth transgressive ramps, hence are interpreted as representing initial stages of sill propagation as magma fingers, which inflate through time to create a through-going sheet. Although steps correspond to the position of some host rock layer interfaces and volcaniclastic horizons, most interfaces are bypassed. The overall geometry of the sills is consistent with ENE-WSW compression, and NNW-SSE extension, and stress anisotropy-induced transgression. Local morphology indicates that mechanical layering suppressed tensile stress ahead of the crack tip, leading to a switch in minimum and intermediate stress axes, facilitating lateral sill propagation as fingers, and resulting in a stepped transgressive geometry.

  11. Abused, Neglected, and Nonmaltreated Children's Conceptions of Moral and Social-Conventional Transgressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The effect of child maltreatment on children's social-cognitive development was examined by investigating abused, neglected, and nonmaltreated children's judgments regarding the permissibility of social-conventional and moral transgressions pertaining to physical harm, psychological distress, and the unfair distribution of resources. (Author/RH)

  12. Nancy Huston's Polyglot Texts: Linguistic Limits and Transgressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Genevieve

    2015-01-01

    Throughout her career, Nancy Huston has both accepted and transgressed the limits of bilingualism. "Limbes"/"Limbo" (1998), "L'empreinte de l'ange" (1998), "The Mark of the Angel" (2000), "Danse noire" (2013), and "Black Dance" (2014) are five texts that demonstrate Huston's diverse use…

  13. Facing Anxiety in Climate Change Education: from Therapeutic Practice to Hopeful Transgressive Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojala, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the need for critical emotional awareness in environmental and sustainability education that aspires to result in transgressive learning and transformation. The focus is on the emotions of anxiety/worry and hope, and their role in climate change education. By disrupting unsustainable norms and habits, hope for another way of…

  14. Trust, attachment, and mindfulness influence intimacy and disengagement during newlyweds' discussions of relationship transgressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifian, Chandra E; Barry, Robin A

    2016-08-01

    Discussions of relationship transgressions-violations of relationship norms-are often difficult for couples to successfully navigate. Nevertheless, engaging in and resolving these discussions should promote intimacy. Drawing on the risk regulation model, individuals' experiences of disengagement and intimacy during transgression discussions should depend on their trust in their partner regarding the transgression and how they regulate distress related to lower trust. Attachment style represents individual differences in emotion regulation in close relationship contexts and is indicated by the risk regulation model. In contrast, mindfulness also improves interpersonal emotion regulation but is not reflected in the model. The present study proposed that the effect of trust on the experience of intimacy and disengagement during transgression discussions would depend on individuals' attachment style or mindfulness. Hypotheses were tested in a sample of 81 heterosexual newlywed couples. Trust was positively associated with intimacy for individuals with higher attachment avoidance, but not for individuals with lower attachment avoidance. Trust was negatively associated with disengagement for individuals with either lower mindfulness or higher attachment avoidance. Trust was not associated with disengagement for individuals with higher mindfulness or lower attachment avoidance. Implications for theory and clinical interventions focused on increasing intimacy and decreasing disengagement in couple relationships are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Teaching Transgressive Representations of LGBTQ People in Educator Preparation: Is Conformity Required for Inclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Todd

    2015-01-01

    One strategy used to teach about diverse populations is to edit their curricular representations to minimize their transgressive nature in an effort to gain more acceptance among students. This article explores the implications of these assimilationist narratives when used in educator preparation programs to represent LGBTQ people. It examines the…

  16. Sand Dunes with Frost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    9 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a suite of frost-covered sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars in early spring, 2004. The dunes indicate wind transport of sand from left to right (west to east). These landforms are located near 78.1oN, 220.8oW. This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  17. Sand Needs and Resources Offshore New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashley, J. M.; Flood, R. D.; White, M.; Bokuniewicz, H.; Hinrichs, C.; Wilson, R. E.

    2016-02-01

    "Superstorm" Sandy (October, 2012) accentuated the persistent problem of coastal erosion on New York's ocean coast. The New York state Department of State in cooperation with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management has initiated further identification and assessment of marine sand reserves required to improve the resiliency of coastal communities and the maintenance of coastal habitats. The historical demand for beach nourishment has been about 1.5 million cubic meters per year, but sea level rise and the occurrence of extreme conditions may increase the demand to over 5 million cubic meters annually. Forty-four historical and proposed borrow sites have been delineated. This inner shelf is both sand rich and data rich. Geophysical and geological data has been compiled and reassessed to support identification, characterization, and delineation of sand resources for potential use in future coastal restoration, beach nourishment, and/or wetland restoration efforts. The South Shore of Long Island is composed in part by the Fire Island National Seashore. Holocene sand ridges extending at an oblique angle to the cross shore in the seaward direction. Borrow pits among the sand ridges, excavated were apparent in the most recent surveys and it appears that natural replenishment of offshore borrow areas has been occurring although the rates need to be determined in order to assess their sustainability. Not only is the area one of intense societal attention, but the use of this resource for coastal resilience must fit into a diverse framework marine spatial planning including not only traditional components, like commercial fishing, but also new factors like the siting of offshore wind-farms. To extend this assessment will include a recent survey, sponsored by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and the New York Department of State, providing approximately 700 km of geophysical survey lines located between 3 and 9 nautical miles offshore, and 46 geotechnical samples

  18. Sand (CSW4)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Estuarine and Coastal Research Unit

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available This report is one of a series on Cape Estuaries being published under the general title "The Estuaries of the Cape, Part 2". The report provides information on sand estuary: historical background, abiotic and biotic characteristics. It is pointed...

  19. Inland drift sand landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanta, J.; Siepel, H.

    2010-01-01

    Man has had a complex relationship with inland drift sands through the ages. For some centuries these landscapes were seen as a threat to society, especially agriculture and housing. At present we conserve these landscapes as important Natura 2000 priority habitats. In this book you may find these

  20. On Pluvial Compaction of Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Moust

    At the Institute of Civil Engineering in Aalborg model tests on dry sand specimens have been carried out during the last five years. To reduce deviations in test results, the sand laying technique has been carefully studied, and the sand mass spreader constructed. Preliminary results have been...

  1. Environmental Impacts of Sand Exploitation. Analysis of Sand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dan Gavriletea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sand is an indispensable natural resource for any society. Despite society’s increasing dependence on sand, there are major challenges that this industry needs to deal with: limited sand resources, illegal mining, and environmental impact of sand mining. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to present an overview of the sand market, highlighting the main trends and actors for production, export and import, and to review the main environmental impacts associated with sand exploitation process. Based on these findings, we recommend different measures to be followed to reduce negative impacts. Sand mining should be done in a way that limits environmental damage during exploitation and restores the land after mining operations are completed.

  2. Oil sands supply outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, R.

    2004-01-01

    In March 2004, The Canadian Energy Research Institute released a report on the expected future supply from Alberta's oil sands. The report indicates that the future for the already well-established oil sands industry is promising, particularly given the outlook for oil prices. The challenges facing the industry include higher industry supply costs and the need for innovative commercial and technological solutions to address the risks of irregularities and changes in crude oil prices. In 2003, the industry produced 874 thousand barrels per day of synthetic crude oil and unprocessed crude bitumen. This represents 35 per cent of Canada's total oil production. Current production capacity has increased to 1.0 million barrels per day (mbpd) due to new projects. This number may increase to 3.5 mbpd by 2017. Some new projects may be deferred due to the higher raw bitumen and synthetic crude oil supply costs. This presentation provided supply costs for a range of oil sands recovery technologies and production projections under various business scenarios. tabs., figs

  3. Liquefaction resistance of calcareous sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval Vallejo, Eimar

    2012-01-01

    Calcareous sands are unique in terms of their origin, mineralogy, shape, fragility and intra particle porosity. This article presents results from an experimental program carried out to study the liquefaction resistance of a calcareous sand retrieved from Cabo Rojo at Puerto Rico. The experimental program included mineralogical characterization, index properties, and undrained cyclic triaxial tests on isotropically consolidated reconstituted samples. Due to the large variation in the calcareous sand properties, results are compared with previous researches carried out on other calcareous sands around the world. Results showed a wide range in the liquefaction resistance of the studied calcareous sands. Cabo Rojo sand experienced greater liquefaction resistance than most of the calcareous sands used for comparison. Important differences in the excess pore pressure generation characteristics were also found.

  4. Displaced and non-displaced Colombian children's evaluations of moral transgressions, retaliation, and reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila-Rey, Alicia; Killen, Melanie; Brenick, Alaina

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of displacement and exposure to violence on children's moral reasoning, Colombian children exposed to minimal violence (non-displaced or low-risk) (N = 99) and to extreme violence (displaced or high-risk) (N = 94), evenly divided by gender, at 6-, 9-, and 12 - years of age, were interviewed regarding their evaluation of peer-oriented moral transgressions (hitting and not sharing toys). The vast majority of children evaluated moral transgressions as wrong. Group and age differences were revealed, however, regarding provocation and retaliation. Children who were exposed to violence, in contrast to those with minimum exposure, judged it more legitimate to inflict harm or deny resources when provoked and judged it more okay to retaliate for reasons of retribution. Surprisingly, and somewhat hopefully, all children viewed reconciliation as feasible. The results are informative regarding theories of morality, culture, and the effects of violence on children's social development. PMID:25722543

  5. Patterns of resistance and transgression in Eastern Indonesia: single women's practices of clandestine courtship and cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Linda Rae

    2005-03-01

    This paper explores how single women in the regional Indonesian city of Mataram express sexual desire in a social, cultural and political climate that idealizes the confinement of female sexuality within marriage. It is based on 21 months of ethnographic fieldwork conducted with single women, their families and health care providers. Success for young women in negotiating sexual desire is dependent upon their ability to maintain a faultless public reputation and mediate between their desires and those of men. Many single women find ways to pursue their desires by bending the rules of courtship conventions, performing sexual purity in public, while resisting from within the hegemonic sexual culture. However, women who visibly transgress dominant sexual ideals (and in doing so offend the status quo) are stigmatized and ostracized. Single women's practice of resistance and sexual transgression in premarital relationships are represented using the examples of pacaran backstreet (clandestine courtship) and cohabitation prior to marriage.

  6. When friends disappoint: boys' and girls' responses to transgressions of friendship expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEvoy, Julie Paquette; Asher, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the prevailing view that girls are pervasively more skilled in their friendships than boys was challenged by examining whether girls respond more negatively than boys when a friend violates core friendship expectations. Fourth- and fifth-grade children (n = 267) responded to vignettes depicting transgressions involving a friend's betrayal, unreliability, or failure to provide support or help. Results indicated that girls were more troubled by the transgressions, more strongly endorsed various types of negative relationship interpretations of the friend's actions, and reported more anger and sadness than did boys. Girls also endorsed revenge goals and aggressive strategies just as much as boys. These findings lead to a more complex view of boys' and girls' friendship competencies. © 2011 The Authors. Child Development © 2011 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Celebrating Risk: The Politics of Self-Branding, Transgression & Resistance in Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BLAKE POLAND

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Persons 'branded' as dangerous to the public's health often try to hide their status (as smokers, as HIV positive, etc. Yet, a small but growing subgroup has re-appropriated stigma symbols and voluntarily branded themselves as 'marked' individuals, rebellious, transgressive and refusing to be shamed by their status. In this article we examine voluntary branding as acts of resistance, paying particular attention to bodily practices that disrupt dominant aesthetic and moral/political sensibilities. We draw on our research and observations in the realms of smoking and bareback sex to illustrate and address broader issues of branding the self, aesthetics and the politics of resistance, surveillance, and transgression. Drawing on the work of Goffman, Bourdieu and Foucault, we examine the interpenetration of class, physical and social capital, and unequal social relations. While these works are often used to celebrate resistance, we argue, following Fiske, that it should not be romanticized as inherently liberating.

  8. Democratic and Inclusive Education in Iceland: Transgression and the Medical Gaze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ólafur Páll Jónsson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ‘Inclusive education’ and ‘democracy’ are more than buzzwords in education. They refer to official educational policy in much of the western world. Democracy as a school policy seems to be widely accepted while inclusive education is more controversial, sometimes fuelling lively public debates where parents and politicians are vocal. However, there seems to be little agreement on what ‘inclusive education’ means, although one can discern a certain core to the understanding of ‘inclusive education’ among many of those who participate in the public debate. Central to the above understanding of inclusive education and democracy are certain features that I want to draw attention to. First, what falls under the headings ‘democracy in schools’, ‘democratic education’ or ‘student democracy’, on the one hand, and ‘inclusive education’, on the other, have little to do with one another. I discuss how the medical gaze in the context of education belongs to the dominant ideology of the time and is thus prevailing without ever having to be argued for or defended. The consequence of this is, as I see it, that education (which sometimes is more training than growth is being cast in pathological terms. I connect the idea of transgression to that of democratic school and character. Transgression is relevant in two ways here. The school has to be a place where transgression is encouraged and, secondly, it is a place where transgression is valued as a democratic virtue. Virtue here could, I think, be understood in Aristotelian terms – or even given a Socratic interpretation.

  9. Transgressive sexualities: politics of pleasure and desire in Kamasutra: a tale of love and fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohani-Chase, Rama

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing feminist film theory, critical reviews, and viewer responses, this article examines visual representations of transgressive sexuality in two diasporic Indian women's films: Kamasutra: A Tale of Love by Mira Nair, and Fire by Deepa Mehta. The article draws from research on ancient discourses on sexuality in India to argue that contemporary constructions of women's sexuality in South Asia are not devoid of patriarchal and fundamentalist cultural politics of representation. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  10. Booming Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Nathalie

    "Booming" sand dunes are able to produce low-frequency sound that resembles a pure note from a music instrument. The sound has a dominant audible frequency (70-105 Hz) and several higher harmonics and may be heard from far distances away. A natural or induced avalanche from a slip face of the booming dune triggers the emission that may last for several minutes. There are various references in travel literature to the phenomenon, but to date no scientific explanation covered all field observations. This thesis introduces a new physical model that describes the phenomenon of booming dunes. The waveguide model explains the selection of the booming frequency and the amplification of the sound in terms of constructive interference in a confined geometry. The frequency of the booming is a direct function of the dimensions and velocities in the waveguide. The higher harmonics are related to the higher modes of propagation in the waveguide. The experimental validation includes quantitative field research at the booming dunes of the Mojave Desert and Death Valley National Park. Microphone and geophone recordings of the acoustic and seismic emission show a variation of booming frequency in space and time. The analysis of the sensor data quantifies wave propagation characteristics such as speed, dispersion, and nonlinear effects and allows the distinction between the source mechanism of the booming and the booming itself. The migration of sand dunes results from a complicated interplay between dune building, wind regime, and precipitation. The morphological and morphodynamical characteristics of two field locations are analyzed with various geophysical techniques. Ground-penetrating radar images the subsurface structure of the dunes and reveal a natural, internal layering that is directly related to the history of dune migration. The seismic velocity increases abruptly with depth and gradually increases with downhill position due to compaction. Sand sampling shows local

  11. Community structure of fish and macrobenthos at selected sites fronting Sand Island, Oahu, Hawaii in relation to the Sand Island Deep Ocean Sewage Outfall, 1990 - 1998 (NODC Accession 0000177)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report provides the results of nine years of an annual quantitative monitoring of shallow marine communities inshore of the Sand Island Ocean Outfall, Oahu,...

  12. The physiological correlates of children's emotions in contexts of moral transgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Colasante, Tyler; Zuffianò, Antonio; de Bruine, Marieke

    2016-02-01

    Heightened attention to sociomoral conflicts and arousal at the prospect of committing moral transgressions are thought to increase the likelihood of negatively valenced moral emotions (NVMEs; e.g., guilt) in children. Here, we tested this biphasic model of moral emotions with a psychophysiological framework. For a series of vignettes depicting moral transgressions, 5- and 8-year-olds (N=138) were asked to anticipate their emotions as hypothetical victimizers. Their responses were coded for the presence and intensity of NVMEs. In addition, their heart rate (HR) was calculated for three intervals of interest: a baseline period, the presentation of vignettes, and the anticipation of emotions following vignettes. We used multilevel modeling to examine how change in children's HR across these intervals related to the intensity of their NVMEs. Those who experienced greater HR deceleration from baseline to vignettes and greater acceleration from vignettes to anticipated emotions reported more intense NVMEs. We discuss the potential attention- and arousal-related processes behind children's physiological reactivity and anticipated emotions in contexts of moral transgression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of Tropical Cyclone Induced Transgression of the Chandeleur Islands for Restoration and Wildlife Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reahard, Ross; Mitchell, Brandie; Brown, Tevin; Billiot, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Barrier Islands are the first line of defense against tropical storms and hurricanes for coastal areas. Historically, tropical cyclonic events have had a great impact on the transgression of barrier islands, especially the Chandeleur Island chain off the eastern coast of Louisiana. These islands are of great importance, aiding in the protection of southeastern Louisiana from major storms, providing habitat for nesting and migratory bird species, and are part of the second oldest wildlife refuge in the country. In 1998, Hurricane Georges caused severe damage to the chain, prompting restoration and monitoring efforts by both federal and state agencies. Since then, multiple storm events have steadily diminished the integrity of the islands. Hurricane Katrina in 2005 thwarted all previous restoration efforts, with Hurricane Gustav in 2008 exacerbating island erosion and vegetation loss. Data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Landsat 2-4 Multispectral Scanner (MSS), and Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) will be utilized to detect land loss, island transgression, and vegetation change from 1979 to 2009. This study looks to create a more synoptic view of the transgression of the Chandeleur Islands and correlate weather and sea surface phenomena with erosion trends over the past 30 years, so that partnering organizations such as the Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Sciences (PIES) can better monitor and address the continual change of the island chain.

  14. Decolonization in health professions education: reflections on teaching through a transgressive pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney, Ruth

    2016-12-01

    Canadian health educators travel to the global south to provide expertise in health education. Considering the history of relations between the north and south, educators and healthcare providers from Canada should critically examine their practices and consider non-colonizing ways to relate to their Southern colleagues. Using her experience as a teacher with the Toronto Addis Ababa Academic Collaboration in Nursing, the author explored issues of identity and representation as a registered nurse and PhD candidate teaching in Ethiopia. Transgressive pedagogy was used to question how her personal, professional, and institutional identities impacted her role as a teacher. Thinking and acting transgressively can decrease colonizing relations by acknowledging boundaries and limitations within present ideas of teaching and global health work and help moving beyond them. The act of being transgressive begins with a deeper understanding and consciousness of who we are as people and as educators. Working responsibly in the global south means being critical about historical relations and transparent about one's own history and desires for teaching abroad.

  15. Are There Limits to Collectivism? Culture and Children's Reasoning About Lying to Conceal a Group Transgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Monica A; Heyman, Gail D; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2010-07-01

    This study explored the effects of collectivism on lying to conceal a group transgression. Seven-, 9-, and 11-year-old US and Chinese children (N = 374) were asked to evaluate stories in which protagonists either lied or told the truth about their group's transgression and were then asked about either the protagonist's motivations or justification for their own evaluations. Previous research suggests that children in collectivist societies such as China find lying for one's group to be more acceptable than do children from individualistic societies such as the United States. The current study provides evidence that this is not always the case: Chinese children in this study viewed lies told to conceal a group's transgressions less favourably than did US children. An examination of children's reasoning about protagonists' motivations for lying indicated that children in both countries focused on an impact to self when discussing motivations for protagonists to lie for their group. Overall, results suggest that children living in collectivist societies do not always focus on the needs of the group.

  16. Le détournement de proverbes en FLE, transgression ou création ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syrine Diaz-Daoussi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Notre article portera sur la didactique d’unités phraséologiques, plus précisément les proverbes et leur détournement en Français Langue Étrangère (FLE dans un contexte d’enseignement/apprentissage à partir d’un niveau B1-B2. Il s’agira de familiariser les apprenants à la structure du proverbe puis de s’approprier ces structures afin de pouvoir les manipuler en transgressant la norme établie par le figement. Twisting proverbs in FLE, transgression or creation? Abstract: This article will focus on the teaching of phraseological units, specifically proverbs and the way to twist them through French Foreign Language (FLE in a context of teaching / learning from a B1 -B2 level. This will familiarize learners with the proverb structure and help them appropriating these structures in order to manipulate by transgressing the norm established by the frozenness.

  17. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of paralic and shallow marine Upper Jurassic sandstones in the northern Danish Central Graben

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannessen, Peter N.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Paralic and shallow marine sandstones were deposited in the Danish Central Graben during Late Jurassic rifting when half-grabens were developed and the overall eustatic sea level rose. During the Kimmeridgian, an extensive plateau area consisting of the Heno Plateau and the Gertrud Plateau was situated between two highs, the Mandal High to the north, and the combined Inge and Mads Highs to the west. These highs were land areas situated on either side of the plateaus and supplied sand to the Gertrud and Heno Plateaus. Two graben areas, the Feda and Tail End Grabens, flanked the plateau area to the west and east, respectively. The regressive–ransgressive succession consists of intensely bioturbated shoreface sandstones, 25–75 m thick. Two widespread unconformities (SB1, SB2 are recognised on the plateaus, forming the base of sequence 1 and sequence 2, respectively. These unconformities were created by a fall in relative sea level during which rivers may have eroded older shoreface sands and transported sediment across the Heno andGertrud Plateaus, resulting in the accumulation of shoreface sandstones farther out in the Feda and Tail End Grabens, on the south-east Heno Plateau and in the Salt Dome Province. Duringsubsequent transgression, fluvial sediments were reworked by high-energy shoreface processes on the Heno and Gertrud Plateaus, leaving only a lag of granules and pebbles on the marine transgressive surfaces of erosion (MTSE1, MTSE2.The sequence boundary SB1 can be traced to the south-east Heno Plateau and the Salt Dome Province, where it is marked by sharp-based shoreface sandstones. During low sea level, erosion occurred in the southern part of the Feda Graben, which formed part of the Gertrud and Heno Plateaus, and sedimentation occurred in the Norwegian part of the Feda Graben farther to the north. During subsequent transgression, the southern part of the Feda Graben began to subside, and a succession of backstepping back

  18. Biodegradation of crude oil in different types of marine sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hii, Y.S.; Law, A.T.

    1999-01-01

    An active oil-oxidizing bacterium, named Nap C was isolated from the sediment sample of Port Dickson coastal area for this study. Nap C is a gram negative, rod shape marine bacterium. It forms spore when the condition is not favorable. Three different types of treated marine sediment; sand, silt and clay were used in this study. The degradation of Malaysian Tapis A crude oil in the different types of marine sediment were assessed. Silt type of marine sediment was found to sustain highest biodegradation compared to clay type and sand type. 8.6.67% of the Malaysian Tapis A crude oil was degraded in silt type of marine sediment within 10 days of incubation. Where as there were only 60% and 73% of the Malaysian Tapis A crude oil was degraded in sand and clay type of marine sediment respectively. Microbial biomass estimation in the sediment was estimated by indirect phospholipid enumeration technique. (author)

  19. Time-Transgressive Nature of the Magnetic Susceptibility Record across the Chinese Loess Plateau at the Pleistocene/Holocene Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yajie; Wu, Naiqin; Li, Fengjiang; Huang, Linpei; Wen, Wenwen

    2015-01-01

    The loess stratigraphic boundary at the Pleistocene/Holocene transition defined by the magnetic susceptibility (MS) has previously been assumed to be synchronous with the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2/1 boundary, and approximately time-synchronous at different sections across the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). However, although this assumption has been used as a basis for proxy-age model of Chinese loess deposits, it has rarely been tested by using absolute dating methods. In this study, we applied a single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol to the 45–63 μm quartz grain-size fraction to derive luminescence ages for the last glacial and Holocene sections of three loess sections on a transect from southeast to northwest across the CLP. Based on the 33 closely spaced optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) samples from the three sections, OSL chronologies were established using a polynomial curve fit at each section. Based on the OSL chronology, the timing of the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary, as defined by rapid changes in MS values, is dated at ~10.5 ka, 8.5 ka and 7.5 ka in the Yaoxian section, Jingchuan and Huanxian sections respectively. These results are clearly inconsistent with the MIS 2/1 boundary age of 12.05 ka, and therefore we conclude that the automatic correlation of the Pleistocene/Holocene transition, as inferred from the MS record, with the MIS 2/1 boundary is incorrect. The results clearly demonstrate that the marked changes in MS along the southeast to northwest transect are time-transgressive among the different sites, with the timing of significant paleosol development as indicated by the MS record being delayed by 3–4 ka in the northwest compared to the southeast. Our results suggest that this asynchronous paleosol development during the last deglacial was caused by the delayed arrival of the summer monsoon in the northwest CLP compared to the southeast. PMID:26186443

  20. Time-Transgressive Nature of the Magnetic Susceptibility Record across the Chinese Loess Plateau at the Pleistocene/Holocene Transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajie Dong

    Full Text Available The loess stratigraphic boundary at the Pleistocene/Holocene transition defined by the magnetic susceptibility (MS has previously been assumed to be synchronous with the Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 2/1 boundary, and approximately time-synchronous at different sections across the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP. However, although this assumption has been used as a basis for proxy-age model of Chinese loess deposits, it has rarely been tested by using absolute dating methods. In this study, we applied a single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR protocol to the 45-63 μm quartz grain-size fraction to derive luminescence ages for the last glacial and Holocene sections of three loess sections on a transect from southeast to northwest across the CLP. Based on the 33 closely spaced optically stimulated luminescence (OSL samples from the three sections, OSL chronologies were established using a polynomial curve fit at each section. Based on the OSL chronology, the timing of the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary, as defined by rapid changes in MS values, is dated at ~10.5 ka, 8.5 ka and 7.5 ka in the Yaoxian section, Jingchuan and Huanxian sections respectively. These results are clearly inconsistent with the MIS 2/1 boundary age of 12.05 ka, and therefore we conclude that the automatic correlation of the Pleistocene/Holocene transition, as inferred from the MS record, with the MIS 2/1 boundary is incorrect. The results clearly demonstrate that the marked changes in MS along the southeast to northwest transect are time-transgressive among the different sites, with the timing of significant paleosol development as indicated by the MS record being delayed by 3-4 ka in the northwest compared to the southeast. Our results suggest that this asynchronous paleosol development during the last deglacial was caused by the delayed arrival of the summer monsoon in the northwest CLP compared to the southeast.

  1. Modelling the impacts of barrier-island transgression and anthropogenic disturbance on blue carbon budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuerkauf, E. J.; Rodriguez, A. B.

    2017-12-01

    The size of backbarrier saltmarsh carbon reservoirs are dictated by transgressive processes, such as erosion and overwash, yet these processes are not included in blue carbon budgets. These carbon reservoirs are presumed to increase through time if marsh elevation is keeping pace with sea-level rise. However, changes in marsh width due to erosion and overwash can alter carbon budgets and reservoirs. To explore the impacts of these processes on transgressive barrier island carbon budgets and reservoirs we developed and tested a transect model. The model couples a carbon storage term driven by backbarrier marsh width and a carbon export term driven by ocean and backbarrier shoreline erosion. We tested the model using data collected from two transgressive barrier islands in North Carolina with different backbarrier settings. Core Banks is an undeveloped barrier island with a wide backbarrier marsh and lagoon, hence, landward migration of the island (rollover) is unimpeded. Barrier rollover is impeded at Onslow Beach as there is no backbarrier lagoon and the island is immediately adjacent to steeper mainland topography. Sediment cores were collected to determine carbon storage rates as well as the quantity of carbon exported from eroding marsh. Backbarrier marsh erosion rates, ocean shoreline erosion rates, and changes in marsh width were determined from aerial photographs. Output from the model indicated that hurricane erosion and overwash as well as human disturbance from the construction of the Intracoastal Waterway temporarily transitioned the Onslow Beach sites to carbon sources. Through time, the carbon reservoir at this barrier continued to decrease as carbon export outpaced carbon storage. The carbon reservoir will continue to exhaust as the ocean shoreline migrates landward given the inability for new marsh to form during island rollover. At Core Banks, barrier rollover is unimpeded and new saltmarsh can form during transgression. The Core Banks site only

  2. When and Why Parents Prompt Their Children to Apologize: The Roles of Transgression Type and Parenting Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jee Young; Rizzo, Michael T.; Harris, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Young children are sensitive to the importance of apologies, yet little is known about when and why parents prompt apologies from children. We examined these issues with parents of 3-10-year-old children (N = 483). Parents judged it to be important for children to apologize following both intentional and accidental morally-relevant transgressions, and they anticipated prompting apologies in both contexts, showing an ‘outcome bias’ (i.e., a concern for the outcomes of children’s transgressions rather than for their underlying intentions). Parents viewed apologies as less important after children’s breaches of social convention; parents recognized differences between social domains in their responses to children’s transgressions. Irrespective of parenting style, parents were influenced in similar fashion by particular combinations of transgressions and victims, though permissive parents were least likely to anticipate prompting apologies. Parents endorsed different reasons for prompting apologies as a function of transgression type, suggesting that they attend to key features of their children’s transgressions when deciding when to prompt apologies. PMID:28405175

  3. When and Why Parents Prompt Their Children to Apologize: The Roles of Transgression Type and Parenting Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Craig E; Noh, Jee Young; Rizzo, Michael T; Harris, Paul L

    2017-01-01

    Young children are sensitive to the importance of apologies, yet little is known about when and why parents prompt apologies from children. We examined these issues with parents of 3-10-year-old children ( N = 483). Parents judged it to be important for children to apologize following both intentional and accidental morally-relevant transgressions, and they anticipated prompting apologies in both contexts, showing an 'outcome bias' (i.e., a concern for the outcomes of children's transgressions rather than for their underlying intentions). Parents viewed apologies as less important after children's breaches of social convention; parents recognized differences between social domains in their responses to children's transgressions. Irrespective of parenting style, parents were influenced in similar fashion by particular combinations of transgressions and victims, though permissive parents were least likely to anticipate prompting apologies. Parents endorsed different reasons for prompting apologies as a function of transgression type, suggesting that they attend to key features of their children's transgressions when deciding when to prompt apologies.

  4. Oil sands development update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A detailed review and update of oil sands development in Alberta are provided covering every aspect of the production and economic aspects of the industry. It is pointed out that at present oil sands account for 28 per cent of Canadian crude oil production, expected to reach 50 per cent by 2005. Based on recent announcements, a total of 26 billion dollars worth of projects are in progress or planned; 20 billion dollars worth of this development is in the Athabasca area, the remainder in Cold Lake and other areas. The current update envisages up to 1,800,000 barrels per day by 2008, creating 47,000 new jobs and total government revenues through direct and indirect taxes of 118 billion dollars. Provinces other than Alberta also benefit from these development, since 60 per cent of all employment and income created by oil sands production is in other parts of Canada. Up to 60 per cent of the expansion is for goods and services and of this, 50 to 55 per cent will be purchased from Canadian sources. The remaining 40 per cent of the new investment is for engineering and construction of which 95 per cent is Canadian content. Aboriginal workforce by common consent of existing operators matches regional representation (about 13 per cent), and new developers are expected to match these standards. Planned or ongoing development in environmental protection through improved technologies and optimization, energy efficiency and improved tailings management, and active support of flexibility mechanisms such as emission credits trading, joint implementation and carbon sinks are very high on the industry's agenda. The importance of offsets are discussed extensively along with key considerations for international negotiations, as well as further research of other options such as sequestration, environmentally benign disposal of waste, and enhanced voluntary action

  5. Mídia, gêneros do discurso e transgressão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Muniz Proença Lara

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: À luz da concepção de gêneros do discurso de Mikhail Bakhtin, acrescida das contribuições de estudiosos da área de análise do discurso, examinamos, no presente artigo, três textos da mídia, de diferentes gêneros (dois anúncios publicitários e uma tira humorística, procurando enfocá-los do ponto de vista da transgressão, tomada como uma quebra de expectativa ou uma ruptura (desvio, deslocamento de algum componente do conjunto de restrições – ou de regularidades – inerentes a um dado gênero. Nossa análise aponta para dois tipos diferentes de transgressão: a “intertextualidade intergenérica”, quando ocorre uma hibridização ou uma mescla de gêneros em que um assume a função ou a forma de outro, e a “intertextualidade intragenérica”, em que essa mescla de gêneros se dá no interior de um gênero maior, que não é afetado.Palavras-chave: Mikhail Bakhtin; gêneros do discurso; análise do discurso; mídia; transgressão; intertextualidade.Résumé: A la lumière de la conception des genres du discours chez Mikhaïl Bakhtin, à laquelle s’ajoutent les contributions de nombre de chercheurs dans le domaine de l’analyse du discours, nous nous proposons d’analyser, dans cet article, trois textes issus des médias appartenant à différents genres, dont deux publicités et une bande dessinée humoristique, sous l’optique de la transgression, prise comme une rupture de l’attente (déplacement ou d’un élément dans l’ensemble des restrictions – ou régularités – inhérentes à un genre donné. Notre analyse indique deux types distincts de transgression: l’intertextualité inter-générique, lorsqu’il y a une hybridation ou un mélange de genres où un genre assume la fonction ou la forme d’un autre, et l’intertextualité intra-générique, où ce mélange de genres se donne à l’intérieur d’un genre prédominant, qui, à son tour, n’est pas déstabilisé.Mots-clés: Mikhail

  6. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  7. Juventude ciborgue e a transgressão das fronteiras de gênero Cyborg youth and gender-border transgression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirlei Rezende Sales

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Pessoas e máquinas estão cada vez mais conectadas por meio de um processo de intensa simbiose. As/os jovens são o alvo primordial desse processo, constituindo a subjetividade ciborgue. Este artigo analisa o processo de ciborguização da juventude na interface entre currículo escolar e currículo do Orkut (site de relacionamentos. A pesquisa que subsidia este artigo investigou a interface entre o currículo de uma escola pública de ensino médio e as comunidades e os perfis no Orkut das/os alunas/os dessa escola. O referencial teórico é constituído pelos estudos de gênero e de currículo, em uma perspectiva pós-crítica. O argumento desenvolvido é o de que as estratégias utilizadas em um currículo podem ser traduzidas no outro, por meio da interface entre eles, tendo como efeito ora a transgressão, ora o fortalecimento das fronteiras de gênero.People and machines are increasingly connected, by an intensely symbiotic process. Youth are especially affected by this procedure, developing a cyborg subjectivity. This article analyses the cyborging process in the interface between the school curriculum and the Orkut curriculum. The research that subsidizes this article investigated the interface between the public high school curriculum, and the communities and profiles of students from this school in Orkut. The theoretical basis is constituted by gender and curriculum studies, and the perspective is post-critical. The argument developed is that the strategies used in one curriculum can be translated into the other by the interface between them, resulting both in the transgression and the strengthening of gender borders.

  8. Transgressive ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Jensen, Anja Marie Bornø

    2013-01-01

    of treatment norms, we must move close to everyday work practices and appreciate the importance of material–technical treatment options as well as the interplay of professional ethics and identity. The cardiac treatment of brain-dead donors may thereby illuminate how treatment norms develop on the ground...

  9. Situated Transgressiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhr, Sara Louise; Sullivan, Katie Rose; Rich, Craig

    2016-01-01

    conversations within queer theory, transgender and organization studies by highlighting how situated contexts mediate the political potential of queer bodies at work. By developing the concept ‘situated transgressiveness’, this article challenges notions of transgender as a stable, ideal disruptive category......This study investigates the lived experience of one transwoman, Claire, a public advocate and a manager with client services responsibilities. We examine Claire's story in order to discuss how situated contexts, such as different roles, locales and interactions, shape the way she experiences...

  10. Rheological Characterization of Green Sand Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Spangenberg, Jon; Hovad, Emil

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to characterize experimentally the flow behaviour of the green sand that is used for casting of sand moulds. After the sand casting process is performed, the sand moulds are used for metal castings. The rheological properties of the green sand is important to quantif...

  11. Placing barrier-island transgression in a blue-carbon context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuerkauf, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.

    2017-07-01

    Backbarrier saltmarshes are considered carbon sinks; however, barrier island transgression and the associated processes of erosion and overwash are typically not included in coastal carbon budgets. Here, we present a carbon-budget model for transgressive barrier islands that includes a dynamic carbon-storage term, driven by backbarrier-marsh width, and a carbon-export term, driven by ocean and backbarrier shoreline erosion. To examine the impacts of storms, human disturbances and the backbarrier setting of a transgressive barrier island on carbon budgets and reservoirs, the model was applied to sites at Core Banks and Onslow Beach, NC, USA. Results show that shoreline erosion and burial of backbarrier marsh from washover deposition and dredge-spoil disposal temporarily transitioned each site into a net exporter (source) of carbon. The magnitude of the carbon reservoir was linked to the backbarrier setting of an island. Carbon reservoirs of study sites separated from the mainland by only backbarrier marsh (no lagoon) decreased for over a decade because carbon storage could not keep pace with erosion. With progressive narrowing of the backbarrier marsh, these barriers will begin to function more persistently as carbon sources until the reservoir is depleted at the point where the barrier welds with the mainland. Undeveloped barrier islands with wide lagoons are carbon sources briefly during erosive periods; however, at century time scales are net carbon importers (sinks) because new marsh habitat can form during barrier rollover. Human development on backbarrier saltmarsh serves to reduce the carbon storage capacity and can hasten the transition of an island from a sink to a source.

  12. Sand, jams and jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, H. [James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago (United States)]. E-mail: h-jaeger@uchicago.edu

    2005-12-01

    Granular media are offering new insights into problems in condensed-matter physics and materials science, as Heinrich Jaeger explains. The remarkable properties of granular materials are so familiar that most of us do not even notice them. It is clear, for example, that we cannot walk on water unless the temperature has dropped below freezing. However, we take it for granted that sand will support our weight as if it were a solid, even though it can also be poured like a liquid under the same ambient conditions. From breakfast cereal, sugar and flour to construction materials, mining products and pharmaceuticals, granular media are present everywhere in our daily lives. (U.K.)

  13. Riddle of the sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolheiser, P

    1998-09-01

    A geological model of the Alberta landscape during the period stretching from about 110 million to 100 million years ago during the Cretaceous period when dinosaurs roamed the earth, was sketched. Today, the region contains the Cold Lake oil sands deposit. Imperial Oil began large-scale production at Cold Lake in 1985. The formations within the area are the source of almost half of Imperial Oil`s daily crude oil production and account for one in every 20 barrels of oil produced daily in Canada. The bitumen is produced using cyclic steam stimulation where steam is injected at high pressure into the underground reservoir, fracturing the sandstone and heating the bitumen it holds to thin it so that it can then flow through well bores to the surface. Conventional geological theory suggested that the Cold Lake reservoir was the remains of a prehistoric river delta. In 1994, Imperial Oil established a Cold Lake sequence stratigraphy project to verify this theory. This highly complex project involves volumes of geophysical well-log data from the 2,500 wells at Cold Lake, core samples cut from more than 600 of these wells and microscopic fossilized remains of 100-million-year-old flora extracted from the core samples, and seismic information. The interpreted data helps to create a three-dimensional model of the reservoir`s structure and help define its boundaries. Results have shown that the Cold Lake deposit was created from at least 13 intersecting river beds. Each of the rivers flowed for a few hundred thousand years and deposited sands of varying quality in different layers and patterns. The oil came about 40 million years later after the plant and animal materials containing hydrogen and carbon were broken down by heat and pressure to form oil. 1 fig.

  14. Transgressive Practices in Participatory Action Research within the Context of Projects as a System of Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhlin, Sharmila Maria Holmstrøm; Thingstrup, Signe Hvid

    2012-01-01

    institutional and discursive presence of projects in people’s everyday lives affects the possibilities of action research to engage in meaningful democratic and transgressive practises with its participants. When does participatory action research become yet another social technique and when does it have...... the potential to challenge dominating social hierarchies and contribute to social change? We will discuss these questions based on findings from two empirical action research projects from our own work in the multicultural field. In one project, teachers and researcher engage in the development of multicultural...

  15. Cold War Transgressions: Christian Realism, Conservative Socialism, and the Longer 1960s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Thomas Edwards

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the convergence of the Protestant left and traditionalist right during the 1950s. Reinhold Niebuhr and the World Council of Churches challenged Cold War liberalism from within. As they did, they anticipated and even applauded the anti-liberalism of early Cold War conservatives. While exploring intellectual precursors of the New Left, this essay forefronts one forgotten byproduct of the political realignments following World War II: The transgressive politics of “conservative socialism.” Furthermore, this work contributes to growing awareness of ecumenical Christian impact within American life.

  16. Documenting the global impacts of beach sand mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R.; Griffith, A.

    2009-04-01

    For centuries, beach sand has been mined for use as aggregate in concrete, for heavy minerals, and for construction fill. The global extent and impact of this phenomenon has gone relatively unnoticed by academics, NGOs, and major news sources. Most reports of sand mining activities are found at the very local scale (if the mining is ever documented at all). Yet, sand mining in many localities has resulted in the complete destruction of beach (and related) ecosystems along with severe impacts to coastal protection and tourism. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines at Western Carolina University and Beachcare.org have initiated the construction of a global database of beach sand mining activities. The database is being built through a combination of site visits and through the data mining of media resources, peer reviewed papers, and reports from private and governmental entities. Currently, we have documented sand mining in 35 countries on 6 continents representing the removal of millions of cubic meters of sand. Problems extend from Asia where critical infrastructure has been disrupted by sand mining to the Caribbean where policy reform has swiftly followed a highly publicized theft of sand. The Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines recently observed extensive sand mining in Morocco at the regional scale. Tens of kilometers of beach have been stripped of sand and the mining continues southward reducing hope of a thriving tourism-based economy. Problems caused by beach sand mining include: destruction of natural beaches and the ecosystems they protect (e.g. dunes, wetlands), habitat loss for globally important species (e.g. turtles, shorebirds), destruction of nearshore marine ecosystems, increased shoreline erosion rates, reduced protection from storms, tsunamis, and wave events, and economic losses through tourist abandonment and loss of coastal aesthetics. The threats posed by sand mining are made even more critical given the prospect of a

  17. The Maastrichtiense Daniense and Middle Eocene age transgression in the Punta del Este basin and it regional correlation established by dinoflagellate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daners, G.; Veroslavsky, G.; Guerstein, G.; Guler, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the Punta del Este Basin (Uruguay), two transgressions were recognized through the study of dinoflagellate associations of Gaviotin Formation. The transgression cycles were assigned to Maastrichtian-Danian and Middle Eocene ages, separated by a paracomformity established through biostratigraphic criteria. A regional correlation for these transgressive cycles was stablished by the comparisson of these dinoflagellate associations with those of other Atlantic and Austral basins (Colorado, Neuquina and Austral) [es

  18. The Alberta oil sands story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    This report serves as a detailed introduction to the Alberta oil sands and their development. It includes a description of the oil sands deposits, an outline of crude bitumen recovery and upgrading processes, the role of Alberta Energy Company in oil sands development, environmental aspects, manpower requirements for oil sands development, research needs, and further oil sands projects. Presently proven recoverable reserves in the oil sands amount to 26.5 billion bbl of synthetic crude. Production from the Syncrude plant (125,000 bbl/d capacity) is expected to begin in 1977, followed by a Shell Canada operation around 1980. The provincial government will participate in the oil sand industry through its joint venture participation in Syncrude and its 50% share in Alberta Energy Company; the latter company participates in related aspects of the Syncrude project, such as pipelines. The result of Alberta's participation in the industry will mean that, directly or indirectly, the province will realize 60% of the total profits. The job creation potential of oil sands projects is estimated to be extensive, with a direct and indirect work force supported by oil sands activities possibly reaching 180,000 persons by the year 2000. Research needs have been identified, particularly in the area of in-situ thermal recovery technology, and the creation of the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority has been authorized in order to meet these needs. Although current reserves are sufficient to support 20-30 synthetic crude plants, a number of factors will limit expansion of the industry. 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. The influence of groundwater depth on coastal dune development at sand flats close to inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Filipe Galiforni; Wijnberg, Kathelijne M.; de Groot, Alma V.; Hulscher, Suzanne J. M. H.

    2018-05-01

    A cellular automata model is used to analyze the effects of groundwater levels and sediment supply on aeolian dune development occurring on sand flats close to inlets. The model considers, in a schematized and probabilistic way, aeolian transport processes, groundwater influence, vegetation development, and combined effects of waves and tides that can both erode and accrete the sand flat. Next to three idealized cases, a sand flat adjoining the barrier island of Texel, the Netherlands, was chosen as a case study. Elevation data from 18 annual LIDAR surveys was used to characterize sand flat and dune development. Additionally, a field survey was carried out to map the spatial variation in capillary fringe depth across the sand flat. Results show that for high groundwater situations, sediment supply became limited inducing formation of Coppice-like dunes, even though aeolian losses were regularly replenished by marine import during sand flat flooding. Long dune rows developed for high sediment supply scenarios which occurred for deep groundwater levels. Furthermore, a threshold depth appears to exist at which the groundwater level starts to affect dune development on the inlet sand flat. The threshold can vary spatially depending on external conditions such as topography. On sand flats close to inlets, groundwater is capable of introducing spatial variability in dune growth, which is consistent with dune development patterns found on the Texel sand flat.

  20. Sequence stratigraphic and sedimentologic significance of biogenic structures from a late Paleozoic marginal- to open-marine reservoir, Morrow Sandstone, subsurface of southwest Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buatois, L.A.; Mangano, M.G.; Alissa, A.; Carr, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    Integrated ichnologic, sedimentologic, and stratigraphic studies of cores and well logs from Lower Pennsylvanian oil and gas reservoirs (lower Morrow Sandstone, southwest Kansas) allow distinction between fluvio-estuarine and open marine deposits in the Gentzler and Arroyo fields. The fluvio-estuarine facies assemblage is composed of both interfluve and valley-fill deposits, encompassing a variety of depositional environments such as fluvial channel, interfluve paleosol, bay head delta, estuary bay, restricted tidal flat, intertidal channel, and estuary mouth. Deposition in a brackish-water estuarine valley is supported by the presence of a low diversity, opportunistic, impoverished marine ichnofaunal assemblage dominated by infaunal structures, representing an example of a mixed, depauperate Cruziana and Skolithos ichnofacies. Overall distribution of ichnofossils along the estuarine valley was mainly controlled by the salinity gradient, with other parameters, such as oxygenation, substrate and energy, acting at a more local scale. The lower Morrow estuarine system displays the classical tripartite division of wave-dominated estuaries (i.e. seaward-marine sand plug, fine-grained central bay, and sandy landward zone), but tidal action is also recorded. The estuarine valley displays a northwest-southeast trend, draining to the open sea in the southeast. Recognition of valley-fill sandstones in the lower Morrow has implications for reservoir characterization. While the open marine model predicts a "layer-cake" style of facies distribution as a consequence of strandline shoreline progradation, identification of valley-fill sequences points to more compartmentalized reservoirs, due to the heterogeneity created by valley incision and subsequent infill. The open-marine facies assemblage comprises upper, middle, and lower shoreface; offshore transition; offshore; and shelf deposits. In contrast to the estuarine assemblage, open marine ichnofaunas are characterized by a

  1. Disentangling the Effect of Valence and Arousal on Judgments Concerning Moral Transgressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Viña, Luis; Garcia-Burgos, David; Okan, Yasmina; Cándido, Antonio; González, Felisa

    2015-08-10

    An increasing body of research has investigated the effect of emotions on judgments concerning moral transgressions. Yet, few studies have controlled for arousal levels associated with the emotions. High arousal may affect moral processing by triggering attention to salient features of transgressions, independently of valence. Therefore previously documented differences in effects of negative and positive emotions may have been confounded by differences in arousal. We conducted two studies to shed light on this issue. In Study 1 we developed a questionnaire including vignettes selected on the basis of psychometrical properties (i.e., mean ratings of the actions and variability). This questionnaire was administered to participants in Study 2, after presenting them with selected pictures inducing different valence but equivalent levels of arousal. Negative pictures led to more severe moral judgments than neutral (p = .054, d = 0.60) and positive pictures (p = .002, d = 1.02), for vignettes that were not associated with extreme judgments. In contrast, positive pictures did not reliably affect judgments concerning such vignettes. These findings suggest that the observed effects of emotions cannot be accounted for by an increase in attention linked to the arousal which accompanies these emotions.

  2. Direct Chlorination of Zircon Sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwiretnani Sudjoko; Budi Sulistyo; Pristi Hartati; Sunardjo

    2002-01-01

    It was investigated the direct chlorination of zircon sand in a unit chlorination equipment. The process was in semi batch. The product gas was scrubbed in aqueous NaOH. It was search the influence of time, ratio of reactant and size of particle sand to the concentration of Zr and Si in the product. From these research it was found that as the times, ratio of reactant increased, the concentration of Zr increased, but the concentration of Si decreased, while as grain size of zircon sand decreased the concentration of Zr decreased, but the concentration of Si increased. (author)

  3. Oil sands and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, R. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Calgary Research Centre

    2004-07-01

    Oil sands are a significant resource for Alberta and Canada with continuing growth opportunity. There is a need to ensure sustainable development of the oil sands resources from a social, economic and environmental perspective. The industry has succeeded in terms of proven reserves, technology advancements, reduced operating costs, reliability and market accessibility. Some of the major challenges facing the industry include high capital cost, infrastructure, social services and keeping pace with growth. This presentation outlined the proactive measures that the oil sands industry has taken to manage environmental issues such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions, greenhouse gases, water management and land reclamation. tabs., figs.

  4. Alberta oil sands royalty regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asgarpour, S.

    2004-01-01

    The long term objective of the Oil Sands Business Unit of Alberta Energy is to pave the way for Alberta's bitumen production to reach 3 million barrels per day by 2020. This presentation described the national government's role in resource development. It was emphasized that since the Crown is the owner of the oil sands resource, it would benefit by providing strategic leadership and by generating a larger royalty base. The oil sands fiscal regime was described with reference to generic royalty, risk sharing, investment, and project economics. Business rule principles were also outlined along with criteria for project expansions. Both upstream and downstream challenges and opportunities were listed. 4 figs

  5. Radioactivity of some alpha, beta and gamma emitting radionuclides in surface marine sediments of different bays in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noureddine, A.; Baggoura, B.

    1999-01-01

    Samples of surface (0-15) cm marine sediments of different grain sizes, namely sand, muddy and fine sand, were collected in the western, central and east coast of Algeria, to measure concentrations of natural and artificial radioactivity. The aim of this study is to detect any radioactive contamination, its origin and also to determine the uptake of radioactivity by marine surface sediments

  6. Saltation of non-spherical sand particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengshi Wang

    Full Text Available Saltation is an important geological process and the primary source of atmospheric mineral dust aerosols. Unfortunately, no studies to date have been able to precisely reproduce the saltation process because of the simplified theoretical models used. For example, sand particles in most of the existing wind sand movement models are considered to be spherical, the effects of the sand shape on the structure of the wind sand flow are rarely studied, and the effect of mid-air collision is usually neglected. In fact, sand grains are rarely round in natural environments. In this paper, we first analyzed the drag coefficients, drag forces, and starting friction wind speeds of sand grains with different shapes in the saltation process, then established a sand saltation model that considers the coupling effect between wind and the sand grains, the effect of the mid-air collision of sand grains, and the effect of the sand grain shape. Based on this model, the saltation process and sand transport rate of non-spherical sand particles were simulated. The results show that the sand shape has a significant impact on the saltation process; for the same wind speed, the sand transport rates varied for different shapes of sand grains by as much as several-fold. Therefore, sand shape is one of the important factors affecting wind-sand movement.

  7. Reclaimability of the spent sand mixture – sand with bentonite – sand with furfuryl resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dańko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of new binding materials and new technologies of their hardening in casting moulds and cores production requires theapplication of reclamation methods adequate to their properties as well as special devices realizing tasks. The spent sands circulationsystem containing the same kind of moulding and core sands is optimal from the point of view of the expected reclamation results.However, in the face of a significant variability of applied technologies and related to them various reclamation methods, the need - of theobtained reclamation products assessment on the grounds of systematic criteria and uniform bases – arises, with a tendency of indicatingwhich criteria are the most important for the given sand system. The reclaimability results of the mixture of the spent moulding sand withGeko S bentonite and the spent core sand with the Kaltharz 404U resin hardened by acidic hardener 100 T3, are presented in the paper.Investigations were performed with regard to the estimation of an influence of core sands additions (10 –25% on the reclaimed materialquality. Dusts and clay content in the reclaim, its chemical reaction (pH and ignition loss were estimated. The verification of the reclaiminstrumental assessment was performed on the basis of the technological properties estimation of moulding sand with bentonite, where the reclaimed material was used as a matrix.

  8. Namibia : triaxial test on sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfelt, Jørgen S.; Jacobsen, Kim P.

    In connection with a harbour project the friction angle of a fine sand is required. On Friday 13 March 1998 the Danish Geotechnical Institute (DGI) delivered app. 2.5 kg sand for testing at the Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University. The present Data Report summarises the results...... of two CID, isotropically consolidated, drained triaxial tests carried out according to the instructions in DG1 letter dated 13 March 1998....

  9. Middle to Late Eocene paleoenvironmental changes in a marine transgressive sequence from the northern Tethyan margin (Adelholzen, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    GEBHARDT, Holger; ĆORIĆ, Stjepan; DARGA, Robert; BRIGUGLIO, Antonino; SCHENK, Bettina; WERNER, Winfried; ANDERSEN, Nils; SAMES, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The northern Tethyan margin is a key region for determining environmental changes associated with the collision of continental and oceanic tectonic plates and Alpine orogeny. Herein we investigated Middle to Late Eocene neritic to bathyal sediments deposited during an interval of unstable climatic conditions. In order to quantify paleoenvironmental changes, we developed a detailed age model based on biozonations of planktic foraminifera, calcareous nannoplankton, and larger benthic foraminifera. The section at Adelholzen covers the almost complete Lutetian Stage (calcareous nannoplankton zones NP15a-16, planktic foraminifera zones E8-11, shallow benthic (foraminifera) zones SBZ13-15) and large parts of the Priabonian Stage (NP18-20, E14/15), while the intermediate Bartonian Stage (NP17) is completely missing. Foraminiferal, calcareous nannoplankton, and macrofossil assemblages were analyzed for changes in paleo-water depth, mixing and stratification, paleo-primary productivity (pPP), food supply, and bottom water oxygenation. Paleo-water depth estimates range from 50 m (middle neritic, early Lutetian) to nearly 500 m (upper bathyal, late Priabonian). The combination of assemblage composition, planktic and benthic foraminiferal accumulation rates, and derived parameters (carbon-flux to sea floor, pPP) enabled us to identify a series of distinct paleoceanographic events of at least regional significance. Such events are characterized by considerable changes in primary productivity or reduced bottom water ventilation. Calculated pPP-values indicate oligotrophic conditions throughout. PMID:26346423

  10. Technology unlocks tar sands energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, C

    1967-09-25

    Tar sand processing technology has been developed primarily in the categories of extraction techniques and in-situ processing. In October, a $235 million venture into tar sand processing will be inspected by visitors from many points on the globe. A synthetic crude of premium quality will be flowing through a 16-in. pipeline from the Tar Island plant site of Great Canadian Oil Sands to Edmonton. This processing plant uses an extractive mining technique. The tar sand pay zone in this area averages approximately 150 ft in thickness with a 50-ft overburden. It has been estimated that the tar sands cannot be exploited when the formation thickness is less than 100 ft and overburden exceeds the same amount. This indicates that extraction techniques can only be used to recover approximately 15% of the tar sand deposits. An in-situ recovery technique developed by Shell of Canada is discussed in detail. In essence it is selective hydraulic fracturing, followed by the injection of emulsifying chemicals and steam.

  11. New paleoreconstruction of transgressive stages in the northern part of Lake Ladoga, NW Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, Anton; Sapelko, Tatyana

    2016-04-01

    Lake Ladoga is one of the largest lakes in the world and the largest in Europe. The watershed of lake Ladoga covers the North-Western part of European Russia and the Eastern Finland. Lake basin is on the border between the Baltic shield and the East European Platform. The most consistent paleoreconstructions of Lake Ladoga history are based on bottom sediments of smaller lakes, which used to be a part of Ladoga in the past. The stages of Ladoga evolution are directly connected with the history of the Baltic Ice Lake (BIL) and of the Ancylus Lake. Water level of these lakes was significant higher than nowadays level. Lake Ladoga in its present limits used to be an Eastern gulf of BIL and Ancylus Lake. The preceding paleoreconstructions of Ladoga water level oscillations were undertaken by G. de Geer, J. Ailio, E. Hyyppä, K. Markov, D. Kvasov, D. Malakhovskiy, M. Ekman, G. Lak, N. Davydova, M. Saarnisto, D. Subetto and others. The new data on multivariate analysis of bottom sediments of lakes which used to belong to Ladoga, collected in the last few years, allows to create several maps of Ladoga transgressive stages in Late Glacial period and post-glacial time. A series of maps showing the extent of Ladoga transgression was created based on lake sediments multivariate analysis and a GIS-modeling using the digital elevation data with an accuracy of several meters and an open-source software (QGIS and SAGA). Due to post-glacial rebound of the lake watershed territory, GIS-modeling should comprise the extent of the glacioisostatic uplift, so the chart of a present-day uplift velocity for Fennoscandia of Ekman and Mäkinen was used. The new digital elevation models were calculated for several moments in the past, corresponding to the most probable dates of smaller lakes isolation from Lake Ladoga. Then, the basin of Ladoga was "filled" with water into GIS program to the levels sufficient for the smaller lakes to join and to split-off. The modern coastlines of Ladoga and

  12. Seven year overview (2007—2013 of ethical transgressions by registered healthcare professionals in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Nortje

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A move has taken place internationally in the delivery and “consumption” of health care where if clients and patients (health care consumers hold the opinion that the health care professionals/providers' behaviour has had a negative effect, impact or outcome on them, they may lodge a complaint with the relevant health professional regulatory body. Ethical transgressions of health care providers can generally be clustered into the following three categories: a Competence and conduct with clients (e.g. abandonment, sexual intimacies, dishonesty, disclosure of information; b Business practices (e.g. billing, reports, documentation; and c Professional practice (e.g. referral upon termination, obtaining appropriate potential employment opportunities, nonprofessional relationships.The primary objective of this study was to analyse the ethical transgressions of registered members of the twelve professional boards in the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA in the period 2007 to 2013. A mixed methods approach was followed in this study which specifically focused on a historical research approach. The results indicate that the boards with the highest number of transgressions per the registered practitioners were firstly the Medical and Dental practitioners, closely followed by the Optometry and Dispensing Opticians Board. The predominantly complaint made against members of both these boards was for fraudulent conduct (collectively totalling to 85% of all fraudulent cases during the period and included actions such as charging for non-rendered services, issuing false statements and submitting fraudulent medical aid claims. Cognisance needs to be taken that the South African public will increasingly demand better services and that since they are being better informed via the media of their rights and have access to a broader database of knowledge (rightly or wrongly so the internet practitioners' opinions will not necessarily be accepted

  13. Explaining transgression in respiratory rate observation methods in the emergency department: A classic grounded theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flenady, Tracy; Dwyer, Trudy; Applegarth, Judith

    2017-09-01

    Abnormal respiratory rates are one of the first indicators of clinical deterioration in emergency department(ED) patients. Despite the importance of respiratory rate observations, this vital sign is often inaccurately recorded on ED observation charts, compromising patient safety. Concurrently, there is a paucity of research reporting why this phenomenon occurs. To develop a substantive theory explaining ED registered nurses' reasoning when they miss or misreport respiratory rate observations. This research project employed a classic grounded theory analysis of qualitative data. Seventy-nine registered nurses currently working in EDs within Australia. Data collected included detailed responses from individual interviews and open-ended responses from an online questionnaire. Classic grounded theory (CGT) research methods were utilised, therefore coding was central to the abstraction of data and its reintegration as theory. Constant comparison synonymous with CGT methods were employed to code data. This approach facilitated the identification of the main concern of the participants and aided in the generation of theory explaining how the participants processed this issue. The main concern identified is that ED registered nurses do not believe that collecting an accurate respiratory rate for ALL patients at EVERY round of observations is a requirement, and yet organizational requirements often dictate that a value for the respiratory rate be included each time vital signs are collected. The theory 'Rationalising Transgression', explains how participants continually resolve this problem. The study found that despite feeling professionally conflicted, nurses often erroneously record respiratory rate observations, and then rationalise this behaviour by employing strategies that adjust the significance of the organisational requirement. These strategies include; Compensating, when nurses believe they are compensating for errant behaviour by enhancing the patient's outcome

  14. The invention of gender in stand‐up comedy: transgression and digression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keisalo, Marianna Päivikki

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores gender in stand‐up comedy based on 20 months of ethnographic research in Finland and recent media discussion involving the booking of performers for a national comedy tour. As the vast majority of stand‐up comedians are men, discussions of gender tend to focus...... by looking at gender in relation to ‘invention’ and ‘convention’ in stand‐up comedy performance. I explore how some of the conventional, established and expected aspects of stand‐up, such as the public use of power and threat of failure, are related to ideas of gender. I then go on to show how comedy enables...... on the anomalousness of female comedians. These debates often rely on essentialist views of women and stand‐up comedy, presenting female comedians as transgressive due to the perceived incompatibilities of women and comedy. However, the situation in the clubs and performances is more complex. I chart this territory...

  15. Disgust, but not anger provocation, enhances levator labii superioris activity during exposure to moral transgressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Alexis E; Henry, Julie D; Rendell, Peter G; Grisham, Jessica R

    2014-02-01

    Physical disgust is elicited by, and amplifies responses to, moral transgressions, suggesting that moral disgust may be a biologically expanded form of physical disgust. However, there is limited research comparing the effects of physical disgust to that of other emotions like anger, making it difficult to determine if the link between disgust and morality is unique. The current research evaluated the specificity of the relationship between disgust and morality by comparing links with anger, using state, physiological and trait measures of emotionality. Participants (N=90) were randomly allocated to have disgust, anger or no emotion induced. Responses to images depicting moral, negative non-moral, and neutral themes were then recorded using facial electromyography. Inducing disgust, but not anger, increased psychophysiological responses to moral themes. Trait disgust, but not trait anger, correlated with levator labii responses to moral themes. These findings provide strong evidence of a unique link between physical disgust and morality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Multiple transgressions of Wallace's Line explain diversity of flightless Trigonopterus weevils on Bali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tänzler, Rene; Toussaint, Emmanuel F A; Suhardjono, Yayuk R; Balke, Michael; Riedel, Alexander

    2014-05-07

    The fauna of Bali, situated immediately west of Wallace's Line, is supposedly of recent Javanese origin and characterized by low levels of endemicity. In flightless Trigonopterus weevils, however, we find 100% endemism for the eight species here reported for Bali. Phylogeographic analyses show extensive in situ differentiation, including a local radiation of five species. A comprehensive molecular phylogeny and ancestral area reconstruction of Indo-Malayan-Melanesian species reveals a complex colonization pattern, where the three Balinese lineages all arrived from the East, i.e. all of them transgressed Wallace's Line. Although East Java possesses a rich fauna of Trigonopterus, no exchange can be observed with Bali. We assert that the biogeographic picture of Bali has been dominated by the influx of mobile organisms from Java, but different relationships may be discovered when flightless invertebrates are studied. Our results highlight the importance of in-depth analyses of spatial patterns of biodiversity.

  17. Domestic abuse as a transgressive practice: understanding nurses' responses through the lens of abjection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Taylor, Julie

    2013-10-01

    Domestic abuse is a worldwide public health issue with long-term health and social consequences. Nurses play a key role in recognizing and responding to domestic abuse. Yet there is considerable evidence that their responses are often inappropriate and unhelpful, such as trivializing or ignoring the abuse. Empirical studies have identified several reasons why nurses' responses are sometimes wanting. These include organizational constraints, e.g. lack of time and privacy; and interpersonal factors such as fear of offending women and lack of confidence. We propose, however, that these factors present only a partial explanation. Drawing on the work of Julia Kristeva, we suggest that alternative understandings may be derived through applying the concept of abjection. Abjection is a psychological defence against any threat (the abject) to the clean and proper self that results in rejection of the abject. Using examples from our own domestic abuse research, we contend that exposure of nurses to the horror of domestic abuse evokes a state of abjection. Domestic abuse (the abject) transgresses established social boundaries of clean and proper. Thus when exposed to patients' and clients' experiences of it, some nurses subconsciously reject domestic abuse as a possibility (abjection). They do this to protect themselves from the horror of the act, but in so doing, render themselves unable to formulate appropriate responses. Rather than understanding the practice of some nurses as wilfully neglectful or ignorant, we argue that through a state of abjection, they are powerless to act. This does not refute existing evidence about nurses' responses to domestic abuse. Rather, as a relatively unknown concept in nursing, abjection provides an additional explanatory layer that accounts for why some nurses respond the way they do. Crucially, it elucidates the need for nurses to be supported emotionally when faced with the transgressive practice of abuse. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Power as an emotional liability: Implications for perceived authenticity and trust after a transgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Peter H; Mislin, Alexandra; Tuncel, Ece; Fehr, Ryan; Cheshin, Arik; van Kleef, Gerben A

    2017-10-01

    People may express a variety of emotions after committing a transgression. Through 6 empirical studies and a meta-analysis, we investigate how the perceived authenticity of such emotional displays and resulting levels of trust are shaped by the transgressor's power. Past findings suggest that individuals with power tend to be more authentic because they have more freedom to act on the basis of their own personal inclinations. Yet, our findings reveal that (a) a transgressor's display of emotion is perceived to be less authentic when that party's power is high rather than low; (b) this perception of emotional authenticity, in turn, directly influences (and mediates) the level of trust in that party; and (c) perceivers ultimately exert less effort when asked to make a case for leniency toward high rather than low-power transgressors. This tendency to discount the emotional authenticity of the powerful was found to arise from power increasing the transgressor's perceived level of emotional control and strategic motivation, rather than a host of alternative mechanisms. These results were also found across different types of emotions (sadness, anger, fear, happiness, and neutral), expressive modalities, operationalizations of the transgression, and participant populations. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that besides the wealth of benefits power can afford, it also comes with a notable downside. The findings, furthermore, extend past research on perceived emotional authenticity, which has focused on how and when specific emotions are expressed, by revealing how this perception can depend on considerations that have nothing to do with the expression itself. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Perceptions of plagiarisers: The influence of target physical attractiveness, transgression severity, and sex on attributions of guilt and punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Arthey, Elizabeth; Furnham, Adrian

    2017-09-01

    The attractiveness-leniency effect (ALE) suggests that physically attractive targets are less likely to be perceived as guilty compared to less attractive targets. Here, we tested the ALE in relation to attributions of students who have committed plagiarism. British adults (N=165) were shown one of eight vignette-photograph pairings varying in target sex (female/male), physical attractiveness (high/low), and transgression severity (serious/minor), and provided attributions of guilt and severity of punishment. Analyses of variance revealed significant interactions between attractiveness and transgression severity for both dependent measures. Attractive targets were perceived as guiltier and deserving of more severe punishments in the serious transgression condition, but there was no significant difference between attractive and less attractive targets in the minor transgression condition. These results are discussed in terms of a reverse attribution bias, in which attractive individuals are judged more negatively when they fail to live up to higher standards of conduct. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Adolescents' Self-Attributed Moral Emotions Following a Moral Transgression: Relations with Delinquency, Confidence in Moral Judgment and Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krettenauer, Tobias; Eichler, Dana

    2006-01-01

    The study investigates adolescents' self-attributed moral emotions following a moral transgression by expanding research with children on the happy-victimizer phenomenon. In a sample of 200 German adolescents from Grades 7, 9, 11, and 13 (M=16.18 years, SD=2.41), participants were confronted with various scenarios describing different moral rule…

  1. Holocene transgression of the Rhine river-mouth area, The Netherlands/Southern North Sea: palaeogeography and sequence stratigraphy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijma, M.P.; Cohen, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed reconstruction of the palaeogeography of the Rhine valley (western Netherlands) during the Holocene transgression with systems tracts placed in a precise sea-level context. A high level of detail could be reached because of 1) favourable antecedent topography and subsidence

  2. Holocene transgression of the Rhine river mouth area, The Netherlands/Southern North Sea: palaeogeography and sequence stratigraphy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.; Hijma, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a detailed reconstruction of the palaeogeography of the Rhine valley (western Netherlands) during the Holocene transgression with systems tracts placed in a precise sea-level context. This approach permits comparison of actual versus conceptual boundaries of the lowstand,

  3. Oil sands tailings management project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godwalt, C. [Alberta WaterSMART, Calgary, AB (Canada); Kotecha, P. [Suncor Energy Inc, Calgary, AB (Canada); Aumann, C. [Alberta Innovates - Technology Futures, Alberta Governement, AB (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The Oil sands leadership initiative (OSLI) works with the Government of Alberta on the development of the oil sands industry, considering environmental, economical and social aspects. Water management was identified as one of most important areas to focus on. Alberta WaterSMART was requested to support the development and the management of projects resulting from the work done or underway in this field. The development of a regional water management solution stood out as the most interesting solution to obtain significant results. In the Athabasca Region, oil sands producers work independently on their water sourcing and disposal with particular attention to fresh water conservation and economics. The Athabasca River represents a source for mines and distant saline aquifers are the target of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operators. As part of a four-phase project aiming to study the environmental and economic footprint (EEF) benefit of alternatives for Athabasca oil sands production water supply and disposal, the purpose of the tailings water management project was to identify tailings treatment technologies that are ready to be implemented, and to design and evaluate solutions in order to improve regional oil sands production water sourcing and disposal. Alternatives were evaluated based on their total EEF, applying a lifecycle assessment methodology with a particular attention on the quantification of important performance indicators. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 40 figs.

  4. Oil sands tailings management project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godwalt, C.; Kotecha, P.; Aumann, C.

    2010-11-01

    The Oil sands leadership initiative (OSLI) works with the Government of Alberta on the development of the oil sands industry, considering environmental, economical and social aspects. Water management was identified as one of most important areas to focus on. Alberta WaterSMART was requested to support the development and the management of projects resulting from the work done or underway in this field. The development of a regional water management solution stood out as the most interesting solution to obtain significant results. In the Athabasca Region, oil sands producers work independently on their water sourcing and disposal with particular attention to fresh water conservation and economics. The Athabasca River represents a source for mines and distant saline aquifers are the target of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operators. As part of a four-phase project aiming to study the environmental and economic footprint (EEF) benefit of alternatives for Athabasca oil sands production water supply and disposal, the purpose of the tailings water management project was to identify tailings treatment technologies that are ready to be implemented, and to design and evaluate solutions in order to improve regional oil sands production water sourcing and disposal. Alternatives were evaluated based on their total EEF, applying a lifecycle assessment methodology with a particular attention on the quantification of important performance indicators. 25 refs., 8 tabs., 40 figs.

  5. Marine ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Studies on marine ecology included marine pollution; distribution patterns of Pu and Am in the marine waters, sediments, and organisms of Bikini Atoll and the influence of physical, chemical, and biological factors on their movements through marine biogeochemical systems; transfer and dispersion of organic pollutants from an oil refinery through coastal waters; transfer of particulate pollutants, including sediments dispersed during construction of offshore power plants; and raft culture of the mangrove oysters

  6. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albaiges, J.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants

  7. Emotional and behavioural reactions to moral transgressions: cross-cultural and individual variations in India and Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laham, Simon M; Chopra, Sonavi; Lalljee, Mansur; Parkinson, Brian

    2010-02-01

    Reactions to moral transgressions are subject to influence at both the cultural and individual levels. Transgressions against an individual's rights or against social conventions of hierarchy may elicit different reactions in individualistic and collectivistic cultures. In the current study, affective and behavioural reactions to transgressions of autonomy (rights) and community (hierarchy) were examined in India and Britain. Results revealed that although reactions to autonomy transgressions are similar in India and Britain, Indian participants express more moral outrage than do Britons in response to transgressions of community. Results also supported the contention of emotion-specificity in affective moral reaction: Participants in both India and Britain reported anger in response to autonomy transgressions, but contempt in response to violations of community. Importantly, these results extend previous research by demonstrating the importance of emotion specificity in moral reactions, as opposed to categorization or dilemma resolution. In addition, an individual difference measure of respect for persons was shown to moderate reactions to moral transgressions. Specifically, participants with high respect for persons were less negative to violators of the community ethic, but not the autonomy ethic. These findings highlight the importance of examining emotion-specific responses in the moral domain and introduce a significant individual difference variable, respect for persons, into the psychology of morality. Les réactions aux transgressions morales sont susceptibles d'influence à la fois aux niveaux culturel et individuel. Les transgressions contre les droits d'un individu ou contre les conventions sociales d'hiérarchie peuvent susciter de différentes réactions dans les cultures individualiste et collectiviste. Dans la présente étude, les réactions affective et comportementale aux transgressions de l'autonomie (droits) et de la communauté (hi

  8. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack D.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Grin, E.A.; Li, Ron; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, B.; Bell, J.F.; Yingst, R. Aileen

    2014-01-01

    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  9. Marine habitat mapping at Labuan Marine Park, Federal Territory of Labuan, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustajap, Fazliana; Saleh, Ejria; Madin, John; Hamid, Shahimah Abdul

    2015-06-01

    Marine habitat mapping has recently become essential in coastal marine science research. It is one of the efforts to understand marine ecosystems, and thus to protect them. Habitat mapping is integral to marine-related industries such as fisheries, aquaculture, forestry and tourism. An assessment of marine habitat mapping was conducted at Labuan Marine Park (LMP), a marine protected area in the Federal Territory of Labuan. It is surrounded by shallow water within its islands (Kuraman, Rusukan Kecil and Rusukan Besar) with an area of 39.7 km2. The objectives of the study are to identify the substrate and types of marine habitat present within the park. Side scan sonar (SSS) (Aquascan TM) was used to determine the substrates and habitat while ground truthings were done through field observation and SCUBA diving survey. Seabed classification and marine habitat was based on NOAA's biogeography program. Three substrate types (sand, rock, silt) were identified in this area. The major marine habitats identified are corals, macro algae and small patches of sea grass. The study area is an important refuge for spawning and juvenile fish and supports the livelihood of the coastal communities on Labuan Island. Therefore, proper management is crucial in order to better maintain the marine protected area. The findings are significant and provide detailed baseline information on marine habitat for conservation, protection and future management in LMP.

  10. Marine genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira Ribeiro, Ângela Maria; Foote, Andrew David; Kupczok, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag......-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from...

  11. From Exquisite to Transgressive Moderns? The Goncourt's "Decadent" Eighteenth-Century Art Revival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet Simpson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available As avid collectors of French eighteenth-century art, the Goncourts' contribution to its nineteenth-century history is well-known. This article, however, explores a less welldocumented aspect of their L'Art du dix-huitième siècle (1858-1875: that is, its articulation of an art of latency and decadence prior to the term's fin-de-siècle association with explicitly transgressive cultures of modernity. Indeed, the paper argues that the Goncourts were amongst the first writers of their age to use the art of an age linked with political and cultural decay, to foreground latently decadent tendencies in mid nineteenth-century French art and culture. In so doing, they were to produce a paradigm of "decadence" defining not decline, but a new and highly modern artistry of heightened aesthetic expression. The article will explore these ideas in two principal ways. First, it considers neglected relations between the Goncourts' and Taine's ideas on art, and specifically, the Goncourts' use and exploitation of Tainean indicators of decadence, broached in Taine's study on La Fontaine (1861, for opposing artistically and culturally productive ends. Second it develops these ideas in a discussion of the three artist-studies in L'Art du dixhuitième siècle in which the Goncourts' developing theme of "decadence" is articulated with especial force and prescience: in "Boucher" (1861, "Greuze" (1863 and ‘Fragonard' (1864. These, as the paper argues, suggest particularly defined channels for the Goncourts' engagement with key Tainean ideas of the period, offering related opportunities for their promotion of corruption, vice and decline as aesthetically and culturally compelling. In repositioning Boucher's sensualism as "indécence", Greuze's "innocence" as "perverse" and Fragonard's Italianate expressivity as "impure", the Goncourts not only situate their "histories" in the vanguard of a new, transgressive aesthetic understanding of eighteenth-century art, they re

  12. Modelling offshore sand wave evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nemeth, Attila; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; van Damme, Rudolf M.J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional vertical (2DV) flow and morphological numerical model describing the behaviour of offshore sand waves. The model contains the 2DV shallow water equations, with a free water surface and a general bed load formula. The water movement is coupled to the sediment transport

  13. Rheology of oil sands slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, R.; Zhou, J. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Mineral Oil Sands Unit; Wallace, D. [Dean Wallace Consulting Inc., Beaumont, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This study focused on integrating rheology and colloid science to improve recovery of bitumen in surface mined oil sands. Factors that influence recovery, such as conditions of particle interaction, solids concentration and shear rate, were reviewed. In an effort to understand the rheological behaviour of clay-in-water suspensions, an elaborate procedure was developed to separate an inter-bedded clay layer from a site at Albian Sands Energy Inc. The variables were water chemistry, solids concentration, and shear rate. The research study was conducted at the Alberta Research Council with the support of the CONRAD Extraction Group. A controlled stress rheometer was used to provide the quantitative evaluations of the clay slurry properties. The research results indicate that the viscoelastic properties of the slurry are highly influenced by the shear history of the slurry, solids content, calcium concentration, and sample aging. Shear thinning behaviour was observed in all slurry samples, but the slurry viscosity increased with test time for a given shear rate. In order to classify the slurries, a method was developed to distinguish the gel strength. The slurries were then classified into 3 distinct patterns, including no gel, weak gel and strong gel. The evolution of the experimental protocols were described along with the current stability maps that correlate the domains of the gel strength according to the solids concentration, calcium ion content, and shear rate. It was concluded that the rheological properties of oil sands slurries influence bitumen recovery in commercial surface-mined oil sands operations. tabs., figs.

  14. Geology on a Sand Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…

  15. Sulfurisation of lipids in a marine-influenced lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandison, C.M.; Alexander, R.; Kagi, R.I.; Boreham, C.J. [Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    Compelling evidence is presented for the process of lipid sulfurisation in humic coal-forming environments. The production of reduced inorganic sulfides by sulfate-reducing bacteria during a marine transgression, which occurred during early diagenesis, enabled the selective sequestration of functionalised lipids in the polar and asphaltene fractions from the Eocene, marine-influenced Heartbreak Ridge lignite deposit in southeast Western Australia. Nickel boride desulfurisation experiments conducted on these fractions released small but significant quantities of sulfur-bound hydrocarbons. These comprised mostly higher plant triterpanes, C-29 steranes and extended 17beta(H),21beta(H)-hopanes, linked by one sulfur atom at, or close to, functionalised sites in the original natural product precursors. These sulfurised lipids come from the same carbon sources as the free hydrocarbon lipids, except for the sulfurised extended hopanoids, which may be partially derived from a different bacterial source. These results indicate that the selectivity and nature of steroid and hopanoid vulcanisation in coal-forming mires is similar to that observed in other sedimentary environments. However, the diversity of higher plant triterpanes that can be sulfurised in marine transgressed coals is greater than that reported in immature terrestrial coals. This preservation mechanism explains the formation of the structurally related biomarkers in more mature sulfur-rich humic coals.

  16. U.S. Army and Marine Corps Equipment Requirements: Background and Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Feickert, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    ... on a rotational basis in combat conditions." In a similar manner, the Marine Corps has deployed its forces and equipment in what has been described as "the harsh operating environments of Iraq and Afghanistan" where the heat, sand, and dust...

  17. Connecting Brabant's cover sand landscapes through landscape history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskes, Erik; van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Harthoorn, Jaap; Maes, Bert; Leenders, Karel; de Jongh, Piet; Kluiving, Sjoerd; van den Oetelaar, Ger

    2015-04-01

    Noord-Brabant has the largest variety of cover sand landscapes in The Netherlands, and probably in Western Europe. During the Last Ice Age the area was not covered by land ice and a polar desert developed in which sand dunes buried the existing river landscapes. Some of these polar dune landscapes experienced a geomorphological and soil development that remained virtually untouched up to the present day, such as the low parabolic dunes of the Strabrechtse Heide or the later and higher dunes of the Oisterwijkse Vennen. As Noord-Brabant lies on the fringe of a tectonic basin, the thickness of cover sand deposits in the Centrale Slenk, part of a rift through Europe, amounts up to 20 metres. Cover sand deposits along the fault lines cause the special phenomenon of 'wijst' to develop, in which the higher grounds are wetter than the boarding lower grounds. Since 4000 BC humans settled in these cover sand landscapes and made use of its small-scale variety. An example are the prehistoric finds on the flanks and the historic towns on top of the 'donken' in northwest Noord-Brabant, where the cover sand landscapes are buried by river and marine deposits and only the peaks of the dunes protrude as donken. Or the church of Handel that is built beside a 'wijst' source and a site of pilgrimage since living memory. Or the 'essen' and plaggen agriculture that developed along the stream valleys of Noord-Brabant from 1300 AD onwards, giving rise to geomorphological features as 'randwallen' and plaggen soils of more than a metre thickness. Each region of Brabant each has its own approach in attracting tourists and has not yet used this common landscape history to connect, manage and promote their territories. We propose a landscape-historical approach to develop a national or European Geopark Brabants' cover sand landscapes, in which each region focuses on a specific part of the landscape history of Brabant, that stretches from the Late Weichselian polar desert when the dune

  18. Resenha visual - uma entre tantas transgressões possíveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Leticia Rauen Vianna

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente un compte rendue sur !e livre A Ilusão Especular de Arlindo Machado. Pourtant, comrne compte rendue, il est différent de ceux-là dites académiques traditionnels. Au lieu de quelques pages en présentant, décrivant de façon critique le livre a un lecteur probable, celui-ci, d'un prédominant caractere visuel, a été réalisé en rapprochant des fragment du dessin de la couverture du livre et fragments du texte de l'auteur. Des autres textes, qu'on voit en haut de chaque page, retirés du livre Como fazer uma Monografia de Délcio Vieira Salomon, on la fonction d'épigraphes, au même temps que définissent, donnant de explications et des éclaircissements sur ce que soit un compte rendue classique. D' autre coté, quelques f ois, ils misent en évidence la contradiction entre ceux-là discursives et celui-ci foulé en la visual i ation. Ce compte rendue visuel est, finalement, le résultat d'une "transgression poétique" prise par son auteur.

  19. Disorienting the Furniture: The Transgressive Journalism of Alfonsina Storni and Charlotte Perkins Gilman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela E. Méndez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Drawing on the journalistic prose of two major literary figures of early-twentieth-century Argentina and the U.S., this article breaches cultural, national, and geographical frontiers by comparing the discursive gestures through which Alfonsina Storni and Charlotte Perkins Gilman re-appropriate for themselves the canonical genre of essay-writing to advance their feminist agendas. By undermining the presuppositions underlying so-called feminine publications of their time, both women carry out an intriguing disarticulation of the classic private/public divide that empowers their female readers to conceive of female subjectivity in new and innovative ways. Almost a mythic figure in the world of Latin American letters, Alfonsina Storni has achieved world renown as Argentina’s most famous “poetess of love,” thus obscuring her substantial contributions to Argentinean periodical literature. Even though Charlotte Perkins Gilman has become one of the most influential figures in the history of American First-Wave Feminism, that reputation is largely founded on her feminist fiction and her book Women and Economics, while her journalistic accomplishments have received considerably less attention. The transnational dialogue between these two writers conjured up in this article unearths this more or less neglected corpus to reveal the ways in which both subverted traditional definitions of gender through a transgressive use of discursive spaces heavily coded as “feminine” by patriarchal ideology.

  20. Bull in a china shop: Alternate reality games and transgressive fan play in social media franchises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu S. Bakioğlu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article I examine the role of fan ARGs in Lonelygirl15 (LG15, a video blog that became one of the first social media franchises of YouTube. Eager to explore the narrative possibilities of Internet technologies, its creators set out to provide community-based storytelling that embodied the general spirit of coauthorship. To ensure viral distribution, the videos were shot to evoke the maximum amount of curiosity, teasing their viewers with a seemingly simple plot laden with clues that promised a deeper mystery. While fan creativity was encouraged, the concerns over creating a commercially viable story led to careful management of fan activities and strict definition of the boundaries of the LG15 canon. Intrigued by the mysterious beginnings of the show, some fans created ARG spin-offs to deliver a more engaging experience than the show initially offered. I argue that early fan ARGs became tactics through which fans engaged in transgressive play and negotiated a more meaningful role within the franchise.

  1. Disorienting the Furniture: The Transgressive Journalism of Alfonsina Storni and Charlotte Perkins Gilman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela E. Méndez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the journalistic prose of two major literary figures of early-twentieth-century Argentina and the U.S., this article breaches cultural, national, and geographical frontiers by comparing the discursive gestures through which Alfonsina Storni and Charlotte Perkins Gilman re-appropriate for themselves the canonical genre of essay-writing to advance their feminist agendas. By undermining the presuppositions underlying so-called feminine publications of their time, both women carry out an intriguing disarticulation of the classic private/public divide that empowers their female readers to conceive of female subjectivity in new and innovative ways. Almost a mythic figure in the world of Latin American letters, Alfonsina Storni has achieved world renown as Argentina’s most famous “poetess of love,” thus obscuring her substantial contributions to Argentinean periodical literature. Even though Charlotte Perkins Gilman has become one of the most influential figures in the history of American First-Wave Feminism, that reputation is largely founded on her feminist fiction and her book Women and Economics, while her journalistic accomplishments have received considerably less attention. The transnational dialogue between these two writers conjured up in this article unearths this more or less neglected corpus to reveal the ways in which both subverted traditional definitions of gender through a transgressive use of discursive spaces heavily coded as “feminine” by patriarchal ideology.

  2. Transgressing the norm: Transformative agency in community-based learning for sustainability in southern African contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila; Mukute, Mutizwa; Chikunda, Charles; Baloi, Aristides; Pesanayi, Tichaona

    2017-12-01

    Environment and sustainability education processes are often oriented to change and transformation, and frequently involve the emergence of new forms of human activity. However, not much is known about how such change emerges from the learning process, or how it contributes to the development of transformative agency in community contexts. The authors of this article present four cross-case perspectives of expansive learning and transformative agency development in community-based education in southern Africa, studying communities pursuing new activities that are more socially just and sustainable. The four cases of community learning and transformative agency focus on the following activities: (1) sustainable agriculture in Lesotho; (2) seed saving and rainwater harvesting in Zimbabwe; (3) community-based irrigation scheme management in Mozambique; and (4) biodiversity conservation co-management in South Africa. The case studies all draw on cultural-historical activity theory to guide learning and change processes, especially third-generation cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), which emphasises expansive learning in collectives across interacting activity systems. CHAT researchers, such as the authors of this article, argue that expansive learning can lead to the emergence of transformative agency. The authors extend their transformative agency analysis to probe if and how expansive learning might also facilitate instances of transgressing norms - viewed here as embedded practices which need to be reframed and changed in order for sustainability to emerge.

  3. Tidal dynamics in the sand motor lagoon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, S.; Radermacher, M.; De Schipper, M.A.; Stive, M.J.F.

    2015-01-01

    The Sand Motor is a mega-nourishment characterized by a very large sand volume of around 20 million m3 placed along the Dutch coast. The Sand Motor is a pilot project to evaluate the performance of an alternative nourishment strategy with respect to different functions of the coastal system. Within

  4. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  5. It's a two-way street: Automatic and controlled processes in children's emotional responses to moral transgressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dys, Sebastian P; Malti, Tina

    2016-12-01

    This study examined children's automatic, spontaneous emotional reactions to everyday moral transgressions and their relations with self-reported emotions, which are more complex and infused with controlled cognition. We presented children ​(N=242 4-, 8-, and 12-year-olds) with six everyday moral transgression scenarios in an experimental setting, and both their spontaneous facial emotional reactions and self-reported emotions in the role of the transgressor were recorded. We found that across age self-reported guilt was positively associated with spontaneous fear, and self-reported anger was positively related to spontaneous sadness. In addition, we found a developmental increase in spontaneous sadness and decrease in spontaneous happiness. These results support the importance of automatic and controlled processes in evoking children's emotional responses to everyday moral transgressions. We conclude by providing potential explanations for how automatic and controlled processes function in children's everyday moral experiences and how these processes may change with age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Anticipation of guilt for everyday moral transgressions: The role of the anterior insula and the influence of interpersonal psychopathic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seara-Cardoso, Ana; Sebastian, Catherine L; McCrory, Eamon; Foulkes, Lucy; Buon, Marine; Roiser, Jonathan P; Viding, Essi

    2016-11-03

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterised by atypical moral behaviour likely rooted in atypical affective/motivational processing, as opposed to an inability to judge the wrongness of an action. Guilt is a moral emotion believed to play a crucial role in adherence to moral and social norms, but the mechanisms by which guilt (or lack thereof) may influence behaviour in individuals with high levels of psychopathic traits are unclear. We measured neural responses during the anticipation of guilt about committing potential everyday moral transgressions, and tested the extent to which these varied with psychopathic traits. We found a significant interaction between the degree to which anticipated guilt was modulated in the anterior insula and interpersonal psychopathic traits: anterior insula modulation of anticipated guilt was weaker in individuals with higher levels of these traits. Data from a second sample confirmed that this pattern of findings was specific to the modulation of anticipated guilt and not related to the perceived wrongness of the transgression. These results suggest a central role for the anterior insula in coding the anticipation of guilt regarding potential moral transgressions and advance our understanding of the neurocognitive mechanisms that may underlie propensity to antisocial behaviour.

  7. Oil sands mine pit wall design and performance at Syncrude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R.; Danku, M; Purhar, G. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This study conducted slope stability analyses in order to compare pit performance at an oil sands mine with results from computerized simulations using conventionally known soil parameters. Ranges included fully-drained to fully-saturated piezometric conditions; full-peak strength conditions; fully-softened peak conditions; residual shear strength conditions; and undrained shear strength considerations. Pit wall designs were reviewed and a history of marine clay layers at the mine was presented. Assumed overburden fall-down limits were considered. Shovel overburden slope angles were calculated. An analysis of the review suggested that steeper pit walls provide less room for error and have a higher rate of failures. Incised pleistocene channels, joint and fracture areas as well as higher piezometric level areas also impacted on slope performance. Failed areas influenced ore volumes and led to productivity reductions below 50 per cent. It was concluded that the overburden portions of the oil sands mine ranged between 4H:1V to 5H:1V due to haul roads and the timing of top-bench pushbacks. Future plans for the mine must consider ore inventories, haul road requirements; running surface requirements; and ramping accesses. Future slopes at the oil sands mine will be buttressed with overburden and tailings storage areas, while longer-term slopes will be flattened. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  8. METHOD OF PROCESSING MONAZITE SAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welt, M.A.; Smutz, M.

    1958-08-26

    A process is described for recovering thorium, uranium, and rare earth values from monazite sand. The monazite sand is first digested with sulfuric acid and the resulting "monazite sulfate" solution is adjusted to a pH of between 0.4 and 3.0, and oxalate anions are added causing precipitation of the thorium and the rare earths as the oxalates. The oxalate precipitate is separated from the uranium containing supernatant solution, and is dried and calcined to the oxides. The thorium and rare earth oxides are then dissolved in nitric acid and the solution is contacted with tribntyl phosphate whereby an organic extract phase containing the cerium and thorium values is obtained, together with an aqueous raffinate containing the other rare earth values. The organic phase is then separated from the aqueous raffinate and the cerium and thorium are back extracted with an aqueous medium.

  9. Sea sand for reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia R, G.; Ordonez R, E.; Ordonez R, En.

    2002-01-01

    Some phosphates have the property to suck in radioactive metals in solution, what it is taken in advance to make reactive barriers which are placed in the nuclear waste repositories. In an effort for contributing to the study of this type of materials, it has been obtained the zirconium silicate (ZrSiO 4 ) and the alpha zirconium hydrogen phosphate (Zr(HPO 4 ) 2H 2 O) starting from sea sand in an easy and economic way. (Author)

  10. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high ... or by any means without permission in writing from the copyright holder. ..... Journal of Chemical Engineering Research and Design 82 ... Indian Ocean Marine Science Association Technical.

  11. Marine Biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  12. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  13. Globale Geschlechter und die Grenzen der Überschreitung Global Genders and Boundaries of Transgression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bauer

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender Crossing, die Überschreitung der hegemonialen Geschlechterstereotypen und insbesondere die Übertretung der jeweils zugeschriebenen sozialen, erotischen und physiologischen Geschlechtsrolle ist Gegenstand der lesenswerten und konzisen Studie der Frankfurter Ethnologin Susanne Schröter. Die Autorin schlägt dabei den Bogen nicht nur von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart, sondern auch rund um den Globus und setzt sich mit den vielfältigen Ansätzen (dekonstruktivistischer Geschlechterforschung und feministischer Identitätspolitik kritisch auseinander. Dabei zeigt sie gegen die Vorstellung von alternativen Geschlechtermodellen in außereuropäischen Kulturen, dass die Konstruktion von Geschlecht als binärer Kategorie offensichtlich universal ist. Gleichzeitig bestehe in allen Kulturen jedoch die Möglichkeit, „sich im Rahmen einer Außenseiterposition über festgelegte Geschlechtsrollen hinwegzusetzen“ (S. 219.Gender crossing, the transgression of hegemonic gender stereotypes and especially the violation of each attributed social, erotic and physiological gender role, is the subject of this worthwhile and concise study of the Frankfurt ethnologist Susanne Schröter. The author’s study not only spans from antiquity to the present, but also around the globe. The diverse methods of (deconstructivist gender research and feminist identity politics are also addressed. Against the notion of alternative gender models in non-European cultures, she hereby illustrates that the construction of gender as a binary category is evidently universal. At the same time, Schröter asserts that in all cultures the possibility exists “within the framework of an outsider position to disregard established gender roles” (p. 219.

  14. Crushed and River-Origin Sands Used as Aggregates in Repair Mortars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stefanidou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The systematic analysis of mortars from monuments or historic buildings and the simultaneous study of the construction environment show that it was common practice to use naturally occurring sand from local rivers or streams for the production of the mortars. There are cases though, mainly on islands, where sands of natural origin were limited, and marine or crushed sands were used possibly after elaboration. In all cases the particle size analysis of old mortar confirms the presence of even distribution of the granules. As regards the design of the repair mortars, there are criteria that should be taken into consideration in order to produce materials with compatible properties. The main properties concerning sands are the grain distribution and maximum size, the color, the content of fines, and soluble salts. The objective of this research is the study of the physical characteristics of the sands such as the sand equivalent, the gradation, the apparent density, the morphology of the grains, their mineralogical composition and the influence of these properties on the behavior of lime mortars, notably the mechanical and physical properties acquired.

  15. Sand lance: A review of biology and predator relations and annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, Martin D.; Willson, Mary F.; Armstrong, Robert H.; Piatt, John F.

    1999-01-01

    Six species of sand lance (Ammodytes) in temperate and boreal regions are currently recognized. Sand lance can occupy a wide range of environmental conditions, but all appear to be dormant predominantly in winter, and one species is in summer also. They lack a swim bladder and spend much of their time buried in specific substrates. Copepods are the primary food. Spawning usually occurs in fall or winter (although some species also spawn in spring), eggs are demersal, and larvae may hatch at times of low food abundance. Sand lance usually occur in schools and are regarded as a relatively high-quality forage fish.Sand lance constitute a major prey for at least some populations of over 100 species of consumer, including 40 species of birds, 12 species of marine mammals, 45 species of fishes, and some invertebrates. Variation in the availability of sand lance (and other forage fishes) can have major effects on the breeding success and survival of their predators. Commercial fishing and other pressures on sand lance populations potentially have ramifying effects on many species of wildlife.The bibliography contains over 1,700 references on the family Ammodytidae, with an emphasis on the genus Ammodytes. Keywords are provided for each reference and have been further organized into taxonomic, geographic, subject, and predator indexes.

  16. Ecology and demographics of Pacific sand lance, Ammodytes hexapterus Pallas, in Lower Cook Inlet, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, Martin D.; Piatt, John F.

    2000-01-01

    Distinct sand lance populations occur within the relatively small geographic area of Lower Cook Inlet, Alaska. Marked meso-scale differences in abundance, growth, and mortality exist as a consequence of differing oceanographic regimes. Growth rate within populations (between years) was positively correlated with temperature. However, this did not extend to inter-population comparisons where differing growth rates were better correlated to marine productivity. Most sand lance reached maturity in their second year. Field observations and indices of maturity, gonad development, and ova-size distribution all indicated that sand lance spawn once each year. Sand lance spawned intertidally in late September and October on fine gravel/sandy beaches. Embryos developed over 67 days through periods of intertidal exposure and sub-freezing air temperatures. Mean dry-weight energy value of sand lance cycles seasonally, peaking in spring and early summer (20.91 kJg-1 for males, 21.08 kJg-1 for females), and subsequently declining by about 25% during late summer and fall (15.91 kJg-1 for males, 15.74 kJg-1 for females). Sand lance enter the winter with close to their minimum whole body energy content. Dry weight energy densities of juveniles increased from a minimum 16.67 kJg-1 to a maximum of 19.68 kJg-1 and are higher than adults in late summer.

  17. Studies in Phlebotomine Sand Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-30

    Reporte de dos casos de [a ology of a sand fly, P/mlebolomu’,s diabolicuw Hall. in forma anergica difusa. Der matol. Rev. Mex. southwestern -Texas...Contribuiin al estudio de los Phmle- CDC, Veterinary Public Health Notes. USDHEW. bwmwnn de Costa Rica (Diptera, Psychodidae). Tesis. CDC. October. pp. 6- 7...janeiron R. j. 195 pp. the Unrited States (D1)pre ra: Psscfirdidae). j. Ortiz, 1. 1965a. Contribuci~in a! estudio tie los flebor- Partrsirtrl. 30:274-275

  18. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... The journal has a new and more modern layout, published online only, and the editorial .... the population structure of Platorchestia fayetta sp. nov. and their interaction with the.

  19. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the ... tidal height and amplitude can influence light penetra- ...... to environmental parameters in cage culture area of Sepanggar Bay, Malaysia.

  20. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ... consist of special issues on major events or important thematic issues. ... of sources, including plant and animal by- products.

  1. Marine biotoxins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ... (ciguatera fish poisoning). It discusses in detail the causative toxins produced by marine organisms, chemical structures and analytical methods, habitat and occurrence of the toxin-producing organisms, case studies and existing regulations...

  2. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pod diversity and distribution are important especially since studies on marine biodiversity are scarce .... Method II –. Zamoum &. Furla (2012) protocol. Method III. – Geist et al (2008) protocol ..... Public Library Of Science One 8: 51273.

  3. Marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of petroleum, waste materials, halogenated hydrocarbons, radioactivity and heat on the marine ecosystem, the fishing industry and human health are discussed using the example of the North Sea. (orig.) [de

  4. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form ... to optimize nucleic acid extraction protocols from marine gastropods, present an ...... Greenfield., Gomez E, Harvell CD, Sale PF, Edwards.

  5. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high ..... circulation patterns include the nutrient-rich Somali ...... matical Structures in Computer Science 24: e240311.

  6. Marine insects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng, Lanna

    1976-01-01

    .... Not only are true insects, such as the Collembola and insect parasites of marine birds and mammals, considered, but also other kinds of intertidal air-breathing arthropods, notably spiders, scorpions...

  7. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue .... shell growth is adversely affected. ... local stressors in action, such as ocean acidification ..... that the distribution of many intertidal sessile animals.

  8. Integrated sulphur management : gas, oil sands, reclamation and the challenges of fluctuating demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineau, R.

    2009-01-01

    International Commodities Export Corporation is a privately held company that provides fully integrated service offerings to add maximum value in designing, building, owning, and operating sulphur assets. The company also offers in-house, engineering, procurement and project management, as well as supply management, transportation and distribution services. It also has expertise in marine transportation. This presentation discussed integrated sulphur management, with particular focus on gas, oil sands, reclamation and the challenges of fluctuating demand. The presentation provided an overview of the sulphur market and oil sands sulphur. Key considerations for oil sands producers were also presented. The challenges of fluctuating demand include price and volume considerations; logistics; geography and distance to market; export/offshore versus domestic/United States; seasonal considerations; and an inelastic sulphur market. The presentation concluded with a status update of ICEC's initiative and the advantages of Prince Rupert, an economically viable export infrastructure to producers without onsite forming facilities. figs

  9. Characteristics of Sounds Emitted During High-Resolution Marine Geophysical Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be...marine transportation , oil and gas, marine mineral, and renewable energy projects. In particular, geophysical surveys support infrastructure siting...sand resource delineation, geomorphic characterization, environmental monitoring, archaeological resource identification, and mapping of shallow

  10. Galveston Island, Texas, Sand Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    billion m3 of beach quality sand . However, Texas projects to date have not utilized these sources because of transportation costs. The lack of nearby...estimate that the San Luis Pass flood shoal contains approximately 11.8 million yd3 of beach quality sand . However, it is expected that if permits...a source of beach- quality sand . 2. Sand could be intercepted before it reaches the present dry beach. ERDC/CHL TR-16-13 55 3. The volume of

  11. Crushed rock sand – An economical and ecological alternative to natural sand to optimize concrete mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mundra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the use of crushed rock sand as viable alternative to Natural River sand that is being conventionally used as fine aggregate in cement concrete. Various mix designs were developed for different grades of concrete based on IS, ACI and British codes using Natural River sand and crushed rock sand. In each case, the cube compressive strength test, and beam flexure tests were conducted. The results of the study show that, the strength properties of concrete using crushed rock sand are nearly similar to the conventional concrete. The study has shown that crushed stone sand can be used as economic and readily available alternative to river sand and can therefore help to arrest the detrimental effects on the environment caused due to excessive mining of river sand.

  12. Estuarine development and early Holocene transgression across an aeolianite substrate, Caesarea, central Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John A.; Austin, James A.; Goodman-Tchernov, Beverly N.

    2018-04-01

    Estuaries are important features on the coastal landscape due to their potential for rich, diverse, and abundant resources. The modern coast of the southeast Mediterranean is largely devoid of estuaries except in rare circumstances where ample sands are delivered to the shore, such as east of the Nile Delta. Whether or not today's condition is reflective of that present during lower sea-levels is greatly speculative in part due to a dearth of high-resolution sub-surface mapping in the shallower (sediments in water depths 45-10 mbsl, both within paleo-channels of the Crocodile and Hadera rivers, and more broadly across the shelf. These water depths correspond to early Holocene dates ( 10.5-7.5 ka) which, based on global sea-level curves, was a period of rapid ( 1-1.7 cm/yr) sea-level rise. Now-submerged aeolianite ridges (locally referred to as 'kurkar'), cemented aeolian deposits formed during pre-Last-Glacial-Maximum (LGM) seaward advance (regression) of the coastline, likely provided some offshore barrier for estuarine development. These were insufficient, however, to account for all the estuarine deposition interpreted, leading us to hypothesize that sand-constructed barrier islands were also present as sea-level rose during the Holocene. This supply of sand, clearly greater than what is evident today, could have originated from sea-level rise phase eroding Nile Delta sediments transported northward by littoral currents, or from increased output from local rivers during wetter climatic conditions. We also observe a transition from linear, shore-parallel aeolianite ridge morphology features on land and in shallow water, to nested, arcuate features below 30 mbsl. Whereas the linear ridges are thought to be coastal foredune remnants abandoned by the retreating shoreline, the arcuate forms resemble fossil parabolic (blowout) dunes. Based on the recent initiation of parabolic dunes on Cape Cod following anthropogenic denudation of forests there, we suggest that

  13. Comment représenter la transgression de genre - L'Hermaphrodite dans l'oeuvre de J. K. Huysmans -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Gabriela Stănică

    2012-03-01

    haunting the imaginary of the fin de siècle. Since the hermaphroditic body, this gender trouble that threatens the dual taxonomy of the society, is denied the ontological independence, this body enters the sphere of invisibility. Given that the transgressive body becomes a simple deviation, the hermaphrodite can only be a secondary representation. How are these mechanisms of the secondary representation applied to the literary productions of that period? The answer to this question could be found in Huysmans’ texts where the ambiguity of the hermaphroditic figure is captured into somatic and psychical representations that seem to confirm the epistemic paradigms of that fin de siècle.

  14. Tipo de perda e qualidade da recuperação em transgressões no relacionamento B2C

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarzbach, Loise Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Orientadora : Profª. Drª. Danielle Mantovani Lucena da Silva Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Ciências Sociais Aplicadas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Administração. Defesa: Curitiba, 30/03/2015 Inclui referências : fls. 116-124 Resumo: O objetivo desta pesquisa foi verificar a influência do tipo de perda (tangível vs psicológica) e do desempenho da recuperação (alta vs media vs baixa) de transgressões no relacionamento B2C - Business to Consumer sobr...

  15. Transgressions d’immigrés pour l’accès à d’autres « places » dans la société

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaïha Zeroulou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prendre la décision d’émigrer est un acte de transgression qui implique des processus de rupture, de remise en cause des normes traditionnelles. L’émigration déclenche une dynamique de transgressions plurielles qui met en jeu les capacités à agir des immigrés pour s’émanciper du groupe d’origine et réaliser le rêve «d’une vie autre» ailleurs. S’appropriant l’héritage parental des «compétences d’émigration», les enfants s’inscrivent dans la continuité en refusant la «condition immigrée». Fortement diplômés, ils occupent des «places» socialement valorisées. Immigrant transgression allowing access to other « roles » in society Abstract: Deciding to emigrate is an act of transgression that involves breaking away and challenging traditional norms. Emigrating triggers a multiple transgressions dynamic that jeopardizes the immigrants' ability to cut off ties with their group of origin and to realize the dream of “another life” elsewhere. Children appropriate the parental legacy of “emigration skills” which they are perpetuating by refusing the “immigrant condition”. Highly qualified, they occupy socially valued “roles”.

  16. Sand dune tracking from satellite laser altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabboor, Mohammed

    Substantial problems arise from sand movement in arid and semi-arid countries. Sand poses a threat to infrastructure, agricultural and urban areas. These issues are caused by the encroachment of sand on roads and railway tracks, farmland, towns and villages, and airports, to name a few. Sand movement highly depends on geomorphology including vegetation cover, shape and height of the terrain, and grain size of the sand. However, wind direction and speed are the most important factors that affect efficient sand movement. The direction of the movement depends on the main direction of the wind, but it has been shown that a minimum wind speed is required, e.g. wind gusts, to initiate sand transport. This fact prevents a simple calculation of sand transport from conventional wind data as wind records rarely contain sub-minute intervals masking out any wind gusts. An alternative of predicting sand transport is the direct observation of sand advance by in situ measurements or via satellite. Until recently, satellite imagery was the only means to compare dune shape and position for predicting dune migration over several years. In 2003, the NASA laser altimetry mission ICESat became operational and monitors elevations over all surface types including sand dunes with an accuracy of about 10-20 cm. In this study, ICESat observations from repeat tracks (tracks overlapping eachother within 50 m) are used to derive sand dune advance and direction. The method employs a correlation of the elevation profiles over several dunes and was sucessfully validated with synthetic data. The accuracy of this method is 5 meters of dune advance. One of the most active areas exhibiting sand and dune movement is the area of the Arabian Peninsula. Approximately one-third of the Arabian Peninsula is covered by sand dunes. Different wind regimes (Shamal, Kaus) cause sand dune movement in the selected study area in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula between 20-25 degrees North and 45-55 degrees

  17. Submarine sand ridges and sand waves in the eastern part of the China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziyin; Li, Shoujun; Shang, Jihong; Zhou, Jieqiong; Zhao, Dineng; Liang, Yuyang

    2016-04-01

    Integrated with multi-beam and single-beam echo sounding data, as well as historical bathymetric data, submarine bathymetric maps of the eastern part of the China Sea, including the Bohai Sea, Huanghai Sea, and East China Sea, are constructed to systematically study submarine sand ridges and sand waves in the eastern part of the China Sea, combined with high-resolution seismic, sub-bottom profile and borehole data. Submarine sand ridges are extraordinarily developed in the eastern part of the China Sea, and 7 sand ridge areas can be divided from north to south, that is, the Laotieshan Channel sand ridge area in the Bohai Sea, the Korea Bay sand ridge area in the southern Huanghai Sea, the sand ridge area in the eastern Huanghai islands and the Huanghai Troughs, the Jianggang sand ridge area in the western Huanghai Sea, the sand ridge area in the East China Sea shelf, and the sand ridge and sand wave area in the Taiwan Strait and Taiwan Banks. The distribution area of the sand ridges and sand waves covers more than 450,000 km2, wherein ~10,000 km2 in the Bohai Bay, ~200,000 km2 in the Huanghai Sea, ~200,000 km2 in the East China Sea shelf, and ~40,000 km2 in the Taiwan Strait and Taiwan Banks, respectively. The great mass of sand ridges are distributed within water depth of 5-160 m, with a total length of over 160 km and a main width of 5-10 km. The inner structure of the sand ridges presents features of high-angle inclined beddings, with main lithology of sands, sand-mud alternations partly visible, and a small number of mud cores. Dating results indicate that the sand ridges in the eastern part of the China Sea are mainly developed in the Holocene. Sea-level variation dominates the sand ridge evolution in the eastern part of the China Sea since the LGM, and the sand ridges developed in the area of < 60m water depth are appeared in bad activity, meanwhile sand ridges with good activity are still developed in large scale.

  18. Fuel options for oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation examined fuel options in relation to oil sands production. Options include steam and hydrogen (H 2 ) for upgrading; natural gas by pipeline; bitumen; petroleum coke; and coal. Various cost drivers were also considered for each of the fuel options. It was noted that natural gas has high energy value but the capital cost is low, and that coke's energy value is very low but the capital cost is high. A chart forecasting energy prices was presented. The disposition of Western Canada's northern gas situation was presented. Issues concerning rail transportation for coal were considered. Environmental concerns were also examined. A chart of typical gas requirements for 75,000 B/D oil sands projects was presented. Issues concerning steam generation with gas and mining cogeneration with gas fuel and steam turbines were discussed, as well as cogeneration and H 2 with gas fuels and steam turbines. Various technology and fuel utility options were examined, along with details of equipment and processes. Boiler technologies were reviewed by type as well as fuel and steam quality and pressure. Charts of cogeneration with gas turbine and circulation fluid bed boilers were presented. Gasification processes were reviewed and a supply cost basis was examined. Cost drivers were ranked according to energy, operating considerations and capital investment. Results indicated that fuel costs were significant for gas and coal. Capital costs and capital recovery charge was most significant with coal and gasification technology. Without capital recovery, cash costs favour the use of bitumen and coke. Gasification would need lower capital and lower capital recovery to compete with direct burning. It was concluded that direct burning of bitumen can compete with natural gas. With price volatility anticipated, dual fuel capability for bitumen and gas has merit. Petroleum coke can be produced or retrieved from stockpiles. Utility supply costs of direct burning of coke is

  19. Concentration of 60Co by marine organisms through sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Motokazu; Koyanagi, Taku; Saiki, Masamichi

    1976-01-01

    Uptake of 60 Co absorbed on sea sands by benthic marine organisms was observed in laboratory experiments, since the radioactive cobalt released from nuclear power plants or other establishments into coastal seawater trends to be absorbed on sea sediments and also various kinds of marine organisms live in bottom sediments. Few kinds of flatfishes (Limanda spp.) and shrimp (Trachypenaeus curvirostris) were reared in aquariums contained seawater and sea sands which were highly contaminated with 60 Co previously, and whole body retention and distribution of radioactivity were measured on the organisms taken up from the aquariums occasionally by a scintillation counter. Uptake of 60 Co from ingested sea sands was also observed on the flatfishes administrating the contaminated sands orally. Concentration of 60 Co by the flatfishes reared in the sands was not significant while the shrimp showed high retention of the radioactivity. The food habit of shrimp which usually feeds on organic detritus with other small benthic organisms is different from that of flatfishes, one of the carnivorous, and considered to bring the difference on the pathway of radionuclides concentration. Assimilation of 60 Co via the digestive tract of flatfishes through the sands was estimated as about 10 per cent of the administrated radioactivity. (auth.)

  20. Study of Black Sand Particles from Sand Dunes in Badr, Saudi Arabia Using Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Abbas Khwaja

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Particulate air pollution is a health concern. This study determines the microscopic make-up of different varieties of sand particles collected at a sand dune site in Badr, Saudi Arabia in 2012. Three categories of sand were studied: black sand, white sand, and volcanic sand. The study used multiple high resolution electron microscopies to study the morphologies, emission source types, size, and elemental composition of the particles, and to evaluate the presence of surface “coatings or contaminants” deposited or transported by the black sand particles. White sand was comprised of natural coarse particles linked to wind-blown releases from crustal surfaces, weathering of igneous/metamorphic rock sources, and volcanic activities. Black sand particles exhibited different morphologies and microstructures (surface roughness compared with the white sand and volcanic sand. Morphological Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM analyses revealed that the black sand contained fine and ultrafine particles (50 to 500 nm ranges and was strongly magnetic, indicating the mineral magnetite or elemental iron. Aqueous extracts of black sands were acidic (pH = 5.0. Fe, C, O, Ti, Si, V, and S dominated the composition of black sand. Results suggest that carbon and other contaminant fine particles were produced by fossil-fuel combustion and industrial emissions in heavily industrialized areas of Haifa and Yanbu, and transported as cloud condensation nuclei to Douf Mountain. The suite of techniques used in this study has yielded an in-depth characterization of sand particles. Such information will be needed in future environmental, toxicological, epidemiological, and source apportionment studies.

  1. Converted waves in shallow marine environments : Modelling and field experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Allouche, N.

    2011-01-01

    The shallow marine subsurface is explored for various engineering purposes e.g. constructing installations and platforms, laying pipelines and dredging for sand. Knowledge of the soil properties is essential to minimize the risks involved with these offshore activities. Energy resources in the form

  2. "I thought this course was going to be streamlined!": the limits of normal and the possibilities of transgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jennifer S

    2012-01-01

    This article offers an analysis of the parallels between neo-liberalism, epistemology, and pedagogy, specifically related to how neoliberal ideologies narrow the possibilities for considering transgressive sexualities. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) education encourages educators to consider queer lives and communities, and can do so in ways that leave intact or challenge dominant norms. Neoliberalism, an economic expression of liberalism, rests on ideologies that support privatization and a diminished notion of the public good. These ideologies can become intertwined with epistemological expectations in the classroom. Related to queer theory and pedagogy, neoliberalism can profoundly narrow the possibilities for queer subjecthood. Epistemological neoliberalism, or structures of knowing that endorse an often falsely rendered normality, can be active in the classroom. This article explores two comments students offered in courses on gender and communication to explore the ways in which neoliberal ideologies bear on epistemological and pedagogical practices in ways that profoundly narrow conceptions of the social and constitutions of the subject, particularly related to transgressive sexualities and queer lives.

  3. Understanding Colombian Amazonian white sand forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peñuela-Mora, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Although progress has been made in studies on white sand forests in the Amazon, there is still a considerable gap in our knowledge of the unique species composition of white sand forests and their structure and dynamics, especially in Western Amazon. This thesis aims to fill this gap by addressing

  4. Characterization of sand lenses embedded in tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Timo Christian; Klint, K.E.S.; Nilsson, B.

    2012-01-01

    Tills dominate large parts of the superficial sediments on the Northern hemisphere. These glacial diamictons are extremely heterogeneous and riddled with fractures and lenses of sand or gravel. The frequency and geometry of sand lenses within tills are strongly linked to glaciodynamic processes...

  5. Japan's involvement in oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, T.

    1994-01-01

    According to Japanese national policy, exploration and development by Japanese companies in overseas countries are promoted in order to ensure stable oil supplies. Japan Canada Oil Sands Limited (JACOS), part of the JAPEX group, was established during the 1978 world oil crisis to explore and develop Canadian oil sand resources in accordance with Japan's national policy. The JAPEX group, including JACOS, has invested $123 million in oil sands projects in Alberta. JAPEX's first involvement in oil sands was in the Primrose Project operated by Norcen in the Cold Lake area. Five years of cyclic steam stimulation pilot tests did not produce sufficiently good results to justify further operation. The second involvement was the PCEJ Project, a joint effort by four companies that are participating in a bitumen recovery test project in the Athabasca Deposit. JACOS holds 2,452 km 2 of oil sands leases in Alberta. Tests conducted since 1978 in the PCEJ Project include multiwell steam injection pilot tests, some of which showed promise. JACOS is also participating in steam assisted gravity drainage projects and in federal/provincial research programs. Obstacles identified in developing Alberta oil sands are the lack of a bitumen pipeline to Edmonton and the insufficient length of oil sands leases (currently 10 years), given the difficulties of oil sand development. 10 figs

  6. Seasonal fluctuations of phlebotomines sand fly populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An entomological survey of phlebotomine sand flies was conducted in the Moulay Yacoub province, central Morocco. An anthropic niche (Ouled Aid) and a wild niche (Zliligh) were selected. Sand flies were collected twice a month between April 2011 and March 2012, using sticky traps and CDC light traps. 3675 specimens ...

  7. On shelterbelt design for combating sand invasion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammed, A.E.; Stigter, C.J.; Adam, H.S.

    1996-01-01

    After a review of the scarce literature on using trees against sand encroachment, a quantitative experiment with a wide shelterbelt to combat sand invasion is reported on. Experimental work was carried out at the northwestern border of the Gezira Scheme (Sudan), an area of severe land degradation

  8. Design of dry sand soil stratified sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Erkang; Chen, Wei; Feng, Xiao; Liao, Hongbo; Liang, Xiaodong

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a design of a stratified sampler for dry sand soil, which can be used for stratified sampling of loose sand under certain conditions. Our group designed the mechanical structure of a portable, single - person, dry sandy soil stratified sampler. We have set up a mathematical model for the sampler. It lays the foundation for further development of design research.

  9. Pattern formation - Instabilities in sand ripples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. L.; v. Hecke, M.; Haaning, A.

    2001-01-01

    Sand ripples are seen below shallow wavy water and are formed whenever water oscillates over a bed of sand. Here we analyse the instabilities that can upset this perfect patterning when the ripples are subjected to large changes in driving amplitude or frequency, causing them to deform both...

  10. Detection of Salmonella enterica Serovar Montevideo and Newport in Free-ranging Sea Turtles and Beach Sand in the Caribbean and Persistence in Sand and Seawater Microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, A-K; Antaki, E; Stewart, K; Francis, S; Jay-Russell, M T; Sithole, F; Kearney, M T; Griffin, M J; Soto, E

    2017-09-01

    Salmonellae are Gram-negative zoonotic bacteria that are frequently part of the normal reptilian gastrointestinal flora. The main objective of this project was to estimate the prevalence of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica in the nesting and foraging populations of sea turtles on St. Kitts and in sand from known nesting beaches. Results suggest a higher prevalence of Salmonella in nesting leatherback sea turtles compared with foraging green and hawksbill sea turtles. Salmonella was cultured from 2/9 and identified by molecular diagnostic methods in 3/9 leatherback sea turtle samples. Salmonella DNA was detected in one hawksbill turtle, but viable isolates were not recovered from any hawksbill sea turtles. No Salmonella was detected in green sea turtles. In samples collected from nesting beaches, Salmonella was only recovered from a single dry sand sample. All recovered isolates were positive for the wzx gene, consistent with the O:7 serogroup. Further serotyping characterized serovars Montevideo and Newport present in cloacal and sand samples. Repetitive-element palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprint analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the 2014 isolates from turtles and sand as well as archived Salmonella isolates recovered from leatherback sea turtles in 2012 and 2013, identified two distinct genotypes and four different pulsotypes, respectively. The genotyping and serotyping were directly correlated. To determine the persistence of representative strains of each serotype/genotype in these environments, laboratory-controlled microcosm studies were performed in water and sand (dry and wet) incubated at 25 or 35°C. Isolates persisted for at least 32 days in most microcosms, although there were significant decreases in culturable bacteria in several microcosms, with the greatest reduction in dry sand incubated at 35°C. This information provides a better understanding of the epizootiology of Salmonella in free-ranging marine reptiles and the potential

  11. Flowability in crushed sand mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera, O. A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experimental study explored the relationship between mortar flowability and the voids content in crushed sand to determine the effect of grain shape and surface texture as well as dust content on the behaviour of fresh mortar. The findings revealed a close correlation between voids content and the volume of paste needed for mortar to begin to flow as a continuous material, mortar flowability and the water content needed to attain a given flowability. The comparison of the empirical findings to the results obtained with the Larrard (1, 2 model provided further information on the effect of sand grain morphology on fresh mortars.

    En el presente trabajo se plantea un estudio experimental de la fluidez de morteros basado en el contenido de vacíos de arenas machacadas, para comprender la influencia de la forma y textura superficial de los granos de arena y del contenido de polvo de las mismas sobre el estado fresco de morteros. Los resultados muestran la estrecha relación entre el contenido de vacíos entre granos y los volúmenes de pasta necesarios para iniciar el escurrimiento como un material continuo, la fluidez de los morteros, el contenido de agua para alcanzar una determinada fluidez, etc. El comportamiento evaluado se compara con resultados obtenidos aplicando el modelo de F. de Larrard (1, 2, permitiendo de este modo obtener mayor información de la influencia de la morfología de los granos de la arena sobre el estado fresco de los morteros.

  12. INTIMIDADES TRANSGREDIDAS: HABITAR EN TRÁNSITO / Transgressed privacies: to live in transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Prieto Peinado

    2013-11-01

    cities, looking for places to answer their daily needs and their human relations; places that are clearly public and which have now become scenes of transgressed privacies, by a clear exclusion on most occasions and transgressors of the supposed harmony of the conventionalized urban space. We have given the term “casa_indigente” (homeless house to the set of actions, itineraries and appropriations that reflect these ways of living, and with the study of different real cases we want to seek certain keys for the future reflection of the reformulation of proposals in the sphere of the production of the public space, as well as in the definition of contemporary living, especially with regard to the reflections on proposals for inhabitants and habitat with origins in marginality.

  13. Decadence in the Wilderness. Will to Transgression or the Strange Bird of Finnish Decadence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Lyytikäinen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The decadence that the Decadents identified in their own civilization was recognized through the model of Roman Empire, although they thought that the Romans were, even in their decadence, much more vigorous than the modern "cerebral" decadents. The figures of the late Empire, which fused the over-ripeness of culture with barbarism, were great even in their decline; the ancient uninhibited transgressions and vices fascinated the decadents although even the imagined debaucheries exhausted the modern decadents. Des Esseintes is, of course, a paradigmatic figure, connecting extreme weakness and fragility of the nervous system with wild sadistic dreams. He is capable of producing vigorous mental images, imagining sublimely horrible figures and emblems of disease, which fell on a fertile ground in later decadent writings. At the same time, the idea of the savage and the primitive which had underwent a radical change, when the romantic idea of the noble savage was replaced by the primitive as the lowest order of humanity, became fashionable even among many Decadents. This debauched barbarian or savage (whose representatives or relics the survived "primitive cultures" were marked the beginnings of human culture and was the suppressed foundation of all developed cultures. The danger of the return of this primitive side of man could threaten even the most civilized individuals or nations if the ties and restraints of culture were loosened (Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness represents this perfectly.  For the decadents, who did not see their own civilization in the terms of progress any more, and embraced ideas of entropy, dissolution and return to a state of new barbarism, the idea of the decline of their culture, thus, could become connected with the idea of the primitive "in us", the primitive lurking in the psyche of every individual and the primitive that was built in the culture itself. As the primitive became, increasingly, identified not only

  14. Sand transportation and reverse patterns over leeward face of sand dune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Dun, Hongchao; Tong, Ding; Huang, Ning

    2017-04-01

    Sand saltation has complex interactions with turbulent flow and dune form. Most models of wind-blown sand consider ideal circumstances such as steady wind velocity and a flat surface, and the bulk of data on wind flow and sand transport over an individual dune has focused mostly on the influence of dune shape or inter-dune space on the wind flow, neglecting the effect of morphology on sand saltation, particularly airflow and sand transportation over the leeward slope. Wind flow structures over the leeward slope of sand dunes have a fundamental influence on the organization of sand dunes. In order to understand sand dune dynamics, lee face airflow and sediment transportation should be paid more attention. Previous field observations could not measure turbulent flow structure well because of the limited observation points and the influence of experiment structure on wind field. In addition, the reverse sand particles over leeward face could not be collected by sand trap in field. Numerous field observations could not measure turbulent flow structure because of the limited observation points and the influence of experimental structures on the wind field. In addition, the reverse transport of sand particles over leeward face could not be collected by sand traps in field. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the turbulent flow structure and sand transport pattern over the leeward slope. A numerical model of sand saltation over slope terrain is constructed, which also considers the coupling effects between air flow and sand particles. The large eddy simulation method is used to model turbulent flow. Sand transport is simulated by tracking the trajectory of each sand particle. The results show that terrain significantly alters the turbulent air flow structure and wind-blown sand movement, especially over the leeward slope. Here, mass flux increases initially and then decreases with height in the reversed flow region in the direction of wind flow, and the mass flux

  15. A comparative study of the adsorption of uranium on commercial and natural (Cypriot) sea sand samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria Efstathiou; Ioannis Pashalidis

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption of hexavalent uranium on two different types of sea sand [e.g. a local, Cypriot (N S S) and a commercially available marine sediment (C S S)] has been investigated as a function of pH, initial metal concentration, ionic strength and contact time under normal atmospheric conditions. Before carrying out the adsorption experiments, the sea sand samples have been characterized by XRD, XRF, N 2 -adsorption, acid/base titrations and FTIR spectroscopy. Sample characterization showed clearly that the two sea sand types differ significantly in their composition, particularly in their calcite and FeOOH content. According to experimental data obtained from acid/base titrations and adsorption batch experiments sea sand composition affects the acid/base and the adsorption properties of the adsorbents. The extraordinary high affinity of N S S for hexavalent uranium in the alkaline pH region can be attributed to the formation of mixed U(VI)-carbonato surface species on the FeOOH crystal phases present in N S S, which effectively compete the formation of U(VI)-carbonato complexes in solution. On the other hand, data obtained by adsorption experiments carried out in solution of different ionic strengths don't differ significantly from one another indicating the formation of inner-sphere complexes. Finally, the adsorption on sea sands is a relatively fast two-step process. (author)

  16. Otters, Marine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, James A.; Bodkin, James L.; Ben-David, M.; Perrin, William F.; Würsing, Bernd; Thewissen, J.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The otters (Mustelidae; Lutrinae) provide an exceptional perspective into the evolution of marine living by mammals. Most extant marine mammals (e.g. the cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians) have been so highly modified by long periods of selection for life in the sea that they bear little resemblance to their terrestrial ancestors. Marine otters, in contrast, are more recent expatriates from freshwater habitats and some species still live in both environments. Contrasts among species within the otters, and among the otters, terrestrial mammals, and the more highly adapted pinnipeds and cetaceans provide powerful insights into mammalian adaptations to life in the sea (Estes, 1989). Among the marine mammals, sea otters (Enhydra lutris, Fig. 1) provide the clearest understanding of consumer-induced effects on ecosystem function. This is due in part to opportunities provided by history and in part to the relative ease with which shallow coastal systems where sea otters live can be observed and studied. Although more difficult to study than sea otters, other otter species reveal the connectivity among the marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems. These three qualities of the otters – their comparative biology, their role as predators, and their role as agents of ecosystem connectivity – are what make them interesting to marine mammalogy.The following account provides a broad overview of the comparative biology and ecology of the otters, with particular emphasis on those species or populations that live in the sea. Sea otters are features prominently, in part because they live exclusively in the sea whereas other otters have obligate associations with freshwater and terrestrial environments (Kenyon, 1969; Riedman and Estes, 1990).

  17. Developing new markets for oil sands products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, G.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a review by Purvin and Gertz of western Canadian crude oil supply. This energy consulting firm provides advise to the energy sector. It suggests that oil sands production will surpass declining conventional production. Oil sands supply includes bitumen, synthetic crude oil (SCO), and diluent. It is forecasted that oil sands will increase from 42 per cent of western supply in 2002 to 78 per cent in 2015. The potential of Alberta's oil sands was discussed along with a recent study of refined products and petrochemicals from bitumen. Upgrading, refining and petrochemical case studies were presented. The author examined if a Canadian oil sands upgrading project with high capital costs can be competitive with competing projects in the United States and internationally. In addition to supply and demand issues, the presentation examined infrastructure capability and market potential in the United States. The economic potential and risks of preferred business cases compared to upgrading to SCO were also evaluated. 15 figs

  18. Numerical simulation of aeolian sand ripples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Liqiang; Guo Liejin

    2004-01-01

    With a new horizontal saltation displacement vector, a model is implemented to simulate the initiation and evolution of aeolian sand ripples. In the model, saltation distance considers the effects of surface height and slope. A linear stability analysis is also carried out for formation of sand ripples. The results show that, the model can be able to successfully reproduce sand ripples which can increase in scale by merging of small ripples. The linear stability analysis indicates that sand ripples appear when the relaxation rate parameter is below a threshold value and wind strength parameter is larger than a critical value. The results also verified that the formation of sand ripples is a self-organization process

  19. Late Pleistocene shallow water sand transported to the slope at IODP Sites U1484 and U1485 off the north coast of Papua New Guinea: how, when and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain, G. S.; Browning, J. V.; Bova, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    IODP Exp 363 drilled two sites on a gently seaward-dipping terrace 18 and 21 km north of Papua New Guinea, enabling the study of mechanisms that bring shallow water sediment to the deep sea. We expect past changes in sea level and precipitation / fluvial run-off dominated this record, but additional processes may have been important. We examined Hole U1484B (1031 m water depth; 223 m drilled; 99.8% recovered) and detected 339 sharp-based sand layers 0.5 cm or more thick. In contrast to the background hemipelagic nanno-bearing silty clay, sand layers are graded or massive turbidites containing detrital grains, shallow-water benthic foraminifera, shell fragments and/or wood. δ18O values of Globigerinoides ruber tied to the isotopic curve of Lisiecki and Raymo (2004) show the densest concentration of sand layers in the last 310 ka occurred during the cooling trend of MIS stage 6. Stage 2 contains significantly fewer discrete sand beds, even during the coldest part of the LGM. Other times of glacial intensification show a similarly modest correlation to peak sand deposition. Sand layers strongly correlate with high values of magnetic susceptibility (MS) measured on unsplit cores, and when mapped to the MIS time scale, MS increases match times of ice growth / falling sea level more consistently than does the density of sand layers. We attribute this to reworking of discrete sand layers by bioturbation, indicating the need for caution tying the absence of sharp-based sands to times of transgression or low precipitation / fluvial run-off. Packages of especially thick and closely-spaced sharp-based sands match seismic reflections at Site U1484. Tracing these reflections throughout the grid of hi-res MCS site survey profiles reveals the areal distribution and transport path of sand as well as a direct tie to similar sharp-based sands in the more distal Hole U1485A (1145 m water depth; 301 m drilled; 103.8% recovered.) The distribution of sands through time might be

  20. Marine Battlefields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harðardóttir, Sara

    as they are an important food source for various marine animals. For both phytoand zooplankton predation is a major cause of mortality, and strategies for protection or avoidance are important for survival. Diatoms of the genera Nitzschia and Pseudo-nitzschia are known to produce a neuro-toxin, domoic acid (DA). Despite......Phytoplankton species are photosynthetic organisms found in most aquatic habitats. In the ocean, phytoplankton are tremendously important because they produce the energy that forms the base of the marine food web. Zooplankton feed on phytoplankton and mediate the energy to higher trophic levels...

  1. Experimental assessment of the liquefaction resistance of calcareous biogenous sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandoval Eimar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT

    Liquefaction is a phenomenon in which soils, typically sands, suddenly loose a substantial amount of their shear strength and stiffness, this often triggered by large-magnitude earthquakes. Most liquefaction research has focused on silicate-based sands and not on other sand types, such as calcareous biogenous sands Calcareous sands are usually composed of skeletal or non-skeletal remains of marine organisms, with unique characteristics in terms of their mineralogy surface roughness, particle shape, crushability, and intraparticle porosity. The unique characteristics of calcareous sands suggest that their geotechnical engineering behaviour can be substantially different compared to that of terrigenous sands, including their behaviour under seismic loading, which have not been very well studied

    This paper presents the results of an experimental programme aimed at studying the cyclic liquefaction resistance of uncemented calcareous biogenous sands retrieved from south-western Puerto Rico Evaluation of liquefaction potential involved a comprehensive set of isotropically consolidated undrained cyclic triaxial tests on reconstituted samples of this calcareous sand. The programme also included tests on Ottawa terrigenous silica sand samples prepared and tested in similar conditions for comparison purposes.

    In general, the experimental results showed that Cabo Rojo calcareous sands had higher liquefaction resistance compared to Ottawa silica sands tested under similar conditions. Important differences between calcareous and silica sands regarding pore pressure generation characteristics and axial strain accumulation were also observed


  2. Geology and resources of the Tar Sand Triangle, southeastern Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dana, G.F.; Oliver, R.L.; Elliott, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    The Tar Sand Triangle is located in southeastern Utah between the Dirty Devil and Colorado Rivers and covers an area of about 200 square miles. The geology of the area consists of gently northwest dipping strata exposed in the box canyons and slopes of the canyonlands morphology. Strata in the area range in age from Jurassic to Permian. The majority of tar sand saturation is found in the Permian White Rim Sandstone Member of the Cutler Formation. The White Rim Sandstone Member consists of a clean, well-sorted sandstone which was deposited in a shallow marine environment. Resources were calculated from analytical data from the three coreholes drilled by the Laramie Energy Technology Center and other available data. The total in-place resources, determined from this study, are 6.3 billion barels. Previous estimates ranged from 2.9 to 16 million barrels. More coring and analyses will be necessary before a more accurate determination of resources can be attempted. 8 references, 11 figures, 7 tables.

  3. A transgressive Santonian-Campanian boundary sequence revisited - High resolution planktonic and benthic foraminifera stratigraphy of the Schattau section, Northern Calcareous Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfgring, Erik; Wagreich, Michael; Summesberger, Herbert; Kroh, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The Schattau section is part of the Austrian Gosau Group, Northern Calcareous Alps. We record a Santonian to early Campanian transgressive sequence. Previous investigations already provide a biostratigraphic framework; a multidisciplinary study to reveal the local stratigraphy and palaeoenvironmental properties: Planktonic foraminifera, calcareous nannoplankton, ammonite, echinoid and crinoid biostratigraphy data suggest a Santonian to earliest Campanian age for this section (see Wagreich et al., 2009). This work aims at a high resolution assessment of foraminiferal assemblages recorded from a time interval that has undergone significant palaeoenvironmental changes. The Santonian Hochmoos Formation, with the Sandkalkbank Member representing it's topmost subunit, is overlain by the Santonian to Campanian Bibereck Formation. While The Hochmoos Formation records a shallowing succession that finds the Sandkalkbank Member (representing very shallow conditions, sometimes sub aerial exposure) at its top. The overlying Bibereck Formation records a distinct deepening trend displaying increasingly marine, neritic to outer neritic conditions. The stratigraphically older subunits of the Schattau sections are characterised by abundant larger benthic foraminifera (Nummofallotia cretacea), miliolid foraminifera (Quinqueloculina spp, Spiroloculina fassistomata) as well as rotaliid foraminifera (Hoeglundia spp., Gavellina spp.). The Sandkalkbank member marks the end of the shallow water sequence recorded from foraminifera assemblages at the Schattau section. Up section communities are characterised by increasing share of planktonic foraminifera. Biostratigraphic marker fossils like Dicarinella asymetrica and Sigalia sp. (decoratissima?) were identified and indicate a Santonian age for the Bibereck Formation. The appearance of Globotruncanita elevata and disappearance of D. asymetrica and Sigalia sp. Suggests an early Campanian age for the topmost part of the Schattau section

  4. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science. The journal has a new and more modern layout, published online only, and the editorial. Board was increased to include more disciplines pertaining to marine sciences. While important chal- lenges still lie ahead, we are steadily advancing our standard to increase visibility and dissemination throughout the global ...

  5. Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  6. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mauritius Marine Conservation Society through their. Abstract. While no populations of seals are resident in the tropical Indian Ocean, vagrant animals are occasionally sighted in the region. Here we detail two new sightings of pinnipeds in the Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, Reunion and Rodri- gues) since 1996 and review ...

  7. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J O U R N A L O F. Marine Science. Coral reefs of Mauritius in a changing global climate ..... in confined aquifers, and a lesser influence in uncon- fined systems. On the ... massive cloud cover during the critical months, some. 70% bleaching ...

  8. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Copy Editor Timothy Andrew. Published ... 2007; Zhou et al., 2009) and they play an important role in the ... At both sites, zonal variation in TMPB was evident with significantly higher C-biomass closer to ... ton is considered to be an essential parameter in eco- systems ...... logical significance of toxic marine dinoflagellates.

  9. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sustainable coastal development in the region, as well as contributing to the ... between humans and the coastal and marine environment. ... exploitation for timber, fuel wood, aquaculture, urban. Abstract. Given the high dependence of coastal communities on natural resources, mangrove conservation is a challenge in.

  10. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means ... USA/Norway ... The last couple of years have been a time of change for the Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine.

  11. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chief Editor José Paula | Faculty of Sciences of University of Lisbon, Portugal. Copy Editor Timothy Andrew. Published biannually. Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high quality research generated in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) ...

  12. Nannofossil and sequence chronostratigraphy of a marine flooding surface in the Turonian of Trinidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, T.C. [Exxon Exploration Company, Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-08-01

    A multi-well regional study in the Southern basin, Trinidad, reveals a very pronounced marine flooding surface in Turonian- age sediments. This surface is correlatable with global Turonian marine transgressions and genetically ties with the best hydrocarbon source rocks known in Trinidad. The Turonian marine flooding surface yields abundant nannoplankton. Most notable is Lithastrinus moratus Stover, a short-ranging marker of the Lithastrinus evolutionary series. Two morphotypes of Lithastrinus moratus have been found. The more delicate eight-rayed form evolves from Lithastrinus floralls in early Turonian time. Based on observations in Ste. Croix-1, Rocky Palace-1, Rochard-1, Marac-1, Moniga East-15, Iguana River-1, Lizard Spring-I and Antilles Brighton-102, it occurs more frequently in the lower Turonian, but is rare in Trinidad. It has a more robust seven-rayed descendant that appears to be restricted to a narrow interval associated with peak Turonian marine transgression and usually dominates the nannofossil assemblage in the condensed section. The highest stratigraphic occurrence of this form coincides with the lowest occurrence of Marthastentes furcatus based on core sample studies. The age of the marine flooding surface is therefore well constrained to be in zone CC12 and is considered to be correlative with the 89 million year marine flooding surface. The marine flooding surface appears intercontinentally correlatable as it has also been identified in the Arcadia Shale of the Eagle Ford Group in Texas. Because of its wide areal distribution and ease of paleontological recognition, this surface is ideal for regional hydrocarbon source rock mapping, stratal correlation and structural control.

  13. Critical State of Sand Matrix Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marto, Aminaton; Tan, Choy Soon; Makhtar, Ahmad Mahir; Kung Leong, Tiong

    2014-01-01

    The Critical State Soil Mechanic (CSSM) is a globally recognised framework while the critical states for sand and clay are both well established. Nevertheless, the development of the critical state of sand matrix soils is lacking. This paper discusses the development of critical state lines and corresponding critical state parameters for the investigated material, sand matrix soils using sand-kaolin mixtures. The output of this paper can be used as an interpretation framework for the research on liquefaction susceptibility of sand matrix soils in the future. The strain controlled triaxial test apparatus was used to provide the monotonic loading onto the reconstituted soil specimens. All tested soils were subjected to isotropic consolidation and sheared under undrained condition until critical state was ascertain. Based on the results of 32 test specimens, the critical state lines for eight different sand matrix soils were developed together with the corresponding values of critical state parameters, M, λ, and Γ. The range of the value of M, λ, and Γ is 0.803–0.998, 0.144–0.248, and 1.727–2.279, respectively. These values are comparable to the critical state parameters of river sand and kaolin clay. However, the relationship between fines percentages and these critical state parameters is too scattered to be correlated. PMID:24757417

  14. Invasive plants on disturbed Korean sand dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kee Dae

    2005-01-01

    The sand dunes in coastal regions of South Korea are important ecosystems because of their small size, the rare species found in this habitat, and the beautiful landscapes they create. This study investigated the current vegetative status of sand dunes on three representative coasts of the Korean peninsula, and on the coasts of Cheju Island, and assessed the conditions caused by invasive plants. The relationships between the degree of invasion and 14 environmental variables were studied. Plots of sand dunes along line transects perpendicular to the coastal lines were established to estimate vegetative species coverage. TWINSPAN (Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis), CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and DCCA (Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis) were performed to classify communities on sand dunes and assess species composition variation. Carex kobomugi, Elymus mollis, and Vitex rotundifolia were found to be the dominant species plotted on the east, the west, and the peripheral coasts of Cheju Island, respectively. Vegetation on the south coast was totally extinct. The 19 communities, including representative C. kobomugi, C. kobomugi- Ixeris repens, C. kobomugi- Oenothera biennis, E. mollis, Lolium multiflorum- Calystegia soldanella, and V. rotundifolia- C. kobomugi, were all classified according to TWINSPAN. Oenothera biennis and L. multiflorum were exotics observed within these native communities. CCA showed that invasive native and exotic species distribution was segregated significantly, according to disturbance level, exotic species number, gravel, sand and silt contents, as well as vegetation size. It further revealed that human disturbance can strongly favor the settlement of invasive and exotic species. Restoration options to reduce exotic plants in the South Korean sand dune areas were found to be the introduction of native plant species from one sand dune into other sand dune areas, prohibition of building and the introduction of exotic

  15. Growth and abundance of Pacific Sand Lance, Ammodytes hexapterus, under differing oceanographic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, Martin D.; Gray, Floyd; Piatt, John F.

    2002-01-01

    Dramatic changes in seabird and marine mammal stocks in the Gulf of Alaska have been linked to shifts in abundance and composition of forage fish stocks over the past 20 years. The relative value (e.g., size and condition of individual fish, abundance) of specific forage fish stocks to predators under temporally changing oceanographic regimes is also expected to vary. We inferred potential temporal responses in abundance, growth, and age structure of a key forage fish, sand lance, by studying across spatially different oceanographic regimes. Marked meso-scale differences in abundance, growth, and mortality existed in conjunction with these differing regimes. Growth rate within stocks (between years) was positively correlated with temperature. However, this relationship did not exist among stocks (locations) and differing growth rates were better correlated to marine productivity. Sand lance were least abundant and grew slowest at the warmest site (Chisik Island), an area of limited habitat and low food abundance. Abundance and growth of juvenile sand lance was highest at the coolest site (Barren Islands), an area of highly productive upwelled waters. Sand lance at two sites located oceanographically between the Barren Islands and Chisik Island (inner- and outer-Kachemak Bay) displayed correspondingly intermediate abundance and growth. Resident predators at these sites are presented with markedly different numbers and quality of this key prey species. Our results suggest that at the decadal scale, Gulf of Alaska forage fish such as sand lance are probably more profoundly affected by changes in abundance and quality of their planktonic food, than by temperature alone.

  16. Watching Faults Grow in Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Accretionary sandbox experiments provide a rich environment for investigating the processes of fault development. These experiments engage students because 1) they enable direct observation of fault growth, which is impossible in the crust (type 1 physical model), 2) they are not only representational but can also be manipulated (type 2 physical model), 3) they can be used to test hypotheses (type 3 physical model) and 4) they resemble experiments performed by structural geology researchers around the world. The structural geology courses at UMass Amherst utilize a series of accretionary sandboxes experiments where students first watch a video of an experiment and then perform a group experiment. The experiments motivate discussions of what conditions they would change and what outcomes they would expect from these changes; hypothesis development. These discussions inevitably lead to calculations of the scaling relationships between model and crustal fault growth and provide insight into the crustal processes represented within the dry sand. Sketching of the experiments has been shown to be a very effective assessment method as the students reveal which features they are analyzing. Another approach used at UMass is to set up a forensic experiment. The experiment is set up with spatially varying basal friction before the meeting and students must figure out what the basal conditions are through the experiment. This experiment leads to discussions of equilibrium and force balance within the accretionary wedge. Displacement fields can be captured throughout the experiment using inexpensive digital image correlation techniques to foster quantitative analysis of the experiments.

  17. Sudan challenges the sand dragon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, J

    1978-01-01

    Formerly productive areas have become wasteland as the desert advances in the Sudan. To understand how desertification is undermining the very survival of the Sahel, one ecosystem is reviewed in detail here: the gum arabic zone of Kordofan. After cotton, gum arabic is Sudan's largest export, worth from $14-26 million in recent years. In this zone the ecologically balanced cycle of gum gardens, fire, grain crops, and fallow is now breaking down; the 1968-1973 drought having in many areas delivered the final blow. Because of a growing population, the cultivation period is extended, and the soil becomes impoverished. Overgrazing in the fallow period, and the lopping of gum trees for firewood is producing a low return on the gum trees. Without this gum to harvest for cash, farmers must repeatedly replant their subsistence crops until the land becomes useless sand. The Sudanese have recognized the problem earlier than most, and a number of imaginative and practicable pilot projects are already in use: 1) waterpoint management; 2) construction of firebreaks; 3) land threatened by shifting dunes has been enclosed by stockproof fence and afforested with local trees; and 4) shelter belts have been planted around town perimeters where old gum tree stumps have started to sprout and the grass is reseeding itself. Out of these pilot projects, and with the advice of the U.N. Environment Program, the U.N. Development Program, and FAO, the Sudanese have developed a modest $26 million desert encroachment control and rehabilitation program (DECARP).

  18. Sand to Root Transfer of PAHs and PCBs by Carrots Grown on Sand with Pure Substances and Biosolids Amended Sand

    OpenAIRE

    Sablayrolles, Caroline; Montréjaud-Vignoles, Mireille; Silvestre, Jérôme; Patria, Lucie

    2006-01-01

    A study on behaviour of trace organic compounds (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAH, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls, PCB) in a sand-plant system has been carried out, with the reclamation of wastewater treatment plant biosolids for agriculture in mind. Carrot plants (Daucus carota) were grown on soilless culture (sand), to provide optimal transfer conditions, in plant containers inside a temperature regulated greenhouse. There were two types of experiment. The trace organic compounds have i...

  19. The first occurence of a pleistocenic coral along the Brazilian coast - Age dating of the maximum of the penultimate transgression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.; Bittencourt, A.C.S.P.; Silva Vilas Boas, G. da

    1982-01-01

    Age dating work on a coral from Olivenca, Bahia, Brazil, has disclosed the first occurrence of a pleistocenic coral along the Brazilian coast. This coral has its top at the present high tide level and is covered by a series of beach-ridges formed after the maximum of the penultimate transgression that rose above present sea level. Five determinations by the Ionium ( 230 Th)/Uranium method produced ages ranging from 116.000 to 142.000 years B.P., indicating that maximum in the area to have taken place 120.000-125.000 years B.P., consistent with its documentation in other parts of the world. At that time, mean sea level was 8 + - 2 m above the present. (Author) [pt

  20. Coastal cliffs, rock-slope failures and Late Quaternary transgressions of the Black Sea along southern Crimea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pánek, Tomáš; Lenart, Jan; Hradecký, Jan; Hercman, Helena; Braucher, Règis; Šilhán, Karel; Škarpich, Václav

    2018-02-01

    Rock-slope failures represent a significant hazard along global coastlines, but their chronology remains poorly documented. Here, we focus on the geomorphology and chronology of giant rockslides affecting the Crimean Mountains along the Black Sea coast. Geomorphic evidence suggests that high (>100 m) limestone cliffs flanking the southern slopes of the Crimean Mountains are scarps of rockslides nested within larger deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs). Such pervasive slope failures originated due to lateral spreading of intensively faulted Late Jurassic carbonate blocks moving atop weak/plastic Late Triassic flysch and tuff layers. By introducing a dating strategy relying on the combination of the uranium-thorium dating (U-Th) of exposed calcareous speleothems covering the landslide scarps with the 36Cl exposure dating of rock walls, we are able to approximate the time interval between the origin of incipient crevices and the final collapse of limestone blocks that exposed the cliff faces. For the three representative large-scale rockslides between the towns of Foros and Yalta, the initiation of the DSGSDs as evidenced by the widening of crevices and the onset of speleothem accumulation was >300 ka BP, but the recent cliff morphology along the coast is the result of Late Pleistocene/Holocene failures spanning ∼20-0.5 ka BP. The exposures of rockslide scarps occurred mostly at ∼20-15, ∼8, ∼5-4 and ∼2-0.5 ka, which substantially coincide with the last major Black Sea transgressions and/or more humid Holocene intervals. Our study suggests that before ultimate fast and/or catastrophic slope failures, the relaxation of rock massifs correlative with karstification, cracks opening, and incipient sliding lasted on the order of 104-105 years. Rapid Late Glacial/Holocene transgressions of the Black Sea likely represented the last impulse for the collapse of limestone blocks and the origin of giant rockslides, simultaneously affecting the majority

  1. experimental studies of sand production from unconsolidated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    aDepartment of Chemical Engineering, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. bDepartment of Petroleum ... as risk of well failure, erosion of pipelines and surface facilities, sand separa- ... ment, theoretical and numerical analysis have lead to the ...

  2. A study of global sand seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Edwin D.

    1979-01-01

    The birth of the idea that led to this publication on "Global Sand Seas" dates back to the late 1920's. At that time I was engaged in a study of the Coconino Sandstone of Arizona's Grand Canyon. Considerable controversy existed then as to whether this sandstone was a subaqueous deposit or was composed of wind-formed dunes. It became apparent that definitive literature was sparse or lacking on types of dunes, global distribution of these types, the mechanics of their development, the precise nature of their internal structure of cross-stratificiation, and the relation of wind systems to these sand forms. Especially lacking were data on criteria that could confidently be used in the recognition of ancient dunes. The common denominator in this publication is eolian sand bodies. Although the book is concerned primarily with desert sand seas, the subject matter is not restricted to deserts; it includes many references to deposits of coastal sand and to sand bodies in humid climates. Nor does the book deal exclusively with dunes, which, according to most definitions, involve mounds or hills. Many references are made to sand sheets, sand stringers, and other types of sand deposits that have no prominent topographic expression. All sand bodies accumulated by the action of wind are discussed. Chapters A-J of this publication are primarily topical. Chapters cover the grain texture, the color, and the structure of modern dunes and other eolian sands. Special treatment is given to the relation of wind data to dune interpretation, the evolution of form in current-deposited sand bodies as determined from experimental studies, and the discriminant analysis technique for differentiating between coastal and inland desert sands. This topical part of the publication also includes an analysis of criteria used in ancient deposits to interpret their eolian genesis and a consideration of economic application of the principles described, including a discussion of potentials and problems

  3. Bioaugmentation of flow-through sand filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Elin Djurhuus

    for degradation performances in flow-through sand columns, with the aim of identifying a suitable inoculant strain for future environmental applications. Another aim was to identify a suitable genetic marker to monitor phenoxy acid degradation in strain Sphingobium sp. PM2. We were not able to link motility...... and biofilm formation to the strains´ ability to adhere to sand. Nevertheless, a correlation was found between cell surface hydrophobicity and adhesion and overall degradation performances in flow-through sand columns. We identified S phingobium sp. PM2 as a promising inoculant strain, displaying efficient...... MCPA degradation for prolonged periods in flow-through sand columns. In an expression study of catabolic genes with putative roles in phenoxy acid degradation, we observed a marked upregulation of catabolic genes cadA and tfdC upon exposure to MCPA, 2,4-D, dichlorprop and mecoprop in strain PM2, which...

  4. Geotechnical properties of crude oil contaminated sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, V.K.; Das, B.M.; Cook, E.E.; Shin, E.C.

    1994-01-01

    Contamination of soil due to an oil spill influences its subsequent engineering behavior. An investigation was conducted to study the effect of crude oil contamination on compaction characteristics, shear strength, one-dimensional compression, and coefficient of permeability. Water permeability was also determined by using commercial grade motor oils as contaminants. The test results indicate that the compaction characteristics are influenced by oil contamination. The angle of internal friction of sand (based on total stress condition) decreases due to presence of oil within the pore spaces in sand. One dimensional compression characteristics of sand are significantly influenced by oil contamination resulting in a decrease in the value of constrained modulus with increase in the degree of oil contamination compared to the case of dry sand. Water permeability was observed to be a function of the initial viscosity and the degree of saturation due to the contaminating oil

  5. Displacement pile installation effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer-Lundberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a

  6. The Effects of Secret Instructions and Yes/no Questions on Maltreated and Non-maltreated Children's Reports of a Minor Transgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Elizabeth C; Stolzenberg, Stacia N; McWilliams, Kelly; Lyon, Thomas D

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the effects of secret instructions (distinguishing between good/bad secrets and encouraging disclosure of bad secrets) and yes/no questions (DID: "Did the toy break?" versus DYR: "Do you remember if the toy broke?") on 262 maltreated and non-maltreated children's (age range 4-9 years) reports of a minor transgression. Over two-thirds of children failed to disclose the transgression in response to free recall (invitations and cued invitations). The secret instruction increased disclosures early in free recall, but was not superior to no instruction when combined with cued invitations. Yes/no questions specifically asking about the transgression elicited disclosures from almost half of the children who had not previously disclosed, and false alarms were rare. DYR questions led to ambiguous responding among a substantial percentage of children, particularly younger children. The findings highlight the difficulties of eliciting transgression disclosures without direct questions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. High-resolution last deglaciation record from the Congo fan reveals significance of mangrove pollen and biomarkers as indicators of shelf transgression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scourse, J; Marret, F; Versteegh, GJM; Jansen, JHF; Schefuss, E; van der Plicht, J; Versteegh, Gerard J.M.

    High abundances of mangrove pollen have been associated with transgressive cycles oil tropical margins, but the detailed relations between systems tracts and the taphonomy of the pollen are unclear. We report here the occurrence and high abundance of Rhizophora pollen, in association with taraxerol,

  8. Supercritical solvent extraction of oil sand bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanbayev, Ye. I.; Ongarbayev, Ye. K.; Tileuberdi, Ye.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Golovko, A. K.; Rudyk, S.

    2017-08-01

    The supercritical solvent extraction of bitumen from oil sand studied with organic solvents. The experiments were performed in autoclave reactor at temperature above 255 °C and pressure 29 atm with stirring for 6 h. The reaction resulted in the formation of coke products with mineral part of oil sands. The remaining products separated into SARA fractions. The properties of the obtained products were studied. The supercritical solvent extraction significantly upgraded extracted natural bitumen.

  9. Effect of manufactured sand on the durability characteristics of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. SARAVANAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is the most sought after material due to increase in construction activities and infrastructural developments. Availability of natural sand is decreasing thereby increase in the cost of construction. In the present work undertaken, an attempt has been made to give an alternative to natural sand. Optimization of replacement of natural sand with manufactured sand in concrete, durability studies such as water absorption, rapid chloride permeability test, sorptivity, acid resistance, alkaline resistance, impact resistance and abrasion resistance of M40 and M50 grades of concrete have been studied with manufactured sand as fine aggregate and compared the results with the conventional sand concrete. The results shows that there is an increase in the durability properties up to 70 % level of replacements of sand with manufactured sand as fine aggregate and for 100 % use of manufactured sand also gives the better durability than the conventional sand concrete.

  10. Studies on various characteristics of concrete structures using crushed sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimatsu, Makoto; Sugita, Hideaki; Yonemura, Masataka.

    1985-01-01

    With the recent advances of construction industry, the demands for concrete, hence for aggregate, are rising. The sand as such is in extreme shortage due to the exhaustion of river sand. Under the situation, the recent trends are for the use of crushed sand, i.e. the artificial sand obtained by crushing rocks, which have advantages of stabilized quality and adequate supplies. In building of nuclear power plants requiring large amounts of concrete, the usage of crushed sand is now unavoidable. The following are described : the situation of aggregate in Kyushu. production method of crushed sand and the quality standards, rocks used for crushed stone and sand and the properties, quality survey on crushed sand and the basic tests, characteristic tests of crushed-stone and -sand mixed concrete, the application of crushed sand in structures of the Sendai Nuclear Power Station. (Mori, K.)

  11. Provenance and recycling of Arabian desert sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Vermeesch, Pieter; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Valagussa, Manuel; Allen, Kate; Kadi, Khalid A.; Al-Juboury, Ali I. A.

    2013-05-01

    This study seeks to determine the ultimate origin of aeolian sand in Arabian deserts by high-resolution petrographic and heavy-mineral techniques combined with zircon U-Pb geochronology. Point-counting is used here as the sole method by which unbiased volume percentages of heavy minerals can be obtained. A comprehensive analysis of river and wadi sands from the Red Sea to the Bitlis-Zagros orogen allowed us to characterize all potential sediment sources, and thus to quantitatively constrain provenance of Arabian dune fields. Two main types of aeolian sand can be distinguished. Quartzose sands with very poor heavy-mineral suites including zircon occupy most of the region comprising the Great Nafud and Rub' al-Khali Sand Seas, and are largely recycled from thick Lower Palaeozoic quartzarenites with very minor first-cycle contributions from Precambrian basement, Mesozoic carbonate rocks, or Neogene basalts. Instead, carbonaticlastic sands with richer lithic and heavy-mineral populations characterize coastal dunes bordering the Arabian Gulf from the Jafurah Sand Sea of Saudi Arabia to the United Arab Emirates. The similarity with detritus carried by the axial Tigris-Euphrates system and by transverse rivers draining carbonate rocks of the Zagros indicates that Arabian coastal dunes largely consist of far-travelled sand, deposited on the exposed floor of the Gulf during Pleistocene lowstands and blown inland by dominant Shamal northerly winds. A dataset of detrital zircon U-Pb ages measured on twelve dune samples and two Lower Palaeozoic sandstones yielded fourteen identical age spectra. The age distributions all show a major Neoproterozoic peak corresponding to the Pan-African magmatic and tectonic events by which the Arabian Shield was assembled, with minor late Palaeoproterozoic and Neoarchean peaks. A similar U-Pb signature characterizes also Jafurah dune sands, suggesting that zircons are dominantly derived from interior Arabia, possibly deflated from the Wadi al

  12. Physical data of soil profiles formed on late Quaternary marine terraces near Santa Cruz, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munster, Jennie; Harden, Jennifer W.

    2002-01-01

    The marine terraces in and around Santa Cruz, California, represent a set of well-preserved terraces formed as a product of geology, sea level, and climate. A marine terrace begins as a wave cut platform. Eustatic sea level changes, seacliff erosion, and tectonic uplift work together to generate marine terraces. "When a wave-cut platform is raised (due to tectonic activity) above sea level and cliffed by wave action it becomes a marine terrace" (Bradley, 1957, p. 424). During glacial periods, eustatic sea level is estimated to have dropped by 150 meters (Fairbanks, 1989). Cliff retreat measured from aerial photographs between 1930 and 1980 vary from 0.0 to 0.2 m yr–1 (Best and Griggs, 1991). Estimates of uplift rates along the Santa Cruz coastline vary from 0.10 to 0.48 m kyr–1 (Bradley and Griggs, 1976; Weber and others, 1999). Uplift mechanisms include coseismic uplift associated both with a reverse component of slip on the steeply SW dipping Loma Prieta fault in the restraining bend of the San Andreas Fault and a small component of reverse slip on the steeply SE dipping San Gregorio fault (Anderson and Menking 1994). Previous work studying physical properties on these terraces include Pinney and others (in press) and Aniku (1986) and Bowman and Estrada (1980). Sedimentary deposits of the marine terraces are a mixture of terrestrial and marine sediments but generally consist of a sheet of marine deposits overlying the old platform and a wedge of nonmarine deposits banked against the old sea cliff (Bradley, 1957). Bedrock underlying the terraces in the Santa Cruz area is generally either Santa Margarita Sandstone or Santa Cruz Mudstone. The Santa Margarita Sandstone represents an upper Miocene, transgressive, tidally dominated marine-shelf deposit with crossbedded sets of sand and gravel and horizontally stratified and bioturbated invertebrate-fossils beds (Phillips, 1990). The siliceous Santa Cruz Mudstone, of late Miocene age, conformably overlies the Santa

  13. Nuclear energy in the oils sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    The major Canadian oil sands are located in Alberta and Saskatchewan, with most production from the strata along the Athabasca River in Alberta. The economically recoverable oil sands reserves are estimated to be 168 billion barrels which at a current production rate of 1.8 million barrels per day (2012), are projected to last a very long time. Canada has been blessed with vast energy resources which make it potentially energy-independent and able to provide significant exports but there are concerns that their development cannot be managed in a wholly acceptable manner. Comparable concerns have been applied to nuclear energy in the past and in recent times to the oil sands. The technologies associated with these energy sources have always been controversial because they are at the confluence of economics and politics where finding a balance between risk and reward is difficult. So it should be no surprise that when these technologies get linked together in certain proposals their prospect for success is doubly difficult. The possible use of nuclear energy for production of oil from the oil sands dates back to the late 1950s, when an experiment to mine the oil by detonating an underground nuclear device was proposed. It was predicted that the heat and pressure released from such a device would create a large cavern into which oil would flow, and from where it would be pumped to the surface. Almost at the same time, oil sands research using conventional sources of energy had culminated with the development of practical refining processes, essentially those still in use today. These methods require large amounts of heat energy in the form of hot water and steam. In this century nuclear energy was proposed as the source for the heat required by the oil sands production processes. To date neither of these nuclear proposals for oil sands projects have been successful, because the economic and political balance could not be struck. (author)

  14. Nuclear energy in the oils sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2014-09-15

    The major Canadian oil sands are located in Alberta and Saskatchewan, with most production from the strata along the Athabasca River in Alberta. The economically recoverable oil sands reserves are estimated to be 168 billion barrels which at a current production rate of 1.8 million barrels per day (2012), are projected to last a very long time. Canada has been blessed with vast energy resources which make it potentially energy-independent and able to provide significant exports but there are concerns that their development cannot be managed in a wholly acceptable manner. Comparable concerns have been applied to nuclear energy in the past and in recent times to the oil sands. The technologies associated with these energy sources have always been controversial because they are at the confluence of economics and politics where finding a balance between risk and reward is difficult. So it should be no surprise that when these technologies get linked together in certain proposals their prospect for success is doubly difficult. The possible use of nuclear energy for production of oil from the oil sands dates back to the late 1950s, when an experiment to mine the oil by detonating an underground nuclear device was proposed. It was predicted that the heat and pressure released from such a device would create a large cavern into which oil would flow, and from where it would be pumped to the surface. Almost at the same time, oil sands research using conventional sources of energy had culminated with the development of practical refining processes, essentially those still in use today. These methods require large amounts of heat energy in the form of hot water and steam. In this century nuclear energy was proposed as the source for the heat required by the oil sands production processes. To date neither of these nuclear proposals for oil sands projects have been successful, because the economic and political balance could not be struck. (author)

  15. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  16. Comparison between predicted and observed sand waves and sand banks in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; van den Brink, G.M.

    2001-01-01

    For the first time a prediction model of regular morphological patterns on the seabed was tested against observations of sand wave and sand bank occurrence in the entire North Sea. The model, which originates from first physical principles, predicts this occurrence via two dimensionless parameters

  17. MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SAND FRACTION IN A SAND GRAIN IMAGE CAPTURE SYSTEM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar Arruda Viana

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Morphology studies assume significant importance in analysis of phenomena of granular systems packaging, in particular with a view to the use of the technique of soil stabilization named particle size correction in forest roads. In this context, this study aimed to develop and operationalize a Sand Grain Image Capture System and, hereby, determine the morphological indices of the sand fractions of two sandy soils called João Pinheiro (JP and Cachoeira da Prata (CP. Soil samples, air-dried, were sieved (2.0 mm nominal mesh size for removal of gravels. The materials that passed through the sieve were subjected to dispersion, washing in 0.053 mm nominal mesh size sieve, removal of organic matter and iron oxides to obtain the clean sand fractions. Subsequently, each soil sample was sieved for separation into twelve classes, between the diameters of 0.149 mm and 1.190 mm, using a Rotap shaker. Next, tests were carried out to characterize the morphometric attributes of the twelve classes of sand fractions of the soils studied. For validation of the performance of the Sand Grain Image Capture System, the results were compared to those obtained using a standard procedure for image analysis. The analysis of the results led to the following conclusions: (i the sand fraction of the JP soil presented higher values for the morphometric indices roundness, elongation and compactness compared to sand fraction of the CP soil; and (ii the Sand Grain Image Capture System worked properly, with practicality.

  18. Marine Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    PNL research in the marine sciences is focused on establishing a basic understanding of the mechanisms of stress and tolerance in marine organisms exposed to contaminants. Several environmental stressors had been investigated in earlier energy-related research. In a landmark study, for example, PNL had established that the severity of fish disease caused by the common infectious agent, Flexobacter columnaris, was seriously aggravated by thermal enhancement and certain ecological factors. Subsequent studies demonstrated that the primary immune response in fish, challenged by columnaris, could be permanently suppressed by comparatively low tritium exposures. The research has suggested that a potential exists for a significant biological impact when an aquatic stressor is added to an ambient background of other stressors, which may include heat, heavy metal ions, radiation or infectious microorganisms. More recently, PNL investigators have shown that in response to heavy metal contaminants, animals synthesize specific proteins (metallothioneins), which bind and sequester metals in the animals, thus decreasing metal mobility and effects. Companion studies with host-specific intracellular pathogens are being used to investigate the effects of heavy metals on the synthesis of immune proteins, which mitigate disease processes. The results of these studies aid in predicting the ecological effects of energy-related contaminants on valued fin and shellfish species

  19. Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Development through High-Resolution 3C3D Seismic and Horizontal Drilling: Eva South Marrow Sand Unit, Texas County, Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler,David M.; Miller, William A.; Wilson, Travis C.

    2002-03-11

    The Eva South Morrow Sand Unit is located in western Texas County, Oklahoma. The field produces from an upper Morrow sandstone, termed the Eva sandstone, deposited in a transgressive valley-fill sequence. The field is defined as a combination structural stratigraphic trap; the reservoir lies in a convex up -dip bend in the valley and is truncated on the west side by the Teepee Creek fault. Although the field has been a successful waterflood since 1993, reservoir heterogeneity and compartmentalization has impeded overall sweep efficiency. A 4.25 square mile high-resolution, three component three-dimensional (3C3D) seismic survey was acquired in order to improve reservoir characterization and pinpoint the optimal location of a new horizontal producing well, the ESU 13-H.

  20. Heavy mineral concentration from oil sand tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chachula, F.; Erasmus, N. [Titanium Corp. Inc., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation described a unique technique to recover heavy minerals contained in the froth treatment tailings produced by oil sand mining extraction operations in Fort McMurray, Alberta. In an effort to process waste material into valuable products, Titanium Corporation is developing technology to recover heavy minerals, primarily zircon, and a portion of bitumen contained in the final stage of bitumen processing. The process technology is being developed to apply to all mined oil sands operations in the Fort McMurray region. In 2004, Titanium Corporation commissioned a pilot research facility at the Saskatchewan Research Council to test dry oil sands tailings. In 2005, a bulk sampling pilot plant was connected to the fresh oil sands tailings pipeline on-site in Fort McMurray, where washed sands containing heavy minerals were processed at a pilot facility. The mineral content in both deposited tailings and fresh pipeline tailings was assessed. Analysis of fresh tailings on a daily basis identified a constant proportion of zircon and higher levels of associated bitumen compared with the material in the deposited tailings. The process flow sheet design was then modified to remove bitumen from the heavy minerals and concentrate the minerals. A newly modified flotation process was shown to be a viable processing route to recover the heavy minerals from froth treatment tailings. 8 refs., 9 tabs., 12 figs.

  1. Sand filter clogging by septic tank effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spychała, M; Błazejewski, R

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise conditions and factors affecting fine sand clogging by septic tank effluent on the basis of physical modelling. The physical model consisted of 12 sand columns dosed with sewage from one household (5 persons), preliminary treated in a septic tank. Hydraulic loadings of the sand filters were equal to 82 mm/d. The mean discharge from sand columns, measured as the effluent volume collected during 10 minutes, decreased significantly over the experiment period from 34 cm3/min in August 2000 to 20 cm3/min in August 2001 at the same temperature of about 20 degrees C. First the columns clogged almost completely after 480 days in December 2001, however six columns had remained unclogged till the end of the experiment (March 2002). The temperature had a significant impact on hydraulic conductivity. A vertical distribution of accumulated mass and biomass was investigated in partly clogged sand. Microscopic survey of the clogging layer showed a presence of live micro-organisms, residuals of dead micro-organisms, particularly pieces of small animal armour and many fibres. These particles accelerated the accumulation of solids in the upper clogging layer. The study indicated that temperature impact on the filter hydraulic conductivity was more significant for biological activity, than for sewage viscosity.

  2. The behavior of gaseous iodine in sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kanji

    1974-01-01

    Radioactive iodine gas was passed through 10 different sands collected at rivers and hills. The relation between the amount of the loaded gas and the amount of adsorbed gas was determined at room temperature, 50 -- 60 0 C, and 90 -- 100 0 C under humidity of 2 sand. This amount was about 1 -- 3 times as much as that of monomolecular membrane adsorption, 0.2 -- 0.3 μg/cm 2 . The decrease of adsorption amount that accompanies the increase of humidity is attributable to the decrease of effective surface area of sand due to the presence of water. The transport of iodine in sand was studied by passing gaseous iodine through a glass tubing packed with sand. The distribution in the flow direction of iodine indicated that the ease of desorption depends upon the situation of adsorption. Easily desorbed case was named Henry type adsorption. Hardly desorbed case was named absorption type. Discussion is made on experimental results. (Fukutomi, T.)

  3. Mitigating in situ oil sands carbon costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theriault, D.J.; Peterson, J. [Laricina Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Heinrichs, H. [Canadian Chemical Technology Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Carbon capture and sequestration is a complex problem with a variety of dimensions that need to be considered. The political, social, and regulatory pressures are forcing carbon costs on the oil sands industry in an effort to reduce the carbon footprint of oil sands operations. This paper reviewed the political, social, and regulatory pressures and obligations for the in-situ oil sands industry. It presented the views and insights of Laricina Energy on the carbon challenge. It also described the initiatives that Laricina Energy is taking to manage these imperatives and outlined the challenges the industry is facing. The purpose of the paper was to encourage dialogue and collaboration by the oil sands industry. The paper also described the dimensions of the carbon problem and how the industry can contribute to a solution. Last, the paper reviewed the parameters of carbon dioxide or greenhouse gas containment and storage issues. It was concluded that the regulatory and policy requirements need to be clarified so that industry understands the new business landscape as well as the requirements that influence the economics of in-situ oil sands development. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Spatial patterns of cyanobacterial mat growth on sand ripples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, G.; Klepac-Ceraj, V.; Perron, J. T.; Bosak, T.

    2016-02-01

    Photosynthetic microbial mats produce organic matter, cycle nutrients, bind pollutants and stabilize sediment in sandy marine environments. Here, we investigate the influence of bedforms and wave motion on the growth rate, composition and spatial variability of microbial mats by growing cyanobacterial mats on a rippled bed of carbonate sand in a wave tank. The tank was forced with an oscillatory flow with velocities below the threshold for sediment motion yet able to induce a porewater flow within the sediment. Different spatial patterns developed in mats depending on the initial biochemistry of the water medium. When growing in a medium rich in nitrogen, phosphorous and micronutrients, mats grew faster on ripple troughs than on ripple crests. After two months, mats covered the bed surface uniformly, and the microbial communities on the crests and in the troughs had similar compositions. Differences in bed shear stress and nutrient availability between crests and troughs were not able to explain the faster growth in the troughs. We hypothesize that this growth pattern is due to a "strainer" effect, i.e. the suspended bacteria from the inoculum were preferentially delivered to troughs by the wave-induced porewater flow. In the experiments initiated in a medium previously used up by a microbial mat and thus depleted in nutrients, mats grew preferentially on the ripple crests. This spatial pattern persisted for nearly two years, and the microbial composition on troughs and crests was different. We attribute this pattern to the upwelling of porewater in the crests, which increased the delivery of nutrients from sediment to the cyanobacteria on the bed surface. Thus, the macroscopic patterns formed by photosynthetic microbial mats on sand ripples may be used to infer whether mats are nutrient-limited and whether they are recently colonized or older than a month.

  5. Sand transport, erosion and granular electrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrison, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    is expanding our current understanding and outline the areas of advancement needed in the future. Presentation is made of current models for wind driven detachment/entrainment and the transport rates of sand and dust, including the effects of contact induced grain electrification. This ubiquitous phenomenon...... can affect grain transport through the generation of intense electric fields and processes of electrostatic assembly. Importantly the transport of sand is characterized by saltation, which is known to be an active process for erosion and therefore a source for dust and sand formation. Using novel...... erosion simulation techniques the link between grain transport rates and erosion rates has been quantified. Furthermore this can be linked to production rates for dust and has been associated with chemical and mineral alteration through a process of mechanical activation of fractured surfaces. This work...

  6. Thermoluminescent dosimetric properties of Descalvado sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, M.I.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    2006-01-01

    Sand samples proceeding from Descalvado, Sao Paulo, were studied with regard to their dosimetric properties using the thermoluminescence technique (TL) for high doses. These sand samples present steady physical and chemical characteristics to the end items, and they are used in the glass industry and for casting. The TL curves of the samples were obtained after an irradiation at the Gamma-Cell system ( 60 Co), of IPEN. The glow curves present two peaks at 80 C and 220 C approximately. Calibration curves were obtained for doses between 50 Gy and 5 kGy. The results indicate that the sand samples can be used for high-doses dosimetry in several areas of applications of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  7. Development tendencies of moulding and core sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw M. Dobosz1

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Further development of the technology for making moulding and core sands will be strictly limited by tough requirements due to protection of the natural environment. These tendencies are becoming more and more tense, so that we will reach a point when even processes, that from technological point of view fulfill high requirements of the foundry industry, must be replaced by more ecologically-friendly solutions. Hence, technologies using synthetic resins as binding materials will be limited. This paper presents some predictable development tendencies of moulding and core sands. The increasing role of inorganic substances will be noticed, including silicate binders with significantly improved properties, such as improved knock-out property or higher reclamation strength. Other interesting solutions might also be moulding sands bonded by geo-polymers and phosphate binders or salts and also binders based on degradable biopolymers. These tendencies and the usefulness of these binders are put forward in this paper.

  8. Thermoluminescent dosimetric properties of Descalvado sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, M.I.; Caldas, L.V.E

    2006-07-01

    Sand samples proceeding from Descalvado, Sao Paulo, were studied with regard to their dosimetric properties using the thermoluminescence technique (TL) for high doses. These sand samples present steady physical and chemical characteristics to the end items, and they are used in the glass industry and for casting. The TL curves of the samples were obtained after an irradiation at the Gamma-Cell system ({sup 60} Co), of IPEN. The glow curves present two peaks at 80 C and 220 C approximately. Calibration curves were obtained for doses between 50 Gy and 5 kGy. The results indicate that the sand samples can be used for high-doses dosimetry in several areas of applications of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  9. A Threshold Continuum for Aeolian Sand Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, C.; Ewing, R. C.; Sherman, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport marks the initial entrainment of sand particles by the force of the wind. This is typically defined and modeled as a singular wind speed for a given grain size and is based on field and laboratory experimental data. However, the definition of threshold varies significantly between these empirical models, largely because the definition is based on visual-observations of initial grain movement. For example, in his seminal experiments, Bagnold defined threshold of motion when he observed that 100% of the bed was in motion. Others have used 50% and lesser values. Differences in threshold models, in turn, result is large errors in predicting the fluxes associated with sand and dust transport. Here we use a wind tunnel and novel sediment trap to capture the fractions of sand in creep, reptation and saltation at Earth and Mars pressures and show that the threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport is best defined as a continuum in which grains progress through stages defined by the proportion of grains in creep and saltation. We propose the use of scale dependent thresholds modeled by distinct probability distribution functions that differentiate the threshold based on micro to macro scale applications. For example, a geologic timescale application corresponds to a threshold when 100% of the bed in motion whereas a sub-second application corresponds to a threshold when a single particle is set in motion. We provide quantitative measurements (number and mode of particle movement) corresponding to visual observations, percent of bed in motion and degrees of transport intermittency for Earth and Mars. Understanding transport as a continuum provides a basis for revaluating sand transport thresholds on Earth, Mars and Titan.

  10. Gasification of oil sand coke: review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-08-01

    The production of synthetic crude from the tar sands in Western Canada has been steadily increasing. Most of the delayed coke produced by Suncor is combusted on site, whereas all fluid coke produced by Syncrude is stockpiled.The database on the chemical and physical properties of the oil sand coke, including the composition and fusion properties of the mineral matter, has been established. The reactivity of the coke was determined by oxygen chemisorption, fixed bed and fluid bed bench scale gasification and pilot plant gasification. The reactivity of the oil sand coke for gasification is rather low and comparable to high rank coals, such as anthracite. Slurrability tests revealed that a solid concentration in water, approaching 70 wt%, can be achieved. Gasification is the front runner among clean technologies for the conversion of carbonaceous solids to useful products. Several commercial gasifiers are available to cover the wide range of severity. Because of the low reactivity of oil sands coke, high severity conditions are required to achieve high gasification conversion. Such conditions can be attained in entrained bed gasifiers. Gasifiers employing both dry and slurry feeding systems are suitable. A high efficiency, low SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions, as well as a low solid waste production are among the key advantages of the gasification technology compared with thecompeting technologies. Commercial gasification of oil sands coke is delayed because of the availability of natural gas on the site of the upgrading plants. Potential for the transportation of the oil sand coke to USA for electricity generation using the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology was evaluated. 27 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. On the Size Distribution of Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A model is presented of the development of the size distribution of sand while it is transported from a source to a deposit. The model provides a possible explanation of the log-hyperbolic shape that is frequently found in unimodal grain size distributions in natural sand deposits, as pointed out......-distribution, by taking into account that individual grains do not have the same travel time from the source to the deposit. The travel time is assumed to be random so that the wear on the individual grains vary randomly. The model provides an interpretation of the parameters of the NIG-distribution, and relates the mean...

  12. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  13. Log-inject-log in sand consolidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, R.P.; Spurlock, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for gathering information for the determination of the adequacy of placement of sand consolidating plastic for sand control in oil and gas wells. The method uses a high neutron cross-section tracer which becomes part of the plastic and uses pulsed neutron logging before and after injection of the plastic. Preferably, the method uses lithium, boron, indium, and/or cadmium tracers. Boron oxide is especially useful and can be dissolved in alcohol and mixed with the plastic ingredients

  14. Oil sand synfuel production using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnert, H.

    1984-10-01

    The importance of oil sand as a primary energy carrier is illustrated. The oil sand mining project 'synfuel' in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada, is described. On the basis of a layout of an In-situ-process different possibilities of introducing nuclear energy to the process are described. This leads to an increase of the product yield, leading finally to a doubling of the energy output compared to the reference layout. The introduction of nuclear energy contributes to the reduction of emissions, in particular to the emission of carbon dioxide in the conversion process. (orig.)

  15. Permeability Tests on Silkeborg Sand No. 0000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Willy; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    on the characteristics of the soil matrix, the permeability is determined for different void ratios. All tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Silkeborg Sand No. 0000. The permeability is determined by use of a falling head apparatus. The apparatus, test procedures and the analysis method are described......The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends...

  16. Permeability Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    on the characteristics of the soil matrix, the permeability is determined for different void ratios. All tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand. The permeability is determined by use of a falling head apparatus. Finally the test results are briefly summarised and a relationship between......The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends...

  17. Sand control systems used in completing wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Wittenberger

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Expandable Tubular Technology is transforming the face of well completion and construction. This technology provides: a substantially higher hydrocarbon production rates from the reservoir, a reduced well drilling and construction costs, new possibilities for previously unreachable or uneconomic reservoirs, and step a change towards the single diameter well. ESS (Expandable Sand Screen has an unrivalled performance worldwide for delivering a reliable sand control in a wide range of applications. Well costs typically cut by over 20 %, and the productivity increases up to 70 %.

  18. Experimental perforation of tubing with a hydraulic sand jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, Yu V

    1970-01-01

    A series of field tests has shown that perforation with a hydraulic sand jet improves the quality of well completion. The sand jet does not crack the cement sheath or the casing, and the perforations are larger and deeper than perforations formed by explosive charges. Fluid circulation during sand jet perforation can safely be stopped for at least 10 min. Water containing a surfactant can be used as a sand carrier. Sand jet perforation allows successful completion of wells cased by 2 tubing strings. Sand jet perforation can be used to clean the borehole well and to remove foreign objects from the well.

  19. Moral transgression, disease and holistic health in the Livingstonia Mission in late nineteenth and early twenttieth-century Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hokkanen, Markku

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines ideas of morality and health, and connections between moral transgression and disease in both Scottish missionary and Central African thought in the context of the Livingstonia Mission of the Presbyterian Free Church of Scotland in Malawi during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.2 By concentrating on debates, conflicts and co-operation between missionaries and Africans over the key issues of beer drinking and sexual morality, this article explores the emergence of a new ‘moral hygiene’ among African Christian communities in Northern Malawi.

    Este artículo analiza las ideas sobre moralidad y salud, así como las relaciones entre transgresión moral y enfermedad, tanto en el pensamiento misionero escocés como en el pensamiento del África central, en el contexto de la Misión de Livingstonia de la Iglesia Libre Presbiteriana de Escocia en Malawi entre finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX. Centrándose en las conversaciones, los conflictos y la colaboración entre los misioneros y los africanos sobre cuestiones clave como el consumo de cerveza y la moralidad sexual, este artículo estudia la aparición de una nueva «higiene moral» entre las comunidades cristianas africanas en Malawi del norte.

  20. Gêneros de discurso e transgressão: por um ensino mais dinâmico e horizontalizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Muniz Proença Lara

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta, à luz dos aportes oriundos da Linguística do Texto e do Discurso, o breve relato de uma experiência de ensino, com os seguintes objetivos: (a refletir, no âmbito da discussão em torno dos gêneros textuais/discursivos, sobre alguns conceitos caros aqueles que trabalham nesse domínio, particularmente o de transgressão de gêneros; e (b retratar, de forma sucinta, alguns desafios e pontos positivos das práticas de ensino construídas a partir dos conceitos previamente descritos. A referida experiência foi realizada, no período de março a dezembro de 2010, com alunos de uma escola estadual de Minas Gerais. O lapso temporal de seis anos entre a experiência e seu relato permitiu-nos analisar o processo, de forma mais objetiva e distanciada, de modo a apreender seus aspectos mais relevantes, de acordo com os objetivos traçados. Grosso modo, a partir dos estudos de Bakhtin (1992, 2000, Marcuschi (2002, Bronckart (2003, Maingueneau (2004 e Lara (2008, 2009, 2013, entre outros estudiosos, e com base em uma metodologia qualitativa, pretendemos, com este estudo, contribuir para o avanço das práticas de ensino, tomadas numa vertente mais dinâmica e integradora.

  1. Transgressive women don't deserve protection: young men's narratives of sexual violence against women in rural Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Hanku, A; Aeno, H; Wilson, L; Eves, R; Mek, A; Nake Trumb, R; Whittaker, M; Fitzgerald, L; Kaldor, J M; Vallely, A

    2016-11-01

    Sexual violence against women and girls is commonplace in Papua New Guinea (PNG). While the experiences of women are rightly given central place in institutional responses to sexual violence, the men who perpetrate violence are often overlooked, an oversight that undermines the effectiveness of prevention efforts. This paper draws on interviews conducted with young men as part of a qualitative longitudinal study of masculinity and male sexuality in a rural highland area of PNG. It explores one aspect of male sexuality: men's narratives of sexual violence. Most striking from the data is that the collective enactment of sexual violence against women and girls is reported as an everyday and accepted practice amongst young men. However, not all women and girls were described as equally at risk, with those who transgress gender roles and roles inscribed and reinforced by patriarchal structures, at greater risk. To address this situation, efforts to reduce sexual violence against women and girls require an increased focus on male-centred intervention to critically engage with the forms of patriarchal authority that give license to sexual violence. Understanding the perceptions and experiences of men as perpetrators of sexual violence is a critical first step in the process of changing normative perceptions of gender, a task crucial to reducing sexual violence in countries such as PNG.

  2. A case study in unethical transgressive bioethics: "Letter of concern from bioethicists" about the prenatal administration of dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Laurence B; Chervenak, Frank A; Brent, Robert L; Hippen, Benjamin

    2010-09-01

    On February 3, 2010, a "Letter of Concern from Bioethicists," organized by fetaldex.org, was sent to report suspected violations of the ethics of human subjects research in the off-label use of dexamethasone during pregnancy by Dr. Maria New. Copies of this letter were submitted to the FDA Office of Pediatric Therapeutics, the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Office for Human Research Protections, and three universities where Dr. New has held or holds appointments. We provide a critical appraisal of the Letter of Concern and show that it makes false claims, misrepresents scientific publications and websites, fails to meet standards of evidence-based reasoning, makes undocumented claims, treats as settled matters what are, instead, ongoing controversies, offers "mere opinion" as a substitute for argument, and makes contradictory claims. The Letter of Concern is a case study in unethical transgressive bioethics. We call on fetaldex.org to withdraw the letter and for co-signatories to withdraw their approval of it.

  3. Anatomy of extremely thin marine sequences landward of a passive-margin hinge zone: Neogene Calvert Cliffs succession, Maryland, U.S.A.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwell, S.M. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Geophysical Sciences

    1997-03-01

    Detailed examination of Neogene strata in cliffs 25--35 m high along the western shore of Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, reveals the complexity of the surviving record of siliciclastic sequences {approximately}150 km inland of the structural hinge zone of the Atlantic passive margin. Previous study of the lower to middle Miocene Calvert (Plum Point Member) and Choptank Formations documented a series of third-order sequences 7--10 m thick in which lowstand deposits are entirely lacking, transgressive tracts comprise a mosaic of condensed bioclastic facies, and regressive (highstand) tracts are present but partially truncated by the next sequence boundary; smaller-scale (fourth-order) cyclic units could not be resolved. Together, these sequences constitute the transgressive and early highstand tracts of a larger (second-order Miocene) composite sequence. The present paper documents stratigraphic relations higher in the Calvert Cliffs succession, including the upper Miocene St. Marys Formation, which represents late highstand marine deposits of the Miocene second-order sequence, and younger Neogene fluvial and tidal-inlet deposits representing incised-valley deposits of the succeeding second-order cycle. The St. Marys Formation consists of a series of tabular units 2--5 m thick, each with an exclusively transgressive array of facies and bounded by stranding surfaces of abrupt shallowing. These units, which are opposite to the flooding-surface-bounded regressive facies arrays of model parasequences, are best characterized as shaved sequences in which only the transgressive tract survives, and are stacked into larger transgressive, highstand, and forced-regression sets.

  4. Evaluation of the potential for reduction in well spacing of the Bakken sand pool, Court Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majcher, M.B.; Estrada, C.A. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Nexen Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Archer, J.C. [Nexen Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    For the past 15 years, the Court field has produced hydrocarbons from the Mississippian/Devonian middle Bakken sandstone reservoir. The formation is located in west central Saskatchewan and was deposited in a marine shelf environment and later reworked into tidally influenced sand ridges. Vertical wells and a waterflood recovery scheme have been used to produce heavy crude with an API gravity of 17. A better understanding of the reservoir behaviour is required in order to advance field development and maintain successful waterflood management. Three-dimensional seismic and well logs were used to map the structural complexity of the sand ridge. This study examined the feasibility of using production and seismic data to update and substantiate a simulation model which was used to evaluate downspace potential. Stratigraphic disparities were taken into account as discontinuous interbedded siltstones may be flow barriers that create anisotropy in the permeability zone. Grid orientation was altered to align axially with the permeability trends of the main sand ridge. This study also reviewed an earlier field simulation and generated an updated model. The potential to reduce well spacing was then identified and waterflood optimization of the middle Bakken reservoir was evaluated. It was concluded that the edges of the sand ridge and areas isolated from existing injectors have the greatest potential for infill drilling and additional water injection because of the high sinkhole density. It was noted that drilling edge regions with high oil saturations have a risk of low permeability zones, resulting in low production rates and the possibility of an ineffective waterflood scheme. Therefore, a successful waterflood in the edge zones would require injector-producer pairs in the equivalent sand facies. 4 refs., 36 figs.

  5. MouldingSandDB – a modern database storing moulding sands properties research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jakubski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of foundry processes requires the use of modern, advanced IT tools for optimization, storage and analysis of t echnicaldata. Properties of moulding and core sands that are collected in research laboratories, manufacturers, and finally in the foundries, are not in use later on. It seems important to create a database that will allow to use the results stored, along with the possibility of searching according to set criteria, adjusted to casting practice. This paper presents part of the database named „MouldingSandDB”, which allows to collect and search data for synthetic moulding sands.

  6. Reconciling late Quaternary transgressions in the Bohai Sea, China to the global sea level changes, and new linkage of sedimentary records to three astronomical rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Liang

    2013-04-01

    The Bohai Sea in China was formed by subsidence during the Cenozoic. Some 2000-3000 m of fluvial, lacustrine and marine sediments has been deposited in the basin (IOCAS 1985), and these sediments have great potentials in high-/low-latitude interaction, environmental impacts on ancient human activities, and other important issues (Liu, 2009; Yi et al. 2012a), because it is influenced by the Siberian-Mongolian Highs and the ITCZ, and is close to the Nihewan basin and the Zhoukoudian site which are both world-renowned for the discovery of Homo erectus. Since the 1970s, hundreds of studies have been conducted around the Bohai Sea and the major results could be summarized as follows (Zhao et al., 1978; IOCAS, 1985; Liu, 2009, and references therein): (1) constrained by radiocarbon dating, TL/OSL or geomagnetic excursion, three transgressions (T1, T2, T3) developed during the Holocene, marine isotopic stage (MIS) 3 and MIS 5, respectively; and (2) regressions occurred at the beginning of glacial stages, i.e. MIS2 and MIS4. However, apparent inconsistency could be found between T2 and T3, and the question is that in the context that MIS 3 is an inter-stadial stage with a global sea level of 60~80 m lower than the present (Chappell et al. 1996), how did T2 occur in the Bohai Sea, and why did T2 have much larger influence than T3 which occurred at the beginning of MIS 5? To correlate regional environmental changes with global pattern and thus to detect the potential interaction between various driving factors on orbital timescales, three cores with a high recovery rate were drilled in the south Bohai Sea. This study was conducted following three perspectives: chronology (Yi et al. 2012b), sea-level change (Yi et al. 2012c) and paleoclimatology (Yi et al. 2012a), and the main results are as follows: 1. Chronology. Luminescence and radiocarbon dating methods were applied in dating these coastal/marine sediments: (1) For Holocene samples, most of the radiocarbon dates agree

  7. Undrained Cyclic Behaviour of Dense Frederikshavn Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Kjær; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Sørensen, Kris Wessel

    2013-01-01

    A modified contour diagram is created for the Frederikshavn Sand in the undrained case for a relative density of ID = 80 %. It can be used to estimate the number of cycles to failure for a given combination of pore pressure, average and cyclic load ratio. The diagram is based on a series of undra...

  8. Radiation safety in Australia's mineral sands industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.

    1989-06-01

    This brochure is part of a training package aiming to explain in simple terms what radiation is, how it affects people's lives and how, in the specific case of the mineral sand industry, the risk of ill-effects from low-level radioactivity could be effectively guarded against by simple and easily followed safety precautions. ills

  9. Geomechanical properties of lime stabilized clayey sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabani, M.; Karami, M. Veis

    2007-01-01

    Clayey sands that have low plasticity, low compressibility and high strength under loads, are suitable as a base material for any engineering construction projects as well as for roads and building construction. Decrease of plasticity and compressibility as well as increase in strength of these materials can be obtained by many different methods. Of these methods, lime stabilization is a common, applicable, and easy to use approach that can improve geomechanical and geotechnical properties of clayey sand fills. In this study some important geomechanical properties and geotechnical properties of clayey sands including compressive strength, CBR and elastic plastic behavior are investigated. A range of gradations representative of those gradations found in situ in the north of Iran were selected for testing and samples were artificially rebuilt in the laboratory. The mixes were then stabilized with hydrated lime and cured. Different mechanical tests were performed on mature materials. The stress-strain behavior of lime-stabilized mixes was plotted and a parabolic function was used to estimate the trend of stress-strain behavior. The data show that there is a correlation among the results of uniaxial load test, tensile strength, and CBR of the tested specimens. Also, results of the unconfined compression test and the indirect tensile strength test show that an increase in clay content up to a certain percent, in the clay-sand fills, tends to increase the strength of the materials in compression as well as in tension. (author)

  10. Market opportunities and challenges for oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.

    2004-01-01

    The use of Alberta bitumen as a clean fuel depends on upgrading, transportation, and refining processes. Forecasts show that oil sands production, which includes synthetic crude oil (SCO), will surpass declining conventional production from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin. The challenges facing the oils sands processing industry include: crude oil prices which affect the producer's market; market expansion options; diluent availability/cost; supply cost competitiveness; and, regional processing. The common market issues include light/heavy crude prices, oil sands crude qualities, prices of oil sands crudes, pipeline infrastructure, and competitive supplies. The issues facing the refiners are: refining margins, security of crude supply, refined product quality, and competitive product supply. It was noted that Alberta must retain or increase its share of the Midwest market. The market expansion options were reviewed for both downstream (refining) and upstream (upgrading) operations. New pipeline capacity is needed to reach more distant markets such as Southern Midwest, Washington, and California. The market is nearly saturated for Canada's heavy oil supply. More upgrading will be required as bitumen production increases. Market growth is still possible for Canada's SCO but according to forecasts, the market could also become saturated. To increase demand and allow supplies to grow, SCO prices may fall below light crude prices. It was noted that a balance must be achieved in order for producers to increase production and for refiner/upgraders to expand their conversion capacity. 13 figs

  11. Growing markets to sustain oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.

    2003-01-01

    The utilization of Alberta bitumen for the clean fuels market depends on upgrading, transportation, and refining processes. Forecasts show that oil sands production, which includes synthetic crude oil (SCO), will surpass declining conventional production in Western Canada. Several issues pose a challenge to the oil sands processing industry. The producers' market is affected by crude oil prices, market expansion options, diluent availability/cost, supply cost competitiveness, and regional processing. The common market issues include light/heavy crude prices, oil sands crude qualities, prices of oil sands crudes, pipeline infrastructure, and competitive supplies. The issues facing the refiners are: refining margins, security of crude supply, refined product quality, and competitive product supply. A brief review of markets for Canadian crude oil, including synthetic crude, was provided. The share of the Midwest market by Alberta must be retained and increased. The market expansion options were reviewed for both downstream (refining) and upstream (upgrading) operations. To reach more distant markets such as Southern Midwest, Washington, and California, new pipeline capacity would be required. The market is nearly saturated for Canada's heavy oil supply. More upgrading will be required as bitumen production increases. Market growth is still possible for Canada's SCO but according to forecasts, the market could also become saturated. To increase demand and allow supplies to grow, SCO prices may fall below light crude prices. It was noted that a balance must be achieved in order for producers to increase production and for refiner/upgraders to expand their conversion capacity. tabs., figs

  12. Microbial Characterization of Qatari Barchan Sand Dunes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Abdul Majid

    Full Text Available This study represents the first characterization of sand microbiota in migrating barchan sand dunes. Bacterial communities were studied through direct counts and cultivation, as well as 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequence analysis to gain an understanding of microbial abundance, diversity, and potential metabolic capabilities. Direct on-grain cell counts gave an average of 5.3 ± 0.4 x 105 cells g-1 of sand. Cultured isolates (N = 64 selected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing belonged to the phyla Actinobacteria (58%, Firmicutes (27% and Proteobacteria (15%. Deep-sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from 18 dunes demonstrated a high relative abundance of Proteobacteria, particularly enteric bacteria, and a dune-specific-pattern of bacterial community composition that correlated with dune size. Shotgun metagenome sequences of two representative dunes were analyzed and found to have similar relative bacterial abundance, though the relative abundances of eukaryotic, viral and enterobacterial sequences were greater in sand from the dune closer to a camel-pen. Functional analysis revealed patterns similar to those observed in desert soils; however, the increased relative abundance of genes encoding sporulation and dormancy are consistent with the dune microbiome being well-adapted to the exceptionally hyper-arid Qatari desert.

  13. Afyon-Sandıklı

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    δ18O and δD isotope ratios of the Sandıklı waters plot along the continental meteoric water line ... and district heating. Several studies on geology, hydrogeology along ..... precipitation; In: Handbook of Environmental Isotope. Geochemistry ...

  14. Dark grains of sand: a geological storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Maresca, Magda

    2017-04-01

    In the secondary Italian school the Earth science learning begins at first year, in synergy with other natural science subjects such as Astronomy, Chemistry and Biology. Italian teachers have to focus on the landscape geomorphological aspects and often Earth processes are difficult to display since they are related to certain phenomena happened during the past and often far from the involved country. In order to better understand the environment surrounding us, very simple and poor materials, like sands, allow the teachers to create attractive lab experiences. According to the IBSE (Inquiry Based Science Education) approach, a learning unit has been implemented starting from a walking along the light carbonate beaches of the Adriatic sea: a smart look to the sands ("engage step"), stroke the students fantasy pushing them to explore some strange black grains on the sands. Dirty sands? Or rock landscape, soil degradation and Ofanto river and coastal processes (erosion, transportation and deposition)? This was the teaching challenge. Due to the youngest age, a third level, guided inquiry, was adopted so the teacher is the "guide of inquiry" encouraging the students using the research question ("Why is the sand dark?", "Do all sands look the same?", "Where does it come from?") and driving the students around their investigation plans ("How can I measure grain size?"). A procedure to answer the above questions and validate the results and explanations has been implemented to allow the students to be proactive in their study. During the learning activities will be the students to ask for field trip to elaborate their new knowledge, verify and visualize the speculated processes. The teaching skills allow to address several geosciences domains such as mineralogy, petrology, regional geology and geodynamics as well as other scientific disciplines such as mathematics (more specifically statistics), forensic science and even life sciences (the presence of bioclasts might

  15. The provenance of Taklamakan desert sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittner, Martin; Vermeesch, Pieter; Carter, Andrew; Bird, Anna; Stevens, Thomas; Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Dutt, Ripul; Xu, Zhiwei; Lu, Huayu

    2016-03-01

    Sand migration in the vast Taklamakan desert within the Tarim Basin (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous region, PR China) is governed by two competing transport agents: wind and water, which work in diametrically opposed directions. Net aeolian transport is from northeast to south, while fluvial transport occurs from the south to the north and then west to east at the northern rim, due to a gradual northward slope of the underlying topography. We here present the first comprehensive provenance study of Taklamakan desert sand with the aim to characterise the interplay of these two transport mechanisms and their roles in the formation of the sand sea, and to consider the potential of the Tarim Basin as a contributing source to the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). Our dataset comprises 39 aeolian and fluvial samples, which were characterised by detrital-zircon U-Pb geochronology, heavy-mineral, and bulk-petrography analyses. Although the inter-sample differences of all three datasets are subtle, a multivariate statistical analysis using multidimensional scaling (MDS) clearly shows that Tarim desert sand is most similar in composition to rivers draining the Kunlun Shan (south) and the Pamirs (west), and is distinctly different from sediment sources in the Tian Shan (north). A small set of samples from the Junggar Basin (north of the Tian Shan) yields different detrital compositions and age spectra than anywhere in the Tarim Basin, indicating that aeolian sediment exchange between the two basins is minimal. Although river transport dominates delivery of sand into the Tarim Basin, wind remobilises and reworks the sediment in the central sand sea. Characteristic signatures of main rivers can be traced from entrance into the basin to the terminus of the Tarim River, and those crossing the desert from the south to north can seasonally bypass sediment through the sand sea. Smaller ephemeral rivers from the Kunlun Shan end in the desert and discharge their sediment there. Both river run

  16. Reciprocal sedimentation and noncorrelative hiatuses in marine-paralic siliciclastics: Miocene outcrop evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidwell, S.M.

    1988-07-01

    Deepening-upward paralic sequences present within a thicker record of shallowing-upward shelf and nonmarine sequences in Miocene siliciclastics of Maryland provide rare stratigraphic evidence for (1) coastal trapping of sediment during marine transgression, with simultaneous starvation on the open shelf (recorded by condensed skeletal lags), and (2) reciprocal switching of depositional and nondepositional conditions during regression. It follows that the regressive disconformities that define hemicyclic coastal sequences are not laterally continuous with the transgressive disconformities and condensed lags that define open-shelf hemicyclic sequences, although they are commonly depicted or assumed as such. Nor are these disconformities age correlative: marine-to-nonmarine correlations that assume lateral continuity of small-scale sequences (1 to 10 m thick; seismic parasequences) will err by as much as one-half cycle, restricting the applicability of models of punctuated aggradational cycles. The stratigraphic anatomy of parasequences is most comparable to reciprocal patterns inherent in hierarchically larger scale sequences in passive margins, where subaerial unconformities and submarine condensed intervals have recently been biostratigraphically verified as offset in age.

  17. High temperature thermal energy storage in moving sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. H.; Awaya, H. I.

    1978-01-01

    Several high-temperature (to 500 C) heat-storage systems using sand as the storage medium are described. The advantages of sand as a storage medium include low cost for sand, widespread availability, non-toxicity, non-degradation characteristics, easy containment, and safety. The systems considered include: stationary sand with closely spaced tubes throughout the volume, the use of a fluidized bed, use of conveyor belt transporter, and the use of a blower rapid transport system. For a stationary sand bed, very close spacing of heat transfer tubes throughout the volume is required, manifesting as high power related system cost. The suggestion of moving sand past or around pipes is intended to reduce the power related costs at the penalty of added system complexity. Preliminary system cost estimates are offered. These rough calculations indicate that mobile sand heat storage systems cost less than the stationary sand approach.

  18. Characteristics of SCC with Fly Ash and Manufactured Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen Kumar, K.; Radhakrishna

    2016-09-01

    Self compacting concrete (SCC) of M40 grade was designed. The binder in SCC consists of OPC and fly ash in the ratio of 65:35. River sand was replaced by manufactured sand (M-sand) at replacement levels of 20,40,60,80 and 100%. An attempt was made to evaluate the workability and strength characteristics of self compacting concrete with river sand and manufactured sand as fine aggregates. For each replacement level, constant workability was maintained by varying the dosage of superplasticizer. T50 flow time, V Funnel time, V-funnel T5 time as well as compressive, split tensile and flexural strength of SCC were found at each replacement level of M-sand. They were compared to SCC with river sand. Results indicate favourable use of M-sand in preparation of Self Compacting Concrete.

  19. Field test on sand compaction pile method with copper slag sand; Dosuisai slag wo mochiita SCP koho no shiken seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, K.; Matsui, H.; Naruse, E.; Kitazume, M. [Port and Harbour Research Inst., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-09-20

    This paper describes the sand compaction pile (SCP) method using copper slag sand. The SCP method is a method by which sand compaction piles are constructed in the ground, and improvement can be obtained in a short period. This method has been widely used even in the port areas for enhancing the bearing power of soft clay ground and the lateral resistance of sheet pile. A great deal of sand is required as a material. The sand requires high permeability, proper size distribution with less fine particle fraction content, easy compaction property with enough strength, and easy discharging property from the casing of construction machines as required properties. Recently, it becomes hard to secure proper sand materials. The copper slag sand is obtained from refining process of copper as a by-product which is quenched in water flow and crushed in water. The copper slag sand has higher particle density than that of sand, excellent permeability, and similar size distribution to that of sand. From compaction drainage triaxial compression test and permeability test, it was found that the mechanical properties of copper slag sand did not change by the crushing of grains with keeping excellent permeability. Through the test construction, applicability of the copper slag sand to the SCP method could be confirmed as an alternate material of sand. 17 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Southeast Florida Sediment Assessment and Needs Determination (SAND) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    sand with some shell beds, sandstone , and limestone *Miami Limestone 0 to 80 ft Oolitic limestone, quartz sand, and sandstone Anastasia 0 to 100 ft...Sand, shell beds, marl, calcareous sandstone (coquina/calcarenite) Fort Thompson 0 to 80 ft Silty limestone, silty sand, clayey marl, shell marl...highly- to moderately- weathered quartzose sandstone , and highly-weathered (saprolitic) to moderately-weathered hard limestone. North-south and

  1. Biodegradable materials as binders for IVth generation moulding sands

    OpenAIRE

    K. Major-Gabry

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the possibility of using the biodegradable materials as binders (or parts of binders?compositions) for foundry moulding and core sands. Results showed that there is a great possibility of using available biodegradable materials as foundry moulding sand binders. Using biodegradable materials as partial content of new binders, or additives to moulding sands may not only decrease the toxicity and increase reclamation ability of tested moulding sands, but also accelerate the...

  2. SPECIFIC RESISTANCE AND SPECIFIC INTENSITY OF BELT SANDING OF WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boleslaw Porankiewicz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines and discusses the specific belt sanding resistance K (N·cm-2 and specific belt sanding intensity SI (g·cm-2·min-1, for wood of Pinus sylvestris L., Picea abies L., Quercus robra L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa Gaertn., and Populus Nigra L., by different sanding pressure pS, different sanding grit NG number, and different wood grain angles Phi(v.

  3. Quality stabilisation of synthetic sand containing bentonite in process lines

    OpenAIRE

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2010-01-01

    Stabilisation of sand quality requires the monitoring and control of sand moisture contents and its other parameters at each stage of sandprocessing, i.e. during the preparation of return sand mix and rebonding processes. Stabilisation of sand quality necessitates the use of reliable control equipment and evaluation procedures. This study outlines the scope and results of research work aimed to improve the control equipment to enhance the performance of turbine mixers. The paper reviews the m...

  4. Avaliação nutricional e consumo alimentar de pacientes com doença celíaca com e sem transgressão alimentar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Santos Andreoli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional e a ingestão de energia e de macronutrientes de pacientes com diagnóstico de doença celíaca que transgrediam ou não a dieta isenta de glúten. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 63 pacientes com doença celíaca: 34 crianças e 29 adolescentes. Transgressão à dieta isenta de glúten foi caracterizada por meio da dosagem sérica do anticorpo antitransglutaminase tissular recombiante humana. O estado nutricional foi avaliado com base nos escores-Z de peso/idade, estatura/idade e no índice de massa corporal. A ingestão alimentar foi avaliada por meio do inquérito alimentar de 24 horas. RESULTADOS: A transgressão à dieta sem glúten foi constatada em 41,2% das crianças e em 34,5% dos adolescentes. Nas crianças com transgressão alimentar, a média do escore-Z de estatura/idade foi inferior à das crianças do grupo que não transgredia (p=0,024. Todavia, o grupo com transgressão apresentou maior escore-Z do índice de massa corporal em relação aos que não transgrediam (p=0,021. Os adolescentes que não transgrediam apresentaram maior índice de massa corporal quando comparados aos que transgrediam a dieta (p=0,037. Em relação à ingestão alimentar, não se observou diferença estatística entre os grupos. Todavia, cerca de 70,0% das crianças e adolescentes apresentaram consumo de energia acima de 120,0% da recomendação. CONCLUSÃO: As crianças que transgrediam a dieta apresentaram menor escore-Z de estatura/idade e maior escore-Z para índice de massa corporal do que crianças que seguem sem transgressões alimentares. Os adolescentes que não transgrediam a dieta apresentaram maior média de índice de massa corporal quando comparados aos que transgrediam a dieta. Consumo energético elevado foi observado tanto nas crianças quanto nos adolescentes.

  5. Evaluate of head loss, sediment value and copper removal in sand media (rapid sand filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daneshi Navab

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with the technology development and increasing consumption of water resources, we are experiencing low qualities in the mentioned resources. Copper brings about serious environment al pollution, threatening human health and ecosystem. This metal found variously in water resources and industrial activities. Therefore, it needs to treat the water resources from these excessive amounts. Different methods have used for this reason but the most used method during recent years has been the absorption by economic absorbers such as sand. Rapid sand filters usually used in water and wastewater treatment plants for water clarification. In this research, a single layer gravity rapid sand filter has used to reduce different concentrations of copper. sediment value and head loss arising in filter media is simulated by using combination of Carman-Kozeny, Rose and Gregory models in different discharges of rapid sand filter. Results have shown that with increasing in discharge and decreasing in input copper concentration, arriving time to given head loss, is increasing. In addition, results demonstrated that with increasing in copper concentration in influent, removal efficiency is decreasing somewhat. Results of this research can applied in an appropriate design of rapid sand filter to copper removal, a prediction of rapid sand filter ability to copper removal and an estimation of arising head loss during filter work thus evaluating of time interval backwash. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10641 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 276-286

  6. Dewatering Behaviour of Fine Oil Sands Tailings : An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Oil sands tailings are a warm aqueous suspension of sand, silt, clay, residual bitumen and naphtha. The tailings are hydraulically transported and stored in tailing ponds where they segregate, with the sand settling from suspension forming beaches and the remaining tailings flowing to the middle of

  7. Design and Fabrication of a Foundry Sand Mixer Using Locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most small foundry shops mix their sand manually which is not efficient since homogenous mix cannot be guaranteed and even when foundry mixer are available most of them are imported costing the nation huge foriegn exchange. A foundry sand mixer capable of mixing foundry sand has been designed and fabricated ...

  8. Seasonal changing sand waves and the effect of surface waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterlini, Fenneke; van Dijk, Thaiënne A.G.P.; IJzer, Steven; Hulscher, Suzanne; Schüttrumpf, Holger; Tomasicchio, Guiseppe Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Sand waves are wavelike subaqueous sediment structures that exist in large areas in shelf seas. Due to their characteristics sand waves can severely affect human offshore activities, such as navigation. This makes it important to understand the physical processes that shape and change sand waves. In

  9. Short Communications Sand moisture as a factor determining depth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-11-05

    Nov 5, 1993 ... The depths to which the animals burrow are, at least partly. determined by the moisture gradient in the sand. They are, however, incapable of burrowing into totally dry sand. Animals alter their position in the sand in response to changes in moisture content so as to ensure exposure to suitable conditions.

  10. Assessing environmental impacts of inland sand mining in parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sand is a valuable resource for construction and other purposes, however sand mining often result in serious environmental problems such as land degradation, loss of agricultural lands and biodiversity, as well increased poverty among people. This study assessed the environmental impacts of inland sand mining in six ...

  11. Acetylcholinesterase mutations and organophosphate resistance in sand flies and mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishmaniasis is an insect-borne disease caused by several protozoan species in the genus Leishmania, which are vectored by sand fly species in the genera Phlebotomus or Lutzomyia, depending on the sand fly species geographic range. Sand fly bites and leishmaniasis significantly impacted U.S. milita...

  12. The Rheology of Acoustically Fluidized Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, J. W.; Melosh, J.

    2013-12-01

    The collapse of large craters and the formation of central peaks and peak rings is well modeled by numerical computer codes that incorporate the acoustic fluidization mechanism to temporarily allow the fluid-like flow of rock debris immediately after crater excavation. Furthermore, long runout landslides require a similar mechanism to explain their almost frictionless movement, which is probably also a consequence of their granular composition coupled with internal vibrations. Many different investigators have now confirmed the ability of vibrations to fluidize granular materials. Yet it still remains to fully describe the rheology of vibrated sand as a function of stress, frequency and amplitude of the vibrations in the sand itself. We constructed a rotational viscometer to quantitatively investigate the relation between the stress and strain rate in a horizontal bed of strongly vibrated sand. In addition to the macroscopic stain rate, the amplitude and frequency of the vibrations produced by a pair of pneumatic vibrators were also measured with the aid of miniaturized piezoelectric accelerometers (B&K 4393) whose output was recorded on a digital storage oscilloscope. The initial gathering of the experimental data was difficult due to granular memory, but by having the sand compacted vibrationally for 8 minutes before each run the scatter of data was reduced and we were able to obtain consistent results. Nevertheless, our major source of uncertainty was variations in strain rate from run to run. We find that vibrated sand flows like a highly non-Newtonian fluid, in which the shear strain rate is proportional to stress to a power much greater than one, where the precise power depends on the amplitude and frequency of the applied vibrations. Rapid flow occurs at stresses less than half of the static yield stress (that is, the yield stress when no vibration is applied) when strong vibrations are present. For a Newtonian fluid, such as water, the relation between

  13. Processes of coastal bluff erosion in weakly lithified sands, Pacifica, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, B.D.; Sitar, N.

    2008-01-01

    Coastal bluff erosion and landsliding are currently the major geomorphic processes sculpting much of the marine terrace dominated coastline of northern California. In this study, we identify the spatial and temporal processes responsible for erosion and landsliding in an area of weakly lithified sand coastal bluffs located south of San Francisco, California. Using the results of a five year observational study consisting of site visits, terrestrial lidar scanning, and development of empirical failure indices, we identify the lithologic and process controls that determine the failure mechanism and mode for coastal bluff retreat in this region and present concise descriptions of each process. Bluffs composed of weakly cemented sands (unconfined compressive strength - UCS between 5 and 30??kPa) fail principally due to oversteepening by wave action with maximum slope inclinations on the order of 65 at incipient failure. Periods of significant wave action were identified on the basis of an empirical wave run-up equation, predicting failure when wave run-up exceeds the seasonal average value and the bluff toe elevation. The empirical relationship was verified through recorded observations of failures. Bluffs composed of moderately cemented sands (UCS up to 400??kPa) fail due to precipitation-induced groundwater seepage, which leads to tensile strength reduction and fracture. An empirical rainfall threshold was also developed to predict failure on the basis of a 48-hour cumulative precipitation index but was found to be dependent on a time delay in groundwater seepage in some cases.

  14. The physics of wind-blown sand and dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Jasper F; Parteli, Eric J R; Michaels, Timothy I; Karam, Diana Bou

    2012-10-01

    The transport of sand and dust by wind is a potent erosional force, creates sand dunes and ripples, and loads the atmosphere with suspended dust aerosols. This paper presents an extensive review of the physics of wind-blown sand and dust on Earth and Mars. Specifically, we review the physics of aeolian saltation, the formation and development of sand dunes and ripples, the physics of dust aerosol emission, the weather phenomena that trigger dust storms, and the lifting of dust by dust devils and other small-scale vortices. We also discuss the physics of wind-blown sand and dune formation on Venus and Titan.

  15. Marine communities : governing oil & gas activities and cruise tourism in the Arctic and the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bets, Linde K.J.

    2017-01-01

    Oceans and seas are among the most ecologically vital and socio-economically important systems on the planet. Despite the acknowledged pristine nature of the marine environment, there is a growing interest in exploring the sea for human use such as offshore wind production, extraction of sand,

  16. Marine fauna of hard substrata of the Cleaver bank and Dogger bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieken, N.; Gittenberger, A.; Coolen, J.W.P.; Lengkeek, W.

    2013-01-01

    As most of the sea bottom in the Dutch part of the North Sea consists of sand, marine fauna that live in association with hard substrates are rarely monitored. We report here on the results of a species inventory in June 2011 done by scuba-diving while focusing on a wreck on the Dogger Bank and on

  17. Marine fauna of hard substrata of the Cleaver Bank and Dogger Bank

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrieken, N.; Gittenberger, A.; Coolen, J.W.P.; Lengkeek, W.

    2013-01-01

    As most of the sea bottom in the Dutch part of the North Sea consists of sand, marine fauna that live in association with hard substrates are rarely monitored. We report here on the results of a species inventory in June 2011 done by scuba-diving while focusing on a wreck on the Dogger Bank and on

  18. Longshore sediment transport at Golden Sands (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo Nikolov

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies on the qualitative and quantitative features of the littoral drift at Golden Sands (Bulgaria, carried out jointly by Polish and Bulgarian researchers. The mathematical modelling of physical coastal processes took wave transformation (wave diffraction and refraction; the effects of shoaling and wave breaking and longshore sediment transport into account. The computations were carried out for the mean statistical annual wave climate, determined on the basis of IO BAS wave data, simulated using the WAM method from long-term Black Sea wind data. The results of sediment transport computations clearly show that its direction off the Golden Sands shore is from north to south.

  19. Oil sands tailings preliminary ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Chemical data collected from various oil sands soil-tailings mixtures were used to determine the ecological risk that such tailings would pose to terrestrial wildlife at the surface of a reclaimed site. A methodology that could be used to evaluate the risks posed by various reclamation options (for dry land only) was proposed. Risks associated with other reclamation options, such as wet landscapes or deeper in-pit disposal, were not evaluated. Ten constituents (eight organic and two inorganic) were found to pose a threat to terrestrial biota. The relative contribution of different exposure pathways (water and food ingestion, incidental soil ingestion, inhalation) were studied by probabilistic models. Some physical and chemical reclamation alternatives which involve incorporating oil sands tailings in the landscape to produce a surface that could sustain a productive ecosystem, were described. 53 refs., 15 tabs., 3 figs

  20. Tailings dewatering in the oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longo, S.; Labelle, M. [Golder Paste Technology, Sudbury, ON (Canada); Wislesky, I. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Alberta's Directive 074 was established to reduce fluid tailings produced during oil sands extraction processes. This PowerPoint presentation examined some of the dewatering strategies available for oil sands operators and provided recommendations for implementing a dewatering plan. Sites must be evaluated in order to determine their chemistry, mineralogy, and the total quantity of material to be handled. The availability of potential additives must also be considered. Process technologies must be selected in relation to the operator's depositional strategy. Each site will require its own unique dewatering and depositional strategy. Dewatering technologies include thickening; in-line flocculation; centrifuge; co-mingling; and various new technologies such as electro-osmosis. Laboratory testing programs include index tests, primary stream thickening, and mini-pilot plant testing. The performance of various testing formats was evaluated. Thickening and depositional techniques were reviewed. tabs., figs.

  1. Radiation protection in the sand pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewson, Greg

    1997-01-01

    Radiation protection in the Western Australian minerals sands industry has attracted considerable controversy over the last 20 years: firstly, in relation to environmental and public health issues associated with the indiscriminate disposal of radioactive tailings as landfill in the mid to late 1970s and, secondly, in relation to occupational health issues associated with excessive radiation exposures to some workers at some plants in the mid to late 1980s. The industry also attracts attention through its proximity to coastal regions and population centres and consequent land use conflicts. Owing to intense political and societal scrutiny, and the emotional responses evoked by radiation, the industry's survival depends on a continuing high level of environmental and safety performance. This article summarises the successes and failures of the mineral sands industry in managing radiation protection and highlights some future issues and challenges for the industry. (Author)

  2. Oil sands market and transportation solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandahl, R.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation outlined the immense potential of the western Canadian oil sands reserves. Recoverable reserves have been estimated at 180 billion barrels, with production forecasts estimated at 5 million barrels per day by 2030. Resource development is occurring at a time when the world's largest oil importer is increasing supplies through concern for security of supply. The second and third largest oil importers in the world are experiencing economic and energy demand growth. These factors underscore the motivation for rapid growth of the Western Canadian Oil Sands reserves. One of the challenges that must be addressed is to ensure that incremental markets for the increased production are accessed. Another challenge is to ensure adequate infrastructure in terms of pipeline capacity to ensure deliverability of the product. tabs., figs

  3. Marine ostracod turnover tracks orbitally forced palaeoenvironmental changes at the Lower-Middle Pleistocene transition: the case study of the Valle di Manche section (Calabria, southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Veronica; Scarponi, Daniele; Capraro, Luca; Ferretti, Patrizia; Macrì, Patrizia

    2017-04-01

    Ostracods, small crustaceans living in almost every aquatic depositional setting, are widely used in palaeoenvironmental reconstructions due to their well-known ecological sensitivity. A close connection between the composition of ostracod fauna and the Milankovitch climate-eustatic variability has been documented in several Plio-Pleistocene marine sections of the Central Mediterranean area. The Valle di Manche section (VdM; Calabria, southern Italy), one of the suitable candidates to host the Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) of the Ionian Stage-Middle Pleistocene, represents an ideal venue where to investigate ostracod turnover in relation to orbitally forced palaeoenvironmental changes, being firmly constrained in time and well documented by a number of independent climatic proxy. A high-resolution, quantitative analysis of the ostracod fauna has been undertaken on the middle part of the VdM, ca. 30 m-thick and showing two T-R cycles developed at the Lower-Middle Pleistocene transition (late MIS 21 to early MIS 18). Within each cycle, a relatively thin, fining-upward transgressive muddy unit is overlain by gradually coarsening upward and more expanded regressive silty to sand packages. A total of 40 samples have been selected to characterise the whole spectrum of lithofacies and detect high-frequency palaeoenvironmental variations especially within homogeneous clayey stratigraphic intervals. Taxa typical of circalittoral (>70/100 m) depths (e.g., Bosquetina dentata, Cytherella vulgatella, Cytheropteron monoceros, Pterygocythereis ceratoptera and Krithe species), commonly accompanied by the lower circalittoral-bathyal species Henryhowella sarsii, occur within the fine-grained units developed during the full interglacials of MIS 21 and MIS 19. Furthermore, ostracod assemblages document that the oxygen availability at the sea floor changed during MIS 19. In contrast, a less-diversified ostracod fauna dominated by Aurila convexa, a species preferring

  4. Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Ashraf; Nasr, Ahmed

    2013-03-01

    Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21-31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18-75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.

  5. Fusion of arkosic sand by intrusive andesite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Roy A.

    1954-01-01

    An andesite dike in the Valles Mountains of northern New Mexico has intruded and partly fused arkosic sediments for a distance of 50 feet from its contacts. The dike is semi-circular in form, has a maximum width of about 100 feet, and is about 500 feet long. Small associated arcuate dikes are arranged in spiral fashion around the main dike, suggesting that they were intruded along shear fractures similar to those described by Burbank (1941). The fused rocks surrounding the andesite dike are of three general types: 1) partly fused arkosic sand, 2) fused clay, and 3) hybrid rocks. The fused arkosic sand consists of relict detrital grains of quartz, orthoclose, and plagioclase, imbedded in colorless glass containing microlites of tridymite, cordierite, and magnetite. The relict quartz grains are corroded and embayed by glass; the orthoclase is sanidinized and partly fused; and the plagioclase is inverted to the high temperature form and is partly fused. The fused clay, which was originally a mixture of montmorillonite and hydromica, consists primarily of cordierite but also contains needle-like crystals of sillimanite (?) or mullite (?). The hybrid rocks originated in part by intermixing of fused arkosic sediments and andesitic liquid and in part by diffusion of mafic constituents through the fused sediments. They are rich in cordierite and magnetite and also contain hypersthene, augite, and plagioclase. The composition of pigeonite in the andesite indicates that the temperature of the andesite at the time of intrusion probably did not exceed 1200?C. Samples of arkosic sand were fused in the presence of water in a Morey bomb at 1050?C. Stability relations of certain minerals in the fused sand suggest that fusion may have taken place at a lower temperature, however, and the fluxing action of volatiles from the andesite are thought to have made this possible.

  6. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penney, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  7. Comparison of SAND-II and FERRET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootan, D.W.; Schmittroth, F.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison was made of the advantages and disadvantages of two codes, SAND-II and FERRET, for determining the neutron flux spectrum and uncertainty from experimental dosimeter measurements as anticipated in the FFTF Reactor Characterization Program. This comparison involved an examination of the methodology and the operational performance of each code. The merits of each code were identified with respect to theoretical basis, directness of method, solution uniqueness, subjective influences, and sensitivity to various input parameters

  8. Drained Triaxial Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praastrup, U.; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    In the process of understanding and developing models for geomaterials, the stress-strain behaviour is commonly studied by performing triaxial tests. In the present study static triaxial tests have been performed to gain knowledge of the stress-strain behaviour of frictional materials during...... monotonic loading. The tests reported herein are all drained tests, starting from different initial states of stress and following various stress paths. AIl the tests are performed on reconstituted medium dense specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand....

  9. Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Nazir

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21–31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18–75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.

  10. Transport processes in intertidal sand flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Christy

    2010-05-01

    Methane rich sulfate depleted seeps are observed along the low water line of the intertidal sand flat Janssand in the Wadden Sea. It is unclear where in the flat the methane is formed, and how it is transported to the edge of the sand flat where the sulfidic water seeps out. Methane and sulfate distributions in pore water were determined along transects from low water line toward the central area of the sand flat. The resulting profiles showed a zone of methane-rich and sulfate-depleted pore water below 2 m sediment depth. Methane production and sulfate reduction are monitored over time for surface sediments collected from the upper flat and seeping area. Both activities were at 22 C twice as high as at 15 C. The rates in sediments from the central area were higher than in sediments from the methane seeps. Methanogenesis occurred in the presence of sulfate, and was not significantly accelerated when sulfate was depleted. The observations show a rapid anaerobic degradation of organic matter in the Janssand. The methane rich pore water is obviously transported with a unidirectional flow from the central area of the intertidal sand flat toward the low water line. This pore water flow is driven by the pressure head caused by elevation of the pore water relative to the sea surface at low tide (Billerbeck et al. 2006a). The high methane concentration at the low water line accumulates due to a continuous outflow of pore water at the seepage site that prevents penetration of electron acceptors such as oxygen and sulfate to reoxidize the reduced products of anaerobic degradation (de Beer et al. 2006). It is, however, not clear why no methane accumulates or sulfate is depleted in the upper 2 m of the flats.

  11. Guide to preparing SAND reports. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, T.K. [ed.

    1996-04-01

    This guide contains basic information needed to produce a SAND report. Its guidelines reflect DOE regulation and Sandia policy. The guide includes basic writing instructions in an annotated sample report; guidance for organization, format, and layout of reports produced by line organizations; and information about conference papers, journal articles, and brochures. The appendixes contain sections on Sandia`s preferred usage, equations, references, copyrights and permissions, and publishing terms.

  12. Analysis of wind-blown sand movement over transverse dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Huang, Ning; Zhu, Yuanjian

    2014-12-01

    Wind-blown sand movement often occurs in a very complicated desert environment where sand dunes and ripples are the basic forms. However, most current studies on the theoretic and numerical models of wind-blown sand movement only consider ideal conditions such as steady wind velocity, flat sand surface, etc. In fact, the windward slope gradient plays a great role in the lift-off and sand particle saltation. In this paper, we propose a numerical model for the coupling effect between wind flow and saltating sand particles to simulate wind-blown sand movement over the slope surface and use the SIMPLE algorithm to calculate wind flow and simulate sands transport by tracking sand particle trajectories. We furthermore compare the result of numerical simulation with wind tunnel experiments. These results prove that sand particles have obvious effect on wind flow, especially that over the leeward slope. This study is a preliminary study on windblown sand movement in a complex terrain, and is of significance in the control of dust storms and land desertification.

  13. Depositional environment, sand provenance, and diagenesis of the Basal Salina Formation (lower Eocene), northwestern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaglia, K. M.; Carozzi, A. V.

    The Basal Salina Formation is a lower Eocene transgressive sequence consisting of interbedded shales, siltstones, and conglomeratic sandstones. This formation occurs in the Talara basin of northwestern Peru and is one of a series of complexly faulted hydrocarbon-producing formations within this extensional forearc basin. These sediments were probably deposited in a fan-delta complex that developed along the ancestral Amotape Mountains during the early Eocene. Most of the sediment was derived from the low-grade metamorphic and plutonic rocks that comprise the Amotape Mountains, and their sedimentary cover. Detrital modes of these sandstones reflect the complex tectonic history of the area, rather than the overall forearc setting. Unlike most forearc sediments, these are highly quartzose, with only minor percentages of volcanic detritus. This sand is variably indurated and cemented by chlorite, quartz, calcite, and kaolinite. Clay-mineral matrix assemblages show gradational changes with depth, from primarily detrital kaolinite to diagenetic chlorite and mixed-layered illite/smectite. Basal Salina sandstones exhibit a paragenetic sequence that may be tied to early meteoric influx or late-stage influx of thermally driven brines associated with hydrocarbon migration. Much of the porosity is secondary, resulting from a first-stage dissolution of silicic constituents (volcanic lithic fragments, feldspar, and fibrous quartz) and a later dissolution of surrounding carbonate cement. Types of pores include skeletal grains, grain molds, elongate pores, and fracture porosity. Measured porosity values range up to 24% and coarser samples tend to be more porous. Permeability is enhanced by fractures and deterred by clay-mineral cements and alteration residues.

  14. Naphtha evaporation from oil sands tailings ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperski, K.; Munoz, V.; Mikula, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Western Research Centre

    2010-07-01

    The environmental impacts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from oil sands tailings ponds must be considered when evaluating new oil sands mining and extraction operations. Studies have suggested that only 40 percent of the solvent sent to tailings ponds is available to the environment, while the rest is irreversibly trapped. The recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands froth process water is low. This PowerPoint presentation discussed a method of distinguishing between water and hydrocarbons at low temperatures. Samples were heated to 246 degrees C at 15 degrees C and held for 10 minutes. Heating was then resumed at 750 degrees C and held for 10 minutes in a pyrolysis phase, then cooled and reheated with an oxygen addition. The method demonstrated that the diluent distribution between the solids and water phases is misinterpreted as diluent that will evaporate, and diluent that will not evaporate. The study concluded by suggesting that the definition of recoverable and unrecoverable hydrocarbon should be re-termed as easily recoverable, and difficult to recover. tabs., figs.

  15. Insight conference reports : Western Canada oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This conference presented issues of concern to the Canadian oil sands industry. Focal points included supply and the potential for market growth as well as opportunities and challenges faced by the industry in the current market. Various projects were discussed, including the Northern Lights and Fort Hill projects. Reserves and resource booking procedures were examined, as well as issues concerning the streamlining of regulatory barriers and various approaches to the Kyoto Protocol and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Oil sands portfolios were reviewed as well as issues concerning the recovery of titanium and zircon, the economics of Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) options and innovations in technology and sub-surface risk assessment for in-situ projects. Transportation initiatives were examined as well as pipeline issues and storage infrastructure development. Issues concerning financing as well as the economic environment of the oil sands industry were also discussed. The conference featured 20 presentations, of which 5 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs, figs

  16. Recycled sand in lime-based mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidou, M; Anastasiou, E; Georgiadis Filikas, K

    2014-12-01

    The increasing awareness of the society about safe guarding heritage buildings and at the same time protecting the environment promotes strategies of combining principles of restoration with environmentally friendly materials and techniques. Along these lines, an experimental program was carried out in order to investigate the possibility of producing repair, lime-based mortars used in historic buildings incorporating secondary materials. The alternative material tested was recycled fine aggregates originating from mixed construction and demolition waste. Extensive tests on the raw materials have been performed and mortar mixtures were produced using different binding systems with natural, standard and recycled sand in order to compare their mechanical, physical and microstructure properties. The study reveals the improved behavior of lime mortars, even at early ages, due to the reaction of lime with the Al and Si constituents of the fine recycled sand. The role of the recycled sand was more beneficial in lime mortars rather than the lime-pozzolan or lime-pozzolan-cement mortars as a decrease in their performance was recorded in the latter cases due to the mortars' structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Numerical simulation of sand jet in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azimi, A.H.; Zhu, D.; Rajaratnam, N. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-07-01

    A numerical simulation of sand jet in water was presented. The study involved a two-phase flow using two-phase turbulent jets. A literature review was also presented, including an experiment on particle laden air jet using laser doppler velocimetry (LDV); experiments on the effect of particle size and concentration on solid-gas jets; an experimental study of solid-liquid jets using particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique where mean velocity and fluctuations were measured; and an experimental study on solid-liquid jets using the laser doppler anemometry (LDA) technique measuring both water axial and radial velocities. Other literature review results included a photographic study of sand jets in water; a comparison of many two-phase turbulent flow; and direct numerical simulation and large-eddy simulation to study the effect of particle in gas jet flow. The mathematical model and experimental setup were also included in the presentation along with simulation results for sand jets, concentration, and kinetic energy. The presentation concluded with some proposed future studies including numerical simulation of slurry jets in water and numerical simulation of slurry jets in MFT. tabs., figs.

  18. Mobil Oil Canada : Kearl Oil Sands Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The upgrader design at Mobil's Kearl Oil Sands Mine were described. Included were feed characteristics, upgrader products, process schemes and their overall economics and upgrader technologies in use, including coking, deasphalting, hydrocracking, hydrotreating and visbreaking. Advantages and disadvantages of the upgrader technologies were highlighted. As far as the product is concerned, much of it is destined to U.S. refineries that are equipped to process the material. The Kearl Oil Sands Mine upgrading facility will likely use a combination of coker/hydrotreating, which is a well proven process for high value products that has been used in all five of Mobil's refineries in the U.S., and visbreaker/deasphalting, which has shown promise in bench-scale testing, but at present still has some potential commercial difficulties. Foremost among these are the high softening product of asphalt from visbroken products, questionable commercial feasibility of the low yield of pitch, and problems in the disposal of asphalt. Severe visbreaking also yields unstable products. Details of Mobil Canada's oil sands project were also summarized 2 tabs., 9 figs

  19. Experimental investigation of sanding propensity for the Andrew completion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkitaraman, A.; Li, H. [Schlumberger Perforating and Testing Center (United Kingdom); Leonard, A. J.; Bowden, P. R. [BP Exploration (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    A series of laboratory experiments were performed on three reservoir core samples selected from two plot wells to confirm the likelihood of sand production during the completion phase of the planned Andrew horizontal wells, and to perform risk analysis of formation failure at the time of underbalance perforation, and expected producing conditions. CT scans revealed no perforation failure, and the core samples did not show any propensity to produce sand during single-phase oil flow. Transient sand production was observed when water cut was introduced, but sand production declined as the percentage of water cut was increased. There was no evidence of sand production in the core samples during depletion testing either, and the wells were subsequently completed with perforated cemented liners without sand control. No sand problems have been encountered in two years of production, with some wells in water cut and declined reservoir pressure of 200 psi. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  20. Use of sand wave habitats by silver hake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auster, P.J.; Lindholm, J.; Schaub, S.; Funnell, G.; Kaufman, L.S.; Valentine, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    Silver hake Merluccius bilinearis are common members of fish communities in sand wave habitats on Georges Bank and on Stellwagen Bank in the Gulf of Maine. Observations of fish size v. sand wave period showed that silver hake are not randomly distributed within sand wave landscapes. Regression analyses showed a significant positive relationship between sand wave period and fish length. Correlation coefficients, however, were low, suggesting other interactions with sand wave morphology, the range of current velocities, and available prey may also influence their distribution. Direct contact with sand wave habitats varied over diel periods, with more fish resting on the seafloor during daytime than at night. Social foraging, in the form of polarized groups of fish swimming in linear formations during crepuscular and daytime periods, was also observed. Sand wave habitats may provide shelter from current flows and mediate fish-prey interactions. ?? 2003 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  1. bentonite-sand mixture as new backfill/buffer material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Suli; Liu Jisheng; Zhang Huyuan; Liang Jian

    2008-01-01

    The mixture of bentonite and quartz sand is suggested as a new backfill/buffer material for geological disposal of HLW. To improve the further design of underground laboratory and in-situ industrial construction test, the optimization of sand addition to bentonite is focused at present research stage. Based on summarizing the research results abroad, laboratory tests were conducted on the mixture of GMZ001 bentonite and quartz sand, such as compaction test and swelling tests etc. Test data shows that GMZ bentonite-sand mixture exhibits a favorite compaction with a 30% sand addition, a highest swelling pressure with a 20% sand addition, and a decreasing plasticity with increases in sand addition and pore liquid concentration. (authors)

  2. Marine animal stings or bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stings - marine animals; Bites - marine animals ... Things you can do to prevent a marine animal sting or bite include: Swim near a lifeguard. Observe posted signs that may warn of danger from jellyfish or other hazardous marine life. ...

  3. Mariners Weather Log

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Mariners Weather Log (MWL) is a publication containing articles, news and information about marine weather events and phenomena, worldwide environmental impact...

  4. MarineCadastre.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MarineCadastre.gov is a marine information system that provides authoritative ocean data, offshore planning tools, and technical support to the offshore renewable...

  5. Marine Jurisdiction Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The NOAA Coastal Services Center's Marine Jurisdiction dataset was created to assist in marine spatial planning and offshore alternative energy sitting. This is a...

  6. Tsunamis and marine life

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.V.S.; Ingole, B.S.; Tang, D.; Satyanarayan, B.; Zhao, H.

    The 26 December 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean exerted far reaching temporal and spatial impacts on marine biota. Our synthesis was based on satellite data acquired by the Laboratory for Tropical Marine Environmental Dynamics (LED) of the South...

  7. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  8. Sand wave fields beneath the Loop Current, Gulf of Mexico: Reworking of fan sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Neil H.; Akhmetzhanov, A.M.; Twichell, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    Extensive fields of large barchan-like sand waves and longitudinal sand ribbons have been mapped by deep-towed SeaMARC IA sidescan sonar on part of the middle and lower Mississippi Fan that lies in about 3200 m of water. The area is beneath the strongly flowing Loop Current. The bedforms have not been adequately sampled but probably consist of winnowed siliciclastic-foraminiferal sands. The size (about 200 m from wingtip to wingtip) and shape of the large barchans is consistent with a previously observed peak current speed of 30 cm/s, measured 25 m above the seabed. The types of small-scale bedforms and the scoured surfaces of chemical crusts, seen on nearby bottom photographs, indicate that near-bed currents in excess of 30 cm/s may sometimes occur. At the time of the survey the sand transport direction was to the northwest, in the opposite direction to the Loop Current but consistent with there being a deep boundary current along the foot of the Florida Escarpment. Some reworking of the underlying sandy turbidites and debris flow deposits is apparent on the sidescan sonar records. Reworking by deep-sea currents, resulting in erosion and in deposits characterised by coarsening upwards structures and cross-bedding, is a process that has been proposed for sand found in cores in shallower parts of the Gulf of Mexico. This process is more widespread than hitherto supposed. 

  9. Transgressive, but fun!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Julie Borup

    This booklet is about the possible benefits of doing something different with the students in your classroom - to do rhythms! Rhythmical exercises benefit students in various ways: they move their bodies, getting new oxygen to their brains, they see other sides of each other, creating new bonds......, they relate to the culture of education by other means than words, creating new ways of belonging, just to mention a few. All together, rhythms, like other musical forms, can create a positive atmosphere in the classroom, creating conditions for individual and social learning in a supportive learning...... environment. If you, like many university teachers, do not have special musical training, the booklet provides a few practical exercises and video instructions, guiding the non-musician university teacher on how to lead a rhythmical exercise....

  10. Transgressive first clinical experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Juul; Jeppesen, Lise Kofoed; Drachmann, Merete

    2014-01-01

    . The nursing students’ learning seems to be oriented towards socialization in the clinic as a workplace. This means that the nursing students seek to deal with overwhelming experiences concerning the naked bodies of patients and death, useful application of theoretical knowledge, the path from novice...... to advanced beginner, and adjusting to the workplace community. The conclusion is that the learning of nursing students during their first clinical in-service placement appears informal and not founded on evident best practice....... graduation as a Nurse. The Study has a qualitative methodology, inspired by Michael Eraut’s thoughts on learning in the workplace. When the workplace perspective is applied, learning seems to be concentrated on actual situations which the Learner is in, in contrast to employing constructed concepts...

  11. Seashore marine table quiz

    OpenAIRE

    Institute, Marine

    2013-01-01

    Develop an increasing awareness of plants and animals that live in local marine environments including the seashore, seas and oceans of Ireland. After learning all about the seashore and other marine related lessons, this quiz can be used to evaluate the student’s knowledge of the marine related living things and natural environments. The table quiz can be used as a guide, highlighting facts about the marine environment and some of the animals that live there.

  12. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine a...

  13. No difference in the intention to engage others in academic transgression among medical students from neighboring countries: a cross-national study on medical students from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, and Macedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đogaš, Varja; Donev, Doncho M; Kukolja-Taradi, Sunčana; Đogaš, Zoran; Ilakovac, Vesna; Novak, Anita; Jerončić, Ana

    2016-08-31

    To asses if the level of intention to engage others in academic transgressions was comparable among medical students from five schools from neighboring Southern-European countries: Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Macedonia; and medical students from western EU studying at Split, Croatia. Five medical schools were surveyed in 2011, with ≥87% of the targeted population sampled and a response rate of ≥76%. Students' intention to engage a family member, friend, colleague, or a stranger in academic transgression was measured using a previously validated the Intention to Engage Others in Academic Transgression (IEOAT) questionnaire and compared with their intention to ask others for a non-academic, material favor. Data on students' motivation measured by Work Preference Inventory scale, and general data were also collected. Multiple linear regression models of the intention to engage others in a particular behavior were developed. The most important determinants of the intention to engage others in academic transgression were psychological factors, such as intention to ask others for a material favor, or students' motivation (median determinant's β of 0.18, P≤0.045 for all), whereas social and cultural factors associated with the country of origin were either weak (median β of 0.07, P≤0.031) or not relevant. A significant proportion of students were aware of the ethical violations in academic transgressions (P≤0.004 for all transgressions), but a large proportion of students also perceived academic cheating as a collective effort and were likely to engage people randomly (P≤0.001 for all, but the most severe transgression). This collective effort was more pronounced for academic than non-academic behavior. Culture differences among neighboring Southern-European countries were not an important determinant of the intention to engage others in academic cheating.

  14. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  15. Marine polar steroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonik, Valentin A

    2001-01-01

    Structures, taxonomic distribution and biological activities of polar steroids isolated from various marine organisms over the last 8-10 years are considered. The peculiarities of steroid biogenesis in the marine biota and their possible biological functions are discussed. Syntheses of some highly active marine polar steroids are described. The bibliography includes 254 references.

  16. Revegetation and management of tailings sand slopes from tar sand extraction: 1978 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowell, M J

    1979-01-01

    The results are reported of research into the revegetation of two areas on a steeply sloping dike composed of tailings sand from tar sand extraction at the Great Canadian Oil Sand Limited plant at Fort McMurray, Alberta. One area was seeded with three pasture grasses and two legumes in 1971 after the slope surface had been mixed with peat to a depth of 15 cm. A second area had been amended with peat or peat and overburden and differing rates of fertilizer added. A mix containing nine grasses, four legumes, and oats, as a companion crop, was seeded in July 1976. The objectives of the research were to study methods for the establishment of a stable vegetative cover that would prevent erosion of the slope and, in time, might become a self maintaining unit. Tillage of soil amendments to a depth of 15 cm and 30 cm were compared in promoting deeper rooting and stabilizing of the slope.

  17. The effects of promising to tell the truth, the putative confession, and recall and recognition questions on maltreated and non-maltreated children's disclosure of a minor transgression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quas, Jodi A; Stolzenberg, Stacia N; Lyon, Thomas D

    2018-02-01

    This study examined the utility of two interview instructions designed to overcome children's reluctance to disclose transgressions: eliciting a promise from children to tell the truth and the putative confession (telling children that a suspect "told me everything that happened and wants you to tell the truth"). The key questions were whether the instructions increased disclosure in response to recall questions and in response to recognition questions that were less or more explicit about transgressions and whether instructions were differentially effective with age. A total sample of 217 4- to 9-year-old maltreated and comparable non-maltreated children and a stranger played with a set of toys. For half of the children within each group, two of the toys appeared to break while they were playing. The stranger admonished secrecy. Shortly thereafter, children were questioned about what happened in one of three interview conditions. Some children were asked to promise to tell the truth. Others were given the putative confession, and still others received no interview instructions. When coupled with recall questions, the promise was effective at increasing disclosures only among older children, whereas the putative confession was effective regardless of age. Across interview instruction conditions, recognition questions that did not suggest wrongdoing elicited few additional transgression disclosures, whereas recognition questions that explicitly mentioned wrongdoing elicited some true reports but also some false alarms. No differences in disclosure emerged between maltreated and non-maltreated children. Results highlight the potential benefits and limitations of different interviewing approaches when questioning reluctant children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Properties of dune sand concrete containing coffee waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Guendouz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, an increase of coffee beverages consumption has been observed all over the world; and its consumption increases the waste coffee grounds which will become an environmental problems. Recycling of this waste to produce new materials like sand concrete appears as one of the best solutions for reduces the problem of pollution. This work aims to study the possibility of recycling waste coffee grounds (Spent Coffee Grounds (SCG as a fine aggregate by replacing the sand in the manufacturing of dune sand concrete. For this; sand concrete mixes were prepared with substitution of sand with the spent coffee grounds waste at different percentage (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by volume of the sand in order to study the influence of this wastes on physical (Workability, bulk density and porosity, mechanical (compressive and flexural strength and Thermal (Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity properties of dune sand concrete. The results showed that the use of spent coffee grounds waste as partial replacement of natural sand contributes to reduce workability, bulk density and mechanical strength of sand concrete mixes with an increase on its porosity. However, the thermal characteristics are improved and especially for a level of 15% and 20% of substitution. So, it is possible to obtain an insulating material which can be used in the various types of structural components. This study ensures that reusing of waste coffee grounds in dune sand concrete gives a positive approach to reduce the cost of materials and solve some environmental problems.

  19. Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-09-01

    For those who support U.S. oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands industry is often identified as a model the U.S. might emulate, yielding financial and energy security benefits. For opponents of domestic oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands experience illustrates the risks that opponents of development believe should deter domestic policymakers from incenting U.S. oil sands development. This report does not seek to evaluate the particular underpinnings of either side of this policy argument, but rather attempts to delve into the question of whether the Canadian experience has relevance as a foundational model for U.S. oil sands development. More specifically, this report seeks to assess whether and how the Canadian oil sands experience might be predictive or instructive in the context of fashioning a framework for a U.S. oil sands industry. In evaluating the implications of these underpinnings for a prospective U.S. oil sands industry, this report concentrates on prospective development of the oil sands deposits found in Utah.

  20. Changes in active eolian sand at northern Coachella Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katra, Itzhak; Scheidt, Stephen; Lancaster, Nicholas

    2009-04-01

    Climate variability and rapid urbanization have influenced the sand environments in the northern Coachella Valley throughout the late 20th century. This paper addresses changes in the spatial relationships among different sand deposits at northern Coachella Valley between two recent time periods by using satellite data acquired from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER). The approach employed here, involving multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) data and spectral mixture analysis, has shown that the major sand deposits can be spatially modeled at northern Coachella Valley. The "coarse-grained (quartz-rich) sand" deposit is associated with active eolian sand, and the "mixed sandy soil" and "fine-grained (quartz-rich) sand" deposits are associated with inactive eolian sand. The fractional abundance images showed a significant decrease between 2000 and 2006 in the percentage of active sand in the major depositional area for fluvial sediment, the Whitewater River, but also in two downwind areas: the Whitewater and Willow Hole Reserves. The pattern of the active sand appears to be related to variations in annual precipitation (wet and dry years) and river discharge in the northern Coachella Valley. We suggest here that recent human modifications to the major watercourses that supply sand affect the capability of fluvial deposition areas to restore sediments over time and consequently the responses of the sand transport system to climate change, becoming more sensitive to dry years where areas of active sand may shrink, degrade, and/or stabilize faster. The approach utilized in this study can be advantageous for future monitoring of sand in the northern Coachella Valley for management of these and similar environments.

  1. Marine nitrogen cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naqvi, S.W.A.

    ) such as the Marine nitrogen cycle The marine nitrogen cycle. ‘X’ and ‘Y’ are intra-cellular intermediates that do not accumulate in water column. (Source: Codispoti et al., 2001) Page 1 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www... and nitrous oxide budgets: Moving targets as we enter the anthropocene?, Sci. Mar., 65, 85-105, 2001. Page 2 of 3Marine nitrogen cycle - Encyclopedia of Earth 11/20/2006http://www.eoearth.org/article/Marine_nitrogen_cycle square6 Gruber, N.: The dynamics...

  2. Carotenoids in Marine Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoka, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Marine animals contain various carotenoids that show structural diversity. These marine animals accumulate carotenoids from foods such as algae and other animals and modify them through metabolic reactions. Many of the carotenoids present in marine animals are metabolites of β-carotene, fucoxanthin, peridinin, diatoxanthin, alloxanthin, and astaxanthin, etc. Carotenoids found in these animals provide the food chain as well as metabolic pathways. In the present review, I will describe marine animal carotenoids from natural product chemistry, metabolism, food chain, and chemosystematic viewpoints, and also describe new structural carotenoids isolated from marine animals over the last decade. PMID:21566799

  3. Highstand shelf fans: The role of buoyancy reversal in the deposition of a new type of shelf sand body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Elisabeth; Simms, Alexander R.; Warrick, Jonathan; Yokoyama, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Although sea-level highstands are typically associated with sediment-starved continental shelves, high sea level does not hinder major river floods. Turbidity currents generated by plunging of sediment-laden rivers at the fluvial-marine interface, known as hyperpycnal flows, allow for cross-shelf transport of suspended sand beyond the coastline. Hyperpycnal flows in southern California have deposited six subaqueous fans on the shelf of the northern Santa Barbara Channel in the Holocene. Using eight cores and nine grab samples, we describe the deposits, age, and stratigraphic architecture of two fans in the Santa Barbara Channel. Fan lobes have up to 3 m of relief and are composed of multiple hyperpycnite beds ∼5 cm to 40 cm thick. Deposit architecture and geometry suggest the hyperpycnal flows became positively buoyant and lifted off the seabed, resulting in well-sorted, structureless, elongate sand lobes. Contrary to conventional sequence stratigraphic models, the presence of these features on the continental shelf suggests that active-margin shelves may locally develop high-quality reservoir sand bodies during sea-level highstands, and that such shelves need not be solely the site of sediment bypass. These deposits may provide a Quaternary analogue to many well-sorted sand bodies in the rock record that are interpreted as turbidites but lack typical Bouma-type features.

  4. Marine Robot Autonomy

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Autonomy for Marine Robots provides a timely and insightful overview of intelligent autonomy in marine robots. A brief history of this emerging field is provided, along with a discussion of the challenges unique to the underwater environment and their impact on the level of intelligent autonomy required.  Topics covered at length examine advanced frameworks, path-planning, fault tolerance, machine learning, and cooperation as relevant to marine robots that need intelligent autonomy.  This book also: Discusses and offers solutions for the unique challenges presented by more complex missions and the dynamic underwater environment when operating autonomous marine robots Includes case studies that demonstrate intelligent autonomy in marine robots to perform underwater simultaneous localization and mapping  Autonomy for Marine Robots is an ideal book for researchers and engineers interested in the field of marine robots.      

  5. Asian interests in Alberta oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, D.; Laureshen, C.

    2004-01-01

    The growing Asian interest in Alberta's oil sands and import opportunities was discussed along with the feasibility of marketing bitumen to Asia. Asia is an obvious new market for Canadian heavy oil and bitumen due to an increasing demand for petroleum products in Japan, Korea, Taiwan and China. This paper examined the following three criteria that will determine the success of any initiative to move Canadian crude oil to Asian-Pacific markets: (1) a sustainable supply from Alberta; a pipeline to transport the crude to a deepwater port on the west coast; and, a guaranteed market at the other end. The basis for Asian interest in Alberta's oil sands is the sustainable secure supply of oil for growing Asian markets; heavy dependence on supplies from the Middle East; the desire to diversify supply sources; and, opportunities to invest in oil sands developments. Examples of Asian (Japan, Korea, Taiwan and China) missions to Alberta were presented along with the challenges of getting products to market with reference to Enbridge's new market access plan, Terasen's staged capacity expansion for heavy crudes and refined products, and sea transport from Prince Rupert. The paper also included graphs depicting world GDP; incremental increase in world primary energy demand by fuel for 2000 to 2020; world oil demand by region; oil demand by region in Asia; oil demand and supply in northeast Asia (Japan, China, Korea) and dependence level on Middle Eastern oil; oil demand and supply in China; China's petroleum production and consumption; refined products market forecast for 2000 to 2020; 2002 crude oil imports to Asia; 2004 refining capacity; product quality comparisons; cost competitive study; and energy policy objectives for China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. 19 figs

  6. Radiometric Characterization of Sand in Northeast Sinai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, Kh.A.; Badran, H.M.; Ramadan, Kh.A.; Seddeek, M.K.; Sharshar, T.

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-eight locations covering an area of 350 km 2 in northeast Sinai were investigated by gamma-ray spectroscopy using a 50% HPGe detector. The limits of area are Al-Arish North, El-Hasana South, El-Oga East, and El- Gifgafa West. The range of activity concentrations of 238 U, 234 Th, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K are 0.6-35.2, 3.9-22.6, 4.7-29.6, 4.7-23.9, and 108-295 Bq/kg for sands, respectively. 137 Cs in the region ranged from 0.1-8.0 Bq/kg. No major difference between the studied area and that previously investigated in the costal area in North Sinai. Reliable correlations (R2 = 0.8-0.9) among 238 U, 234 Th, and 226 Ra isotopes was obtained. On the other hand, low correlation (R 2 = 0.6-0.7) was obtained from the analysis of the isotopes of 238 U-seies and 232 Th. No evidence of correlation between the concentrations of radioisotopes and pH contents, TOM, and grain size were found. The soil-plant transfer factor are 226 Ra and 232 Th, 40 K, and 137 Cs, respectively. The wild vegetations collected from the studied area have average concentrations of 1.9, 1.4, 1.3, 254, and 0.3 for 234 Th, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K, and 137 Cs, respectively. The average concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K in water samples collected from five wells are 0.02, 0.02, and 1.1 Bq/l, respectively. The average absorbed dose rate for the sand samples were calculated to be 19.4 n Gy h-1. The Raeq activities of the sands are lower than the recommended maximum value of 370 Bq kg-1 criterion limit of Raeq activity for building materials

  7. Western Gas Sands Project status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C.H.

    1978-11-30

    Progress of government-sponsored projects directed toward increasing gas production from the low-permeability gas sands of the western United States is summarized. A Technology Implementation Plan (TIP) meeting was held at the CER office in Las Vegas, Nevada, October 16--19 to initiate the implementation phase of the Enhanced Gas Recovery (EGR) working group activities. A WGSP Logging Program meeting was conducted on October 24, 1978, at CER offices to define the problems associated with logs in tight gas sands. CER personnel and the project manager attended a two-day course on the fundamentals of core and reservoir analysis in Denver, Colorado, and met with USGS personnel to discuss USGS work on the WGSP. A meeting was held to discuss a contract for coring a Twin Arrow well on the Douglas Creek Arch, Colorado. CER Corporation personnel attended the Geological Society of America Annual Meeting held in Toronto, Canada, October 23--27 and a Gas Stimulation Workshop at Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 11 and 12 to discuss recent mineback experiments conducted at the Nevada Test Site. Fiscal year 1979 projects initiated by USGS and the Energy Technology Centers and National Laboratories are progressing as scheduled. Mobil Research and Development Corporation fractured zone 8 of the F-31-13G well in Rio Blanco County, Colorado. Colorado Interstate Gas Company poured the concrete pad for the compresser expected to be delivered in December and were laying pipeline between the wells at month end. The Mitchell Energy well, Muse Duke No. 1 was flowing on test at a rate of 2,100 Mcfd and preparations proceeded to fracture the well on November 15 with approximately 1,000,000 gal of fluid and 3,000,000 lb of sand. Terra Tek completed laboratory analyses of cores taken from the Mitchell Energy well.

  8. Tidal River Elbe - a sediment budget for the grain size fraction of medium sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterscheid, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Human interventions have a historic and ongoing impact on estuarine sediment budgets across many estuaries worldwide. An early inference was the construction of embankments resulting in a constant loss of intertidal flats. Additionally, settlement activities and large scale land use changes in the upstream catchment areas had also an effect on sediment inflow rates. Today, the navigation channels in estuaries have been deepened for larger and more efficient vessels to reach a well-developed infrastructure of harbors and industrial areas often located far inland. In the past few years and just within the North-East Atlantic, the total annual amount of dredged sediments dumped at sea varied from 80 to 130 million tons (OSPAR Commission). In most estuaries across Europe the resulting human impact on the sediment fluxes and morphodynamics is significant. A good understanding of estuarine processes is essential for determining useful and meaningful measures to mitigate negative effects and to improve the current situation. Maintenance dredging and its environmental effects are therefore in the focus of public attention. Against this background, it is the aim of the presentation to identify and therefore to separate the particular effect that maintenance dredging has on sediment fluxes and budgets in the estuarine environment. Case study is the Tidal River Elbe in Germany, and here we set the focus on the grain size fraction of medium sand. In the past, river engineering measures forced the natural dynamics to form a concentrated stream flow along a fixed channel, except at a number of locations where side channels still exist. In addition to that, the main channel was deepened several times. The last deepening was in 1999/2000. The most significant deepening, however, took place from 1957 to 1962. Until then, an erosion-stable layer of marine clay (in German called "Klei") formed a flat bottom along most sections of the main channel. After removal of this layer of

  9. Radiogenic heavy minerals in Brazilian beach sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malanca, A.

    1998-01-01

    Sand samples collected on the beaches of the 'radioactive' Brazilian town of Guarapari were first separated by flotation in bromoform and successively divided into various magnetic fractions with a Franz isodynamic separator. concentrations of background radionuclides in samples of monazite, ilmenite, and zircon were determined by a γ-ray spectrometer. Chemical composition of monazite, ilmenite and magnetite were assessed by means of an electron microprobe. Monazite resulted to be relatively rich in ThO 2 whose abundance ranged from 5.3 to 7.7 (wt%). (author)

  10. Limitation of releases and filtration by sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schektman, N.

    1986-01-01

    In the highly hypothetic case of a severe reactor accident, it may lead to an increase of pressure within the containment and up to a value above the calculated pressure. A procedure is necessary in this case to maintain the integrity of the containment to prevent a release of radioactive products to the environment, while controlling in the best way releases. So, EDF and the CEA have developed a device of decompression-filtration of the containment atmosphere, using a free penetration of the containment and a sand box; the device and its operation constitute the U5 procedure [fr

  11. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2012-08-07

    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  12. Prolífica George Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Àngels Santa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A propósito de las obras de George Sand, Œuvres complètes. Sous la direction de Béatrice Didier. 1841-1842.Un hiver à Majorque. Édition critique par Angela Ryan. Horace.Édition critique par Jeanne Brunereau (París, Honoré Champion, 2013, 748 p. ISBN : 9782745319265 y Œuvres complètes. ́Sous la direction de Béatrice Didier. 1849.La petite Fadette. Édition critique par Andrée Mansau (París, Honoré Champion, 2013, 345p. ISBN : 9782745319203

  13. Investigation of Sand-Cement Grouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-09-01

    I -IEN NO Isis Table 1 InvestiiatLon of Sand-Cement Crouts Data on Lhe Physical Properties of the inely Divided Mineral Admixt)res Blaine Specific...Itoi, tuicrlt.nel, Caiftrnia; fl1; aish, Illinois; ;1iaricito, California; Lo’ss, Yisniasi~pi; bentornitoe, Wy~caing. Physical drnta for the raateriais...increase i’: tne a.cunt of .anj th-?t coul be puiped. As the diatomite had a specific ,i’face about 1C tines that of the loe33, it would appear that this

  14. SandBlaster: Reversing the Apple Sandbox

    OpenAIRE

    Deaconescu, Răzvan; Deshotels, Luke; Bucicoiu, Mihai; Enck, William; Davi, Lucas; Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza

    2016-01-01

    In order to limit the damage of malware on Mac OS X and iOS, Apple uses sandboxing, a kernel-level security layer that provides tight constraints for system calls. Particularly used for Apple iOS, sandboxing prevents apps from executing potentially dangerous actions, by defining rules in a sandbox profile. Investigating Apple's built-in sandbox profiles is difficult as they are compiled and stored in binary format. We present SandBlaster, a software bundle that is able to reverse/decompile Ap...

  15. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  16. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikas, John Michael [Houston, TX; Colmenares, Tulio Rafael [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX; Marino, Marian [Houston, TX; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria [Houston, TX; Ryan, Robert Charles [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Dombrowski, Robert James [Houston, TX; Jaiswal, Namit [Houston, TX

    2009-12-22

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  17. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2012-01-01

    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  18. Marine sedimentary environments on some parts of the tropical and equatorial Atlantic margins of Africa during the Late Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barusseau, J. P.; Giresse, P.; Faure, H.; Lezine, A. M.; Masse, J. P.

    1988-01-01

    From 18,000 y B.P. up to the Present, major climatic changes combined with eustatic sea-level irregular rise controlled important variations in sedimentary conditions on the Atlantic African margin between 6°S and 21°N. The present shelf deposition of material is also controlled by climatic latitudinal gradients acting on the nature, volume and distribution of terrigenous and carbonate sediments. The evolution of sedimentary conditions during this period may be summarized as follows. Coastal terrigenous deposition Fluvial sands were emplaced in inner shelf paleo-valleys during the beginning of the Wiscon sinian regression, following a major erosion phase providing an important source for the siliciclastic part of the terrigenous influx. In tropical regions (Mauritania, Senegal), aeolian dune sands formed during the arid "glacial" period (the so-called Ogolian) on the emerged shelf, but were destroyed during the subsequent transgression. In the vicinity and south of the Equator (Coˆte d'Ivoire, Congo), aeolian input was reduced but litoral dunes of that period occurred whose remnants may be observed close to the present shoreline. At the lower stand of sea level, fine particles directly by-passed the shelf towards the continental rises and abyssal plains. During the Holocene transgression, the main sedimentary processes occurred only when standstill or slowing of the sea-level rise took place. Then littoral deposits (fine sands of the shore, dune sands and even lagoonal deposits with mangrove peats) accumulated still more or less visible paleo-shorelines. However, offshore from the equatorial river mouths, particularly the main ones (Congo), pelitic sediments settled in morphological and structural lows. High sedimentation rates were common at the beginning but they decreased during the final part of the transgression. In the tropical region terrigenous fluvial input is considerably reduced but, in their northernmost parts, aeolian contribution of silts and

  19. Assessment of sand quality on concrete performance : examination of acidic and sulfate/sulfide-bearing sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine how the presence of sulfide- and sulfate-containing : minerals in acidic aggregates may affect the properties of mortar and concrete. Analyses were : performed to compare two sands from a deposit in the Geor...

  20. Oil sands to the rescue: oil sand microbial communities can degrade recalcitrant alkyl phenyl alkanoic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitby, Corinne [University of Essex (Canada)], email: cwhitby@essex.ac.uk

    2011-07-01

    Almost half of all global oil reserves are found as biodegraded heavy oils found in vast tar sand deposits located in North and South America and these account for 47% of Canadian oil production. Oil sand extraction generates large amounts of toxic waste water, known as oil sand process waters (OSPW), that are stored in large tailing ponds that contain toxic compounds like naphthenic acids (NAs). The presence of NAs creates problems like toxicity, corrosion, and the formation of calcium napthenate deposits which block pipelines and other infrastructure and need to be removed. This paper presents oil sand microbial communities that can degrade these NAs. The approach is to apply new aliphatic and aromatic NAs as substrates to supplement and identify NA degrading microbes and also to identify the metabolites produced and explain NA degradation pathways and the functional genes involved. The chemistry and the processes involved are explained. From the results, it is suggested that pure cultures of P. putida KT2440 be used against NAs.

  1. The stable stiffness triangle - drained sand during deformation cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic, drained sand stiffness was observed using the Danish triaxial appa- ratus. New, deformation dependant soil property (the stable stiffness triangle) was detected. Using the the stable stiffness triangle, secant stiffness of drained sand was plausible to predict (and control) even during ir...... findings can find application in off-shore, seismic and other engi- neering practice, or inspire new branches of research and modelling wherever dynamic, cyclic or transient loaded sand is encountered....

  2. Evaluation of sand reserves in del Plata City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the reserve of sand in the zone of del Plata city and beyond. This area is located in the S E edge of the department of San Jose near the mouth of Santa Lucia river. In this zone was identified the mantle of potentially exploitable sand which are based on their particle size, composition and depth of the limits cape. There are two powerful capes of sand separated by clay and silt

  3. Final report on Thermally Modified Sand demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-23

    The use of salt and salt/sand mixtures on icy roadway surfaces has dramatically increased during the past 30 years. Despite extensive documentation on salt related damage to the roadway improvements, vehicles and the environment, road maintenance departments have continued to rely on this practice. Road maintenance departments in northern climate areas have long recognized the safety benefits for public mobility on icy roadways from the use of sand. As an abrasive material, the sand improves the surface traction that results in more drivable and less hazardous road conditions during the winter months. Stockpiles of pure sand stored during the winter months oftentimes freeze into large unworkable, monolithic piles. To maintain a free-flowing condition, it has been found to be necessary to add salt to the sand. The addition of salt in amounts ranging from 5 to 10 percent to that of sand, is usually sufficient to provide relatively free-flowing abrasive material that could be stored in stockpiles and applied to icy road surfaces with conventional sand spreading trucks. Another alternative for winter storage of pure sand to maintain a free-flowing condition is in humidity-controlled, heated buildings. As would be expected, this method has high capital and operating costs. and not cost effective for general highway maintenance use. The invention demonstrated herein is a method of thermally modifying pure sand that will remain in a free-flowing state throughout the winter season without the need for the salt additive. The thermally modified sand provides an abrasive material that when applied to icy roads does not cause environmental and corrosive damage as done by the application of sand with salt. By employing a very simple process of freezing screened sand particles by forced air convection under subfreezing conditions, the invention creates a product that has significant value in terms of economic and environmental benefits.

  4. Evaluation of Augmented REality Sandtable (ARES) during Sand Table Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    sand table, ARES, resulted in significantly higher- quality ratings overall for the terrain model based on a global rating scale, as well as...dependent measures in this study. Sand Table Construction Score Card: A 5-point Likert scale was used to identify the accuracy and quality of required...reproduced on the sand table. The quality of the map reproduced was evaluated using standard procedures of the map-drawing paradigm, such as that

  5. White Sands, New Mexico as seen from STS-60

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    White Sands National Monument (Park) is easily recognized in the center of this near-vertical color photograph. White Sands is the world's largest gypsum dune field. It represents an alabaster sea that covers nearly 300 square miles. At the southwest corner of the White Sands is dry lake, Lucero. In terms of cultural features the city of Alamogordo and Holloman Air Force Base can be seen with great clarity on this photograph.

  6. La relation entre enseignant-expert et apprenant(s : quelle issue à la transgression des places dans l’interaction didactique ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Nicolas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article interroge la négociation de la relation interlocutive entre enseignant et apprenants qui prend place à la suite d’interventions apprenantes pouvant être jugées comme transgressives par l’enseignant. On envisage le troisième pôle de la communication didactique, le groupe des pairs, en tant qu’élément d’influence sur la décision de l’enseignant de s’affilier ou, au contraire, de se désaffilier des « propos transgressifs » de l’apprenant. Teachers and learners relationship in the language classroom: the way teachers deal with learners’ overstepping moves Abstract: Through the observation of a teacher’s feedback moves to students’ negotiations which can be interpreted by the teacher as transgressions of the classroom interaction order, we conducted an exploration of his or her tendency to meet both the negotiator and his or her peers’ needs. The results will show that the presence of the group indeed influenced teacher’s affiliation or disaffiliation from students’ overstepping moves.

  7. Transgression, Nostalgia, Order: Representation of the Primitive in Émile Zola's La Terre and Knut Hamsun's Markens grøde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riikka Rossi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the representation of the primitive in two peasant novels, Émile Zola's La Terre (1887, trans. as The Earth and Knut Hamsun's Markens grøde (1917, trans. as Growth of the Soil. The concept of the primitive crosses a wide range of issues that were central to naturalist and decadent literature at the turn of the twentieth century, from unconscious instincts to the fascination with exotic cultures. It thus offers a fruitful medium for the comparative reading of French and Nordic fiction of the era. I especially focus on analysing the diverse, representative practices of Zola's and Hamsun's works, which betray stylistic differences in their portrayal of the primitive. I suggest that by describing the primitive as a vital, transgressive force that even turns against itself - against nature - Zola's La Terre creates a decadent version of the primitive, which, instead of a "serious", naturalistic portrayal of everyday life, is drawn to the brutal, instinctive primitive and uses the primitive to create vital forces of transgression. Hamsun's neo-naturalist novel, in turn, reconfigures the naturalist themes in a new form and envisions a fusion of the Darwinian, naturalistic primitive and the Romantic cult of innocent primordiality, suggesting the primitive lifestyle as a nostalgic return to a pre-modern lifestyle and a turn away from the degeneration of modernity.

  8. Production and global transport of Titan's sand particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jason W.; Lorenz, Ralph D.; Radebaugh, Jani; Hayes, Alexander G.; Arnold, Karl; Chandler, Clayton

    2015-06-01

    Previous authors have suggested that Titan's individual sand particles form by either sintering or by lithification and erosion. We suggest two new mechanisms for the production of Titan's organic sand particles that would occur within bodies of liquid: flocculation and evaporitic precipitation. Such production mechanisms would suggest discrete sand sources in dry lakebeds. We search for such sources, but find no convincing candidates with the present Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer coverage. As a result we propose that Titan's equatorial dunes may represent a single, global sand sea with west-to-east transport providing sources and sinks for sand in each interconnected basin. The sand might then be transported around Xanadu by fast-moving Barchan dune chains and/or fluvial transport in transient riverbeds. A river at the Xanadu/Shangri-La border could explain the sharp edge of the sand sea there, much like the Kuiseb River stops the Namib Sand Sea in southwest Africa on Earth. Future missions could use the composition of Titan's sands to constrain the global hydrocarbon cycle.

  9. Trajectories of saltating sand particles behind a porous fence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Lee, Sang Joon; Chen, Ting-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Trajectories of aeolian sand particles behind a porous wind fence embedded in a simulated atmospheric boundary layer were visualized experimentally, to investigate the shelter effect of the fence on sand saltation. Two sand samples, one collected from a beach (d = 250 μm) and the other from a desert (d = 100 μm), were tested in comparison with the previous studies of a 'no-fence' case. A wind fence (ε = 38.5%) was installed on a flat sand bed filled with each sand sample. A high-speed photography technique and the particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) method were employed to reconstruct the trajectories of particles saltating behind the fence. The collision processes of these sand particles were analyzed, momentum and kinetic energy transfer between saltating particles and ground surface were also investigated. In the wake region, probability density distributions of the impact velocities agree well with the pattern of no-fence case, and can be explained by a log-normal law. The horizontal component of impact velocity for the beach sand is decreased by about 54%, and about 76% for the desert sand. Vertical restitution coefficients of bouncing particles are smaller than 1.0 due to the presence of the wind fence. The saltating particles lose a large proportion of their energy during the collision process. These results illustrate that the porous wind fence effectively abates the further evolution of saltating sand particles.

  10. Numerical simulation of flow and compression of green sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovad, Emil

    The focus of the industrial PhD project was concentrated on the production of the sand mold (green sand) which gives the cast component its final geometrical shape. In order to ensure a high quality of the cast component, it is important to control the manufacturing process of the mold itself so...... that it is homogeneous and stable. Therefore gaining a basic understanding of how the flow and deposition of green sand should be characterized and modelled was important, so that it could be used for simulation of the manufacturing process of the sand mold. The flowability of the green sand is important when the sand...... flows down through the hopper filling the chamber with sand during the sand shot. The flowability of green sand is mostly governed by the amount of water and bentonite which both decrease it. The flowability and the internal forces thus control how well you can fill a complex mold geom-etry in which...

  11. An investigation of waste foundry sand in asphalt concrete mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakis, Recep; Koyuncu, Hakan; Demirbas, Ayhan

    2006-06-01

    A laboratory study regarding the reuse of waste foundry sand in asphalt concrete production by replacing a certain portion of aggregate with WFS was undertaken. The results showed that replacement of 10% aggregates with waste foundry sand was found to be the most suitable for asphalt concrete mixtures. Furthermore, the chemical and physical properties of waste foundry sand were analysed in the laboratory to determine the potential effect on the environment. The results indicated that the investigated waste foundry sand did not significantly affect the environment around the deposition

  12. Effective Laboratory Method of Chromite Content Estimation in Reclaimed Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignaszak Z.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an original method of measuring the actual chromite content in the circulating moulding sand of foundry. This type of material is applied for production of moulds. This is the case of foundry which most frequently perform heavy casting in which for the construction of chemical hardening mould is used, both the quartz sand and chromite sand. After the dry reclamation of used moulding sand, both types of sands are mixed in various ratios resulting that in reclaimed sand silos, the layers of varying content of chromite in mixture are observed. For chromite recuperation from the circulating moulding sand there are applied the appropriate installations equipped with separate elements generating locally strong magnetic field. The knowledge of the current ratio of chromite and quartz sand allows to optimize the settings of installation and control of the separation efficiency. The arduous and time-consuming method of determining the content of chromite using bromoform liquid requires operational powers and precautions during using this toxic liquid. It was developed and tested the new, uncomplicated gravimetric laboratory method using powerful permanent magnets (neodymium. The method is used in the production conditions of casting for current inspection of chromite quantity in used sand in reclamation plant.

  13. Reuse of waste cutting sand at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, S.; Wilson, K.

    1998-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) examined the waste stream from a water jet cutting operation, to evaluate the possible reuse of waste garnet sand. The sand is a cutting agent used to shape a variety of materials, including metals. Nearly 70,000 pounds of waste sand is generated annually by the cutting operation. The Environmental Protection Department evaluated two potential reuses for the spent garnet sand: backfill in utility trenches; and as a concrete constituent. In both applications, garnet waste would replace the sand formerly purchased by LLNL for these purposes. Findings supported the reuse of waste garnet sand in concrete, but disqualified its proposed application as trench backfill. Waste sand stabilized in a concrete matrix appeared to present no metals-leaching hazard; however, unconsolidated sand in trenches could potentially leach metals in concentrations high enough to threaten ground water quality. A technical report submitted to the San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board was reviewed and accepted by that body. Reuse of waste garnet cutting sand as a constituent in concrete poured to form walkways and patios at LLNL was approved

  14. Mineral legislations applicable to beach sand industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Cruz, Eric

    2016-01-01

    India has got a wealth of natural resources in different geological environs and shoreline placers form an important constituent of the natural resources. Large reserves of beach sand minerals, viz. imenite, rutile, leucoxene, zircon, sillimanite, garnet and monazite are the economic minerals in the coastal and inland placer sands. In the federal structure of India, the State Governments are the owners of minerals located within their respective boundaries. The State Governments grant the mineral concessions for all the minerals located within the boundary of the State, under the provisions of the Acts and Rules framed for the purpose. Though the mineral wealth is under the control of the State, the power for framing the rules for the grant of mineral concessions vastly rest with the Central Government. Since mineral concessions are often granted for a longer duration of thirty to fifty years or more, a historical perspective of these rules are imperative in understanding the issues involved with BSM mining industry. Under the Govt. of India Act, 1935, Regulation of Mines and Oilfields and Mineral Development was kept under Federal control, declared by Federal Law. The word 'Federal' was substituted by the word 'Dominion' by the India (Provincial Constitution) Order, 1947. No legislation was, however, enacted in pursuance of above power until after Independence. However, the Govt. on India made the Mining Concession (Central) Rules, 1939 for regulating grants of prospecting license

  15. Integrated oil sands tailings pond water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Z. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed research currently being conducted to treat oil sands tailings pond water (TPW). The treatment of TPW is challenged by the high level of naphthenic acids (NAs), the slow settling rate of fine particulate materials, and the complex chemistry of the water. The treatment process consisted of bioflocculation, sludge blanket assisted clarification, ozonation, and oil sands coke assisted hybrid biodegradation. The aggregation and adsorption process bound small particles and cells together while also ensuring the passive uptake of pollutants using microbial masses. The mixed liquor then passed through a sludge blanket to ensure enhanced particle capture. An ozonation process was used to increase the biodegradability of the TPW as well as to increase the biodegradability of the residual NAs after ozonation. The process used a hybrid bioreactor that consisted of both suspended and fixed microbial communities. The coke served as a biofilm carrier for the waste. Further studies are being conducted to investigate the efficiency and capability of the process. tabs., figs.

  16. Ilmenite Mineral's Recovery from Beach Sand Tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulaba-Bafubiandi, Antoine F.; Mukendi-Ngalula, David; Waanders, Frans B.

    2002-01-01

    The mineral ilmenite is the major source of rutile for industrial use and is of interest to paint and fertiliser industries. Enormous unutilised tailing dams lie on the eastern coast of the South Africa. Although covered by a simulation of the original indigenous vegetation, these tailings are still ilmenite bearing and of economic value. Tailings emanating from beach sand mineral slimes dams of the Kwazulu-Natal area (South Africa) have been processed. Screening, flotation, spiral concentration and magnetic separation methods were used either separately or successively. The present work sheds light on alternative routes for the extraction of the ilmenite, from these tailings. It moreover points out the usefulness of the Moessbauer spectroscopy in the mineral processing product monitoring. Tailings from the beach sands were used in the present study after the economic industrial minerals zirconia, ilmenite and rutile had been extracted in previous mining operations. About 61% natural ilmenite recovery was observed in the flotation concentrate of a Humphrey Spiral concentrate while a 62% recovery of hematite was found in the flotation tailings. The combination of screening, spiral concentration and magnetic separation, and flotation yielded a product with the highest ilmenite and hematite concentration being 71% and 19%, respectively. A natural ilmenite mineral, containing 87% ilmenite and 13% hematite, could be produced and extracted from the tailings of the flotation process, collected subsequently to the spiral concentration and the initial screening.

  17. Avalanches of Singing Sand in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagois-Bohy, Simon; Courrech Du Pont, Sylvain; Douady, Stéphane

    2011-03-01

    The song of dunes is a natural phenomenon that has arisen travellers' curiosity for a long time, from Marco Polo to R.A. Bagnold. Scientific observations in the XXth century have shown that the sound is emitted during a shear flow of these particular grains, the free surface of the flow having coherent vibrations like a loud speaker. The sound emission is also submitted to a threshold effect with many parameters like humidity, flow speed, surface of the grains. The sound has been reproduced in laboratory avalanche experiments close to the natural phenomenon on field, but set in a channel with a hard bottom and a few centimeters of sand flowing, which contradicts explanations of the sound that involve a sand dune under the avalanche flow. Flow rates measurements also show the presence of a plug region in the flow above the sheared band, with the same characteristic length as the coherence zones of the sound. Finally we show experimentally that the Froude number, once modified to take into account the height of this plug band, is the parameter that sets the amplitude of the sound, and produces a threshold that depends on the grain type.

  18. Soil mixing of stratified contaminated sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tabba, A; Ayotamuno, M J; Martin, R J

    2000-02-01

    Validation of soil mixing for the treatment of contaminated ground is needed in a wide range of site conditions to widen the application of the technology and to understand the mechanisms involved. Since very limited work has been carried out in heterogeneous ground conditions, this paper investigates the effectiveness of soil mixing in stratified sands using laboratory-scale augers. This enabled a low cost investigation of factors such as grout type and form, auger design, installation procedure, mixing mode, curing period, thickness of soil layers and natural moisture content on the unconfined compressive strength, leachability and leachate pH of the soil-grout mixes. The results showed that the auger design plays a very important part in the mixing process in heterogeneous sands. The variability of the properties measured in the stratified soils and the measurable variations caused by the various factors considered, highlighted the importance of duplicating appropriate in situ conditions, the usefulness of laboratory-scale modelling of in situ conditions and the importance of modelling soil and contaminant heterogeneities at the treatability study stage.

  19. [Imperial Oil's Cold Lake oil sands operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingle, H. B.

    1999-01-01

    Imperial Oil Limited's Cold Lake oil sands resources, production and operations in Alberta are discussed. Cold Lake is the company's largest single asset and its largest source of crude oil production. In 1998, Cold Lake accounted for just under half of Imperial's total liquid production, averaging more than 135,000 barrels of bitumen a day. Despite the very difficult operating conditions experienced by the oil sands industry in 1998, Imperial Oil's Cold Lake operations generated a positive cash flow and earnings. Just as important, the near and long-term potential of Cold Lake property continues to be strong, even with the tough market conditions today and the foreseeable future. Proved reserves at the end of 1997 were 1.3 billions barrels, equal to about 24 years of current production, but even more important is Imperial's resource base in the Athabasca region, which represents 150 years of production at current rates. Although production forecasts for the near future are are revised downward because of production shut-in due to low prices, the company is confident of its long-term prospects mainly because of existing infrastructure, superior reservoir quality, 30 years worth of operating improvements and established bitumen-blend markets. Details of the company's future Cold Lake development plans are discussed. The need to continue technology development, which has been at the core of the industry's growth in the past and will continue to be the key to the future, are emphasized

  20. Enabling technologies for oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    A review of oil sands production and expansion possibilities in Alberta were presented. The enabling technologies for oil sands projects include mining (bucketwheels, draglines, trucks, shovels conveyors, slurry hydrotransport); extraction (conditioning tumblers, pipelines, tanks, hot water, caustic, cold water, frothers); froth cleaning (centrifuges, solvent treatment); tailings (tailings ponds, consolidated tailings); and upgrading (coking, hydrotreating for SCO, hydrocracking and multiple products). The enabling technologies for in situ production include cyclic steam stimulation for vertical wells, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) for dual horizontal wells, and cold production with wormholes. This paper described the recovery potentials of each of these processes. It also discussed the role of government and industry in research and cooperative research involving both the private and public sectors. Examples of each of these were described such as SAGD, the OSLO cold water extraction process, The consolidated tailings (CT) project, the low energy extraction process (slurry production, hydrotransport, pipeline conditioning and warm water extraction), and research in fine tailings, to demonstrate that although objectives may differ, government and industry research objectives are complementary

  1. Oil sands tailings leachability and toxicity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulley, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Fine tailings disposal and reclamation is a major issue facing the oil sands mining and extraction industry. Government regulations dictate that reclamation must return the site to a level of self-sustaining biological capability which approximates the natural condition. A two-phase laboratory program has been completed to investigate the suitability of alternative reclamation materials. For the first phase of the study, chemical and toxicological analyses were carried out on 13 different reclamation and reference materials (solid phase and extractions). Seedling emergence, nematode maturation, algal growth and bacterial luminescence for leachate samples showed a range of sensitivities in response to the tested materials, although phytotoxicity tests were generally the most sensitive. With the exception of one test material, high toxicity ratings were consistent with that expected from the chemical data. The second phase of the study focused on the evaluation of chemical and toxicological conditions in leachate water generated using bench-scale column percolation tests. Leachate water equivalent to 10 pore volume replacements was generated and temporal variations in toxicity and chemistry monitored. Similar to phase 1 findings, phytotoxicity tests were the most sensitive tests to leachate waters. For most materials tested, most toxicity was removed after 2--3 porewater replacements. More persistent toxicity was noted for samples containing bitumen (e.g., fine tails and oil sands). No clear correspondence was noted between chemical concentrations and toxicity in leachate waters

  2. Sulfur biogeochemistry of oil sands composite tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Lesley; Stephenson, Kate [Earth Sciences, McMaster University (Canada)], email: warrenl@mcmaster.ca; Penner, Tara [Syncrude Environmental Research (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper discusses the sulfur biogeochemistry of oil sands composite tailings (CT). The Government of Alberta is accelerating reclamation activities on composite tailings. As a CT pilot reclamation operation, Syncrude is currently constructing the first freshwater fen. Minor unpredicted incidents with H2S gas released from the dewatering process associated with these reclamations have been reported. The objective of this study is to ascertain the connection between microbial activity and H2S generation within CT and to assess the sulfur biogeochemistry of untreated and treated (fen) CT over seasonal and annual timescales. The microbial geochemical interactions taking place are shown using a flow chart. CT is composed of gypsum, sand, clay and organics like naphthenic acids and bitumen. Sulfur and Fe cycling in mining systems and their microbial activities are presented. The chemistry and the processes involved within CT are also given along with the results. It can be said that the diverse Fe and S metabolizing microorganisms confirm the ecology involved in H2S dynamics.

  3. Low enthalpy geothermal for oil sands (LEGO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Geothermal energy is generated by the slow decay of radioactive materials within the Earth. Geothermal energy resources include the water from hot springs used for heating; the withdrawal of high temperature steam from deep wells; and the use of stable ground or water temperatures near the Earth's surface to heat or cool buildings or in industrial processes. Heat pumps are used to transfer heat or water from the ground into buildings in winter. This paper discussed low enthalpy geothermal options for oil sands processes in order to reduce the use of natural gas and emissions from greenhouse gases (GHGs). The study was also conducted to aid in the development of a portfolio of renewable energy options for the oil and gas sector. The study estimated the costs and benefits of operating a shallow geothermal borehole cluster for meeting a portion of process heat demands for the Nexen's Albian mine. The costs and benefits of operating thermo-chillers integrated with a shallow geothermal borehole cluster for waste heat mitigation were also evaluated. The study showed that geothermal designs can be used to meet a portion of oil sands process heat and cooling demands. Mining operators may reduce carbon emissions and energy costs for process heat demands by installing closed loop borehole heat exchangers. Geothermal heat storage capacity can also be used to increase the efficiency of thermal chillers. It was concluded that pilot plant studies would contribute to a better understanding of the technology. tabs., figs.

  4. Potensi Pasir Lokal Tanjung Bintang Pada Aluminium Sand Casting Terhadap Porositas Produk Hasil Cor Aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Hendronursito, Yusup; Prayanda, Yogi

    2016-01-01

    Green sand is one of the most important components in the process of metal casting. The sand in Indonesia region is varied level of subtlety, size of sand, and shape of sand. Green sand used in the process of metal casting is possible can affect the quality of casting product. This aims to determine the potential of Tanjung Bintang sand as green sand and the quality of the product in terms of porosity defects. The research was conducted by varying sand river from Tanjung Bintang and sand from...

  5. Experimental Study on Superfine Sand Concrete Mixed by Double Mixing Technology

    OpenAIRE

    yuqing zhao

    2013-01-01

    Traditional concept thought that medium sand and fine sand can be used to mix concrete, superfine sand can not used to mix concrete. This makes the source of superfine sand limited. With the shortage of medium sand and fine sand, it is imperative to exploit the resource of superfine sand. Superfine sand concrete is mixed by means of Double-doped Technology-ultra-fine fly ash and super plasticizer. Primary factor influencing superfine sand concrete strength is studied by orthogonal test, the o...

  6. Marine Environmental History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    human society and natural marine resources. Within this broad topic, several trends and objectives are discernable. The essay argue that the so-called material marine environmental history has its main focus on trying to reconstruct the presence, development and environmental impact of past fisheries......This essay provides an overview of recent trends in the historiography of marine environmental history, a sub-field of environmental history which has grown tremendously in scope and size over the last c. 15 years. The object of marine environmental history is the changing relationship between...... and whaling operations. This ambition often entails a reconstruction also of how marine life has changed over time. The time frame rages from Paleolithicum to the present era. The field of marine environmental history also includes a more culturally oriented environmental history, which mainly has come...

  7. Marine electrical practice

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, G O

    1991-01-01

    Marine Engineering Series: Marine Electrical Practice, Sixth Edition focuses on changes in the marine industry, including the application of programmable electronic systems, generators, and motors. The publication first ponders on insulation and temperature ratings of equipment, protection and discrimination, and AC generators. Discussions focus on construction, shaft-drive generators, effect of unbalanced loading, subtransient and transient reactance, protection discrimination, fault current, measurement of ambient air temperature, and basis of machine ratings. The text then examines AC switc

  8. Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may eventually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the bioremediation of the sea polluted by crude oil. This review describes screening of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, the determination of biosurfactant activity as well as the recovery of marine surfactant. The uses of marine biosurfactants for bioremediation are also discussed.

  9. Characterizing Marine Soundscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; McCauley, Robert; Gavrilov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The study of marine soundscapes is becoming widespread and the amount of data collected is increasing rapidly. Data owners (typically academia, industry, government, and defense) are negotiating data sharing and generating potential for data syntheses, comparative studies, analyses of trends, and large-scale and long-term acoustic ecology research. A problem is the lack of standards and commonly agreed protocols for the recording of marine soundscapes, data analysis, and reporting that make a synthesis and comparison of results difficult. We provide a brief overview of the components in a marine soundscape, the hard- and software tools for recording and analyzing marine soundscapes, and common reporting formats.

  10. Properties of Desert Sand and CMAS Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.

    2014-01-01

    As-received desert sand from a Middle East country has been characterized for its phase composition and thermal stability. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the presence of quartz (SiO2), calcite (CaCO3), gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), and NaAlSi3O8 phases in as-received desert sand and showed weight loss of approx. 35 percent due to decomposition of CaCO3 and CaSO4.2H2O when heated to 1400 C. A batch of as-received desert sand was melted into calcium magnesium aluminosilicate (CMAS) glass at approx. 1500 C. From inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, chemical composition of the CMAS glass was analyzed to be 27.8CaO-4MgO-5Al2O3-61.6SiO2-0.6Fe2O3-1K2O (mole percent). Various physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the glass have been evaluated. Bulk density of CMAS glass was 2.69 g/cc, Young's modulus 92 GPa, Shear modulus 36 GPa, Poisson's ratio 0.28, dilatometric glass transition temperature (T (sub g)) 706 C, softening point (T (sub d)) 764 C, Vickers microhardness 6.3 +/- 0.4 GPa, indentation fracture toughness 0.75 +/- 0.15 MPa.m (sup 1/2), and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) 9.8 x 10 (exp -6)/degC in the temperature range 25 to 700 C. Temperature dependence of viscosity has also been estimated from various reference points of the CMAS glass using the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) equation. The glass remained amorphous after heat treating at 850 C for 10 hr but crystallized into CaSiO3 and Ca-Mg-Al silicate phases at 900 C or higher temperatures. Crystallization kinetics of the CMAS glass has also been investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA). Activation energies for the crystallization of two different phases in the glass were calculated to be 403 and 483 kJ/mol, respectively.

  11. Stakeholder relations in the oil sands : managing uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-05-15

    Alberta's oil sands are now at the crossroads of a series of significant and complex global issues that will require careful negotiation by all stakeholders involved in the oil sands industry. This paper discussed methods of managing uncertainty and risk related to the oil sands industry's agenda for the future. Oil sands developers must continue to secure permission from communities and other key stakeholders in order to develop oil sand projects. Stakeholder relations between oil sands operators, First Nations, and Metis Nation communities must ensure that respect is maintained while environmental impacts are minimized and long-term economic benefits are secured for all parties. Environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs) must ensure that oil sands resources are developed responsibly, and that environmental standards are maintained. Seven key shifts in stakeholder relations resulting from the recent economic crisis were identified. These included (1) withdrawal from the multi-stakeholder process, (2) increased focus on government to demonstrate policy leadership, (3) a stronger push from ENGOs to express environmental concerns, (4) global lobby and public relations efforts from ENGOs, (5) companies retreating to local community stakeholders, (6) more active demands from First Nations and Metis Nations groups, and (7) companies challenging ENGO campaigns. The study concluded by suggesting that government leadership is needed to clear policy and regulatory frameworks for Canada's oil sands.

  12. On Foundation Improvement By Sand Replacement | Abam | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a simple foundation improvement method involving the replacement of poor foundation bearing soils with sand and the resultant improvement in bearing capacity and the minimization of settlement at the site of a large storage tank. Minimum thickness of sand replacement for various foundation loads ...

  13. Modeling sheet-flow sand transport under progressive surface waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    In the near-shore zone, energetic sea waves generate sheet-flow sand transport. In present day coastal models, wave-induced sheet-flow sand transport rates are usually predicted with semi-empirical transport formulas, based on extensive research on this phenomenon in oscillatory flow tunnels.

  14. Fine sand in motion: the influence of interstitial air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, T.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Sand is a granular material, and therefore it consists of individual grains arranged in a packing. The pores in-between the grains are usually filled with a fluid, in this case air. Now, is this interstitial air able to influence the behavior of the sand bed as a whole? When a ball impacts on fine,

  15. Geophysical mapping of the occurrence of shallow oil sands in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil sands are known to be an alternate source of energy and of great economic value. To map the occurrence of shallow oil sand deposits in Idiopopo, Okitipupa area in Ondo state southwestern Nigeria, vertical electric sounding (VES) in 11 stations along 3 profiles were carried out using the Schlumberger configuration.

  16. Provenance of Coastal dune sands along Red Sea, Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    26

    accumulation of sands behind vegetation or any other obstacles. ... The study areas Safaga (SF) and Quseir (QS) field dunes (Fig. 1) ..... coastal dune sands were deposited in a passive margin of a synrift .... Sed Petrol 63(6), 1110-1117.

  17. Sea Bed Sand Waves Studied To Help Pipeline Planners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mark, C.F.; de Koning, M.F.; Blom, Astrid; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Stolk, A.

    2008-01-01

    The article cites a study that offers information on the variability of sand wave characteristics in the North Sea. The sand waves variability includes a statement that pipelines may start vibrating due to turbulence generated under the free span and navigational channels often need to be dredged

  18. Archaen to Recent aeolian sand systems and their sedimentary record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-López, Juan Pedro; Clemmensen, Lars B; Lancaster, Nick

    2014-01-01

    The sedimentary record of aeolian sand systems extends from the Archean to the Quaternary, yet current understanding of aeolian sedimentary processes and product remains limited. Most preserved aeolian successions represent inland sand-sea or dunefield (erg) deposits, whereas coastal systems are ...

  19. Sand transport in urbanized beaches - models and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineiro, G.; Norbis, W.; Panario, D.

    2012-01-01

    The general objective is to quantify the wind transport of sand in the urbanized beaches. The specific objectives include testing and calibration of the wind velocity as well as the classification of the beaches according to the magnitude and the direction of sand transport

  20. Test Setup for Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina

    The test setup for testing axially static and cyclic loaded piles in sand is described in the following. The purpose for the tests is to examine the tensile capacity of axially loaded piles in dense fully saturated sand. The pile dimensions are chosen to resemble full scale dimension of piles used...... in offshore pile foundations today....

  1. Beach Sand Analysis for Indicators of Microbial Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional beach monitoring has focused on water quality, with little attention paid to health risks associated with beach sand. Recent research has reported that fecal indicator bacteria, as well as human pathogens can be found in beach sand and may constitute a risk to human h...

  2. Effect of Crushed Sandstone Sand on the Properties of High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents results of the laboratory investigation on high performance concrete (HPC) using crushed sandstone sand as 20%, 40%, and 60% replacement of river sand together with superplastisizer and silica fume (SF). The fresh concrete properties such as slump, air content and fresh concrete density have been ...

  3. Sediment Source Fingerprinting of the Lake Urmia Sand Dunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmady-Birgani, Hesam; Agahi, Edris; Ahmadi, Seyed Javad; Erfanian, Mahdi

    2018-01-09

    Aeolian sand dunes are continuously being discovered in inner dry lands and coastal areas, most of which have been formed over the Last Glacial Maximum. Presently, due to some natural and anthropogenic implications on earth, newly-born sand dunes are quickly emerging. Lake Urmia, the world's second largest permanent hypersaline lake, has started shrinking, vast lands comprising sand dunes over the western shore of the lake have appeared and one question has been playing on the minds of nearby dwellers: where are these sand dunes coming from, What there was not 15 years ago!! In the present study, the determination of the source of the Lake Urmia sand dunes in terms of the quantifying relative contribution of each upstream geomorphological/lithological unit has been performed using geochemical fingerprinting techniques. The findings demonstrate that the alluvial and the fluvial sediments of the western upstream catchment have been transported by water erosion and they accumulated in the lower reaches of the Kahriz River. Wind erosion, as a secondary agent, have carried the aeolian sand-sized sediments to the sand dune area. Hence, the Lake Urmia sand dunes have been originating from simultaneous and joint actions of alluvial, fluvial and aeolian processes.

  4. Effectiveness of SCADA Systems in Control of Green Sands Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignaszak Z.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper undertakes an important topic of evaluation of effectiveness of SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition systems, used for monitoring and control of selected processing parameters of classic green sands used in foundry. Main focus was put on process studies of properties of so-called 1st generation molding sands in the respect of their preparation process. Possible methods of control of this processing are presented, with consideration of application of fresh raw materials, return sand (regenerate and water. The studies conducted in one of European foundries were aimed at pointing out how much application of new, automated plant of sand processing incorporating the SCADA systems allows stabilizing results of measurement of selected sand parameters after its mixing. The studies concerned two comparative periods of time, before an implementation of the automated devices for green sands processing (ASMS - Automatic Sand Measurement System and MCM – Main Control Module and after the implementation. Results of measurement of selected sand properties after implementation of the ASMS were also evaluated and compared with testing studies conducted periodically in laboratory.

  5. Pathogen removal using saturated sand colums supplemented with hydrochar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chung, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    This PhD study has evaluated hydrochars derived from biowastes as adsorbents for pathogen removal in water treatment. Pathogen removal experiments were conducted by carrying out breakthrough analysis using a simple sand filtration set-up. Glass columns packed by 10 cm sand bed supplemented with

  6. Providing floating capabilities in latest-generation sand screens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, E.G.; Coronado, M.P. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Baker Hughes, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Alternative production methods are needed for the massive reserves located in the bitumen region of Canada's tar sands. The area has over 100 installations of sand screens/slotted liners in both injection and production legs using steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) technology. Multiple wells must be drilled from a single pad because of the sensitive nature of the environment. With significant depths of these wells, a floating sand screen provides assurance that the sand screen will reach the desired depth. Paraffin is generally used to plug the flow access of the screen during installation. This paper discussed a new technology that has been developed to allow for sand screen installations without relying on paraffin wax to withstand differential pressure. The new technology uses a hydro-mechanical valving system incorporated into the screen design to temporarily close off the screen while being run in the hole. The paper described how the technology could provide a reliable, time-saving solution for SAGD installations when floating sand control screens are needed. The paper discussed current technology and its limitations, sand screen installation, screen design for floating applications, and additional applications. It was concluded that this technology solution provides a unique alternative to the methods currently used to install sand screens with SAGD technology in the fast growing Canadian market for bitumen recovery. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Cavity prediction in sand mould production applying the DISAMATIC process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovad, Emil; Larsen, Per; Spangenberg, Jon

    2017-01-01

    The sand shot in the DISAMATIC process is simulated by the discrete element method (DEM) taking into account the influence and coupling of the airflow with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The DEM model is calibrated by a ring shear test, a sand pile experiment and a slump test. Subsequently...

  8. Sorption of europium by Haro river sand in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Moosa Hasany; Syed Javaid Khurshid

    1997-01-01

    The sorption of Eu(III) on Haro river sand has been investigated. Influences include composition of the sorptive medium, the concentration of sorbent and sorbate, and shaking time. Haro river sand can be exploited for the preconcentration and removal of europium from very dilute solutions, for the decontamination and treatment of radioactive waste water and effluents from nuclear installations. (Author)

  9. Effects of oil sands sediments on fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, J.; Colavecchia, M.; Hewitt, L.; Sherry, J.; Headley, J.; Turcotte, D.; Liber, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper described a collaborative project organized by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) Panel of Energy Research and Development (PERD) with researchers from Environment Canada and the University of Saskatchewan. The 4-year study was conducted to assess the toxicity of oil sands sediments and river waters, and reclamation ponds and sediments on laboratory-raised fish. Three sediments from rivers were evaluated for their potential to cause adverse impacts on fathead minnow eggs and larvae for a period of 18 days. The study monitored hatching, larval survival, development, and growth. Naphthenic acids (NA), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals were measured in the sediments to determine if the compounds can be correlated with observed toxicity. The study will also assess walleye eggs exposed to sediments, and in situ fish exposures. Toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) studies will be conducted to isolate the fractions that may affect fish development and growth.

  10. The state of oil sands wetland reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, L. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The state of oil sand and wetlands reclamation was the subject of this presentation. Wildlife habitat and response, plant community and production, and microbial biology were examples of research areas surrounding this body of knowledge. Hydrological research and landscape ecology were discussed along with peatlands and marshes such as the Corvette and the Kia. A few examples of what has been learned in the area of wetlands reclamation was presented. Other topics were also discussed, such as timeframes, pragmatic policy approaches, reclamation costs, research needs and some ideas on maturing the field. It was concluded that environmental conditions change with time and area because of time, chemistry, physics, stoichiometry, as well as biotic mediation and facilitation. figs.

  11. Petro-Canada's oil sands supply outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sangster, B.

    2004-01-01

    A report by the Canadian Energy Research Institute suggests that by 2017, production from the Athabasca Oil Sands could reach as high as 3.5 million barrels per day (mbpd), or it could be as low as 1.1 mbpd. This uncertainty in production is due to several variables such as capital costs, project size, reservoir quality, pipeline capacity and workforce productivity. Other factors that influence production include marginal economics, markets and prices, investor confidence, stakeholder concerns and the Kyoto Protocol. The production level that will be achieved by 2017 will depend on how industry address these emerging issues. The author discussed these issues in detail with particular reference to the approach that Petro-Canada has taken to address the challenges. Suggestions to reduce the potential impacts of these challenges were also presented. tabs., figs

  12. Bison and the oil sands industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauls, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    Syncrude's Mildred Lake oil sands development project is located within the central boreal mixed wood forest in an area supporting traditional land uses, including trapping and harvesting of wildlife and plant materials by Fort McKay First Nation residents, in a community within 10 km of the Syncrude development. Reclamation requirements and standards in Alberta specify that the reclamation process must restore a landscape capability equivalent to, or better than that existing before disturbance. Syncrude is committed to complying with all provincial requirements and guidelines in all aspects of its business, including land reclamation. A five year research program has been established to determine the feasibility of reclaiming a portion of the landscape to support wood bison and bison subspecies once indigenous to this area. The current project may be expanded as a pilot commercial ranching venture to explore its commercial viability as a business venture by the Fort McKay First nations

  13. Direct Production of Silicones From Sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry N. Lewis; F.J. Schattenmann: J.P. Lemmon

    2001-09-30

    Silicon, in the form of silica and silicates, is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. However the synthesis of silicones (scheme 1) and almost all organosilicon chemistry is only accessible through elemental silicon. Silicon dioxide (sand or quartz) is converted to chemical-grade elemental silicon in an energy intensive reduction process, a result of the exceptional thermodynamic stability of silica. Then, the silicon is reacted with methyl chloride to give a mixture of methylchlorosilanes catalyzed by cooper containing a variety of tract metals such as tin, zinc etc. The so-called direct process was first discovered at GE in 1940. The methylchlorosilanes are distilled to purify and separate the major reaction components, the most important of which is dimethyldichlorosilane. Polymerization of dimethyldichlorosilane by controlled hydrolysis results in the formation of silicone polymers. Worldwide, the silicones industry produces about 1.3 billion pounds of the basic silicon polymer, polydimethylsiloxane.

  14. Recycling of petroleum-contaminated sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, R; Ba-Omar, M; Pillay, A E; Roos, G; al-Hamdi, A

    2001-08-01

    The environmental impact of using petroleum-contaminated sand (PCS) as a substitute in asphalt paving mixtures was examined. An appreciable component of PCS is oily sludge, which is found as the dregs in oil storage tanks and is also produced as a result of oil spills on clean sand. The current method for the disposal of oily sludge is land farming. However, this method has not been successful as an oil content of reuse of the sludge in asphalt paving mixtures was therefore considered as an alternative. Standard tests and environmental studies were conducted to establish the integrity of the materials containing the recycled sludge. These included physical and chemical characterization of the sludge itself, and an assessment of the mechanical properties of materials containing 0%, 5%, 22% and 50% oily sludge. The blended mixtures were subjected to special tests, such as Marshall testing and the determination of stability and flow properties. The experimental results indicated that mixtures containing up to 22% oily sludge could meet the necessary criteria for a specific asphalt concrete wearing course or bituminous base course. To maximize the assay from the recycled material, the environmental assessment was restricted to the 50% oily sludge mixture. Leachates associated with this particular mixture were assayed for total organic residue and certain hazardous metal contaminants. The results revealed that the organics were negligible, and the concentrations of the metals were not significant. Thus, no adverse environmental impact should be anticipated from the use of the recycled product. Our research showed that the disposal of oily sludge in asphalt paving mixtures could possibly yield considerable savings per tonne of asphalt concrete, and concurrently minimize any direct impact on the environment.

  15. Improvement of composition of core sand and molding sand mixtures for power machine building castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikanov, G.F.; Primak, I.N.; Brechko, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Considered is a problem of development and improvement of mixtures, as well as of antisticking coatings with the given parameters providing production of castings of the necessary quality. Requirements to properties of mixtures and antisticking coatings are formulated proceeding from the conditions of guaranteed production of qualitative steel castings with mass from 0.5 up to 20t and wall thickness from 60 up to 200 mm. Formation of film structure of binding compositions is studied, their marginal contact angle and surface tension are determined. In the result of work carried out on improvement of core sand and molding sand mixtures the labour productivity during the production of core and moldings has been increased in 20-25% in average, the quality has also been improved [ru

  16. Big picture thinking in oil sands tailings disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boswell, J. [Thurber Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed methods of disposing oil sands tailings. Oil sands operators are currently challenged by a variety of legislative and environmental factors concerning the creation and disposal of oil sands tailings. The media has focused on the negative ecological impact of oil sands production, and technical issues are reducing the effect of some mitigation processes. Operators must learn to manage the interface between tailings production and removal, the environment, and public opinion. The successful management of oil sand tailings will include procedures designed to improve reclamation processes, understand environmental laws and regulations, and ensure that the cumulative impacts of tailings are mitigated. Geotechnical investigations, engineering designs and various auditing procedures can be used to develop tailings management plans. Environmental screening and impact assessments can be used to develop sustainable solutions. Public participation and environmental mediation is needed to integrate the public, environmental and technical tailings management strategies. Operators must ensure public accountability for all stakeholders. tabs., figs.

  17. Compressive Strength of Compacted Clay-Sand Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faseel Suleman Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of sand to improve the strength of natural clays provides a viable alternative for civil infrastructure construction involving earthwork. The main objective of this note was to investigate the compressive strength of compacted clay-sand mixes. A natural clay of high plasticity was mixed with 20% and 40% sand (SP and their compaction and strength properties were determined. Results indicated that the investigated materials exhibited a brittle behaviour on the dry side of optimum and a ductile behaviour on the wet side of optimum. For each material, the compressive strength increased with an increase in density following a power law function. Conversely, the compressive strength increased with decreasing water content of the material following a similar function. Finally, the compressive strength decreased with an increase in sand content because of increased material heterogeneity and loss of sand grains from the sides during shearing.

  18. Laboratory Test Setup for Cyclic Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive description and the considerations regarding the design of a new laboratory test setup for testing cyclic axially loaded piles in sand. The test setup aims at analysing the effect of axial one-way cyclic loading on pile capacity and accumulated displacements....... Another aim was to test a large diameter pile segment with dimensions resembling full-scale piles to model the interface properties between pile and sand correctly. The pile segment was an open-ended steel pipe pile with a diameter of 0.5 m and a length of 1 m. The sand conditions resembled the dense sand...... determined from the API RP 2GEO standard and from the test results indicated over consolidation of the sand. Two initial one-way cyclic loading tests provided results of effects on pile capacity and accumulated displacements in agreement with other researchers’ test results....

  19. Modelling the behavior of an oil saturated sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evgin, E.; Altaee, A.; Lord, S.; Konuk, I.

    1990-01-01

    The experiments carried out in an earlier study show the oil contamination affects the strength and deformation characteristics of a crushed quartz sand. In the present study, a mathematical soil model is used to simulate the mechanical behavior of the same sand. The model parameters are determined for both clean and oil contaminated soil. Simulations are made for the stress-strain behavior of the soil in drained and undrained conventional traixial compression tests. In order to illustrate the effect of changes in the soil properties on the behavior of an engineering structure, a finite element analysis is carried out. In this paper comparative results are presented to show the differences in the behavior of a foundation resting on a clean sand, on an oil contaminated sand, and on a sand contaminated locally

  20. Sand impaction of the small intestine in eight dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moles, A D; McGhite, A; Schaaf, O R; Read, R

    2010-01-01

    To describe signalment, clinical findings, imaging and treatment of intestinal sand impaction in the dog. Medical records of dogs with radiographic evidence of small intestinal sand impaction were reviewed. Sand impaction resulting in small intestinal obstruction was diagnosed in eight dogs. All dogs presented with signs of vomiting. Other clinical signs included anorexia, lethargy and abdominal pain. Radiographs confirmed the presence of radio-opaque material consistent with sand causing distension of the terminal small intestine in all dogs. Four dogs were treated surgically for their impaction and four dogs were managed medically. Seven of the eight dogs survived. Both medical and surgical management of intestinal sand impaction in the dog can be effective and both afford a good prognosis for recovery.

  1. Radon, radionuclides and the Cretaceous Folkestone Sands - gamma spectroscopy and geochemical analysis of silver sands and associated deposits in the SE of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, Gavin; Al-Rafai, Yousef; Flowers, Alan

    2017-04-01

    Radon concentrations in a historic sand mine in Surrey, UK (Reigate Caves), have been measured by both real-time and time-averaged methods over a number of years. These mines are not identified as being in a 'Radon Affected Area' as defined by Public Health England, although concentrations show a summer level of 640 Bqm3 +-44 Bqm3. Average radon concentrations (September 2013 to January 2014) in Reigate caves were above the UK 200 Bqm3 domestic Action Level, above the UK domestic Target Level (of 100 Bqm3) but below the current workplace Action Level of 400 Bqm3. By way of a comparison radon has also been measured in nearby Dorking (South Street Caves). These enigmatic caves were not mined for sand for glass manufacture as Reigate Caves were and there is speculation on why the caves were created. Both are visited by tourists on a semi-regular basis. Dorking caves have a different morphology with radon concentrations in Autumn 2016 of up to 1940 +/- 230 Bqm3. The caves in Reigate are situated along Tunnel Road. These mines were also used as air raid shelters and wine stores. They consist of an East and West system and an older cave (Barons cave) which may have a medieval origin. As the Western Caves are now a shooting range our work has been carried out in the Eastern section at Reigate. Where Dorking is concerned the shops and houses in the town have extensive interconnected cellars and galleries cut into these sands. The caves probably date from the 17th century but were used quite extensively for wine storage in the 19th century due to their constant 140C air temperatures. Real-time measurements were taken with a Durridge Rad7 with time-averaged CR39 SSNTDs being placed throughout the cave systems to assess radon distribution and compare results with the real-time detector. Both caves contain marine shallow-water deposited locking (having tensile and compressive strength) silica sands of the Cretaceous Lower Greensand Group, Folkestone Formation, with little

  2. Aeolian sand transport and aeolian deposits on Venus: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreslavsly, Mikhail A.; Bondarenko, Nataliya V.

    2017-06-01

    We review the current state of knowledge about aeolian sand transport and aeolian bedforms on planet Venus. This knowledge is limited by lack of observational data. Among the four planetary bodies of the Solar System with sufficient atmospheres in contact with solid surfaces, Venus has the densest atmosphere; the conditions there are transitional between those for terrestrial subaerial and subaqueous transport. The dense atmosphere causes low saltation threshold and short characteristic saltation length, and short scale length of the incipient dunes. A few lines of evidence indicate that the typical wind speeds exceed the saltation threshold; therefore, sand transport would be pervasive, if sand capable of saltation is available. Sand production on Venus is probably much slower than on the Earth; the major terrestrial sand sinks are also absent, however, lithification of sand through sintering is expected to be effective under Venus' conditions. Active transport is not detectable with the data available. Aeolian bedforms (transverse dunes) resolved in the currently available radar images occupy a tiny area on the planet; however, indirect observations suggest that small-scale unresolved aeolian bedforms are ubiquitous. Aeolian transport is probably limited by sand lithification causing shortage of saltation-capable material. Large impact events likely cause regional short-term spikes in aeolian transport by supplying a large amount of sand-size particles, as well as disintegration and activation of older indurated sand deposits. The data available are insufficient to understand whether the global aeolian sand transport occurs or not. More robust knowledge about aeolian transport on Venus is essential for future scientific exploration of the planet, in particular, for implementation and interpretation of geochemical studies of surface materials. High-resolution orbital radar imaging with local to regional coverage and desirable interferometric capabilities is the

  3. Marine and Anadromous Fish :: NOAA Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation Commission bocaccio Bocaccio (Sebastes paucispinis) Photo: NOAA sand tiger shark Sand Tiger Shark Updated: June 29, 2017 Fisheries Service Home Information Quality Exit Disclaimer Linking Policy Privacy

  4. An Investigation of Trace Elements in Marine and Lacustrine Deposits by Means of a Neutron Activation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landstroem, O; Samsahl, K; Wenner, C G

    1967-10-15

    A neutron activation method for multi-elemental analysis was applied to argillaceous deposits from the Viskan Valley on the Swedish West Coast, an area in which transgressions and regressions of the sea have occurred during the postglacial time. These changes between fresh-water and marine stages are well known from earlier geologic investigations. Analysis could therefore be performed of samples of known marine (brackish) and lacustrine origin. In a preliminary test on four samples, taken from two marine layers and two lacustrine layers, altogether 30 elements were quantitatively determined, namely As, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, Hg, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, U, W, Yb, Zn and Zr. Several elements showed a difference in concentration between the marine and the fresh-water layers. Br, Hg, Mn, Se, As and Sb were more thoroughly investigated in three boreholes from different sections of the valley. Br and Se had high means in the most pronounced marine samples of the fiord deposits. Moreover, Mn showed a fourfold increase just in the transition stage between the older sea fiord and the older lage stage.

  5. An Investigation of Trace Elements in Marine and Lacustrine Deposits by Means of a Neutron Activation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landstroem, O.; Samsahl, K.; Wenner, C.G.

    1967-10-01

    A neutron activation method for multi-elemental analysis was applied to argillaceous deposits from the Viskan Valley on the Swedish West Coast, an area in which transgressions and regressions of the sea have occurred during the postglacial time. These changes between fresh-water and marine stages are well known from earlier geologic investigations. Analysis could therefore be performed of samples of known marine (brackish) and lacustrine origin. In a preliminary test on four samples, taken from two marine layers and two lacustrine layers, altogether 30 elements were quantitatively determined, namely As, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, Hg, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, U, W, Yb, Zn and Zr. Several elements showed a difference in concentration between the marine and the fresh-water layers. Br, Hg, Mn, Se, As and Sb were more thoroughly investigated in three boreholes from different sections of the valley. Br and Se had high means in the most pronounced marine samples of the fiord deposits. Moreover, Mn showed a fourfold increase just in the transition stage between the older sea fiord and the older lage stage

  6. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  7. Marine gamma spectrometric survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostoglodov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are theoretical problems physical and geochemical prerequisites and possibilities of practical application of the method of continuous submarine gamma-spectrometric survey and radiometric survey destined for rapid study of the surface layer of marine sediments. Shown is high efficiency and advantages of this method in comparison with traditional and widely spread in marine geology methods of bottom sediments investigation

  8. Marine palynology in progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manten, A.A.

    1966-01-01

    One of the things which the Second International Conference on Palynology (held in Utrecht, August 29-September 3, 1966) revealed, was the rapid expansion which marine palynological research has undergone in recent years. This was the main stimulus to organize this special issue of Marine

  9. Oblique second-order sand transport pathways on an intertidal sand flat in a natural tidal inlet system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Lefebvre, Alice; Kroon, Aart

    2013-01-01

    tide, sand is transported along ESE-oriented pathways across the intertidal flat towards the inner tidal basin. During the late stages of ebb tide, sand is transported in drainage channels (WSWoriented) from the intertidal flat towards the inlet channel. During storm events with winds from SW, wave...

  10. Establishment of two invasive crustaceans (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) on the nearshore sands of Lake Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Thomas G.; Whitman, Richard L.; Last, Laurel L.

    2001-01-01

    Benthic copepods (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) in the nearshore sediments of southern Lake Michigan appear to be dominated by two new invasive species. We report the first occurrence in North America of Schizopera borutzkyi Montschenko, a native to the Danube River delta, and Heteropsyllus nr. nunni, likely a new species that is morphologically similar to the marine species Heteropsyllus nunni and represents the first occurrence of this genus in freshwater. Schizopera borutzkyi is a euryhaline species occurring in shallow sands in its native habitat and in deeper sands (6-15 m) in southern Lake Michigan. Based on the absence of these species from previous studies, we suggest that they are recent introductions. Heteropsyllus nr. nunni dominated (55-100%) the harpacticoid abundance to depths of 9 m, but S. borutzkyi comprised 75% of the harpacticoid abundance at 15 m. Native harpacticoids were always greatly outnumbered by invasive harpacticoids in our samples, which suggests that the natives are being replaced rapidly or that the invasive species are finding unused resources. The ecological implications of these introductions are not known, but these invasions may represent continued 'invasional meltdown' in Lake Michigan.

  11. Radiometric, SEM and XRD investigation of the Chituc black sands, southern Danube Delta, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margineanu, R.M.; Blebea-Apostu, Ana-Maria; Celarel, Aurelia; Gomoiu, Claudia-Mariana; Costea, C.; Dumitras, Delia; Ion, Adriana; Duliu, O.G.

    2014-01-01

    The black sand of the Chituc marine sand bank, northern of the city of Navodari (Romania), presents anomalous high radioactivity. Field measurements recorded in some places dose rate up to 200 nSv/h, significantly overpassing the average value of 44 ± 20 nSv/h along the entire Southern sector of Romanian Black Sea shore. Gamma ray spectrometry performed on both Slanic-Prahova Underground Low Background Laboratory and Geological Institute of Romania Radiometric Facilities showed with clarity the dominance of 228 Ac radioisotope in the 50 microns fraction together with the 226 Ra and traces of 40 K. No significant amount of anthropogenic 137 Cs was identified. Based on radiometric as well as on SEM–EDAX and XRD determinations we come to the conclusion that the evidenced radioactivity could be attributed to both uranium and thorium series in the zircon and monazite fractions and to a lesser extent to potassium in the feldspars. - Highlights: • High background radioactivity (up to 200 nSv/h) evidenced. • Radiometric measurements showed a maximum radioactivity of U and Th confined to 50–100 μm fraction. • XRD and SEM–EDAX data revealed the presence of k-feldspars, ilmenite, zircone, monazite and garnets

  12. CO2 leakage alters biogeochemical and ecological functions of submarine sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molari, Massimiliano; Guilini, Katja; Lott, Christian; Weber, Miriam; de Beer, Dirk; Meyer, Stefanie; Ramette, Alban; Wegener, Gunter; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Martin, Daniel; Cibic, Tamara; De Vittor, Cinzia; Vanreusel, Ann; Boetius, Antje

    2018-01-01

    Subseabed CO2 storage is considered a future climate change mitigation technology. We investigated the ecological consequences of CO2 leakage for a marine benthic ecosystem. For the first time with a multidisciplinary integrated study, we tested hypotheses derived from a meta-analysis of previous experimental and in situ high-CO2 impact studies. For this, we compared ecological functions of naturally CO2-vented seafloor off the Mediterranean island Panarea (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy) to those of nonvented sands, with a focus on biogeochemical processes and microbial and faunal community composition. High CO2 fluxes (up to 4 to 7 mol CO2 m−2 hour−1) dissolved all sedimentary carbonate, and comigration of silicate and iron led to local increases of microphytobenthos productivity (+450%) and standing stocks (+300%). Despite the higher food availability, faunal biomass (−80%) and trophic diversity were substantially lower compared to those at the reference site. Bacterial communities were also structurally and functionally affected, most notably in the composition of heterotrophs and microbial sulfate reduction rates (−90%). The observed ecological effects of CO2 leakage on submarine sands were reproduced with medium-term transplant experiments. This study assesses indicators of environmental impact by CO2 leakage and finds that community compositions and important ecological functions are permanently altered under high CO2. PMID:29441359

  13. High Performance Marine Vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Liang

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Marine Vessels (HPMVs) range from the Fast Ferries to the latest high speed Navy Craft, including competition power boats and hydroplanes, hydrofoils, hovercraft, catamarans and other multi-hull craft. High Performance Marine Vessels covers the main concepts of HPMVs and discusses historical background, design features, services that have been successful and not so successful, and some sample data of the range of HPMVs to date. Included is a comparison of all HPMVs craft and the differences between them and descriptions of performance (hydrodynamics and aerodynamics). Readers will find a comprehensive overview of the design, development and building of HPMVs. In summary, this book: Focuses on technology at the aero-marine interface Covers the full range of high performance marine vessel concepts Explains the historical development of various HPMVs Discusses ferries, racing and pleasure craft, as well as utility and military missions High Performance Marine Vessels is an ideal book for student...

  14. The Geodiversity in Drift Sand Landscapes of The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ancker, Hanneke; Jungerius, Pieter Dirk; Riksen, Michel

    2015-04-01

    The authors carried out detailed field studies of more than twelve drift sand landscapes in The Netherlands. The objective of these studies was to restore Natura-2000 values by restoring the wind activity. Active drift sands occur almost exclusively in The Netherlands, Natura 2000 habitat 2330 'Inland dunes with open Corynephorus and Agrostis grasslands', for which reason our country is largely responsible for this European landscape. Active drift sands had almost disappeared for two reasons: first, the stabilization of the drift sands by air pollution, mainly nitrogen, which stimulates the growth of algae and grasses that initiate soil formation, and second, by the growth of forests surrounding the sands, which decreases the wind force. The restoration studies revealed differences in the geodiversity between and within the drift sand areas. Whereas the drift sands on geological and soil maps show as almost homogenous areas, they have in fact highly variable geo-conditions of which examples will be given. These geodiversity aspects concern differences in geomorphological structure, origin, sediments and age of the drift sands. Differences in wind and water erosion, trampling and soil formation add to the geodiversity within the drift sand areas. Especially in the primary stages of succession the differences in geodiversity are relevant for the Natura-2000 values. We discerned three main types of active sands. Firstly, the impressive drift sands with large parabolic dune structures, often consisting of series of interlocking parabolic dunes. They developed from the northeast towards the southwest, against the direction of the dominant wind, and must have taken centuries to develop. Small parts of these systems are still active, other parts show different degrees of soil formation. Their origin is still unclear but probably dates from medieval times (Heidinga, 1985, Jungerius & Riksen, 2008). Second are the drift sand areas with irregular hills from 0.5 to about 2

  15. Stratigraphic framework of sediment-starved sand ridges on a mixed siliciclastic/carbonate inner shelf; west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J.H.; Harrison, S.E.; Locker, S.D.; Hine, A.C.; Twichell, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    Seismic reflection profiles and vibracores have revealed that an inner shelf, sand-ridge field has developed over the past few thousand years situated on an elevated, broad bedrock terrace. This terrace extends seaward of a major headland associated with the modern barrier-island coastline of west-central Florida. The overall geologic setting is a low-energy, sediment-starved, mixed siliciclastic/carbonate inner continental shelf supporting a thin sedimentary veneer. This veneer is arranged in a series of subparallel, shore-oblique, and to a minor extent, shore-parallel sand ridges. Seven major facies are present beneath the ridges, including a basal Neogene limestone gravel facies and a blue-green clay facies indicative of dominantly authigenic sedimentation. A major sequence boundary separates these older units from Holocene age, organic-rich mud facies (marsh), which grades upward into a muddy sand facies (lagoon or shallow open shelf/seagrass meadows). Cores reveal that the muddy shelf facies is either in sharp contact or grades upward into a shelly sand facies (ravinement or sudden termination of seagrass meadows). The shelly sand facies grades upward to a mixed siliciclastic/carbonate facies, which forms the sand ridges themselves. This mixed siliciclastic/carbonate facies differs from the sediment on the beach and shoreface, suggesting insignificant sediment exchange between the offshore ridges and the modern coastline. Additionally, the lack of early Holocene, pre-ridge facies in the troughs between the ridges suggests that the ridges themselves do not migrate laterally extensively. Radiocarbon dating has indicated that these sand ridges can form relatively quickly (???1.3 ka) on relatively low-energy inner shelves once open-marine conditions are available, and that frequent, high-energy, storm-dominated conditions are not necessarily required. We suggest that the two inner shelf depositional models presented (open-shelf vs. migrating barrier-island) may

  16. Influence of sand base preparation on properties of chromite moulding sands with sodium silicate hardened with selected methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stachowicz M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a research on the relation between thermal preparation of chromite sand base of moulding sands containing sodium silicate, hardened with selected physical and chemical methods, and structure of the created bonding bridges. Test specimens were prepared of chromite sand - fresh or baked at 950°C for 10 or 24 hours - mixed with 0.5 wt.% of the selected non-modified inorganic binder and, after forming, were hardened with CO2 or liquid esters, dried traditionally or heated with microwaves at 2.45 GHz. It was shown on the grounds of SEM observations that the time of baking the base sand and the hardening method significantly affect structure of the bonding bridges and are correlated with mechanical properties of the moulding sands. It was found that hardening chromite-based moulding mixtures with physical methods is much more favourable than hardening with chemical methods, guaranteeing also more than ten times higher mechanical properties.

  17. Detection of gluten immunogenic peptides in the urine of patients with coeliac disease reveals transgressions in the gluten-free diet and incomplete mucosal healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, María de Lourdes; Cebolla, Ángel; Muñoz-Suano, Alba; Carrillo-Carrion, Carolina; Comino, Isabel; Pizarro, Ángeles; León, Francisco; Rodríguez-Herrera, Alfonso; Sousa, Carolina

    2017-02-01

    Gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only management for coeliac disease (CD). Available methods to assess GFD compliance are insufficiently sensitive to detect occasional dietary transgressions that may cause gut mucosal damage. We aimed to develop a method to determine gluten intake and monitor GFD compliance in patients with CD and to evaluate its correlation with mucosal damage. Urine samples of 76 healthy subjects and 58 patients with CD subjected to different gluten dietary conditions were collected. A lateral flow test (LFT) with the highly sensitive and specific G12 monoclonal antibody for the most dominant gluten immunogenic peptides (GIP) and a LFT reader were used to quantify GIP in solid-phase extracted urines. GIP were detectable in concentrated urines from healthy individuals previously subjected to GFD as early as 4-6 h after single gluten intake, and remained detectable for 1-2 days. The urine assay revealed infringement of the GFD in about 50% of the patients. Analysis of duodenal biopsies revealed that most of patients with CD (89%) with no villous atrophy had no detectable GIP in urine, while all patients with quantifiable GIP in urine showed incomplete intestinal mucosa recovery. GIP are detected in urine after gluten consumption, enabling a new and non-invasive method to monitor GFD compliance and transgressions. The method was sensitive, specific and simple enough to be convenient for clinical monitoring of patients with CD as well as for basic and clinical research applications including drug development. NCT02344758. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Marine Viruses: Key Players in Marine Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Middelboe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Viruses were recognized as the causative agents of fish diseases, such as infectious pancreatic necrosis and Oregon sockeye disease, in the early 1960s [1], and have since been shown to be responsible for diseases in all marine life from bacteria to protists, mollusks, crustaceans, fish and mammals [2].[...

  19. Evaluation of wettability of binders used in moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutera B.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Binders used in moulding sand have the differential properties. One of the main parameters influencing on moulding sand properties is wettability of the sand grain by binding material. In the article some problems concerned with wettability evaluation have been presented and the importance of this parameter for quantity description of process occurring in system: binder- sand grain has been mentioned. The procedure of wetting angle measurement and operation of prototype apparatus for wettability investigation of different binders used in moulding sand have been described, as well as the results of wetting angle measurement for different binders at different conditions. The addition of little amount of proper diluent to binder results in the state of equilibrium reached almost immediately. Such addition can also reduce the value of equilibrium contact angle. The uniform distribution of binder on the surface of the sand grains and reducing of the required mixing time can be obtained. It has also a positive effect on the moulding sand strength.

  20. Presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in sand from bathing beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, F J; Surman, S B; Martin, K; Wareing, D R; Humphrey, T J

    1999-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in sand from non-EEC standard and EEC standard designated beaches in different locations in the UK and to assess if potentially pathogenic strains were present. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 82/182 (45%) of sand samples and Salmonella spp. in 10/182 (6%). Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 46/92 (50%) of samples from non-EEC standard beaches and 36/90 (40%) from EEC standard beaches. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was greater in wet sand from both types of beaches but, surprisingly, more than 30% of samples from dry sand also contained these organisms. The major pathogenic species C. jejuni and C. coli were more prevalent in sand from non-EEC standard beaches. In contrast, C. lari and urease positive thermophilic campylobacters, which are associated with seagulls and other migratory birds, were more prevalent in sand from EEC standard beaches. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by biotyping and serotyping, which confirmed that strains known to be of types associated with human infections were frequently found in sand on bathing beaches.